An infant during the first month after birth.
A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.
Diseases of newborn infants present at birth (congenital) or developing within the first month of birth. It does not include hereditary diseases not manifesting at birth or within the first 30 days of life nor does it include inborn errors of metabolism. Both HEREDITARY DISEASES and METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS are available as general concepts.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Care of infants in the home or institution.
Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.
Liquid formulations for the nutrition of infants that can substitute for BREAST MILK.
Any observable response or action of a neonate or infant up through the age of 23 months.
Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.
The abrupt and unexplained death of an apparently healthy infant under one year of age, remaining unexplained after a thorough case investigation, including performance of a complete autopsy, examination of the death scene, and review of the clinical history. (Pediatr Pathol 1991 Sep-Oct;11(5):677-84)
Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.
The identification of selected parameters in newborn infants by various tests, examinations, or other procedures. Screening may be performed by clinical or laboratory measures. A screening test is designed to sort out healthy neonates (INFANT, NEWBORN) from those not well, but the screening test is not intended as a diagnostic device, rather instead as epidemiologic.
An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.
An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1500 grams (3.3 lbs), regardless of gestational age.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of infants.
The nursing of an infant at the breast.
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1000 grams (2.2 lbs), regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE.
The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Hospital units providing continuing surveillance and care to acutely ill newborn infants.
A condition of the newborn marked by DYSPNEA with CYANOSIS, heralded by such prodromal signs as dilatation of the alae nasi, expiratory grunt, and retraction of the suprasternal notch or costal margins, mostly frequently occurring in premature infants, children of diabetic mothers, and infants delivered by cesarean section, and sometimes with no apparent predisposing cause.
An infant having a birth weight lower than expected for its gestational age.
Use of nursing bottles for feeding. Applies to humans and animals.
A human infant born before 28 weeks of GESTATION.
To utter an inarticulate, characteristic sound in order to communicate or express a feeling, or desire for attention.
Female parents, human or animal.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.
Continuous care and monitoring of newborn infants with life-threatening conditions, in any setting.
Respiratory failure in the newborn. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A chronic lung disease developed after OXYGEN INHALATION THERAPY or mechanical ventilation (VENTILATION, MECHANICAL) usually occurring in certain premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE) or newborn infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME, NEWBORN). Histologically, it is characterized by the unusual abnormalities of the bronchioles, such as METAPLASIA, decrease in alveolar number, and formation of CYSTS.
Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.
Yellow discoloration of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA in the NEWBORN. It is a sign of NEONATAL HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA. Most cases are transient self-limiting (PHYSIOLOGICAL NEONATAL JAUNDICE) occurring in the first week of life, but some can be a sign of pathological disorders, particularly LIVER DISEASES.
Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition, occurring in infants ages 1 month to 24 months.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
A subspecialty of Pediatrics concerned with the newborn infant.
Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)
Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.
A method, developed by Dr. Virginia Apgar, to evaluate a newborn's adjustment to extrauterine life. Five items - heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and color - are evaluated 60 seconds after birth and again five minutes later on a scale from 0-2, 0 being the lowest, 2 being normal. The five numbers are added for the Apgar score. A score of 0-3 represents severe distress, 4-7 indicates moderate distress, and a score of 7-10 predicts an absence of difficulty in adjusting to extrauterine life.
CHILDBIRTH at the end of a normal duration of PREGNANCY, between 37 to 40 weeks of gestation or about 280 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period.
Hospital facilities which provide care for newborn infants.
Electrically powered devices that are intended to assist in the maintenance of the thermal balance of infants, principally by controlling the air temperature and humidity in an enclosure. (from UMDNS, 1999)
The care of women and a fetus or newborn given before, during, and after delivery from the 28th week of gestation through the 7th day after delivery.
ENTEROCOLITIS with extensive ulceration (ULCER) and NECROSIS. It is observed primarily in LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANT.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.
Any suction exerted by the mouth; response of the mammalian infant to draw milk from the breast. Includes sucking on inanimate objects. Not to be used for thumb sucking, which is indexed under fingersucking.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
A bilateral retinopathy occurring in premature infants treated with excessively high concentrations of oxygen, characterized by vascular dilatation, proliferation, and tortuosity, edema, and retinal detachment, with ultimate conversion of the retina into a fibrous mass that can be seen as a dense retrolental membrane. Usually growth of the eye is arrested and may result in microophthalmia, and blindness may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Equipment and furniture used by infants and babies in the home, car, and play area.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.
DIARRHEA occurring in infants from newborn to 24-months old.
Interaction between a mother and child.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.
Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.
Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.
Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.
Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.
Degeneration of white matter adjacent to the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES following cerebral hypoxia or BRAIN ISCHEMIA in neonates. The condition primarily affects white matter in the perfusion zone between superficial and deep branches of the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY. Clinical manifestations include VISION DISORDERS; CEREBRAL PALSY; PARAPLEGIA; SEIZURES; and cognitive disorders. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1021; Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch4, pp30-1)
Part of an ear examination that measures the ability of sound to reach the brain.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
A respiratory distress syndrome in newborn infants, usually premature infants with insufficient PULMONARY SURFACTANTS. The disease is characterized by the formation of a HYALINE-like membrane lining the terminal respiratory airspaces (PULMONARY ALVEOLI) and subsequent collapse of the lung (PULMONARY ATELECTASIS).
The care provided to women and their NEWBORNS for the first few months following CHILDBIRTH.
Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.
The posture of an individual lying face down.
The nursing specialty that deals with the care of newborn infants during the first four weeks after birth.
The thick green-to-black mucilaginous material found in the intestines of a full-term fetus. It consists of secretions of the INTESTINAL GLANDS; BILE PIGMENTS; FATTY ACIDS; AMNIOTIC FLUID; and intrauterine debris. It constitutes the first stools passed by a newborn.
Errors in metabolic processes resulting from inborn genetic mutations that are inherited or acquired in utero.
Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).
A congenital heart defect characterized by the persistent opening of fetal DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS that connects the PULMONARY ARTERY to the descending aorta (AORTA, DESCENDING) allowing unoxygenated blood to bypass the lung and flow to the PLACENTA. Normally, the ductus is closed shortly after birth.
Accumulation of BILIRUBIN, a breakdown product of HEME PROTEINS, in the BLOOD during the first weeks of life. This may lead to NEONATAL JAUNDICE. The excess bilirubin may exist in the unconjugated (indirect) or the conjugated (direct) form. The condition may be self-limiting (PHYSIOLOGICAL NEONATAL JAUNDICE) or pathological with toxic levels of bilirubin.
The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Treatment of disease by exposure to light, especially by variously concentrated light rays or specific wavelengths.
Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.
Official certifications by a physician recording the individual's birth date, place of birth, parentage and other required identifying data which are filed with the local registrar of vital statistics.
Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.
Hemorrhage caused by vitamin K deficiency.
Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the mother.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Equipment on which one may lie and sleep, especially as used to care for the hospital patient.
CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).
The failure of a FETUS to attain its expected FETAL GROWTH at any GESTATIONAL AGE.
A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.
The thin, yellow, serous fluid secreted by the mammary glands during pregnancy and immediately postpartum before lactation begins. It consists of immunologically active substances, white blood cells, water, protein, fat, and carbohydrates.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The taking of a blood sample to determine its character as a whole, to identify levels of its component cells, chemicals, gases, or other constituents, to perform pathological examination, etc.
The study of normal and abnormal behavior of children.
Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.
A condition in infancy or early childhood due to an in-utero deficiency of THYROID HORMONES that can be caused by genetic or environmental factors, such as thyroid dysgenesis or HYPOTHYROIDISM in infants of mothers treated with THIOURACIL during pregnancy. Endemic cretinism is the result of iodine deficiency. Clinical symptoms include severe MENTAL RETARDATION, impaired skeletal development, short stature, and MYXEDEMA.
Hospital units equipped for childbirth.
A condition characterized by the abnormal presence of ERYTHROBLASTS in the circulation of the FETUS or NEWBORNS. It is a disorder due to BLOOD GROUP INCOMPATIBILITY, such as the maternal alloimmunization by fetal antigen RH FACTORS leading to HEMOLYSIS of ERYTHROCYTES, hemolytic anemia (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC), general edema (HYDROPS FETALIS), and SEVERE JAUNDICE IN NEWBORN.
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
A clinical syndrome with intermittent abdominal pain characterized by sudden onset and cessation that is commonly seen in infants. It is usually associated with obstruction of the INTESTINES; of the CYSTIC DUCT; or of the URINARY TRACT.
Nutritional support given via the alimentary canal or any route connected to the gastrointestinal system (i.e., the enteral route). This includes oral feeding, sip feeding, and tube feeding using nasogastric, gastrostomy, and jejunostomy tubes.
The administering of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient who cannot maintain adequate nutrition by enteral feeding alone. Nutrients are administered by a route other than the alimentary canal (e.g., intravenously, subcutaneously).
The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.
In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).
The flexible rope-like structure that connects a developing FETUS to the PLACENTA in mammals. The cord contains blood vessels which carry oxygen and nutrients from the mother to the fetus and waste products away from the fetus.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
A pathological condition caused by lack of oxygen, manifested in impending or actual cessation of life.
A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Inflammation of the BRONCHIOLES.
Mechanical or anoxic trauma incurred by the infant during labor or delivery.
A condition characterized by an abnormal increase of BILIRUBIN in the blood, which may result in JAUNDICE. Bilirubin, a breakdown product of HEME, is normally excreted in the BILE or further catabolized before excretion in the urine.
A condition of substandard growth or diminished capacity to maintain normal function.
The gradual expansion in complexity and meaning of symbols and sounds as perceived and interpreted by the individual through a maturational and learning process. Stages in development include babbling, cooing, word imitation with cognition, and use of short sentences.
The mildest form of erythroblastosis fetalis in which anemia is the chief manifestation.
An acute inflammatory disease of the lower RESPIRATORY TRACT, caused by paramyxoviruses, occurring primarily in infants and young children; the viruses most commonly implicated are PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS TYPE 3; RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS, HUMAN; and METAPNEUMOVIRUS.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The back (or posterior) of the FOOT in PRIMATES, found behind the ANKLE and distal to the TOES.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A method of continuously holding a partially wrapped baby to the chest, involving skin-to-skin contact. Originally it was a method of caring for LOW-BIRTH-WEIGHT INFANT in developing countries and is now more widespread in developed nations. Aside from encouraging breast feeding, the extra sleep that the infant gets assists in regulating body temperature, helps the baby conserve energy, and redirects calorie expenditures toward growth and weight gain.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The killing of infants at birth or soon after.
A term used pathologically to describe BILIRUBIN staining of the BASAL GANGLIA; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM and clinically to describe a syndrome associated with HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA. Clinical features include athetosis, MUSCLE SPASTICITY or hypotonia, impaired vertical gaze, and DEAFNESS. Nonconjugated bilirubin enters the brain and acts as a neurotoxin, often in association with conditions that impair the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER (e.g., SEPSIS). This condition occurs primarily in neonates (INFANT, NEWBORN), but may rarely occur in adults. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p613)
Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.
Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.
Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to mothers and children.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.
The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
Morphological and physiological development of FETUSES.
Abnormal increase in RESPIRATORY RATE in the newborn. It is self-limiting and attributed to the delayed fetal lung fluid clearance often in CAESAREAN SECTION delivery.
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.
The restoration to life or consciousness of one apparently dead. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Syphilis acquired in utero and manifested by any of several characteristic tooth (Hutchinson's teeth) or bone malformations and by active mucocutaneous syphilis at birth or shortly thereafter. Ocular and neurologic changes may also occur.
Inhalation of oxygen aimed at restoring toward normal any pathophysiologic alterations of gas exchange in the cardiopulmonary system, as by the use of a respirator, nasal catheter, tent, chamber, or mask. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)
Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.
The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.
An abnormal increase in the amount of oxygen in the tissues and organs.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The event that a FETUS is born dead or stillborn.
Use of reflected ultrasound in the diagnosis of intracranial pathologic processes.
Emotional attachment to someone or something in the environment.
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
Childbirth taking place in the home.
Devices that babies can suck on when they are not feeding. The extra sucking can be comforting to the babies and pacify them. Pacifiers usually are used as a substitute for the thumb in babies who suck on their thumb or fingers almost constantly.
The branch of medicine dealing with the fetus and infant during the perinatal period. The perinatal period begins with the twenty-eighth week of gestation and ends twenty-eight days after birth. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Special hospitals which provide care to women during pregnancy and parturition.
The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
The state of PREGNANCY in women with DIABETES MELLITUS. This does not include either symptomatic diabetes or GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE induced by pregnancy (DIABETES, GESTATIONAL) which resolves at the end of pregnancy.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Substances and drugs that lower the SURFACE TENSION of the mucoid layer lining the PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
Repetitive withdrawal of small amounts of blood and replacement with donor blood until a large proportion of the blood volume has been exchanged. Used in treatment of fetal erythroblastosis, hepatic coma, sickle cell anemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, septicemia, burns, thrombotic thrombopenic purpura, and fulminant malaria.
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
A disorder characterized by a reduction of oxygen in the blood combined with reduced blood flow (ISCHEMIA) to the brain from a localized obstruction of a cerebral artery or from systemic hypoperfusion. Prolonged hypoxia-ischemia is associated with ISCHEMIC ATTACK, TRANSIENT; BRAIN INFARCTION; BRAIN EDEMA; COMA; and other conditions.
Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the postimplantation EMBRYO; FETUS; or pregnant female before birth.
Young, unweaned mammals. Refers to nursing animals whether nourished by their biological mother, foster mother, or bottle fed.
State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
Anemia characterized by decreased or absent iron stores, low serum iron concentration, low transferrin saturation, and low hemoglobin concentration or hematocrit value. The erythrocytes are hypochromic and microcytic and the iron binding capacity is increased.
A general term for the complete or partial loss of the ability to hear from one or both ears.
Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.
The determination of oxygen-hemoglobin saturation of blood either by withdrawing a sample and passing it through a classical photoelectric oximeter or by electrodes attached to some translucent part of the body like finger, earlobe, or skin fold. It includes non-invasive oxygen monitoring by pulse oximetry.
Predisposition to react to one's environment in a certain way; usually refers to mood changes.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.
A fetal blood vessel connecting the pulmonary artery with the descending aorta.
Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).
Prenatal protozoal infection with TOXOPLASMA gondii which is associated with injury to the developing fetal nervous system. The severity of this condition is related to the stage of pregnancy during which the infection occurs; first trimester infections are associated with a greater degree of neurologic dysfunction. Clinical features include HYDROCEPHALUS; MICROCEPHALY; deafness; cerebral calcifications; SEIZURES; and psychomotor retardation. Signs of a systemic infection may also be present at birth, including fever, rash, and hepatosplenomegaly. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p735)
Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.
A condition of fetal overgrowth leading to a large-for-gestational-age FETUS. It is defined as BIRTH WEIGHT greater than 4,000 grams or above the 90th percentile for population and sex-specific growth curves. It is commonly seen in GESTATIONAL DIABETES; PROLONGED PREGNANCY; and pregnancies complicated by pre-existing diabetes mellitus.
An infant born at or after 42 weeks of gestation.
Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.
A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
A bacterium which causes mastitis in cattle and occasionally in man.
A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.
The pit in the center of the ABDOMINAL WALL marking the point where the UMBILICAL CORD entered in the FETUS.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Male parents, human or animal.

Increased insensible water loss in newborn infants nursed under radiant heaters. (1/48457)

Urine osmolality was studied in 38 babies nursed in conventional incubators or cots and 18 nursed under an overhead radiant heat shield. Among 50 babies receiving a similar fluid intake in the first 48 hours of life mean urinary osmolality was significantly higher in the radiant heater group. In babies weighing less than 1500 g a trend towards higher urinary osmolalities was recorded in those nursed under radiant heaters even though they had received amost double the fluid intake of the incubator group. Severe hypernatraemia occurred in four of the five babies weighing less than 1000 g who were nursed under radiant heaters but in none of the seven babies of similar birth weight nursed in incubators. These findings are consistent with previous observations of an increase in insensible water loss in babies nursed under radiant heaters and emphasise the importance of providing enough extra water for these infants and the need for close monitoring of their fluid balance. The latter may be done at the bedside by measuring urinary specific gravity with a hand refractometer.  (+info)

New perspectives on biliary atresia. (2/48457)

An investigation into the aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment of biliary atresia was carried out because the prognosis remains so poor.In an electron microscopical study no viral particles or viral inclusion bodies were seen, nor were any specific ultrastructural features observed. An animal experiment suggested that obstruction within the biliary tract of newborn rabbits could be produced by maternal intravenous injection of the bile acid lithocholic acid.A simple and atraumatic method of diagnosis was developed using(99) (m)Tc-labelled compounds which are excreted into bile. Two compounds, (99m)Tc-pyridoxylidene glutamate ((99m)Tc-PG) and (99m)Tc-dihydrothioctic acid ((99m)Tc-DHT) were first assessed in normal piglets and piglets with complete biliary obstruction. Intestinal imaging correlated with biliary tract patency, and the same correlation was found in jaundiced human adults, in whom the (99m)Tc-PG scan correctly determined biliary patency in 21 out of 24 cases. The (99m)Tc-PG scan compared well with liver biopsy and (131)I-Rose Bengal in the diagnosis of 11 infants with prolonged jaundice.A model of extrahepatic biliary atresia was developed in the newborn piglet so that different methods of bile drainage could be assessed. Priorities in biliary atresia lie in a better understanding of the aetiology and early diagnosis rather than in devising new bile drainage procedures.  (+info)

Perinatal nephropathies. (3/48457)

The purpose of this paper is to review the development of the mammalian kidney and to assess the influence that various perinatal manipulations may have on the developmental process either morphologically or functionally. Immature kidneys in general have less functional capacity than adult kidneys and a low rate of glomerular filtration, perhaps related to renal blood flow, which appears to limit the disposition of a fluid or solute load. Tubular reabsorption is also limited leading to the urinary loss of glucose, amino acids, bicarbonate and phosphate. Although the relatively low function of the immature kidney is a normal part of development, its capacity to respond under conditions of stress may be less adequate than in adults. An additional concern is that a variety of perinatal manipulations, such as the incidental or accidental ingestion of a chemical, may lead to varying degrees of altered morphogenesis or functional development of the kidney. Chemical induced renal anomalies may be of several types, but in typical teratology experiments hydronephrosis may be the most frequent observation. The functional consequences of these renal malformations may be lethal or inconsequential or while an animal may be able to survive and develop normally in the presence of a renal malformation, it is possible that a stressful situation would unmask a functional malformation which could compromise survival. Thus, some renal abnormalities may be subtle enough to go unnoticed without experimental tests. Without such tests it is impossible to evaluate the effect of functional alterations on successful adaptation.  (+info)

Hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation for the treatment of severe combined immunodeficiency. (4/48457)

BACKGROUND: Since 1968 it has been known that bone marrow transplantation can ameliorate severe combined immunodeficiency, but data on the long-term efficacy of this treatment are limited. We prospectively studied immunologic function in 89 consecutive infants with severe combined immunodeficiency who received hematopoietic stem-cell transplants at Duke University Medical Center between May 1982 and September 1998. METHODS: Serum immunoglobulin levels and lymphocyte phenotypes and function were assessed and genetic analyses performed according to standard methods. Bone marrow was depleted of T cells by agglutination with soybean lectin and by sheep-erythrocyte rosetting before transplantation. RESULTS: Seventy-seven of the infants received T-cell-depleted, HLA-haploidentical parental marrow, and 12 received HLA-identical marrow from a related donor; 3 of the recipients of haploidentical marrow also received placental-blood transplants from unrelated donors. Except for two patients who received placental blood, none of the recipients received chemotherapy before transplantation or prophylaxis against graft-versus-host disease. Of the 89 infants, 72 (81 percent) were still alive 3 months to 16.5 years after transplantation, including all of the 12 who received HLA-identical marrow, 60 of the 77 (78 percent) who were given haploidentical marrow, and 2 of the 3 (67 percent) who received both haploidentical marrow and placental blood. T-cell function became normal within two weeks after transplantation in the patients who received unfractionated HLA-identical marrow but usually not until three to four months after transplantation in those who received T-cell-depleted marrow. At the time of the most recent evaluation, all but 4 of the 72 survivors had normal T-cell function, and all the T cells in their blood were of donor origin. B-cell function remained abnormal in many of the recipients of haploidentical marrow. In 26 children (5 recipients of HLA-identical marrow and 21 recipients of haploidentical marrow) between 2 percent and 100 percent of B cells were of donor origin. Forty-five of the 72 children were receiving intravenous immune globulin. CONCLUSIONS: Transplantation of marrow from a related donor is a life-saving and life-sustaining treatment for patients with any type of severe combined immunodeficiency, even when there is no HLA-identical donor.  (+info)

Cocaine metabolite kinetics in the newborn. (5/48457)

The study goal was to determine the half-life elimination of cocaine and benzoylecgonine (BZE) in the newborn. Three 0.3-mL blood samples were collected during the first day of life. Urine was collected once daily. Cocaine and BZE concentrations were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. An extraction method was developed for measuring low concentrations of cocaine and BZE in small (0.1 mL) blood samples. Cocaine had a half-life of 11.6 h in one subject. The half-life of BZE during the first day of life, based on blood data in 13 subjects, was 16 h (95% confidence interval [CI], 12.8 to 21.4 h). The half-life of BZE during the first week of life, based on urine data in 16 subjects, was 11.2 h (95% CI, 10.1 to 11.8 h). The novel extraction method for small blood sample volumes should be applicable to other basic drugs.  (+info)

Activation of alveolar macrophages in lung injury associated with experimental acute pancreatitis is mediated by the liver. (6/48457)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate (1) whether alveolar macrophages are activated as a consequence of acute pancreatitis (AP), (2) the implication of inflammatory factors released by these macrophages in the process of neutrophil migration into the lungs observed in lung injury induced by AP, and (3) the role of the liver in the activation of alveolar macrophages. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Acute lung injury is the extrapancreatic complication most frequently associated with death and complications in severe AP. Neutrophil infiltration into the lungs seems to be related to the release of systemic and local mediators. The liver and alveolar macrophages are sources of mediators that have been suggested to participate in the lung damage associated with AP. METHODS: Pancreatitis was induced in rats by intraductal administration of 5% sodium taurocholate. The inflammatory process in the lung and the activation of alveolar macrophages were investigated in animals with and without portocaval shunting 3 hours after AP induction. Alveolar macrophages were obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage. The generation of nitric oxide, leukotriene B4, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and MIP-2 by alveolar macrophages and the chemotactic activity of supernatants of cultured macrophages were evaluated. RESULTS: Pancreatitis was associated with increased infiltration of neutrophils into the lungs 3 hours after induction. This effect was prevented by the portocaval shunt. Alveolar macrophages obtained after induction of pancreatitis generated increased levels of nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and MIP-2, but not leukotriene B4. In addition, supernatants of these macrophages exhibited a chemotactic activity for neutrophils when instilled into the lungs of unmanipulated animals. All these effects were abolished when portocaval shunting was carried out before induction of pancreatitis. CONCLUSION: Lung damage induced by experimental AP is associated with alveolar macrophage activation. The liver mediates the alveolar macrophage activation in this experimental model.  (+info)

Exposure to nitrogen dioxide and the occurrence of bronchial obstruction in children below 2 years. (7/48457)

BACKGROUND: The objective of the investigation was to test the hypothesis that exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) has a causal influence on the occurrence of bronchial obstruction in children below 2 years of age. METHODS: A nested case-control study with 153 one-to-one matched pairs was conducted within a cohort of 3754 children born in Oslo in 1992/93. Cases were children who developed > or = 2 episodes of bronchial obstruction or one episode lasting >4 weeks. Controls were matched for date of birth. Exposure measurements were performed in the same 14-day period within matched pairs. The NO2 exposure was measured with personal samplers carried close to each child and by stationary samplers outdoors and indoors. RESULTS: Few children (4.6%) were exposed to levels of NO2 > or = 30 microg/m3 (average concentration during a 14-day period). In the 153 matched pairs, the mean level of NO2 was 15.65 microg/m3 (+/-0.60, SE) among cases and 15.37 (+/-0.54) among controls (paired t = 0.38, P = 0.71). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that NO2 exposure at levels observed in this study has no detectable effect on the risk of developing bronchial obstruction in children below 2 years of age.  (+info)

A method for calculating age-weighted death proportions for comparison purposes. (8/48457)

OBJECTIVE: To introduce a method for calculating age-weighted death proportions (wDP) for comparison purposes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A methodological study using secondary data from the municipality of Sao Paulo, Brazil (1980-1994) was carried out. First, deaths are weighted in terms of years of potential life lost before the age of 100 years. Then, in order to eliminate distortion of comparisons among proportions of years of potential life lost before the age of 100 years (pYPLL-100), the denominator is set to that of a standard age distribution of deaths for all causes. Conventional death proportions (DP), pYPLL-100, and wDP were calculated. RESULTS: Populations in which deaths from a particular cause occur at older ages exhibit lower wDP than those in which deaths occur at younger ages. The sum of all cause-specific wDP equals one only when the test population has exactly the same age distribution of deaths for all causes as that of the standard population. CONCLUSION: Age-weighted death proportions improve the information given by conventional DP, and are strongly recommended for comparison purposes.  (+info)

Definition of congenital disease in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is congenital disease? Meaning of congenital disease as a legal term. What does congenital disease mean in law?
Late-preterm infants have substantially higher costs than term infants, and the magnitude of this economic burden maybe greater than recognized previously. Although the birth hospitalization contributed a large proportion of total costs, late-preterm infants continued to use more health care resources throughout the first year of life compared with term infants. In every health care service group, late-preterm infants cost more than term infants. In addition, major differences in costs occurred with services indicative of more serious health conditions, namely, rehospitalizations, outpatient hospital visits, and home health care services.. This study, in contrast to most previous studies, included infants who were from multiple births. When late-preterm infants from multiple births were compared with singletons, infants from multiple births did not have higher rates of rehospitalization but did have higher costs during the first year after discharge from birth. This finding was also observed ...
Between September 20, 1993 and September 20, 1994, a total of 13 560 live births were delivered at the CSPC. Of them, 3350 (24.7%) corresponded to LBW infants (birth weight ≤2500 g). A total of 1084 (8%) live newborn infants weighing ≤2000 g were assessed and followed to determine eligibility. A total of 307 (28%) infants were declared ineligible before randomization for reasons such dying before eligibility (160 infants, 15%); major malformation and dimorphic syndromes (7 infants, 1.5%); early detection of severe sequel of neonatal conditions including cerebral palsy, severe encephalopathy, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, etc (29 infants, 6.1%); referral to other institutions because of insufficient number of beds (131 infants, 12%); and other reasons (10 infants, 2.1%). The remaining 777 (72%) were randomized to one of the two interventions. Thirty-one infants were subsequently withdrawn, leaving only 746 in the study. These withdrawals were necessary because some of the conditions that ...
2015 by Thieme Medical ublishers, Inc., 333 Seventh Avenue, ew York, NY 10001, USA. Background We previously reported on the overall incidence, management, and outcomes in infants with cardiovascular insufficiency (CVI). However, there are limited data on the relationship of the specific different definitions of CVI to short-term outcomes in term and late preterm newborn infants. Objective This study aims to evaluate how four definitions of CVI relate to short-term outcomes and death. Study Design The previously reported study was a multicenter, prospective cohort study of 647 infants ≥ 34 weeks gestation admitted to a Neonatal Research Network (NRN) newborn intensive care unit (NICU) and mechanically ventilated (MV) during their first 72 hours. The relationship of five short-term outcomes at discharge and four different definitions of CVI were further analyzed. Results All the four definitions were associated with greater number of days on MV and days on O2. The definition using a threshold ...
12. Erlandsson K et al. Skin-to-skin care with the father after cesarean birth and its effect on newborn crying and prefeeding behavior. Birth. 2007 Jun;34(2):105-14.. Καισαρικές ρουτίνας. 1. de Almeida MF et al. Non-urgent caesarean delivery increases the need for ventilation at birth in term newborn infants. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2010 Jun 28. [Epub ahead of print ...
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This study will evaluate the safety and PKs of RAL given to HIV-1-exposed newborn infants at risk of acquiring HIV-1 infection. The study also seeks to determine the appropriate dosing regimen of RAL that can be safely given to infants in the first 6 weeks of life.. The study will enroll 50 mother-infant pairs. Mothers will be followed until discharge from the labor and delivery unit, and infants will be followed for 24 weeks after birth. Infants will be assigned non-randomly to 1 of 2 cohorts. Each cohort will include two groups of infants: a RAL-naïve group including infants born to mothers who did not receive RAL before delivery, and a RAL-exposed group including infants born to mothers who received at least one dose of RAL within 2 to 24 hours before delivery.. A minimum of 12 infants will be enrolled into Cohort 1. All infants in Cohort 1 will receive RAL as oral granules for suspension as a single dose within 48 hours of birth, in addition to standard of care ARV drugs for PMTCT, and a ...
This study will evaluate the safety and PKs of RAL given to HIV-1-exposed newborn infants at risk of acquiring HIV-1 infection. The study also seeks to determine the appropriate dosing regimen of RAL that can be safely given to infants in the first 6 weeks of life.. The study will enroll 50 mother-infant pairs. Mothers will be followed until discharge from the labor and delivery unit, and infants will be followed for 24 weeks after birth. Infants will be assigned non-randomly to 1 of 2 cohorts. Each cohort will include two groups of infants: a RAL-naïve group including infants born to mothers who did not receive RAL before delivery, and a RAL-exposed group including infants born to mothers who received at least one dose of RAL within 2 to 24 hours before delivery.. A minimum of 12 infants will be enrolled into Cohort 1. All infants in Cohort 1 will receive RAL as oral granules for suspension as a single dose within 48 hours of birth, in addition to standard of care ARV drugs for PMTCT, and a ...
Blood volume and haemoglobin (Hb) levels are increased by delayed umbilical cord clamping, which has been reported to improve clinical outcomes of preterm infants. The objective was to determine whether Hb level at birth was associated with short term outcomes in preterm infants born at ≤32 weeks gestation. Data were collected retrospectively from electronic records: Standardised Electronic Neonatal Database, Electronic Patient Record, Pathology (WinPath), and Blood Bank Electronic Database. The study was conducted in a tertiary perinatal centre with around 5,500 deliveries and a neonatal unit admission of 750 infants per year. All inborn preterm infants of 23 to 32 weeks gestational age (GA) admitted to the neonatal unit from January 2006 to September 2012 were included. The primary outcomes were intra-ventricular haemorrhage, necrotising entero-colitis, broncho-pulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity, and death before discharge. The secondary outcomes were receiving blood transfusion and
Background. Children with perinatal chronic lung disease (CLD) are at elevated risk for severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) disease in the first two years of life. The American Academy of Pediatrics policy does not recommend RSV immunoprophylaxis for infants with CLD born at ≥32 weeks gestational age (wGA). The objective of this study was to describe the number and clinical characteristics of US infants in this population.. Methods. Birth hospitalization data from the Kids Inpatient Database were utilized to estimate the prevalence of CLD (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision [ICD-9] = 770.7) in 2003-2012 overall and by gestational age (ICD-9 = 765.21-765.29). CLD birth hospitalizations were evaluated by length of stay, costs, ventilatory support, and inpatient mortality.. Results. A total of 33,537 infants were diagnosed with CLD, representing 0.2% of US births; 79% had wGA coded in the database. Among infants with CLD with wGA, 3.5% were born at ,32 wGA, ...
Structured observation of motor performance (SOMP-1) applied to preterm and full term infants who needed neonatal intensive care. A cross-sectional analysis of progress and quality of motor performanc ...
article{143f9d59-0d1e-4df2-aa6e-1514b1b98f1a, abstract = {,p,Importance: Since 2004-2007, national guidelines and recommendations have been developed for the management of extremely preterm births in Sweden. If and how more uniform management has affected infant survival is unknown. Objective: To compare survival of extremely preterm infants born during 2004-2007 with survival of infants born during 2014-2016. Design, Setting and Participants: All births at 22-26 weeks gestational age (n = 2205) between April 1, 2004, and March 31, 2007, and between January 1, 2014, and December 31, 2016, in Sweden were studied. Prospective data collection was used during 2004-2007. Data were obtained from the Swedish pregnancy, medical birth, and neonatal quality registries during 2014-2016. Exposures: Delivery at 22-26 weeks gestational age. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was infant survival to the age of 1 year. The secondary outcome was 1-year survival among live-born infants who did not ...
Eight randomised controlled trials met the inclusion criteria and only included term infants (n = 4011). Five studies included infants with no fetal distress and clear amniotic fluid, one large study included vigorous infants with clear or meconium-stained amniotic fluid, and two large studies included infants with thin or thick meconium-stained amniotic fluid. Overall, there was no statistical difference between oro/nasopharyngeal suction and no oro/nasopharyngeal suction for all reported outcomes: mortality (typical RR 2.29, 95% CI 0.94 to 5.53; typical RD 0.01, 95% CI -0.00 to 0.01; I2 = 0%, studies = 2, participants = 3023), need for resuscitation (typical RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.69 to 1.06; typical RD -0.01, 95% CI -0.03 to 0.00; I2 = 0%, studies = 5, participants = 3791), admission to NICU (typical RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.62 to 1.08; typical RD -0.03, 95% CI -0.08 to 0.01; I2 = 27%, studies = 2, participants = 997) and Apgar scores at five minutes (MD -0.03, 95% CI -0.08 to 0.02; I2 not estimated, ...
OBJECTIVE: To provide population-based estimates of the hospital-related costs of maternal and newborn care, and how these vary by gestational age and birth weight.. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 2009-2011 California in-hospital deliveries at nonfederal hospitals with the infant and maternal discharge data successfully (96%) linked to birth certificates. Cost-to-charge ratios were used to estimate costs from charges. Physician hospital payments were estimated by mean diagnosis related group-specific reimbursement and costs were adjusted for inflation to December 2017 values. After exclusions for incomplete or missing data, the final sample was 1 265 212.. RESULTS: The mean maternal costs for all in-hospital deliveries was $8204, increasing to $13 154 for late preterm (32-36 weeks) and $22 702 for very preterm (,32 weeks) mothers. The mean cost for all newborns was $6389: $2433 for term infants, $22 102 for late preterm, $223 931 for very preterm infants, and $317 982 for ...
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3865 consecutive newborns delivered between 2/1/91 and 7/31/93 were prospectively studied. All the neonates received a physical examination during the first 24 hours of life. Major congenital anomalies (MCA) were found in 64 newborns at incidence of 16.5/1000 births. 61 patients with full description included 40 with single and 21 ...
Background: Maturation of amplitude-integrated electroencephalogram (aEEG) activity is influenced by both gestational age (GA) and postmenstrual age. It is not fully known how this process is influenced by cerebral lesions. Objective: To compare early aEEG developmental changes between preterm newborns with different degrees of cerebral lesions on cranial ultrasound (cUS). Methods: Prospective cohort study on preterm newborns with GA ,32.0 weeks, undergoing continuous aEEG recording during the first 84 h after birth. aEEG characteristics were qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated using pre-established criteria. Based on cUS findings three groups were formed: normal (n = 78), mild (n = 20), and severe cerebral lesions (n = 6). Linear mixed models for repeated measures were used to analyze aEEG maturational trajectories. Results: 104 newborns with a mean GA (range) 29.5 (24.4-31.7) weeks, and birth weight 1,220 (580-2,020) g were recruited. Newborns with severe brain lesions started with ...
Publicly insured women usually have a different demographic background to privately insured women, which is related to poor neonatal outcomes after birth. Given the difference in nature and risk of preterm versus term births, it would be important to compare adverse neonatal outcomes after preterm birth between these groups of women after eliminating the demographic differences between the groups. The study population included 3085 publicly insured and 3380 privately insured, singleton, preterm deliveries (32-36 weeks gestation) from Western Australia during 1998-2008. From the study population, 1016 publicly insured women were matched with 1016 privately insured women according to the propensity score of maternal demographic characteristics and pre-existing medical conditions. Neonatal outcomes were compared in the propensity score matched cohorts using conditional log-binomial regression, adjusted for antenatal risk factors. Outcomes included Apgar scores less than 7 at five minutes after birth, time
A Study of Neurological Abnormalities of Term Neonates and its Relationship to Adverse Obstetric and Neonatal Factors Pediatric Oncall
PURPOSE: With advancement in neonatal care units, early detection of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in premature and very-low-birth-weight infants is important. Numerous studies have reported an increased risk of ROP in prematurely born infants, but only few have been long-term and strictly population-based. The aim of the present study was ...
Vaccination is a key area of NHS policy and one of the most cost-effective public health interventions for protecting the population from disease. There are many factors which can impact the way a childs immune system responds to vaccination, such as the age at which the first vaccine is delivered, the sex of the child and the spacing between doses. Variation in these and other factors leads to better immunity in some children than others. Infants are provided with a degree of protection against disease in the first few months of life due to an inherited antibody from their mother. This maternally-derived antibody wanes over time but whilst still circulating can interfere with the way the infants immune system responds to vaccination. The current programme to immunise mothers in the third trimester of pregnancy is one way to enhance protection for infants, however this may also have negative impacts on the infants response to their vaccines. A clearer understanding of these influences on ...
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Previous reports of blood pressure in infants have shown a wide range of values depending, in part, on the birthweight characteristics of the study populations. Reported perinatal values in studies of low birthweight singletons, for example, have been lower than almost all other reports dealing with perinatal blood pressure among heavier babies.9,11 In our cohort more than half of the infants weighed less than 2500 g at birth, or below the 10th centile at sea level, from the 38th week of gestation onwards.27 Though the overall values in our newborn infants are lower than previously described,*RF 1,2,3-5,7,12* they are more consistent with reported tendencies from populations of predominantly low birthweight singletons. For example, the values in newborn infants weighing ,1500 g are nearly identical with those reported by Spinazzola et al for very low birthweight singletons,11 and values for newborn infants weighing 1501-2500 g are exactly within the ranges noted by Gennser et al for 1550-2500 g ...
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Infectious diseases of the fetus and newborn infant , Infectious diseases of the fetus and newborn infant , کتابخانه مرکزی دانشگاه علوم پزشکی تهران
Infectious diseases of the fetus and newborn infant , Infectious diseases of the fetus and newborn infant , کتابخانه دیجیتال دانشگاه علوم پزشکی اصفهان
This large cohort study suggests that neonatal infections among ELBW infants are associated with poor neurodevelopmental and growth outcomes in early childhood. Additional studies are needed to elucidate the pathogenesis of brain injury in infants with infection so that novel interventions to improv …
cesarean born infants initial exposure is more likely to environmental microbes from the air, other infants, and the nursing staff which serves as vectors for transfer (this is one of the risks of a cesarean birth). *Babies at highest risk of colonization by undesirable microbes or when transfer from maternal sources cannot occur are cesarean-delivered babies, preterm infants, full term infants requiring intensive care, or infants separated from their mother (again the reason why a vaginal, unmedicated (since it can lead to infant complications), non induced birth is ideal). *Breastfed and formula-fed infants have different gut flora. *Breastfed babies have a lower gut pH (acidic environment) of approximately 5.1-5.4 throughout the first six weeks that is dominated by bifidobacteria with reduced pathogenic (disease-causing) microbes such as E coli, bacteroides, clostridia, and streptococci (the colostrum and milk of the babys mom provide immune building protectants]. *Babies fed formula have a ...
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Results A total of 73 babies were identified, out of which 9 (12.3%) were late preterm. 19 out of 73 (23%) neonates had elevated CRP and were treated for 5 to 7 days. 10 out of these 23 (43.4%) neonates had maternal pyrexia as a risk factor. All babies have been clinically well and managed on postnatal ward. Blood cultures in all identified neonates have been negative. 30 out of 54 (55%) neonates with normal CRP stayed in hospital for more than 48 hrs awaiting blood culture results and clinical reviews.. ...
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In this report, the investigators used reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction with the cobas SARS-CoV-2 assay (Roche Molecular Systems, Inc., Branchburg, New Jersey) to assess viral loads among infants, children, and adolescents who were hospitalized with symptoms suggestive of COVID-19 and subsequently discharged from a childrens hospital between March 14, 2002, and April 24, 2020. A total of 57 patients tested positive for COVID-19 infection, 35.1% of whom were infants aged ≤12 months. The older children ranged in ages from 1 to 21 years. Mean nasopharyngeal viral load was found to be significantly higher in infants compared with older children (mean cycle threshold values 21.05 vs 27.25; P ,.01). However, the number of infants with severe disease was significantly lower compared with older patients (1 vs 12; P =.02). The mean time to test positivity from symptom onset was also lower in infants when compared with older patients (2 vs 3.8 days; P ,.01), and similar proportions of ...
A study was conducted to determine whether newborn infants organize auditory streams in a manner similar to that of adults. A series of three experiments investigated the ability of three- to four-day-old infants to discriminate repeated rising and falling four-tone sequences in two configurations of source timbre and spatial position. It was hypothesized that if the sequences were organized into two auditory streams on the basis of timbre and spatial position, one of the configurations should be discriminable from its reversal, while the other should not. The sequences were tested with different pitch and temporal intervals separating the tones. Sequences were discriminated for the first configuration by adults at both fast tempo/small interval and slow tempo/large interval combinations, while only the latter was discriminated by newborns as measured with a non-nutritive, high-amplitude sucking paradigm. Neither adults nor infants could discriminate the sequence reversals for the second ...
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In the last decades the survival rates of preterm babies and full-term babies with severe diseases have increased due to advances in perinatal care. Understandably however, higher survival rates have not been accompanied by an overall reduction of morbidity, so that limitation of long-term neurodevelopmental abnormalities remains a major challenge of early care (1). The possibility to better predict the outcome of newborns at neurodevelopmental risk is essential to inform early intervention, to allow best allocation of resources and to minimize long-term consequences. Unfortunately, clinicians continue to possess limited ability to predict neurodevelopmental outcomes, mainly relying, in most settings, on early findings at cranial ultrasound (cUS).Recent studies (2) have proven the power of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) superior to other neuroimaging modalities, including cUS, in detecting cerebral injury. Neonatal MRI provides non-invasive, high-resolution images in less than one hour; scans are
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April Levin, MD is a child neurologist with significant experience in research EEG and specifically in implementing and analyzing EEG data from high risk infant baby siblings of children with ASD through her postdoctoral fellowship. Dr. Levin, in collaboration with Dr. Charles Nelson, PhD, has developed an EEG pipeline for post-processing of EEG data in young children and children with neurological disorders (including high risk infants, children with tuberous sclerosis and ASD). Dr. Levins research over the past several years has focused on developing signal processing algorithms to extract information from EEG of children with (and at risk for) autism spectrum disorder. Her clinical work primarily involves seeing patients in the Autism Spectrum Center, which provides her with regular exposure to the clinical manifestations of autism. Dr. Levin is also a member of the Laboratories of Cognitive Neuroscience (LCN), directed by Dr. Nelson ...
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Objective: This was a feasibility study to determine whether an edu-cational program conducted over 2 days followed by 25 performed studies under supervision equips physicians with the skills to accurately interpret and perform integrated lung ultrasound (LUS) and focused heart ultrasound (FHUS) as a screening exam in infants at risk of respiratory or hemodynamic compromise.. Methods: We conducted a training course over 2 days (total of 16 hours) to teach fellows how to interpret a pre-designed model of LUS and FHUS, as a screening exam for infants at risk of respiratory or hemodynamic compromise. Then trainees performed 25 cases with different neonatal lung and functional heart issues. The screening model included only the basic views required to evaluate common lung parenchymal and functional neonatal heart conditions in sick infants. The accuracy of interpretation during the course was assessed by Kappa.. Results: The inter-rater agreement between all trainees and instructor improved on the ...
By: Habib Zaghouani. COLUMBIA, MO -- For years, researchers and physicians have known that infants immune systems do not respond well to certain vaccines, thus the need for additional boosters as children develop. Now, in a new study from the University of Missouri, one researcher has found an explanation for that poor response. In the study, the MU scientist found evidence that the immune systems of newborns might require some time after birth to mature to a point where the benefits of vaccines can be fully realized. Habib Zaghouani, a professor of molecular microbiology and immunology and child health at the MU School of Medicine, recently found that a slowly maturing component of the immune system might explain why newborns contract infections easily. In his work, Zaghouani studied newborn mice and how their immune systems reacted when they were repeatedly exposed to an antigen that simulates a virus. Zaghouani found that while the antigen would prompt a response of the immune system, it was ...
Since 1990, overall child mortality has dropped dramatically around the world, from 12 million annual deaths to less than 7 million. But the report shows that lack of global attention on newborns has translated into a much slower decline in newborn mortality. In sub-Saharan Africa, as many newborns die now as two decades ago.. Globally, a rising share of child deaths-43 percent-now occur in the newborn period, or first month of life. The new report finds that more than a third of newborn deaths, or 15 percent of all child deaths, occur on the same day-the first.. The three leading causes of newborn death are prematurity, birth complications and severe infections. Among wealthier countries, higher U.S. rates of prematurity contribute to higher newborn mortality. Whether in the United States or the developing world, the poorest mothers are more likely to lose a newborn baby, the report finds.. The largest numbers of first-day deaths occur in India (more than 300,000 a year) and Nigeria (almost ...
BACKGROUND: In recent trends, there is increasing number of babies born with very low birth weight. These VLBW babies are at risk of developing Hypoglycemia, Sepsis, Hyperbilirubinemia, Respiratory distress when compared to term babies. By studying the risk factors leading to very low birth weight and their morbidities, health professionals will be able to anticipate and manage them accordingly. Identification of morbidity and mortality in VLBW neonates will help us in formulating and implementing interventions to reduce neonatal mortality rate. AIM OF THE STUDY: To study the morbidity and mortality profile in very low birth weight neonates in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in Coimbatore Medical College Hospital. OBJECTIVES: 1. To study the morbidity and mortality pattern in very low birth weight neonates. 2. To study the maternal risk factors leading to very low birth weight neonates. 3. To establish targeted preventive and advanced treatment strategies in specific areas. 4. To plan for future ...
Infants exposed to the components of cigarette smoke in utero are at an increased risk for perinatal death, low birth weight, sudden infant death syndrome, and premature delivery. The purpose of this pilot study was to compare blood pressure values in term low-birth weight infants (≤2500 grams) born to smoking mothers to the blood pressure values of term, low-birth weight infants born to nonsmoking mothers. Data were collected through a retrospective chart review of 30 low-birth weight, term infants at a hospital in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure values were obtained from each chart. Fifteen of the infants were born to women who smoked cigarettes during pregnancy, while another 15 infants were born to mothers who did not smoke during pregnancy. While hospitalized at birth, the infants of smoking mothers shared a trend toward higher blood pressure readings for all measures, with the t-test differences reaching statistical ...
Introduction: Kangaroo mother care (KMC) originated in Bogota, Columbia in the 1970s as a method of caring for premature newborns in the absence of conventional therapy and other technical equipment. In 1978, kangaroo mother care was proposed and practiced as a caring alternative for low birth weight newborns. The method of skin to skin contact has shown physiological, cognitive and emotional gain and benefits for the preterm newborns. However KMC has not been studied adequately in term newborns. So this study was conducted to assess and compare physiological variables of body temperature, respiration, pulse and oxygen saturation and the neurobehavioral responses (sleep pattern) for the healthy, full-term neonates placed on KMC and the traditional labour room care (TLRC) shortly after birth. Methods: A comparative hospital based study was carried out in the two hours observation room in Saad Abu Alela Maternity Hospital during the period (2015/2016). The target population was neonates ...
Aim: To study the effect of very low birthweight on hospital care and morbidity, and their relationship to gender, birthweight and neonatal complications. Methods: Eighty-five very low birthweight (VLBW; ,= 1500 g) children and term controls born in 1987-1988 in south-east region of Sweden were checked in registers regarding readmissions and diagnoses, need for habilitation and child psychiatric care up to 15 years of age. Ophthalmological examinations were made at age 4 in 64 of VLBW and 61 of control children, and at age 15 in 59 of VLBW and 55 of control children. Results: VLBW boys had three times more readmissions compared with normal weight control boys (p = 0.003). Neonatal risk factors for readmissions were gestational age under 30 weeks (OR 3.1), birthweight less than 1000 g (OR 4.6), mechanical ventilation (OR 9.5) and more than 60 days stay in neonatal ward (OR 5.0). A minority of VLBW children had an impairment/handicap such as cerebral palsy (CP) in five (5.9%) children, attention ...
Young chronological age and some environmental risk factors are important clinical indicators of an increased risk of RSV hospitalization in healthy preterm infants 32 to 35 weeks of gestational age. SOE was low for estimates of incidence of RSV hospitalizations, in-hospital resource use and recurrent wheezing in this population. Studies were inconsistent in study characteristics, including weeks of gestational age, age during RSV season and control for confounding factors.
The purpose of this study was to identify disparities in neonatal, post-neonatal, and overall infant mortality rates among infants born late preterm (34-36 weeks gestation) and early term (37-38 weeks gestation) by race/ethnicity, maternal age, and plurality. In analyses of 2003-2005 data from US period linked birth/infant death datasets, we compared infant mortality rates by race/ethnicity, maternal age, and plurality among infants born late preterm or early term and also determined the leading causes of death among these infants. Among infants born late preterm, infants born to American Indian/Alaskan Native, non-Hispanic black, or teenage mothers had the highest infant mortality rates per 1,000 live births (14.85, 9.90, and 11.88 respectively). Among infants born early term, corresponding mortality rates were 5.69, 4.49, and 4.82, respectively. Among infants born late preterm, singletons had a higher infant mortality rate than twins (8.59 vs. 5.62), whereas among infants born early term, the ...
US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, researchers filed the result that Nine trials met the inclusion criteria, eight compared vitamin A supplementation with a control (1291 infants), and one compared different regimens (120 infants). Compared to the control group, vitamin A appears to be beneficial in reducing death or oxygen requirement at one month of age (RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.88 to 0.99; RD -0.05, 95% CI -0.10 to -0.01; NNTB 20, 95% CI 10 to 100; 1165 infants) and oxygen requirement at 36 weeks postmenstrual age (RR 0.87, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.98; RD -0.08, 95% CI -0.14 to -0.01; NNTB 13, 95% CI 7 to 100; 824 infants). A trend towards a reduction in death or oxygen requirement at 36 weeks postmenstrual age was also noted (RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.00; 1001 infants). Neurodevelopmental assessment of 88% of surviving infants in the largest trial showed no differences between the groups at 18 to 22 months of age, corrected for prematurity. The different dosage vitamin A ...
Editor-In 1994 Sheffield had the highest infant mortality rate in England and Wales.1 The impact of neonatal care in Sheffield immediately came under the spotlight. An investigation led by the Public Health Department of Sheffield Health took place to establish the reasons for the high infant mortality rate.2 It is well known that factors affecting infant mortality and morbidity may operate in the antenatal, as well as the postnatal period.3 The Sheffield Health led investigation consequently included the antenatal period. Similar to Spenceret al, the investigation found that increased social deprivation as indicated by the Townsend Deprivation Index was related to a higher proportion of very low birth weight (less than 1500 g) infants.4 Furthermore, a higher proportion of very low birth weight (less than 1500 g) infants was related to a higher infant mortality rate. The investigation found that the infant mortality rate in Sheffield was not significantly different to other areas of England and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The influence of gestational age, size for dates, and prenatal steroids on cord transferrin levels in newborn infants. AU - Chockalingam, Uma. AU - Murphy, Edrie. AU - Ophoven, Janice C.. AU - Georgieff, Michael K.. PY - 1987/3. Y1 - 1987/3. N2 - Serum transferrin levels assess protein status in older children and adults. To generate standards for its use in newborn infants, we measured umbilical cord serum transferrin levels in 161 appropriate (AGA), 25 large (LGA) and 16 small (SGA) for gestational age infants between 25 and 43 weeks gestation. We also assessed the effects of intrauterine growth, exposure to prenatal steroids, and presence of pulmonary maturity on neonatal transferrin levels. Cord transferrin levels in AGA infants were significantly correlated with increasing gestational age (r = 0.60; p , 0.001). Infants born before 37 weeks gestation had significantly lower transferrin levels, when compared with those born at term (p , 0.001). LGA infants had significantly ...
BACKGROUND Infants less than 1500 grams at birth have been demonstrated to be particularly prone to development of low levels of serum sodium often leading to increased early neonatal morbidity and mortality. No local study has been done to quantify this problem among sick newborns. Studies elsewhere demonstrate a high incidence of hyponatraemia among such preterms. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the influence of infant early neonatal morbidity on serum sodium levels and justify regular monitoring and supplementation. DESIGN Comparative cohort study. SETTING Newborn Unit, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. SUBJECTS Fifty six very low birth weight (1000-1500 grams at birth) infants during their first week of life. Half of them were designated as cases in view of having various early neonatal illnesses. The remaining 28 being clinically stable were taken as controls. These two groups had comparable birthweights, sex distribution and gestational ages. Their sodium intakes were also similar during the
Cerebral hemorrhages are fairly common in full-term neonates with no history of traumatic birth, mostly limited, and with benign evolution. We report a case of a full-term neonate from vaginal birth with caput succedaneum in the right parietal area. The neonate underwent cranial ultrasonography and color Doppler which showed extra-axial blood effusion. Color Doppler showed vessels crossing the collection area, which allowed the diagnosis of subarachnoid hematoma.
Abstract:. Introduction: The newborn brain is vulnerable to injury from many causes, like preterm delivery, hypoxia, trauma etc. Cranial ultrasonography are widely used to identify preterm neonates at risk for brain injury and subsequent neurodevelopmental defects. Aims and Objectives: Role of cranial ultrasonography to evaluate intracranial abnormalities in preterm and term neonates. Materials and methods: This is a prospective hospital based study conducted in Sagar Hospitals, Jayanagar, Bangalore. This study included a cohort of total 52 numbers of cases in preterm and term neonates, who were admitted in NICU. Results: This study included a cohort of total 52 numbers of cases in preterm and term neonates. In our study, total 12 neonates 23.1% were having flaring, total 11 neonates 21.2% were having ICH, total 6 neonates 11.5% were having PVL, total 4 neonates 7.7% were having cysts, total 4 neonates 7.7% were having cerebral oedema and normal 15 neonates 28.8%. Conclusion: Cranial ...
Aims: To determine in a case-control study possible associations between the development of acute renal failure in preterm newborns and therapeutic interventions, particularly drug treatments.. Methods: The study population was 172 preterm infants of ,38 weeks gestation; 71 had acute renal failure and 101 were controls closely matched for gestational age and birth weight. Maternal and neonatal information was collected for both groups through questionnaires and interviews. Routine data on renal variables were also collected. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed.. Results: Very low birthweight infants were at high risk of acute renal failure (79% of cases were ,1500 g). However, the acute renal failure was transient. Mothers of infants with acute renal failure received more drugs during pregnancy and delivery (mainly antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs). Of the possible therapeutic interventions, intubation, catheterisation, and phototherapy ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Head growth in preterm infants. T2 - Correlation with magnetic resonance imaging and neurodevelopmental outcome. AU - Cheong, Jeanie L.Y.. AU - Hunt, Rod W.. AU - Anderson, Peter J.. AU - Howard, Kelly. AU - Thompson, Deanne K.. AU - Wang, Hong X.. AU - Bear, Merilyn J.. AU - Nursing, B. A.. AU - Inder, Terrie E.. AU - Doyle, Lex W.. PY - 2008/6. Y1 - 2008/6. N2 - Objective. Extremely preterm birth is associated with adverse neurodevelopmental sequelae. Head circumference has been used as a measure of brain growth. There are limited data relating head circumference to MRI. The purpose of this work was to establish the relationship between head circumference with brain MRI at term- equivalent age and to relate head circumference with neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years. Patients and Methods. Two hundred and twenty-seven preterm infants (birth weight of ,1250g or ,30 weeks gestation) were recruited. Head circumference was measured at birth, term, and 2 years corrected age, and ...
OBJECTIVE: To explore the association between breastfeeding support and breastfeeding among late preterm (gestation 34-36 weeks) and term (gestation ≥37 weeks) infants. METHODS: Secondary analysis of the UK 2010 Infant Feeding Survey. Logistic regression was used to determine the association of breastfeeding support with breastfeeding at 10 days and 6 weeks in late preterm and term infants. RESULTS: The study included 14,525 term and 579 late preterm infants. A total of 11,729 infants initiated breastfeeding (11,292 (81.1%) term, 437 (79.4%) late preterm infants, p=0.425). Of these, 9230 (84.3%) term and 365 (85.6%) late preterm infants were breastfeeding at 10 days (p=0.586); of these 7547 (82.0%) term and 281 (75.4%) late preterm infants were still breastfeeding at 6 weeks (p=0.012). Mothers who reported receiving contact details for breastfeeding support groups had a higher likelihood of breastfeeding late preterm (adjusted ORs, aOR 3.14, 95% CI 1.40 to 7.04) and term infants (aOR 2.24, 95% CI 1.86
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Very preterm infants (birth weight, ,1500 g) are at increased risk of cognitive and motor impairment, including cerebral palsy. These adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes are associated with white matter abnormalities on MR imaging at term-equivalent age. Cerebral palsy has been predicted by analysis of spontaneous movements in the infant termed General Movement Assessment. The goal of this study was to determine the utility of General Movement Assessment in predicting adverse cognitive, language, and motor outcomes in very preterm infants and to identify brain imaging markers associated with both adverse outcomes and aberrant general movements. ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Other terms often used for prematurity are preterm and preemie. Many premature babies also weigh less than 2,500 grams (5.5 pounds) and may be referred to as low birthweight (LBW).. Premature infants born between 34 and 37 weeks of pregnancy are often called late preterm or near-term infants. Late preterm infants are often much larger than very premature infants but may only be slightly smaller than full-term infants.. Late preterm babies usually appear healthy at birth but may have more difficulties adapting than full-term babies. Because of their smaller size, they may have trouble maintaining their body temperature. They often have difficulty with breastfeeding and bottle feeding, and may need to eat more frequently. They usually require more sleep and may even sleep through a feeding, which means they miss much-needed calories.. Late preterm infants may also have breathing difficulties, although these are often identified before the infants go home from the hospital. These infants are also ...
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth is associated with variable degrees of brain injury, adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes and continuing special health care needs. STUDY AND AIMS: This observational, retrospective and cross-sectional study aims to describe the functional features of VLBW infants using the ICF-CY classification and to identify the association between gender, twinship, birth weight, gestational age, adjusted age and functioning as defined by the ICF biopsychosocial model. SAMPLE: 56 VLBW infants (corrected age of 12-24 months) were consecutively enrolled. INSTRUMENTS: Three assessment tools were used: a neuro-functional assessment (NFA); the Griffiths Mental Development Scales-Revised: Birth to 2 years (Griffiths 0-2) to evaluate psychomotor development and the ICF-CY questionnaire for ages 0-3. RESULTS: A two-step cluster component analysis with the Bayesian information criterion was conducted based on NFA and Griffiths 0-2 scores and four groups of infants functioning (very low, low, ...
Infants who survive advanced necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) at the time of birth are at increased risk of having poor long term physiological and neurodevelopmental growth. The economic implications of the long term morbidity in these children have not been studied to date. This paper compares the long term healthcare costs beyond the initial hospitalization period incurred by medical and surgical NEC survivors with that of matched controls without a diagnosis of NEC during birth hospitalization. The longitudinal healthcare utilization claim files of infants born between January 2002 and December 2003 and enrolled in the Texas Medicaid fee-for-service program were used for this research. Propensity scoring was used to match infants diagnosed with NEC during birth hospitalization to infants without a diagnosis of NEC on the basis of gender, race, prematurity, extremely low birth weight status and presence of any major birth defects. The Medicaid paid all-inclusive healthcare costs for the period from 6
The incidence of preterm birth (at less than 32 weeks of gestation) is estimated at 1-2% of all live births. In Switzerland, over the last ten years, approximately 782 preterm infants per year have been born between 23 and 32 weeks of gestation. Owing to improved neonatal intensive care, the number of very preterm infants surviving into childhood is rising. Indeed, the survival of those extremely low birth weight infants has been increasing over the last decade, especially for the preterm infants born below 26 weeks of gestation. Premature infants are, however, extremely vulnerable to brain injury. Five to 10% of the survivors develop cerebral palsy, and 40-50% develop cognitive and behavioural deficits. Hence, brain injury and its consequences in preterm infants is a serious issue that needs to be addressed. Another population at risk for neurodevelopmental impairment are the infants with congenital heart disease. These infants are known to have a wide range of developmental and neurological ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Preface This report presents data from the National Infant Mortality Surveillance (NIMS) project. The NIMS project was a collaborative effort between the Public Health Service and states to address the issue of infant mortality. Factors that affected the risk of infant mortality for single-born infants included birthweight, race, sex, gestation, birth order, maternal age and education, and prenatal care. The most important predictor for infant survival was birthweight, with improved survival for both blacks and whites associated with increased birthweights. Overall, black infants had twice the mortality risk of white infants. The higher risk for blacks was related to higher prevalence of low birthweight and to higher mortality risks in both the neonatal and postneonatal periods. In general, the black-white differential exists regardless of other infant and maternal characteristics. Findings from NIMS have been published in a special section of Public Health Reports (March-April 1987) and ...
The NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scales (NNNS) is a tool for the comprehensive examination of normal full-term infants, preterm infants, and infants at risk because of prenatal substance exposure. NICU stands for neonatal intensive care unit. The NNNS can be used with infants through 6 weeks of age - and as early as 32 weeks gestational age for preterm infants - to guide assessment, evaluation, and early intervention. It is designed to evaluate neurobehavioral and neurological profiles, adaptations to stress, and the withdrawal status of neonates exposed to drugs in utero. The NNNS is useful for assessment of all at-risk infants and can serve as a basis for consultation with families and a guide for intervention. The test takes about 20 minutes (plus 10-15 minutes for scoring) and can be administered by experiences clinicians after certification training, available internationally through video conferences.
Downloadable! This paper examines the relationship between health aid and infant mortality, using data from in total 135 countries (for the purposes of this study, developing countries), between 1975 and 2010. Utilizing both conventional Instrumental Variable and System GMM approaches, a tentative conclusion can be drawn that aid comes to have a statistically significant and positive effect on infant mortality rate, as doubling of aid leads to an approximately 1.3% reduction in infant mortality rates. Thus for an average aid recipient country, doubling per capita aid leads to a reduction of about 790 deaths per million live births in a particular year. This effect, in comparison to the set goals of the Millennium Development Goals, is small and may not be enough to ensure that the MDG targets are met by 2015.
Preterm delivery (birth before 37 completed weeks of gestation) is the leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. In recent years the birth weight of premature babies has been found to be an important determinant of outcome, such that preterm birth is no longer defined solely by gestational age but also in terms of a birth weight below 2500 g. The main focus has been on preterm infants with a birth weight below 2000 g, who bear the greatest burden of morbidity and mortality. The costs of neonatal care for infants born at less than 33 weeks of gestation (birth weight below 2000 g) rise exponentially as gestational age decreases and rise further with birth weights below 1000 g.1. Advances in neonatal practice have improved the chances of survival for preterm infants with a very low birth weight.2 However, low birthweight infants are still at a higher risk of neurodevelopmental morbidity than preterm infants with a higher birth weight and, as a group, incur notable social and healthcare ...
Is skin-to-skin contact only for premature babies or for every full term baby? This is a very important question! Previously it was thought that skin-to-skin contact was only for premature babies and was vital for their survival, as they had been born too early. What studies from psychology, zoology and psychiatry now show is that skin-to-skin contact at birth is vital to start all of the babys physical and emotional regulation, and should be the right of every baby at birth. For the last millions of years mothers have had their babies continually with them. It is only when birth started happening in hospitals in the last 100 years that mothers and babies have been separated. This has led to making babies more sick at birth. We have created unnecessary problems…….. SKIN-TO-SKIN CONTACT IS ALSO FOR FULL TERM BABIES. Many people think that Kangaroo Mother Care is only for premature or preterm babies. . All of the benefits that a premature needs apply to full term babies as well. Being with ...
Womans Birth Injury Claim Rejected After Judge Finds Alternate Causes for Injuries to Newborn Child - Maryland Birth Injury Lawyer
By: Sarah Hodin, MPH, CD(DONA), LCCE, National Senior Manager of Maternal Newborn Health Programs, Steward Health Care. The Partnership for Maternal, Newborn & Child Health (PMNCH) recently released its 35th knowledge summary titled Act Now for Adolescents focusing on adolescents between the ages of 10 and 19 years old. While newborns and children have benefited greatly from scientific research and interventions over the last decade, adolescents have received less attention. For example, while the under-five mortality rate decreased by 52% between 2000 and 2012, the adolescent mortality rate decreased by just twelve percent. As a result, the Sustainable Development Goals call for a greater focus on adolescent health.. Though adolescent populations have historically been considered relatively healthy compared to other age groups, adolescents face unique challenges that can have serious implications for their physical and mental health. The most common causes of preventable deaths among ...
Introduction: In Minia University Hospital for Obstetrics and Gynecology and Pediatrics (Minia, Egypt), all neonates born to mothers with suspected or confirmed intrauterine inflammation or infection (triple I) or with group B Streptococcus (GBS) bacteriuria, were directly admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) for clinical assessment and treatment of suspected sepsis for at least 48 hours, regardless of their clinical condition. Establishment of a risk-identification system for those high-risk neonates based on the EOS detection standard checklist may decrease NICU admissions and antibiotics exposure in asymptomatic neonates.. Methods: We marginally altered a standard checklist outlined by The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists for the early discovery of neonates at risk for EOS. Participants of the study were inborn neonates ≥ 34 weeks born to mothers with suspected or confirmed triple I or with GBS bacteriuria, who received intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis ...
This article examines whether preterm newborns behavior and their mothers adjustment to the premature birth and infant hospitalization have an influence on subsequent infant development and behavior, maternal adjustment, and mother-infant relationship. The behavioral competencies of 42 well, singleton preterm infants (mean gestational age=31 weeks) were assessed, as were their mothers adjustment (depression and coping) and competencies (knowledge of child development). At 12 months of postnatal age, child competencies (development and behavior) were assessed, together with maternal adjustment (parenting stress and depression). Mother-infant interaction also was observed. Regression analyses indicated that in the newborn period, maternal positive reappraisal and a planful coping style, more knowledge of child development, and previous experience with baby-sitting were associated with better infant development (p=.002), maternal adjustment (p=.012), and mother-child relationship (p=.002) at 12 ...
Result: 300 late preterm babies were studied. 84.33% of the total late preterm newborns were low birth weight babies. 28% were associated with maternal complications. Incidence of pregnancy induced hypertension was 14% in this study. 11.33% of the late preterm newborns needed resuscitation. Out of all the morbidities associated with late preterms, incidence of respiratory distress was highest with 31 %. According to this study, incidence of hyperbilirubinemia, hypothermia and respiratory distress syndrome was more towards the 34 weeks of gestation. This study shows that as the gestational age decreases, the late preterms are more prone for RDS, hypothermia and hyperbilirubinemia ...
Curr Eye Res. 2004 Feb;28(2):145-51. Akar Y, Cira A, Apaydin C, Erman MA, Yilmaz A. Source Department of Ophthalmology, Akdeniz University School of Medicine, Antalya, Turkey. [email protected] Abstract PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of the birth weight and the postconceptional age on the tear production of preterm and term newborn infants and to evaluate the changes in tear production during the first two months of life. SUBJECTS--METHODS: Both eyes of medically stable term and preterm infants were included in the study. Based on postconceptional age and birth weight, we divided preterm infants into three groups. Then, we measured the basal and reflex tear secretions of both eyes by Schirmer tests before and after instillation of topical anesthetic agent. We performed initial tear measurements on the second day of life (between first 24 hours to first 48 hours after birth): and at 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 8 weeks after birth. RESULTS: We tested a total of 138 infants (63 preterm and 75 term), 72 ...
Many premature infants are resilient and surprise everyone by overcoming great odds. Expect that your infant can progress for several days but may then have a medical setback.. Premature infants are more likely than others to get an infection. And organs that have not had time to mature can cause a number of problems.. The more premature a newborn is, the greater is the babys risk of having medical problems.. Infants born at 23 to 26 weeks gestation are extremely underdeveloped and have a much higher risk of death or disability. Parents of these infants are likely to be faced with difficult medical decisions. Infants who have reached their 32nd week of development before birth are less at risk than those who are born earlier.. Babies born at 34 to almost 37 weeks gestation are called late preterm infants. Although they are not as likely to have as many problems as infants who are born earlier, they are at risk for breathing problems, high blood pressure in the lungs, and other short-term and ...
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Study IV aimed at investigating levels of and associations between perceived stress and an inflammatory marker, comparing parents of preterm and full term infants at two timepoints. Mothers of infants born preterm showed higher stress levels early post partum, compared to the term group. The stress declined over time and was comparable to levels in the term group at infant age four months. Subgroup analyses showed greater stress in mothers of infants born early preterm at both time-points compared to the term group. In fathers, no differences in stress levels were found between the preterm and term groups but fathers of infants born early preterm reported higher stress levels early post partum than fathers of infants born late preterm. No associations were found between stress levels and the inflammatory marker. In parents of preterm infants, high levels of stress at infant age four months were predicted by stress levels early post partum ...
Neonatal infections are infections of the neonate (newborn) during the neonatal period or first four weeks after birth. Neonatal infections may be contracted by transplacental transfer in utero, in the birth canal during delivery (perinatal), or by other means after birth. Some neonatal infections are apparent soon after delivery, while others may develop postpartum within the first week or month. Some infections acquired in the neonatal period do not become apparent until much later such as HIV, hepatitis B and malaria. There is a higher risk of infection for preterm or low birth weight neonates. Respiratory tract infections contracted by preterm neonates may continue into childhood or possibly adulthood with long-term effects that limit ones ability to engage in normal physical activities, decreasing ones quality of life and increasing health care costs. In some instances, neonatal respiratory tract infections may increase ones susceptibility to future respiratory infections and ...
Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia and Perinatal Characteristics Predict 1-Year Respiratory Outcomes in Newborns Born at Extremely Low Gestational Age: A Prospective Cohort Study.
The oxidative stress injury that has been linked to poor perinatal outcome and birth asphyxia may be found even with normal pregnancy, and it is severity in a newborn may be related to modes of delivery for which our study aimed to identify. Furthermore, this study was aimed to study the effect of both related- maternal, and related neonatal characteristics on babys oxidative stress marker level (Malondialdehyde). Fifty newborn children were selected in both labor ward and operating theatre of Al-Sadder Teaching Hospital, Misan, Iraq. They were divided into two groups. The first group comprised 28 newborns, who were born by a vaginal delivery; the second group consisted of 22 newborns who delivered by elective cesarean section. The laboratory measurement of levels of an important antioxidant factor [malondialdehyde (MDA)] in babys cord blood has been extracted and used as an indicator of stress. We compared the two samples of different malondialdehyde levels in relation to variables as the delivery
The newborn, which is called an infant in humans, should typically begin respiration on its own shortly after birth. Not long ...
"Newborn & Infant Nursing Reviews. Elsevier. 3 (2): 47-54. doi:10.1016/S1527-3369(03)00005-9. Retrieved 4 January 2016.. ... In newborn infants with short bowel syndrome with less than 10% of expected intestinal length, thereby being dependent upon ... Infants who are sustained on TPN without food by mouth for prolonged periods are at risk for developing gut atrophy.[23] ... Wilmore DW, Groff DB, Bishop HC, Dudrick SJ (Apr 1969). "Total parenteral nutrition in infants with catastrophic ...
Wilson J (December 2005). "Milk Intolerance: Lactose Intolerance and Cow's Milk Protein Allergy". Newborn and Infant Nursing ... This test can be used to diagnose lactose intolerance in infants, for whom other forms of testing are risky or impractical.[40] ... If the stools are acidic, the infant is intolerant to lactose.[41] Stool pH in lactose intolerance is less than 5.5. ... This form of lactose intolerance can occur in both infants and lactase persistent adults and is generally reversible.[29] It ...
Newborn and Infant Nursing Reviews. *Paediatrics and Child Health. *Pediatric Clinics of North America ... Infectious Diseases of the Fetus and Newborn, Elsevier Saunders, Philadelphia, 2006.. *Cherbick. Kendig's Disorders of the ... Neurology of the Newborn, Saunders Elsevier, Philadelphia, 2008.. *Aehlert, Barbara. Pediatric Advanced Life Support, Mosby, St ...
Yearly mortality rates for newborn infants 1841-1846 for first and second clinics[edit]. The mortality rate for newborn infants ... Puerperal fever mortality rates for newborn infants at the first and second clinic at the Vienna General Hospital 1841-1846 ... 2.5 Yearly mortality rates for newborn infants 1841-1846 for first and second clinics ... to pull off legs and arms of infants, and even to pull away the entire body and leave the head in the uterus. Such occurrences ...
The feet of a newborn infant.. A woman's foot, decorated with nail polish and henna, and wearing a metti (toe ring) on the ...
... evaluate and provide postnatal care to healthy newborn infants; stabilize and provide care for infants born at 35 to 37 weeks' ... Level I (well newborn nursery)[edit]. Level I units are typically referred to as the well baby nursery. Well newborn nurseries ... Infant respiratory distress syndrome is the leading cause of death in preterm infants,[19] and the main treatments are CPAP, in ... The concept of designations for hospital facilities that care for newborn infants according to the level of complexity of care ...
Many newborns will feed for 10 to 15 minutes on each breast.[4] If the infant wants to nurse for a much longer period-say 30 ... Newborn jaundice[edit]. Approximately 60% of full-term infants develop jaundice within several days of birth. Jaundice, or ... Lower-class women breastfed their infants and used a wet nurse only if they were unable to feed their own infant. Attempts were ... Breastfeeding aids general health, growth and development in the infant. Infants who are not breastfed are at mildly increased ...
Newborns (0-3 months) 14 to 17 hours Infants (4-11 months) 12 to 15 hours ... especially to the health of infants and children.[14][25] Some studies have shown that a lack of neighborhood recreational ... the 20th century registered a decrease in the mortality rates for infants and children and a continual increase in life ...
Newborns (0-3 months) 14 to 17 hours[67] Infants (4-11 months) 12 to 15 hours[67] ... There is also a relationship between infants' vocabulary and sleeping: infants who sleep longer at night at 12 months have ... Infants who slept within four hours of learning the language could remember the language rules better, while infants who stayed ... By the time infants reach the age of two, their brain size has reached 90 percent of an adult-sized brain;[61] a majority of ...
Krajevitch, A.; Blot, P.; Cara, M. (1975). "[Transport of newborn infants. Apropos of 114 cases]". Annales De L'anesthesiologie ...
1998). "Newborn infants prefer attractive faces". Infant Behav. Dev.. 21: 345-354. doi:10.1016/s0163-6383(98)90011-x. Kramer, S ... Kalakanis estimated that newborns see between 5 and 10 faces before they leave hospital in the USA. Thus, after 72 hours, they ... Kalakanis L. (1997) "Newborn preferences for attractive faces". Doctoral Thesis. University of Texas at Austin. Alley, T.R.; ... Adults and infants organize and consolidate sensory information into categories (e.g. "trees", "chairs", "dogs", "automobiles ...
Jātakarman literally means "rite of a new-born infant".[52][53] It is a rite of passage that celebrates the birth of the baby.[ ... On this ritual occasion the newborn is taken out and shown the sun at sunrise or sunset, or the moon, or both. Alternatively, ... the infant is bathed and dressed in new garments.[60] His or her formal name, selected by the parents, is announced. The naming ... 54] It is the first post-natal rite of passage of the new born baby. It signifies the baby's birth, as well as the bonding of ...
Infectious Diseases of the Fetus and Newborn Infant (7th ed.). Elsevier. pp. 419-469. ISBN 978-0-443-06839-3.. ... Infants can be infected during passage through the birth canal, nevertheless newborns that acquire GBS through this route can ... GBS LOD affects infants from 7 days to 3 months of age and is more likely to cause bacteremia or meningitis. LOD can be ... GBS infection in newborns[edit]. GBS colonization usually does not cause problems in healthy women, nevertheless during ...
Newborn infants often produce some witch's milk. Galactorrhea is milk production unrelated to nursing. It can occur in males ... A poor milk ejection reflex can be due to sore or cracked nipples, separation from the infant, a history of breast surgery, or ... Low supply can often be traced to: not feeding or pumping often enough inability of the infant to transfer milk effectively ... Bose, C.; D'ercole, A.; Lester, A.; Hunter, R.; Barrett, J. (1981). "Relactation by mothers of sick and premature infants". ...
Deficiency is very rare; mild hemolytic anemia in newborn infants[20] Possible increased incidence of congestive heart failure. ... Recommendations for folic acid supplementation during pregnancy reduced risk of infant neural tube defects.[9] ...
Bishop RF, Cameron DJ, Barnes GL, Holmes IH, Ruck BJ (1976). The aetiology of diarrhoea in newborn infants. Ciba Foundation ...
Remington and Klein's Infectious Diseases of the Fetus and Newborn Infant. Elsevier Health Sciences. pp. 190-. ISBN 978-0-323- ... With suckling from the infant, prolactin and oxytocin are secreted and mediate milk production and letdown, respectively.[20][ ...
Hypoxia is a common complication of preterm birth in newborn infants. Because the lungs develop late in pregnancy, premature ... To improve lung function, doctors frequently place infants at risk of hypoxia inside incubators (also known as humidicribs) ...
Remington and Klein's Infectious Diseases of the Fetus and Newborn Infant. Elsevier Health Sciences. pp. 190-. ISBN 978-0-323- ...
Sato K, Hirano M, Nakashima T (May 2001). "Fine structure of the human newborn and infant vocal fold mucosae". Ann. Otol. ... In newborns[edit]. Newborns have a uniform monolayered lamina propria, which appears loose with no vocal ligament.[15] The ... Fibronectin is very abundant in the Reinke's space of newborn and infant. Fibronectin is a glycoprotein that is believed to act ... presented the hypothesis that high hyaluronic acid content and distribution in newborn VF is directly associated with newborn ...
A newborn infant undergoing white-light phototherapy to treat neonatal jaundice.. Light therapy is used to treat cases of ... uses the energy from light to isomerize the bilirubin and consequently transform it into compounds that the newborn can excrete ...
Davies MW, Davis PG (2002). "Nebulized racemic epinephrine for extubation of newborn infants". The Cochrane Database of ...
Infant Behav. Dev. 16, 495-500. *^ May, L., Byers-Heinlein, K., Gervain, J., & Werker, J. F. (2011). Language and the Newborn ... DeCasper, A. J., and Spence, M. J. (1986). Prenatal maternal speech influences newborns' perception of speech sounds. Infant ... Growth rate of fetus is linear up to 37 weeks of gestation, after which it plateaus.[9] The growth rate of an embryo and infant ... Low birth weight increases an infants risk of long-term growth and cognitive and language deficits.[45] It also results in a ...
"Intraventricular streptokinase after intraventricular hemorrhage in newborn infants". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. ... "Diuretic therapy for newborn infants with posthemorrhagic ventricular dilatation". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2 ... The cause of IVH in premature infants, unlike that in older infants, children or adults, is rarely due to trauma. Instead it is ... Grades III and IV are the most serious and may result in long-term brain injury to the infant. After a grade III or IV IVH, ...
Newborn infants are a special case. Plasma vitamin K is low at birth, even if the mother is supplemented during pregnancy, ... "Prevention of Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding in Newborn Infants: A Position Paper by the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition" (PDF). ... due to physiologically low vitamin K plasma concentrations is a serious risk for premature and term newborn and young infants. ... "Vitamin K Shot - Essential in Preventing Serious Bleeding in Newborns". www.cdc.gov. 2017. Retrieved 2018-07-06.. ...
A mother may transmit gonorrhea to her newborn during childbirth; when affecting the infant's eyes, it is referred to as ... For newborns, erythromycin ointment is recommended as a preventative measure for gonococcal infant conjunctivitis.[53] Among ... Newborn babies coming through the birth canal are given erythromycin ointment in the eyes to prevent blindness from infection. ... If not treated, gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum will develop in 28% of infants born to women with gonorrhea.[21] ...
Evidence for the same in premature infants or infants that are not healthy is lacking. It may have clinical benefits for ... Blass EM, Watt LB (1999). "Suckling- and sucrose-induced analgesia in human newborns". Pain. 83 (3): 611-23. doi:10.1016/s0304- ... Infants who use pacifiers may have more ear infections (otitis media). The effectiveness of avoiding the use of a pacifier to ... Researchers have found that use of a pacifier is associated with a substantial reduction in the risk of SIDS (sudden infant ...
Apgar, Virginia (1953). "A proposal for a new method of evaluation of the newborn infant". Current Research in Anesthesia and ...
Newborn babies do not eat adult foods. They survive solely on breast milk or formula.[12] Small amounts of pureed food are ... sometimes fed to young infants as young as two or three months old, but most infants do not eat adult food until they are ...
The 56-bed Neonatal Intensive Care Unit has eight full-time neonatologists during the day, at least two newborn specialists at ... 2009 Infant heading home after underweight birth, The Times of Trenton, August 16, 2007 - accessed July 11, 2009 The Tiniest ...
Infant respiratory distress syndrome. *Transient tachypnea of the newborn. *Meconium aspiration syndrome ... The newborn baby's closed lids should be thoroughly cleansed and dried.. *If it is determined that the cause is due to a ... "Conjunctivitis , Pink Eye , Newborns , CDC". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved 2016-11-11.. ... If the tear duct is not cleared by the time the newborn is one year old, surgery may be required.[2] ...
... the Community-Based Newborn Care Program (CB-NCP), the Infant and Young Child Feeding program, a micronutrients supplementation ... Infant Mortality: From 97.70 to 29.40 in 2015. Child malnutrition: Stunting 37%, wasting 11%, and underweight 30% among child ... In order to address under-nutrition problems in young children, the Government of Nepal (GoN) has implemented: a) Infant and ... It also includes management of infection, Jaundice, Hyperthermia and counseling on breastfeeding for young infants less than 2 ...
Acute pseudomembranous candidiasis occurs in about 5% of newborn infants. Candida species are acquired from the mother's ... with the lowest levels occurring in newborns, increasing dramatically in infants, and then decreasing again in adults. ... It is classically an acute condition, appearing in infants, people taking antibiotics or immunosuppressant medications, or ... an infants antibodies to the fungus are normally supplied by the mother's breast milk. Other forms of immunodeficiency which ...
They counsel families through a new diagnosis of hearing loss in infants, and help teach coping and compensation skills to late ... They also help design and implement personal and industrial hearing safety programs, newborn hearing screening programs, school ...
The "Swollen baby syndrome" occurs in newborns, infants and toddlers with pitting edema, abdominal distension and hemorrhage.[6 ... High risk groups include pregnant women and newborns. The latter may have an 87% fatality rate. ...
... builds up in the bloodstream and can lead to levels that are toxic to the developing nervous system of newborn and infant ... Due to newborn screening, doctors are able to detect PKU in a baby sooner. This allows them to start treatment early, ... The most dangerous form of this is called classic PKU, which is common in infants. The baby seems normal at first but actually ... The blood of a two-week-old infant is collected for a PKU screening. ...
"Conjunctivitis , Pink Eye , Newborns". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved 2016-11-11.. *^ Curry, Susan J.; Krist, Alex H.; Owens, Douglas K ... Single injection of ceftriaxone IM or IV should be given to infants born to mothers with untreated gonococcal infection. ... The newborn baby's closed lids should be thoroughly cleansed and dried.. *If the cause is determined to be due to a blocked ... Neonatal conjunctivitis, is a form of conjunctivitis and a type of neonatal infection contracted by newborns during delivery. ...
... 's physician Gerard van Swieten assured her that the infant was still living when baptized, but many at court ... and ordered that it be tried on thirty-four newborn orphans and sixty-seven orphans between the ages of five and fourteen years ... Most descriptions of her baptism stress that the infant was carried ahead of her cousins, Maria Josepha and Maria Amalia, the ... unbaptized infants would be condemned to eternity in limbo. ...
... for G1528C mutation in mitochondrial trifunctional protein gene in pregnant women with severe preeclampsia and new born infant ... lethal condition resulting in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS),[9] infantile onset of a hepatic Reye-like syndrome, and late ...
Hoffman, Y., and Drotar, D. The impact of postpartum depressed mood on mother-infant interaction: like mother like baby? Infant ... Almeida A, Merminod G, Schechter DS (2009). Mothers with severe psychiatric illness and their newborns: a hospital-based model ... Infant Mental Health Journal 12:219-232, 1991. *Murray, L., and Cooper, P.J. The impact of postnatal depression on child ... Cohn, J.F., Campbell, S.B., and Ross, S. Infant response in the still-face paradigm at 6 months predicts avoidant and secure ...
These knives were used to cut the umbilical cord of a newborn infant or to harvest sweetgrass and other sacred herbs for ...
For newborn infants starved of oxygen during birth there is now evidence that hypothermia therapy for neonatal encephalopathy ... There has long been a debate over whether newborn infants with cerebral hypoxia should be resuscitated with 100% oxygen or ... Davis, PG; Tan, A; O'Donnell, CPF; Schulze, A (2004). "Resuscitation of newborn infants with 100% oxygen or air: a systematic ... "Hyperbaric oxygen in the treatment of asphyxia in two newborn infants". Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine. 40 (4): 218-20. PMID ...
Ritter's disease of the newborn is the most severe form of SSSS, with similar signs and symptoms. SSSS often includes a ... An infant with Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome. Specialty. Dermatology. Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS) is a ...
Intersex infants and other issues[edit]. Female infants born with a 46,XX genotype but have genitalia affected by congenital ... It is often performed on intersex newborns. Commonly, non-medical removal of the clitoris is performed during female genital ... A lack of ambiguity of the genitalia is seen as necessary in the assignment of a sex to infants and therefore whether a child's ... In a clitoridectomy for intersex infants, the clitoris is often reduced instead of removed. The surgeon cuts the shaft of the ...
Imamura E (1997). "Phimosis of infants and young children in Japan". Acta Paediatr Jpn. 39 (4): 403-5. doi:10.1111/j.1442-200x. ... and the multiple additional influences on post-neonatal circumcision rates in cultures where most newborn males are circumcised ... Medical associations advise not to retract the foreskin of an infant, in order to prevent scarring.[12][13] Some argue that non ... While circumcision prevents phimosis, studies of the incidence of healthy infants circumcised for each prevented case of ...
... which results in newborn offspring that are as little as one-third the size of haplorhine newborns.[103][114] Extant ... Infant care by the mother is relatively prolonged compared to many other mammals, and in some cases, the infants cling to the ...
Infant mortality in Kerala is 12 per thousand live births, but in Assam it is 56. According to World Bank, the total ... Shortages of healthcare providers, poor intra-partum and newborn care, diarrheal diseases and acute respiratory infections also ... The under five mortality and infant mortality rates have been declining, from 202 and 190 deaths per thousand live births ... inadequate newborn care and childbirth-related causes. More than two million children die every year from preventable ...
Significant ABO Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn in a Group B Infant with a Group A2 Mother. Immunohematology 2000; 16(3):105-8 ... Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn Caused by a High Titer Anti-Group B IgG From a Group A Mother. Pediatric Blood & Cancer 2005; ... Haque KM, Rahman M. An Unusual Case of ABO-Haemolytic Disease of the Newborn. Bangladesh Medical Research Council Bulletin 2000 ... Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn) உருவாவதில்லை. தாயினதும், சேயினதும் குருதிகள் நேரடியாகக் கலப்பதில்லை. ஊட்டச்சத்துக்களும், ...
Infant respiratory distress syndrome. *Transient tachypnea of the newborn. *Meconium aspiration syndrome ... Increasing amounts of milk by 30 to 40 mL/kg is safe in infant who are born weighing very little[clarify].[13] Not beginning ... Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a medical condition where a portion of the bowel dies.[1] It typically occurs in newborns ... Ziegler EE, Carlson SJ (March 2009). "Early nutrition of very low birth weight infants". J. Matern. Fetal. Neonatal. Med. 22 (3 ...
The lack of this surge can sometimes be used as a diagnostic tool if KS/HH is suspected in a newborn boy, but is not normally ... This lack of detectable hormones in the blood can be used as a diagnostic indicator, especially in male infants.[33] ... This surge is particularly important in infant boys as it helps with testicular descent into the scrotum. The surge of GnRH/LH/ ... Early treatment is sometimes required for male infants with suspected KS/CHH to correct un-descended testes and micropenis if ...
Percy did not care about the condition of this premature infant and left with Claire, Mary's stepsister, for a lurid affair.[47 ... When Victor saw the creature come to life he fled the apartment, though the newborn creature approached him, as a child would a ... "infant Frankenstein."[37] David Lindsay's "The Bridal Ornament", published in The Rover, 12 June 1844, mentioned "the maker of ...
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the sudden death of an infant that is unexplainable by the infant's history. The death ... Premature and low birth weight babies face an increased risk of serious health problems as newborns have chronic lifelong ... Infants exposed to smoke, both during pregnancy and after birth, are found to be more at risk of sudden infant death syndrome ( ... More specifically, infants born to smokers weigh on average 200 grams less than infants born to women who do not smoke. The ...
Most of the infant deaths were caused by dysentery, though parental ignorance and poor hygiene were often indirectly to blame.[ ... Her fight against the damage that widespread urban poverty and ignorance caused to children, especially newborns, is perhaps ... Baker also invented an infant formula made out of water, calcium carbonate, lactose, and cow milk.[13] This enabled mothers to ... Baker and a group of nurses started to train mothers in how to care for their babies: how to clothe infants to keep them from ...
In infants, the scalp veins are sometimes used. The caliber of needles and catheters can be given in Birmingham gauge or French ... Acute Care of at-Risk Newborns (ACoRN). *Pediatric basic life support (PBLS) ...
Analysis of paired arterial and venous specimens can give insights into the aetiology of acidosis in the newborn.[2] ... paired arterial and venous cord blood gas results can usually provide a robust defence against a suggestion that an infant had ... "Use of umbilical cord blood gas analysis in the assessment of the newborn". Archives of Disease in Childhood - Fetal and ...
Berg, A. L., Prieve, B. A., Serpanos, Y. C., & Wheaton, M. A. (2011). Hearing screening in a well-infant nursery: Profile of ... Joint Committee on Infant Hearing. (2007). Year 2007 position statement: Principles and guidelines for early hearing detection ... Alexander, D., & Van Dyck, P. C. (2006). A vision of the future of newborn screening. Pediatrics, 117(Suppl. 3), S350-S354. ... Berg, A. L, Spitzer, J. B., Towers, H. M., Bartosiewicz, C., & Diamond, B. E. (2005). Newborn hearing screening in the NICU: ...
... infant and newborn nutrition provides babies with nutrients needed to grow. Read about how to identify allergies. ... Milk Allergy in Infants (Nemours Foundation) Also in Spanish * Soy Infant Formula (National Institute of Environmental Health ... Infant Formula (American Academy of Family Physicians) Also in Spanish * Infant Formula and Fluorosis (Centers for Disease ... Cows milk - infants (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * Feeding patterns and diet -- babies and infants (Medical ...
Read about the changes a newborn goes through and also see tips for proper baby care. ... Newborn head molding (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * Umbilical cord care in newborns (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in ... The primary NIH organization for research on Infant and Newborn Care is the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child ... Infant Care and Infant Health (Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development) ...
The medical home plays a major role in the care of infants who do not pass or do not receive a newborn hearing screening by ... If the infant passes the ABR, the baby has "passed" the hearing screening. If one or both ears do not pass the ABR, the infant ... In 2014, 34.4% of the infants who did not pass their final newborn hearing screening did not complete follow-up and were ... If the newborn does not pass one or both of the second screenings in one or both ears, the newborn is referred for outpatient ...
A simple neurological screening examination should be performed on all term and preterm newborn infants, as part of the general ... Prechtl HF (1974) The behavioural states of the newborn infant. Brain Res 76:185-212CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... A simple neurological screening examination should be performed on all term and preterm newborn infants, as part of the general ... Prechtl HFR (1977) The neurological examination of the full-term newborn infant, 2nd revised edn. Heinemann, LondonGoogle ...
Find out how and when newborn infant hearing screening is done, and learn what to do if hearing impairment or deafness is ... home/healthy kids health center/healthy kids a-z list/newborn infant hearing screening center /newborn infant hearing screening ... Newborn Infant Hearing Screening. *What is a newborn infant hearing screening program? ... Newborn Infant Hearing Screening - Experience Please describe your experience with newborn infant hearing screening test. ...
Hats Newborn & Unisex. Sleepsuits, all-in-ones and adorable mini outfits - all you need to keep your little one cosy and happy ...
The infants were seated in an infant seat, ≈60 cm from a 22-inch monitor, and an experimenter stood behind the infant to ... In contrast to older infants, newborn infants have sharply diminished sensitivity to the visual and auditory features that ... we conducted 3 experiments assessing newborn infants cross-modal discrimination among large numbers of objects. Each infant ... Newborn infants perceive abstract numbers. Véronique Izard, Coralie Sann, Elizabeth S. Spelke, and Arlette Streri ...
The American Heart Association advises the rescuer to depress the infants midsternum with the index and forefingers. An ... The history of external cardiac compression in infants and children is briefly reviewed, further supporting the conclusion that ... The recommended techniques for external cardiac compression during cardiopulmonary resuscitation of the newborn are reviewed. ... with thumbs at midsternum is more efficacious and hence the preferred approach to closed chest cardiac massage in the newborn. ...
... A. Sarandakou, G. Giannaki, A. Malamitsi-Puchner, D. Rizos, E. Hourdaki, E. ... and reflect also a newborn immune response to the stress of delivery and environmental changes. ...
... Introduction. Anyone who spends any time with babies recognizes that they grow and change almost before ... Naturally, newborns and infants have little control over what they eat, and their parents are responsible for selecting and ... Fats supply infants with energy for their liver, brain, and heart. The current recommendation for infants younger than age one ... Formula-fed infants typically consume more calories and experience greater weight gain than breast-fed infants. In fact, ...
Masking and Gowning in Nurseries for the Newborn Infant Br Med J 1958; 1 :76 ... Masking and Gowning in Nurseries for the Newborn Infant. Br Med J 1958; 1 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.5062.76 (Published ...
Phenytoin administration in the newborn and infant.. Sicca F1, Contaldo A, Rey E, Dulac O. ... in the treatment of situation-related seizures and epilepsies in the newborn and infant; the clinical histories of 82 patients ...
1) It shall be the duty of the department of health to require screening tests of all newborn infants born in any setting. Each ... That no such tests shall be given to any newborn infant whose parents or guardian object thereto on the grounds that such tests ... health care provider attending a birth outside of a hospital shall collect and submit a sample blood specimen for all newborns ...
A method of feeding the artifically fed infant from a cup starting at birth has been described. Increase in weight is as great ... Cup feeding is particularly suited to the premature and feeble infant and those with oral defects. The impression has been ... when this method is used as in breast or bottle fed infants. ... CUP FEEDING OF NEWBORN INFANTS Message Subject (Your Name) has ...
Tips on Breastfeeding Newborn :. A fortunate note related to breastfeeding your baby is definitely the simple fact that youre ... Considering that it is your first-time to take care of your infant, you certainly have to acquire hold of each of the helpful ... Make sure that the nipple is loaded with milk because the newborn is likely to gulp off an excessive amount of air flow from ... Why is My Newborn Baby Crying? Interpreting Your Babys Cries. by Robin Edmondson. 93 ...
Baby Bathing Pad Newborn Plush Flower Pad Bath Tub Infant Shower Cushion Healthy ... Details about Baby Infant Newborn Pillow Flat Head Sleeping Support Cushion Prevent Soft. ... New Baby Infant Newborn Pillow Flat Head Sleeping Support Cushion Prevent Soft ... Baby Infant Newborn Soft Bed Pillow Flat Head Sleeping Support Cushion Prevent ...
Removable stroller seat converts stroller into lightweight, portable infant car seat carrier. Folds 25% more compact than the ... Details about Graco Baby Stroller With Car Seat Combo Newborn Infant Travel System. ... Graco Baby Stroller With Car Seat Combo Newborn Infant Kids Travel System ... Baby Stroller with Car Seat Combo Newborn Infant Girls Travel System Graco ...
SOURCE: Newborn & Infant Safety ( ) Page printed: . Unofficial document if printed. Please refer to SOURCE for latest ... It is not necessary to warm bottles for term infants. For premature infants put the bottle in a bowl of warm water for up to 15 ... Do not leave an infant in a bouncer chair on a table or counter -- a babys feet can kick the chair over the edge. ... Saving infants lives in Malawi: New project aims to improve diagnosis and care for sepsis ...
... By Peter Fysh, DC. Neonatology is one of several pediatric subspecialties that have developed rapidly over ... Now newborn infants are surviving at 22 weeks, albeit with the help of advancing medical technology. Although the ability of ... One of the first tasks of a chiropractor, when examining a newborn infant, should be to check the spine for signs of trauma ... Chiropractors should also play an important role in evaluation of the newborn infant. It is just possible that an early ...
Adopting a newborn through domestic adoption? AF has information about feeding, bonding, and navigating the complexities of the ... Tags: Birth Mothers, Bonding, Celebrations & Holidays, Foster Adoption, Infants, Newborn, Personal Stories ... Julie Michaels - September 19, 2016 - Ages & Stages, Health & Development, Infants, Parenting Its a good idea to ask your ... Holly van Gulden and Lisa Bartels-Rabb - June 18, 2016 - Ages & Stages, Bonding, Bonding & Child Care, Infants ...
Meijer recalls newborn, infant, toddler swimsuits. Meijer has recalled newborn, infant and toddler swimsuits following reports ... Meijer has recalled newborn, infant and toddler swimsuits following reports that the snaps can detach, posing a choking hazard. ...
Bought and read some essential books: one on newborn care (Heading Home With Your Newborn), 3 on cognitive development in the ... An infant CPR course is good... likely useless, but it is a good box to check nonetheless.. -Starting to take an inventory of ... What do you want out of a newborn class? April 16, 2012. Whats the deal with cloth diapers? June 20, 2010. How can we get ... Later, when your LO is very newborn, try to get out to a park day. Going to park days were some of my first times out with my ...
has expanded its line of products with the introduction of The Newborn Gift Set, which comes with a total of six different prod ... The Newborn Gift Set includes the brands Hair & Body Wash, Everyday Lotion, Baby Massage Oil, Baby Fresh Spray, All Over ... Tubby Todds Newborn Gift Set is Full of Gentle Products. Riley von Niessen - September 4, 2019 - Life-Stages ... has expanded its line of products with the introduction of The Newborn Gift Set, which comes with a total of six different ...
Immune responses of human newborns and infants are d ... Immune responses of human newborns and infants are distinct and ... immune responses will be vital to the rational design and development of safe and effective vaccines for newborns and infants. ...
Find local Newborn Infant Hearing Screening resources for the top U.S. cities - includes physician directory, list of local ... home , healthy kids center , healthy kids a-z list , newborn infant hearing screening index , newborn infant hearing screening ... Newborn Infant Hearing Screening Center - North Las Vegas, NV. *WebMD Physician Directory of North Las Vegas Doctors ... Suggested Reading on Newborn Infant Hearing Screening by Our Doctors. * Related Diseases & Conditions. 7 articles ...
The cerebrospinal fluid in the newborn and premature infant.. WOLF H, HOEPFFNER L. ...
Mothers of NICU or PSCN infants*Infants supplemented more than once in 24 hours*Infants , 38 weeks or less than 6 pounds*Infant ... Infant with Loss of 10% Birth Weight Rationale. A term infant is born with a protective store of fluid, electrolytes and ... Drug-Exposed Infants. Drug-Exposed Infants. *Sample Withdrawal Scoring Sheet*Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome. ... Until infant is consistently having several liquidy bright yellow stools per day:. *Breastfeed at least 8 times/day and limit ...
In the 11 matched CDH-control newborns, plasma retinol and RBP levels in CDH newborns were 50% less than control values (P, ... The purpose of this study was to verify in human newborns the possible link between vitamin A deficiency and CDH previously ... Blood samples were obtained during the first hours after birth from 11 term CDH newborns and 11 healthy controls matched for ... The observation that the plasma concentrations of retinol and RBP are low in infants with CDH relative to controls may be ...
... of SGA newborn infants, compared with 3.94% cholestasis of any etiology in nonasphyxiated SGA infants. Asphyxiated neonates ... Transient Cholestasis in Newborn Infants with Perinatal Asphyxia. D Herzog,1 P Chessex,2 S Martin,1 and F Alvarez1 ... In asphyxiated newborn infants, cholestasis often leads to extensive investigations and a cause can rarely be found. ... OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency of transient neonatal cholestasis in an unselected group of asphyxiated newborn infants in a ...
  • A vision of the future of newborn screening. (asha.org)
  • Hearing screening in a well-infant nursery: Profile of automated ABR-fail/OAE-pass. (asha.org)
  • Newborn hearing screening in the NICU: Profile of failed auditory brainstem response/passed otoacoustic emission. (asha.org)
  • Issues in state newborn screening programs. (asha.org)
  • Mandatory newborn screening for human immunodeficiency virus. (asha.org)
  • Hearing assessment in infants and children: Recommendations beyond neonatal screening. (asha.org)
  • A multicenter evaluation of how many infants with permanent hearing loss pass a two-stage otoacoustic emissions/automated auditory brainstem response newborn hearing screening protocol. (asha.org)
  • The frequency of auditory neuropathy detected by universal newborn hearing screening program. (asha.org)
  • Improving follow-up to newborn hearing screening: A learning-collaborative experience. (asha.org)
  • Performing newborn hearing screenings using automated equipment in the hospital and as part of outpatient screening programs with appropriate training and oversight from the managing audiologist. (asha.org)
  • Although many hospitals have global consents for all newborn hearing screening procedures, screeners and personnel should be aware of hospital and state regulations regarding parent/guardian refusal. (asha.org)
  • A simple neurological screening examination should be performed on all term and preterm newborn infants, as part of the general medical examination. (springer.com)
  • What is a newborn infant hearing screening program? (medicinenet.com)
  • Newborn infant hearing screening programs are designed to identify hearing loss in infants shortly after birth. (medicinenet.com)
  • RCW 70.83.020: Screening tests of newborn infants. (wa.gov)
  • Screening tests of newborn infants. (wa.gov)
  • 1) It shall be the duty of the department of health to require screening tests of all newborn infants born in any setting. (wa.gov)
  • The department of health shall conduct screening tests of samples for the detection of phenylketonuria and other heritable or metabolic disorders leading to intellectual disabilities or physical defects as defined by the state board of health: PROVIDED, That no such tests shall be given to any newborn infant whose parents or guardian object thereto on the grounds that such tests conflict with their religious tenets and practices. (wa.gov)
  • Expanding routine newborn screening to include a metabolic vulnerability profile could lead to earlier detection of life-threatening complications in babies born preterm, according to a study by UC San Francisco researchers. (eurekalert.org)
  • Previous modeled estimates of the number of infants identified by newborn screening (NBS), in conjunction with CDC's Hearing Screening and Follow-up Survey data, predicted approximately 10,500 cases of NBS disorders in the United States in 2006 (25.5 per 10,000 births). (cdc.gov)
  • Newborn screening (NBS) identifies infants at risk for congenital disorders for which early intervention has been shown to improve outcomes ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • States reported aggregate numbers of confirmed cases of 32 RUSP DBS disorders to the Association of Public Health Laboratories' Newborn Screening Technical assistance and Evaluation Program (NewSTEPs) ( 3 ), a Health Resources and Services Administration-funded data repository. (cdc.gov)
  • Meet the requirements of the National Screening Committees Standards for examination of the newborn. (dmu.ac.uk)
  • Concerning modifications to the newborn screening program administered by the department of public health and environment, and, in connection therewith, making an appropriation. (colorado.gov)
  • The bill updates the current newborn screening program to require more timely newborn hearing screenings. (colorado.gov)
  • The department of public health and environment (department) is authorized to assess a fee for newborn screening and necessary follow-up services. (colorado.gov)
  • The bill creates the newborn hearing screening cash fund for the purpose of covering the costs of the program. (colorado.gov)
  • To establish and maintain appropriate follow-up services for newborns at risk of hearing loss and newborns who fail to receive screening. (colorado.gov)
  • The newborn hearing screening cash fund for use by the center for health and environmental data. (colorado.gov)
  • In 1993, Rhode Island legislation mandating universal newborn hearing screening took effect, and the Rhode Island Hearing Assessment Program (RIHAP) based at Women & Infants, became the first public health program of its kind in the United States. (womenandinfants.org)
  • Als H, Butler S, Kosta S, McAnulty G (2005) The Assessment of Preterm Infants' Behavior (APIB): furthering the understanding and measurement of neurodevelopmental competence in preterm and full-term infants. (springer.com)
  • The researchers collected stool samples from 102 full-term infants (average gestational age was nearly 40 weeks) born to women in New Hampshire when the babies were 6 weeks old, an age selected because feeding patterns are more likely to be established by then. (forbes.com)
  • In our study, very preterm infants had greater absolute cortical cerebral blood flow compared with full-term infants. (eurekalert.org)
  • Within regions, however, the insula (a region critical to experiencing emotion), anterior cingulate cortex (a region involved in cognitive processes) and auditory cortex (a region involved in processing sound) for preterm infants received a significantly decreased volume of blood, compared with full-term infants. (eurekalert.org)
  • Several national committees, including the National Institutes of Health, the American Academy of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, and the American Academy of Pediatrics , have recommended that hearing loss in infants be identified, and when possible treated, prior to 6 months of age. (medicinenet.com)
  • The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that infants need multiple doses of vaccines such as diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine, Hepatitis B (HepB) vaccine, inactivated polio vaccine (IPV), and pneumococcal vaccine (PCV). (wikipedia.org)
  • For premature infants put the bottle in a bowl of warm water for up to 15 minutes, or hold it under warm running tap water. (bcwomens.ca)
  • Although the ability of medical teams to keep premature infants alive has increased with technological development, the birthing process itself has changed little. (dynamicchiropractic.com)
  • WASHINGTON - (Dec. 4, 2017) - Cerebral blood flow (CBF) of key regions of newborns' brains is altered in very premature infants and may provide an early warning sign of disturbed brain maturation well before such injury is visible on conventional imaging, according to a prospective, observational study published Dec. 4, 2017 in The Journal of Pediatrics . (eurekalert.org)
  • Do not leave an infant in a bouncer chair on a table or counter -- a baby's feet can kick the chair over the edge. (bcwomens.ca)
  • The grandmother, Janette Myers , 44, of Monroe Township, told investigators that the baby's mother had put the infant in a swing while she prepared to feed her, Everett said. (nhregister.com)
  • When a woman receives opioid medicines for pain relief during labour (for example, pethidine , morphine , and similar drugs), the opioid can cross over to the baby inside the womb and then reduce the newborn baby's breathing rate. (cochrane.org)
  • The observation that the plasma concentrations of retinol and RBP are low in infants with CDH relative to controls may be clinically very relevant and may help to elucidate the mechanism of development of this congenital anomaly. (springer.com)
  • Developmental hip dysplasia is the most common congenital defect in newborns. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Other leading causes of infant mortality include birth asphyxia, pneumonia, congenital malformations, term birth complications such as abnormal presentation of the fetus umbilical cord prolapse, or prolonged labor, neonatal infection, diarrhea, malaria, measles and malnutrition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Causes of infant mortality and deaths that are related to medical conditions include: low birth weight, sudden infant death syndrome, malnutrition, congenital malformations, and infectious diseases, low income for health care including neglected tropical diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The currently available evidence neither supports nor refutes suctioning as a beneficial therapy for healthy term infants and further quality studies are needed in term and preterm newborns. (cochrane.org)
  • Blood samples were obtained during the first hours after birth from 11 term CDH newborns and 11 healthy controls matched for gestational age, and also from 7 mothers in each group, for a total of 7 newborn-mother pairs of matched CDH-controls. (springer.com)
  • METHOD: Charts of 181 asphyxiated newborn infants born with appropriate birth weight for gestational age (AGA) or small weight for gestational age (SGA) at Sainte-Justine Hospital, Montreal, Quebec between 1989 and 1993 were reviewed. (hindawi.com)
  • It covers: resuscitation at birth, assessing infant size and gestational age, routine care and feeding of both normal and high-risk infants, the prevention, diagnosis and management of hypothermia, hypoglycaemia, jaundice, respiratory. (merlot.org)
  • The team studied 98 preterm infants in the study who were born June 2012 to December 2015, were younger than 32 gestational weeks at birth and who weighed less than 1,500 grams. (eurekalert.org)
  • They matched those preemies by gestational age with 104 infants who had been carried to term. (eurekalert.org)
  • This group included infants whose mothers suffered from illness during pregnancy , those who had a family history of hearing loss, or those who were exposed to drugs known to affect hearing. (medicinenet.com)
  • Let MedicineNet deliver FREE to your inbox the latest updates and information on pregnancy and newborns. (medicinenet.com)
  • Pregnancy & Newborn is a print magazine and online community that embraces the trials and triumphs of motherhood. (pnmag.com)
  • To determine the effect of naloxone on the need for and duration of neonatal unit stay in infants of mothers who received opioid analgesia prior to delivery or of mothers who have used a prescribed or non-prescribed opioid during pregnancy. (cochrane.org)
  • None of the included trials investigated infants born to mothers who had used a prescribed or non-prescribed opioid during pregnancy. (cochrane.org)
  • It may not be obvious, but hearing two languages regularly during pregnancy puts infants on the road to bilingualism by birth. (medicalxpress.com)
  • One of the most common preventable causes of infant mortality is smoking during pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lack of prenatal care, alcohol consumption during pregnancy, and drug use also cause complications which may result in infant mortality. (wikipedia.org)
  • The major contributors to postneonatal death are malnutrition, infectious disease, troubled pregnancy, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and problems with the home environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immune responses of human newborns and infants are distinct and cannot be predicted from those of human adults or animal models. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to verify in human newborns the possible link between vitamin A deficiency and CDH previously observed in experimental animals. (springer.com)
  • Critically examine current literature and policy documentation to inform the acquisition of knowledge in the examination and management of the neonates and infants. (dmu.ac.uk)
  • OST target level attainment of the currently recommended dosing regimen in neonates and infants will be calculated. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Currently recommended doses were utilized for all neonates and infants in our cohort. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • One study suggests that babies who were introduced to whole foods (vegetables and fruit as well as cooked meats and fish and home-prepared meals) had healthier body composition than infants fed store-bought, prepared baby food. (whfoods.org)
  • For beginners, relax and take a break at grasping the various fundamentals associated with feeding your newborn baby. (hubpages.com)
  • If you opt to nourish your newborn baby with bottled milk, make certain you prepare everything required in advance. (hubpages.com)
  • Infant bath rings and bath seats are not safe - your baby could slip into the water. (bcwomens.ca)
  • The Newborn Gift Set includes the brand's Hair & Body Wash, Everyday Lotion, Baby Massage Oil, Baby Fresh Spray, All Over Ointment, and consumers can choose to add a washcloth set if they choose as well, which is made from a gentle muslin cotton. (trendhunter.com)
  • The baby formula was reportedly purchased from a Walmart in Lebanon, Missouri, following which a 10-day-old infant died from Cronobacter sakazakii, a rare bacterial infection which can come from formula. (lawyersandsettlements.com)
  • Crochet Baby Items, Hats, Newborn Infant Clothing. (artfire.com)
  • The Government of Canada is moving forward with proposed regulations to prohibit the advertisement, sale and importation of polycarbonate plastic baby bottles that contain bisphenol A, otherwise known as BPA, to reduce newborn and infant exposure to this substance, announced the Honourable Leona Aglukkaq, Minister of Health. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Canada is the first country to move ahead with regulations to prohibit polycarbonate baby bottles that contain bisphenol A. We want parents to feel confident that they can safely bottle-feed their newborns and infants. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Inform the mother of the rational to pump early and pump often ( See Appendix F: For mothers of preterm infants, watch on closed circuit TV: A Premie Needs His Mother, First Steps to Breastfeeding Your Premature Baby ). (stanford.edu)
  • The 3½ hour class covers basic infant care such as bathing, diapering, cord care, and soothing a baby. (whatsupmag.com)
  • Household baby-proofing and basic infant first aid are discussed along with safe sleep environment and car seat safety. (whatsupmag.com)
  • The infant tub is designed for clean water to flow in while dirty water flows out, meaning that baby never has to sit in water with floating dirt particles. (pnmag.com)
  • If your infant is ready for a break from the playard, these fab floor seats are the perfect place for your baby to sit tight. (parenting.com)
  • If you are pregnant and suspect that you have HPV, knowing the risks that this virus poses to a newborn can help you and your doctor plan for the safe delivery and treatment of your baby. (livestrong.com)
  • Although the risks of your baby contracting and developing HPV are low, your doctor should test your newborn baby for HPV if you feel concerned for her safety. (livestrong.com)
  • Naloxone, a drug that counters the effects of opioids, can be given to the newborn baby to try to prevent or treat problems with breathing. (cochrane.org)
  • From the time of the first recognition of the outbreak, an intensive and persistent search was made for toxic substances in the environment of the infants. (cdc.gov)
  • 99% of infant deaths occur in developing countries, and 86% of these deaths are due to infections, premature births, complications during delivery, and perinatal asphyxia and birth injuries. (wikipedia.org)
  • the cooled newborn babies need to be assessed with serial NE during the first days after birth. (springer.com)
  • Infant formulas are available for babies whose mothers are not able to or decide not to breastfeed. (medlineplus.gov)
  • With such high stakes, and because mothers feel so unprepared, overwhelmed and focused on the health of their infants, the maternity staff must assume responsibility for this intervention until she and her family can demonstrate a level of competency. (stanford.edu)
  • Does naloxone (a drug that counters the negative effects of opioids on breathing) help newborn babies whose mothers have received opioid pain relief during birth? (cochrane.org)
  • Five studies included infants with no fetal distress and clear amniotic fluid, one large study included vigorous infants with clear or meconium-stained amniotic fluid, and two large studies included infants with thin or thick meconium-stained amniotic fluid. (cochrane.org)
  • Forms of infant mortality: Perinatal mortality is late fetal death (22 weeks gestation to birth), or death of a newborn up to one week postpartum. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Newborn and Infant Chronic Lung Disease Program provides comprehensive yet individualized care for infants with severe chronic lung disease (CLD). (chop.edu)
  • Formula-fed infants typically consume more calories and experience greater weight gain than breast-fed infants. (whfoods.org)
  • The purpose of this study is the evaluation with untargeted modalities, of the urine metabolomic profile in a group of infants fed with a standard formula, a group of infants fed with a formula supplemented with functional ingredients and a group of breast-fed infants. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The aim of this study is to evaluate, with untargeted modalities, the urine metabolomic profile of a group of infants fed with a standard formula, a group of infants fed with a formula supplemented with functional ingredients and a group of breast-fed infants. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • We have included also a control group of breast-fed infants, as, from a scientific point of view, they represent the 'gold standard' and no data are available on their metabolomic profile. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In another study, introducing solid foods to formula-fed infants before four months was associated with a six-fold increase in the odds of obesity at age three. (whfoods.org)
  • Formula-fed infants participate to PLA-LENI-09 study (NCT01197365). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • It made up 28% of exclusively breastfed infants' guts, compared to 22% of combo-fed and 29% of formula-fed infants' guts. (forbes.com)
  • Bifidobacterium comprised 23% of vaginally born infants's guts, 17% of cesarean born infants' guts, 26% of exclusively breastfed infants' guts, 17% of combination-fed infants' guts and 11% of formula-fed infants' guts. (forbes.com)
  • We included nine trials, with 316 participants in total, that compared the effects of naloxone versus placebo or no drug in newborn infants exposed to maternal opioid analgesia prior to delivery. (cochrane.org)
  • Stevens B, Yamada J, Ohlsson A. Sucrose for analgesia in newborn infants undergoing painful procedures. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • TY - JOUR T1 - Sucrose for analgesia in newborn infants undergoing painful procedures. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • As previous studies have suggested to a varying degree, the gut bacterial composition in infants born vaginally differs from that of infants arriving through cesarean deliveries, and a similar degree of difference shows up between the guts of exclusively breastfed infants and infants who exclusively eat formula or eat a combination of formula and breastmilk. (forbes.com)
  • Based on medical records, 70 infants were born vaginally and 32 were born via cesarean deliveries. (forbes.com)
  • Bacteroides species comprised 35% of vaginally born infants' guts and 21% of cesarean born infants's guts. (forbes.com)
  • The recommended techniques for external cardiac compression during cardiopulmonary resuscitation of the newborn are reviewed. (aappublications.org)
  • The history of external cardiac compression in infants and children is briefly reviewed, further supporting the conclusion that the technique of encircling the chest with thumbs at midsternum is more efficacious and hence the preferred approach to closed chest cardiac massage in the newborn. (aappublications.org)
  • We aimed to determine whether aortic wall thickening, cardiac autonomic control, and cardiac structure/function differ in newborns with high or low body fatness compared to those with average body fatness. (mdpi.com)
  • The pattern of dye dilution curves and the cardiac output was studied in 29 healthy newborn infants during the first 26 hours of life by the method of Wood and his associates. (ahajournals.org)
  • For preterm infants, parenchymal brain injury and the need for cardiac vasopressor support both were correlated with decreased regional CBF," Limperopoulos adds. (eurekalert.org)
  • Quality is also very important, and sometimes overlooked, in the feeding of infants and children. (whfoods.org)
  • A method of feeding the artifically fed infant from a cup starting at birth has been described. (aappublications.org)
  • Cup feeding is particularly suited to the premature and feeble infant and those with oral defects. (aappublications.org)
  • Considering that it is your first-time to take care of your infant, you certainly have to acquire hold of each of the helpful and important infant feeding guidelines you can gather. (hubpages.com)
  • Here is a compact and effective infant feeding guide for all newbies experiencing parenting for the first time. (hubpages.com)
  • Subluxation of the atlas can be the cause of an infant who is irritable, who sleeps for only short periods, also of one who feeds poorly because of irritability in a particular feeding position or because of regurgitation. (dynamicchiropractic.com)
  • Up to now, no studies have investigated healthy term infants metabolome and its modulation according to different dietary regimens such as formula-feeding or breastfeeding. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Feeding your infant and ensuring they are getting enough nutrition is one of the most important aspects of parenting during that first year. (dailystrength.org)
  • Amiel-Tison C (1978) A method for neurological evaluation within the first year of life: experience with full-term newborn infants with birth injury. (springer.com)
  • In 2002, the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies set a dietary reference intake (DRI) daily calorie range for infants from birth to six months of 520 to 570 calories, and 676 to 743 calories for infants between six and twelve months of age, depending on gender. (whfoods.org)
  • Each hospital or health care provider attending a birth outside of a hospital shall collect and submit a sample blood specimen for all newborns no more than forty-eight hours following birth. (wa.gov)
  • It is common for infants to be weighed at birth and for no other measurements to be made. (biomedsearch.com)
  • One of the first tasks of a chiropractor, when examining a newborn infant, should be to check the spine for signs of trauma induced by the birth process. (dynamicchiropractic.com)
  • Professor Towbin conducted autopsies on more than 2,000 newborn infants who had died shortly after birth. (dynamicchiropractic.com)
  • Is it just possible that the sudden shutdown of the respiratory system, as seen in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), is caused by birth trauma to the brain stem and spinal cord as described by Towbin? (dynamicchiropractic.com)
  • It is normal for term infants to loose up to 7% of their birth weight before regaining it by day 10. (stanford.edu)
  • The new method, which was developed at UCSF, offers valuable and time-sensitive insights into which infants are at greatest risk during their most vulnerable time, immediately after birth. (eurekalert.org)
  • The study, published in Nature Pediatric Research by scientists at the UCSF California Preterm Birth Initiative (PTBI-CA), assessed the records of 9,639 preterm infants who experienced mortality or at least one complication or mortality. (eurekalert.org)
  • However, preterm birth and related comorbidities are the leading cause of death for U.S. children under five years of age, with neonatal (newborn) deaths accounting for 46 percent of mortality in this age group. (eurekalert.org)
  • The researchers also asked about (non-topical) medications the infants had received since birth and excluded from the study babies who had received antibiotics. (forbes.com)
  • Under California's "Safe Surrender" law, newborn babies can be surrendered to fire stations or hospitals within three days of birth. (ktla.com)
  • Despite advances in neonatal care, chronic lung disease (CLD) of infancy - also known as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) - remains a major source of morbidity and mortality for extremely low birth weight infants. (chop.edu)
  • Traditionally, oro/nasopharyngeal suctioning at birth has been used routinely to remove fluids in vigorous infants at birth. (cochrane.org)
  • Traditionally, airway oro/nasopharyngeal suction at birth has been used routinely to remove fluid rapidly from the oropharynx and nasopharynx in vigorous and non-vigorous infants at birth. (cochrane.org)
  • In 2013, the leading cause of infant mortality in the United States was birth defects. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the United States, a primary determinant of infant mortality risk is infant birth weight with lower birth weights increasing the risk of infant mortality. (wikipedia.org)
  • Applying that frequency to 3,791,712 live births in 2018, † approximately 12,900 infants are expected to be identified each year with one of the disorders included in the study. (cdc.gov)
  • We searched the following databases in February 2018: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (the Cochrane Library 2018, Issue 1), MEDLINE (OvidSP), MEDLINE In process & Other Non-Indexed Citations (OvidSP), Embase (OvidSP), CINAHL (EBSCO), Maternity and Infant Care (OvidSP), and PubMed. (cochrane.org)
  • Does routine oropharyngeal/nasopharyngeal suctioning of newborn infants' airways compared to no suction have an effect on mortality and morbidity with and without meconium-stained amniotic fluid? (cochrane.org)
  • To evaluate the effect of routine oropharyngeal/nasopharyngeal suction compared to no suction on mortality and morbidity in newly born infants. (cochrane.org)
  • Randomised, quasi-randomised controlled trials and cluster randomised trials that evaluated the effect of routine oropharyngeal/nasopharyngeal suction compared to no suction on mortality and morbidity in newly born infants with and without meconium-stained amniotic fluid. (cochrane.org)
  • Improving sanitation, access to clean drinking water, immunization against infectious diseases, and other public health measures can help reduce high rates of infant mortality. (wikipedia.org)
  • Walmart is recalling a batch of Enfamil infant formula from its stores nationwide, following reports of one infant deathin Missouri that may have resulted from exposure to the product. (lawyersandsettlements.com)
  • The Government has concluded that exposure levels for newborns and infants up to 18 months of age are below those that could cause health effects. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Subsequently, 27 other infants received oseltamivir prophylaxis for exposure to influenza virus type A. Exposed infants were those who shared a primary medical team, nursing care, respiratory therapist, physical therapist, or occupational therapist with the influenza A positive infant. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Within minutes to hours, the infants became more responsive and had less respiratory distress. (cdc.gov)
  • One infant in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) at St. Louis Children's Hospital experienced respiratory decompensation and tested positive for influenza virus type A by fluorescent antibody stain performed on a nasopharyngeal swab. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • From April to August 1967, nine cases of a clinically distinct illness characterized by fever and profuse sweating occurred in a small nursery for newborns in St. Louis, Missouri. (cdc.gov)
  • The first four cases developed between April 17 and 19 among a group of 25 infants who were in the nursery during this interval. (cdc.gov)
  • The goal of this program is to identify all hearing-impaired infants at an early age, thereby increasing these children's chance at healthy and more productive lives. (medicinenet.com)
  • Like all human beings at all stages of life, infants need adequate calories to support rapid growth and development and a healthy supply of macronutrients-including proteins, carbohydrates, and fats-to thrive during this critical period. (whfoods.org)
  • A healthy supply means the right amount, because over-consumption and excess intake of macronutrients can be just as problematic for infants as under-consumption and deficiency. (whfoods.org)
  • During the first year of life, breastfeeding is usually the best path of nourishment for an infant, with very few supplemental foods needed (or none at all) to provide a healthy supply of macronutrients. (whfoods.org)
  • PhysOrg.com) -- Premature babies who undergo painful treatments whilst in intensive care become more sensitive to pain compared to healthy newborns, according to new research by scientists at UCL (University College London). (medicalxpress.com)
  • Maximum expiratory flows were achieved in seven of nine healthy newborn infants at lung volumes equal to functional residual capacity (FRC) and in all infants at lung volumes below FRC. (aappublications.org)
  • Research is an integral part of our Newborn and Infant Chronic Lung Disease Program, which was designated a Frontier Program by Children's Hospital of Philadelphia in 2017. (chop.edu)
  • This case study highlights the care of an infant transferred to Children's Hospital of Philadelphia for immediate and long-term management of his necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) that led to short bowel syndrome (SBS), one of the most devastating complications of prematurity. (chop.edu)
  • when 3 distinct voices are played, therefore, infants may represent 3 correspondingly distinct faces that then can be quantified and compared to a matching or nonmatching visual stimulus. (pnas.org)
  • When they controlled for delivery method, the exclusively breastfed infants had a microbiome distinct from the other infants. (forbes.com)
  • But now, using a novel planet-hunting technique that identifies unusual patterns in the flow of gas within a planet-forming disc around a young star, two teams of astronomers have each confirmed distinct, telltale hallmarks of newly formed planets orbiting an infant star [2]. (brightsurf.com)
  • Hearing loss is the most commonly occurring disability in U.S. infants, with a rate of two to three per 1,000 infants. (womenandinfants.org)
  • Over the same period, the infant mortality rate declined from 65 deaths per 1,000 live births to 29 deaths per 1,000. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study was conducted across 135 countries over the course of 11 years, with the continent of Africa having the highest infant mortality rate of any region studied with 68 deaths per 1,000 live births. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infant mortality rate (IMR) is the number of deaths per 1,000 live births of children under one year of age. (wikipedia.org)
  • Add to his or her collection of team merchandise started early with this officially licensed Nebraska Cornhuskers Newborn / Infant Black Lil' Mascot Creeper. (ecampus.com)
  • Blanket your little fan in your team's colors with this Wisconsin Badgers Newborn / Infant Red Lil' Mascot Creeper. (ecampus.com)
  • Written and edited by the leading authorities in the field, the revised 6th edition of this authoritative reference provides the most up to date and complete guidance on infectious diseases of the fetus and newborn. (elsevier.com)
  • Discusses maternal infections when they are pertinent to the infant or developing fetus. (elsevier.com)
  • The transition from fetus to newborn involves the clearing of lung fluid and expansion of the lungs with air. (cochrane.org)
  • Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) who work in birthing hospitals may also be called upon to perform newborn hearing screenings. (asha.org)
  • A full comprehensive neurological examination (NE) of the newborn infant should fulfill diagnostic and prognostic aims. (springer.com)
  • Dubowitz LM, Dubowitz V (1981) The neurological assessment of the preterm and full-term newborn infant. (springer.com)
  • None of these trials specifically recruited infants with cardiorespiratory or neurological depression. (cochrane.org)
  • Concerns relating to the reported adverse effects of oro/nasopharyngeal suctioning led to a practice review and routine oro/nasopharyngeal suctioning is no longer recommended for vigorous infants. (cochrane.org)
  • However, it is important to know whether there is any clear benefit or harm for infants whose oro/nasopharyngeal airway is suctioned compared to infants who are not suctioned. (cochrane.org)
  • The short and long-term outcome of the sick and preterm infant depends heavily on the early post-partum management of the mother. (stanford.edu)
  • To achieve the best outcome for these infants, care provided by a multidisciplinary team with experience and specialized training is needed. (chop.edu)
  • The NE available for preterm and term newborn infants are discussed in relation to their peculiarities and strengths. (springer.com)
  • De Vries LS, Cowan FM (2009) Evolving understanding of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in the term infant. (springer.com)
  • Dubowitz LM, Mercuri E, Dubowitz V (1998b) An optimality score for the neurologic examination of the term newborn. (springer.com)
  • Einspieler C, Prechtl HF, Bos A et al (2004) Prechtl's method on the qualitative assessment of general movements in preterm, term and young infants. (springer.com)
  • Together they provide definitive coverage of microbiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and prognosis of infections acquired in utero, during delivery, and in the early months of life in both premature and term infants. (elsevier.com)
  • It is not necessary to warm bottles for term infants. (bcwomens.ca)
  • A term infant is born with a protective store of fluid, electrolytes and calories to protect him/her during the first several days of the establishment of copious milk production, which occurs around 72 hours post partum (somewhat earlier for a mother who has previously breastfed and later for the primiparous mother). (stanford.edu)
  • Measurement of these values will increase the understanding of the absorption and elimination of oseltamivir in preterm and term infants, and improve our ability to provide the correct doses to this high risk population. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • We offer infants with chronic lung disease - and their families - seamless, innovative care from initial evaluation and diagnosis, through treatment and long-term follow-up. (chop.edu)
  • Further high-quality studies are required in preterm infants or term newborn infants with thick meconium amniotic fluid. (cochrane.org)
  • Eight randomised controlled trials met the inclusion criteria and only included term infants (n = 4011). (cochrane.org)
  • Altered development of the insula and anterior cingulate cortex in newborns may represent early warning signs of preterm infants at greater risk for long-term neurodevelopmental impairments," Limperopoulos says. (eurekalert.org)
  • Development of newborn and infant vaccines. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Therefore, understanding and modeling age-specific human immune responses will be vital to the rational design and development of safe and effective vaccines for newborns and infants. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The purpose of this publication is expressed in the preface: "The death rate of infants from seven days to one year of age, in the United States registration area, has been reduced 53 per cent during the years of 1916 to 1934 inclusive. (annals.org)
  • You just viewed Newborn Care: The routine care of... . (merlot.org)
  • Infant mortality is the death of young children under the age of 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • This death toll is measured by the infant mortality rate (IMR), which is the probability of deaths of children under one year of age per 1000 live births. (wikipedia.org)
  • The under-five mortality rate, which is referred to as the child mortality rate, is also an important statistic, considering the infant mortality rate focuses only on children under one year of age. (wikipedia.org)
  • failed verification] Many environmental factors contribute to infant mortality, such as the mother's level of education, environmental conditions, and political and medical infrastructure. (wikipedia.org)
  • The child mortality rate, but not the infant mortality rate, was an indicator used to monitor progress towards the Fourth Goal of the Millennium Development Goals of the United Nations for the year 2015. (wikipedia.org)
  • Throughout the world, infant mortality rate (IMR) fluctuates drastically, and according to Biotechnology and Health Sciences, education and life expectancy in the country is the leading indicator of IMR. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neonatal mortality is newborn death occurring within 28 days postpartum. (wikipedia.org)
  • This accounts for 40-60% of infant mortality in developing countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Causes of infant mortality directly lead to the death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Greatest percentage reduction of infant mortality occurs in countries that already have low rates of infant mortality. (wikipedia.org)
  • It includes case studies.Newborn Care was written for healthcare workers providing special care for newborn infants in level 2 hospitals. (merlot.org)
  • All except one of the seriously ill infants, a fatal case, were transferred to other hospitals for treatment. (cdc.gov)
  • After the first fatal case occurred, the attending physicians suspected a toxic cause and therefore promptly performed exchange transfusions on each of the seriously ill infants who were subsequently transferred for medical care. (cdc.gov)
  • Some infants with recurrent ear infections, serious infections, chronic illness or a family history of hearing loss may develop hearing loss later in the first few years of life. (womenandinfants.org)
  • In 1969, Professor Abraham Towbin, M.D., reported on the results of a study he conducted at Harvard Medical School's department of neuropathology on spinal cord and brainstem injuries in newborn infants. (dynamicchiropractic.com)
  • This study is paving the way for continued research on how these models could help preterm newborn babies. (eurekalert.org)
  • The objectives of the current study were to update national estimates of infants with NBS disorders included on the RUSP and to compare these updated prevalence estimates with those previously reported. (cdc.gov)
  • The current study is based on data reported for 33 of the 35 disorders included on the RUSP among infants born during 2015-2017, the most recent years of available national data. (cdc.gov)
  • CIRP Note: This study reflects that DPNB reduces but does NOT eliminate the pain, stress, and trauma of neonatal circumcision in most but NOT all infants. (cirp.org)
  • The way a newborn enters the world and what they eat in the next six weeks afterward appear to play some role in what critters take up residence in their gut, found a new study. (forbes.com)
  • Infant deaths in Pudong, Shanghai, China: A retrospective study of the police data and comparison with the centre for disease control data. (annals.org)
  • 3 months of age is based on a single pharmacokinetic study in 20 infants from a single center. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This case study follows a 25-week infant transferred to the N/IICU at CHOP at 4 months for further management by the Newborn and Infant Chronic Lung Disease Program. (chop.edu)
  • Medical Xpress)-A new study from Karolinska Institutet indicates that the mode of delivery could make an imprint in the stem cells of the newborn infant. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Using the results of standard newborn profiles and blood tests, they identified a combination of six newborn characteristics and 19 metabolites that, together, created a vulnerability profile that reliably identified preterm babies at substantially increased risk for death and severe illness. (eurekalert.org)