Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Infant, Premature: A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.Infant, Newborn, Diseases: Diseases of newborn infants present at birth (congenital) or developing within the first month of birth. It does not include hereditary diseases not manifesting at birth or within the first 30 days of life nor does it include inborn errors of metabolism. Both HEREDITARY DISEASES and METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS are available as general concepts.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Infant Care: Care of infants in the home or institution.Infant, Premature, DiseasesInfant Food: Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.Infant Formula: Liquid formulations for the nutrition of infants that can substitute for BREAST MILK.Infant Behavior: Any observable response or action of a neonate or infant up through the age of 23 months.Infant Mortality: Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.Sudden Infant Death: The abrupt and unexplained death of an apparently healthy infant under one year of age, remaining unexplained after a thorough case investigation, including performance of a complete autopsy, examination of the death scene, and review of the clinical history. (Pediatr Pathol 1991 Sep-Oct;11(5):677-84)Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.Neonatal Screening: The identification of selected parameters in newborn infants by various tests, examinations, or other procedures. Screening may be performed by clinical or laboratory measures. A screening test is designed to sort out healthy neonates (INFANT, NEWBORN) from those not well, but the screening test is not intended as a diagnostic device, rather instead as epidemiologic.Infant, Low Birth Weight: An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.Infant, Very Low Birth Weight: An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1500 grams (3.3 lbs), regardless of gestational age.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Infant Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of infants.Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Infant, Extremely Low Birth Weight: An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1000 grams (2.2 lbs), regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE.Milk, HumanChild Development: The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.Birth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Intensive Care Units, Neonatal: Hospital units providing continuing surveillance and care to acutely ill newborn infants.Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn: A condition of the newborn marked by DYSPNEA with CYANOSIS, heralded by such prodromal signs as dilatation of the alae nasi, expiratory grunt, and retraction of the suprasternal notch or costal margins, mostly frequently occurring in premature infants, children of diabetic mothers, and infants delivered by cesarean section, and sometimes with no apparent predisposing cause.Infant, Small for Gestational Age: An infant having a birth weight lower than expected for its gestational age.Bottle Feeding: Use of nursing bottles for feeding. Applies to humans and animals.Infant, Extremely Premature: A human infant born before 28 weeks of GESTATION.Crying: To utter an inarticulate, characteristic sound in order to communicate or express a feeling, or desire for attention.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.Intensive Care, Neonatal: Continuous care and monitoring of newborn infants with life-threatening conditions, in any setting.Asphyxia Neonatorum: Respiratory failure in the newborn. (Dorland, 27th ed)Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: A chronic lung disease developed after OXYGEN INHALATION THERAPY or mechanical ventilation (VENTILATION, MECHANICAL) usually occurring in certain premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE) or newborn infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME, NEWBORN). Histologically, it is characterized by the unusual abnormalities of the bronchioles, such as METAPLASIA, decrease in alveolar number, and formation of CYSTS.Fetal Blood: Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.Jaundice, Neonatal: Yellow discoloration of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA in the NEWBORN. It is a sign of NEONATAL HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA. Most cases are transient self-limiting (PHYSIOLOGICAL NEONATAL JAUNDICE) occurring in the first week of life, but some can be a sign of pathological disorders, particularly LIVER DISEASES.Infant Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition, occurring in infants ages 1 month to 24 months.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Neonatology: A subspecialty of Pediatrics concerned with the newborn infant.Developmental Disabilities: Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)Maternal-Fetal Exchange: Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.Apgar Score: A method, developed by Dr. Virginia Apgar, to evaluate a newborn's adjustment to extrauterine life. Five items - heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and color - are evaluated 60 seconds after birth and again five minutes later on a scale from 0-2, 0 being the lowest, 2 being normal. The five numbers are added for the Apgar score. A score of 0-3 represents severe distress, 4-7 indicates moderate distress, and a score of 7-10 predicts an absence of difficulty in adjusting to extrauterine life.Term Birth: CHILDBIRTH at the end of a normal duration of PREGNANCY, between 37 to 40 weeks of gestation or about 280 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period.Nurseries, Hospital: Hospital facilities which provide care for newborn infants.Incubators, Infant: Electrically powered devices that are intended to assist in the maintenance of the thermal balance of infants, principally by controlling the air temperature and humidity in an enclosure. (from UMDNS, 1999)Perinatal Care: The care of women and a fetus or newborn given before, during, and after delivery from the 28th week of gestation through the 7th day after delivery.Enterocolitis, Necrotizing: ENTEROCOLITIS with extensive ulceration (ULCER) and NECROSIS. It is observed primarily in LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANT.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Apnea: A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.Sucking Behavior: Any suction exerted by the mouth; response of the mammalian infant to draw milk from the breast. Includes sucking on inanimate objects. Not to be used for thumb sucking, which is indexed under fingersucking.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Retinopathy of Prematurity: A bilateral retinopathy occurring in premature infants treated with excessively high concentrations of oxygen, characterized by vascular dilatation, proliferation, and tortuosity, edema, and retinal detachment, with ultimate conversion of the retina into a fibrous mass that can be seen as a dense retrolental membrane. Usually growth of the eye is arrested and may result in microophthalmia, and blindness may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)Infant Equipment: Equipment and furniture used by infants and babies in the home, car, and play area.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Maternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.Diarrhea, Infantile: DIARRHEA occurring in infants from newborn to 24-months old.Mother-Child Relations: Interaction between a mother and child.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Delivery, Obstetric: Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.Prenatal Care: Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.Growth: Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.Congenital Abnormalities: Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Maternal Age: The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.Leukomalacia, Periventricular: Degeneration of white matter adjacent to the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES following cerebral hypoxia or BRAIN ISCHEMIA in neonates. The condition primarily affects white matter in the perfusion zone between superficial and deep branches of the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY. Clinical manifestations include VISION DISORDERS; CEREBRAL PALSY; PARAPLEGIA; SEIZURES; and cognitive disorders. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1021; Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch4, pp30-1)Hearing Tests: Part of an ear examination that measures the ability of sound to reach the brain.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Hyaline Membrane Disease: A respiratory distress syndrome in newborn infants, usually premature infants with insufficient PULMONARY SURFACTANTS. The disease is characterized by the formation of a HYALINE-like membrane lining the terminal respiratory airspaces (PULMONARY ALVEOLI) and subsequent collapse of the lung (PULMONARY ATELECTASIS).Postnatal Care: The care provided to women and their NEWBORNS for the first few months following CHILDBIRTH.Immunity, Maternally-Acquired: Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.Prone Position: The posture of an individual lying face down.Neonatal Nursing: The nursing specialty that deals with the care of newborn infants during the first four weeks after birth.Meconium: The thick green-to-black mucilaginous material found in the intestines of a full-term fetus. It consists of secretions of the INTESTINAL GLANDS; BILE PIGMENTS; FATTY ACIDS; AMNIOTIC FLUID; and intrauterine debris. It constitutes the first stools passed by a newborn.Metabolism, Inborn Errors: Errors in metabolic processes resulting from inborn genetic mutations that are inherited or acquired in utero.Respiration, Artificial: Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).Ductus Arteriosus, Patent: A congenital heart defect characterized by the persistent opening of fetal DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS that connects the PULMONARY ARTERY to the descending aorta (AORTA, DESCENDING) allowing unoxygenated blood to bypass the lung and flow to the PLACENTA. Normally, the ductus is closed shortly after birth.Hyperbilirubinemia, Neonatal: Accumulation of BILIRUBIN, a breakdown product of HEME PROTEINS, in the BLOOD during the first weeks of life. This may lead to NEONATAL JAUNDICE. The excess bilirubin may exist in the unconjugated (indirect) or the conjugated (direct) form. The condition may be self-limiting (PHYSIOLOGICAL NEONATAL JAUNDICE) or pathological with toxic levels of bilirubin.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Phototherapy: Treatment of disease by exposure to light, especially by variously concentrated light rays or specific wavelengths.Maternal Exposure: Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.Birth Certificates: Official certifications by a physician recording the individual's birth date, place of birth, parentage and other required identifying data which are filed with the local registrar of vital statistics.Heart Defects, Congenital: Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Fetal Death: Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding: Hemorrhage caused by vitamin K deficiency.Maternal Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the mother.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Beds: Equipment on which one may lie and sleep, especially as used to care for the hospital patient.Premature Birth: CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).Fetal Growth Retardation: The failure of a FETUS to attain its expected FETAL GROWTH at any GESTATIONAL AGE.Bilirubin: A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.Colostrum: The thin, yellow, serous fluid secreted by the mammary glands during pregnancy and immediately postpartum before lactation begins. It consists of immunologically active substances, white blood cells, water, protein, fat, and carbohydrates.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Blood Specimen Collection: The taking of a blood sample to determine its character as a whole, to identify levels of its component cells, chemicals, gases, or other constituents, to perform pathological examination, etc.Child Psychology: The study of normal and abnormal behavior of children.Cesarean Section: Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.Congenital Hypothyroidism: A condition in infancy or early childhood due to an in-utero deficiency of THYROID HORMONES that can be caused by genetic or environmental factors, such as thyroid dysgenesis or HYPOTHYROIDISM in infants of mothers treated with THIOURACIL during pregnancy. Endemic cretinism is the result of iodine deficiency. Clinical symptoms include severe MENTAL RETARDATION, impaired skeletal development, short stature, and MYXEDEMA.Delivery Rooms: Hospital units equipped for childbirth.United StatesErythroblastosis, Fetal: A condition characterized by the abnormal presence of ERYTHROBLASTS in the circulation of the FETUS or NEWBORNS. It is a disorder due to BLOOD GROUP INCOMPATIBILITY, such as the maternal alloimmunization by fetal antigen RH FACTORS leading to HEMOLYSIS of ERYTHROCYTES, hemolytic anemia (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC), general edema (HYDROPS FETALIS), and SEVERE JAUNDICE IN NEWBORN.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Colic: A clinical syndrome with intermittent abdominal pain characterized by sudden onset and cessation that is commonly seen in infants. It is usually associated with obstruction of the INTESTINES; of the CYSTIC DUCT; or of the URINARY TRACT.Enteral Nutrition: Nutritional support given via the alimentary canal or any route connected to the gastrointestinal system (i.e., the enteral route). This includes oral feeding, sip feeding, and tube feeding using nasogastric, gastrostomy, and jejunostomy tubes.Parenteral Nutrition: The administering of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient who cannot maintain adequate nutrition by enteral feeding alone. Nutrients are administered by a route other than the alimentary canal (e.g., intravenously, subcutaneously).Body Height: The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.Postpartum Period: In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).Umbilical Cord: The flexible rope-like structure that connects a developing FETUS to the PLACENTA in mammals. The cord contains blood vessels which carry oxygen and nutrients from the mother to the fetus and waste products away from the fetus.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Asphyxia: A pathological condition caused by lack of oxygen, manifested in impending or actual cessation of life.Sleep: A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Cerebral Palsy: A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Head: The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Bronchiolitis: Inflammation of the BRONCHIOLES.Birth Injuries: Mechanical or anoxic trauma incurred by the infant during labor or delivery.Hyperbilirubinemia: A condition characterized by an abnormal increase of BILIRUBIN in the blood, which may result in JAUNDICE. Bilirubin, a breakdown product of HEME, is normally excreted in the BILE or further catabolized before excretion in the urine.Failure to Thrive: A condition of substandard growth or diminished capacity to maintain normal function.Language Development: The gradual expansion in complexity and meaning of symbols and sounds as perceived and interpreted by the individual through a maturational and learning process. Stages in development include babbling, cooing, word imitation with cognition, and use of short sentences.Anemia, Neonatal: The mildest form of erythroblastosis fetalis in which anemia is the chief manifestation.Bronchiolitis, Viral: An acute inflammatory disease of the lower RESPIRATORY TRACT, caused by paramyxoviruses, occurring primarily in infants and young children; the viruses most commonly implicated are PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS TYPE 3; RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS, HUMAN; and METAPNEUMOVIRUS.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Heel: The back (or posterior) of the FOOT in PRIMATES, found behind the ANKLE and distal to the TOES.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Kangaroo-Mother Care Method: A method of continuously holding a partially wrapped baby to the chest, involving skin-to-skin contact. Originally it was a method of caring for LOW-BIRTH-WEIGHT INFANT in developing countries and is now more widespread in developed nations. Aside from encouraging breast feeding, the extra sleep that the infant gets assists in regulating body temperature, helps the baby conserve energy, and redirects calorie expenditures toward growth and weight gain.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Infanticide: The killing of infants at birth or soon after.Kernicterus: A term used pathologically to describe BILIRUBIN staining of the BASAL GANGLIA; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM and clinically to describe a syndrome associated with HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA. Clinical features include athetosis, MUSCLE SPASTICITY or hypotonia, impaired vertical gaze, and DEAFNESS. Nonconjugated bilirubin enters the brain and acts as a neurotoxin, often in association with conditions that impair the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER (e.g., SEPSIS). This condition occurs primarily in neonates (INFANT, NEWBORN), but may rarely occur in adults. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p613)Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Fetal Diseases: Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.Maternal-Child Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to mothers and children.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections: Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of FETUSES.Transient Tachypnea of the Newborn: Abnormal increase in RESPIRATORY RATE in the newborn. It is self-limiting and attributed to the delayed fetal lung fluid clearance often in CAESAREAN SECTION delivery.Sepsis: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.Resuscitation: The restoration to life or consciousness of one apparently dead. (Dorland, 27th ed)Syphilis, Congenital: Syphilis acquired in utero and manifested by any of several characteristic tooth (Hutchinson's teeth) or bone malformations and by active mucocutaneous syphilis at birth or shortly thereafter. Ocular and neurologic changes may also occur.Oxygen Inhalation Therapy: Inhalation of oxygen aimed at restoring toward normal any pathophysiologic alterations of gas exchange in the cardiopulmonary system, as by the use of a respirator, nasal catheter, tent, chamber, or mask. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.Pregnancy Trimester, Third: The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.Hyperoxia: An abnormal increase in the amount of oxygen in the tissues and organs.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Food, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Stillbirth: The event that a FETUS is born dead or stillborn.Echoencephalography: Use of reflected ultrasound in the diagnosis of intracranial pathologic processes.Object Attachment: Emotional attachment to someone or something in the environment.Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Home Childbirth: Childbirth taking place in the home.Pacifiers: Devices that babies can suck on when they are not feeding. The extra sucking can be comforting to the babies and pacify them. Pacifiers usually are used as a substitute for the thumb in babies who suck on their thumb or fingers almost constantly.Perinatology: The branch of medicine dealing with the fetus and infant during the perinatal period. The perinatal period begins with the twenty-eighth week of gestation and ends twenty-eight days after birth. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Hospitals, Maternity: Special hospitals which provide care to women during pregnancy and parturition.Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Pregnancy in Diabetics: The state of PREGNANCY in women with DIABETES MELLITUS. This does not include either symptomatic diabetes or GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE induced by pregnancy (DIABETES, GESTATIONAL) which resolves at the end of pregnancy.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Pulmonary Surfactants: Substances and drugs that lower the SURFACE TENSION of the mucoid layer lining the PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Exchange Transfusion, Whole Blood: Repetitive withdrawal of small amounts of blood and replacement with donor blood until a large proportion of the blood volume has been exchanged. Used in treatment of fetal erythroblastosis, hepatic coma, sickle cell anemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, septicemia, burns, thrombotic thrombopenic purpura, and fulminant malaria.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain: A disorder characterized by a reduction of oxygen in the blood combined with reduced blood flow (ISCHEMIA) to the brain from a localized obstruction of a cerebral artery or from systemic hypoperfusion. Prolonged hypoxia-ischemia is associated with ISCHEMIC ATTACK, TRANSIENT; BRAIN INFARCTION; BRAIN EDEMA; COMA; and other conditions.Prenatal Diagnosis: Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the postimplantation EMBRYO; FETUS; or pregnant female before birth.Animals, Suckling: Young, unweaned mammals. Refers to nursing animals whether nourished by their biological mother, foster mother, or bottle fed.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Anemia, Iron-Deficiency: Anemia characterized by decreased or absent iron stores, low serum iron concentration, low transferrin saturation, and low hemoglobin concentration or hematocrit value. The erythrocytes are hypochromic and microcytic and the iron binding capacity is increased.Hearing Loss: A general term for the complete or partial loss of the ability to hear from one or both ears.Abnormalities, MultipleLung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Oximetry: The determination of oxygen-hemoglobin saturation of blood either by withdrawing a sample and passing it through a classical photoelectric oximeter or by electrodes attached to some translucent part of the body like finger, earlobe, or skin fold. It includes non-invasive oxygen monitoring by pulse oximetry.Temperament: Predisposition to react to one's environment in a certain way; usually refers to mood changes.BrazilSensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Respiratory Sounds: Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.Ductus Arteriosus: A fetal blood vessel connecting the pulmonary artery with the descending aorta.Cerebral Ventricles: Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).Toxoplasmosis, Congenital: Prenatal protozoal infection with TOXOPLASMA gondii which is associated with injury to the developing fetal nervous system. The severity of this condition is related to the stage of pregnancy during which the infection occurs; first trimester infections are associated with a greater degree of neurologic dysfunction. Clinical features include HYDROCEPHALUS; MICROCEPHALY; deafness; cerebral calcifications; SEIZURES; and psychomotor retardation. Signs of a systemic infection may also be present at birth, including fever, rash, and hepatosplenomegaly. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p735)Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.Fetal Macrosomia: A condition of fetal overgrowth leading to a large-for-gestational-age FETUS. It is defined as BIRTH WEIGHT greater than 4,000 grams or above the 90th percentile for population and sex-specific growth curves. It is commonly seen in GESTATIONAL DIABETES; PROLONGED PREGNANCY; and pregnancies complicated by pre-existing diabetes mellitus.Infant, Postmature: An infant born at or after 42 weeks of gestation.Cerebral Hemorrhage: Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine: A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.BangladeshAnoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Streptococcus agalactiae: A bacterium which causes mastitis in cattle and occasionally in man.Placenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).Hepatitis B Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.Umbilicus: The pit in the center of the ABDOMINAL WALL marking the point where the UMBILICAL CORD entered in the FETUS.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)

Increased insensible water loss in newborn infants nursed under radiant heaters. (1/48457)

Urine osmolality was studied in 38 babies nursed in conventional incubators or cots and 18 nursed under an overhead radiant heat shield. Among 50 babies receiving a similar fluid intake in the first 48 hours of life mean urinary osmolality was significantly higher in the radiant heater group. In babies weighing less than 1500 g a trend towards higher urinary osmolalities was recorded in those nursed under radiant heaters even though they had received amost double the fluid intake of the incubator group. Severe hypernatraemia occurred in four of the five babies weighing less than 1000 g who were nursed under radiant heaters but in none of the seven babies of similar birth weight nursed in incubators. These findings are consistent with previous observations of an increase in insensible water loss in babies nursed under radiant heaters and emphasise the importance of providing enough extra water for these infants and the need for close monitoring of their fluid balance. The latter may be done at the bedside by measuring urinary specific gravity with a hand refractometer.  (+info)

New perspectives on biliary atresia. (2/48457)

An investigation into the aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment of biliary atresia was carried out because the prognosis remains so poor.In an electron microscopical study no viral particles or viral inclusion bodies were seen, nor were any specific ultrastructural features observed. An animal experiment suggested that obstruction within the biliary tract of newborn rabbits could be produced by maternal intravenous injection of the bile acid lithocholic acid.A simple and atraumatic method of diagnosis was developed using(99) (m)Tc-labelled compounds which are excreted into bile. Two compounds, (99m)Tc-pyridoxylidene glutamate ((99m)Tc-PG) and (99m)Tc-dihydrothioctic acid ((99m)Tc-DHT) were first assessed in normal piglets and piglets with complete biliary obstruction. Intestinal imaging correlated with biliary tract patency, and the same correlation was found in jaundiced human adults, in whom the (99m)Tc-PG scan correctly determined biliary patency in 21 out of 24 cases. The (99m)Tc-PG scan compared well with liver biopsy and (131)I-Rose Bengal in the diagnosis of 11 infants with prolonged jaundice.A model of extrahepatic biliary atresia was developed in the newborn piglet so that different methods of bile drainage could be assessed. Priorities in biliary atresia lie in a better understanding of the aetiology and early diagnosis rather than in devising new bile drainage procedures.  (+info)

Perinatal nephropathies. (3/48457)

The purpose of this paper is to review the development of the mammalian kidney and to assess the influence that various perinatal manipulations may have on the developmental process either morphologically or functionally. Immature kidneys in general have less functional capacity than adult kidneys and a low rate of glomerular filtration, perhaps related to renal blood flow, which appears to limit the disposition of a fluid or solute load. Tubular reabsorption is also limited leading to the urinary loss of glucose, amino acids, bicarbonate and phosphate. Although the relatively low function of the immature kidney is a normal part of development, its capacity to respond under conditions of stress may be less adequate than in adults. An additional concern is that a variety of perinatal manipulations, such as the incidental or accidental ingestion of a chemical, may lead to varying degrees of altered morphogenesis or functional development of the kidney. Chemical induced renal anomalies may be of several types, but in typical teratology experiments hydronephrosis may be the most frequent observation. The functional consequences of these renal malformations may be lethal or inconsequential or while an animal may be able to survive and develop normally in the presence of a renal malformation, it is possible that a stressful situation would unmask a functional malformation which could compromise survival. Thus, some renal abnormalities may be subtle enough to go unnoticed without experimental tests. Without such tests it is impossible to evaluate the effect of functional alterations on successful adaptation.  (+info)

Hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation for the treatment of severe combined immunodeficiency. (4/48457)

BACKGROUND: Since 1968 it has been known that bone marrow transplantation can ameliorate severe combined immunodeficiency, but data on the long-term efficacy of this treatment are limited. We prospectively studied immunologic function in 89 consecutive infants with severe combined immunodeficiency who received hematopoietic stem-cell transplants at Duke University Medical Center between May 1982 and September 1998. METHODS: Serum immunoglobulin levels and lymphocyte phenotypes and function were assessed and genetic analyses performed according to standard methods. Bone marrow was depleted of T cells by agglutination with soybean lectin and by sheep-erythrocyte rosetting before transplantation. RESULTS: Seventy-seven of the infants received T-cell-depleted, HLA-haploidentical parental marrow, and 12 received HLA-identical marrow from a related donor; 3 of the recipients of haploidentical marrow also received placental-blood transplants from unrelated donors. Except for two patients who received placental blood, none of the recipients received chemotherapy before transplantation or prophylaxis against graft-versus-host disease. Of the 89 infants, 72 (81 percent) were still alive 3 months to 16.5 years after transplantation, including all of the 12 who received HLA-identical marrow, 60 of the 77 (78 percent) who were given haploidentical marrow, and 2 of the 3 (67 percent) who received both haploidentical marrow and placental blood. T-cell function became normal within two weeks after transplantation in the patients who received unfractionated HLA-identical marrow but usually not until three to four months after transplantation in those who received T-cell-depleted marrow. At the time of the most recent evaluation, all but 4 of the 72 survivors had normal T-cell function, and all the T cells in their blood were of donor origin. B-cell function remained abnormal in many of the recipients of haploidentical marrow. In 26 children (5 recipients of HLA-identical marrow and 21 recipients of haploidentical marrow) between 2 percent and 100 percent of B cells were of donor origin. Forty-five of the 72 children were receiving intravenous immune globulin. CONCLUSIONS: Transplantation of marrow from a related donor is a life-saving and life-sustaining treatment for patients with any type of severe combined immunodeficiency, even when there is no HLA-identical donor.  (+info)

Cocaine metabolite kinetics in the newborn. (5/48457)

The study goal was to determine the half-life elimination of cocaine and benzoylecgonine (BZE) in the newborn. Three 0.3-mL blood samples were collected during the first day of life. Urine was collected once daily. Cocaine and BZE concentrations were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. An extraction method was developed for measuring low concentrations of cocaine and BZE in small (0.1 mL) blood samples. Cocaine had a half-life of 11.6 h in one subject. The half-life of BZE during the first day of life, based on blood data in 13 subjects, was 16 h (95% confidence interval [CI], 12.8 to 21.4 h). The half-life of BZE during the first week of life, based on urine data in 16 subjects, was 11.2 h (95% CI, 10.1 to 11.8 h). The novel extraction method for small blood sample volumes should be applicable to other basic drugs.  (+info)

Activation of alveolar macrophages in lung injury associated with experimental acute pancreatitis is mediated by the liver. (6/48457)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate (1) whether alveolar macrophages are activated as a consequence of acute pancreatitis (AP), (2) the implication of inflammatory factors released by these macrophages in the process of neutrophil migration into the lungs observed in lung injury induced by AP, and (3) the role of the liver in the activation of alveolar macrophages. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Acute lung injury is the extrapancreatic complication most frequently associated with death and complications in severe AP. Neutrophil infiltration into the lungs seems to be related to the release of systemic and local mediators. The liver and alveolar macrophages are sources of mediators that have been suggested to participate in the lung damage associated with AP. METHODS: Pancreatitis was induced in rats by intraductal administration of 5% sodium taurocholate. The inflammatory process in the lung and the activation of alveolar macrophages were investigated in animals with and without portocaval shunting 3 hours after AP induction. Alveolar macrophages were obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage. The generation of nitric oxide, leukotriene B4, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and MIP-2 by alveolar macrophages and the chemotactic activity of supernatants of cultured macrophages were evaluated. RESULTS: Pancreatitis was associated with increased infiltration of neutrophils into the lungs 3 hours after induction. This effect was prevented by the portocaval shunt. Alveolar macrophages obtained after induction of pancreatitis generated increased levels of nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and MIP-2, but not leukotriene B4. In addition, supernatants of these macrophages exhibited a chemotactic activity for neutrophils when instilled into the lungs of unmanipulated animals. All these effects were abolished when portocaval shunting was carried out before induction of pancreatitis. CONCLUSION: Lung damage induced by experimental AP is associated with alveolar macrophage activation. The liver mediates the alveolar macrophage activation in this experimental model.  (+info)

Exposure to nitrogen dioxide and the occurrence of bronchial obstruction in children below 2 years. (7/48457)

BACKGROUND: The objective of the investigation was to test the hypothesis that exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) has a causal influence on the occurrence of bronchial obstruction in children below 2 years of age. METHODS: A nested case-control study with 153 one-to-one matched pairs was conducted within a cohort of 3754 children born in Oslo in 1992/93. Cases were children who developed > or = 2 episodes of bronchial obstruction or one episode lasting >4 weeks. Controls were matched for date of birth. Exposure measurements were performed in the same 14-day period within matched pairs. The NO2 exposure was measured with personal samplers carried close to each child and by stationary samplers outdoors and indoors. RESULTS: Few children (4.6%) were exposed to levels of NO2 > or = 30 microg/m3 (average concentration during a 14-day period). In the 153 matched pairs, the mean level of NO2 was 15.65 microg/m3 (+/-0.60, SE) among cases and 15.37 (+/-0.54) among controls (paired t = 0.38, P = 0.71). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that NO2 exposure at levels observed in this study has no detectable effect on the risk of developing bronchial obstruction in children below 2 years of age.  (+info)

A method for calculating age-weighted death proportions for comparison purposes. (8/48457)

OBJECTIVE: To introduce a method for calculating age-weighted death proportions (wDP) for comparison purposes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A methodological study using secondary data from the municipality of Sao Paulo, Brazil (1980-1994) was carried out. First, deaths are weighted in terms of years of potential life lost before the age of 100 years. Then, in order to eliminate distortion of comparisons among proportions of years of potential life lost before the age of 100 years (pYPLL-100), the denominator is set to that of a standard age distribution of deaths for all causes. Conventional death proportions (DP), pYPLL-100, and wDP were calculated. RESULTS: Populations in which deaths from a particular cause occur at older ages exhibit lower wDP than those in which deaths occur at younger ages. The sum of all cause-specific wDP equals one only when the test population has exactly the same age distribution of deaths for all causes as that of the standard population. CONCLUSION: Age-weighted death proportions improve the information given by conventional DP, and are strongly recommended for comparison purposes.  (+info)

*Gynoid fat distribution

"The Role of DHA and ARA in Infant Nutrition and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes". www.todaysdietitian.com. Retrieved 2016-03-17. ... as they have been suggested to aid early brain development in foetuses and newborns. The most notable fatty acids found in ... both to provide adequate energy resources during pregnancy and for the infant during the stage in which they are breastfeeding ...

*Swaddling

... a study on temperature in newborn infants, subjected to different ward routines in St. Petersburg. In: Acta Pædiatr, 92, S. 320 ... Babywearing Childbirth Infant massage Infant's binder Kangaroo care Psychohistory Sleeping bag (infant) Gerard, Claudia M.; ... The swaddling of these premature babies (very low birth weight infants, VLBW infants) takes place only very loosely. It is ... 2002). See also Task Force on Infant Sleep Position and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (2000), p. 654. See Yurdakok et al. (1990 ...

*Baby food

Newborns need a diet of breastmilk or infant formula. About 40% of the food energy in these milks comes from carbohydrates, ... 2 to 3 meals per day for infants 6 to 8 months of age and 3 to 4 meals per day for infants 9 to 23 months of age, with 1 or 2 ... making them ideal starter foods for an infant 6 months in age or older. Through the first year, breastmilk or infant formula is ... The baby may have eaten as little as one small bite of infant cereal, or even as little as one small bite of a food that ...

*Complications of pregnancy

The infant may be seriously affected and have a variety of birth defects. Many women with Hashimoto's disease develop an ... are among those commonly seen in infection of newborns. There have been rare but known cases of intra-uterine bleeding caused ... Other investigations have revealed short-term neonatal outcomes to include small deficits in infant neurobehavioral function ... and growth restriction when compared to control infants. Also, prenatal methamphetamine use is believed to have long-term ...

*Safe to Sleep

In 1987 the Netherlands started a campaign advising parents to place their newborn infants to sleep on their backs (supine ... Studies have shown that preterm infants, full-term infants, and older infants have greater time periods of quiet sleep and also ... respiratory rate and motor activity in fullterm newborn infants". Brain Dev. 13 (3): 148-54. doi:10.1016/S0387-7604(12)80020-9 ... compared to infants who sleep on their stomachs. In human infants sleep develops rapidly during early development. This ...

*Sudden infant death syndrome

Newborn care and safety Sudden unexpected death syndrome Sudden unexplained death in childhood "Sudden Infant Death Syndrome ( ... J Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Infant Mortal. 1: 13-31. Mage DT, Donner M. A genetic basis for the sudden infant death syndrome ... "Sudden Unexpected Infant Death and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: About SUID and SIDS". Centers for Disease Control and ... Limited evidence suggested swaddling risk increased with infant age and was associated with a twofold risk for infants aged >6 ...

*Neonatal stroke

Nelson, KB; Lynch, JK (March 2004). "Stroke in newborn infants". Lancet Neurology. 3 (3): 150-8. doi:10.1016/s1474-4422(04) ... Of the infants that survive, there may be as many as 1 million a year that develop cerebral palsy, learning difficulties or ... Many infants who suffer a neonatal stroke also follow an uncomplicated pregnancy and delivery without identifiable risk factors ... They found a lack of detectable side effects in newborn rodents and dogs. This may be a useful treatment in combination with ...

*Michael B. Bracken

Bracken co-edited his second book titled Effective Care of the Newborn Infant with John C. Sinclair published in 1992 by Oxford ... Effective care of the newborn infant. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press; 1992. ISBN 978-0192617378. Bracken MB. Risk, ... Effective care of the newborn infant. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press; 1992. ISBN 978-0192617378. Dickersin K, Straus ... newborns and infants. His more recent projects have involved air quality and children with asthma and susceptibility genes for ...

*Hypothermia

Chaput de Saintonge DM, Cross KW, Shathorn MK, Lewis SR, Stothers JK (September 2, 1979). "Hats for the newborn infant" (PDF). ... Infants with hypothermia may feel cold when touched, with bright red skin and an unusual lack of energy. Symptoms of mild ... However, heat loss from the head is significant in infants, whose head is larger relative to the rest of the body than in ... Stothers JK (1981). "Head insulation and heat loss in the newborn". British Medical Journal, Archives of Disease in Childhood. ...

*Ordinal numerical competence

Izard, Veronique; Coralie Sann; Elizabeth S. Spelke; Arlette Streri; Charles R. Gallistel (2009). "Newborn Infants Perceive ... There have been a vast number of studies done on infants and their knowledge of numbers. Most research confirms that infants do ... Infants as young as 49 hours can accurately match up images with a certain amount of objects, with sounds that contain the same ... Similarly, infants around the age of 7 months can also match up images of random objects. Although children as young as 49 ...

*Numeracy

"Newborn infants perceive abstract numbers". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 106 (25): 10382-5. doi:10.1073/ ... When allowed to choose a cup, the infant always chose the cup with more crackers because the infant could distinguish the ... In one study for example, five-month-old infants were shown two dolls, which were then hidden with a screen. The babies saw the ... When the screen was removed, the infants showed more surprise at an unexpected number (for example, if there were still two ...

*Vernix caseosa

Potential role in waterproofing the newborn infant". Skin Research and Technology. 7 (1): 10-7. doi:10.1034/j.1600-0846.2001. ... Vernix of term infants has more squalene and a higher wax ester to sterol ester ratio than preterm infants. Comparison of lipid ... Vernix on a newborn's legs and feet. Traces of vernix caseosa on a full term newborn. Closeup of baby's face right after birth ... Vernix caseosa, also known as vernix, is the waxy or cheese-like white substance found coating the skin of newborn human babies ...

*Gingival cyst

... often seen in the median palatal raphe of the mouth of newborn infants (occur in 60-85% of newborns). They are typically seen ... Depending on the ages in which they develop, the cysts are classsfied into gingival cyst of newborn (or infant) and gingival ... Singh, RK; Kumar, R; Pandey, RK; Singh, K (2012). "Dental lamina cysts in a newborn infant". BMJ Case Reports (bcr2012007061). ... Gingival Cyst of Adult and Newborn at JuniorDentist.com Gingival Cyst of Adult at The University of Iowa College of Dentistry ...

*Averageness

1998). "Newborn infants prefer attractive faces". Infant Behav. Dev.. 21: 345-354. doi:10.1016/s0163-6383(98)90011-x. Kramer, S ... Kalakanis estimated that newborns see between 5 and 10 faces before they leave hospital in the USA. Thus, after 72 hours, they ... Kalakanis L. (1997) "Newborn preferences for attractive faces". Doctoral Thesis. University of Texas at Austin. Alley, T.R.; ... Adults and infants organize and consolidate sensory information into categories (e.g. "trees", "chairs", "dogs", "automobiles ...

*Beauty

1998). "Newborn infants prefer attractive faces." Infant Behav. Dev. 21, 345-354. Kramer, S., Zebrowitz, L.A., San Giovanni, J. ... Retrieved February 13, 2012 Langlois, J.H., Ritter, J.M., Roggman, L.A., Vaughn, L.S. (1991). "Facial diversity and infant ... Strauss, M.S. (1979). "Abstraction of prototypical information by adults and 10-month-old infants." J. Exp. Psychol.: Human ... Rubenstein, A.J, Kalakanis, L., Langlois, J.H. (1999). Infant preferences for attractive faces: a cognitive explanation. Dev. ...

*Anthony Costello

1999: Improving Newborn Infant Health in Developing Countries. Imperial and World Scientific Press. 1999 2004: Effect of a ... In 1999 he published a pioneering book on how to improve newborn infant health in developing countries. With a Nepali ... is a British paediatrician best known for his work on improving survival among mothers and their newborn infants in poor ... Newborn and Child Health to introduce evidence-based interventions to improve quality of care for maternal and newborn health ...

*Razia Rahimtoola

"Book: Metabolic Processes in the Foetus and Newborn Infant". Google Books. Retrieved 23 August 2016. "Illustrated Weekly of ... "Metabolic Processes in the Foetus and Newborn Infant". Google Books. Retrieved 23 August 2016. "Obituary". JPMA. Retrieved 23 ... Razia Rahimtoola was noted as a 'teacher to remember' for her detailed studies on infant and child nutrition. Professor ... Congenital abnormalities in the new-born, Thalassaemia and other hematological disorders in children, Cerebral Palsy in ...

*Jocasta

... handed the newborn infant over to Laius. Jocasta or Laius pierced and pinned the infant's ankles together. Laius ... Laius's shepherd took pity on the infant and gave him to another shepherd in the employ of King Polybus of Corinth. Childless, ... Polybus and his Queen, Merope (according to Sophocles, or Periboea according to Pseudo-Apollodorus), raised the infant to ... instructed his chief shepherd, a slave who had been born in the palace, to expose the infant on Mount Cithaeron. ...

*Gross motor skill

Newborn infants cannot voluntarily control their posture. Within a few weeks, though, they can hold their heads erect, and soon ... Infants can start to sit up by themselves and put some weight on their legs as they hold onto something for support by six ... Infants in the second year have a discordant use of hip and shoulder while walking, which is closer to an adult walking pattern ... Infants need to control the heads to stabilize their gaze and to track moving objects. They also must have strength and balance ...

*Lactation

Newborn infants often produce some witch's milk. Galactorrhea is milk production unrelated to nursing. It can occur in males ... A poor milk ejection reflex can be due to sore or cracked nipples, separation from the infant, a history of breast surgery, or ... Low supply can often be traced to: not feeding or pumping often enough inability of the infant to transfer milk effectively ... Bose, C.; D'ercole, A.; Lester, A.; Hunter, R.; Barrett, J. (1981). "Relactation by mothers of sick and premature infants". ...

*István Winkler

"Newborn infants detect the beat in music" (18-02-2009) a-ne-na, video Reflections to his article „Newborn Infants Detect the ... "Newborn infants detect the beat in music", 18 January 2009 (For the full text article see the homepage of PNAS) "Newborn ... "Newborn infants detect the beat in music" from István Winkler; Gábor P. Haden; Olivia Ladining; István Sziller; Henkjan Honing ... In 2009, together with Henkjan Honing, he showed that newborn infants already have a sense of rhythm. These results suggest ...

*Neonatal withdrawal

Though the use of alcohol by the mother before birth can cause serious long-term effects in her newborn, the infant may also be ... "Opiate treatment for opiate withdrawal in newborn infants". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (3): CD002059. doi:10.1002/14651858. ... "Sedatives for opiate withdrawal in newborn infants". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (3): CD002053. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD002053. ... An infant withdrawing from methadone can have sleeping difficulties, seizures and a higher risk of dying from Sudden infant ...

*Entrainment (biomusicology)

Winkler, István; Haden, Gabor; Ladinig, Olivia; Sziller, Istvan; Honing, Henkjan (2009), "Newborn infants detect the beat in ... Newborn infants detect the beat in music.. ...

*Henkjan Honing

doi 10.1016/B978-0-12-381460-9.00009-2 Winkler, I.; Haden, G.; Ladinig, O.; Sziller, I.; Honing, H. (2009). "Newborn infants ... "Newborn infants detect the beat in music" Additional information to "Rhesus monkeys do not sense the beat". ...

*Euthanasia and the slippery slope

Nov 2005). "When newborn infants are bound to die". Acta Paediatr. 94 (11): 1535-7. doi:10.1080/08035250500340412. PMID ... Duff and Campbell had presented an argument for the selective non-treatment of newborns suffering from serious defects. In ... if there is any justification at all for what Duff and Campbell propose for newborns then there is better justification for a ... which has allowed for non-voluntary euthanasia of severely deformed newborns. Lewis notes that the focus has been on voluntary ...

*Lucey-Driscoll syndrome

The common cause is congenital, but it can also be caused by maternal steroids passed on through breast milk to the newborn. It ... is different from breast feeding-associated jaundice (breast-fed infants have higher bilirubin levels than formula-fed ones). A ...

*History of virology

Bishop RF, Cameron DJ, Barnes GL, Holmes IH, Ruck BJ (1976). "The aetiology of diarrhoea in newborn infants". Ciba Foundation ...
The hospital stay of the mother and her healthy term newborn infant should be long enough to allow identification of problems and to ensure that the mother is sufficiently recovered and prepared to care for herself and her newborn at home. The length of stay should be based on the unique characteristics of each mother-infant dyad, including the health of the mother, the health and stability of the newborn, the ability and confidence of the mother to care for herself and her newborn, the adequacy of support systems at home, and access to appropriate follow-up care in a medical home. Input from the mother and her obstetrical care provider should be considered before a decision to discharge a newborn is made, and all efforts should be made to keep a mother and her newborn together to ensure simultaneous discharge. ...
Definition of congenital disease in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is congenital disease? Meaning of congenital disease as a legal term. What does congenital disease mean in law?
Moore ER, Anderson GC, Bergman N, Dowswell T. Early skin-to-skin contact for mothers and their healthy newborn infants. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012, Issue 5. Art. No.: CD003519. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003519.pub3. ...
Papers relating to the Open Study of Infants at high risk of or with Respiratory Insufficiency (OSIRIS) trial of surfactant. Background information, datasheets, journal articles, list of participating centres, agenda and lists of attendees of collaborators meetings. VHS tape on background and procedures, slides, and template documents related to the trial. ...
Between September 20, 1993 and September 20, 1994, a total of 13 560 live births were delivered at the CSPC. Of them, 3350 (24.7%) corresponded to LBW infants (birth weight ≤2500 g). A total of 1084 (8%) live newborn infants weighing ≤2000 g were assessed and followed to determine eligibility. A total of 307 (28%) infants were declared ineligible before randomization for reasons such dying before eligibility (160 infants, 15%); major malformation and dimorphic syndromes (7 infants, 1.5%); early detection of severe sequel of neonatal conditions including cerebral palsy, severe encephalopathy, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, etc (29 infants, 6.1%); referral to other institutions because of insufficient number of beds (131 infants, 12%); and other reasons (10 infants, 2.1%). The remaining 777 (72%) were randomized to one of the two interventions. Thirty-one infants were subsequently withdrawn, leaving only 746 in the study. These withdrawals were necessary because some of the conditions that ...
2015 by Thieme Medical ublishers, Inc., 333 Seventh Avenue, ew York, NY 10001, USA. Background We previously reported on the overall incidence, management, and outcomes in infants with cardiovascular insufficiency (CVI). However, there are limited data on the relationship of the specific different definitions of CVI to short-term outcomes in term and late preterm newborn infants. Objective This study aims to evaluate how four definitions of CVI relate to short-term outcomes and death. Study Design The previously reported study was a multicenter, prospective cohort study of 647 infants ≥ 34 weeks gestation admitted to a Neonatal Research Network (NRN) newborn intensive care unit (NICU) and mechanically ventilated (MV) during their first 72 hours. The relationship of five short-term outcomes at discharge and four different definitions of CVI were further analyzed. Results All the four definitions were associated with greater number of days on MV and days on O2. The definition using a threshold ...
OBJECTIVE: To compare the need for positive pressure ventilation (PPV) by bag and mask and by bag and endotracheal tube in newly born term infants with vertex presentation delivered by non-urgent caesarean section under regional anaesthesia or non-in
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This study will evaluate the safety and PKs of RAL given to HIV-1-exposed newborn infants at risk of acquiring HIV-1 infection. The study also seeks to determine the appropriate dosing regimen of RAL that can be safely given to infants in the first 6 weeks of life.. The study will enroll 50 mother-infant pairs. Mothers will be followed until discharge from the labor and delivery unit, and infants will be followed for 24 weeks after birth. Infants will be assigned non-randomly to 1 of 2 cohorts. Each cohort will include two groups of infants: a RAL-naïve group including infants born to mothers who did not receive RAL before delivery, and a RAL-exposed group including infants born to mothers who received at least one dose of RAL within 2 to 24 hours before delivery.. A minimum of 12 infants will be enrolled into Cohort 1. All infants in Cohort 1 will receive RAL as oral granules for suspension as a single dose within 48 hours of birth, in addition to standard of care ARV drugs for PMTCT, and a ...
This study will evaluate the safety and PKs of RAL given to HIV-1-exposed newborn infants at risk of acquiring HIV-1 infection. The study also seeks to determine the appropriate dosing regimen of RAL that can be safely given to infants in the first 6 weeks of life.. The study will enroll 50 mother-infant pairs. Mothers will be followed until discharge from the labor and delivery unit, and infants will be followed for 24 weeks after birth. Infants will be assigned non-randomly to 1 of 2 cohorts. Each cohort will include two groups of infants: a RAL-naïve group including infants born to mothers who did not receive RAL before delivery, and a RAL-exposed group including infants born to mothers who received at least one dose of RAL within 2 to 24 hours before delivery.. A minimum of 12 infants will be enrolled into Cohort 1. All infants in Cohort 1 will receive RAL as oral granules for suspension as a single dose within 48 hours of birth, in addition to standard of care ARV drugs for PMTCT, and a ...
Blood volume and haemoglobin (Hb) levels are increased by delayed umbilical cord clamping, which has been reported to improve clinical outcomes of preterm infants. The objective was to determine whether Hb level at birth was associated with short term outcomes in preterm infants born at ≤32 weeks gestation. Data were collected retrospectively from electronic records: Standardised Electronic Neonatal Database, Electronic Patient Record, Pathology (WinPath), and Blood Bank Electronic Database. The study was conducted in a tertiary perinatal centre with around 5,500 deliveries and a neonatal unit admission of 750 infants per year. All inborn preterm infants of 23 to 32 weeks gestational age (GA) admitted to the neonatal unit from January 2006 to September 2012 were included. The primary outcomes were intra-ventricular haemorrhage, necrotising entero-colitis, broncho-pulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity, and death before discharge. The secondary outcomes were receiving blood transfusion and
Structured observation of motor performance (SOMP-1) applied to preterm and full term infants who needed neonatal intensive care. A cross-sectional analysis of progress and quality of motor performanc ...
Bernbaum 1983 was a single-centre RCT that included 30 preterm infants with a mean gestational age of 31.5 weeks, weight of less than 1500 grams and mean postnatal age of 10 days. Eligible infants had a birth weight of less than 1500 grams; did not need a surgical intervention or further management from the intensive care team at the time nasogastric feeding commenced; and had no seizures, central nervous system (CNS) haemorrhages or cardiac or pulmonary diseases. The trial excluded infants if they were small for gestational age.. Collins 2004 was a multicentre RCT that included 319 preterm infants with mean birth weight of 1325 grams in the cup and no NNS group, 1508 grams in the bottle no NNS group, 1344 grams in the cup and NNS group, and 1382 g in the bottle and NNS group. Authors did not report postnatal age. Inclusion criteria were women with singleton or twin infants of less than 34 weeks gestation who wanted to breast feed. The trial excluded infants with congenital abnormalities ...
In this study, we confirmed our hypotheses that infants who were breastfed less intensively during early infancy had increased odds of having excess weight in late infancy. Regardless of bottle contents, infants who often emptied their bottles in early infancy also had increased odds of having excess weight in late infancy, relative to those who rarely emptied their bottles. However, we also unexpectedly found that maternal encouragement of bottle emptying was negatively associated with infants risk for excess weight.. Previous studies have suggested 2 main possible mechanisms for why breastfeeding may protect against childhood obesity. First, the properties of breast milk and/or metabolic programming attributable to infant feeding mode may reduce the risk of becoming obese. Two hormones related to the etiology of childhood obesity are leptin and adiponectin, which are found in breast milk but not in infant formulas.26,27 Leptin may help regulate appetite and energy metabolism, and adiponectin ...
Eight randomised controlled trials met the inclusion criteria and only included term infants (n = 4011). Five studies included infants with no fetal distress and clear amniotic fluid, one large study included vigorous infants with clear or meconium-stained amniotic fluid, and two large studies included infants with thin or thick meconium-stained amniotic fluid. Overall, there was no statistical difference between oro/nasopharyngeal suction and no oro/nasopharyngeal suction for all reported outcomes: mortality (typical RR 2.29, 95% CI 0.94 to 5.53; typical RD 0.01, 95% CI -0.00 to 0.01; I2 = 0%, studies = 2, participants = 3023), need for resuscitation (typical RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.69 to 1.06; typical RD -0.01, 95% CI -0.03 to 0.00; I2 = 0%, studies = 5, participants = 3791), admission to NICU (typical RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.62 to 1.08; typical RD -0.03, 95% CI -0.08 to 0.01; I2 = 27%, studies = 2, participants = 997) and Apgar scores at five minutes (MD -0.03, 95% CI -0.08 to 0.02; I2 not estimated, ...
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3865 consecutive newborns delivered between 2/1/91 and 7/31/93 were prospectively studied. All the neonates received a physical examination during the first 24 hours of life. Major congenital anomalies (MCA) were found in 64 newborns at incidence of 16.5/1000 births. 61 patients with full description included 40 with single and 21 ...
Background: Maturation of amplitude-integrated electroencephalogram (aEEG) activity is influenced by both gestational age (GA) and postmenstrual age. It is not fully known how this process is influenced by cerebral lesions. Objective: To compare early aEEG developmental changes between preterm newborns with different degrees of cerebral lesions on cranial ultrasound (cUS). Methods: Prospective cohort study on preterm newborns with GA ,32.0 weeks, undergoing continuous aEEG recording during the first 84 h after birth. aEEG characteristics were qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated using pre-established criteria. Based on cUS findings three groups were formed: normal (n = 78), mild (n = 20), and severe cerebral lesions (n = 6). Linear mixed models for repeated measures were used to analyze aEEG maturational trajectories. Results: 104 newborns with a mean GA (range) 29.5 (24.4-31.7) weeks, and birth weight 1,220 (580-2,020) g were recruited. Newborns with severe brain lesions started with ...
Publicly insured women usually have a different demographic background to privately insured women, which is related to poor neonatal outcomes after birth. Given the difference in nature and risk of preterm versus term births, it would be important to compare adverse neonatal outcomes after preterm birth between these groups of women after eliminating the demographic differences between the groups. The study population included 3085 publicly insured and 3380 privately insured, singleton, preterm deliveries (32-36 weeks gestation) from Western Australia during 1998-2008. From the study population, 1016 publicly insured women were matched with 1016 privately insured women according to the propensity score of maternal demographic characteristics and pre-existing medical conditions. Neonatal outcomes were compared in the propensity score matched cohorts using conditional log-binomial regression, adjusted for antenatal risk factors. Outcomes included Apgar scores less than 7 at five minutes after birth, time
Evidence of unmetabolised folic acid in cord blood of newborn and serum of 4-day-old infants - Volume 94 Issue 5 - Mary R. Sweeney, Joseph McPartlin, Donald G. Weir, Sean Daly, Kristina Pentieva, Leslie Daly, John M. Scott
Vaccination is a key area of NHS policy and one of the most cost-effective public health interventions for protecting the population from disease. There are many factors which can impact the way a childs immune system responds to vaccination, such as the age at which the first vaccine is delivered, the sex of the child and the spacing between doses. Variation in these and other factors leads to better immunity in some children than others. Infants are provided with a degree of protection against disease in the first few months of life due to an inherited antibody from their mother. This maternally-derived antibody wanes over time but whilst still circulating can interfere with the way the infants immune system responds to vaccination. The current programme to immunise mothers in the third trimester of pregnancy is one way to enhance protection for infants, however this may also have negative impacts on the infants response to their vaccines. A clearer understanding of these influences on ...
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Previous reports of blood pressure in infants have shown a wide range of values depending, in part, on the birthweight characteristics of the study populations. Reported perinatal values in studies of low birthweight singletons, for example, have been lower than almost all other reports dealing with perinatal blood pressure among heavier babies.9,11 In our cohort more than half of the infants weighed less than 2500 g at birth, or below the 10th centile at sea level, from the 38th week of gestation onwards.27 Though the overall values in our newborn infants are lower than previously described,*RF 1,2,3-5,7,12* they are more consistent with reported tendencies from populations of predominantly low birthweight singletons. For example, the values in newborn infants weighing ,1500 g are nearly identical with those reported by Spinazzola et al for very low birthweight singletons,11 and values for newborn infants weighing 1501-2500 g are exactly within the ranges noted by Gennser et al for 1550-2500 g ...
Infectious diseases of the fetus and newborn infant , Infectious diseases of the fetus and newborn infant , کتابخانه دیجیتال دانشگاه علوم پزشکی اصفهان
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Pediatric Infections 2018 is going to be held during June 23-24, 2018 at Vancouver, Canada which moves around the theme New emerging trends and research strategies to cure Pediatric diseases
Results A total of 73 babies were identified, out of which 9 (12.3%) were late preterm. 19 out of 73 (23%) neonates had elevated CRP and were treated for 5 to 7 days. 10 out of these 23 (43.4%) neonates had maternal pyrexia as a risk factor. All babies have been clinically well and managed on postnatal ward. Blood cultures in all identified neonates have been negative. 30 out of 54 (55%) neonates with normal CRP stayed in hospital for more than 48 hrs awaiting blood culture results and clinical reviews.. ...
This study examined how mothers of prematurely born three-year-old children retrospectively recall their responses to their infants hospitalization in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Forty-four mothers of three-year-old prematurely born children were interviewed as part of a longitudinal study. Data from maternal interviews were analyzed using the analytic inductive ...
Safe newborn baby - Is living in basement safe for newborn baby? It can be. Basement, main floor, attic or other basic area, can all be safe places for a baby. It is the people around him/her that can make the space safe.
A study was conducted to determine whether newborn infants organize auditory streams in a manner similar to that of adults. A series of three experiments investigated the ability of three- to four-day-old infants to discriminate repeated rising and falling four-tone sequences in two configurations of source timbre and spatial position. It was hypothesized that if the sequences were organized into two auditory streams on the basis of timbre and spatial position, one of the configurations should be discriminable from its reversal, while the other should not. The sequences were tested with different pitch and temporal intervals separating the tones. Sequences were discriminated for the first configuration by adults at both fast tempo/small interval and slow tempo/large interval combinations, while only the latter was discriminated by newborns as measured with a non-nutritive, high-amplitude sucking paradigm. Neither adults nor infants could discriminate the sequence reversals for the second ...
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... , MD is a child neurologist with significant experience in research EEG and specifically in implementing and analyzing EEG data from high risk infant baby siblings of children with ASD through her postdoctoral fellowship. Dr. Levin, in collaboration with Dr. Charles Nelson, PhD, has developed an EEG pipeline for post-processing of EEG data in young children and children with neurological disorders (including high risk infants, children with tuberous sclerosis and ASD). Dr. Levins research over the past several years has focused on developing signal processing algorithms to extract information from EEG of children with (and at risk for) autism spectrum disorder. Her clinical work primarily involves seeing patients in the Autism Spectrum Center, which provides her with regular exposure to the clinical manifestations of autism. Dr. Levin is also a member of the Laboratories of Cognitive Neuroscience (LCN), directed by Dr. Nelson ...
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The application of the Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act (EMTALA) to extremely premature newborn infants has long been a source of concern to pediatrici
By: Habib Zaghouani. COLUMBIA, MO -- For years, researchers and physicians have known that infants immune systems do not respond well to certain vaccines, thus the need for additional boosters as children develop. Now, in a new study from the University of Missouri, one researcher has found an explanation for that poor response. In the study, the MU scientist found evidence that the immune systems of newborns might require some time after birth to mature to a point where the benefits of vaccines can be fully realized. Habib Zaghouani, a professor of molecular microbiology and immunology and child health at the MU School of Medicine, recently found that a slowly maturing component of the immune system might explain why newborns contract infections easily. In his work, Zaghouani studied newborn mice and how their immune systems reacted when they were repeatedly exposed to an antigen that simulates a virus. Zaghouani found that while the antigen would prompt a response of the immune system, it was ...
Since 1990, overall child mortality has dropped dramatically around the world, from 12 million annual deaths to less than 7 million. But the report shows that lack of global attention on newborns has translated into a much slower decline in newborn mortality. In sub-Saharan Africa, as many newborns die now as two decades ago.. Globally, a rising share of child deaths-43 percent-now occur in the newborn period, or first month of life. The new report finds that more than a third of newborn deaths, or 15 percent of all child deaths, occur on the same day-the first.. The three leading causes of newborn death are prematurity, birth complications and severe infections. Among wealthier countries, higher U.S. rates of prematurity contribute to higher newborn mortality. Whether in the United States or the developing world, the poorest mothers are more likely to lose a newborn baby, the report finds.. The largest numbers of first-day deaths occur in India (more than 300,000 a year) and Nigeria (almost ...
Neonatal deaths account for about half of infant death in our country.1 The neonatal period is defined as less than 28 days of life. It is a highly vulnerable period of life when a neonate may develop certain serious problems which lead to death.2 Neonatal mortality in United States declined largely due to improvement in obstetric and neonatal intensive care as well as advances in diagnosis and treatment.3 Neonatal morbidity and mortality is still high in developing countries and is due primarily to negligence of female health, nutrition, deliveries by un-skilled personnel and poor antenatal care.4 Globally the major causes of neonatal death are estimated to be pre maturity, low birth weight, birth asphyxia and severe neonatal infections.5 In Pakistan, high neonatal mortality is a major problem with its high relation to certain risk factors. The purpose of this study was to ascertain some of the potential risk factors associated with neonatal deaths in our institution ...
Ultrasound screening of the kidneys and urinary tract in 11.887 newborn infants: A 10-year experience. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
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When your baby is sick‚ all you want is for him or her to feel better. In some cases‚ depending on the cause of your childs illness‚ your pediatrician may choose to prescribe antibiotics. Antibiotics can treat many illnesses by killing bacteria. Unfortunately‚ they can also kill good bacteria inside your babys delicate body‚ in addition to the bad. If good bacteria are destroyed‚ the body may become susceptible to a host of other illnesses. A supplement like Pharmaxs HLC Neonate can help restore and maintain bacterial balance after a round of antibiotics. In addition to restoring good bacteria‚ HLC Neonate can also help boost your babys immune system. During a five-year study‚ it was found that babies taking HLC Neonate may be less likely to be at risk developing conditions like allergies‚ trouble breathing‚ and skin problems like eczema. Specially formulated for newborn babies until they turn one year old‚ this product can also help relieve GI problems like diarrhea‚ ...
A standardized slow enteral feeding protocol significantly reduces the incidence of necrotizing enterocoltis, or death of intestinal tissue, and death in infants with extremely low birth weight, according to a new study.
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During the first year of life, an infants weight and length are charted at each doctors visit to make sure that growth is proceeding at a steady rate. Percentiles are a way of comparing infants of the same age. For an infant at the 10th percentile for weight, 10% of infants weigh less and 90% weigh more. For an infant at the 90th percentile, 90% of infants weigh less and 10% weigh more. For an infant at the 50th percentile, 50% of infants weigh less and 50% weigh more. Of more significance than the actual percentile is any significant change in percentile between doctors visits.. ...
Getty A newborn baby is fighting for life after being accidentally flushed down the toilet after its mother gave birth on the loo. The hole was big enough for the tot to slip through as water ea...
Babies just a few days old can already identify a rhythmic pattern, and their brains show surprise when the music skips a beat, according to a new study. Researchers played recordings that used high-hat cymbals, snare drums, and bass drums to make a funky little beat while monitoring the infants brain activity with non-invasive electroencephalogram brain scanners, and found that newborns respond to a skipped beat in the same way that adults do.. The ability to follow a beat is called beat induction. Neither chimpanzees nor bonobos - our closest primate relatives - are capable of beat induction, which is considered both a uniquely human trait and a cognitive building block of music. Researchers have debated whether this is inborn or learned during the few first months of life, calibrated by the rocking arms and lullabies of parents [Wired News]. While the researchers who conducted the new study say their findings are evidence that beat induction in innate, others argue that the newborns could ...
Maternal, Infant, and Child Health. Preterm (premature) birth, which is a live birth before 37 weeks gestation, is one of the most pressing challenges to maternal, infant, and child health in the United States. Preterm babies can face lifelong disabilities and are at higher risk of death during their first few days of life. Improving birth outcomes can enable children to reach their full potential.. Preterm Birth Rate by Race and Ethnicity. The proportion of preterm live births delivered to black non-Hispanic mothers was 16.3% in 2013, more than one and a half times the rate experienced by Asian or Pacific Islander mothers (10.2%). ...
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Manx newborn babies are now being screened for more genetic diseases.. From the start of January, four rare conditions were added to the list of debilitating diseases tested for at birth in heel-prick blood tests ...
As far as we are aware this is the first study to provide data on the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of APAP in preterm infants. As the rectal mode of delivery results in less efficient absorption than the oral route, higher doses are needed in infants and in older children. After rectal doses of 16-26 mg/kg none of our infants reached concentrations above 20 mg/l, while toxic concentrations occur above 120 mg/l four hours after ingestion.15 In infants whose mothers ingested an overdose of APAP prenatally, high concentrations of APAP (75.5 and 260 mg/l) were documented in neonates with no apparent hepatic or renal toxicity.16 17 The high therapeutic ratio in neonates may be related to reduced rates of metabolism by the cytochrome p 450 system in neonatal liver and neonates increased ability to synthesise gluthathione relative to adults.18 19 Young mice have a fourfold greater gluthatione turnover and increased activity in the gluthatione peroxidase/reductase system than older mice.18 19 Renal ...
originally from: https://www.vitamindcouncil.org/meta-analysis-discovers-vitamin-d-deficient-mothers-are-more-likely-to-birth-small-infants/ Researchers discovered a 1.58 increased chance of birthing an infant that is small for gestational age in pregnant women who are vitamin D deficient.. ...
3 groups of infants: Neonates |30 days (i.e | 1month) Young infants 30-90 days (i.e | 3months) Old infants 3 months-1 year Young children 1 year-3 years Lets classify the infants into low and high risk: The most widely used is Rochester criteria (applied to |2 months infants) Toxic looking infants is a no brainer…
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Health care professionals are obliged to ensure that when a mother is discharged back into the community her baby is feeding well and receiving adequate nutrition. If breastfeeding babies are perceived to not be breastfeeding well, to be jaundiced or to have low blood sugars then routine practice in many Irish maternity units is to suggest that the mother give artificial milk to "top up" the babys breast-feeds. Top ups may also be given routinely when full term babies are in the special baby unit for observation directly after birth. Sometimes top ups are given without the mothers consent.. Newborn babies are born with more fluids in their tissues than they need, which is one of the reasons that most babies lose weight in the early days. The advantage of this extra birth fluid is that it gives babies practice time to learn to breastfeed before their need for fluids is genuine. Giving top ups for this "weight loss" is an unnecessary intervention.. One of the best ways of eliminating newborn ...
For instance a mother with a very fussy child, who wants to be held all the time, is able to get reassurance that what she is doing is right when she lets him cry it out some of the time.. Another mother had a clogged milk duct that was hampering breast feeding and was making her fearful of an infection, was advised by another mother who had undergone a similar problem that pumping is the best way to clear a blocked duct.. ...
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Have you noticed how babies often have cold hands or feet? Even when covered, even at home. And that sometimes they perspire when its not even that hot? This is because very young babies are not capable of regulating their body temperature like adults. Lets explain.. There are many things that surprise new parents when they first discover their newborn baby: their long hands and large feet, the head which seems so large in proportion to the rest of the body, their little spots, their disturbingly blue eyes... and all sorts of little blemishes that make them so wonderful, surprising and unique. One of the surprising things is how difficult it is to keep a newborn baby warm. They get cold so quickly. From birth, they need a beanie hat and even little cotton mitts. This is why maternity hospitals are so over-heated. Even if you were lightly dressed, you would be perfectly comfortable in a room with an ambient temperature of 23°C, but for a newborn baby, this is very uncomfortable. When exposed ...
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My wifes pregnant how do I bond with baby too? Good question for dads wanting to know how to bond with a newborn baby. well it starts before your baby boy or girl is born .We have included a video clip to help you remember some basic techniques to assist you in bonding with your newborn baby right from the …Continue reading →. ...
My wifes pregnant how do I bond with baby too? Good question for dads wanting to know how to bond with a newborn baby. well it starts before your baby boy or girl is born .We have included a video clip to help you remember some basic techniques to assist you in bonding with your newborn baby right from the …Continue reading →. ...
I never in a million years thought he would hurt Ben the way he did or even just raise a hand to him in anger at all," Bens mother, Emily Sayre said. "I feel betrayed, I feel let down, I feel hurt, but most of all I feel angry for what he did to my son." ...
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Understanding the airway in a newborn patient is a priority, in view of the anatomical and physiological unique characteristics which they have that dont repeat themselves through a persons life: they only last the first years of a persons life. These characteristics are necessary for understanding and manipulating the normal or complicated airway. Newborns usually require urgent surgeries, many of them premature with low birth weight and hemodynamically unstable. The correct manipulation of the airway is fundamental in every newborn. Problems during airway manipulation in the newborn are an important cause of morbidity, oxygen desaturation and secondary hypoxia. They cause the most frequent complication in the pediatric population, and are inversely proportional to the childs age. When the gestation weeks are fewer and the weight is lower, it is more complicated to manipulate the airway. Problems during tracheal intubation and airway manipulation are more common in children less than a year ...
One previous trial comparing alternative policies for timing of cord clamping (46 babies) has described providing neonatal care with the cord intact,38 but the only outcome reported was neonatal blood volume. Other trials comparing alternative policies for cord clamping do not report providing immediate neonatal care with cord intact. One recent trial (150 babies) has evaluated ventilation with cord intact for infants born before 32 weeks gestation, but in this study cord clamping was at 60 s in both intervention arms.39 The Cochrane review includes 15 trials (738 babies) before 37 weeks gestation.11 Restricting this to trials largely recruiting before 32 weeks and excluding those evaluating cord milking leaves 12 trials (552 babies) with deferred clamping between 30 and 120 s. In these trials, 8/236 (3.4%) babies allocated deferred clamping died compared with 14/250 (5.6%) allocated immediate clamping, and IVH was 31/195 (16%) vs 50/199 (25%), respectively. These event rates are substantially ...
Taking Viread (tenofovir) while pregnant doesnt appear to increase an infants risk of serious health risks, a U.S. study has found. However, the study ...
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Competing interests LD is principle investigator for the improving quality of care and outcome at very preterm birth programme funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) under its Programme Grants for Applied Research funding scheme (RP-PG-0609-10107). CWY and LD contributed to development of the Lifestart trolley. The Cord Pilot Trial was registered (ISRCTN21456601) and the results have been accepted for publication in the Fetal and Neoanatal Edition of Archives of Disease in Childhood. ...
Researchers at the University of Gothenburgs Sahlgrenska Academy have looked at B cells, a type of white blood cell that produces antibodies that can protect the body against infection and play a key role in the development of allergies. By studying 65 healthy newborn babies in the Västra Götaland region, researcher Anna-Carin Lundell and her colleagues were able to show that infants whose gut is colonised by E. coli bacteria during the first few weeks of life had a higher number of memory B cells at the age of both four and 18 months ...
The 33-year-old mom heard her baby, identified as Susie Kirby, screaming as she was in the bathroom. By the time she reached the infant, it was too late.
Scans of his mother months before his birth revealed that he had a congenital intestinal defect; after a three-hour-long surgery and weeks in the NICU, he is finally out of danger
More than 500 slightly premature infants have a higher risk of death in first week of life - born babies only a few weeks too early six times to die frequently
Infectious Diseases of the Fetus and Newborn Infant, written and edited by Drs. Remington, Klein, Wilson, Nizet, and Maldonado, remains the definitive source of information in this field. The 8th edition of this authoritative reference provides the most up-to-date and complete guidance on infections found in utero, during delivery, and in the neonatal period in both premature and term infants. Special attention is given to the prevention and treatment of these diseases found in developing countr ...
In a media statement, he said that mothers with high risk infants should breast feed, for its many known benefits. "If parents need to move on to formula that decision need not be based on the belief that one formula will reduce the risk of allergies compared to another," said Lowe ...
I had the perfect normal pregnancy until 26 weeks. Within 24 hours I developed a severe case of Preeclampsia and our daughter was delivered 14 weeks early weighing 1 lb 8 oz. She spent 113 days in the NICU with several surgeries and hundreds and hundreds of other medical procedures. We so often thought we would lose her or she would be blind or otherwise handicapped or… We did not know whether to finish her nursery or not.. She will be three years in November and still: Often I am jealous of healthy pregnant women in their 3rd trimester or Moms of healthy full-term babies. Instead of bringing home a healthy baby and having to worry about developing a schedule and getting some sleep, I spent the first week in the hospital myself - 50 miles away from the hospital Emily was cared for in. I was able to hold her for the first time 3 weeks after she was born. She came off the ventilator on Christmas eve - 6 weeks after she was born. After 6 weeks we could finally see her face for the first time. I ...
Seca 734 digital Infant scale with detachble tray  The two-weigh digital baby scale is both economical and efficient. This innovative device converts from an infant scale to a toddler scale in one simple step. Lightweight, multi-purpose and battery-operated, it is perfect for the medical office. Capacity: 44 lbs/20 kg. Dimensions: 21 x 5 x 16.
At birth, some infants are already saddled with brains that carry features of Alzheimers disease and schizophrenia. Newborns who carry certain versions of genes already show brain shrinkage reminiscent of that in adults with brain illnesses, a study of 272 newborn babies reveals.. ...
Feeding difficulties due to a sucking problem may show up when a baby starts out at birth with a strong, vigorous suck and gradually become less effective at feedings over time, or when a baby starts out with a weak suck and does not eat effectively. This is especially common if he/she was born prematurely. Babies with a weak suck may not pull strongly or have a good latch while breastfeeding. The mother may not hear the baby swallowing or gulping during feedings. A mothers breasts may not feel full right before a feeding or she may not notice her breasts getting softer (emptying) after a feeding. Bottle-fed babies with a weak suck may need the bottle nipple "worked" or pumped to stimulate a suck. Feedings with either breastfed or bottle-fed babies with a weak suck may take a very long time, often more than 45 minutes ...
Nearly all babies will have a simple blood test to check for disorders that are not immediately apparent after delivery. Some of these disorders are genetic, metabolic, blood, or hormone related. Each state in the United States requires screening tests, but the specific tests performed vary among the states. Some disorders are more common in some states, making testing more important.. A heel-prick is usually used to sample the babys blood. The blood drops are collected in a small vial or on a special paper. The blood is then sent for testing. The babys heel may have some redness at the pricked site, and some babies may have bruising, but this usually disappears in a few days.. Newborn screening tests may include:. ...
When a baby is born with some kind of a problem, but the problem isnt severe enough to use the neonatal intensive care codes (99295-99298), should you use the normal newborn care code (99431) for the first examination, or should you use an initial hospital care code (99221-99223)? You cant [...]
Infants exposed to the components of cigarette smoke in utero are at an increased risk for perinatal death, low birth weight, sudden infant death syndrome, and premature delivery. The purpose of this pilot study was to compare blood pressure values in term low-birth weight infants (≤2500 grams) born to smoking mothers to the blood pressure values of term, low-birth weight infants born to nonsmoking mothers. Data were collected through a retrospective chart review of 30 low-birth weight, term infants at a hospital in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure values were obtained from each chart. Fifteen of the infants were born to women who smoked cigarettes during pregnancy, while another 15 infants were born to mothers who did not smoke during pregnancy. While hospitalized at birth, the infants of smoking mothers shared a trend toward higher blood pressure readings for all measures, with the t-test differences reaching statistical ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A hearing screening in very low birth weight preterm infants by auditory brainstem response. AU - Wu, J. L.. AU - Huang, C. C.. AU - Kao, C. C.. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. N2 - Background: ABR has been used as an objective, non-invasive tool to screen neonatal deafness. In this article, we evaluated the prevalence of deafness in VLBW preterm newborns by ABR, and attempted to search for a suitable failed/passed criterion. Methods: ABR screening test was performed in 88 VLBW preterm newborns. The infants whose threshold was ≤ 35dB nHL were classified as Group A; those whose threshold was ≤ 25dB nHL were classified as Group B. All of the newborns of either Group A or Group B received the successive ABR screening test and behavioral audiometry to confirm whether they have hearing impairment or not. Results: Fourteen newborns (16%) were included in Group A and 19 newborns (22%) in Group B. There were five newborns who belonged to Group B, but not to Group A; all of them were found ...
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Infantile Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis usually occurs in infants aged 2-8 weeks. Learn more about Infantile Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis
Treatment of Sudden infant death syndrome is the sudden and explained death of a seemingly healthy baby, Typically, a peacefully sleeping baby simply never wakes up. In most cases, no cause is ever found. Most SIDS deaths occur in children who are between 2 months and 4 months old. Sudden infant death syndrome rarely occurs before 1 month of age or after 6 months, Although the exact cause of sudden infant death syndrome is still unknown, researchers have discovered some factors that may put babies at risk. Theyve also identified simple measures you can take to help protect your child from sudden infant death syndrome. Perhaps the most important is placing your baby to sleep on his or her back, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Sids, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Causes, Definition Of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, Risk Factors For Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Symptoms, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Treatment, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Information,
Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome is a life threatening congenital cardiac anomaly. After a child has been diagnosed with hypoplastic left heart syndrome, parents must make life or death decisions within days of birth. Healthcare providers must provide appropriate education so that parents are able to make informed, timely decisions. Information regarding the diagnosis, treatment options, and parental decision making process for initial decision making for hypoplastic left heart syndrome are provided to guide nurses who work with these families. The challenging decision making process which parents must go through after diagnosis of hypoplastic left heart syndrome will be described. Rachel and Evan, a young couple expecting their first child, received unexpected and devastating news at the completion of a routine screening ultrasound at 20 weeks. The ultrasound revealed that their unborn son had a congenital heart defect. After further testing, the diagnosis of hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) was
A review of 63 patients with 45X karyotype (Turners syndrome) admitted to a hospital from 1972 to 1985 showed that 20 (32%) had one or more major cardiac malformations (mostly coarctation and aortic stenosis). Four (20%) died in the neonatal. One infant had mitral stenosis and severe aortic stenosis and died at the age of 35 days. The three (15%) other patients who died had a typical hypoplastic left heart syndrome, with an atretic aortic valve in two and pinpoint aortic valve in one. Turners syndrome was clinically suspected in three of the cases. One of these had mosaicism (46XX,45X) the others had a 45X pattern. During the same period (1972-85) 39 patients (14 girls and 25 boys) were admitted with diagnosis of hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Three (21.4%) girls had a 45X karyotype. The high incidence of hypoplastic left heart syndrome in Turners syndrome and of Turners syndrome in girls with hypoplastic left heart syndrome suggests that hypoplastic left heart syndrome can be another ...
Data & statistics on average life expectancy at birth among men and women in estonia: Life expectancy at birth for men and women 1991-2007 (Data: Estonian Statistical Office), Demographic Trends Population in Million Total Fertility rate (number of children per women) Life expectancy at birth for women in years Life expectancy at birth for men in years Net migration in the population in thousands Mean age of women at 1st child bearing population share of persons under 25 in % population share of persons aged 25-64 in % population share of persons aged 60-79 in % population ..., Average life expectancy at birth among men and women from 1959 to 2000 in Estonia....
Alman, Breanna L.; Coffman, Evan; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; & Luben, Thomas J., for the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. (2017). Associations between Maternal Water Consumption and Birth Defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (2000-2005). Birth Defects Research, Part A: Clinical and Molecular Teratology, 109(3), 193-202.

KernicterusKernicterus

INFANT, NEWBORN), but may rarely occur in adults. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p613) ... newborn, Kernicterus of newborn, NOS, Kernicterus of newborn NOS. ... Breast Feeding Jaundice Exchange Transfusion in Newborns Jaundice in Newborns Kernicterus Necrotizing Enterocolitis Neonatal ... Acute Bilirubin Encephalopathy: 1 infant in 10,000. *Progresses to Kernicterus in 5% of infants ...
more infohttp://www.fpnotebook.com/nicu/GI/Krnctrs.htm

Meconium aspiration syndromeMeconium aspiration syndrome

Condition Summary: Infant, Premature, Diseases; Infant, Newborn, Diseases; Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia; Respiratory Distress ... Meconium aspiration syndrome is a serious condition in which a newborn breathes a mixture of meconium and amniotic fluid into ... Treatment may include suctioning the newborns mouth as soon as the head emerges during delivery, deep suctioning of the ... Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) is respiratory distress in an infant born through meconium stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) ...
more infohttp://diseaseinfosearch.org/Meconium+aspiration+syndrome/4539

Birth Injuries :: Jackson, Mississippi Birth Injury Lawyer Paul SnowBirth Injuries :: Jackson, Mississippi Birth Injury Lawyer Paul Snow

Some of the most traumatic injuries are those that occur to a newborn infant. When giving birth, there are many things that can ... Please call Paul Snow now at 601-969-1977 or contact Paul Snow online if your infant has suffered a birth injury. We will walk ... Total lack of oxygen to the brain (anoxia) or partial lack of oxygen (hypoxia) can cause the infant to have conditions such as ... For example, a c-section, or misjudging the situation can cause traumatic injury to the infant.. With a birth injury, it is ...
more infohttps://www.accidentattys.com/birth-injuries.html

Infant and Newborn Care: MedlinePlusInfant and Newborn Care: MedlinePlus

Read about the changes a newborn goes through and also see tips for proper baby care. ... Communication and Your Newborn (Nemours Foundation) Also in Spanish * Cribs and Infant Products Information Center (Consumer ... Newborn head molding (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * Umbilical cord care in newborns (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in ... The primary NIH organization for research on Infant and Newborn Care is the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child ...
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/infantandnewborncare.html

Infant Newborn Screening | Colorado General AssemblyInfant Newborn Screening | Colorado General Assembly

Infant Newborn Screening. Concerning modifications to the newborn screening program administered by the department of public ... To establish and maintain appropriate follow-up services for newborns at risk of hearing loss and newborns who fail to receive ... The bill updates the current newborn screening program to require more timely newborn hearing screenings. The department of ... The newborn hearing screening cash fund for use by the center for health and environmental data.. (Note: This summary applies ...
more infohttp://leg.colorado.gov/bills/hb18-1006

Baby Infant Newborn Pillow Flat Head Sleeping Support Cushion Prevent Soft  | eBayBaby Infant Newborn Pillow Flat Head Sleeping Support Cushion Prevent Soft | eBay

Baby Bathing Pad Newborn Plush Flower Pad Bath Tub Infant Shower Cushion Healthy ... Details about Baby Infant Newborn Pillow Flat Head Sleeping Support Cushion Prevent Soft. ... New Baby Infant Newborn Pillow Flat Head Sleeping Support Cushion Prevent Soft ... Baby Infant Newborn Soft Bed Pillow Flat Head Sleeping Support Cushion Prevent ...
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Amazing New Deals on Baby Funny Mustache Pacifier BPA Free Silicone Infant Newborn PacifierAmazing New Deals on Baby Funny Mustache Pacifier BPA Free Silicone Infant Newborn Pacifier

Find the best prices for baby funny mustache pacifier bpa free silicone infant newborn pacifier on Shop Parenting. ... 2-Pack Newborn Infant Baby Soft Silicone, BPA Free Orthodontic Pacifier Nipple Sleep Soother Walmart USA $8.99 ... 2-Pack Newborn Infant Baby Soft Silicone, BPA Free Orthodontic Pacifier Nipple Sleep Soother Walmart USA $8.99 ... 2-Pack Newborn Infant Baby Soft Silicone, BPA Free Orthodontic Pacifier Nipple Sleep Soother Walmart USA $8.99 ...
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Newborn Infant Hearing Screening: ReferencesNewborn Infant Hearing Screening: References

Berg, A. L., Prieve, B. A., Serpanos, Y. C., & Wheaton, M. A. (2011). Hearing screening in a well-infant nursery: Profile of ... Joint Committee on Infant Hearing. (2007). Year 2007 position statement: Principles and guidelines for early hearing detection ... Alexander, D., & Van Dyck, P. C. (2006). A vision of the future of newborn screening. Pediatrics, 117(Suppl. 3), S350-S354. ... Berg, A. L, Spitzer, J. B., Towers, H. M., Bartosiewicz, C., & Diamond, B. E. (2005). Newborn hearing screening in the NICU: ...
more infohttps://www.asha.org/PRPSpecificTopic.aspx?folderid=8589935234§ion=References

Infant - newborn development: MedlinePlus Medical EncyclopediaInfant - newborn development: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia

Infant development is most often divided into the following areas: ... Vision, the newborn infant can see within a range of 8 to 12 inches (20 to 30 centimeters). Color vision develops between 4 to ... Infants who cry more than 3 hours a day are often described as having colic. Colic in infants is rarely due to a problem with ... Infant rolls from back to stomach. When on tummy, the infant can push up with arms to raise the shoulders and head and look ...
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002004.htm

Newborn Infant Hearing Screening: Key IssuesNewborn Infant Hearing Screening: Key Issues

The medical home plays a major role in the care of infants who do not pass or do not receive a newborn hearing screening by ... If the infant passes the ABR, the baby has "passed" the hearing screening. If one or both ears do not pass the ABR, the infant ... In 2014, 34.4% of the infants who did not pass their final newborn hearing screening did not complete follow-up and were ... If the newborn does not pass one or both of the second screenings in one or both ears, the newborn is referred for outpatient ...
more infohttps://www.asha.org/PRPSpecificTopic.aspx?folderid=8589935234§ion=Key_Issues

newborn infant metal prints | Society6newborn infant metal prints | Society6

Shop newborn infant metal prints from thousands of artists from around the world. Our metal wall art produces vibrant colors ...
more infohttps://society6.com/metal-prints/newborn-infant

Neurological Examination of the Newborn Infant | SpringerLinkNeurological Examination of the Newborn Infant | SpringerLink

A simple neurological screening examination should be performed on all term and preterm newborn infants, as part of the general ... Prechtl HF (1974) The behavioural states of the newborn infant. Brain Res 76:185-212CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... A simple neurological screening examination should be performed on all term and preterm newborn infants, as part of the general ... Prechtl HFR (1977) The neurological examination of the full-term newborn infant, 2nd revised edn. Heinemann, LondonGoogle ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007%2F978-3-319-29489-6_267

Newborn infants perceive abstract numbers | PNASNewborn infants perceive abstract numbers | PNAS

The infants were seated in an infant seat, ≈60 cm from a 22-inch monitor, and an experimenter stood behind the infant to ... In contrast to older infants, newborn infants have sharply diminished sensitivity to the visual and auditory features that ... we conducted 3 experiments assessing newborn infants cross-modal discrimination among large numbers of objects. Each infant ... Newborn infants perceive abstract numbers. Véronique Izard, Coralie Sann, Elizabeth S. Spelke, and Arlette Streri ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/106/25/10382?ijkey=ea6093db7600fde593aef6d4aa1e3dfd2727a8b9&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Inflammatory cytokines in newborn infantsInflammatory cytokines in newborn infants

... A. Sarandakou, G. Giannaki, A. Malamitsi-Puchner, D. Rizos, E. Hourdaki, E. ... and reflect also a newborn immune response to the stress of delivery and environmental changes. ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/1998/564365/abs/

The Newborn InfantThe Newborn Infant

... By Peter Fysh, DC. Neonatology is one of several pediatric subspecialties that have developed rapidly over ... Now newborn infants are surviving at 22 weeks, albeit with the help of advancing medical technology. Although the ability of ... One of the first tasks of a chiropractor, when examining a newborn infant, should be to check the spine for signs of trauma ... Chiropractors should also play an important role in evaluation of the newborn infant. It is just possible that an early ...
more infohttps://www.dynamicchiropractic.com/mpacms/dc/article.php?id=43119

Pregnancy Diet Immune System Infant Newborn Baby In Hindi | गर्भावस्‍थाPregnancy Diet Immune System Infant Newborn Baby In Hindi | गर्भावस्‍था

गर्भवती स्त्रियों को संतुलित पौष्टिक आहार की ज़रूरत होती है। इस दौरान आहार में प्रोटीन, विटमिंस और मिनरल्स को शामिल करना बेहद ज़रूरी है।
more infohttps://www.onlymyhealth.com/pregnancy-diet-immune-system-infant-newborn-babay-in-hindi-1530168656

Newborn Infant Hearing Screening: Tests for Hearing LossNewborn Infant Hearing Screening: Tests for Hearing Loss

Find out how and when newborn infant hearing screening is done, and learn what to do if hearing impairment or deafness is ... home/healthy kids health center/healthy kids a-z list/newborn infant hearing screening center /newborn infant hearing screening ... Newborn Infant Hearing Screening. *What is a newborn infant hearing screening program? ... Newborn Infant Hearing Screening - Experience Please describe your experience with newborn infant hearing screening test. ...
more infohttps://www.medicinenet.com/newborn_infant_hearing_screening/article.htm

Measurement and the newborn infant.Measurement and the newborn infant.

It is common for infants to be weighed at birth and for no other measurements to be made. Although such assumptions are ... Measurement of newborn babies is widely regarded as being too inaccurate to justify its regular practice. ... Infant, Newborn / growth & development*. Longitudinal Studies. Reproducibility of Results. From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of ... Measurement of newborn babies is widely regarded as being too inaccurate to justify its regular practice. It is common for ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Measurement-newborn-infant/12638523.html

Comfortable Infant Newborn Baby Sofa Support Seat Soft Cotton Sofa Chair $20.72 + fsComfortable Infant Newborn Baby Sofa Support Seat Soft Cotton Sofa Chair $20.72 + fs

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Accidental administration of ergometrine to newborn infant. | The BMJAccidental administration of ergometrine to newborn infant. | The BMJ

Accidental administration of ergometrine to newborn infant. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1982; 285 :693 ... Accidental administration of ergometrine to newborn infant.. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1982; 285 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj. ...
more infohttp://www.bmj.com/content/285/6343/693.1

RCW 70.83.020: Screening tests of newborn infants.RCW 70.83.020: Screening tests of newborn infants.

1) It shall be the duty of the department of health to require screening tests of all newborn infants born in any setting. Each ... That no such tests shall be given to any newborn infant whose parents or guardian object thereto on the grounds that such tests ... health care provider attending a birth outside of a hospital shall collect and submit a sample blood specimen for all newborns ...
more infohttp://apps.leg.wa.gov/RCW/default.aspx?cite=70.83.020

CUP FEEDING OF NEWBORN INFANTS | Original Articles | PediatricsCUP FEEDING OF NEWBORN INFANTS | Original Articles | Pediatrics

A method of feeding the artifically fed infant from a cup starting at birth has been described. Increase in weight is as great ... Cup feeding is particularly suited to the premature and feeble infant and those with oral defects. The impression has been ... when this method is used as in breast or bottle fed infants. ... CUP FEEDING OF NEWBORN INFANTS Message Subject (Your Name) has ...
more infohttp://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/2/5/544

WikiGenes - Infant, NewbornWikiGenes - Infant, Newborn

Biological context of Infant, Newborn. *HPE has a prevalence of 1:250 during embryogenesis and 1:16,000 newborn infants, and ... Associations of Infant, Newborn with chemical compounds. *Attenuated glucose production rate in newborn infants of insulin- ... Disease relevance of Infant, Newborn. *No pattern of hematologic toxicity was observed in the newborns, but the anemia and ... Chemical compound and disease context of Infant, Newborn. *Hyperthyroxinemia in newborns due to excess thyroxine-binding ...
more infohttps://www.wikigenes.org/e/mesh/e/427.html

Newborn infants detect the beat in music | PNASNewborn infants detect the beat in music | PNAS

Newborn infants detect the beat in music. István Winkler, Gábor P. Háden, Olivia Ladinig, István Sziller, and Henkjan Honing ... We show that newborn infants develop expectation for the onset of rhythmic cycles (the downbeat), even when it is not marked by ... we need to discover what the perceptual capabilities with which infants are born. Beat induction, the detection of a regular ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/early/2009/01/26/0809035106

Closed Chest Cardiac Massage in the Newborn Infant | Articles | PediatricsClosed Chest Cardiac Massage in the Newborn Infant | Articles | Pediatrics

The American Heart Association advises the rescuer to depress the infants midsternum with the index and forefingers. An ... The history of external cardiac compression in infants and children is briefly reviewed, further supporting the conclusion that ... The recommended techniques for external cardiac compression during cardiopulmonary resuscitation of the newborn are reviewed. ... with thumbs at midsternum is more efficacious and hence the preferred approach to closed chest cardiac massage in the newborn. ...
more infohttps://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/81/4/552?ijkey=34aff3c14165e381f17a517dbbb40499a3a1c85d&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
  • Although infants and animals respond to the approximate number of elements in visual, auditory, and tactile arrays, only human children and adults have been shown to possess abstract numerical representations that apply to entities of all kinds (e.g., 7 samurai, seas, or sins). (pnas.org)
  • In sum, infants appear able to construct amodal representations of faces and other objects, but they may not match sets of unrelated objects and events on the basis of their common abstract, cardinal value. (pnas.org)
  • Still, some lines of evidence suggest that infants might possess abstract number representations. (pnas.org)
  • To shed light on how humans can learn to understand music, we need to discover what the perceptual capabilities with which infants are born. (pnas.org)
  • By using more natural stimuli, later research showed unequivocally that infants and animals could detect the numerical correspondence between 2 or 3 items in different modalities ( 15 - 18 ). (pnas.org)
  • Here we show that newborn infants spontaneously associate stationary, visual-spatial arrays of 4-18 objects with auditory sequences of events on the basis of number. (pnas.org)
  • Third, presentation of redundant information in the auditory and visual modalities increases the precision of infants' numerical discriminations ( 27 ), although it is not clear whether the convergence of information occurs at the level of numerical representation or at a later processing step (e.g., response selection). (pnas.org)
  • The history of external cardiac compression in infants and children is briefly reviewed, further supporting the conclusion that the technique of encircling the chest with thumbs at midsternum is more efficacious and hence the preferred approach to closed chest cardiac massage in the newborn. (aappublications.org)
  • The amount of crying in the first 3 months varies in a healthy infant, from 1 to 3 hours a day. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The goal of this program is to identify all hearing-impaired infants at an early age, thereby increasing these children's chance at healthy and more productive lives. (medicinenet.com)
  • From the early 1980s to present, several investigations have tested for numeric cross-modal matching in infants with mixed results. (pnas.org)
  • In asphyxiated newborn infants, cholestasis often leads to extensive investigations and a cause can rarely be found. (hindawi.com)
  • Written and edited by the leading authorities in the field, the revised 6th edition of this authoritative reference provides the most up to date and complete guidance on infectious diseases of the fetus and newborn. (elsevier.com)
  • If your infant is ready for a break from the playard, these fab floor seats are the perfect place for your baby to sit tight. (parenting.com)
  • We show that newborn infants develop expectation for the onset of rhythmic cycles (the downbeat), even when it is not marked by stress or other distinguishing spectral features. (pnas.org)
  • https://www.walmart.com/ip/Comfor.../193147690 Features: Helps stabilize your infants back, while they learn to sit up. (dealitem.com)
  • Is it just possible that the sudden shutdown of the respiratory system, as seen in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), is caused by birth trauma to the brain stem and spinal cord as described by Towbin? (dynamicchiropractic.com)
  • In 1969, Professor Abraham Towbin, M.D., reported on the results of a study he conducted at Harvard Medical School's department of neuropathology on spinal cord and brainstem injuries in newborn infants. (dynamicchiropractic.com)
  • For example, by the age of 4.5 to 6 months, infants are able to discriminate between numbers differing in a 1:2 ratio (e.g., 16 vs. 32, 8 vs. 16, 4 vs. 8), when presented with arrays of dots ( 6 , 7 ), sequences of sounds ( 8 ), or sequences of actions ( 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • a precursor of this intraparietal activation has been found in infants as young as 3 months of age ( 26 ). (pnas.org)
  • In the domain of number, animals and preverbal infants have been shown to react to the cardinal values of sets presented in a variety of different stimulus formats, and this core number sense is thought to guide learning of numeric symbols and arithmetic in human children and adults ( 1 - 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • In order to identify this large group of hearing-impaired infants not identified with current testing protocols, it is now recommended that all newborns have a hearing test prior to discharge from the hospital. (medicinenet.com)
  • Subluxation of the atlas can be the cause of an infant who is irritable, who sleeps for only short periods, also of one who feeds poorly because of irritability in a particular feeding position or because of regurgitation. (dynamicchiropractic.com)
  • In each of these experiments, however, infants were tested with only 1 type of stimulus, raising the question of the level of abstraction of these numeric representations. (pnas.org)
  • Referring infants for audiologic and medical services, as indicated. (asha.org)
  • An Italian medical team received international press coverage for this feat. Now newborn infants are surviving at 22 weeks, albeit with the help of advancing medical technology. (dynamicchiropractic.com)
  • Typically, nurses or medical assistants are trained extensively on how to operate automated equipment for testing infants. (medicinenet.com)
  • If the infant does not pass the second hearing test, he/she is referred to a specialist for further testing. (medicinenet.com)
  • Asphyxia is frequently accompanied by cholestasis in this group of newborns and without symptoms other than uncomplicated cholestasis. (hindawi.com)
  • Increased vision allows the infant to tell objects apart from backgrounds with very little contrast (such as a button on a blouse of the same color). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Vision, the newborn infant can see within a range of 8 to 12 inches (20 to 30 centimeters). (medlineplus.gov)