Infant, Low Birth Weight
Cause of Death
Sudden Infant Death
Infant, Premature, Diseases
Infant, Newborn, Diseases
Infant, Very Low Birth Weight
National Center for Health Statistics (U.S.)
Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Multiple Birth Offspring
European Continental Ancestry Group
Health Status Disparities
Regional Medical Programs
Infant, Small for Gestational Age
Proportional Hazards Models
African Continental Ancestry Group
Continental Population Groups
Infant, Extremely Low Birth Weight
Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
Pregnancy Complications, Infectious
United States Public Health Service
Public Health Practice
Health Status Indicators
Indians, North American
Intensive Care Units, Neonatal
Health Services Accessibility
Muscular Atrophy, Spinal
Family Planning Services
Survival of Motor Neuron 1 Protein
Republic of Belarus
Emigration and Immigration
Predictive Value of Tests
National Health Programs
Obstetric Labor Complications
Detection of transposition of the great arteries in fetuses reduces neonatal morbidity and mortality. (1/2151)BACKGROUND: Transposition of the great arteries (TGA) is a life-threatening malformation in neonates, but it is amenable to complete repair. Prenatal detection, diagnosis, and early management may modify neonatal mortality and mortality. METHODS AND RESULTS: Preoperative and postoperative morbidity and mortality were compared in 68 neonates with prenatal diagnosis and in 250 neonates with a postnatal diagnosis of TGA over a period of 10 years. The delay between birth and admission was 2+/-2.8 hours in the prenatal group and 73+/-210 hours in the neonatal group (P<0.01). Clinical condition at arrival, including metabolic acidosis and multiorgan failure, was worse in the neonatal group (P<0.01). Once in the pediatric cardiology unit, the management was identical in the 2 groups (atrioseptostomy, PGE1 infusion, operation date). Preoperative mortality was 15 of 250 (6%; 95% CI, 3% to 9%) in the neonatal group and 0 of 68 in the prenatal group (P<0.05). Postoperative morbidity was not different (25 of 235 versus 6 of 68), but hospital stay was longer in the neonatal group (30+/-17 versus 24+/-11 days, P<0.01). In addition, postoperative mortality was significantly higher in the neonatal group (20 of 235 versus 0 of 68, P<0.01); however, the known risk factors for operative mortality were identical in the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal diagnosis reduces mortality and morbidity in TGA. Prenatal detection of this cardiac defect must be increased to improve early neonatal management. In utero transfer of fetuses with prenatal diagnosis of TGA in an appropriate unit is mandatory. (+info)
Low-weight neonatal survival paradox in the Czech Republic. (2/2151)Analysis of vital statistics for the Czech Republic between 1986 and 1993, including 3,254 infant deaths from 350,978 first births to married and single women who conceived at ages 18-29 years, revealed a neonatal survival advantage for low-weight infants born to disadvantaged (single, less educated) women, particularly for deaths from congenital anomalies. This advantage largely disappeared after the neonatal period. The same patterns have been observed for low-weight infants born to black women in the United States. Since the Czech Republic had an ethnically homogenous population, virtually universal prenatal care, and uniform institutional conditions for delivery, Czech results must be attributed to social rather than to biologic or medical circumstances. This strengthens the contention that in the United States, the black neonatal survival paradox may be due as much to race-related social stigmatization and consequent disadvantage as to any hypothesized hereditary influences on birth-weight-specific survival. (+info)
Light on population health status. (3/2151)A new approach to illustrating and analysing health status is presented which allows comparisons of various aspects of health in a population at different times and in different populations during given periods. Both quantitative and qualitative elements can be represented, the impact of interventions can be monitored, and the extent to which objectives are achieved can be assessed. The practical application of the approach is demonstrated with reference to the health profiles to Tunisia in 1966 and 1994. (+info)
Influence of maternal ethnicity on infant mortality in Chicago, 1989-1996. (4/2151)This study compared infant mortality rates between large ethnic groups in Chicago from 1989-1996. Infant mortality information about ethnic groups was compared using data from annual reports published by the Epidemiology Program, Department of Public Health, City of Chicago and vital statistics documents in Illinois, which include information on ethnicity. Chi-squared analysis was used to evaluate the differences between the proportions. A P value of < .05 was considered significant. During the study period, there were 461,974 births and 6407 infant deaths in Chicago. African Americans contributed 212,924 (46.1%) births and 4387 (68.5%) deaths; Hispanics 132,787 (28.7%) births and 1166 (18.2%) deaths; and whites 99,532 (21.6%) births and 780 (12.2%) infant deaths. Compared with the other groups. African Americans suffered a twofold increased mortality (P < .00001) for five of the six most common causes of infant mortality. Deaths from congenital malformations, although significant, were not excessively increased among African Americans (P = .014). Hispanics demonstrated a higher mortality rate than whites (P = .01), especially for postnatal mortality and respiratory distress syndrome. These data confirm excessive infant mortality among African Americans. Further studies are needed to evaluate the apparent low mortality among some Hispanics compared with the other groups studied. (+info)
Hyaline membrane disease, alkali, and intraventricular haemorrhage. (5/2151)The relation between intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) and hyaline membrane disease (HMD) was studied in singletons that came to necropsy at Hammersmith Hospital over the years 1966-73. The incidence of IVH in singleton live births was 3-22/1000 and of HMD 4-44/1000. Although the high figures were partily due to the large number of low birthweight infants born at this hospital, the incidence of IVH in babies weighing 1001-1500 g was three times as great as that reported in the 1658 British Perinatal Mortality Survey. Most IVH deaths were in babies with HMD, but the higher frequency of IVH was not associated with any prolongation of survival time of babies who died with HMD as compared with the 1958 survey. IVH was seen frequently at gestations of up to 36 weeks in babies with HMD but was rare above 30 weeks' gestation in babies without HMD. This indicated that factors associated with HMD must cause most cases of IVH seen at gestations above 30 weeks. Comparison of clinical details in infants with HMD who died with or without IVH (at gestations of 30-37 weeks) showed no significant differences between the groups other than a high incidence of fits and greater use of alkali therapy in the babies with IVH. During the 12 hours when most alkali therapy was given, babies dying with IVD received a mean total alkali dosage of 10-21 mmol/kg and those dying without IVH 6-34 mmol/kg (P less than 0-001). There was no difference in severity of hypoxia or of metabolic acidosis between the 2 groups. Babies who died with HMD and germinal layer haemorrhage (GLH) without IVH had received significantly more alkali than those who died with HMD alone, whereas survivors of severe respiratory distress syndrome had received lower alkali doses than other groups. It is suggested that the greatly increased death rate from IVH in babies with HMD indicates some alteration of management of HMD (since 1958) as a causative factor. Liberal use of hypertonic alkali solutions is the common factor which distinguishes babies dying with GLH and IVH from other groups of babies with HMD. Although the causal nature of this association remains unproved, it seems justifiable to lrge caution in alkali usage. (+info)
Changes of neonatal mortality rate between 'pre' and 'post' surfactant period. (6/2151)The objective of this study was to determine how the neonatal mortality rate has changed since surfactant (S) therapy was introduced in our Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), and to evaluate the efficacy of surfactant therapy in respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) patients. Incidences of risk babies such as outborns, prematurity, low birth weight infants and RDS, and neonatal mortality rates were compared between 'pre' (control, 1988 to 1991, n=4,861) and 'post' S period (study, 1993 to 1996, n=5,430). In RDS patients of 'post' S period, neonatal mortality rate was compared between S-treated and non-treated patients, and chest X-ray and ventilatory parameters were compared between pre- and post-72 hr of surfactant treatment. Surfactant therapy showed short term effects, judging by the decrease of early neonatal deaths and improvement of chest X-ray and ventilatory parameters in RDS patients. The overall neonatal mortality rate had a tendency to decrease in spite of increased incidences of risk babies in 'post' S period but it was less than expected. The reasons were thought to be that we had a high proportion of risk babies, and there was some bias in patient selection for surfactant therapy and its use. In conclusion, with the active prevention of risk baby delivery and appropriate use of surfactant, better results could be expected. (+info)
Narrowing social inequalities in health? Analysis of trends in mortality among babies of lone mothers (abridged version 1). (7/2151)OBJECTIVES: To examine trends in mortality among babies registered solely by their mother (lone mothers) and to compare these with trends in infant mortality for couple registrations overall and couple registrations subdivided by social class of father. DESIGN: Analysis of trends in infant death rates from 1975 to 1996 for the three groups. The data source was the national linked infant mortality file, containing all records of infant death in England and Wales linked to the respective birth records. SETTING: England and Wales. PARTICIPANTS: All live births (n=14.3 million) from 1975 to 1996; all deaths of infants from birth to 12 months of age over the same period (n=135 800). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Death rates in the perinatal, neonatal, and postneonatal periods and for infancy overall. RESULTS: For the babies of lone mothers infant mortality has fallen to less than a third of the 1975 level, with a clear reduction in the gap between the mortality in these babies compared with all couple registrations: the excess mortality in solely registered births was 79% in 1975 reducing to 33% in 1996. Most of the narrowing of the sole-couple differential was associated with the neonatal period, for which there is now no appreciable gap. For couple registrations analysed by social class of father, infant death rates have more than halved in each social class from 1975 to 1996. The reductions in mortality were greater in the late 1970s and early 1990s. Infant death rates in classes IV-V remained between 50% and 65% higher than in classes I-II. Differentials between social classes were largest in the postneonatal period and smallest in the perinatal and neonatal periods. The gap in perinatal and neonatal mortality between the babies of lone mothers and couple parents in social classes IV-V has disappeared. CONCLUSIONS: The differential in infant mortality between social classes still exists, whereas the differential between sole and couple registrations has decreased, showing positive progress in the reduction of inequalities. As the reduction in the differential was confined to the neonatal period these improvements may be more a reflection of healthcare factors than of factors associated with lone mothers' social and economic circumstances. (+info)
The determinants of infant and child mortality in Tanzania. (8/2151)This paper investigates the determinants of infant and child mortality in Tanzania using the 1991/92 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey. A hazards model is used to assess the relative effect of the variables hypothesized to influence under-five mortality. Short birth intervals, teenage pregnancies and previous child deaths are associated with increased risk of death. The Government of the United Republic of Tanzania should therefore maintain its commitment to encouraging women to space their births at least two years apart and delay childbearing beyond the teenage years. Further, this study shows that there is a remarkable lack of infant and child mortality differentials by socioeconomic subgroups of the population, which may reflect post-independence health policy and development strategies. Whilst lack of socioeconomic differentials can be considered an achievement of government policies, mortality remains high so there is still a long way to go before Tanzania achieves its stated goal of 'Health for All'. (+info)
In the medical field, a birth certificate is a legal document that certifies the birth of a child and provides information about the child's parents, including their names, ages, and places of birth. The birth certificate is typically issued by a government agency or a hospital where the child was born. The birth certificate is an important document that is used for a variety of purposes, including establishing the child's identity, obtaining a passport, enrolling in school, and applying for government benefits. It is also used to prove the child's age and citizenship, and to establish paternity and inheritance rights. In addition to the basic information about the child and their parents, a birth certificate may also include information about the child's birth weight, length, and other physical characteristics. It may also include information about any complications or medical conditions that the child experienced during or after birth. Overall, a birth certificate is a critical document that provides important information about a child's birth and is used for a variety of legal and administrative purposes.
In the medical field, the cause of death is the underlying reason or condition that directly led to a person's death. It is the primary factor that initiated the chain of events that ultimately resulted in the person's demise. The cause of death is typically determined by a medical examiner or a doctor who has been authorized to issue a death certificate. This determination is based on a thorough examination of the person's medical history, physical examination, and any relevant test results. The cause of death can be either an acute or chronic condition, and it can be related to a variety of factors, including illness, injury, genetics, environmental factors, or lifestyle choices. Some common causes of death include heart disease, cancer, stroke, respiratory failure, and accidents.
A death certificate is a legal document that confirms the death of an individual and provides information about the cause and circumstances of their death. It is typically issued by a medical examiner, coroner, or physician who was involved in the individual's care and is required by law in most countries. The death certificate is used for a variety of purposes, including settling financial affairs, determining eligibility for government benefits, and verifying the cause of death for insurance purposes. It typically includes information such as the individual's name, date and place of birth, date and place of death, and the cause and manner of death.
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is a medical condition in which an infant under one year of age dies suddenly and unexpectedly, without any apparent cause or explanation. SIDS is also known as crib death or cot death. SIDS is a leading cause of death in infants in many countries, and the exact cause of SIDS is not fully understood. However, it is believed to be related to a combination of factors, including abnormalities in the infant's brainstem, problems with the infant's heart and lungs, and exposure to environmental factors such as smoke or overheating. SIDS typically occurs during sleep, and the infant may appear to be healthy and well before the sudden death. There are no warning signs or symptoms of SIDS, and the condition cannot be prevented or predicted. If a baby dies suddenly and unexpectedly, it is important to have a thorough investigation by a medical examiner or coroner to determine the cause of death. This can help to identify any risk factors or underlying conditions that may have contributed to the death and may help to prevent similar deaths in the future.
In the medical field, birth weight refers to the weight of a newborn baby at the time of delivery. It is typically measured in grams or ounces and is an important indicator of a baby's health and development. Birth weight is influenced by a variety of factors, including the mother's health, nutrition, and lifestyle, as well as the baby's genetics and gestational age. Babies who are born with a low birth weight (less than 2,500 grams or 5.5 pounds) are considered premature or small for gestational age, which can increase their risk of health problems such as respiratory distress syndrome, jaundice, and infections. On the other hand, babies who are born with a high birth weight (greater than 4,000 grams or 8.8 pounds) may be at risk for complications such as shoulder dystocia, which can lead to nerve damage or other injuries during delivery. Overall, birth weight is an important measure of a baby's health and development, and healthcare providers closely monitor it during pregnancy and delivery to ensure the best possible outcomes for both the mother and baby.
In the medical field, congenital abnormalities refer to birth defects or anomalies that occur during fetal development and are present at birth. These abnormalities can affect any part of the body, including the heart, brain, spine, limbs, and organs. Congenital abnormalities can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic mutations, environmental factors, infections during pregnancy, and exposure to certain medications or substances. Some congenital abnormalities may be inherited from parents, while others may occur spontaneously. The severity of congenital abnormalities can vary widely, ranging from minor physical deformities to life-threatening conditions that require immediate medical attention. Treatment options for congenital abnormalities depend on the specific condition and may include surgery, medication, therapy, or other interventions. Overall, congenital abnormalities are a significant health concern, and early detection and intervention can help improve outcomes for affected individuals.
Infant, Premature, Diseases refers to health conditions that affect premature infants, who are born before the completion of 37 weeks of gestation. Premature infants are at a higher risk of developing various medical conditions due to their underdeveloped organs and immune systems. Some common diseases that can affect premature infants include respiratory distress syndrome, necrotizing enterocolitis, retinopathy of prematurity, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. These conditions can be life-threatening and require specialized medical care and treatment. Early detection and intervention are crucial for improving the outcomes of premature infants with these diseases.
In the medical field, "Infant, Newborn, Diseases" refers to illnesses or medical conditions that affect infants and newborns. These diseases can range from minor infections to more serious conditions that require immediate medical attention. Some common diseases that can affect infants and newborns include respiratory infections, such as pneumonia and bronchitis, gastrointestinal infections, such as diarrhea and vomiting, and infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Other conditions that can affect infants and newborns include jaundice, congenital anomalies, and birth defects. Infants and newborns are particularly vulnerable to infections and diseases because their immune systems are not fully developed, and they may not have the same level of protection as older children and adults. As a result, it is important for healthcare providers to closely monitor infants and newborns for any signs of illness or disease and to provide prompt and appropriate medical care when necessary.
Child mortality refers to the number of deaths of children under the age of five per 1,000 live births in a given population or geographic area. It is a commonly used measure of the health and well-being of children in a community or country. Child mortality is an important indicator of the overall health of a population, as it reflects the quality of healthcare, access to basic services, and living conditions in a given area. High child mortality rates are often associated with poverty, malnutrition, lack of access to healthcare, and poor sanitation. Reducing child mortality is a key goal of public health efforts and is often included in national development plans and international development goals.
In the medical field, fetal death, also known as stillbirth, refers to the death of a fetus that occurs after 20 weeks of gestation. This means that the fetus has died before it is born, either spontaneously or as a result of medical intervention. Fetal death can occur for a variety of reasons, including genetic abnormalities, infections, maternal health problems, and complications during pregnancy such as placental abruption or preterm labor. In cases of fetal death, medical professionals will typically perform an autopsy to determine the cause of death and to rule out any potential medical conditions that may have contributed to the death. This information can be important for both the mother and the family, as it can help to identify any underlying health issues and prevent similar complications from occurring in future pregnancies.
In the medical field, the birth rate refers to the number of live births per 1,000 people in a population over a specific period of time, usually a year. It is a measure of the fertility level of a population and is used to track changes in population growth and demographics. The birth rate can be calculated for different age groups within a population, such as women of childbearing age, and can be used to compare different populations or regions. It is an important indicator of public health and can be influenced by various factors, including access to healthcare, cultural and social norms, and economic conditions.
Cohort studies are a type of observational study in the medical field that involves following a group of individuals (a cohort) over time to identify the incidence of a particular disease or health outcome. The individuals in the cohort are typically selected based on a common characteristic, such as age, gender, or exposure to a particular risk factor. During the study, researchers collect data on the health and lifestyle of the cohort members, and then compare the incidence of the disease or health outcome between different subgroups within the cohort. This can help researchers identify risk factors or protective factors associated with the disease or outcome. Cohort studies are useful for studying the long-term effects of exposure to a particular risk factor, such as smoking or air pollution, on the development of a disease. They can also be used to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions or treatments for a particular disease. One of the main advantages of cohort studies is that they can provide strong evidence of causality, as the exposure and outcome are measured over a long period of time and in the same group of individuals. However, they can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and may be subject to biases if the cohort is not representative of the general population.
Breastfeeding is the process of nourishing an infant with breast milk produced by a woman's mammary glands. It is a natural and instinctive behavior that provides numerous benefits for both the mother and the baby. Breastfeeding is typically recommended as the optimal method of feeding infants for the first six months of life, and it can continue for up to two years or longer, depending on the mother and baby's needs and preferences. Breast milk is considered the ideal source of nutrition for infants, as it contains all the necessary nutrients, antibodies, and hormones that are essential for their growth and development. Breastfeeding also promotes bonding between the mother and baby, and it can reduce the risk of several health problems, including infections, allergies, and chronic diseases. In the medical field, healthcare providers often encourage and support breastfeeding, and they may provide guidance and resources to help mothers establish and maintain a successful breastfeeding relationship with their babies.
Premature birth is a medical condition in which a baby is born before the 37th week of pregnancy. This is considered to be a premature birth if the baby is born before 37 weeks of gestation, regardless of the baby's weight or health. Premature babies are at a higher risk of health problems, such as respiratory distress syndrome, jaundice, infections, and developmental delays. They may also require special medical care in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) to help them grow and develop properly. Premature birth is a common complication of pregnancy, and it can be caused by a variety of factors, including maternal health problems, infections, and complications during pregnancy.
In the medical field, birth order refers to the position of a person in their family in terms of their birth order. It is a commonly studied topic in the field of psychology and has been linked to various personality traits, behaviors, and outcomes. The concept of birth order suggests that the birth order of siblings can influence their personality, behavior, and development. For example, first-born children are often seen as more responsible, organized, and ambitious, while middle children may be more adaptable and outgoing, and youngest children may be more creative and independent. Birth order can also be influenced by factors such as family size, gender, and the age gap between siblings. For example, families with larger families may have more opportunities for siblings to interact and develop their own unique personalities, while families with smaller families may have more pressure on each child to excel. Overall, birth order is an important factor to consider in understanding individual differences in personality and behavior, and can provide valuable insights into the development of children and families.
In the medical field, "Brazil" typically refers to the country located in South America. Brazil is the largest country in both South America and Latin America, and it is known for its diverse population, rich culture, and natural resources. In terms of healthcare, Brazil has a publicly funded healthcare system called the Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde, or SUS). The SUS provides free or low-cost healthcare services to all Brazilian citizens and residents, including primary care, hospitalization, and specialized medical care. Brazil has also made significant strides in public health, particularly in the areas of infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and dengue fever. The country has implemented widespread vaccination programs and has made efforts to improve access to healthcare services in underserved areas. However, Brazil still faces significant challenges in the healthcare sector, including a shortage of healthcare professionals, inadequate infrastructure, and disparities in access to healthcare services between different regions and socioeconomic groups.
Cultural deprivation is a term used in the medical field to describe the negative effects on an individual's physical and mental health that can result from being isolated from or excluded from their cultural group. This can include a lack of access to cultural practices, beliefs, and traditions, as well as a lack of exposure to the language and customs of one's cultural group. Cultural deprivation can have a number of negative effects on an individual's health, including increased stress, anxiety, and depression. It can also lead to a sense of disconnection from one's cultural identity, which can have long-term effects on an individual's mental health and well-being. In the medical field, cultural deprivation is often considered a form of health disparities, which are differences in health outcomes that are experienced by different groups of people based on factors such as race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and geographic location. Addressing cultural deprivation is an important part of efforts to reduce health disparities and improve health outcomes for all individuals.
In the medical field, "age factors" refer to the effects of aging on the body and its various systems. As people age, their bodies undergo a variety of changes that can impact their health and well-being. These changes can include: 1. Decreased immune function: As people age, their immune system becomes less effective at fighting off infections and diseases. 2. Changes in metabolism: Aging can cause changes in the way the body processes food and uses energy, which can lead to weight gain, insulin resistance, and other metabolic disorders. 3. Cardiovascular changes: Aging can lead to changes in the heart and blood vessels, including increased risk of heart disease, stroke, and high blood pressure. 4. Cognitive changes: Aging can affect memory, attention, and other cognitive functions, which can lead to conditions such as dementia and Alzheimer's disease. 5. Joint and bone changes: Aging can cause changes in the joints and bones, including decreased bone density and increased risk of osteoporosis and arthritis. 6. Skin changes: Aging can cause changes in the skin, including wrinkles, age spots, and decreased elasticity. 7. Hormonal changes: Aging can cause changes in hormone levels, including decreased estrogen in women and decreased testosterone in men, which can lead to a variety of health issues. Overall, age factors play a significant role in the development of many health conditions and can impact a person's quality of life. It is important for individuals to be aware of these changes and to take steps to maintain their health and well-being as they age.
Diarrhea, infantile, is a common condition in young children characterized by frequent, loose stools. It is typically defined as having at least three loose or watery stools in a 24-hour period in infants less than 12 months of age. Infantile diarrhea can be caused by a variety of factors, including viral or bacterial infections, food allergies or intolerances, and malnutrition. It can also be a symptom of more serious underlying conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease or cystic fibrosis. Diarrhea in infants can lead to dehydration, which can be life-threatening if left untreated. Treatment typically involves rehydration therapy, which involves giving the child fluids to replace lost fluids and electrolytes. In some cases, antibiotics may be necessary to treat bacterial infections. It is important to seek medical attention if an infant has diarrhea that lasts more than a few days or is accompanied by other symptoms such as fever, vomiting, or blood in the stool.
Pregnancy complications refer to any medical conditions or problems that arise during pregnancy that can potentially harm the mother or the developing fetus. These complications can range from minor issues that can be easily managed to life-threatening conditions that require immediate medical attention. Some common examples of pregnancy complications include gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, placenta previa, preterm labor, and miscarriage. Other complications may include infections, such as urinary tract infections or sexually transmitted infections, as well as conditions that can affect the baby, such as congenital anomalies or birth defects. Pregnancy complications can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lifestyle choices, underlying medical conditions, and environmental factors. Proper prenatal care and regular check-ups with a healthcare provider can help identify and manage pregnancy complications early on, reducing the risk of complications and improving outcomes for both the mother and the baby.
In the medical field, age distribution refers to the distribution of individuals within a population based on their age. It is a statistical measure that provides information about the age structure of a population, including the number and proportion of people in different age groups. Age distribution is important in medical research and public health because it can help identify patterns and trends in health outcomes, disease incidence, and mortality rates across different age groups. For example, age distribution can be used to identify which age groups are most at risk for certain diseases or conditions, and to develop targeted interventions to improve health outcomes in those groups. Age distribution can be measured in various ways, including by age range (e.g., 0-14 years, 15-24 years, etc.), by age group (e.g., children, adolescents, adults, seniors), or by age quintile (e.g., the first quintile includes the youngest 20% of the population, the second quintile includes the next 20%, etc.).
In the medical field, "African Americans" refers to individuals who are of African descent and live in the United States. This term is often used to describe the unique health challenges and disparities that this population faces, such as higher rates of certain diseases, lower access to healthcare, and poorer health outcomes compared to other racial and ethnic groups in the United States. Medical professionals may use this term to identify and address these disparities, and to develop targeted interventions and treatments to improve the health of African Americans.
In the medical field, "African Continental Ancestry Group" (ACAG) refers to a group of individuals who have a common ancestry traced back to the continent of Africa. This term is often used in medical research and genetic studies to describe the genetic makeup of individuals with African ancestry. ACAG is a broad category that encompasses a wide range of genetic diversity within Africa, as well as among individuals with African ancestry living outside of Africa. This diversity is due to the complex history of human migration and genetic admixture within and between different populations across the African continent. In medical research, ACAG is often used as a way to identify genetic variations and traits that are more common among individuals with African ancestry. This information can be used to better understand the genetic basis of certain diseases and health conditions that are more prevalent among individuals with ACAG, as well as to develop more effective treatments and prevention strategies.
In the medical field, "Continental Population Groups" refers to large groups of people who share common genetic and cultural characteristics based on their geographic origin. These groups are typically defined by continental regions such as Europe, Asia, Africa, North America, South America, and Australia. Continental Population Groups are important in medical research because they can help identify genetic and environmental factors that contribute to the development of certain diseases and health conditions. By studying these groups, researchers can gain insights into the underlying causes of these conditions and develop more effective treatments and prevention strategies. For example, studies of continental population groups have helped identify genetic variations that increase the risk of certain diseases, such as breast cancer and type 2 diabetes. These findings have led to the development of more targeted screening and treatment options for individuals in these groups. Overall, the study of Continental Population Groups is an important aspect of medical research that can help improve our understanding of human health and disease.
Demography is the study of human populations, including their size, growth, structure, distribution, and changes over time. In the medical field, demography is used to understand the health and healthcare needs of different populations, including age, gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Demographic data can be used to identify trends and patterns in health outcomes, such as disease incidence and mortality rates, and to inform public health policies and interventions. For example, demographers may analyze data on the aging population to identify the healthcare needs of older adults, or they may study the distribution of certain diseases in different racial and ethnic groups to inform targeted prevention and treatment efforts.
In the medical field, "Chile" typically refers to the country located in South America. It is home to a diverse population of approximately 19 million people and has a wide range of medical facilities and resources. Chile has a well-developed healthcare system, with a mix of public and private providers. The country has made significant progress in improving access to healthcare services, particularly in rural areas, and has implemented a number of programs to address health disparities. Some of the major health challenges facing Chile include infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis, as well as non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes. The country has also been working to address mental health issues, which have become a growing concern in recent years. Overall, Chile is a country with a strong commitment to improving the health and well-being of its population, and continues to invest in healthcare infrastructure and programs to achieve this goal.
In the medical field, the term "cities" typically refers to urban areas or densely populated regions that have a high concentration of people, buildings, and infrastructure. These areas can be characterized by a variety of factors, including high levels of pollution, traffic congestion, and social and economic inequality. In the context of public health, cities are often studied as they can have a significant impact on the health and well-being of their residents. For example, researchers may investigate the relationship between urbanization and the incidence of certain diseases, such as heart disease or respiratory illness, or they may study the impact of urban planning and design on physical activity levels and access to healthy food options. Overall, the term "cities" in the medical field is used to describe the complex and dynamic environments in which many people live and work, and to highlight the importance of considering the social, economic, and environmental factors that can influence health outcomes in urban areas.
I'm sorry, but I'm not aware of any medical term or concept related to "Alaska." It is possible that you may be referring to a specific medical condition or treatment that is named after the state of Alaska, but without more context or information, I am unable to provide a definition. If you could provide more details or clarify your question, I would be happy to try to help you further.
Delivery, Obstetric refers to the process of bringing a baby from the mother's womb to the outside world. It is a medical procedure that is typically performed by obstetricians, who are medical doctors specializing in pregnancy, childbirth, and the care of newborns. Obstetric delivery can be performed in a variety of ways, including vaginal delivery (also known as childbirth) and cesarean section (also known as C-section). The choice of delivery method depends on a variety of factors, including the health of the mother and baby, the stage of labor, and the position of the baby in the womb.
In the medical field, the term "Arabs" typically refers to individuals who are of Arab descent or who live in the Arab world. The Arab world is a region that encompasses North Africa and Western Asia, and includes countries such as Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Iraq, Syria, and many others. In the context of medicine, the term "Arabs" may be used to describe certain health conditions or diseases that are more prevalent in this population, such as diabetes, hypertension, and certain types of cancer. It may also be used to describe the cultural or linguistic differences that may affect the way that healthcare is delivered to Arab patients, or the way that Arab patients perceive and interact with the healthcare system. It is important to note that the term "Arabs" is a broad and diverse group, and does not necessarily refer to a single ethnicity or culture. Additionally, the term "Arab" should not be used to stereotype or generalize about any particular individual or group of people.
Child development refers to the physical, cognitive, social, and emotional changes that occur in children from birth to adolescence. It is a complex process that involves the interaction of genetic, environmental, and social factors. In the medical field, child development is studied by pediatricians, developmental psychologists, and other healthcare professionals to understand how children grow and develop, and to identify any potential problems or delays that may require intervention or treatment. This knowledge is used to promote healthy development and to provide appropriate care and support for children with developmental issues.
Pregnancy complications, infectious refers to medical conditions that arise during pregnancy due to infections. These infections can be caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites and can have serious consequences for both the mother and the developing fetus. Some common infectious complications of pregnancy include: 1. Urinary tract infections (UTIs): These infections can cause discomfort and pain, but with prompt treatment, they usually do not cause harm to the fetus. 2. Group B streptococcus (GBS) infection: This is a type of bacteria that can cause serious infections in newborns, including meningitis and pneumonia. Women who are pregnant or have recently given birth are screened for GBS and treated with antibiotics if they are found to be carrying the bacteria. 3. Toxoplasmosis: This is an infection caused by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii, which can be transmitted to the fetus through the placenta. It can cause miscarriage, stillbirth, or serious birth defects if left untreated. 4. Rubella (German measles): This is a viral infection that can cause serious birth defects if a pregnant woman is infected during the first trimester of pregnancy. 5. Syphilis: This is a bacterial infection that can be transmitted to the fetus through the placenta and cause serious birth defects if left untreated. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of infectious complications of pregnancy are crucial to ensure the health and well-being of both the mother and the developing fetus.
In the medical field, a census is a count or enumeration of all patients or residents in a particular healthcare facility or institution, such as a hospital, nursing home, or long-term care facility. The purpose of a census is to determine the number of patients or residents who are currently receiving care, as well as their demographic and clinical characteristics. A census is typically conducted at a specific point in time, such as the beginning or end of a shift, or at a predetermined interval, such as daily or weekly. The information collected during a census is used to plan and allocate resources, such as staffing, supplies, and equipment, to meet the needs of the patients or residents. In addition to the basic information about the patients or residents, a census may also include details about their medical history, current condition, and treatment plan. This information is used by healthcare providers to make informed decisions about the care and treatment of each patient or resident.
Child welfare in the medical field refers to the protection and promotion of the physical, emotional, and social well-being of children. It involves identifying and addressing any risks or threats to a child's health and safety, and providing support and services to families to help them meet their children's needs. Child welfare professionals, such as social workers, pediatricians, and nurses, work together to assess and address child welfare concerns. They may investigate reports of child abuse or neglect, provide counseling and therapy to families, and work with other agencies to ensure that children receive the necessary medical, educational, and emotional support. Child welfare also involves advocating for policies and programs that promote the health and well-being of children, such as access to healthcare, education, and safe housing. It is an important aspect of public health and is essential for ensuring that all children have the opportunity to grow and thrive.
In the medical field, a confidence interval is a range of values that is likely to contain a population parameter with a certain level of confidence. A population parameter is a characteristic of a population, such as the mean or proportion of a particular trait in a group of people. For example, a researcher might want to estimate the mean blood pressure of a population of adults. To do this, they might collect a sample of blood pressure measurements from a random group of adults and calculate the mean blood pressure of the sample. They could then use statistical methods to calculate a confidence interval for the mean blood pressure of the population. A 95% confidence interval means that there is a 95% chance that the true mean blood pressure of the population falls within the range of values given by the confidence interval. This is useful because it allows researchers to make statements about the population parameter with a certain level of certainty, even though they are only working with a sample of data. Confidence intervals are commonly used in medical research to estimate the effectiveness of treatments, to compare the results of different treatments, and to assess the accuracy of diagnostic tests. They are also used in other fields, such as economics and social sciences, to make inferences about population parameters.
Asphyxia neonatorum is a medical condition that occurs when a newborn baby experiences a lack of oxygen to the brain and other vital organs due to inadequate breathing or poor circulation. This can result in brain damage, seizures, and even death if not treated promptly. There are several causes of asphyxia neonatorum, including: 1. Fetal distress: This occurs when the baby experiences a lack of oxygen in the womb due to factors such as placental abruption, umbilical cord prolapse, or maternal hypertension. 2. Birth asphyxia: This occurs when the baby experiences a lack of oxygen during delivery due to factors such as prolonged labor, forceps delivery, or vacuum extraction. 3. Anoxia: This occurs when the baby experiences a lack of oxygen due to factors such as respiratory distress syndrome, meconium aspiration syndrome, or pneumonia. Symptoms of asphyxia neonatorum may include: 1. Blue or pale skin 2. Difficulty breathing or gasping for air 3. Weak or irregular heartbeat 4. Seizures 5. Coma Treatment for asphyxia neonatorum typically involves providing oxygen therapy, administering medications to stabilize the baby's heart rate and breathing, and providing supportive care to manage any complications that may arise. In severe cases, hospitalization in an intensive care unit may be necessary.
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a group of conditions that affect the heart and blood vessels. They are the leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for more than 17 million deaths each year. CVDs include conditions such as coronary artery disease (CAD), heart failure, arrhythmias, valvular heart disease, peripheral artery disease (PAD), and stroke. These conditions can be caused by a variety of factors, including high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, diabetes, obesity, and a family history of CVDs. Treatment for CVDs may include lifestyle changes, medications, and in some cases, surgery.
In the medical field, "Canada" typically refers to the country located in North America, bordered by the United States to the south and the Arctic Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, and Pacific Ocean to the north, east, and west, respectively. Canada is the second-largest country in the world by land area and has a diverse population of over 38 million people. In the context of healthcare, Canada has a publicly funded healthcare system known as Medicare, which provides universal coverage for medically necessary hospital and physician services to all Canadian citizens and permanent residents. However, there are also private healthcare options available in Canada, and some Canadians may choose to seek medical treatment outside of the country. Canada is also home to a number of world-renowned medical research institutions and universities, including the University of Toronto, McGill University, and the University of British Columbia, which conduct cutting-edge research in fields such as genetics, immunology, and neuroscience.
In the medical field, bottle feeding refers to the process of providing an infant with formula or breast milk from a bottle instead of breastfeeding. Bottle feeding is often used when a mother is unable to breastfeed due to medical reasons, such as illness or the use of certain medications, or when a mother chooses to bottle feed for personal reasons. Bottle feeding can be done using a variety of bottles and nipples, and it is important to follow safe feeding practices to prevent the risk of choking or other complications.
In the medical field, Australasia generally refers to the region that includes Australia and New Zealand, as well as the surrounding islands and territories. This region is known for its unique flora and fauna, as well as its high rates of skin cancer due to the region's location in the southern hemisphere and its high levels of ultraviolet radiation. Medical research and treatment in Australasia often focuses on issues related to these unique characteristics of the region, as well as on broader health concerns such as infectious diseases, chronic conditions, and mental health.
In the medical field, an accident refers to an unexpected and unintended event that results in harm or injury to a person. Accidents can occur in a variety of settings, including at home, at work, or on the road, and can be caused by a variety of factors, such as human error, equipment failure, or environmental hazards. Medical accidents can take many forms, including surgical errors, medication errors, diagnostic errors, and adverse reactions to medical treatments. These accidents can result in a range of injuries, from minor cuts and bruises to more serious injuries such as broken bones, organ damage, or even death. In the medical field, accidents are typically considered preventable, and efforts are made to identify and address the underlying causes of accidents in order to prevent them from occurring in the future. This may involve implementing new safety protocols, providing additional training to medical staff, or improving the design of medical equipment and facilities.
Asphyxia is a medical condition that occurs when the body is deprived of oxygen for an extended period of time. This can happen due to a variety of reasons, including suffocation, drowning, choking, or carbon monoxide poisoning. Asphyxia can cause damage to the brain and other organs, and can be life-threatening if not treated promptly. Symptoms of asphyxia may include difficulty breathing, blue or purple lips and fingernails, convulsions, and loss of consciousness. Treatment for asphyxia typically involves providing oxygen to the body and addressing any underlying causes of the condition.
Bangladesh is a country located in South Asia. It is not directly related to the medical field, but it is important to note that healthcare in Bangladesh is a significant issue. The country has a high population density, with many people living in poverty and with limited access to healthcare services. As a result, many people in Bangladesh suffer from preventable and treatable diseases, such as tuberculosis, malaria, and diarrhea. In recent years, the government of Bangladesh has made efforts to improve healthcare services and reduce the burden of disease in the country.
Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin that is essential for maintaining good health. It is important for vision, immune function, and the growth and development of cells. Vitamin A is found in many foods, including liver, fish, dairy products, and fruits and vegetables. In the medical field, vitamin A deficiency can lead to a variety of health problems, including night blindness, dry skin, and an increased risk of infections. Vitamin A supplements are sometimes prescribed to people who are at risk of deficiency, such as pregnant women and children in developing countries.
Muscular atrophy, spinal, is a medical condition characterized by the wasting away or shrinkage of muscles in the spinal cord. This type of atrophy is caused by damage or injury to the spinal cord, which can result from a variety of factors such as trauma, disease, or surgery. Symptoms of spinal muscular atrophy may include weakness or paralysis in the affected muscles, difficulty with movement or coordination, and muscle cramps or spasms. The severity of the condition can vary widely depending on the extent of the spinal cord damage and the location of the affected muscles. Treatment for spinal muscular atrophy typically involves a combination of physical therapy, medication, and assistive devices such as braces or wheelchairs. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to address underlying spinal cord damage or to improve mobility and function.
In the medical field, birth intervals refer to the time between the birth of one child and the birth of the next child. This can be measured in months, years, or other units of time. Birth intervals are an important factor in reproductive health, as they can impact a woman's risk of pregnancy-related complications, such as preterm birth, low birth weight, and maternal mortality. Short birth intervals, defined as less than 24 months between births, are associated with higher risks of these complications, while longer birth intervals, defined as greater than 36 months between births, are associated with lower risks. Birth intervals can be influenced by a variety of factors, including a woman's age, parity (number of children she has had), use of contraception, and cultural and social norms around family planning. Understanding birth intervals is important for healthcare providers and policymakers in developing effective strategies to promote reproductive health and reduce maternal and child mortality.
Survival of Motor Neuron 1 (SMN1) protein is a protein that plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of motor neurons, which are specialized nerve cells that control muscle movement. Mutations in the SMN1 gene can lead to a group of inherited disorders known as spinal muscular atrophies (SMAs), which are characterized by progressive muscle weakness and atrophy. SMN1 protein is synthesized in the nucleus of cells and then transported to the cytoplasm, where it helps to assemble and stabilize snRNPs (small nuclear ribonucleoproteins), which are essential for the processing of pre-mRNA (messenger RNA) into mature mRNA. This process is critical for the production of proteins, including those involved in muscle function. In individuals with SMA, mutations in the SMN1 gene lead to a deficiency in SMN1 protein, which in turn disrupts the assembly and function of snRNPs. This results in a reduction in the production of proteins necessary for muscle function, leading to progressive muscle weakness and atrophy. SMN1 protein is the primary gene responsible for SMA, but a second gene called SMN2 can also produce a functional protein. However, the amount of functional protein produced by SMN2 is much lower than that produced by SMN1, which contributes to the severity of SMA in affected individuals.
Child Health Services refer to the healthcare services and programs that are specifically designed to promote and maintain the health and well-being of children from birth to adolescence. These services are provided by healthcare professionals, including pediatricians, nurses, nutritionists, and social workers, among others. Child Health Services may include routine check-ups, vaccinations, screenings for various health conditions, treatment for illnesses and injuries, and preventive care measures such as nutrition counseling and mental health support. These services may also address the unique health needs of children with special needs or disabilities. Child Health Services are essential for ensuring that children receive the care they need to grow and develop into healthy adults. They are typically provided through a variety of settings, including hospitals, clinics, schools, and community centers.
The term "Arab World" in the medical field generally refers to the countries and regions where Arabic is the primary language and where the majority of the population is of Arab descent. This includes countries such as Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, the United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. In the medical field, the Arab World is often studied in terms of its unique health challenges and healthcare systems. For example, the Arab World has a high prevalence of certain chronic diseases, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease, and there may be cultural and linguistic barriers to accessing healthcare services. Additionally, the Arab World has a diverse range of healthcare systems, with some countries having universal healthcare coverage and others relying on private insurance or out-of-pocket payments. Overall, the Arab World is an important region to study in the medical field due to its unique cultural, linguistic, and health challenges.
In the medical field, the term "Appalachian Region" typically refers to a geographic area in the eastern United States that includes the Appalachian Mountains and the states and territories that border them. The region is known for its unique cultural and socioeconomic characteristics, as well as its high rates of certain health problems, such as obesity, diabetes, and heart disease. The Appalachian Region is home to a diverse population, including Native American, African American, European American, and Hispanic/Latino communities. The region also has a high prevalence of poverty and limited access to healthcare, which can contribute to health disparities and poor health outcomes. In the medical field, the Appalachian Region is often studied as a model for understanding the complex interplay between social, economic, and environmental factors that influence health. Researchers and healthcare providers in the region work to develop and implement effective interventions to address these health disparities and improve the overall health of the population.
In the medical field, crying is a normal and healthy response to a variety of emotional and physical stimuli. It is a reflexive response that involves the release of tears from the lacrimal glands in the eyes, which helps to lubricate and protect the eyes. Crying can be a sign of emotional distress, such as sadness, grief, or anxiety, and can also be a response to physical pain or discomfort. In some cases, crying may be a symptom of a medical condition, such as depression, anxiety disorders, or a neurological disorder. In medical settings, crying may be observed in patients who are experiencing emotional distress or pain, and healthcare providers may use techniques such as empathy, active listening, and counseling to help patients manage their emotions and cope with their condition. In some cases, medication or other treatments may also be prescribed to help manage symptoms of emotional distress or pain.
In the medical field, "California" typically refers to the state of California in the United States, which is known for its diverse population, large number of healthcare facilities, and cutting-edge medical research and technology. California is home to some of the top medical schools and research institutions in the country, and is a major center for medical innovation and development. Medical professionals and researchers in California are often at the forefront of new medical discoveries and treatments, and the state is known for its high standards of medical care and attention to patient needs.
In the medical field, air pollutants refer to any substances that are present in the air and can have harmful effects on human health. These pollutants can be natural or man-made and can include gases, particles, and other substances that are released into the air through various sources such as industrial processes, transportation, and natural phenomena like wildfires. Some common air pollutants that are of concern in the medical field include: 1. Particulate matter (PM): These are tiny particles that are suspended in the air and can be inhaled into the lungs. PM can come from a variety of sources, including vehicle exhaust, industrial emissions, and wildfires. 2. Ozone (O3): Ozone is a gas that is formed when nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds react in the presence of sunlight. It can cause respiratory problems and exacerbate existing conditions like asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). 3. Sulfur dioxide (SO2): SO2 is a gas that is produced by burning fossil fuels and can cause respiratory problems, particularly in people with pre-existing conditions like asthma. 4. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2): NO2 is a gas that is produced by vehicle exhaust and can cause respiratory problems and contribute to the formation of ground-level ozone. 5. Carbon monoxide (CO): CO is a gas that is produced by incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and can interfere with the body's ability to use oxygen, leading to symptoms like headaches, dizziness, and nausea. 6. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs): VOCs are a group of chemicals that can evaporate easily and can cause respiratory problems and other health issues when inhaled. Overall, exposure to air pollutants can have a range of negative effects on human health, including respiratory problems, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Therefore, it is important to monitor and control air pollution levels to protect public health.
Obstetric labor complications refer to any problems that arise during pregnancy, labor, or delivery that can potentially harm the mother or the baby. These complications can range from minor issues that can be easily managed to life-threatening emergencies that require immediate medical attention. Some common obstetric labor complications include: 1. Preterm labor: This occurs when labor starts before 37 weeks of pregnancy, which can lead to premature birth and associated health risks for the baby. 2. Fetal distress: This occurs when the baby is not getting enough oxygen, which can lead to low birth weight, brain damage, or even death. 3. Uterine rupture: This occurs when the uterus tears during labor, which can be life-threatening for both the mother and the baby. 4. Postpartum hemorrhage: This occurs when the mother experiences excessive bleeding after delivery, which can lead to shock and even death if not treated promptly. 5. Placenta previa: This occurs when the placenta covers the cervix, which can lead to bleeding during pregnancy or delivery. 6. Gestational diabetes: This occurs when the mother develops high blood sugar during pregnancy, which can increase the risk of complications for both the mother and the baby. 7. Preeclampsia: This is a serious condition that can develop during pregnancy and is characterized by high blood pressure and damage to organs such as the liver and kidneys. These are just a few examples of the many obstetric labor complications that can occur. It is important for healthcare providers to be aware of these potential complications and to take appropriate steps to prevent and manage them when they do occur.
HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infections refer to the presence of the HIV virus in the body. HIV is a retrovirus that attacks and weakens the immune system, making individuals more susceptible to infections and diseases. HIV is transmitted through contact with infected bodily fluids, such as blood, semen, vaginal fluids, and breast milk. The most common modes of transmission include unprotected sexual contact, sharing needles or syringes, and from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding. HIV infections can be diagnosed through blood tests that detect the presence of the virus or antibodies produced in response to the virus. Once diagnosed, HIV can be managed with antiretroviral therapy (ART), which helps to suppress the virus and prevent the progression of the disease to AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). It is important to note that HIV is not the same as AIDS. HIV is the virus that causes AIDS, but not everyone with HIV will develop AIDS. With proper treatment and management, individuals with HIV can live long and healthy lives.
Survival of Motor Neuron 2 (SMN2) protein is a protein that plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of motor neurons, which are specialized nerve cells that control muscle movement. Mutations in the SMN1 gene, which codes for the production of SMN2 protein, can lead to a group of rare genetic disorders known as spinal muscular atrophies (SMAs), which are characterized by progressive muscle weakness and atrophy. SMN2 protein is produced in response to the presence of SMN1 protein, and it is thought to function as a backup in case the primary source of SMN protein is lost or reduced. However, mutations in the SMN1 gene can lead to reduced levels of SMN2 protein, which can result in the development of SMA. SMN2 protein is synthesized in the cytoplasm of cells and is then transported to the nucleus, where it plays a role in the assembly of snRNPs (small nuclear ribonucleoproteins), which are complexes of RNA and proteins that are involved in the processing of pre-mRNA (unprocessed messenger RNA) into mature mRNA (messenger RNA). Mutations in the SMN1 gene can lead to reduced levels of SMN2 protein, which can result in the disruption of snRNP assembly and the development of SMA. SMN2 protein is a target of ongoing research in the field of neurology, as it is hoped that therapies that can increase the production or function of SMN2 protein may be effective in treating SMA and other related disorders.
Obstetric labor, premature refers to the delivery of a baby before 37 weeks of gestation. Premature labor is a common complication of pregnancy and can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections, hormonal imbalances, and structural abnormalities of the uterus or cervix. Premature labor can be classified as either "incomplete" or "complete." Incomplete premature labor is characterized by contractions that are not strong enough to dilate the cervix and deliver the baby. Complete premature labor, on the other hand, is characterized by regular, painful contractions that are strong enough to dilate the cervix and progress towards delivery. Premature labor can be managed with medications to slow or stop labor, or in some cases, with surgery to deliver the baby. Premature babies may require special care in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) to help them grow and develop properly.
Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn (RDS) is a common lung disorder that affects newborn infants, particularly those who are premature or have a low birth weight. It occurs when the lungs are not fully developed and are unable to function properly, leading to difficulty breathing and a lack of oxygen in the blood. RDS is caused by a deficiency in a protein called surfactant, which helps to keep the air sacs in the lungs open and prevent them from collapsing. Surfactant is produced by cells in the lungs, but it is not fully developed in premature infants. As a result, their lungs are more prone to collapsing, which can lead to RDS. Symptoms of RDS include rapid breathing, blue or gray skin, difficulty feeding, and a high-pitched, whistling sound when breathing. Treatment typically involves providing oxygen and using a machine called a ventilator to help the baby breathe. Surfactant replacement therapy may also be used to help the lungs produce enough surfactant to function properly. RDS is a serious condition that can be life-threatening if left untreated. However, with proper medical care, most infants with RDS can recover fully and go on to lead healthy lives.
Infection is a disease caused by the invasion and multiplication of pathogenic microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites, in the body. These microorganisms can enter the body through various routes, such as the respiratory system, digestive system, skin, or bloodstream. Infections can cause a wide range of symptoms, depending on the type of microorganism and the affected body. Common symptoms of infections include fever, chills, fatigue, body aches, cough, sore throat, runny nose, diarrhea, vomiting, and skin rashes. Infections can be treated with antibiotics, antiviral drugs, antifungal medications, or antiparasitic drugs, depending on the type of microorganism causing the infection. In some cases, supportive care, such as rest, fluids, and pain relief, may be necessary to help the body fight off the infection. Preventing infections is also important, and can be achieved through good hygiene practices, such as washing hands regularly, covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing, and avoiding close contact with sick individuals. Vaccines can also be used to prevent certain types of infections, such as influenza, measles, and pneumonia.
Infant nutrition disorders refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the nutritional status of infants. These disorders can arise due to various factors such as poor feeding habits, inadequate nutrient intake, malabsorption, or metabolic disorders. Some common examples of infant nutrition disorders include: 1. Failure to thrive: This is a condition where an infant fails to gain weight and grow at the expected rate. It can be caused by poor feeding habits, inadequate nutrient intake, or underlying medical conditions. 2. Malnutrition: This refers to a deficiency in one or more essential nutrients, such as protein, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, or minerals. Malnutrition can lead to a range of health problems, including stunted growth, weakened immune system, and cognitive impairment. 3. Gastrointestinal disorders: These include conditions such as lactose intolerance, food allergies, and inflammatory bowel disease, which can affect an infant's ability to absorb nutrients from food. 4. Metabolic disorders: These are genetic conditions that affect the way the body processes nutrients. Examples include phenylketonuria (PKU), galactosemia, and maple syrup urine disease. Infant nutrition disorders can have serious consequences for an infant's health and development if left untreated. Early detection and appropriate management are crucial to prevent long-term complications.
In the medical field, "Chicago" typically refers to the Chicago School of Anesthesia, which was founded in the late 19th century and is considered one of the most influential schools of anesthesia in the world. The Chicago School emphasized the use of ether as an anesthetic and the importance of aseptic technique in surgery. The school's founders and faculty, including William M. Halsted and John H. Kellogg, made significant contributions to the development of modern anesthesia and surgical techniques.
Postoperative complications are adverse events that occur after a surgical procedure. They can range from minor issues, such as bruising or discomfort, to more serious problems, such as infection, bleeding, or organ damage. Postoperative complications can occur for a variety of reasons, including surgical errors, anesthesia errors, infections, allergic reactions to medications, and underlying medical conditions. They can also be caused by factors such as poor nutrition, dehydration, and smoking. Postoperative complications can have serious consequences for patients, including prolonged hospital stays, additional surgeries, and even death. Therefore, it is important for healthcare providers to take steps to prevent postoperative complications and to promptly recognize and treat them if they do occur.
In the medical field, "Africa South of the Sahara" typically refers to the region of Africa located south of the Sahara Desert, which is the largest hot desert in the world. This region encompasses a vast and diverse range of countries, cultures, and climates, and is home to a significant portion of the world's population. The medical field in Africa South of the Sahara faces a number of unique challenges, including limited access to healthcare services, high rates of infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis, and a shortage of trained healthcare professionals. In recent years, there has been a growing focus on improving healthcare in this region, with initiatives aimed at increasing access to healthcare services, improving the quality of care, and addressing the underlying social and economic factors that contribute to poor health outcomes.
Case-control studies are a type of observational study used in the medical field to investigate the relationship between an exposure and an outcome. In a case-control study, researchers identify individuals who have experienced a particular outcome (cases) and compare their exposure history to a group of individuals who have not experienced the outcome (controls). The main goal of a case-control study is to determine whether the exposure was a risk factor for the outcome. To do this, researchers collect information about the exposure history of both the cases and the controls and compare the two groups to see if there is a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of the exposure between the two groups. Case-control studies are often used when the outcome of interest is rare, and it is difficult or unethical to conduct a prospective cohort study. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to recall bias, where participants may not accurately remember their exposure history. Additionally, because case-control studies only provide information about the association between an exposure and an outcome, they cannot establish causality.
In the medical field, neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors of cells that can occur in any part of the body. These growths can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms are usually slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the body. They can cause symptoms such as pain, swelling, or difficulty moving the affected area. Examples of benign neoplasms include lipomas (fatty tumors), hemangiomas (vascular tumors), and fibromas (fibrous tumors). Malignant neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancerous and can spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. They can cause a wide range of symptoms, depending on the location and stage of the cancer. Examples of malignant neoplasms include carcinomas (cancers that start in epithelial cells), sarcomas (cancers that start in connective tissue), and leukemias (cancers that start in blood cells). The diagnosis of neoplasms typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy (the removal of a small sample of tissue for examination under a microscope). Treatment options for neoplasms depend on the type, stage, and location of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences.
Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are structural abnormalities in the heart that are present at birth. These defects can affect the heart's structure, function, or both, and can range from minor to severe. CHDs are the most common type of birth defect and affect approximately 1 in 100 live births. CHDs can occur in any part of the heart, including the valves, arteries, veins, and chambers. Some common types of CHDs include: - Atrial septal defect (ASD): A hole in the wall between the two upper chambers of the heart. - Ventricular septal defect (VSD): A hole in the wall between the two lower chambers of the heart. - Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA): A blood vessel that remains open between the pulmonary artery and the aorta. - Coarctation of the aorta: A narrowing of the aorta, the main artery that carries blood from the heart to the rest of the body. - Tetralogy of Fallot: A combination of four heart defects that affect the flow of blood through the heart. CHDs can cause a range of symptoms, including shortness of breath, fatigue, chest pain, and heart palpitations. Treatment for CHDs depends on the type and severity of the defect, and may include medications, surgery, or other interventions. Early diagnosis and treatment are important for improving outcomes and reducing the risk of complications.
Air pollution refers to the presence of harmful substances in the air that can have negative effects on human health. These substances can include particulate matter, gases such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, and volatile organic compounds. Exposure to air pollution can cause a range of health problems, including respiratory issues such as asthma and bronchitis, cardiovascular disease, and even cancer. In the medical field, air pollution is considered a significant public health concern, and efforts are being made to reduce exposure to these harmful substances through measures such as regulations on industrial emissions and the promotion of clean energy sources.
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a chronic lung disease that affects premature infants who require mechanical ventilation and oxygen therapy to survive. It is characterized by abnormal development and function of the lungs, specifically the bronchial tubes and pulmonary alveoli. BPD is caused by a combination of factors, including mechanical ventilation, oxygen therapy, and exposure to lung-injuring substances such as smoke or pollution. These factors can damage the delicate airways and alveoli in the lungs, leading to inflammation, scarring, and reduced lung function. Symptoms of BPD can include difficulty breathing, wheezing, coughing, and recurrent respiratory infections. The severity of BPD can vary widely, ranging from mild to severe, and can persist into childhood and even adulthood. Treatment for BPD typically involves a combination of medications, oxygen therapy, and respiratory support, such as bronchodilators, corticosteroids, and pulmonary rehabilitation. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to improve lung function.
Sepsis is a serious medical condition that occurs when the body's response to an infection causes widespread inflammation throughout the body. It is a life-threatening condition that can lead to organ failure, septic shock, and even death if not treated promptly and effectively. Sepsis can develop from any type of infection, including bacterial, viral, fungal, or parasitic infections. The body's immune system responds to the infection by releasing chemicals called cytokines, which can cause inflammation throughout the body. This inflammation can damage tissues and organs, leading to a range of symptoms, including fever, chills, rapid heartbeat, rapid breathing, confusion, and decreased urine output. Diagnosis of sepsis typically involves a combination of clinical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to treat the underlying infection, as well as supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications. In severe cases, treatment may include fluid resuscitation, vasopressors to maintain blood pressure, and organ support. Early recognition and prompt treatment of sepsis are critical for improving outcomes and reducing the risk of death.
Pregnancy complications related to parasites refer to health problems that occur during pregnancy as a result of infections caused by parasites. These infections can be transmitted from the mother to the fetus, leading to complications for both the mother and the baby. Some common parasites that can cause pregnancy complications include: 1. Toxoplasmosis: This is caused by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii and can be transmitted to the fetus through the placenta. It can cause miscarriage, stillbirth, or birth defects such as hydrocephalus, brain damage, and vision problems. 2. Malaria: This is caused by the Plasmodium parasite and is transmitted through the bite of an infected mosquito. It can cause anemia, low birth weight, and preterm birth. 3. Chagas disease: This is caused by the Trypanosoma cruzi parasite and is transmitted through the feces of infected triatomine bugs. It can cause miscarriage, stillbirth, and birth defects such as heart problems. 4. Schistosomiasis: This is caused by the Schistosoma parasite and is transmitted through contact with contaminated water. It can cause anemia, low birth weight, and preterm birth. 5. Leishmaniasis: This is caused by the Leishmania parasite and is transmitted through the bite of an infected sandfly. It can cause miscarriage, stillbirth, and birth defects such as hydrocephalus. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of these infections are crucial to prevent complications for both the mother and the baby.
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects (PEDs) refer to the long-term health effects that can occur in an individual as a result of exposure to environmental or genetic factors during pregnancy. PEDs can manifest in a variety of ways, including physical, behavioral, and cognitive impairments, and can occur even if the exposure occurred many years before the individual's birth. PEDs can result from exposure to a wide range of substances, including drugs, alcohol, tobacco, pollutants, and infections. These exposures can affect the developing fetus in various ways, including disrupting normal growth and development, altering gene expression, and causing damage to organs and systems. PEDs can also result from genetic factors, such as inherited disorders or mutations. These genetic factors can increase the risk of developing certain health conditions, such as autism, ADHD, and learning disabilities, even if the individual was not exposed to any environmental factors during pregnancy. Overall, PEDs highlight the importance of taking steps to protect pregnant women and their developing fetuses from exposure to harmful substances and environmental factors, as well as the need for ongoing monitoring and support for individuals who may be at risk for PEDs.
The Czech Republic is a country located in Central Europe. In the medical field, the Czech Republic is known for its healthcare system, which provides both public and private healthcare services to its citizens. The country has a well-developed healthcare infrastructure, with a large number of hospitals, clinics, and medical centers. The healthcare system is funded by a combination of public and private sources, and is regulated by the Ministry of Health. The Czech Republic is also home to several medical research institutions and universities, which contribute to the development of new medical technologies and treatments.
Fetal Growth Retardation (FGR) is a medical condition in which a fetus fails to grow and develop at a normal rate during pregnancy. This can be caused by a variety of factors, including maternal health problems, genetic factors, placental problems, and poor nutrition. FGR can lead to a range of complications for both the mother and the baby, including low birth weight, prematurity, and developmental delays. It is important for healthcare providers to monitor fetal growth during pregnancy and to diagnose and treat FGR as early as possible to minimize the risk of complications.
Myocardial infarction (MI), also known as a heart attack, is a medical condition that occurs when blood flow to a part of the heart muscle is blocked, usually by a blood clot. This lack of blood flow can cause damage to the heart muscle, which can lead to serious complications and even death if not treated promptly. The most common cause of a heart attack is atherosclerosis, a condition in which plaque builds up in the arteries that supply blood to the heart. When a plaque ruptures or becomes unstable, it can form a blood clot that blocks the flow of blood to the heart muscle. Other causes of heart attacks include coronary artery spasms, blood clots that travel to the heart from other parts of the body, and certain medical conditions such as Kawasaki disease. Symptoms of a heart attack may include chest pain or discomfort, shortness of breath, nausea or vomiting, lightheadedness or dizziness, and pain or discomfort in the arms, back, neck, jaw, or stomach. If you suspect that you or someone else is having a heart attack, it is important to call emergency services immediately. Early treatment with medications and possibly surgery can help to reduce the risk of serious complications and improve the chances of a full recovery.
In the medical field, the term "Arctic Regions" typically refers to the vast and remote areas located within the Arctic Circle, which includes the Arctic Ocean and the landmasses surrounding it, such as Greenland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia, and Canada. The Arctic Regions are characterized by extreme cold temperatures, long periods of darkness and light, and harsh environmental conditions, which can pose significant challenges to human health and well-being. Medical professionals working in these regions must be prepared to deal with a range of health issues, including hypothermia, frostbite, respiratory problems, and mental health issues such as depression and anxiety. In addition, the Arctic Regions are home to unique populations, including indigenous peoples who have lived in these areas for thousands of years and have developed their own traditional healing practices and knowledge of the local environment. Medical professionals working in the Arctic Regions must also be sensitive to these cultural differences and work collaboratively with local communities to provide culturally appropriate care.
In the medical field, particulate matter (PM) refers to tiny solid or liquid particles that are suspended in the air. These particles can be inhaled into the lungs and can cause a range of health problems, including respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. PM can be classified based on their size, with smaller particles being more harmful to health. PM2.5 refers to particles with a diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less, while PM10 refers to particles with a diameter of 10 micrometers or less. These particles can penetrate deep into the lungs and even enter the bloodstream, causing inflammation and oxidative stress. Exposure to high levels of PM can increase the risk of developing conditions such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer, and heart disease. It can also exacerbate existing health conditions and increase the risk of premature death. In summary, particulate matter is a type of air pollution that can have serious health consequences when inhaled. It is an important consideration in public health and environmental policy, and efforts are being made to reduce its levels in the air.
Developmental disabilities are a group of conditions that begin during early childhood and affect a person's ability to learn, communicate, and function independently. These disabilities can affect various areas of development, including cognitive, physical, and social-emotional development. Developmental disabilities are typically caused by genetic or environmental factors that occur before a person reaches the age of 21. They can range from mild to severe and can affect a person's ability to perform daily activities, such as dressing, feeding, and toileting. Examples of developmental disabilities include autism spectrum disorder, intellectual disability, cerebral palsy, Down syndrome, and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Treatment for developmental disabilities typically involves a combination of therapies, such as speech therapy, occupational therapy, and physical therapy, as well as educational and social support.
Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are a group of infections that affect the respiratory system, which includes the nose, throat, sinuses, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs. RTIs can be caused by a variety of viruses, bacteria, fungi, and other microorganisms. Common symptoms of RTIs include coughing, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, fever, and difficulty breathing. RTIs can range from mild to severe and can affect people of all ages, although young children, older adults, and people with weakened immune systems are more susceptible to severe infections. Treatment for RTIs depends on the specific cause and severity of the infection, and may include medications, rest, and fluids. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary.
Comorbidity refers to the presence of two or more medical conditions in the same individual at the same time. These conditions can be related or unrelated to each other, and they can affect the severity and treatment of each other. Comorbidity is common in many medical conditions, and it can complicate the diagnosis and management of the underlying condition. For example, a patient with diabetes may also have high blood pressure, which is a common comorbidity. The presence of comorbidity can affect the patient's prognosis, treatment options, and overall quality of life.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease caused by Plasmodium parasites. It is characterized by fever, chills, headache, muscle aches, and fatigue. In severe cases, it can lead to anemia, respiratory distress, organ failure, and death. Malaria is primarily found in tropical and subtropical regions, particularly in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. There are four main species of Plasmodium that can cause malaria in humans: P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae. Malaria is preventable and treatable, but，。
Cluster analysis is a statistical method used in the medical field to group patients or medical data based on similarities in their characteristics or outcomes. The goal of cluster analysis is to identify patterns or subgroups within a larger population that may have distinct clinical features, treatment responses, or outcomes. In the medical field, cluster analysis can be used for various purposes, such as: 1. Disease classification: Cluster analysis can be used to classify patients with similar disease characteristics or outcomes into distinct subgroups. This can help healthcare providers to tailor treatment plans to the specific needs of each subgroup. 2. Risk prediction: Cluster analysis can be used to identify subgroups of patients who are at high risk of developing a particular disease or condition. This can help healthcare providers to implement preventive measures or early interventions to reduce the risk of disease. 3. Drug discovery: Cluster analysis can be used to identify subgroups of patients who respond differently to a particular drug. This can help pharmaceutical companies to develop more targeted and effective treatments. 4. Clinical trial design: Cluster analysis can be used to design more efficient clinical trials by identifying subgroups of patients who are likely to respond to a particular treatment. Overall, cluster analysis is a powerful tool in the medical field that can help healthcare providers to better understand and manage patient populations, improve treatment outcomes, and advance medical research.
Cross-sectional studies are a type of observational research design used in the medical field to examine the prevalence or distribution of a particular health outcome or risk factor in a population at a specific point in time. In a cross-sectional study, data is collected from a sample of individuals who are all measured at the same time, rather than following them over time. Cross-sectional studies are useful for identifying associations between health outcomes and risk factors, but they cannot establish causality. For example, a cross-sectional study may find that people who smoke are more likely to have lung cancer than non-smokers, but it cannot determine whether smoking causes lung cancer or if people with lung cancer are more likely to smoke. Cross-sectional studies are often used in public health research to estimate the prevalence of diseases or conditions in a population, to identify risk factors for certain health outcomes, and to compare the health status of different groups of people. They can also be used to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions or to identify potential risk factors for disease outbreaks.
In the medical field, consanguinity refers to the degree of relationship between individuals based on their shared ancestry. It is typically measured by the coefficient of inbreeding, which is the probability that two individuals who share a common ancestor will produce offspring with a genetic disorder due to the increased likelihood of inheriting harmful recessive genes. Consanguinity is often used in genetic counseling to assess the risk of genetic disorders in offspring. For example, if both parents are first cousins, their coefficient of inbreeding is 0.0625, which means that their offspring has a 1 in 16 chance of inheriting a genetic disorder caused by recessive genes that are present in both parents. Consanguinity can also be used to study the genetic diversity of populations and to identify genetic disorders that are more prevalent in certain populations due to increased consanguinity.
In the medical field, causality refers to the relationship between an event or exposure and a health outcome. It is the determination of whether one event or exposure directly causes another event or health outcome, or if there is only an association between the two. Causality can be established through various methods, including observational studies, randomized controlled trials, and biological experiments. In observational studies, researchers collect data on the exposure and health outcome and analyze the relationship between them. In randomized controlled trials, participants are randomly assigned to receive either the exposure or a control group, and the outcomes are compared between the two groups. In biological experiments, researchers manipulate the exposure in a controlled environment and observe the effects on the health outcome. In the medical field, establishing causality is important for making informed decisions about treatment and prevention. For example, if a study shows a strong association between smoking and lung cancer, it does not necessarily mean that smoking causes lung cancer. However, if a randomized controlled trial shows that smokers who quit smoking have a significantly lower risk of developing lung cancer, it can be concluded that smoking causes lung cancer.
Enterocolitis, necrotizing is a severe form of inflammation of the small and large intestines, characterized by the presence of extensive areas of dead or dying tissue. It is also known as ischemic colitis or ischemic enteritis. The condition is typically caused by a lack of blood flow to the intestines, which can be due to a variety of factors, including blood clots, severe dehydration, or certain medications. Symptoms of enterocolitis, necrotizing may include abdominal pain, fever, nausea, vomiting, and bloody diarrhea. It is a medical emergency that requires prompt treatment, as it can lead to serious complications, such as sepsis, perforation of the intestines, and organ failure.
In the medical field, data collection refers to the process of gathering and organizing information about patients, their health conditions, and their medical treatments. This information is typically collected through various methods, such as medical history interviews, physical exams, diagnostic tests, and medical records. The purpose of data collection in medicine is to provide a comprehensive understanding of a patient's health status and to inform medical decision-making. This information can be used to diagnose and treat medical conditions, monitor the effectiveness of treatments, and identify potential health risks. Data collection in medicine is typically carried out by healthcare professionals, such as doctors, nurses, and medical researchers. The data collected may include demographic information, medical history, physical examination findings, laboratory test results, and imaging studies. This information is often stored in electronic health records (EHRs) for easy access and analysis. Overall, data collection is a critical component of medical practice, as it enables healthcare professionals to provide personalized and effective care to their patients.
Delivery of health care refers to the process of providing medical services and treatments to patients. It encompasses all aspects of patient care, from initial diagnosis and treatment planning to ongoing monitoring and follow-up. The delivery of health care can take place in a variety of settings, including hospitals, clinics, physician offices, and long-term care facilities. It involves a team of healthcare professionals, including physicians, nurses, pharmacists, and other allied health professionals, who work together to provide comprehensive and coordinated care to patients. The goal of the delivery of health care is to improve patient outcomes, promote health and wellness, and enhance the overall quality of life for individuals and communities.
Biological markers, also known as biomarkers, are measurable indicators of biological processes, pathogenic processes, or responses to therapeutic interventions. In the medical field, biological markers are used to diagnose, monitor, and predict the progression of diseases, as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of treatments. Biological markers can be found in various biological samples, such as blood, urine, tissue, or body fluids. They can be proteins, genes, enzymes, hormones, metabolites, or other molecules that are associated with a specific disease or condition. For example, in cancer, biological markers such as tumor markers can be used to detect the presence of cancer cells or to monitor the response to treatment. In cardiovascular disease, biological markers such as cholesterol levels or blood pressure can be used to assess the risk of heart attack or stroke. Overall, biological markers play a crucial role in medical research and clinical practice, as they provide valuable information about the underlying biology of diseases and help to guide diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring.
In the medical field, cross-cultural comparison refers to the study of how different cultures perceive, understand, and approach health and illness. This involves comparing and contrasting the beliefs, practices, and attitudes towards health and illness across different cultural groups. Cross-cultural comparison is important in healthcare because it helps healthcare providers to understand the cultural context of their patients and to provide culturally sensitive care. It also helps to identify and address health disparities that may be related to cultural differences. For example, cross-cultural comparison may reveal that certain cultural groups have different beliefs about the causes of illness, different attitudes towards seeking medical care, and different practices for managing health and illness. This information can be used to develop culturally appropriate interventions and treatments that are more likely to be effective for patients from different cultural backgrounds.
In the medical field, the chi-square distribution is a statistical tool used to analyze the relationship between two categorical variables. It is often used in medical research to determine whether there is a significant association between two variables, such as the presence of a disease and a particular risk factor. The chi-square distribution is a probability distribution that describes the sum of the squared differences between the observed and expected frequencies of a categorical variable. It is commonly used in hypothesis testing to determine whether the observed frequencies of a categorical variable differ significantly from the expected frequencies. In medical research, the chi-square test is often used to analyze the relationship between two categorical variables, such as the presence of a disease and a particular risk factor. For example, a researcher may want to determine whether there is a significant association between smoking and lung cancer. To do this, the researcher would collect data on the smoking habits of a group of people and their incidence of lung cancer. The chi-square test would then be used to determine whether the observed frequencies of lung cancer among smokers differ significantly from the expected frequencies based on the overall incidence of lung cancer in the population. Overall, the chi-square distribution is a valuable tool in medical research for analyzing the relationship between categorical variables and determining whether observed frequencies differ significantly from expected frequencies.
Products - Vital Statistics Rapid Release - Infant Mortality
GHO | By indicator | Number of infant deaths (Mortality and global health estimates)
infant mortality rate
Africa's advances in maternal, infant mortality face setbacks: WHO report | WHO | Regional Office for Africa
Association of cigarette price differentials with infant mortality in 23 European Union countries | WHO FCTC
Public Health Approaches to Reducing U.S. Infant Mortality | Public Health Grand Rounds | CDC
'Unprecedented' rise in infant mortality in England linked to poverty | University of...
Countries Compared by Health | Infant mortality rate. International Statistics at NationMaster.com
MPIDR - Recent Trends in Fetal and Infant Mortality (Dissertation)
Government tackles infant mortality
Environmental Regulations, Air and Water Pollution, and Infant Mortality in India | Harvard Kennedy School
Recent reports reveal Louisiana's rising maternal and infant mortality rates - World Socialist Web Site
Texas Joins Other States Looking To 'Baby Boxes' To Fight Infant Mortality Rate | Here & Now
NORTH KOREAS INFANT MORTALITY RATE STILL HIGH - Radio Free Asia
Infant Mortality Rate for Seychelles (SPDYNIMRTINSYC) | FRED | St. Louis Fed
Additional funding aims to reduce infant mortality in Ohio - The Tribune | The Tribune
infant mortality Archives - UNICEF Ireland
Here's how we can address rural Michigan's alarmingly high infant mortality and poor maternal health
Find a Study on Infant Mortality | NICHD - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
Infant and child mortality
Fetal and infant mortality associated with congenital malformations. | Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health
Comparisons of infant mortality in the Austrian Empire Länder using the Tafeln (1851-54) (Volume 22 - Article 26 | Pages 813...
Infant Mortality by Census Area of Mother's Residence, Alaska
Infant mortality - European Health Information Gateway
Wisconsin's Black infants have some of the country's highest mortality rates. These solutions could help. | WRJN
Study Shows US Infant Mortality Declined, But Low Birth Weight, Preterm Births Increased from 2014-2019 - Be...
Mortality and morbidity of extremely low birth weight infants in Hong Kong, 2010-2017: a single-centre review | HKMJ
Infant mortality rate | EMRO Regional Health Observatory
- From 1960 to 1984, declines in the neonatal mortality rate* were greater for whites than for blacks (64% compared with 58%), whereas the reduction in the postneonatal mortality rate** was greater for blacks than for whites (60% compared with 43%) (Figure 1). (cdc.gov)
- Black infants with birthweights 2,500g had a lower neonatal mortality risk (NMR)** than white infants, but blacks with birthweights greater than or equal to 2,500g had a higher NMR than whites with comparable birthweights. (cdc.gov)
- Accomplishing this goal will require intervention strategies aimed at reducing the frequency of low birthweight births, of neonatal mortality among infants with birthweights greater than or equal to 2,500g, and of postneonatal mortality among infants in all birthweight categories. (cdc.gov)
- The results of meta-analyses by setting showed chlorhexidine cord and skin care reduced the newborn infection rate by 23% in hospital-based studies, reduced neonatal mortality by 12% in community-based studies, and reduced the incidence of umbilical cord stump infection (omphalitis) by 52% in the community setting. (medscape.com)
- Our review findings indicate that there is high-quality evidence that the risk of omphalitis and neonatal mortality is lower with chlorhexidine intervention compared with usual care in the community setting," the authors write. (medscape.com)
- There is some uncertainty as to the effect of chlorhexidine applied to the umbilical cords of newborns in hospital settings on neonatal mortality. (medscape.com)
- Regarding maternal vaginal chlorhexidine compared with usual care, the intervention "probably leads to no difference in neonatal mortality in hospital settings," they conclude. (medscape.com)
- Deaths before age 28 days can also be classified as neonatal mortality. (nih.gov)
- If a baby dies before age 28 days, the death can also be classified as neonatal mortality . (nih.gov)
- Reports from Nigeria, sub-Saharan Africa and the world at large have revealed that mortality experiences ranging from neonatal mortality, infant and child mortality to maternal mortality are still high [2,3,4]. (kaliagenova.com)
- Babies of mothers aged 20 years and under tend to have the highest rates of post neonatal mortality. (bracknell-forest.gov.uk)
- Neonatal mortality describes the number of deaths which happen in babies who are less than 28 days old. (bracknell-forest.gov.uk)
- A twofold disparity in infant mortality between black and white infants existed for the time period 1960-1984, and there was a 59% reduction in the infant deaths/1,000 live births over that time for both blacks and whites (5,6). (cdc.gov)
- Analysis from the National Infant Mortality Surveillance (NIMS)S project, a tabulation of data from linked birth and infant death certificates for live births occurring among U.S. residents in 1980, provides a more complete description of the disparity in infant mortality risk (IMR)P between blacks and whites (7). (cdc.gov)
- The U.S. infant mortality rate plateaued during 2000-2005, then declined from 6.86 infant deaths per 1,000 live births in 2005 to 6.14 in 2010. (cdc.gov)
- The region's infant mortality rate stands at 72 per 1000 live births. (who.int)
- The infant mortality rate is strictly speaking not a rate (i.e. the number of deaths divided by the number of population at risk during a certain period of time) but a probability of death derived from a life table and expressed as rate per 1000 live births. (who.int)
- The infant mortality rate for term infants was highest for American Indian or Alaska Native women (4.59 infant deaths per 1,000 live births), twice the rate for non-Hispanic white women (2.29). (cdc.gov)
- The probability of a child born in a specific year or period dying before reaching the age of one, if subject to age-specific mortality rates of that period, expressed as a rate per 1000 live births. (who.int)
- The infant mortality rate is the number of infant deaths per 1,000 live births. (kaliagenova.com)
- Lending its voice to that of UNICEF, the Nigeria Human Rights Commission (NHRC) recently hinted that Nigeria was one of the countries in the world with high maternal and infant death rates with a ratio of 545-630 per 100,000 live births, or 75 per 1,000 live births on the infant mortality index, according to the United Nations, UN. (kaliagenova.com)
- As of 2015, the maternal mortality rate in Nigeria was 814 deaths per 100,000 live births. (kaliagenova.com)
- Infant mortality rate of Nigeria fell gradually from 166.8 deaths per thousand live births in 1970 to 74.2 deaths per thousand live births in 2019. (kaliagenova.com)
- Infant mortality rate is the number of infants dying before reaching one year of age, per 1,000 live births in a given year. (kaliagenova.com)
- 39 per month* 54.7 (infant deaths per 1,000 live births) Deaths under age 5. (kaliagenova.com)
- The current infant mortality rate for Algeria in 2023 is 18.401 deaths per 1000 live births, a 2.99% decline from 2022. (macrotrends.net)
- The infant mortality rate for Algeria in 2022 was 18.969 deaths per 1000 live births, a 2.91% decline from 2021. (macrotrends.net)
- Infant mortality is defined as the number babies dying before the age of one year for every 1,000 live births. (bracknell-forest.gov.uk)
- The infant mortality rate decreased in 2014 to 3.9 deaths per thousand live births, compared with 4.0 in 2013. (bracknell-forest.gov.uk)
- The rate of infant mortality for very low birth weight babies in 2011 (less than 1500 grams) was 172.1 per 1,000 live births (Office for National Statistics, 2012). (bracknell-forest.gov.uk)
- Infant mortality describes the number of deaths to children aged less than one year and is presented as a rate per 1,000 live births. (bracknell-forest.gov.uk)
- In Bracknell Forest infant mortality rates showed an increase between 2002-4 and 2005-7, at just under 5 per 1,000 live births in 2005-7. (bracknell-forest.gov.uk)
- 4 Rates are the number of infant deaths per 1,000 live births. (alaska.gov)
- 2. The 1990 infant mortality rate was 9.2 per 1,000 live births. (life-enthusiast.com)
Reduce infant mortality4
- The low-cost broad-spectrum antiseptic agent, which is active against common organisms causing perinatal infections, could help reduce infant mortality in developing countries by 12% and reduce omphalitis (umbilical cord stump infection) by 50%, according to the authors of a systematic literature review published March 4 in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews . (medscape.com)
- The Institute also studies ways to prevent or reduce the risk of these causes and conditions to reduce infant mortality rates and improve infant health outcomes. (nih.gov)
- This Request for Applications (RFA), Data Coordination Center for the NIH-DC Initiative to Reduce Infant Mortality in Minority Populations, is related to the priority areas of infant mortality, fetal deaths, low birth weight, high risk pregnancies and prenatal care. (nih.gov)
- The $300,000, three-year grant aims to reduce infant mortality resulting from health-care disparities affecting pregnant and postpartum African-American women in certain Boston neighborhoods. (bu.edu)
Study on Infant Mortality1
- As noted by the investigators of a newly published study on infant mortality and neurodevelopmental outcomes after invasive group B streptococcal infection, GBS is the number one cause of invasive neonatal infection globally. (medpagetoday.com)
- Half of the reports of child mortality in Nigeria are a case of Infant deaths which has increased since 1990. (kaliagenova.com)
- World Bank Source: Estimates developed by the UN Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation (UNICEF, WHO, World Bank, UN DESA Population Division) at www.childmortality.org. (kaliagenova.com)
- Hi, I am wondering how to measure the infant and child mortality from DHS data set. (dhsprogram.com)
- It would be so nice if I know the step-wise instruction to calculate the infant and child mortality from DHS data set, especially NDHS (2011). (dhsprogram.com)
- Of the infants whose outcomes were known at 18-22 months, 49% died, 61% died or had profound impairment, and 73% died or had impairment. (medscape.com)
- Implications for social change include greater public awareness, education on risk factors, advocacy to decrease disparities in access to care, and resource allocation to highly impacted areas potentially mitigating health outcomes for the most vulnerable women and infants. (waldenu.edu)
- The other two factors contributing to the elevated IMR among blacks are neonatal deaths among infants with birthweights greater than or equal to 2,500g and postneonatal deaths among infants in all birthweight categories (12). (cdc.gov)
- During the postneonatal period, black infants were at higher risk of dying from all causes, including those that are preventable and those that are subject to intervention efforts. (cdc.gov)
- Of this total, 75% occurred among infants with birthweights 2,500g (59% in the neonatal period and 16% in the postneonatal period), and 25% occurred among infants with birthweights greater than or equal to 2,500g (7% in the neonatal period and 18% in the postneonatal period) (Figure 2). (cdc.gov)
- Ischaemic heart disease is strongly correlated with both neonatal and postneonatal mortality. (nih.gov)
- Specifically, the report measures the impact on infant mortality differences of two major factors: the percentage of preterm births and gestational age-specific infant mortality rates. (cdc.gov)
- The US suffers more than 5 infant deaths per every 1,000 births each year - the most of any of the 13 countries in the study, plus it also experienced over 23 maternal deaths per 100,000 births - that's ten more than any comparable countries. (newstarget.com)
- Case-control study by means of data bank linkage from the Mortality Information System (SIM, 2008-11) and the Information System on Births (SINASC) to identify risk factors for infant mortality in Palmas/TO. (bvsalud.org)
- Last year, a total of 866 infants died in North Carolina out of a total more than 120,403 births in the state, the number of births has been decreasing for the past four years. (northcarolinahealthnews.org)
- The Marmot Review: Fair Society, Healthy Lives noted that factors, including births outside marriage, maternal age under the age of 20 and deprivation, were also independently associated with an increased risk of infant mortality. (bracknell-forest.gov.uk)
- The Fetal Infant Mortality Review (FIMR) Program is a community-based, action-oriented program designed to enhance the health and well being of women, infants, and families through the review of individual cases of fetal and infant death. (cchealth.org)
- The purpose of the FIMR Program is to understand how a wide array of social, economic, health, educational, environmental and safety issues relate to infant loss on a local level and in turn utilize that information to improve community resources and systems of care to reduce fetal and infant mortality. (cchealth.org)
- The process begins when the program is notified that a fetal or infant death has occurred. (cchealth.org)
- For additional information on the FIMR process, visit the National Fetal Infant Mortality Review website . (cchealth.org)
- Understanding racial and ethnic disparities in U.S. infant mortality rates. (cdc.gov)
- There are great racial/ethnic and income disparities in illnesses and conditions such as diabetes, heart disease, depression, lung and breast cancer, and infant mortality. (illinois.gov)
- In addition, disparities in infant mortality by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status are an important measure of the inequalities that exist within society. (aecf.org)
- however, infant mortality rates in the African American population are disproportionately high. (nih.gov)
- Infant mortality rates in American Indian and Alaska Native communities and certain sub-groups of the Hispanic/Latino population are also disproportionately high, specifically Mexican and Puerto Rican. (nih.gov)
- NCHS released a report last week that presents 2013 U.S. final mortality data on deaths and death rates by demographic and medical characteristics. (cdc.gov)
- Find answers to other common questions about infant mortality, such as if the risk is hereditary and how research is reducing infant mortality rates. (nih.gov)
- Ecological studies of national time trends in infant mortality do not parallel breast feeding trends in those countries, and indicate that falling death rates are more likely to be related to better health care facilities and social conditions. (nih.gov)
- In general, infant mortality rates in developing countries have declined during the same period that breast feeding rates have fallen. (nih.gov)
- Infant mortality rates in Boston's inner-city neighborhoods have historically been higher than in other parts of the city or even in greater Boston. (bu.edu)
- These high infant mortality rates are especially concentrated in Dorchester and Mattapan. (bu.edu)
- Communication is a big issue" says Josephine Fowler, director of maternal and child health at BMC, who came to Boston from the Blackstone Valley Perinatal Network specifically to help improve infant mortality rates among African-American women. (bu.edu)
- Infants who contract group B streptococcus (GBS) meningitis have higher mortality rates-and GBS survivors are at greater risk of neurodevelopmental impairments-than children in the general population. (medpagetoday.com)
- Researchers in Norway studied rates of fatalities and long-term neurodevelopmental disorders among 866 infants diagnosed with GBS infection. (medpagetoday.com)
- Although the rise in ischaemic heart disease in England and Wales has been associated with increasing prosperity, mortality rates are highest in the least affluent areas. (nih.gov)
- On division of the country into two hundred and twelve local authority areas a strong geographical relation was found between ischaemic heart disease mortality rates in 1968-78 and infant mortality in 1921-25. (nih.gov)
- Now, due to the highest infant mortality rates (and falling fertility rates) of any major city in the United States, Philadelphia, ironically nicknamed the "Birthplace of America," is offering women $1,000 per month 'with no strings attached' just to have babies. (newstarget.com)
- Like under-5 mortality, infant mortality rates measure child survival. (who.int)
- Since data on the incidence and prevalence of diseases (morbidity data) are frequently unavailable, mortality rates are often used to identify vulnerable populations. (who.int)
- The infant mortality rate is the probability of a child born in a specific year or period dying before reaching the age of 1, if subject to the age-specific mortality rates of that period. (who.int)
- The figure above shows term infant mortality rates, by race/ethnicity in the United States during 2007. (cdc.gov)
- The UN-IGME which includes representatives from UNICEF, WHO, the World Bank and the United Nations Population Division, produces trends of infant mortality rates with standardized methodology by group of countries depending on the type and quality of source of data available. (who.int)
- For countries with adequate trend of data from civil registration, the calculations of under-five and infant mortality rates are derived from a standard period abridged life table. (who.int)
- For countries with survey data, since infant mortality rates from birth histories of surveys are exposed to recall biases, infant mortality is derived from the projection of under-five mortality rates converted into infant mortality rates using the Bayesian B-splines bias-adjusted model. (who.int)
- Nigeria's mortality rates for women and children are among the world's highest. (kaliagenova.com)
- 2011 County-level infant mortality rates. (northcarolinahealthnews.org)
- 2021 death data, including leading causes of death, firearm mortality, homicide, drug overdose mortality, and infant mortality, come from the NVSS via CDC WONDER and rankings and rates are based on 2021 age-adjusted death rates. (cdc.gov)
Sudden Infant D3
- NICHD supports research on many causes of and conditions that can lead to infant death, including Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and other sudden, unexpected infant deaths, birth defects , and preterm birth . (nih.gov)
- Included in the infant mortality statistics is a decrease in deaths classified as being caused by Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). (northcarolinahealthnews.org)
- The primary causes of infant mortality are birth defects, disorders related to short gestation/low birth weight, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and issues related to pregnancy and birth, including substance abuse. (aecf.org)
- A new NCHS report investigates the reasons for the United States' high infant mortality rate when compared with European countries. (cdc.gov)
Current infant mort1
- United Nations - World Population Prospects, The current infant mortality rate for Nigeria in 2020 is, The infant mortality rate for Nigeria in 2019 was, The infant mortality rate for Nigeria in 2018 was, The infant mortality rate for Nigeria in 2017 was. (kaliagenova.com)
- Low birthweight is the most important determinant of infant survival, and infants with low birthweights suffer the highest mortality risks (10). (cdc.gov)
- If black infants born in 1980 in the United States had experienced the same birthweight distribution and birthweight-specific mortality risk as white infants, there would have been 5,526 (51%) fewer single-delivery black infant deaths. (cdc.gov)
- Low birthweight is an enduring aspect of childhood morbidity, a major factor in infant mortality and has serious consequences for health in later life ( NICE ). (bracknell-forest.gov.uk)
Maternal and infant1
- Brazzaville - A slowdown in the progress made during the past decade against maternal and infant mortality is projected in the African region, a new World Health Organization (WHO) report released today finds. (who.int)
- Chart and table of the Niger infant mortality rate from 1950 to 2020. (kaliagenova.com)
- Most extremely low birth weight infants are also the youngest of premature newborns, usually born at 27 weeks' gestational age or younger. (medscape.com)
- Infants whose weight is appropriate for their gestational ages are termed appropriate for gestational age (AGA). (medscape.com)
- Survival correlates with gestational age for infants who are appropriate for gestational age (AGA). (medscape.com)
- These data provide information on mortality patterns among U.S. residents by such variables as sex, race and ethnicity, and cause of death. (cdc.gov)
Rate of decline1
- The recent slowing in the rate of decline in infant mortality and the disparity in the risk of infant death between racial and ethnic subgroups have attracted considerable attention (3,4). (cdc.gov)
- Related complications account for 35 per cent of newborn deaths, making it the leading cause of infant mortality globally. (ed.ac.uk)
- Research topics to be addressed include studies and interventions in women during pregnancy, infants and young children, as well as non-pregnant women during the preconception or interconception phase. (nih.gov)
Less than 15001
- Infants born with a birth weight less than 1500 g are defined as very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. (medscape.com)
- When compared to the general population, this represented a significantly higher mortality rate among those who contracted GBS infection (relative risk [RR] 19.41, 95% confidence interval [CI] 14.79 to 25.36). (medpagetoday.com)
- Key demographic indicators for Nigeria: Under-Five Mortality Rate, Population. (kaliagenova.com)
- Infant mortality data is often seen as a indicator of the overall health of a population. (northcarolinahealthnews.org)
- Although adjusted for variations in age-distribution and population size, differences by state do not take into account other state specific population characteristics that may affect the level of the birth characteristic or mortality. (cdc.gov)
- Since mothers and infants are among the most vulnerable members of society, infant mortality is a measure of a society's concern and investment in supporting community health. (aecf.org)
- A 1 percent increase in the rate of subscriptions to natural gas services was estimated to result in a 4 percent decline in infant mortality rate, which could translate into approximately 348 infant lives saved in 2011 alone. (nih.gov)
- [ 2 ] Infants with extremely low birth weight (ELBW) are more susceptible to all complications of premature birth, both in the immediate neonatal period and after discharge from the nursery. (medscape.com)
- Editorial Note: The reduction of the disparity in IMR between black and white infants is a major public health objective (3). (cdc.gov)
- Declining infant mortality has been linked primarily to affordable health services, improvements in women's status, nutrition standards, universal immunization, and the expansion of prenatal and obstetric services. (nih.gov)
- The maternal health expert affirmed that COVID-19 would worsen rate of infant deaths in Nigeria, lamenting that maternal and child health was not … 70 babies out of 1,000 born alive die without living up to 12 months. (kaliagenova.com)
- The level of infant mortality is an important indicator of the nation's health . (bracknell-forest.gov.uk)
-  As of 2014, [update] all major health organisations advise that immediately following a live birth , regardless of the delivery method, that the infant be placed on the mother's chest (termed skin-to-skin contact ), and to delay neonate procedures for at least one to two hours or until the baby has had its first breastfeeding. (wikipedia.org)
- Infant mortality is related to the underlying health of the mother, public health practices, socioeconomic conditions and availability and use of appropriate health care for infants and pregnant women. (aecf.org)
- This is the most recent year for which linked birth and infant death data are available for the United States. (cdc.gov)
- Analysis of NIMS data revealed three factors contributing to the difference between the IMRs for black and white infants. (cdc.gov)
- According to data from a 2011 cohort study, infants born at 23-25 weeks' gestation who received antenatal exposure to corticosteroids had a lower rate of mortality and complications compared with those who did not have such exposure to corticosteroids. (medscape.com)
- Data were evaluated by logistic regression according to a hierarchic model of infant mortality determination.139 cases and 417 controls participated in the study. (bvsalud.org)
- So there isn't a 'variable' that is U5 mortality, it is something you have to estimate from the birth history data - essentially, you can see how many children were born, and how many survived to age 5. (dhsprogram.com)
- Nigeria still has high prevalence of mortalities reflected in infants and children amongst others [5-7]. (kaliagenova.com)
- The infant mortality rate is highest among babies of mothers aged below 20 years and those aged 40 years and over. (bracknell-forest.gov.uk)
- Consideration of the needs of certain women at higher risk of stillbirths and infant deaths compared to mothers born in the UK, e.g. mothers born in Africa, the Middle East and Asia, and mothers with three or more previous children. (bracknell-forest.gov.uk)
Indicator of the overall1
- The infant mortality rate is an important indicator of the overall well-being of a society. (aecf.org)
- First year survival was 15.5% for infants with a birth weight less than 500g. (medscape.com)
- An extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infant is defined as one with a birth weight of less than 1000 g (2 lb, 3 oz). (medscape.com)
- 1500g) than for infants with birth weights of 2500g or more. (medscape.com)
- There are many different causes of infant mortality, from infection to birth defects or accidents. (nih.gov)
- What we try to do with these infant deaths is take that death certificate and link it back to the birth certificate, so we can see going forward now, the infants who died, the maternal condition of the mother if they were overweight or obese. (northcarolinahealthnews.org)
- the shortening and opening of the cervix during the first stage, descent and birth of the baby during the second, the delivery of the placenta during the third, and the recovery of the mother and infant during the fourth stage, which is referred to as the postpartum . (wikipedia.org)
- Recently rated number 1 in the nation for women's well-being, Maryland has an infant mortality rate approximately twice the rate of the best state, as rated in the 2012 Congressional Research Service report. (mceanea.org)
- Philly's infant mortality rate is 1.5 times higher than the national average, and BLACK BABIES are 4 times more likely to die before their very first birthday when compared to white babies. (newstarget.com)
- Infant mortality refers to the death of an infant between 1 day and 1 year of age. (nih.gov)
- Infant mortality refers to the death of a baby that occurs between the time it is born and 1 year of age. (nih.gov)
- Infant mortality relates to deaths in children less than one year old. (who.int)
- The state's infant mortality rate crept up last year. (northcarolinahealthnews.org)
- North Carolina's infant mortality rate crept upward last year, reversing a trend of decreases that had placed the state's infant mortality rate at an all-time low in 2010. (northcarolinahealthnews.org)
- 3 Deaths to infants 28 days to 1 year of age. (alaska.gov)
- FIMR staff contact parents through phone calls and home visits soon after the pregnancy loss or infant death. (cchealth.org)
- The current study included 866 infants born in Norway between 1996 and 2019 who were diagnosed with GBS infection (culture-confirmed). (medpagetoday.com)
- In one analysis, the lowest state-specific IMR for single-delivery black infants (12.5) was higher than the highest mortality risk for whites (10.1) (8). (cdc.gov)
- There were also differences in the race-specific risk of infant death between U.S. census regions, with IMRs for blacks ranging from 16.5 to 20.7 and for whites, from 8.8 to 9.8. (cdc.gov)
- Are there ways to reduce the risk of infant mortality? (nih.gov)
- However, there was no increased risk of death in infants with LOD or very late-onset disease (VLOD) compared with infants with EOD. (medpagetoday.com)
- Proper prenatal care and well-baby preventive care offer opportunities to identify and lower some risk factors for infant mortality. (aecf.org)
- To hammer home that point, Mynarek and colleagues, the investigators of the current study, cite a meta-analysis of 453 children showing that 32% of survivors were diagnosed with neurodevelopmental impairments a median of 6 months to 10.5 years after contracting infant GBS meningitis. (medpagetoday.com)
- There is a disconnect between Maryland's obvious assets and the tragedy of infant mortality and developmentally disadvantaged children. (mceanea.org)
- Infant mortality is the death of young children under the age of 1. (kaliagenova.com)
- These findings indicate that the expansion of natural gas infrastructure has resulted in a significant decrease in the rate of infant mortality. (nih.gov)
- The statistic shows the infant mortality rate in Nigeria from 2009 to 2019. (kaliagenova.com)