An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1000 grams (2.2 lbs), regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE.
An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1500 grams (3.3 lbs), regardless of gestational age.
An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.
An infant during the first month after birth.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.
Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Significant decline in economic activity spread across the economy, lasting more than a few months, normally visible in real gross domestic product, real income, employment, industrial production, and wholesale-retail sales. (National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, www.nber.org/cycles.html, accessed 4/23/2009)
Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.
The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.
Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.
Hospital units providing continuing surveillance and care to acutely ill newborn infants.
The abrupt and unexplained death of an apparently healthy infant under one year of age, remaining unexplained after a thorough case investigation, including performance of a complete autopsy, examination of the death scene, and review of the clinical history. (Pediatr Pathol 1991 Sep-Oct;11(5):677-84)
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
Techniques for measuring blood pressure.
Infection with a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. It is usually a superficial infection of the moist areas of the body and is generally caused by CANDIDA ALBICANS. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
ENTEROCOLITIS with extensive ulceration (ULCER) and NECROSIS. It is observed primarily in LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANT.
Inflammation of the MUCOSA of both the SMALL INTESTINE and the LARGE INTESTINE. Etiology includes ISCHEMIA, infections, allergic, and immune responses.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
Materials incorporated mechanically in plastics (usually PVC) to increase flexibility, workability or distensibility; due to the non-chemical inclusion, plasticizers leach out from the plastic and are found in body fluids and the general environment.
Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.

Increased insensible water loss in newborn infants nursed under radiant heaters. (1/2072)

Urine osmolality was studied in 38 babies nursed in conventional incubators or cots and 18 nursed under an overhead radiant heat shield. Among 50 babies receiving a similar fluid intake in the first 48 hours of life mean urinary osmolality was significantly higher in the radiant heater group. In babies weighing less than 1500 g a trend towards higher urinary osmolalities was recorded in those nursed under radiant heaters even though they had received amost double the fluid intake of the incubator group. Severe hypernatraemia occurred in four of the five babies weighing less than 1000 g who were nursed under radiant heaters but in none of the seven babies of similar birth weight nursed in incubators. These findings are consistent with previous observations of an increase in insensible water loss in babies nursed under radiant heaters and emphasise the importance of providing enough extra water for these infants and the need for close monitoring of their fluid balance. The latter may be done at the bedside by measuring urinary specific gravity with a hand refractometer.  (+info)

Effect of the interval between pregnancies on perinatal outcomes. (2/2072)

BACKGROUND: A short interval between pregnancies has been associated with adverse perinatal outcomes. Whether that association is due to confounding by other risk factors, such as maternal age, socioeconomic status, and reproductive history, is unknown. METHODS: We evaluated the interpregnancy interval in relation to low birth weight, preterm birth, and small size for gestational age by analyzing data from the birth certificates of 173,205 singleton infants born alive to multiparous mothers in Utah from 1989 to 1996. RESULTS: Infants conceived 18 to 23 months after a previous live birth had the lowest risks of adverse perinatal outcomes; shorter and longer interpregnancy intervals were associated with higher risks. These associations persisted when the data were stratified according to and controlled for 16 biologic, sociodemographic, and behavioral risk factors. As compared with infants conceived 18 to 23 months after a live birth, infants conceived less than 6 months after a live birth had odds ratios of 1.4 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.3 to 1.6) for low birth weight, 1.4 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.3 to 1.5) for preterm birth, and 1.3 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.2 to 1.4) for small size for gestational age; infants conceived 120 months or more after a live birth had odds ratios of 2.0 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.7 to 2.4);1.5 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.3 to 1.7), and 1.8 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.6 to 2.0) for these three adverse outcomes, respectively, when we controlled for all 16 risk factors with logistic regression. CONCLUSIONS: The optimal interpregnancy interval for preventing adverse perinatal outcomes is 18 to 23 months.  (+info)

Low-weight neonatal survival paradox in the Czech Republic. (3/2072)

Analysis of vital statistics for the Czech Republic between 1986 and 1993, including 3,254 infant deaths from 350,978 first births to married and single women who conceived at ages 18-29 years, revealed a neonatal survival advantage for low-weight infants born to disadvantaged (single, less educated) women, particularly for deaths from congenital anomalies. This advantage largely disappeared after the neonatal period. The same patterns have been observed for low-weight infants born to black women in the United States. Since the Czech Republic had an ethnically homogenous population, virtually universal prenatal care, and uniform institutional conditions for delivery, Czech results must be attributed to social rather than to biologic or medical circumstances. This strengthens the contention that in the United States, the black neonatal survival paradox may be due as much to race-related social stigmatization and consequent disadvantage as to any hypothesized hereditary influences on birth-weight-specific survival.  (+info)

Thromboatheromatous complications of umbilical arterial catheterization in the newborn period. Clinicopathological study. (4/2072)

Severe catheter-related thromboatheromatous lesions were found at necropsy in 33 of 56 infants who had umbilical arterial catheters passed during life. In infants dying within 8 days of insertion of the catheter, varying degrees of thrombosis of the aorta and its major branches were seen. With increasing thrombosis and aging of the thrombus, fatty deposits were seen first within the thrombus, and then in the intima and media. In addition there was evidence of proliferation of medial smooth muscle cells and of disruption of the medial architecture below the thrombus, characterized by the presence of abundant mucopolysaccharide. In infants who survived longer, varying degrees of organization of the thrombus could be traced, leading eventually to raised fibrous plaques with lipid and occasionally calcification. The lesions in the older infants were similar in many respects to experimental thromboatheromatous lesions produced in rabbits, and to some lesions of artheroma occurring spontaneously in humans. A wide variety of embolic phenomena were found, with features suggesting asynchrony of embolic episodes. The presence of thrombotic lesions could not be related to birthweight, Apgar scores at 1 and 5 minutes, age at catheterization, duration of catheterization, underlying disease process, age at death or the presence of hypothermia, acidosis, or anomalies in coagulation tests. There is a need for less hazardous methods of monitoring arterial oxygen tension.  (+info)

Hyaline membrane disease, alkali, and intraventricular haemorrhage. (5/2072)

The relation between intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) and hyaline membrane disease (HMD) was studied in singletons that came to necropsy at Hammersmith Hospital over the years 1966-73. The incidence of IVH in singleton live births was 3-22/1000 and of HMD 4-44/1000. Although the high figures were partily due to the large number of low birthweight infants born at this hospital, the incidence of IVH in babies weighing 1001-1500 g was three times as great as that reported in the 1658 British Perinatal Mortality Survey. Most IVH deaths were in babies with HMD, but the higher frequency of IVH was not associated with any prolongation of survival time of babies who died with HMD as compared with the 1958 survey. IVH was seen frequently at gestations of up to 36 weeks in babies with HMD but was rare above 30 weeks' gestation in babies without HMD. This indicated that factors associated with HMD must cause most cases of IVH seen at gestations above 30 weeks. Comparison of clinical details in infants with HMD who died with or without IVH (at gestations of 30-37 weeks) showed no significant differences between the groups other than a high incidence of fits and greater use of alkali therapy in the babies with IVH. During the 12 hours when most alkali therapy was given, babies dying with IVD received a mean total alkali dosage of 10-21 mmol/kg and those dying without IVH 6-34 mmol/kg (P less than 0-001). There was no difference in severity of hypoxia or of metabolic acidosis between the 2 groups. Babies who died with HMD and germinal layer haemorrhage (GLH) without IVH had received significantly more alkali than those who died with HMD alone, whereas survivors of severe respiratory distress syndrome had received lower alkali doses than other groups. It is suggested that the greatly increased death rate from IVH in babies with HMD indicates some alteration of management of HMD (since 1958) as a causative factor. Liberal use of hypertonic alkali solutions is the common factor which distinguishes babies dying with GLH and IVH from other groups of babies with HMD. Although the causal nature of this association remains unproved, it seems justifiable to lrge caution in alkali usage.  (+info)

Mediators of ethnic-associated differences in infant birth weight. (6/2072)

PURPOSE: To examine whether ethnic differences in low birth weight babies of low-income women may be explained in part by group differences in prenatal health behaviors and psychosocial factors. METHODS: A prospective, survey of 1,071 low-income, primiparous African-American and Mexican-origin women was conducted in Los Angeles County, California. In face-to-face interviews, data were obtained on substance use, prenatal stress, social support, attitudes toward pregnancy, initiation of prenatal care, and medical risk. Medical chart data were abstracted regarding medical risk factors and labor, delivery, and neonatal data. Interview data were linked with birth outcome data retrieved from maternal medical records. Structural equation modeling was used to test a hypothesized model in which differences in birth weight were expected to be mediated by ethnic differences in substance use, psychosocial factors, and medical risk. RESULTS: As expected, African-American women delivered babies of earlier gestational age and lower birth weight than did women of Mexican origin. Direct predictors of low birth weight were use of drugs and cigarettes, prenatal stress, and positive attitudes toward pregnancy; together, these factors accounted for the observed ethnic differences in birth weight. CONCLUSION: These data contribute to our understanding of the factors that may account for ethnic-associated differences in low birth weight.  (+info)

Gluconeogenesis in very low birth weight infants receiving total parenteral nutrition. (7/2072)

Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants are dependent on total parenteral nutrition (TPN) to prevent hypoglycemia and provide a sufficient energy intake. However, diminished tolerance for parenteral glucose delivered at high rates frequently provokes hyperglycemia. We hypothesized that when their glucose supply is reduced to prevent hyperglycemia, VLBW infants can maintain normoglycemia via gluconeogenesis from glycerol and amino acids. Twenty infants born at 27 +/- 0.2 (mean +/- SE) gestational weeks and having a birth weight of 996 +/- 28 g, received lipids (1.6 +/- 0.1 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1)), protein (2.2 +/- 0.1 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1)), and glucose (3.1 +/- 0.1 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1) [17.1 +/- 0.2 micromol x kg(-1) x min(-1)]) parenterally over a period of 8-12 h on day 5.0 +/- 0.2 of life. Gluconeogenesis was estimated using [U-13C]glucose (n = 8) or [2-(13)C] glycerol (n = 6) and mass isotopomer distribution analysis (MIDA), or 2H2O (n = 6) and the rate of deuterium incorporation in carbon 6 of glucose. Blood glucose averaged 3.0 +/- 0.1 mmol/l; plasma glucose appearance rate (glucose Ra), 28.8 +/- 1.1 micromol x kg(-1) x min(-1); and glucose production rate (GPR), 10.7 +/- 1.0 micromol x kg(-1) x min(-1). The [U-13C]glucose and [2-(13)C]glycerol tracers provided similar estimates of gluconeogenesis, averaging 28 +/- 2 and 26 +/- 2% of glucose Ra and 72 +/- 5 and 73 +/- 9% of GPR, respectively. Glycerol contributed 64 +/- 5% of total gluconeogenesis. Gluconeogenesis measured by 2H2O, which does not include the contribution from glycerol, was comparable to the nonglycerol fraction of gluconeogenesis derived by the [2-(13)C]glycerol MIDA. We conclude that in VLBW infants receiving TPN, normoglycemia was maintained during reduced glucose infusion by glucose production primarily derived from gluconeogenesis, and that glycerol was the principal gluconeogenic substrate.  (+info)

The effects on fetal development of high alpha-fetoprotein and maternal smoking. (8/2072)

OBJECTIVES: This study determined the risk of impaired fetal growth resulting from the interaction between maternal smoking during pregnancy and unexplained elevated concentrations of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP). METHODS: This observational study involved 123 pregnant smokers with unexplained second-trimester elevated concentrations of MSAFP, 827 smokers with normal levels, and 471 nonsmokers with raised levels. RESULTS: By logistic regression, coincident smoking and elevated MSAFP levels were found to be associated with increases in the low basic risks of prematurity, small-for-gestational-age births, low birthweight, and need for neonatal care. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal smoking has an adverse effect on fetal development in pregnancies with unexplained elevated MSAFP concentrations. Such pregnancies merit close surveillance.  (+info)

Being born at a low birth weight puts black women at increased risk for type 2 diabetes, a new study suggests.. The findings may partly explain high diabetes rates among black Americans, a population that has a high prevalence of low birth weight, the researchers added.. Their study of more than 21,000 black women found that those with a low birth weight were 13 percent more likely to develop type 2 diabetes than those with a normal birth weight. The risk of diabetes was 40 percent higher in those with a very low birth weight.. Low birth weight was defined as less than 5.5 pounds and very low birth weight as less than 3.3 pounds.. A womans body weight did not appear to affect the link between low birth weight and increased diabetes risk. Those who werent obese still had a higher risk of diabetes if they had a low or very low birth weight.. While the study found an association between birth weight and diabetes risk, it did not prove a cause-and-effect link.. The researchers pointed to two ...
There is now quite a lot of evidence that premature or low birth weight children have a greater risk of learning and physical disabilities and this is further supported by a new Finish study. Looking at children born between 1996 and 1997 with Extremely Low Birth Weight (ELBA), e.g. birth weight below 1000g or 2.2lbs, the study assessed the children at the age of five. ...
Definition of Extremely Low Birth Weight in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Extremely Low Birth Weight? Meaning of Extremely Low Birth Weight as a legal term. What does Extremely Low Birth Weight mean in law?
Effect of low birth weight on neonatal mortality in preterm and small for gestational age babies in a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit in India
Learn the risks and issues associated with low birth weight babies, and how you and your baby may be affected by having a low birth weight.
Aim: To study the effect of very low birthweight on hospital care and morbidity, and their relationship to gender, birthweight and neonatal complications. Methods: Eighty-five very low birthweight (VLBW; ,= 1500 g) children and term controls born in 1987-1988 in south-east region of Sweden were checked in registers regarding readmissions and diagnoses, need for habilitation and child psychiatric care up to 15 years of age. Ophthalmological examinations were made at age 4 in 64 of VLBW and 61 of control children, and at age 15 in 59 of VLBW and 55 of control children. Results: VLBW boys had three times more readmissions compared with normal weight control boys (p = 0.003). Neonatal risk factors for readmissions were gestational age under 30 weeks (OR 3.1), birthweight less than 1000 g (OR 4.6), mechanical ventilation (OR 9.5) and more than 60 days stay in neonatal ward (OR 5.0). A minority of VLBW children had an impairment/handicap such as cerebral palsy (CP) in five (5.9%) children, attention ...
Introduction Exposure to tobacco during pregnancy is a risk to the mothers health and their unborn babies. It has been observed to be an important independent risk factor for the low birth-weight of newborns which may lead to fetal death. In Africa, Uganda is one of the countries with high prevalence of low birth weight newborns and is also experiencing an increasing trend in tobacco consumption. However, there is little evidence about the relationship between the prevalence of low birth weight and exposure to tobacco during pregnancy in Uganda. Study Objectives: To determine the association between exposure to tobacco during pregnancy and low birth weight in Arua district so as to generate information that will be used by the district health team and other stake holders in designing appropriate strategies for preventing mothers from exposure to tobacco during pregnancy. Methods: This was a facility based un-matched case control study conducted in Arua district, West Nile region. The cases were ...
LBW means one whose birth weight is less than 2500 gm irrespective of the gestational age. DOWNLOAD LOW BIRTH WEIGHT BABIES ppt. ...
Abstract Low birth weight (LBW) is a significant health problem in the United States leading to infant mortality and morbidity. Observational and epidemiological studies reveal that social support is associated with decreased psychological distress in pregnant women and reduces the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome. The current literature lacks research regarding the perceived social support of pregnant women in relation to birth weight from a qualitative perspective. The purpose of this qualitative research study was to examine the perceptions and experiences of social support during pregnancy among low-income women who had recently given birth to a LBW infant. The research questions explored were: 1) How do mothers describe their perception of social support during their recent pregnancy? 2) What were mothers experiences of social support during their recent pregnancy? A qualitative descriptive design was used to explore mothers social support experiences during pregnancy. The sample ...
What is Low Birth Weight Baby? Babies with birth weight of , 2.5 kg irrespective of gestational age is called Low Birth Weight Baby. Most normal babies weigh 5.5 pounds by 37 weeks of gestation. At birth, most babies weigh 6 to 8 pounds. There are really nothing special to do for preventing Low Birth Weight Baby. But the following …. Read More » ...
Background and aims:The most common reason in neonatal mortality rate in the world is low birth weight (LBW). The objective of our study was to determine the prevalence and related factors associated in birth weight in Garmsar, Iran in 2013. Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out on 683 live births which delivered in Garmsar in 2013. The required information was collected by examining the health records of pregnant women and completion of the data registration forms. Data collection was controlled by using SPSSand analyzed by using an Independent T-test, Chi-square test and logistic regression. Results: According to the results, 32 infants out of 683 infants born in 2013 had low birth weight, i.e. the weight less than 2500g. LBW prevalence estimated in this study was 4.7%. There were significant statistical relations between low birth weight and the variables including number of births, mothers occupation and interval of less than 3 years between pregnancies and systolic and diastolic
Low birth weight is known to increase the risk for major disabilities such as cerebral palsy and mental retardation, but researchers now suspect that low birth weight may also
Mortality among neonates is significantly higher in hospitals that have a higher percentage of very low birthweight babies who are black, a study has found.. The researchers found that neonatal mortality was higher among black and white infants at hospitals where 35% of very low birthweight infants were black than at hospitals where less than 15% of very low birthweight infants were black (American Journal of Public Health 2005;95:2206-12).. Leo Morales, the lead author … ...
According to researchers from Johns Hopkins Childrens Center, an infant with low birth weight carries particles in the blood that can lower the amount of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol that it produces. These particles in the blood contain apolipoprotein C-1, known for lowering HDL, or good cholesterol. Blood from the umbilical cords of 163 infants born at 28 or more gestational weeks and at approximately 1.3 lb less than normal weight were analyzed. Researchers found higher levels of apolipoprotein C-1 in 19% of these infants. Low birth weight and higher-than-normal levels of this substance have been associated with the death of the hearts smooth-muscle cells. These cells are important to protecting the circulatory system from artery-clogging plaque, which can lead to a heart attack. Researchers concluded that it is important to check C-1 levels in low-birth-weight infants, and that these children should eat low-fat diets to reduce their risk of heart disease. ...
Determine if the clinical risk factors for low birth weight are independent of socioeconomic risk factors in a sample from a developing country.
Low birth weight (LBW) status (, 10% for gestational age at birth) is associated with increased risk for diseases such as type II diabetes mellitus, hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and coronary artery disease in adults, and represents one example of the fetal onset of adult disease hypothesis. Recent data strongly associates LBW status with impaired innate and adaptive immunity leading to increased risk for severe infections during adolescence or early adulthood. Animal studies suggest that the ratio of certain B lymphocyte subpopulations, the B1a and B1b cells, determines whether deficits in immunity occur.. This study will determine the ratio of B1b to B1a lymphocyte subpopulations in the cord blood of infants born LBW in the late preterm to term gestations (, 34 weeks at birth) and compare those ratios with those of normal birth weight (NBW) controls in a nested case control study design.. Furthermore, animal studies suggest that the expression patterns of CD5 and CD19 ...
A recent article in the journal Pediatrics has gathered a lot of news coverage this week. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Adolescents Born Weighing|2000 Grams Here is the abstract: Objective: To estimate the diagnostic prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in a low birth weight (LBW) cohort. Methods: Participants belonged to a regional birth…
Authors: Adrianne R. Bischoff, André K. Portella, Catherine Paquet, Roberta Dalle Molle, Aida Faber, Narendra Arora, Robert D. Levitan, Patrícia P. Silveira and Laurette Dubé Publication: British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 119, No. 11, June 2018 Abstract: Evidence suggests that both high and low birth weight children have increased the risk for obesity and the metabolic syndrome in adulthood. Previously we have found altered feeding behaviour and food preferences in pre-school children and adults born with low birth weight. In this study, we investigated if birth weight was associated with different intake of fat, carbohydrate and/or protein at 6-12 years of age. This is a cross-sectional study where 255 guardians answered online and telephone questions including anthropometrics and demographic data, parental family food rules (food control, encouragement and restriction) and a complete web-based FFQ for their children (130 boys and 125 girls). Baseline demographic and parental food rules
Gaining about 490 grams of weight every week during pregnancy reduces the risk of delivering a low birth weight baby in short-statured women by almost 63 percent, the study says.. Short-statured women generally have a higher chance of delivering a low birth weight baby, which is a leading cause of death and illness in neonates. In addition, low birth weight babies are at higher risk of developing diabetes, hypertension and metabolic syndrome when they become adults.. UNICEF estimates that 20 million babies are born with low weight every year in the world and that India accounts for nearly 8 million or one-third of this global burden.. For the purposes of this study, doctors enrolled 1,254 pregnant women in the age range of 17 to 40 years from amongst those visiting the antenatal clinic at the St Johns Medical College in Bangalore for a routine checkup. After recording their height, they were categorized into two groups. Those below a height of 152cm were classified as `short-statured and those ...
Although neurodevelopmental outcome of very preterm neonates has also significantly improved over this period, the pace of improvement in central nervous system morbidity appears to have lagged behind that of survival. In addition, neurodevelopmental impairment in infants born extremely immature persists into school age, and the level of impairment is often underestimated when standardized tests are being used for the assessment of these patients cognitive and neurological status. Among extremely preterm children, cognitive and neurologic impairment is common at school age. A comparison with their classroom peers indicates a level of impairment that is greater than is recognized with the use of standardized norms. The extremely low birth weight (ELBW) survivors in school at age 8 years who were born in the 1990s have considerable long-term health and educational needs. A meta-analysis of case-control studies reported from 1980 to November 2001 that examined cognitive and behavioral outcomes ...
Purpose: Numbers of extremely preterm (EPT) children who survive is steadily increasing, and the majority of these children are in need of help at school. The purpose of this regional, clinical controlled cohort study was to compare anatomy and function of the brain in EPT/extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and term born children at eleven years of age, and study the relation to school performance and cognitive skills. Brain anatomy findings were also compared to young adults born very preterm.. Method: A population based cohort of all EPT/ELBW (gestational age (GA) , 28 weeks or birth weight (BW) , 1000g) children born in Hordaland or Sogn- og Fjordane in 1999-2000, was the basis for this thesis. An additional cohort of very preterm (VPT, GA 28-31) young adults (19 years) was included. Both cohorts were compared to a randomly selected, age appropriate term born control group. In paper I, frequency and magnitude of cerebral brain pathology assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in EPT, VPT ...
Objectives We assessed whether maternal employment during pregnancy - overall and in selected occupational sectors - is associated with birth weight, small for gestational age (SGA), term low birth weight (LBW), length of gestation, and preterm delivery in a population-based birth cohort design. Methods We used data from ,200 000 mother-child pairs enrolled in 13 European birth cohorts and compared employed versus non-employed women. Among employees, we defined groups of occupations representing the main sectors of employment for women where potential reproductive hazards are considered to be present. The comparison group comprised all other employed women not included in the occupational sector being assessed. We performed meta-analyses of cohort-specific estimates and explored heterogeneity. Results Employees had a lower risk of preterm delivery than non-employees [adjusted odds ratio (ORadj) 0.86, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.81-0.91]. Working in most of the occupational sectors studied ...
What is Low Birth Weight Baby? Babies with birth weight of , 2.5 kg irrespective of gestational age is called Low Birth Weight Baby. Most normal babies weigh 5.5 pounds by 37 weeks of gestation. At birth, most babies weigh 6 to 8 pounds. There are really nothing special to do for preventing Low Birth Weight Baby. But the following …. Read More » ...
The accuracy of blood pressure measurements obtained from very low birthweight (less than 1500 g) neonates using the Dinamap oscillometric monitor was investigated. Comparisons using umbilical artery measurements showed that the monitor is less reliable in the lower pressure range and specifically that it tends to overestimate pressure in hypotensive infants.. ...
General Objective To explore the relative effect of hand sanitizer and home fortification with an improved MNP (plus nutrition education) to prevent infections, improve feeding and ultimately to improve growth among LBW infants in Bangladesh.. Specific Objectives Although the applicants clearly understand that the primary purpose of the Alive and Thrive RFP is to improve infant feeding, we believe that by preventing infections, feeding will improve and growth will accelerate. Thus our primary objective is to determine the relative effect of intervention packages to improve feeding and thus prevent or reverse linear growth faltering and reduce rates of stunting among LBW infants (Ha: Combination of all three interventions will improve feeding and prevent or reverse linear growth faltering and reduce rates of stunting). Secondary objectives (i) Investigate the effect of intervention packages on rates of diarrhea and acute respiratory tract infection (ARI).. (Ha: Combination of all three ...
A baby is considered as having a low birth weight if he or she weighs less than 2,500g (2.5kg) when born. Learn about the causes and risk factors for having a low birth weight baby.
BACKGROUND: Low birth weight is related to increased risk of coronary heart disease in adults and recently has been associated with vascular endothelial dysfunction in children. We investigated whether the relation between birth weight and endothelial function was still present in early adult life and whether there was an interaction with emerging risk factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 315 adults (165 women, 150 men, aged 20 to 28 years), high-resolution ultrasound was used to determine endothelium-dependent and -independent vascular responses of the brachial artery. Vascular measures were related to classic risk factors (smoking history, lipid profile, blood pressure, fasting insulin, exercise capacity, body mass index, and combined risk score) and birth weight. Low birth weight was associated with reduced flow-mediated dilation (coefficient=0.18 kg(-1), 95% CI 0.004 to 0.35, P:=0.04) but not with endothelium-independent dilation. The difference in flow-mediated dilation between the top and bottom
OBJECTIVE: Low birth weight has been associated with hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, and coronary heart disease in adult life, but the precise mechanism is debated. The endothelium is thought to play a pivotal role in each of the above conditions with abnormalities being detectable before the development of overt disease. To investigate the possibility that endothelium has a role in mediating the excessive risk of adult vascular disease associated with low birth weight, endothelial function was assessed in young healthy adults who were either of low or normal birth weight at term. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Twelve low birth weight (2.2 +/- 0.05 kg, mean +/- SEM) subjects (six men/six women; age 28 +/- 0.2 years) and twelve age- and sex-matched normal birth weight (3.3 +/- 0.07 kg) control subjects were studied. The L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway was assessed in the forearm vascular bed by using venous occlusion plethysmography during intra-arterial brachial infusion of acetylcholine, ...
The lack of progress in reducing low birth weight, the leading cause of infant mortality and morbidity,1 challenges us to persevere in our examination of potential risk factors. Although by 1997 the U.S.
RESULTS Low-birth-weight infants (,2.5 kg) showed a significantly earlier onset of diabetes (4.3 [3.2-6.0] years vs. 9.0 [5.3-11.8] years, median [25-75th percentile]; P , 0.0001). Infants small for gestational age also had earlier onset than those with birth weight above the 10th percentile after correction for gestational age (6.2 [3.6-10.5] vs. 9.2 [5.4-11.8] years; P , 0.0001). Infants with corrected birth weight: length ratio below the 10th percentile had earlier onset, as did infants with corrected 6-months weight below the 10th percentile (4.9 [2.8-6.0] years vs. 8.8 [5.2-11.8] years; P , 0.0001). Infants who were exclusively breast-fed for 6 months showed a slightly later onset of diabetes than those who were bottle- or mixed-fed, independent of weight (9.4 [5.0-11.3] years vs. 8.3 [4.2-11.7] years; P , 0.0001).. ...
A new survey carried out by VLCC has expressed concerns over the rising instances of babies with low birth weight of less than 2.5 kgs in India.
Health, ...TUESDAY Jan. 15 (HealthDay News) -- Low birth weight does not increas...Researchers looked at data on nearly 4000 children (193 low birth wei...Of the children with a low birth weight nearly 7 percent developed as...The study was published Jan. 15 in the journal Annals of Allergy A...,No,Link,Between,Low,Birth,Weight,,Asthma:,Study,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Babies with low birth weights face increased risks of infection, impaired development, developmental delays, and higher rates of infant death.[i] They are more likely to suffer from long-term disabilities, including cerebral palsy and blindness. Low birth weight can be influenced by a number of factors, including maternal and fetal health. For example, women who use tobacco, have poor nutrition, consume alcohol, or use illegal or some prescription drugs while pregnant are at increased risk of giving birth to low-weight babies.[ii] Chronic conditions including diabetes, heart defects, and kidney disease can also increase a womans risk of giving birth to a low-weight baby.. Metadata. ...
In the U.S. teen mothers are more likely to give birth to low birth weight babies than non-teen mothers. There is also substantial evidence that smoking is a risk factor correlated with low birth weight. Low birth weight is a costly outcome in both the short and long term for parents, children, and society at large. This paper examines the causal link between teen age smoking behavior and low birth weight. We use a variety of empirical techniques including fixed effects and a matching estimator to identify the impact of smoking on babies of teen and non-teen mothers. We find that both OLS and matching estimator results yield large impacts of smoking on birth weight for teens and adults. However, when we control for unobservables through a fixed effects model, the impact of smoking on birth ...
Nineteen studies enrolling approximately 5000 preterm and/or LBW infants met inclusion criteria. No new trials were identified in May 2013.. When all studies were combined, a significant reduction in sepsis was noted (typical risk ratio (RR) 0.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.74 to 0.98; typical risk difference (RD) -0.03, 95% CI 0.00 to -0.05; number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) 33, 95% CI 20 to infinity), and moderate between-study heterogeneity was reported (I2 54% for RR, 55% for RD). A significant reduction of one or more episodes was found for any serious infection when all studies were combined (typical RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.92; typical RD -0.04, 95% CI -0.02 to -0.06; NNTB 25, 95% CI 17 to 50), and moderate between-study heterogeneity was observed (I2 50% for RR, 62% for RD). No statistically significant differences in mortality from all causes were noted (typical RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.75 to 1.05; typical RD -0.01, 95% CI -0.03 to 0.01), and no ...
During pregnancy, a babys birthweight can be estimated in different ways. The height of the fundus (the top of a mothers uterus) can be measured from the pubic bone. This measurement in centimeters usually corresponds with the number of weeks of pregnancy after the 20th week. If the measurement is low for the number of weeks, the baby may be smaller than expected. Ultrasound (a test using sound waves to create a picture of internal structures) is a more accurate method of estimating fetal size. Measurements can be taken of the fetus head and abdomen and compared with a growth chart to estimate fetal weight.. Babies are weighed within the first few hours after birth. The weight is compared with the babys gestational age and recorded in the medical record. A birthweight less than 2,500 grams (5 pounds, 8 ounces) is diagnosed as low birthweight. Babies weighing less than 1,500 grams (3 pounds, 4 ounces) at birth are considered very low birthweight.. ...
Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences. (Geriatrics) ...
Avroy A Fanaroff, Barbara J Stoll, Linda L Wright, Waldemar A Carlo, Richard A Ehrenkranz, Ann R Stark, Charles R Bauer, Edward F Donovan, Sheldon B Korones, Abbot R Laptook, James A Lemons, William Oh, Lu-Ann Papile, Seetha Shankaran, David K Stevenson, Jon E Tyson, W Kenneth Poole
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Low birth weight is a term used to describe babies who are born weighing less than 5 pounds, 8 ounces (2,500 grams). An average newborn usually weighs about 8 pounds. A low-birth-weight baby may be healthy even though he or she is small. But a low-birth-weight baby can also have many serious health problems.
My little boy was 3 days over and weighed 8lb 1.5 ozs, day 13 - 9lb 1.5ozs, day 24 10lb 8ozs and at 5 weeks 3 days old he weighed a whopping 12lb 4ozs. He was 6 weeks old on Tues and takes between 30-38oz of formula per day and is now on the 90th centile. When he was weighed last friday I asked if he was overweight and she said you cant have an overweight baby!! Im not worrying now! Sounds like your little one is perfectly normal to me. x ...
The Comprehensive Perinatal Services Program (CPSP) provides a wide range of culturally competent services to Medi-Cal pregnant women, from conception through 60 days postpartum. In addition to standard obstetric services, women receive enhanced services in the areas of nutrition, psychosocial, and health education. The Legislature enacted CPSP in 1984 in response to the OB Access Project, which found that a comprehensive approach reduced both low birth weight rates and health care costs in women and infants. CPSP became a Medi-Cal benefit in 1987. Medi-Cal providers who provide services to pregnant women may apply to become a CPSP provider. Medi-Cal Managed Health Care Plans are required to provide access to CPSP services for pregnant Medi-Cal eligible recipients ...
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Introduction: Progress in achieving Millennium Development Goal (MDG) number 4 which aims at reduction of child mortality has been noted to be slow nationally, regionally and globally. Neonatal mortality contributes a big proportion to child mortality. Low birth weight (LBW) is one of the factors that play a major role in the causation of neonatal mortality, and as such is a proxy that can be used in the assessment of how far countries have gone in achieving MDG number 4. LBW can occur due to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) or premature delivery. Information on prevalence of LBW and factors associated with it in Uganda is minimal. Study objective: To determine prevalence of and factors associated with LBW in the labour ward of Lubaga hospital. Study design: Cross sectional study. Study population: Babies born to women admitted in the labour ward of Lubaga hospital during the study period. Study site: The study was conducted in the Maternity ward of Lubaga Hospital. Main outcome measure: ...
Recent evidence has suggested that face-mask ventilation of very low birthweight (VLBW) infants may have serious neurological consequences. The 30 surviving VLBW infants from the neonatal intensive care unit at Hammersmith Hospital who had received v
Low birth weight remains an important public health problem in the U.S. Most research on low birth weight focuses on individual-level determinants of low birth weight such as health behaviors or use of prenatal care. We ...
Low birth weight remains an important public health problem in the U.S. Most research on low birth weight focuses on individual-level determinants of low birth weight such as health behaviors or use of prenatal care. We ...
Prematurity, low birth weight leading cause for the leveling off of infant mortality and neonatal mortality rates in the United States A study by Univ...
Looking for online definition of low birth weight (LBW) infant in the Medical Dictionary? low birth weight (LBW) infant explanation free. What is low birth weight (LBW) infant? Meaning of low birth weight (LBW) infant medical term. What does low birth weight (LBW) infant mean?
MUDAHEMUKA, J C e BALLOT, D E. Birth weight recovery among very low birth weight infants surviving to discharge from Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital. S. Afr. j. child health [online]. 2014, vol.8, n.4, pp.149-153. ISSN 1999-7671. http://dx.doi.org/10.7196/SAJCH.709.. BACKGROUND: The recommended growth velocity (GV) of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants is 15 g/kg/day. Several factors have been associated with poor postnatal weight gain. OBJECTIVE: To provide current information on the postnatal growth of VLBW infants at Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital (CMJAH). METHODS: This was a longitudinal study of VLBW infants surviving to discharge from CMJAH neonatal unit from August to October 2013. RESULTS: Sixty-nine infants were included in the study. The mean GV was 13.2 g/kg/day, the median weight loss was 7.69% and the median time for regaining birth weight was 16 days. Fifty-one infants (73.9%) regained their birth weight at or before 21 days. There was a decrease ...
Very low birth weight infants (newborns who weigh less than 3 pounds 2 ounces) require intensive medical care. While these infants represent less than 2 percent of all live births, they also account for about two-thirds of the infants who die in the first year of life. Interventions that reduce the very low birth weight rate will also reduce Medicaid expenditures during the first year of life and reduce the infant mortality rate.. The integrated delivery of the WIC and FCM programs is having a significant impact on the states infant mortality rate and health care expenditures. Nine consecutive annual program evaluations have shown that the health status of infants born to Medicaid-eligible women who participated in both WIC and FCM has been substantially better than that of infants born to Medicaid-eligible women who did not participate in either program. In particular, the rate of premature birth is more than 60 percent lower among participants in both programs. The rate of low birth weight is ...
The effect of low birth weight on the incidence of asthma by 17 years of age was investigated by studying medical draft examination records of 20,312 male subjects born in Jerusalem between January 1967 and December 1971. Additional information on birth weight and other demographic factors was abstracted from the Jerusalem Perinatal Study computerised database. A stepwise multiple logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios for developing asthma by 17 years of age in 500 g birthweight categories from less than 2000 g to 4500 g. The odds ratios were adjusted for the confounding effects of ethnic origin, social class (determined by area of residence), paternal education, maternal age, and birth order. The group with low birth weights (less than 2500 g, n = 1004) had a significantly increased risk of developing asthma by 17 years of age, with an adjusted odds ratio of 1.44 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.79 to 2.66) for birthweight group less than 2000 g and 1.49 (95% CI 1.05 to 2.12) ...
Breastfeeding a very low birth weight baby is a challenging and exhausting experience for the mother. A better teaching protocol for breastfeeding and an improved breastfeeding ethos need to be implemented in the neonatal intensive care unit and special care nursery to support families of very low b …
Background: The aim of the study is to investigate the role of socio-demographic, life-style and clinical risk factors of low birth weight (LBW) among pregnant women in Saudi Arabia. It is a hospital-based, case-control study of mothers of 135 LBW and 65 _disibledevent= 0.0012). Results: A statistically significant, progressive decline was observed in the weight, length and circumference of the head of infants in the LBW to VLBW to ELBW groups. Conclusion: The present study has assessed the state of this significant public health problem of LBW in KSA, and identified several maternal modifiable risk factors. There is an urgent need for the development of reference charts using current data for the Middle Eastern population.
OBJECTIVE: The goal was to determine the effect of training in newborn care and resuscitation on 7-day (early) neonatal mortality rates for very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. The study was designed to test the hypothesis that these training programs would reduce neonatal mortality rates for VLBW infants.
Purpose.: To examine choroidal thickness in a population-based child cohort in relation to birth parameters. Methods.: The Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000 Eye Study examined 1406 children aged 11 to 12 years using enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT), ocular biometry and measurement of height, weight, refraction, and self-reported pubertal development status. Birth parameters were obtained from the Danish Medical Birth Registry. Results.: The subfoveal choroid in low birth weight children (,2500 g, n = 51, mean 324 ± 76 μm) was thinner than in normal birth weight children (2500-4500 g, n = 1194, mean 361 ± 78 μm), the difference being −37 (CI95 −60 to −15) μm, P = 0.001 after adjusting for age, sex, height, Tanner stage by sex, axial length, anterior chamber depth, and spherical equivalent refractive error. The subfoveal choroid in high birth weight children (,4500 g, n = 48, mean 351 ± 63 μm) was comparable with normal birth weight children, P ...
A rise in the number of low birth weight infants in the United States is a major reason why theres an increased rate of a common type of birthmark called infantile hemangioma, a new study finds.. Hemangiomas are benign tumors composed of blood vessels. According to the study, there is a dramatic increase in the number of infants presenting for care with hemangiomas.. We believe the results of this study provide an explanation for this emerging pediatric health issue, study author Dr. Beth Drolet said.. Being female, white and premature were previously identified as risk factors for hemagniomas, but this study concluded that low birth weight is the most statistically significant risk factor.. ...
REVOLLO, Gabriela B et al. Prevalence of low weight and small for gestational age in Argentina: Comparison between the INTERGROWTH-21st standard and an Argentine reference. Arch. argent. pediatr. [online]. 2017, vol.115, n.6, pp.547-555. ISSN 0325-0075. http://dx.doi.org/10.5546/aap.2017.547.. Introduction. The term low birth weight (, 2500 g) encompasses preterm newborns and term newborns small for gestational age (SGA) (, P10). The World Health Organization defines low weight (LW) as a birth weight , P3 of weight/age. There is no consensus at an international level about which standards and/or references related to birth weight for gestational age (GA) should be used to assess SGA and LW among preterm newborns. LW and SGA prevalence was determined using the INTERGROWTH-21st standard and Urquias reference for the Argentine population, and agreement between the prevalence observed with both tools was analyzed. Population and methods. Observational, analytical, and retrospective study based on ...
Abstract: Study ObjectiveTo test associations and interactions between racial identification, neighborhood risk, and low birth weight disparities between infants born to African-American and white adolescent mothers.DesignRetrospective cross-sectional study. Birth cases were geocoded and linked to census tract information from the 2010 US Census and the 2007-2011 American Community Survey. A neighborhood risk index was created using principal component analysis, and mothers were grouped into 3 neighborhood risk levels (low, medium, high). Multilevel models with cross-level interactions were used to identify variation in racial differences in low birth weight outcomes across neighborhood risk levels when controlling for maternal demographic characteristics and pregnancy behaviors (smoking, prenatal care use).SettingNorth Carolina, United States.ParticipantsSingleton infants (n = 7923 cases) born to non-Hispanic African American and white adolescent mothers from the North Carolina State Center ...
OBJECTIVE: Increased DNA methylation of the metabolic regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PPARGC1A) has been reported in skeletal muscle from type 2 diabetes (T2D) subjects and from low birth weight (LBW) subjects with an increased risk of T2D. High-fat overfeeding increases PPARGC1A DNA methylation in muscle in a birth weight dependent manner. However, PPARGC1A DNA methylation in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in LBW subjects has not previously been investigated. Our objective was to determine PPARGC1A DNA methylation and mRNA expression in basal and insulin-stimulated SAT from LBW and matched normal birth weight (NBW) subjects during control and high-fat overfeeding. MATERIALS/METHODS: Nineteen young healthy men with LBW and 26 NBW controls were studied after both a 5-day high-fat overfeeding and a control diet in a randomized crossover setting. DNA methylation was assessed with bisulfite sequencing and mRNA expression with quantitative real-time ...
In this study we examined the relationship between gestational exposure to 53 different EDCs and birth weight in a prospective birth cohort of mother-infant pairs. We found that exposure to phthalates and BPA, PFAS, PCBs, PBDEs or OCPs had null or small associations with birth weight. Other investigators have reported similar small or statistically non-significant associations between birth weight and phthalates [37], PCBs [15], PBDEs [13], and OCPs [25]. Several other studies, however, have found associations between increased exposure to phthalates, PCBs, PBDEs or OCPs whereas we did not. A case-control study by Zhang et al. [24] revealed that low birth weight infants in China tended to have much higher meconium phthalate levels than infants who were normal weight. Additionally, a meta-analysis by Govarts et al. [21] reported that increased exposure to PCBs was associated with decreased birth weight. Lignell et al. [27] found a statistically significant inverse association between PBDE ...
Q. Please help. I am trying to find information on the causes of my grandchilds low birth weight. She was full term and weighed 4 pounds 7 ounces. I am concerned about the consequences for her growth and development.. Should my daughter be concerned about the outcome of future pregnancies?. A. There are many causes for low birth weight. Some may predict future pregnancies resulting in low birth weight babies, or at least suggest some increased risk for more small babies, while others may be more likely to be once-only occurrences.. Among the possible causes: cigarette smoking during pregnancy, elevated blood pressure, problems with the placenta (which brings nutrition to the fetus blood stream from the mothers), and inadequate maternal weight gain during pregnancy.. The impact of a mothers health on her pregnancy and her babys future is one reason why prenatal care is so important. High blood pressure can develop for the first time during pregnancy in women with no prior history of it, and ...
This paper tests whether parents reinforce or compensate for child endowments. We employ birth weight as a proxy for endowments and estimate how the difference in birth weight across siblings impacts specific parental investments, including breastfeeding initiation and duration, well-baby visits, immunizations, preschool attendance, and kindergarten entry age. We also examine whether parental investment in a child is impacted by her siblings endowments. Our results indicate that heavier birth weight children receive higher levels of most parental investment than their lower birth weight siblings suggesting that parental investments in infancy and early childhood reinforce differences in endowments. In one exception, we find weak evidence that lower birth weight children enter kindergarten slightly later than their normal birth weight siblings, which could be interpreted as a compensating parental investment. Presence of a low birth weight sibling in the household increases the likelihood of ...
With more than 3000 attendees and just over 1400 abstracts with cutting-edge endocrine research, ECE 2016 is in the sights of journalists worldwide. This year the European Society of Endocrinology issued six press releases for abstracts of public interest. 423 print, online and broadcast publications have covered this years Congress so far in 31 countries worldwide. Heres a roundup of the press coverage:. Chandima Balasuriya (Norway) is quoted in the Daily Mirror and Daily Express after presenting her work on the influence of prematurity and low birth weight on peak bone mass. Few studies have previously looked at the influence of low birth weight on adult bone mass and Dr Balasuriyas study shows the importance of ensuring these children get a diet rich in calcium, Vitamin D and combine this with weight-bearing exercises. Further coverage of the study is found in China, India, Netherlands and Hungary.. Endocrine disruptors are also in the news after Katia Jedeon and Sylvie Babajko (France) ...
The Infant Health and Development Program was a collaborative, randomized, longitudinal, multisite clinical trial designed to evaluate the efficacy of comprehensive early intervention in reducing the developmental and health problems of low birth weight, premature infants. An intensive intervention extending from hospital discharge to 36 months corrected age was administered between 1985 and 1988 at eight different sites. The study sample of infants was stratified by birth weight (2,000 grams or less, 2,001-2,500 grams) and randomized to the Intervention Group or the Follow-Up Group. The Intervention Group received home visits, attendance at a special child development center, and pediatric follow-up. The Follow-Up Group received only the pediatric follow-up component of the program. Measures of cognitive development, behavioral status, health status, and other variables were collected from both groups at predetermined time points. Cognitive development was assessed by the Stanford-Binet ...
The negative effect of smoking during a pregnancy on a childs birth weight outcome has been a consistent finding in the economics literature on estimating birth weight production functions. An important result in the literature is that the negative effect of smoking on birth weight is generally robust to the introduction of unobserved heterogeneity in family-specific health endowments. All of the studies have assumed, however, that fertility itself is unrelated to either anticipated or realized birth weight outcomes that depend on such endowments. One purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of relaxing that assumption on the estimates of the smoking effect on birth weight. To that end, a dynamic model of fertility choice that explicitly incorporates the smoking decision, allowing for its addictive nature, and the birth weight technology, is constructed and empirically implemented using longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Surveys 1979 youth cohort. In addition to obtaining estimates
Background: Birth weight reflects gestational conditions and development during the fetal period. Low birth weight (LBW) may be associated with antenatal care (ANC) adequacy and quality. The purpose of this study was to analyze ANC adequacy and its relationship with LBW in the Unified Health System in Brazil.Methods: A case-control study was conducted in Botucatu, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2004 to 2008. Data were collected from secondary sources (the Live Birth Certificate), and primary sources (the official medical records of pregnant women). The study population consisted of two groups, each with 860 newborns. The case group comprised newborns weighing less than 2,500 grams, while the control group comprised live newborns weighing greater than or equal to 2,500 grams. Adequacy of ANC was evaluated according to three measurements: 1. Adequacy of the number of ANC visits adjusted to gestational age; 2. Modified Kessner Index; and 3. Adequacy of ANC laboratory studies and exams summary measure according ...
Limited research on cardiovascular disease in women has been done despite the fact that cardiovascular disease is the main cause of mortality for women in industrial nations. The study by Rich-Edwards et al gives attention to birth weight as a marker of non-fatal cardiovascular disease including myocardial infarction, coronary revascularisation, and stroke.. In this substudy of the Nurses Health Study, the authors are thorough in their description of the purpose, design, data collection, data analysis, and limitations, which helps to establish credibility and context for the findings. They caution the reader in the interpretation of the data, noting that information was missing on several factors that affect birth weight; some misclassification of self reported birth weight existed; no data existed for 723 deaths caused by cardiovascular disease between 1976 and 1992; and several environmental and genetic factors that determine birth weight may have influenced cardiovascular risk. They noted ...
There was an increase in preterm delivery from 7.2% to 13.6% and in low birth weight from 7.2% to 10.6% from 1978 to 1994. The most prominent increase in low birth weight and preterm delivery was in groups 4 and 5, and the smallest increase was in group 2. Group 1 remained the highest risk group for low birth weight and preterm delivery (Table 3). Discussion Improvements in educational level and prenatal coverage and an increase in the proportion of single mothers, together with decreased infant mortality, indicate that there have been substantial changes in lifestyle and social status in Ribeirão Preto. Furthermore, changes in fertility patterns, such as decreased multiparity, may reflect improved access to free contraceptive methods associated with improved social conditions. However, there have been increases in the prevalence of both low birth weight and preterm deliveries, despite the number of cases in which data on gestational age were unavailable. Precision concerning gestational age ...
Much remains unknown about the consequences of very low birth weight (VLBW) and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) on adult lungs. Although survival has improved significantly in recent years,...
The effects of inhaling particulate matter that have been widely studied in humans and animals include asthma, lung cancer, respiratory diseases, cardiovascular disease, premature delivery, birth defects, low birth weight, and premature death. Inhalation of PM2.5 - PM10 is associated with elevated risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as low birth weight .[60] Maternal PM2.5 exposure during pregnancy is also associated with high blood pressure in children.[61] Exposure to PM2.5 has been associated with greater reductions in birth weight than exposure to PM10.[62] PM exposure can cause inflammation, oxidative stress, endocrine disruption, and impaired oxygen transport access to the placenta,[63] all of which are mechanisms for heightening the risk of low birth weight.[64] Overall epidemiologic and toxicological evidence suggests that a causal relationship exists between long-term exposures to PM2.5 and developmental outcomes (i.e. low birth weight).[62] However, studies investigating the ...
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During pregnancy, a babys birthweight can be estimated in different ways. The height of the fundus (the top of a mothers uterus) can be measured from the pubic bone. This measurement in centimeters usually corresponds with the number of weeks of pregnancy after the 20th week. If the measurement is low for the number of weeks, the baby may be smaller than expected. Ultrasound (a test using sound waves to create a picture of internal structures) is a more accurate method of estimating fetal size. Measurements can be taken of the fetus head and abdomen and compared with a growth chart to estimate fetal weight.. Babies are weighed within the first few hours after birth. The weight is compared with the babys gestational age and recorded in the medical record. A birthweight less than 2,500 grams (5 pounds, 8 ounces) is diagnosed as low birthweight. Babies weighing less than 1,500 grams (3 pounds, 5 ounces) at birth are considered very low birthweight.. ...
Several neurodevelopmental follow up studies have failed to show an association between peak TSB levels and later adverse outcomes in VLBW neonates.37-42 Graziani and coworkers40 reported that bilirubinaemia in the range 2.3-22.5 mg/dl (39-382 μmol/l) was not related to the development of cerebral palsy or early developmental delay. Similarly, Macgregor and coworkers in a large cohort (n = 213) of extremely low birthweight (, 1000 g) neonates observed comparable TSB levels across (a) neurologically normal (mean serum bilirubin 8.9 mg/dl (151 μmol/l); range 4.1-25.3 mg/dl (70-430 μmol/l)), (b) neurologically equivocal (mean serum bilirubin 9.1 mg/dl (155 μmol/l); range 4.7-25.3 mg/dl (80-430 μmol/l)), (c) neurologically abnormal (mean serum bilirubin 9.1 mg/dl (155 μmol/l); range 2.7-19.9 (46-338 μmol/l)), and (d) the subset of abnormal infants with sensorineural hearing loss (mean serum bilirubin 9.0 mg/dl (153 μmol/l); range 5.9-12.7 mg/dl (100-216 μmol/l))41 and concluded that ...
Aims: To compare the prediction of mortality in individual extremely low birth weight (ELBW) neonates by regression analysis and by artificial neural networks. Study design: A database of 23 variables on 810 ELBW neonates admitted to a tertiary care center was divided into training, validation, and test sets. Logistic regression and neural network models were developed on the training set, validated, and outcome (mortality) predicted on the test set. Stepwise regression identified significant variables in the full set. Regression models and neural networks were then tested using data sets with only the identified significant variables, and then with variables excluded one at a time. Results: The area under the curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for neural networks and regression was similar (AUC 0.87±0.03; p=0.31). Birthweight or gestational age and the 5-min Apgar score contributed most to AUC. Conclusions: Both neural networks and regression analysis predicted ...
ARIZONA PERINATAL STATISTICS AREPORT ON PRENATAL CARE, lOW BIRTH WEIGHT AND INFANT MORTALITY PREPARED BY: ARIZONA DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH SERVICES DIVISION OF FAMILY HEALTH SERVICES STEPHEN E. SAUNDERS, M.D., M.P.H. KATE ZIPSNIS, M.P.H. BILL CARLILE, M.D., M.P.H. Arizona Sta~~ ~i~:~rd5 Archives &. PUO,I , 2 4 L007 TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE PAGE List of Tables ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• i List of Figures ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• e •••••••• iii Introduction•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• e ••••••••••••• iv Executive Summary•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• ...
ARIZONA PERINATAL STATISTICS AREPORT ON PRENATAL CARE, lOW BIRTH WEIGHT AND INFANT MORTALITY PREPARED BY: ARIZONA DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH SERVICES DIVISION OF FAMILY HEALTH SERVICES STEPHEN E. SAUNDERS, M.D., M.P.H. KATE ZIPSNIS, M.P.H. BILL CARLILE, M.D., M.P.H. Arizona Sta~~ ~i~:~rd5 Archives &. PUO,I , 2 4 L007 TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE PAGE List of Tables ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• i List of Figures ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• e •••••••• iii Introduction•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• e ••••••••••••• iv Executive Summary•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• ...
The conditions that a developing baby is exposed to in the womb can affect its growth and development, with lifelong implications for health.1 Exposure to environmental chemicals and stress in utero can lead to functional changes in tissues, and predispose the child to diseases that manifest later in life. Being born small is the most well studied marker of such future ill health, with birthweight inversely correlated with cardiovascular and metabolic diseases.1. In this issue, Smith and colleagues (doi:10.1136/bmj.j5299) report that air pollution from road traffic, but not traffic noise, is associated with low birth weight at term.2 The inference is that reducing exposure to air pollution from road traffic will not only improve the health of current adult populations, but has the potential to reduce the burden of non-communicable diseases in future generations too.. The association between air pollution, pregnancy complications, and childhood illness is not new. Small particle pollution ...
OBJECTIVE: To examine psychiatric morbidity and overall functioning in adults born with low birth weight compared with normal birth weight controls at age 26 years and to study longitudinal trajectories of psychiatric morbidity from early adolescence to adulthood. METHODS: Prospective cohort study wherein 44 preterm very low birth weight (≤1500 g), 64 term small for gestational age (SGA; ,10th percentile), and 81 control adults were examined using the MINI-International Neuropsychiatric Interview: M.I.N.I. Plus, Norwegian version, the Global Assessment of Functioning, and questions on daily occupation and level of education. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders from previous follow-ups at age 14 and 19 years were included for longitudinal analysis. RESULTS: From adolescence to adulthood, the term SGA group had a marked increase in the estimated probability of psychiatric disorders from 9% (95% confidence interval, 4-19) to 39% (95% confidence interval, 28-51). At 26 years, psychiatric diagnoses ...
LITTLE FALLS, N.J. -- Prenatal exposure to chemicals found in many common plastic products may be associated with low birth weight, researchers found.
While there are compelling observational data confirming that individuals who exercise are healthier, the efficacy of aerobic exercise interventions to reduce metabolic risk and improve insulin sensitivity in older people has not been fully elucidated. Furthermore, while low birth weight has been shown to predict adverse health outcomes later in life, its influence on the response to aerobic exercise is unknown. Our primary objective is to assess the efficacy of a fully supervised twelve week aerobic exercise intervention in reducing clustered metabolic risk in healthy older adults. A secondary objective is to determine the influence of low birth weight on the response to exercise in this group.We aim to recruit 100 participants born between 1931-1939, from the Hertfordshire Cohort Study and randomly assign them to no intervention or to 36 fully supervised one hour sessions on a cycle ergometer, over twelve weeks. Each participant will undergo detailed anthropometric and metabolic assessment pre- and
It has been reported that reduced birth weight is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes later in life (1-3). The largest such study was a meta-analysis of 14 studies involving a total of 132,180 individuals that demonstrated an association between lower birth weight and type 2 diabetes risk with an odds ratio of 1.32 (2). On a global level, reduced birth weight has been shown to be correlated with increased type 2 diabetes risk in 28 of 31 populations studied (3). Furthermore, low birth weight has been associated with both type 2 diabetes (P = 0.008) and impaired insulin secretion (P = 0.04) in 2,003 participants from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study (HBCS) (4).. It has been proposed that the relationship between low birth weight and type 2 diabetes is genetically mediated, namely, the fetal insulin hypothesis (5,6). Because insulin is a key fetal growth factor, the genetic variants that reduce insulin secretion or insulin sensitivity might also reduce birth weight as well as ...
Passing tubes through the mouth causes discomfort to child, shown by an increase in movements of the jaw and tongue [28]. In order to stabilize oral ventilation or feeding tubes against displacement from tongue and jaw movements, and thus against accidental extubation, to remedy palatal narrowing or grooving and protect primary teeth from trauma caused by intraoral tubes denture like protective plates are recommended or used by various authors [2, 7, 8, 13, 15, 24, 27-30, 32-35]. Such an oral plate has been recommended for any infant requiring an oral tube for more than 24 hours, since 12 hours was the shortest period for palatal groove formation (no information concerning size, depth or severety of that groove was reported) [27].. A 90% reduction of spontaneous extubation and a 100% succes in prevention of palatal groove formation was reported in 30 intubated preterm infants with protective plates; babies who are receive this appliance should be medically stable as determined by the attending ...
The Louisiana Department of Health protects and promotes health and ensures access to medical, preventive and rehabilitative services for all citizens of the State of Louisiana.
Very Low Birth Weight Very low birth weight is a term used to describe babies who are born weighing less than 3 pounds, 4 ounces. It is very rare that babies are born this tiny. Only about 1 in 100 babies born in the U.S. are very low birth weight.. ...
Results A total of 13 198 pregnant women were included in our study, and among them, 99.1% were Yi people and 90.8% lived in rural area. The seroprevalences of HIV and HBV infections and HIV-HBV coinfection were 3.6% (95% CI: 3.2% to 3.9%), 3.2% (95% CI: 2.9% to 3.5%) and 0.2% (95% CI: 0.1% to 0.2%) among the pregnant women, respectively. Maternal HIV-HBV coinfection was a risk factor for low birth weight (adjusted OR (aOR)=5.52, 95% CI: 1.97 to 15.40). Compared with the HIV mono-infection group, the risk of low birth weight was significantly higher in the HIV-HBV coinfection group (aOR=3.62, 95% CI: 1.24 to 10.56). Maternal HIV infection was associated with an increased risk of low birth weight (aOR=1.90, 95% CI: 1.38 to 2.60) and preterm delivery (aOR=2.84, 95% CI: 1.81 to 4.47). Perinatal death was more common when mothers were infected with HBV (aOR=2.85, 95% CI: 1.54 to 5.26). ...
Regardless of the increasing prices of adverse perinatal outcomes throughout the world continually, the molecular systems that underlie adverse perinatal outcomes arent completely understood. non-infected distal organs and tissues. This model can be used as a platform to determine the mechanism(s) by which proinflammatory changes occur between non-contiguous genitourinary organs Introduction Adverse perinatal outcomes include both prematurity (birth prior to 37 weeks) and/or low birthweight (weight below 2500 grams). There is a discernible etiology in only 50% of adverse 472-15-1 perinatal outcomes [1]. The primary known causes of adverse outcomes include multiple gestation [2], high blood pressure [3], diabetes mellitus [4], intrauterine contamination [5], pneumonia [6], [7], periodontal disease [8], [9] and UTI [10], [11]. Premature and low birthweight neonates have increased rates of morbidity and mortality in the first year of life and suffer from a plethora of life-long health conditions ...
Study to Find Out the Risk Factors and Prevalence of Very Low Birth Weight and Extremely Low Birth Weight Babies in Terms of Morbidity and Mortality in Early Neonatal Period in Babies Admitted to a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Eastern India ...
Discussion. In the sample stratified by birth weight, it was observed that the death percentage was inversely proportional to gestational age (GA). The group with birth weight ≤ 1000g had a higher incidence of death, 11 (30.5%), compared to the other groups. The Apgar score less than 7 at 1 and 5 minutes is considered a risk factor for mortality 10. The study by Piccoli et al. 11 also showed a high incidence of prematurity and low birth weight with consequent morbidity and mortality.. Silva et al. 12 found that variables associated with death until the 27th day of life were type of delivery, notusing antenatal corticosteroids, preeclampsia, birth weight , 2500g, Apgar score , 7 at 5 minutes, endotracheal intubation, and notusing exogenous surfactant. For these authors, death was determined by the conditions of the pregnancy, delivery and the newborn.. The group considered extremely low birth weight, or birth weight ≤ 1000g presented a mean gestational age of 26.9 weeks and the group with ...
Definition of birth weight in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is birth weight? Meaning of birth weight as a legal term. What does birth weight mean in law?
CDDR seeks to provide innovative research in areas such as identifying biomarkers in very and extremely pre-term and/or low birth weight babies (5.5 pounds or less); looking at the impact of parental genetics, health, and environment in early development; and exploring links between low birth weight and other developmental disorders such as Autism and other chronic diseases including cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. Several new research projects have already been initiated as a result of CDDR being formed, including ...
BackgroundBeing aware of the impact of low birth weight on late-onset hypertension, our aim was to describe systolic blood pressure (sBP) and renal function in 3-5-year-old preterm-born children and to determine which perinatal factors or childhood factors were associated with an altered renal function at 5 years in these children.MethodsThis was a prospective longitudinal cohort study of children born at 27-31 weeks of gestation and included at birth and examined at 3, 4, and 5 years of age. The primary outcome was renal function at 5 years: BP, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and albuminuria ...
Guest posting: Dr Ayesha Akram, Microbiology Registrar, Pathology North, NSW. Prematurity and low birth weight are important causes of neonatal death and despite increasing awareness of the importance of these adverse pregnancy outcomes, the causes remains unknown on many occasions. Dengue fever is endemic in many regions of the world especially in Southeast Asia and…
Greater likelihood of low birth weight, particularly for unwanted pregnancies.[5][18] This may be through increased risk of ... 5,000 fewer infant deaths, and the infant mortality rate would have been 10% lower.[5] ... eliminating all unwanted pregnancies would reduce rate of low birth weight by 7% for blacks, and 4% for whites, helping to ... Among lower-class women, the rate of unintended pregnancy and unintended birth rose from 1994 to 2001, while it declined for ...
Ziegler EE, Carlson SJ (March 2009). "Early nutrition of very low birth weight infants". J. Matern. Fetal. Neonatal. Med. 22 (3 ... "Slow advancement of enteral feed volumes to prevent necrotising enterocolitis in very low birth weight infants". The Cochrane ... "Delayed introduction of progressive enteral feeds to prevent necrotising enterocolitis in very low birth weight infants". The ... of very low-birth-weight infants (,1,500g).[9] ... Increasing amounts of milk by 30 to 40 mL/kg is safe in infant ...
"Association between Bacterial Vaginosis and Preterm Delivery of a Low-Birth-Weight Infant". New England Journal of Medicine. ... women symptomatic with BV before 22 weeks of gestation the risk of pre-term birth before 37 weeks of gestation is lower.[42] ... Some steps suggested to lower the risk include: not douching, avoiding sex, or limiting the number of sex partners.[38] ... preterm birth, premature rupture of membranes, and postpartum endometritis.[23] Women with BV who are treated with in vitro ...
A risk for delivery of premature labor and low-birth-weight infants". Journal of Natural Science, Biology, and Medicine. 1 (1 ... Associated with premature birth and low birth weight[6]. Cause[edit]. Because plaque-induced gingivitis is by far the most ...
Air pollution has been associated with low birth weight infants.[116] Conditions of particular severity in pregnancy include ... Weight gain. The amount of healthy weight gain during a pregnancy varies.[101] Weight gain is related to the weight of the baby ... low birthweight and preterm birth. Often reproductive disorders are the only manifestation of undiagnosed celiac disease and ... Final weight gain takes place, which is the most weight gain throughout the pregnancy. The woman's abdomen will transform in ...
Even job-related stress has been found to be associated with low birth weight and preterm birth. Working long hours, having ... "How a major immigration raid affected infant health". "Immigration fears among Latinos can impact baby size at birth". Delisle ... "Depression during pregnancy increases risk for preterm birth and low birth weight". UW Today. Retrieved 13 November 2015. " ... The effect was slightly larger at a lower birth weight of 20-25 grams if Ramadan fell somewhere in the first or second ...
S Scott, P Lucas, T Cole and M Richards, Weight gain and movement patterns of very low birthweight babies nursed on lambswool. ... While it is now accepted that infants perceive pain in the same way as adults [27], we are not aware of any research into how ... found that low birthweight babies in incubators had greater daily weight gain when on a 22 mm lambswool pile fabric with ... The Merino Kids sleep sack's higher weight and lower thickness are a result of it comprising of two layers of a flat-knitted ...
Multicentre study on low birth weight and infant mortality in India, Nepal, and Sri Lanka(1994). New Delhi: World Health ... The median birth interval in Nepal is 36 months, which reduces the risk of infant death. However, 21% of infants are born less ... Most babies are bathed (92%) and wrapped (94%) within an hour of birth. 59% of infants born outside of health facilities were ... believing birth is in God's hand. As such, pregnancy and birth needed no preparation. Due to the societal expectation of women ...
"Early-onset sepsis with Staphylococcus auricularis in an extremely low-birth weight infant - an uncommon pathogen". Journal of ...
Low birth weight Low birth weight increases an infants risk of long-term growth and cognitive and language deficits. It also ... A slow growth rate and preterm birth are the two factors that can cause a low birth weight. Low birth weight (below 2000 grams ... When using drugs (narcotics), there is a greater risk of birth defects, low birth weight, and a higher rate of death in infants ... "Effects of gestation and birth weight on the growth and development of very low birthweight small for gestational age infants: ...
Low pre-pregnancy BMI increases the risk of low birth weight infants, but the risk can be balanced by an appropriate ... Their babies are least likely to either be low-birth weight or high-birth weight. It is advised that women with a normal weight ... The infant would likely suffer hypoglycemia (low glucose level in the blood) after birth. The infant would also have difficulty ... On the other hand, insufficient consumption will result in lower birth weight. Maintaining a healthy weight during gestation ...
This may be important for low birthweight infants. If pumping, it is helpful to have an electric, high-grade pump so that all ... Medications that are non-protein bound, low in molecular weight, or highly lipid-soluble are more likely to enter the breast ... feeding an infant breast milk is associated with lower insulin levels and higher leptin levels compared feeding an infant via ... A lower risk of child-onset diabetes may be more applicable to infants who were born from diabetic mothers. The reason is ...
Gaylord MS, Thieme RE, Woodall DL, Quissell BJ (1985). "Predicting mortality in low-birth-weight infants with pulmonary ... Hart SM, McNair M, Gamsu HR, Price JF (1983). "Pulmonary interstitial emphysema in very low birthweight infants". Arch Dis ... Yu VY, Wong PY, Bajuk B, Szymonowicz W (1986). "Pulmonary interstitial emphysema in infants less than 1000 g at birth". Aust ... Infants suffering from pulmonary interstitial emphysema are typically recommended for admission to a neonatal intensive care ...
The role of obstetrical medical technology in preventing low birth weight. Future Child. 1995 spring; 5(1):71-86.[5] ... The impact of extreme prematurity and congenital anomalies on the interpretation of international comparisons of infant ... "The Role of Obstetrical Medical Technology in Preventing Low Birth Weight". The Future of Children. 5 (1): 71-86. doi:10.2307/ ... Vaginal birth after cesarean: a health policy perspective. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2001 Sep;44(3):553-60. ...
"Chemoprophylaxis of neonatal fungal infections in very low birthweight infants: efficacy and safety of fluconazole and nystatin ... "Pfizer switches RA patients to lower dose of fast-growing Xeljanz as safety issues arise in postmarketing study". FiercePharma ... Its products include the blockbuster drug Lipitor (atorvastatin), used to lower LDL blood cholesterol; Lyrica (pregabalin) for ... considerably lower than the 35% rate that Pfizer paid at the time.[69] The deal was to constitute a reverse merger, whereby ...
Neonatology and NICUs have greatly increased the survival of very low birth-weight and extremely premature infants. In the era ... Besides prematurity and extreme low birth-weight, common diseases cared for in a NICU include perinatal asphyxia, major birth ... infants of birth weight less than 1400 grams (3 lb, usually about 30 weeks gestation) rarely survived. Today, infants of 500 ... Even though medical advancements allow doctors to save low-birth-weight babies, it is almost invariably better to delay such ...
"Overweight and obesity in mothers and risk of preterm birth and low birth weight infants: systematic review and meta-analyses ... Obese women also have increased risk of preterm births and low birth weight infants. Those who are obese during pregnancy have ... Increased rates of arthritis are seen in both weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing joints. Weight loss and exercise act to ... Obese individuals are twice to four times more likely to have lower back pain than their normal weight peers. In women, class ...
Kangaroo Mother Care originally referred only to care of low birth weight and preterm infants, and is defined as a care ... While Kangaroo Mother Care generally implies care of low birth weight and preterm infants, skin-to-skin contact should be ... Kangaroo care arguably offers the most benefits for pre-term and low-birth-weight infants, who experience more normalized ... Kangaroo mother care to reduce morbidity and mortality in low-birth-weight infants, WHO United States Institute for Kangaroo ...
At birth, the main symptoms include low weight (due to intrauterine growth restriction), hypotonia, and feeding difficulties. ... Infants may also have cleft palate. 13q deletion syndrome gives a characteristic appearance to affected individuals, ... low hairline, irregular or wrongly positioned teeth, low-set ears, micrognathia (small jaw), tooth enamel defects, short ... 13q deletion syndrome can only be definitively diagnosed by genetic analysis, which can be done prenatally or after birth. ...
2006). "Association of H2-Blocker Therapy and Higher Incidence of Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Very Low Birth Weight Infants". ... reported an association of H2 blocker use and an increased incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis in very-low-birth-weight ( ... when correction is made for body weight.[35] ...
Low birth weight. Low birth weight increases an infants risk of long-term growth and cognitive and language deficits. It also ... A slow growth rate and preterm birth are the two factors that can cause a low birth weight. Low birth weight (below 2000 grams ... low birth weight, and premature births.[15] Exposure to secondhand smoke leads to higher risks of low birth weight and ... When using drugs (narcotics), there is a greater risk of birth defects, low birth weight, and a higher rate of death in infants ...
... it is particularly common in premature infants or those of very low birth weight.[8] The cause of IVH in premature infants, ... Grades III and IV are the most serious and may result in long-term brain injury to the infant. After a grade III or IV IVH, ... In both adults and infants, IVH can cause dangerous increases in ICP, damage to the brain tissue, and hydrocephalus.[8][9] ... IVH in the preterm brain usually arises from the germinal matrix whereas IVH in the term infants originates from the choroid ...
December 1995). "Association between bacterial vaginosis and preterm delivery of a low-birth-weight infant. The Vaginal ... Low pH is generally accepted to be the main mechanism controlling the composition of the vaginal microflora. Although the ... This implies that not all communities may be equally resilient, so that if the resilience of a vaginal community is low then ... Mirmonsef P, Gilbert D, Veazey RS, Wang J, Kendrick SR, Spear GT (January 2012). "A comparison of lower genital tract glycogen ...
The presence of glucocorticoids has contributed to the relatively low infant birth weight. A decrease in HSD-11β Type 2 in the ... "Diminished 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2 Activity Is Associated With Decreased Weight and Weight Gain Across the ... Infants born underweight are susceptible to having metabolic disease throughout their lives. ... placenta can lead to infant restriction in growth, specifically during the first 12 months of an infant's life. The reason for ...
1995). Long-term developmental outcomes of low birth weight infants. In: The Future of Children: Low Birth Weight. Vol. 5(1):19 ... Evaluation of the Black Infant Health program has suggested that BIH clients have lower amounts of birth defects, infant ... Rates of gestational age, pre-term birth weight, and infant mortality were higher in HBI clients when compared to LA County ... Although comparisons of infant mortality and pre-term birth rates between HBI clients and the outside community were not ...
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia is common in infants with low birth weight (. ... Another purpose is the management of respiratory distress and apnea, particularly in infants. Analeptics can be used to ... Analeptics can also be used as convulsants, with low doses causing patients to experience heightened awareness, restlessness ... and bronchopulmonary dysplasia in newborn infants. Caffeine is a weak bronchodilator, which explains the relief of the effects ...
Severely premature infants can be born before descent of testes. Low birth weight is also a known factor. A contributing role ... In the even smaller minority of cryptorchid infants who have other obvious birth defects of the genitalia, further testing is ... It is the most common birth defect of the male genital tract. About 3% of full-term and 30% of premature infant boys are born ... In many infants with inguinal testes, further descent of the testes into the scrotum occurs in the first six months of life. ...
Major causes of PEM in Nepal is low birth weight of below 2.5 kg, due to poor maternal nutrition, inadequate dietary intake, ... Under-five mortality:From 136.9 per 1,000 live births in 1990 to 39.5 in 2015. Infant Mortality: From 97.70 to 29.40 in 2015. ... Around a quarter of babies are born low birth weight. As per the findings of Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS, 2011), ... Maternal mortality rate was reduced from 748 per 100,000 live births in 1990 to 190 per 100,000 live births on 2014. Nepal also ...
Mannix, Loretta H.; Stratton, Julius Adams (2005). Mind and Hand: The Birth of MIT. Cambridge: MIT Press. pp. 190-92. ISBN ... Heavy Internet use is also displayed in the school lower grades of those who use it in excessive amounts [70]. It has also been ... Continuous studies have shown that increased BMI and weight gain are associated with people who spend long hours online and not ... as infants no longer needed to be carried, as nomadic ones must. Additionally, children could contribute labor to the raising ...
While a minimal amount of thyroid hormones are found in breast milk, the amount does not influence infant plasma thyroid levels ... Dosages vary according to the age groups and the individual condition of the person, body weight and compliance to the ... It may also be used to treat goiter via its ability to lower thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), a hormone that is considered ... and premature birth.[20] ... Side effects from excessive doses include weight loss, trouble ...
2001). "Growth and Development in the Normal Infant and Child, Table 7.1". Principles and Practice of Endocrinology and ... The cost of treatment depends on the amount of growth hormone given, which in turn depends on the child's weight and age. One ... The anthropometric measurements include height, sitting height, arm span, upper/ lower-body segment ratio, sitting height/ ... being small for gestational age at birth, Prader-Willi syndrome, Wiedemann-Steiner syndrome, or other conditions. Genetic ...
Lower birth rate. *Higher infant mortality and child mortality[29]. *Smaller adult size ... Fareed M, Afzal M (2014). "Evidence of inbreeding depression on height, weight, and body mass index: a population-based child ... consanguineous parents possess a high risk of premature birth and producing underweight and undersized infants.[75] Viable ... Diamond JM (1987). "Causes of death before birth". Nature. 329 (6139): 487-8. doi:10.1038/329487a0. PMID 3657971. S2CID 4338257 ...
At birth[edit]. Main article: Sex assignment § Assignment in cases of infants with intersex traits, or cases of trauma ... but trans men had a lower level of sexual satisfaction to non-trans men. Moreover, trans men also had a lower sexual ... Surgeons may require overweight patients to reduce their weight before surgery, any patients to refrain from hormone ... Infants born with intersex conditions might undergo interventions at or close to birth.[45] This is controversial because of ...
Average global birth rates are declining fast, but vary greatly between developed countries (where birth rates are often at or ... "Global weight gain more damaging than rising numbers". BBC. June 18, 2012. Retrieved February 12, 2013.. ... Alternative scenarios for 2050 range from a low of 7.4 billion to a high of more than 10.6 billion.[69] Projected figures vary ... Another critical factor for such an estimate is the question of pre-modern infant mortality rates; these figures are very ...
After the 40th day, the effects of radiation exposure are likely to include low birth weight, delayed growth, and possible ... While reducing the radioactive intake of their infants is an important preventative measure, it denies women the opportunity to ... Pregnancy and birth outcomes[edit]. Evidence about radiation-related pregnancy and birth outcomes comes from studies of nuclear ... "Genetic radiation risks: a neglected topic in the low dose debate". Environmental Health and Toxicology. 31: e2016001. doi ...
... infant mortality in Cuba had fallen to 4.83 deaths per 1,000 live births compared with 6.0 for the United States and just ... In 2003 Cuba had the lowest HIV prevalence in the Americas and one of the lowest in the world.[47] Education in Cuba concerning ... cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality have been related to sustained population-wide weight loss as a result of ... The mortality rate was the third lowest in the world.[12] According to the World Health Organization, the island had the lowest ...
Low-lactose and lactose-free versions of foods are often available to replace dairy-based foods for those with lactose ... This test can be used to diagnose lactose intolerance in infants, for whom other forms of testing are risky or impractical.[40] ... by weight) may not be very reliable. Kosher products labeled pareve or fleishig are free of milk. However, if a "D" (for "dairy ... Congenital lactose intolerance is an extremely rare genetic disorder in which little or no lactase is made from birth.[1] The ...
... at birth, but not as coordinated as ungulates (hoofed mammals).[47] Infant care by the mother is relatively prolonged compared ... Instead, their lower incisors varied in orientation-from somewhat procumbent to somewhat vertical-and the lower canines were ... but otherwise lemurs show very little if any difference in body size or weight between sexes. This lack of sexual dimorphism is ... The toothcomb consists of either two or four procumbent lower incisors and procumbent lower canine teeth followed by a canine- ...
Infant mortality in Kerala is 12 per thousand live births, but in Assam it is 56. According to World Bank, the total ... which can lead to serious mental or physical complaints Foliate deficiency can lead to insufficient birth weight or congenital ... Due to their lower social status, girls are far more at risk of malnutrition than boys their age. Partly as a result of this ... The under five mortality and infant mortality rates have been declining, from 202 and 190 deaths per thousand live births ...
... of mothers to develop pyelonephritis and increases risk of low birth weight and preterm birth.[77] Some also support treatment ... Infants may feed poorly, vomit, sleep more, or show signs of jaundice. In older children, new onset urinary incontinence (loss ... A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection that affects part of the urinary tract.[1] When it affects the lower urinary ... In a group of children with a fever, ranging in age between birth and two years, two to 20% were diagnosed with a UTI.[20] ...
"Costs of caregiving: weight loss in captive adult male cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) following the birth of infants" ... Its lower canine teeth are longer than its incisors, creating the appearance of tusks.[13] Like other callitrichids, the cotton ... This burden may cause some male cotton-tops to lose up to 10-11% of their total body weight.[28] The large weight loss may ... Infants are thought to imitate adult speakers, which use differing calls in various contexts, but by using solely the infant ...
Premature and low birth weight babies face an increased risk of serious health problems as newborns have chronic lifelong ... Infants exposed to smoke, both during pregnancy and after birth, are found to be more at risk of sudden infant death syndrome ( ... Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the sudden death of an infant that is unexplainable by the infant's history. The death ... babies born to smoking mothers are usually born too early and have low birth weight (less than 2,500 grams or 5.5 pounds), ...
... studies have found that overall rates of congenital malformations in infants exposed to lamotrigine in utero are relatively low ... Many studies have found no association between lamotrigine exposure in utero and birth defects, while those that have found an ... weight loss, missed or painful menstrual periods, and vaginitis. The side effect profile varies for different patient ... lower doses (and lower plasma levels) are usually needed, as even moderate doses of this drug can induce seizures, including ...
If infant death records are matched to birth records, it is possible to use birth variables, such as birth weight and ... such as strings with low Jaro-Winkler or Levenshtein distance). This value would be 1.0 in the case of perfect data, but given ... If a value of 0.95 were to be estimated for the m probability, then the match/non-match weights for the birth month identifier ... the match weight is added to the running total whenever a pair of identifiers agree, while the non-match weight is added (i.e. ...
And this is quite in order or in the order of things and of existence, since a human being, even if from the moment of birth ... Yes, everything is soon turned upside-down: communication is indeed soon brought to its lowest point in regard to meaning, and ... compulsory infant baptism was abolished. Debates sprang up over the King's position as the head of the Church and over whether ... carries the preponderant ethical weight against the state, government, and a united public opinion, when they are wrong. The ...
... insufficient sleep may also play a role in weight gain or, conversely, in impeding weight loss.[46] Additionally, in 2007, the ... linked to lower overall health and well being.[26] It has been demonstrated that increased time spent in natural environments ... especially to the health of infants and children.[14][25] Some studies have shown that a lack of neighborhood recreational ... Life expectancy at birth, accessed 20 April 2011. *^ Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. (2008). Health in Everyday Living. ...
This is thought to be due to a rise in low birth weight of infants and the increased survival rate of these infants. The ... often just after birth.[48] Multiple-birth infants are also more likely than single-birth infants to have CP.[53] They are also ... Term infants[edit]. In babies that are born at term risk factors include problems with the placenta, birth defects, low birth ... more likely to be born with a low birth weight. In those who are born with a weight between 1 kg and 1.5 kg CP occurs in 6%.[2] ...
Containing All the Lawyers in the United States and Canada-about 85,000 in all-with Date of Birth, Date of Admission, and ... see Infants; GUARDIAN AND WARD - See also Infants; Heirs , see Descent and Distribution; HOLIDAYS - See also Bills and Notes; ... Size and Weight Limits, Equipment Required, Inspection, Traffic Regulation, Accidents, Liability of Owner, Guests, Proof of ... "Britain's Low-Profile Publishing Giant". New York Times. Retrieved 2012-11-21 ...
People with schizophrenia generally have lower levels of vitamin D.[17] The environmental risk factors of seasonality of birth ... with this dosage being doubled for premature infants, dark-skinned infants and children, children who reside in areas of ... within certain body weight limits, to body weight.[54] ... The lower the 25(OH)D serum concentration is before treatment, ... causing overt bone disease from before birth and impairment of bone quality after birth.[9][14] ...
... and premature birth: premature infants are those born after the stage of viability but prior to 37 weeks." Stedman's Medical ... "Expulsion from the uterus an embryo or fetus prior to the stage of viability (20 weeks' gestation or fetal weight ,500g). A ... and high and low estimates of the numbers of unsafe abortion developed by WHO.. ... An alternative definition is delivery of a fetus with a weight of less than 500 g. If abortion occurs before 12 weeks' ...
When the Lo-Jack is activated on the car, Pete has Badger take Pete's car to the Mexico border, the opposite direction Jesse is ... Due to an argument with Jimmy, Chuck kills himself later the same day, and Howard comes to bear the weight of causing Chuck's ... Holly White (played by Elanor Anne Wenrich) is Skyler and Walt's infant daughter and Walt Jr.'s younger sister. Walt is not ... and he blames Jesse for making him miss the birth. Ted Beneke, Skyler's boss, takes Skyler to the hospital when she goes into ...
Bag-valve masks come in different sizes to fit infants, children, and adults. The face mask size may be independent of the bag ... kg body weight) as outlined by the American Heart Association [1] and European Resuscitation Council.[15] Numerous studies have ... drawing in either ambient air or a low pressure oxygen flow supplied by a regulated cylinder, while also allowing the patient's ... making manual resuscitators among the very first therapeutic medical devices encountered upon birth. As previously stated, ...
... which has low oxygen affinity and releases oxygen in the tissues. Conversely, a high pH, low CO2, or low 2,3 BPG favors the ... Each subunit has a molecular weight of about 16,000 daltons,[41] for a total molecular weight of the tetramer of about 64,000 ... In human infants, the hemoglobin molecule is made up of 2 α chains and 2 γ chains. The gamma chains are gradually replaced by β ... Gene expression of hemoglobin before and after birth. Also identifies the types of cells and organs in which the gene ...
In other people who stutter, there could be added impact due to stressful situations such as the birth of a sibling, moving, or ... In addition, potentially serious side effects of pharmacological treatments were noted,[66] such as weight gain, sexual ... Proposed causes of stuttering have included tickling an infant too much, eating improperly during breastfeeding, allowing an ... low self-esteem, being a possible target of bullying (especially in children), having to use word substitution and rearrange ...
... a systematic review and meta-analysis on birth weight, placental weight and length of gestation". Nutr J. 11: 75. doi:10.1186/ ... Infants (AI) Infants (UL) Children and adults (RDA) Children and adults (UL) Pregnant women (RDA) Pregnant women (UL) Lactating ... Shiroky JB; Frcp(c) (1997). "The use of folates concomitantly with low-dose pulse methotrexate". Rheum. Dis. Clin. North Am. 23 ... Georgia used data from 23 birth defect registries covering about half of United States births, and extrapolated their findings ...
... infant is defined as one with a birth weight of less than 1000 g (2 lb, 3 oz). Most extremely low birth weight infants are also ... encoded search term (Extremely Low Birth Weight Infant) and Extremely Low Birth Weight Infant What to Read Next on Medscape ... Infants with extremely low birth weight are at higher risk for hearing impairment because of their low birth weight. [150] ... First year survival was 15.5% for infants with a birth weight less than 500g. [2] Infants with extremely low birth weight (ELBW ...
Fungal Colonization in the Very Low Birth Weight Infant. Jill E. Baley, Robert M. Kliegman, Bernard Boxerbaum, Avroy A. ... Fungal Colonization in the Very Low Birth Weight Infant. Jill E. Baley, Robert M. Kliegman, Bernard Boxerbaum, Avroy A. ... Fungal Colonization in the Very Low Birth Weight Infant. Jill E. Baley, Robert M. Kliegman, Bernard Boxerbaum and Avroy A. ... For very low birth weight (,1,500 g) infants, we prospectively determined the fungal colonization rate to be 26.7%. In one ...
... of cases in this weight category, 56% of all cases of atypical hypothyroidism). In addition, screening programs using a primary ... Of these, 98 were normal birthweight (NBW, , or = 2,500 g), 9 were low birthweight (LBW, 1,501-2,499 g), and 11 were very low ... Atypical hypothyroidism and the very low birthweight infant.. Mandel SJ1, Hermos RJ, Larson CA, Prigozhin AB, Rojas DA, ... During this period, 118 infants were found to have typical hypothyroidism, characterized by a low thyroxine (T4) and an ...
... employment and independence as normal birth-weight infants, according to a study by researchers at the Michael G. DeGroote ... the majority of extremely low birth-weight infants are attaining similar levels of education, ... The low birth-weight infants have been followed from birth, the normal birth-weight children were recruited at age eight years ... 82 percent of low birth weight infants compared to 87 percent of those with normal birth weight). Overall, no statistically ...
Breastfeeding Infants Who Were Extremely Low Birth Weight. Jo Ann Blaymore Bier, Anne E. Ferguson, Yesenia Morales, Jill A. ... Breastfeeding Infants Who Were Extremely Low Birth Weight. Jo Ann Blaymore Bier, Anne E. Ferguson, Yesenia Morales, Jill A. ... Breastfeeding Infants Who Were Extremely Low Birth Weight Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from Pediatrics ...
Because VLBW black infants are disproportionately treated by minority-serving hospitals. ... Minority-serving hospitals may provide lower quality of care to VLBW infants compared with other hospitals. ... This study investigated whether the proportion of black very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants treated by hospitals is associated ... Mortality Among Very Low-Birthweight Infants in Hospitals Serving Minority Populations. * * Publisher: American Public Health ...
... Tara R Allen and Orlando P da Silva ... Tara R Allen and Orlando P da Silva, "Choice of Antibiotics in Late Neonatal Sepsis in the Extremely Low Birth Weight Infant," ...
The goal of the study was to assess how accurately patient volume predicts quality of care for VLBW infants and to compare ... Birth Weight, *Child Health, *Children, Families, and Communities, *Health Care Organization and Administration, ... Is Patient Volume a Useful Quality Measure for Very Low Birthweight Infants?. by Jeannette Rogowski, Jeffrey Horbar, Douglas ... Is Patient Volume a Useful Quality Measure for Very Low Birthweight Infants?, Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND Corporation, RB-4559, ...
Indirect Vs Direct Hospital Quality Indicators for Very Low-Birth Weight Infants. Published in: JAMA, The Journal of the ... OBJECTIVES: To assess the potential usefulness of volume as a quality indicator for very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants and ... Is Patient Volume a Useful Quality Measure for Very Low Birthweight Infants?. Jan 1, 2004 ... In contrast, hospitals in the lowest mortality quintile between 1995 and 1998 were found to have significantly lower mortality ...
RESULTS Low-birth-weight infants (,2.5 kg) showed a significantly earlier onset of diabetes (4.3 [3.2-6.0] years vs. 9.0 [5.3- ... RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data from infant records of 232 patients with IDDM, including birth weight, birth length, ... Infants with corrected birth weight: length ratio below the 10th percentile had earlier onset, as did infants with corrected 6- ... Infants small for gestational age also had earlier onset than those with birth weight above the 10th percentile after ...
... reporting premature infants are five times more likely to have autism than children born at normal weight. ... Low birthweight infants five times more likely to have autism. 17.10.2011 ... Further reports about: , ASD , Autism , Nursing , autism spectrum disorders , health challenge , low birthweight ... Links between low birthweight and a range of motor and cognitive problems have been well established for some time, but this is ...
... to explore the relationship between activity level of a womans occupation and her risk of delivering a low-birth-weight infant ... Previous studies of the effect of mothers employment on infant birth weight have shown mixed results. This study was designed ... Activity level of mothers usual occupation and low infant birth weight J Occup Med. 1985 Nov;27(11):841-7. doi: 10.1097/ ... No association was detected between activity level of mothers usual occupation and delivery of a low-birth-weight infant. ...
... infants and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. A better understanding of the adherence factors, molecular ... Fungal infections are prevalent in very low birthweight (,1500 g) ... Infant, Premature, Diseases / epidemiology, microbiology, prevention & control*. Infant, Very Low Birth Weight*. Risk Factors. ... Identifying the highest risk very low birthweight infants for prophylaxis and empiric therapy may lead to better outcomes. ...
... is a registry of very low birth weight infants born alive in NICHD Neonatal Research Network (NR... ... Generic Database (GDB) is a registry of very low birth weight infants born alive in NICHD Neonatal Research Network (NRN) ... More From BioPortfolio on "Generic Database of Very Low Birth Weight Infants". *Related Companies*Related Events*Related ... The Generic Database (GDB) is a registry of very low birth weight infants born alive in NICHD Neonatal Research Network (NRN) ...
Fetal growth in early pregnancy and risk of delivering low birth weight infant: prospective cohort study BMJ 2007; 334 :836 ... Fetal growth in early pregnancy and risk of delivering low birth weight infant: prospective cohort study. BMJ 2007; 334 doi: ... Fetal growth in early pregnancy and risk of delivering low birth weight infant: prospective cohort study ... Fetal growth in early pregnancy and risk of delivering low birth weight infant: prospective cohort study ...
Low birth weight infants are at increased risk of perinatal and infant death.1 Low birth weight is also associated with ... Fetal growth in early pregnancy and risk of delivering low birth weight infant: prospective cohort study BMJ 2007; 334 :836 ... Fetal growth in early pregnancy and risk of delivering low birth weight infant: prospective cohort study. BMJ 2007; 334 doi: ... Fetal growth in early pregnancy and risk of delivering low birth weight infant: prospective cohort study ...
... indicate significant and substantial effects of aggregate fluctuations on maternal and infant mortality and low birth weight, ... Finally, provincial public expenditures on health and education are correlated with the incidence of low birth weight and ... Keywords: crisis; infant mortality; maternal mortality; low birth weight; poverty; Argentina; Other versions of this item:. * ... "Economic Crises, Maternal and Infant Mortality, Low Birth Weight and Enrollment Rates: Evidence from Argentinas Downturns," ...
Infant, Newborn Infant, Low Birth Weight Infant, Small for Gestational Age Infant, Premature ... Outcome of extremely-low-birth-weight infants at highest risk: gestational age , or =24 weeks, birth weight , or =750 g, and 1- ... Maternal age, multiple birth, and extremely low birth weight infants. J Pediatr. 2009 Apr;154(4):498-503.e2. doi: 10.1016/j. ... Malloy MH, Onstad L, Wright E. The effect of cesarean delivery on birth outcome in very low birth weight infants. National ...
... low-birth weight infants born to nonsmoking mothers. Data were collected through a retrospective chart review of 30 low-birth ... Infants exposed to the components of cigarette smoke in utero are at an increased risk for perinatal death, low birth weight, ... The purpose of this pilot study was to compare blood pressure values in term low-birth weight infants (≤2500 grams) born to ... A Comparison of Blood Pressure in Term, Low Birth-Weight Infants of Smoking and Nonsmoking Mothers ...
Neonatal transport of very low birth weight infants in Jerusalem, revisited.. Arad I1, Baras M, Bar-Oz B, Gofin R. ... Our data suggest that very low birth weight outborn infants may share an outcome comparable with that of inborn babies, if ... of inborn and outborn very low birth weight infants, accounting for sociodemographic, obstetric and perinatal variables, with ... We compared 129 premature infants with birth weights of 750-1250 g delivered between 1996 and 2000 in a hospital providing ...
Eight infants, with a mean birth weight of 712 +/- 161 g, had a diffuse burn-like dermatitis, usually within the first three ... The cutaneous manifestations of 18 infants treated for systemic candidiasis during a 3 3/4-year period were examined. ... Eight infants, with a mean birth weight of 712 +/- 161 g, had a diffuse burn-like dermatitis, usually within the first three ... Nine additional infants had monilial diaper rashes, which spread to the trunk and extremities in four infants. These infants ...
Infant Infant, Low Birth Weight Infant, Newborn Male Maternal Age Membranes Mortality Parity Parturition Placenta Placenta ... High incidence of low-birth-weight infant was found in group of gestational period, 31-33 weeks and birth weith, 1501~1750 gm ... 3) Incidence of low-birth-weight infant by maternal age was in order of the group of 26-30 years old, the group of 20-25 years ... 5) Etiology of low-birth-weight infant was in order of multiple pregnancy, toxemia, placenta previa and abruptio placenta, ...
Gastroesophageal reflux and gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms are common challenges for very low-birth-weight infants (< ... Very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants struggle with gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in ... Gastroesophageal reflux in very low birth weight infants: association with chronic lung disease and outcomes through 1 year of ... Association of H2-blocker therapy and higher incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis in very low birth weight infants. ...
... and some are born full-term but at a low weight (1). Infants with a low birthweight (less than 5.5 lbs) have increased risks of ... for infants born at low birthweight, 1.4% for infants born at very low birthweight, and 9.4% for infants born preterm. ... Infants Born at Low Birthweight (change indicator) View Infants Born at Low Birthweight. by Mothers Age. by Mothers Race/ ... for infants born at low birthweight and from 0.6% to 2% for infants born at very low birthweight. Statewide, women ages 45 and ...
... we hypothesized that infants with NEC also have low blood TGF-beta levels. We further hypothesized that because fetal ... inflammation increases the risk of NEC, infants who develop NEC ... Data on 104 extremely-low-birth-weight infants with NEC and 893 ... 2014). Cytokines associated with necrotizing enterocolitis in extremely-low-birth-weight infants. Pediatric Research, 76(1), ... and low blood TGF-beta levels are associated with higher risk of NEC. Infants who developed NEC did not start with high blood ...
We randomly assigned 1974 infants with extremely low birth weight at 12 to 36 hours of age to undergo either aggressive or ... It is unclear whether aggressive phototherapy to prevent neurotoxic effects of bilirubin benefits or harms infants with ... extremely low birth weight (1000 g or less). METHODS: ... conservative phototherapy for infants with extremely low birth ... conservative phototherapy for infants with extremely low birth weight. New England Journal of Medicine, 359(18), 1885-1896. ...
... as plasticizers in a wide variety of personal care product and childrens toys might contribute to low birth weight in infants ... Low birth weight may case many other problems too.. My Grand daughter is low birth weight. she was kept in ICU for 10 days. ... Of the 201 infants studied, 88 were born with low birth weight. The researchers analyzed samples of the infants meconium, the ... They found that Infants with low birth weight had consistently higher levels of phthalates. "The results showed that phthalate ...
Open Access journal that provides a forum for pediatricians who diagnose and treat disorders in infants, children, and ... In summary, sepsis-related mortality is very high in low birth weight infants, mainly in extreme low birth infants. This is ... 1000 g, classified as extreme low birth weight (ELBW) infants. The mean VLBW infants age for all sepsis events was 12.9 (12.1 ... B. J. Stoll, N. I. Hansen, R. D. Higgins et al., "Very low birth weight preterm infants with early onset neonatal sepsis: the ...
... and some are born full-term but at a low weight (1). Infants with a low birthweight (less than 5.5 lbs) have increased risks of ... for infants born at low birthweight, 1.4% for infants born at very low birthweight, and 9.4% for infants born preterm. ... for infants born at low birthweight and from 0.6% to 2% for infants born at very low birthweight. Statewide, women ages 45 and ... Low and very low birthweight infants. Retrieved from: https://www.childtrends.org/?indicators=low-and-very-low-birthweight- ...
... within eight hours of giving birth is associated with the highest probability of mothers of very low-birth-weight infants being ... The infants were all very low-birth-weight infants who spent time in the neonatal intensive care unit. They found 70 percent of ... First milk expression within 8 hours related to lactation success for very low-birth-weight infants. *Download PDF Copy ... Mothers who have recently delivered very low-birth-weight infants have a number of competing needs. Our data-driven approach to ...
  • Infants born with a birth weight less than 1500 g are defined as very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. (medscape.com)
  • This phenomenon occurred in 18 infants, of whom 4 were NBW, 4 were LBW, and 10 were VLBW. (nih.gov)
  • VLBW, 1:153, with the highest incidence of atypical hypothyroidism in the VLBW category (48% of cases in this weight category, 56% of all cases of atypical hypothyroidism). (nih.gov)
  • In view of these results, it is suggested that T4 measurements be obtained routinely in all LBW and VLBW infants, with additional routine repeat blood specimens. (nih.gov)
  • This study investigated whether the proportion of black very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants treated by hospitals is associated with neonatal mortality for black and white VLBW infants. (rwjf.org)
  • The authors analyzed medical records linked to secondary data sources for 74,050 black and white VLBW infants (501 g to 1500 g) treated by 332 hospitals participating in the Vermont Oxford Network from 1995 to 2000. (rwjf.org)
  • Hospitals where more than 35 percent of VLBW infants treated were black were defined as "minority-serving. (rwjf.org)
  • The authors conclude that minority-serving hospitals may provide lower quality of care to VLBW infants compared with other hospitals. (rwjf.org)
  • Because VLBW black infants are disproportionately treated by minority-serving hospitals, higher neonatal mortality rates at these hospitals may contribute to racial disparities in infant mortality in the U.S. (rwjf.org)
  • The goal of the study was to assess how accurately patient volume predicts quality of care for VLBW infants and to compare volume with direct indicators, such as patient mortality. (rand.org)
  • This network includes 40 percent of the NICUs in the United States and accounts for 50 percent of annual VLBW infant admissions. (rand.org)
  • The study found that referrals for VLBW infants that rely on indirect measures such as volume are at best minimally effective for predicting outcomes and may unfairly penalize high-quality providers that have lower volumes. (rand.org)
  • OBJECTIVES: To assess the potential usefulness of volume as a quality indicator for very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants and compare volume with other potential indicators based on readily available hospital characteristics and patient outcomes. (rand.org)
  • DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A retrospective study of 94 110 VLBW infants weighing 501 to 1500 g born in 332 Vermont Oxford Network hospitals with neonatal intensive care units between January 1, 1995, and December 31, 2000. (rand.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Referral of VLBW infants based on indirect-quality indicators such as patient volume may be minimally effective. (rand.org)
  • The purpose is to collect baseline and outcome data in a uniform manner on a large cohort of VLBW and other sick infants admitted to neonatal intensive care units. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants struggle with gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and beyond discharge. (nursingcenter.com)
  • The purpose of this article was to provide an overview of GER/GERD and share an evidence-based GER algorithm for consistent assessment and care of VLBW infants postdischarge to 12 months corrected age presenting with reflux-like symptoms. (nursingcenter.com)
  • However, insufficient evidence exists with regard to GER/GERD symptom identification and management in preterm infants, especially the VLBW infant. (nursingcenter.com)
  • Neonatal sepsis is a frequent complication of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants and it is an important cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • VLBW infants develop 2.7 times more sepsis than other infants since their immune system and skin barrier are immature and they are exposed to many invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The aim of this study is to identify the risk factors involved in the mortality caused by sepsis of a VLBW infants population with sepsis, in particular, the role of Pseudomonas aeruginosa , a very aggressive pathogen. (hindawi.com)
  • The study objectives were to identify the probiotic products used in VLBW infants within the US, and to determine whether their use was supported by reliable evidence. (nature.com)
  • A phone survey of all neonatal intensive care units (NICU) participating in VON within the US was conducted between May and September 2015 to identify NICUs that are using probiotics in VLBW infants. (nature.com)
  • An evidence based literature search, limited to randomized controlled trials in VLBW infants, was conducted to determine whether the use of identified probiotics were supported by reliable evidence. (nature.com)
  • During the survey period, 14.0% of NICUs were using probiotics in VLBW infants (70/500). (nature.com)
  • Probiotics were routinely given to all VLBW infants in 8.8% (44/500) NICUs, while it was given in selected VLBW infants in 5.2% (26/500) of NICUs. (nature.com)
  • The probiotics use in VLBW infants within the US is increasing, but is still limited. (nature.com)
  • More than 8 million children aged under 5 die every year, and neonatal mortality and especially very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infant mortality are among the six factors to which over 90% of these deaths are attributed. (scielo.org.za)
  • Early neonatal hyperglycemia is common among very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates. (cochrane.org)
  • We studied 127 VLBW infants during the early neonatal period. (cambridge.org)
  • Using logistic regression, we evaluated nutrient intake and other relevant factors associated with extra-uterine growth restriction in the subgroup of VLBW infants with adequate weight for gestational age at birth. (cambridge.org)
  • Extra-uterine growth restriction is common in VLBW infants fed primarily fortified human milk. (cambridge.org)
  • HealthDay News) - For very low birth weight (VLBW) babies, there is good stability of cognitive development over time, with a strong correlation between assessments at 2 years of corrected age and at age 5, according to a study published online Feb. 27 in Pediatrics . (empr.com)
  • Petriina Munck, from the Turku University Hospital in Finland, and colleagues studied a regional cohort of 120 VLBW children born between 2001 and 2004 and assessed them using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Second Edition, at 2 years of corrected age, and the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised at the age of 5 years. (empr.com)
  • Thus, this report's focus is using fortified pasteurized donor milk as a supplement to or replacement for a mother's breast milk for feeding her very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infant. (ecri.org)
  • VLBW infants who survive are 'at significantly increased risk of severe long-term health and developmental problems, including physical and sensory difficulties, developmental delays, and cognitive impairment. (ecri.org)
  • The mothers of approximately 80% of VLBW infants and 60% LBW infants initiated breast milk feeding. (mdpi.com)
  • While more work is needed to more completely understand the cost savings of human milk across other potentially avoidable morbidities in VLBW infants, results from these two studies suggest that both the avoidance of formula and the dose of human milk are important for reducing the incidence of both late onset sepsis and NEC. (medela.us)
  • For many very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants, there is insufficient mother's milk, and a supplement of pasteurized donor human milk or preterm formula is required. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • To determine if nutrient-enriched donor milk compared with formula, as a supplement to mother's milk, reduces neonatal morbidity, supports growth, and improves neurodevelopment in VLBW infants. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • In this pragmatic, double-blind, randomized trial, VLBW infants were recruited from 4 neonatal units in Ontario, Canada, within 96 hours of birth between October 2010 and December 2012. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Among VLBW infants, use of supplemental donor milk compared with formula did not improve neurodevelopment at 18 months' corrected age. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Despite the common occurrence of anemia in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, the erythropoiesis and Hb production rates and their relationship to plasma erythropoietin (EPO) concentrations remain unknown in these subjects. (aspetjournals.org)
  • To determine these quantities, all blood removed by phlebotomy and administered by red blood cell (RBC) transfusion over the first 30 days of life was recorded in 14 ventilated VLBW infants born at 24 to 28 weeks of gestation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Its incidence is 2-3% in very low birthweight (VLBW) infants and 5% in extremely low birthweight infants (ELBW). (scielo.org.ar)
  • Oropharyngeal administration of colostrum (OAC) has been proposed to provide mother's early milk to very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants in the first few days of life. (ovid.com)
  • Overall, 30 VLBW infants randomized to receive OAC or sterile water had salivary sampling for SsIgA on the day of life (DOL) 2, 7, and 14. (ovid.com)
  • A large, multicenter trial is needed to determine if OAC decreases LOS or NEC in VLBW infants. (ovid.com)
  • Background and objectives Serum creatinine (SCr)-based AKI definitions have important limitations, particularly in very low-birth-weight (VLBW) neonates. (asnjournals.org)
  • We assessed the association between 14 different urine biomarkers and AKI in VLBW infants. (asnjournals.org)
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical factors most predictive of red blood cell transfusion in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. (jefferson.edu)
  • STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review of VLBW infants cared for at a single level III NICU during a two year period, n = 199. (jefferson.edu)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our data characterize the population of VLBW infants with the greatest blood transfusion and donor requirement. (jefferson.edu)
  • Systemic fungal infection and early-onset bacterial sepsis are described to be associated with the development of ROP in very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants. (arvojournals.org)
  • The recommended growth velocity (GV) of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants is 15 g/kg/day. (scielo.org.za)
  • To provide current information on the postnatal growth of VLBW infants at Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital (CMJAH). (scielo.org.za)
  • This was a longitudinal study of VLBW infants surviving to discharge from CMJAH neonatal unit from August to October 2013. (scielo.org.za)
  • This study showed a GV in VLBW infants approaching recommended standards. (scielo.org.za)
  • To determine rates of at least 1 high-risk infant follow-up (HRIF) visit by 12 months corrected age, and factors associated with successful first visit among very low birth weight (VLBW) infants in a statewide population-based setting. (cpqcc.org)
  • Multivariable logistic regression examined independent associations of maternal, sociodemographic, neonatal clinical, and HRIF program factors with a successful first HRIF visit among VLBW infants born in 2010-2011. (cpqcc.org)
  • However, the combination of one of these chromosomal anomalies and very low birth weight (VLBW) presents greater challenges. (uiowa.edu)
  • In the NICHD NRN database (n=52,259), 133 (0.26%) VLBW infants were diagnosed with T21, 132 (0.25%) with T18 and 40 (0.08%) with T13. (uiowa.edu)
  • The current studies evaluated the largest cohorts of VLBW infants with T21, T18 or T13. (uiowa.edu)
  • These data are important to help families and care providers make informed decisions involving the care of their VLBW infants with these chromosomal anomalies. (uiowa.edu)
  • Objective: To analyse the survival and perinatal risk factors of early neonatal death in very low birth weight (VLBW) new-borns (500-1499 g). (alliedacademies.org)
  • Results: Odds of surviving increased from 1.6 in the infants with the extremely low birth weight (ELBW) (≤ 999 g) to 2.5 times in the VLBW infants (≤ 1499 g). (alliedacademies.org)
  • The objective of this study was to assess teamwork climate across NICUs and to test scale-level and item-level associations with health care-associated infection (HAI) rates in very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. (cpqcc.org)
  • Cross-sectional study of the association between HAI rates, defined as any bacterial or fungal infection during the birth hospitalization, among 6,663 VLBW infants cared for in 44 NICUs between 2010 and 2012. (cpqcc.org)
  • Of the infants whose outcomes were known at 18-22 months, 49% died, 61% died or had profound impairment, and 73% died or had impairment. (medscape.com)
  • Dr. Saroj Saigal, professor of pediatrics, conducted a study over two years to determine the outcomes at young adulthood of extremely low birth-weight infants, in comparison to a group of normal birth-weight children. (news-medical.net)
  • Identifying the highest risk very low birthweight infants for prophylaxis and empiric therapy may lead to better outcomes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The GDB collects observational baseline data on both mothers and infants, and the therapies used and outcomes of the infants. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The Milk Trial seeks to determine the effect on neurodevelopmental outcomes at age 22-26 months of donor human milk as compared to preterm infant formula as the in-hospital diet for infants whose mothers choose not to provide breast milk or are able to provide only a minimal amount. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Our long-term goal is to optimize neurodevelopmental and health outcomes for ELBW infants, maximizing their quality of life and societal functionality throughout their lives. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In addition, bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants has been correlated with poor neurodevelopmental outcomes, Owen and colleagues reported. (healio.com)
  • Regarding secondary outcomes, there was a slight improvement in haemoglobin and ferritin concentrations in supplemented infants at 2 months of age compared with infants receiving no supplementation. (who.int)
  • Available evidence is insufficient to assess the effect of enteral iron supplementation on the neurodevelopmental and long-term growth outcomes for preterm and low-birth-weight infants. (who.int)
  • The team found no evidence that the doses of hydrocortisone used in the study prevented BPD, but Parikh suggests even though lower doses of hydrocortisone do not appear to benefit the lungs, they may improve cognitive outcomes. (healthcanal.com)
  • Neurodevelopmental outcomes of extremely preterm infants randomized to stress dose hydrocortisone. (healthcanal.com)
  • Several epidemiological studies ( 7 - 12 ) suggest that, for both men and women, those born with low birth weight were at an elevated risk for type 2 diabetes and other health outcomes during adulthood. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • However, few studies have examined the growth and outcomes of preterm infants according to the type of feeding (with fortified breast milk or formula). (mdpi.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of breast milk feedings and formula on the growth and short-term outcomes of preterm infants in Hong Kong. (mdpi.com)
  • Preventing an infant from acquiring one or more of these morbidities thereby improves outcomes, reduces the NICU length of stay and ultimately decreases costs. (medela.us)
  • Feeding preterm and low birth weight infants with formula milk compared to donor breast milk was found to be associated with a higher rate of short-term growth, but no effect was observed on rate of long-term growth or neurodevelopmental outcomes. (who.int)
  • Future trials may compare growth, development and adverse outcomes in infants who receive formula milk versus nutrient-fortified donor breast milk given as a supplement to maternal expressed breast milk or as a sole diet. (who.int)
  • SCr was measured on postnatal days 1, 2, 3, and 4 and was combined with clinically measured SCr to determine AKI according to Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes AKI definition (increase in SCr ≥0.3 mg/dl or ≥50% increase from previous lowest value). (asnjournals.org)
  • AKI in premature infants is common and predicts poor clinical outcomes ( 1 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • OBJECTIVES Outcomes of very preterm infants vary considerably between health care facilities. (uzh.ch)
  • Adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) for the composite "death or major morbidity" (aRR: 0.56, 95% confidence interval: 0.51-0.62) and all other outcomes were either comparable or lower in SNN except for mortality, for which aRR was higher (aRR: 1.28, 95% confidence interval: 1.09-1.50). (uzh.ch)
  • Maternal smoking has been found to adversely affect birth outcomes, such as increasing the odds of having low birth weight infants. (springer.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS A higher PCO2 target did not influence neurodevelopmental outcomes in mechanically ventilated extremely preterm infants. (uzh.ch)
  • Although the mortality rate has greatly diminished with the use of surfactants, the proportion of surviving infants with severe sequelae, such as chronic lung disease, cognitive delays, cerebral palsy, and neurosensory deficits (ie, deafness and blindness), has not improved as significantly. (medscape.com)
  • According to data from a 2011 cohort study, infants born at 23-25 weeks' gestation who received antenatal exposure to corticosteroids had a lower rate of mortality and complications compared with those who did not have such exposure to corticosteroids. (medscape.com)
  • By contrast, direct measures such as infant deaths are more useful quality indicators for the purposes of selective referral: They predict future mortality rates more accurately and could therefore save infant lives. (rand.org)
  • The percentage of hospital-level variation in mortality in 1999-2000 that was forecasted by the highest and lowest quintiles based on patient mortality was 34% compared with only 1% for the highest and lowest quintiles of volume. (rand.org)
  • 1500 g) infants and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The purpose of this trial is determine whether a 50,000 IU oral dose of vitamin A delivered to newborn infants within the first days of life, reduces six-month infant mortality by at least. (bioportfolio.com)
  • 1 Low birth weight is also associated with increased mortality in later life. (bmj.com)
  • These results indicate significant and substantial effects of aggregate fluctuations on maternal and infant mortality and low birth weight, with countercyclical though not significant patterns for enrollment rates. (repec.org)
  • Economic Crises, Maternal and Infant Mortality, Low Birth Weight and Enrollment Rates: Evidence from Argentina's Downturns ," IZA Discussion Papers 6096, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). (repec.org)
  • Economic Crises, Maternal and Infant Mortality, Low Birth Weight and Enrollment Rates: Evidence from Argentina's Downturns ," CEDLAS, Working Papers 0121, CEDLAS, Universidad Nacional de La Plata. (repec.org)
  • Economic Crises, Maternal and Infant Mortality, Low Birth Weight and Enrollment Rates: Evidence from Argentina's Downturns ," MPRA Paper 42936, University Library of Munich, Germany. (repec.org)
  • A delay in diagnosis or therapy resulted in mortality, whereas promptly treated infants survived. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 6) Mortality rate by weight-gestational age was lower in the group of apprepriate for gestational age infant than in the group of small for gestational age infant and in the group of large for gestatonal age infant. (koreamed.org)
  • 7) Higher mortality rate was noted in the group of lower birth weight infant, the group of more shortened gestational period and the group of lower Apgar score. (koreamed.org)
  • This reduction may be offset by an increase in mortality among infants weighing 501 to 750 g at birth. (rti.org)
  • birth weight ≤1000 g and mechanical ventilation were strong sepsis-related mortality predictors. (hindawi.com)
  • Mortality of necrotizing enterocolitis expressed by birth weight categories. (nature.com)
  • In the United States, the anticipated mortality rate for infants weighing less than 500 g who were born in the 1980s was nearly 100%, according to researchers. (healio.com)
  • In South Africa, perinatal mortality and low-birth-weight rates have in the past generally been reported only for infants weighing ≥ 1 000 g at birth, because smaller infants are often regarded as miscarriages and not recorded. (scielo.org.za)
  • Anaemia, especially in areas of malaria transmission, retards intrauterine growth, resulting in low birth weight, which is a major contributor to neonatal mortality (3, 4). (who.int)
  • HealthDay News - For infants with a birth weight of 1.0 kg to 1.799 kg, receiving immediate kangaroo mother care reduces mortality at 28 days, according to a study published in the New England Journal of Medicine . (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • For analysis of morbidity and mortality, infants were matched for gestational age and birth weight. (omicsonline.org)
  • Initial ventilator settings, ventilator days, mortality, and morbidity were not different between ELBWIs with EI/MV in the DR and infants with secondary EI/MV attributable to RDS in the intensive care unit. (omicsonline.org)
  • ELBWIs with no EI/MV that was caused by RDS had a lower morbidity (ie, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, intraventricular hemorrhage >grade 2 and/or periventricular leukomalacia), mortality, and fewer hospital days (mean: 79 vs 105 days). (omicsonline.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS: In our setting, the individualized intubation strategy in the DR restricted EI/MV to those ELBWIs who ultimately needed it, without increasing morbidity or mortality in infants with secondary EI/MV attributable to RDS. (omicsonline.org)
  • There was no statistically significant difference in infants positive for the mortality and morbidity index (43% in donor milk group, 40% in formula group) or changes in growth z scores. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • As a result, an increase in SIDS deaths could be expected in the lower birth weight infants because of the decreased competing mortality pressures during the neonatal period. (bmj.com)
  • 35% of all deaths in the first month of life are due to prematurity and the neonatal mortality rate is eight times higher in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) than in Europe. (bmj.com)
  • ABSTRACT Low birth weight is a key determinant in the risk of morbidity and mortality in the neonatal period and during childhood. (who.int)
  • In-hospital mortality occurred for 33.1% of infants with T21, 89.0% with T18, and 92.4% with T13. (uiowa.edu)
  • The variables significantly associated with new-born mortality were congenital abnormalities (ORadj=7.8), birth weight (ORadj=3.4) and placental abruption (ORadj=2.1) and Apgar score ≤ 6 at 5 min (ORadj=2.1). (alliedacademies.org)
  • Conclusion: The neonatal mortality risk was significantly higher in the cases of neonatal birth weight ≤ 1000 g, gestational age up to the 31st GW, Apgar score of 6 points at fifth min, congenital abnormalities and placental abruption. (alliedacademies.org)
  • SIDS remains the leading cause of infant mortality in Western countries, contributing to half of all post-neonatal deaths. (wikipedia.org)
  • Autism researchers at the University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing have found a link between low birthweight and children diagnosed with autism, reporting premature infants are five times more likely to have autism than children born at normal weight. (innovations-report.com)
  • We compared 129 premature infants with birth weights of 750-1250 g delivered between 1996 and 2000 in a hospital providing neonatal intensive care to 99 premature babies delivered in a referring hospital. (nih.gov)
  • The Infant Health and Development Program was a collaborative, randomized, longitudinal, multisite clinical trial designed to evaluate the efficacy of comprehensive early intervention in reducing the developmental and health problems of low birth weight, premature infants. (umich.edu)
  • Advances in medical care have improved the survival of very low birth weight premature infants but at the same time have also led to an increased number of surviving infants with reduced cerebral growth and long-term neurodevelopmental motor, cognitive, and social morbidities. (harvard.edu)
  • Early Intervention for Low Birth Weight, Premature Infants: Participation and Intellectual Development. (ed.gov)
  • The Infant Health and Development Program (IHDP), an eight-site randomized controlled trial of a comprehensive intervention program combining home visits, child centers, and parent meetings with pediatric follow-up and referral, effectively reduced the incidence of health and developmental problems in a sample of 377 low birth weight, premature infants when compared to a control group of 608 infants during the first 3 years of life. (ed.gov)
  • A spontaneous intestinal perforation (SIP) is a single intestinal perforation typically involving the antimesenteric border of distal ileum, which usually occurs without a defined prodrome in extremely premature infants in the first 1-2 weeks of life. (scielo.org.ar)
  • Medical Staff Guidelines for Periviability Pregnancy Counseling and Medical Treatment of Extremely Premature Infants. (aappublications.org)
  • In evaluation of urine biomarkers of AKI in neonates, it is critical to adjust for differences in GA. Prior literature has shown that in premature infants without AKI, urine proteins will be highest among those with the lowest GA, probably because of the passive loss of proteins in the context of immature tubular function ( 6 - 8 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • Purpose of review: Obviously, the ultimate goal in neonatology is to achieve a functional outcome in premature infants that is comparable to healthy term-born infants. (eur.nl)
  • However, many premature infants are catabolic during the first week of life, which has directly been linked to growth failure, disease, and suboptimal long-term outcome. (eur.nl)
  • This review describes the progress in research on parenteral nutrition for premature infants with a focus on amino acids and the influence of nutrition on later outcome. (eur.nl)
  • Recent findings: Although randomized clinical trials on early nutrition for premature infants remain relatively sparse, evidence is accumulating on its beneficial effects both on the short-term and long-term. (eur.nl)
  • Mother's milk has many benefits for very low-birth-rate infants, including reduction of necrotizing enterocolitis, sepsis, and chronic lung disease, and improvement in later childhood development. (news-medical.net)
  • Rates of sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis are also lower in human milk fed ELBW infants, and they experience shorter hospital stays and fewer re-hospitalizations in the first year of life. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Data from multiple clinical trials, mostly conducted outside the US, indicate that probiotic prophylaxis is an effective intervention for prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm infants. (nature.com)
  • AlFaleh K, Anabrees J . Probiotics for prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants. (nature.com)
  • Probiotic administration can prevent necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants: a meta-analysis. (nature.com)
  • Not enough evidence to support administering antibiotics through a feeding tube for low birth weight and new born babies to prevent necrotizing enterocolitis. (cochrane.org)
  • To evaluate the benefits and harms of enteral antibiotic prophylaxis for necrotizing enterocolitis in low birth weight and preterm infants. (cochrane.org)
  • Bury RG, Tudehope D. Enteral antibiotics for preventing necrotizing enterocolitis in low birthweight or preterm infants. (cochrane.org)
  • Growing evidence supports the role of probiotics in reducing the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis, time to achieve full enteral feeding, and late-onset sepsis (LOS) in preterm infants. (mdpi.com)
  • These infants are more susceptible to morbidities, including late onset sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), chronic lung disease and severe retinopathy of prematurity. (medela.us)
  • Length of hospital stay, days of mechanical ventilation, requirement for dopamine support, birth weight, initial hematocrit, periventricular leukomalacia and necrotizing enterocolitis all independently correlated with number of transfusions and donors. (jefferson.edu)
  • 1500 g) infants. (hindawi.com)
  • 1500 g) infants fed fortified human milk, and examined the association between nutrient intake, medical factors and growth during hospitalisation lasting on average 70 d. (cambridge.org)
  • Very low birth weight infants are those weighing less than 1500 grams, or about 3.3 pounds, at birth. (bio-medicine.org)
  • METHODS Retrospective observational study including all live-born infants with a birth weight between 501 and 1500 g as registered by SNN and US-VON between 2012 and 2014. (uzh.ch)
  • A prospective cohort study was conducted of preterm infants with clinical early-onset sepsis whose birth weight (BW) was ≤1500 g and gestational age (GA) was ≤32 weeks. (arvojournals.org)
  • Participants included 1950 mothers of stable LBW infants (weighing 1500-2250 g) in rural and semiurban low-income populations in North India enrolled between April 2017 and March 2018. (healthynewbornnetwork.org)
  • The purpose of this pilot study was to compare blood pressure values in term low-birth weight infants (≤2500 grams) born to smoking mothers to the blood pressure values of term, low-birth weight infants born to nonsmoking mothers. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • 2500 g) infants receiving enteral iron supplementation (≥1 mg/kg/day) with a control group (placebo or ≥ 1 mg/kg/day of iron). (who.int)
  • 2500 g) Swedish infants (N = 70) at discharge from a neonatal unit and at the postnatal ages of 2, 4, 6, and 8 months. (diva-portal.org)
  • The objective of the present study was to investigate the long-term effect on iron status and growth in marginally LBW (2000-2500 g) infants, of iron supplements given until 6 months of life. (diva-portal.org)
  • low-birth-weight infant one that weighs less than 2500 grams at birth. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • To compare the neonatal outcome (survival, intraventricular hemorrhage and bronchopulmonary dysplasia) of inborn and outborn very low birth weight infants, accounting for sociodemographic, obstetric and perinatal variables, with reference to earlier published data. (nih.gov)
  • Despite advances in perinatal care, one of every two extremely low birth weight infants develops bronchopulmonary dysplasia and/or neurodevelopmental impairments," says Nehal Parikh, DO, principal investigator in the Center for Perinatal Research at The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital. (healthcanal.com)
  • An extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infant is defined as one with a birth weight of less than 1000 g (2 lb, 3 oz). (medscape.com)
  • [ 2 ] Infants with extremely low birth weight (ELBW) are more susceptible to all complications of premature birth, both in the immediate neonatal period and after discharge from the nursery. (medscape.com)
  • The proposed study will be the first US multicenter randomized trial of the health and developmental effects of donor milk as compared to preterm formula in ELBW infants receiving little or no maternal milk. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • If donor human milk has similar effects to maternal milk, the public health benefit of donor milk feedings in ELBW infants unable to receive maternal milk would be considerable. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW) refers to those babies who are born at less than 1,000 g," Okito said in an interview. (healio.com)
  • The problems that affect ELBW infants can vary - from neurosensory (blindness and other visual problems, hearing loss and cerebral palsy), cognitive (speech and learning difficulties) and behavioral issues (such as autism spectrum disorder). (healio.com)
  • Survival of extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW) infants in a resource-limited public hospital setting is still low in South Africa. (scielo.org.za)
  • Survival of ELBW infants is low. (scielo.org.za)
  • Survival of extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW) infants has improved markedly over the past decade, largely owing to improved care, availability of antenatal steroids, provision of surfactant and establishment of appropriately equipped intensive care units (ICUs) where resources permit. (scielo.org.za)
  • ELBW infants who have no access to an ICU are therefore managed in a busy high-care ward. (scielo.org.za)
  • A new study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) Pediatrics provides evidence that extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants run a higher risk of suffering from adverse events such as fever, breathing problems (apnea), abnormally slow heart rates (bradycardia), and fever soon after being vaccinated. (prn.fm)
  • Herein we present an ELBW infant with RDS who underwent surgery for spontaneous intestinal perforation due to segmental absence of intestinal muscle accompanied by an ileal web. (scielo.org.ar)
  • To quantify the importance of successful endotracheal intubation on the first attempt among extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants who require resuscitation after delivery. (cdc.gov)
  • [ 3 ] The study reported that 83% of infants born at 22-25 weeks' gestation received intensive care (consisting of mechanical ventilation). (medscape.com)
  • We present a clinical case of a premature birth from a mother of 33+5 weeks gestation where the newborn was admitted to the neonatal unit due to her low weight, chest retraction and prematurity, despi. (bioportfolio.com)
  • 37 weeks gestation) infants. (cochrane.org)
  • Technological and therapeutic advances have improved during the past 2 decades, increasing survival among the smallest, most immature infants, some as young as 22 to 23 weeks' gestation. (aappublications.org)
  • Tara R Allen and Orlando P da Silva, "Choice of Antibiotics in Late Neonatal Sepsis in the Extremely Low Birth Weight Infant," Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases , vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 28-31, 2003. (hindawi.com)
  • Clinical information was correlated with blood cytokine levels on postnatal day 1 (D1), D3, D7, D14, and D21.Results:Male gender, non-Caucasian/non-African American ethnicity, sepsis, lower blood TGF-beta and interleukin (IL)-2 levels, and higher IL-8 levels were associated with NEC. (rti.org)
  • Overall 21 of 71 infants with sepsis (29.6%) died. (hindawi.com)
  • Additionally, the critical window for human milk feedings is at least the first 28 days post-birth to reduce the incidence of both late onset sepsis and NEC. (medela.us)
  • To prospectively study the association of high cytokine plasma levels with later development of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in preterm infants with early-onset sepsis to assess a laboratory test to detect ROP. (arvojournals.org)
  • There is a relationship between high plasma levels of IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α in the first days of life with the later development of ROP severe enough to treat in preterm infants with early-onset sepsis. (arvojournals.org)
  • 8 suggested that neonatal sepsis, oxygen exposure, and low gestational age (GA) are not only independently associated with ROP occurrence, they interact and have a multiplicative effect on development of ROP. (arvojournals.org)
  • Involvement of prolactin in newborn infant irritability following maternal perinatal anxiety symptoms. (bioportfolio.com)
  • 3) Incidence of low-birth-weight infant by maternal age was in order of the group of 26-30 years old, the group of 20-25 years old and the group of 31-35 years old and the incidence by parity was higher in multiparity than in primiparity. (koreamed.org)
  • Linda D. Wallen, MD, associate division chief of clinical operations at Seattle Children's, said a combination of simple interventions - like the increased use of breast milk and the control of maternal infection - have contributed enormously to the survival of extremely low-birth-weight infants. (healio.com)
  • However, with improving maternal and neonatal care, more infants weighing 500 - 1 000 g are expected to survive. (scielo.org.za)
  • however, poor fetal growth can also cause LBW, usually because of problems with the placenta, maternal health, or birth defects. (ecri.org)
  • When sufficient maternal breast milk is not available, the alternative sources of enteral nutrition for preterm or low birth weight infants are donor breast milk or artificial formula milk. (who.int)
  • Prone sleeping (placing an infant to sleep on his/her stomach), bed sharing, parents not sleeping in the same room as the infant, an infant not using a pacifier during sleep, overheating, and maternal smoking during pregnancy have been suggested as contributing factors for SIDS. (bmj.com)
  • Subsequently, we tested for the interaction effect of maternal smoking, GSTT1 and GSTM1 genes polymorphisms with birthweight by adding all the product terms in the regression models. (vdu.lt)
  • The interaction effect of maternal smoking, GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes was marginally significant on birthweight (−234.5 g, P = 0.078). (vdu.lt)
  • This study merged two nationally representative datasets in the United States (US)-the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79) and the NLSY79 Child and Young Adult (NLSYCYA)-to examine whether maternal weight status before pregnancy serves as a biological mechanism. (springer.com)
  • We found that maternal body mass index (BMI) (in kg/m 2 ), a widely used measure of weight status, reduces the odds of delivering a low birth weight infant, and this mechanism explains about 10.2% of the adverse impact of maternal smoking on having a low birth weight child. (springer.com)
  • Moreover, when categorizing maternal pre-pregnancy BMI into four weight statuses (i.e., underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese), we found that, in contrast to mothers with normal weight status, underweight mothers are 70% more likely to have a low birth weight child. (springer.com)
  • Our findings suggest that maternal weight status plays a role in understanding how maternal smoking affects low birth weight outcome, indicating that maintaining a proper weight status for women who plan to give birth may be a possible policy to promote infant health. (springer.com)
  • Maternal smoking and its association with birth weight. (springer.com)
  • Association between maternal smoking and low birth weight in Switzerland: The EDEN study. (springer.com)
  • Even when controlling for confounding factors, racial disparities in low birth weight odds did not significantly vary according to neighborhood risk level.ConclusionRacial disparities can remain in low birth weight odds among infants born to adolescent mothers when controlling for maternal characteristics, pregnancy behaviors, and neighborhood risk. (uncg.edu)
  • Maternal sociodemographic data, pregnancy history, anthropometric data and cord plasma zinc level were collected from 134 mothers of low-birth-weight infants and 134 mothers of normal infants at the time of delivery. (who.int)
  • Significant differences in maternal characteristics namely gravida, parity, body mass index, maternal weight gain during pregnancy and plasma cord blood zinc were found between low- and normal-birth-weight infants. (who.int)
  • There were no significant differences in maternal age, maternal education, maternal occupation, family income, previous abortion, previous preterm labour, birth interval, type of clinic and place of residence between the 2 groups. (who.int)
  • citation needed] Maternal tobacco smoking doubles risk of LBW for the infant. (wikipedia.org)
  • A correlation between maternal exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) and low birth weight has been reported that the effect on birth weight of increased ambient CO was as large as the effect of the mother smoking a pack of cigarettes per day during pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data from infant records of 232 patients with IDDM, including birth weight, birth length, gestational age, weight at 6 months of age, and feeding history during the first 6 months of life, were analyzed. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We further hypothesized that because fetal inflammation increases the risk of NEC, infants who develop NEC have elevated blood cytokine levels in early neonatal period.Methods:Data on 104 extremely-low-birth-weight infants with NEC and 893 without NEC from 17 centers were analyzed. (rti.org)
  • METHODS: We randomly assigned 1974 infants with extremely low birth weight at 12 to 36 hours of age to undergo either aggressive or conservative phototherapy. (rti.org)
  • Data were extracted using the standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group, with separate evaluation of trial quality and data extraction by two reviewer authors, and synthesis of data using relative risk, risk difference and weighted mean difference. (who.int)
  • Methods We conducted an observational study to understand current practices for monitoring of preterm infants at a large national referral hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. (bmj.com)
  • Methods: Eligible infants were randomized within 3 h of birth into the following three groups: chlorhexidine, normal saline or no skin cleansing. (ivteam.com)
  • METHODS Infants (n=359) between 400 and 1000 g birth weight and 23 0/7-28 6/7 weeks gestational age who required endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation within 24 hours of birth were randomly assigned to high PCO2 or to a control group with mildly elevated PCO2 targets. (uzh.ch)
  • Materials and methods: A retrospective cohort study (2000-2010) was used to analyse data from the Medical Birth Register. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Methods: This was an observational, cohort study including extremely low birth weight infants that who developed BPD and those who did not. (elsevier.com)
  • The study population included all 94,110 infants between 501 and 1,500 grams born in network hospitals between 1995 and 2000. (rand.org)
  • Candidiasis should be more frequently considered, and prompt systemic therapy should be instituted when cutaneous candidiasis occurs within the first few days of life in infants who weigh less than 1,500 g. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Percentage of infants born weighing less than 1,500 grams (approximately 3 lbs, 5 oz). (kidsdata.org)
  • It isn't clear what factors contributed to the positive outcome beyond adolescence, as all through childhood the low birth weight cohort was significantly compromised in comparison with their peers. (news-medical.net)
  • Data are analyzed to find associations and trends between baseline information, treatments, and infant outcome, and to develop future NRN trials. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Main outcome measures Birth weight, duration of pregnancy, and risk of delivering a small for gestational age infant. (bmj.com)
  • In the statistical analysis, variables with a statistical significant association with the outcome variables and dissimilar distribution in the two hospitals were identified and entered together with the hospital of birth as explanatory variables in a logistic regression. (nih.gov)
  • Our data suggest that very low birth weight outborn infants may share an outcome comparable with that of inborn babies, if adequate perinatal care including surfactant administration is provided prior to transportation to a tertiary center. (nih.gov)
  • The primary outcome was a composite of death or neurodevelopmental impairment determined for 91% of the infants by investigators who were unaware of the treatment assignments. (rti.org)
  • Multiple regression analyses showed that the best fitting model for predicting adverse outcome included PLCS and low birth weight, p = 0.018. (frontiersin.org)
  • A retrospective analysis of the outcome of inborn very low birthweight infants admitted to the neonatal unit of the University Hospital of the West Indies pre- (period 1) and post- (period 2) establishment of a neonatal intensive care unit was conducted. (uwi.edu)
  • Conclusion EWS may standardise documentation and identify infants who are at higher risk of an adverse outcome. (bmj.com)
  • Effective Communication Strategies for Nurses to Discuss Infant Feeding with New Mothers during Postpartum Hospitalization. (bioportfolio.com)
  • During prenatal care and postpartum hospitalization, nurses have an important role in assisting new mothers to make informed decisions about feeding their newborn infants. (bioportfolio.com)
  • 2 Moreover, mothers who deliver low birth weight infants have a greater than fourfold adjusted relative risk of ischaemic heart disease. (bmj.com)
  • Fifteen of the infants were born to women who smoked cigarettes during pregnancy, while another 15 infants were born to mothers who did not smoke during pregnancy. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • While hospitalized at birth, the infants of smoking mothers shared a trend toward higher blood pressure readings for all measures, with the t -test differences reaching statistical significance for systolic arm ( p = .024), diastolic leg ( p = .03), and mean arterial pressure of the arm ( p = .038). (ingentaconnect.com)
  • A study led by physician researchers at Boston Medical Center has shown that first milk expression within eight hours of giving birth is associated with the highest probability of mothers of very low-birth-weight infants being able to provide milk throughout hospitalization in the neonatal intensive care unit. (news-medical.net)
  • The study results, published in Obstetrics and Gynecology, help better inform perinatal providers and new mothers how to prioritize the many aspects of perinatal care after delivery of a very low-birth-weight infant. (news-medical.net)
  • However, mothers of very low-birth-rate infants often have challenges making milk. (news-medical.net)
  • Because of these challenges, lactation support for mothers of very low-birth-weight infants is crucial. (news-medical.net)
  • Mothers who have recently delivered very low-birth-weight infants have a number of competing needs. (news-medical.net)
  • They found 70 percent of infants whose mothers expressed first milk within eight hours of delivery were being fed any mother's milk at discharge or transfer, compared with 52 percent of infants whose mothers expressed first milk 9-24 hours after delivery. (news-medical.net)
  • The authors note that given these results, randomized control trials are needed to further establish the causal relationship between timing of first milk expression and long-term lactation success among mothers of very low-birth-weight infants. (news-medical.net)
  • Researchers looked at data from more than one-million births in all Pennsylvania counties over a period of ten years, and found that babies born to mothers who lived within about half a mile of a well site were 25 percent more likely to have a low birth weight. (alleghenyfront.org)
  • Does Neighborhood Risk Explain Racial Disparities in Low Birth Weight among Infants Born to Adolescent Mothers? (uncg.edu)
  • Study ObjectiveTo test associations and interactions between racial identification, neighborhood risk, and low birth weight disparities between infants born to African-American and white adolescent mothers.DesignRetrospective cross-sectional study. (uncg.edu)
  • A "neighborhood risk" index was created using principal component analysis, and mothers were grouped into 3 neighborhood risk levels (low, medium, high). (uncg.edu)
  • This unmatched case-control study in Hamadan, Islamic Republic of Iran, compared the characteristics of mothers of low- and normal-birth-weight infants. (who.int)
  • Approximately 1 in 5 women in low- and middle-income countries experience postpartum depression, and the risk is higher among mothers of low-birth-weight (LBW) infants. (healthynewbornnetwork.org)
  • Kangaroo mother care (KMC) is effective in improving survival among LBW infants, but the benefits of KMC for mothers are not well described. (healthynewbornnetwork.org)
  • The mothers in the intervention group were supported to practice ciKMC until 28 days after birth or until the infant wriggled out of the KMC position (ie, was no longer staying in the KMC position). (healthynewbornnetwork.org)
  • Salivary cortisol concentration was measured in a subsample of 550 mothers before and after breastfeeding on day 28 after birth. (healthynewbornnetwork.org)
  • Finally, provincial public expenditures on health and education are correlated with the incidence of low birth weight and school enrollment for teenagers, with worsening results associated with GDP declines. (repec.org)
  • 2) The incidence of low-birth weitht infant was 8.4% and there was no different distribution between male and female. (koreamed.org)
  • 4) Incidence of low-birthpweight infant by the type of delivery was in order of normal vaginal delivery, breech delivery and C-section delivery. (koreamed.org)
  • Reported incidence of GER in preterm infants varies from 22% to 85% depending on criteria used for diagnosis. (nursingcenter.com)
  • Evidence suggests that oral antibiotics reduce the incidence of NEC in low birth weight infants. (cochrane.org)
  • The results of the present meta-analysis show that probiotics reduce LOS incidence in exclusively HM-fed preterm infants. (mdpi.com)
  • LBW infants had a high breastfeeding incidence but a significantly shorter duration than controls. (diva-portal.org)
  • High SIDS incidence among low birth weight, very low birth weight, and extremely low birth weight infants persists despite increased overall survival within these infant populations. (bmj.com)
  • The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence and risk factors for Intrauterine Growth Retardation (IUGR) and Extra Uterine Growth Retardation (EUGR) and provide more approaches for appropriate nutritional support for preterm infants. (alliedacademies.org)
  • The incidence of IUGR in birth weight, length and head circumference was 61.11%, 20.83% and 25.69%, respectively. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Aggressive parenteral nutrition can promote physical development and decrease the incidence of EUGR in low birth weight infants. (alliedacademies.org)
  • The incidence of hyperkalemia and associated clinical features in extremely preterm infants were determined by reviewing medical records of 32 infants with birth weights of less than or equal to 800 g born during a 1-year period. (semanticscholar.org)
  • By definition, SIDS deaths occur under the age of one year, with the peak incidence occurring when the infant is at 2 to 4 months of age. (wikipedia.org)
  • The study sample of infants was stratified by birth weight (2,000 grams or less, 2,001-2,500 grams) and randomized to the Intervention Group or the Follow-Up Group. (umich.edu)
  • day(-1) until 6 months of life effectively reduces the risk of ID during the first 12 months of life and is an effective intervention for preventing early ID in marginally LBW infants. (diva-portal.org)
  • Conclusion: Single skin cleansing with 0.25% chlorhexidine did not adversely affect skin condition or temperature in hospitalized preterm infants and reduced axillary-skin colonization at 24 h after the intervention. (ivteam.com)
  • Previous studies of the effect of mother's employment on infant birth weight have shown mixed results. (nih.gov)
  • No association was detected between activity level of mother's usual occupation and delivery of a low-birth-weight infant. (nih.gov)
  • Placental function in early pregnancy, as measured by circulating concentrations of placentally derived proteins in the mother's serum, is associated with risk of low birth weight. (bmj.com)
  • County-level data reflect the mother's county of residence, not the county in which the birth occurred. (kidsdata.org)
  • In a study of the effect on infant health of a mother's experience of adversity in childhood by researcher Deborah Kim and colleagues, both adversity in childhood (such as physical abuse or the loss of a parent) and stress during pregnancy were associated with low infant birth weight and lower gestational age at birth . (bipolarnews.org)
  • Infants were fed either donor milk or formula for 90 days or to discharge when mother's milk was unavailable. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • However, the mechanisms explaining how a mother's smoking is linked to a child's low birth weight status are underexplored. (springer.com)
  • The infants were born between September 1984 through July 1987 in Middlesex, Monmouth, and Ocean counties in New Jersey at birthweights from 500 to 2000 grams or a maximum of about 4.4 pounds. (innovations-report.com)
  • In 2000, these infants comprised just 1.4 percent of U.S. births but 51 percent of infant deaths. (bio-medicine.org)
  • National, regional, and worldwide estimates of low birthweight in 2015, with trends from 2000: A systematic analysis. (springer.com)
  • Objective: To examine if single skin cleansing with 0.25% chlorhexidine affects skin condition, temperature and bacterial colonization in stable preterm (28-36 weeks gestational age) low birth weight (1001-2000 g) infants admitted in a health facility. (ivteam.com)
  • In India the criterion for normal birth weight is 2150 grams and in Malaysia it is 2000 grams. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • For example, a retrospective multicenter cohort study published in April in JAMA Pediatrics showed that with active treatment, about 26% of infants weighing less than 400 g - or slightly less than 1 lb - survived to discharge. (healio.com)
  • Infectious Diseases in Children spoke with experts in neonatology and pediatrics about the challenges these babies face immediately after birth and later on in life, the specific advances that have increased their survival and how those developments have changed the conversation physicians are having with parents. (healio.com)
  • 2012-12-10] In a study published today in Pediatrics, scientists at Umeå University conclude that giving iron supplements to low birth weight infants reduces the risk of behavior problems like ADHD later in life. (umu.se)
  • When compared with no breast milk intake, LBW infants that received breast milk were significantly more likely to have growth z-scores closer to the median of the reference population on admission and experienced slower weight gain from birth to discharge. (mdpi.com)
  • PaCO2 was significantly higher at admission to the neonatal unit in ELBWIs with CPAP in 1996 (54 +/- 15 mm Hg, 7.2 +/- 2.0 kPa) compared with infants with EI/MV in 1994 (38 +/- 11 mm Hg, 5.1 +/- 1. (omicsonline.org)
  • 25 ml/kg/day) had significantly higher NICU costs than infants receiving higher doses of human milk. (medela.us)
  • Low birth weight infants have a significantly higher risk of SIDS, a risk tightly correlated with prematurity. (bmj.com)
  • When a combination of these genotypes was considered, birthweight was significantly lower for infants of smoking women the carriers of the double-null genotypes (−311.2 g, P = 0.008). (vdu.lt)
  • Very low birth weight infants are significantly more likely to survive when delivered in hospitals with high-level neonatal intensive care units that care for more than 100 such newborns annually than are those delivered in comparable facilities that provide care to fewer than 100 such children every year. (bio-medicine.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS The SNN units had a significantly lower risk ratio for death or major morbidity. (uzh.ch)
  • BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether aggressive phototherapy to prevent neurotoxic effects of bilirubin benefits or harms infants with extremely low birth weight (1000 g or less). (rti.org)
  • Low birth weight infants are at increased risk of perinatal and infant death. (bmj.com)
  • Infants exposed to the components of cigarette smoke in utero are at an increased risk for perinatal death, low birth weight, sudden infant death syndrome, and premature delivery. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The Journal of Perinatal Education is the official journal of Lamaze International , whose mission is to promote, support, and protect natural, safe, and healthy birth through education and advocacy. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Using a chart adopted from the EWS developed by the British Association of Perinatal Medicine, we plotted infants' vital signs. (bmj.com)
  • The infants were all very low-birth-weight infants who spent time in the neonatal intensive care unit. (news-medical.net)
  • Keeping the mother and baby together right from birth, with zero separation, will revolutionize the way neonatal intensive care is practiced for babies born early or small," said a coauthor of the study. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • 1500g) infants, who frequently have very long stays in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU)? (medela.us)
  • Neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) are specialized hospital facilities offering medical care for newborn infants. (bio-medicine.org)
  • With more and more extreme premature and very low-birth weight babies being resuscitated, umbilical central venous catheterisation is now being used more frequently in neonatal intensive care. (ajol.info)
  • Low-birth-weight and very-low-birth-weight infants require special care and support, preferably in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), until sufficient weight is gained and the infants have matured and are able to thrive without elaborate support systems. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Infants born with LBW have added health risks which require close management, often in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). (wikipedia.org)
  • Fluconazole prophylaxis should be strongly considered in the most immature infants. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Summary: Despite the fact that substantially improved nutritional therapies for preterm neonates have been implemented, still, some reluctance exists when it comes to providing high amounts of nutrition to the most immature infants. (eur.nl)
  • Survival correlates with gestational age for infants who are appropriate for gestational age (AGA). (medscape.com)
  • First year survival was 15.5% for infants with a birth weight less than 500g. (medscape.com)
  • Increased survival was observed also in these infants receiving surfactant, more so among the outborn. (nih.gov)
  • The number of these infants who are born every year may be small, but the problems they continue to face - despite technological and pharmacologic advances that have improved their chances for survival - are not. (healio.com)
  • This study aimed to establish the determinants of survival in this weight category of neonates, who, owing to limited intensive care facilities, were not mechanically ventilated. (scielo.org.za)
  • [2-4] Yet survival of these infants in a resource-limited setting like South African public hospitals is still low. (scielo.org.za)
  • The aims of this study were to review the survival of these infants and to evaluate factors determining their survival. (scielo.org.za)
  • In low birth weight and normal birth weight infants, we would anticipate a less marked increase in survival and, because of their increased maturity, a less apparent effect on SIDS rates. (bmj.com)
  • Increasing survival among extremely preterm infants has focused more attention on these babies, who are smaller in birthweight and lower in gestational age. (aappublications.org)
  • Propensity score matching and restricting the analysis to infants for which we expect no survival bias, because both networks routinely initiate intensive care at birth, revealed comparable aRR. (uzh.ch)
  • There was improved survival during period 2 when 81 (69%) infants survived compared to period 1 when 73 (55%) survived (p = 0.02). (uwi.edu)
  • further improvement in survival of these infants will be dependent on increased accessibility to surfactant therapy, initiation of total parenteral nutrition and availability of trained personnel. (uwi.edu)
  • Previous studies have addressed interventions, morbidities and survival in term or near-term infants with T21, T18 or T13, or were limited by a small number of patients. (uiowa.edu)
  • Median survival time was 4 days (95% CI: 3-4) among infants with T18 and 3 days (95% CI: 2-4) among infants with T13. (uiowa.edu)
  • We conducted a prospective cohort study including very low birth weight infants (VLBWI) admitted to our NICU between January 2015 and January 2017 in which we determined serial NTproBNP levels on days 1 and 3 and then weekly, until 49 days of life. (springer.com)
  • The infants were hospitalized in the NICU of a high-risk maternity in a tertiary-level public hospital specialized in caring for highly complex patients. (hindawi.com)
  • One safe, effective and low cost strategy to reduce the prevalence of these morbidities is the use of human milk feedings during the NICU hospitalization. (medela.us)
  • We also found that each additional ml/kg/day of human milk in the first 14 days post-birth was associated with a cost savings of $534 in NICU-related costs. (medela.us)
  • The study examined differences in death rates across hospitals with different NICU levels and their volume (how many very low birth weight infants they care for in a year). (bio-medicine.org)
  • Teamwork in the NICU Setting and Its Association with Health Care-Associated Infections in Very Low-Birth-Weight Infants. (cpqcc.org)
  • 95% confidence interval, 0.73-0.92, = 0.005), such that the odds of an infant contracting a HAI decreased by 18% with each 10% rise in NICU respondents reporting good teamwork. (cpqcc.org)
  • Percentage of infants born weighing less than 2,500 grams (approximately 5 lbs, 8 oz). (kidsdata.org)
  • Objective To determine if first trimester fetal growth is associated with birth weight, duration of pregnancy, and the risk of delivering a small for gestational age infant. (bmj.com)
  • Conclusion Variation in birth weight may be determined, at least in part, by fetal growth in the first 12 weeks after conception through effects on timing of delivery and fetal growth velocity. (bmj.com)
  • Exposure of pregnant women to airplane noise was found to be associated with low birth weight via adverse effects on fetal growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Against our expectations and many odds, a significant majority of young adults who were low birth weight infants have overcome earlier difficulties to become functional members of society," said Dr. Saigal, a neonatologist with the McMaster Children's Hospital in Hamilton. (news-medical.net)
  • The risk of delivering a small for gestational age infant decreased with increasing size in the first trimester (odds ratio for a one day increase 0.87, 0.81 to 0.94). (bmj.com)
  • The risk of diabetes was still 64% higher in the high birth weight group [odds ratio (OR) 1.64 (95% CI 0.91-2.96)], even after adjustment for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Cox regression analysis showed that multiparity was a significant predictor associated with shorter breastfeeding in LBW infants (odds ratio = 2.51. (diva-portal.org)
  • Neurodevelopmental impairment was observed in 6 in the PLCS group (75%) and in 6 infants in the no PLCS group (37%), p = 0.08]. (frontiersin.org)
  • Preterm infants undergoing surgical closure of PDA who fulfill the criteria of PLCS according to this study seem to have a tendency toward higher risk of long-term neurodevelopmental impairment. (frontiersin.org)
  • BACKGROUND Tolerating higher partial pressures of carbon dioxide (PCO2) in mechanically ventilated extremely low birthweight infants to reduce ventilator-induced lung injury may have long-term neurodevelopmental side effects. (uzh.ch)
  • This study analyses the results of neurodevelopmental follow-up of infants enrolled in a randomised multicentre trial. (uzh.ch)
  • Neurodevelopmental follow-up examinations were available for 85% of enrolled infants using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II, the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) and the Child Development Inventory (CDI). (uzh.ch)
  • Lok KYW, Chau PH, Fan HSL, Chan KM, Chan BH, Fung GPC, Tarrant M. Increase in Weight in Low Birth Weight and Very Low Birth Weight Infants Fed Fortified Breast Milk versus Formula Milk: A Retrospective Cohort Study. (mdpi.com)
  • 5) Etiology of low-birth-weight infant was in order of multiple pregnancy, toxemia, placenta previa and abruptio placenta, premature repture of membrane and congenital syphilis. (koreamed.org)
  • Adequate nutrition of women before pregnancy is essential to ensure optimal birth weight of the infant (2). (who.int)
  • Greater stress during pregnancy was associated with lower gestational age at birth and lower infant birth weight. (bipolarnews.org)
  • A male infant with a birth weight of 815 g and gestational age of 24 5/7 weeks was delivered through the spontaneous vaginal route following the first pregnancy of a 23-year-old mother. (scielo.org.ar)
  • We conducted a case-control study of 543 women who delivered singleton live births in Kaunas (Lithuania), examining the association between low-level tobacco smoke exposure (mean: 4.8 cigarettes/day) during pregnancy, GSTT1 and GSTM1 polymorphisms and birthweight of the infant. (vdu.lt)
  • This review (6) aimed to evaluate the effects of prophylactic enteral iron supplementation on growth and neural development in preterm and low-birth-weight infants. (who.int)
  • The comparisons were enteral iron supplementation versus no iron supplementation, early versus late commencement of supplementation, a high dose versus a low dose as well as duration of supplementation. (who.int)
  • Nutritional impairment, which can cause slow rates of weight gain, may result from gut immaturity/delayed motility, delayed enteral feeding (i.e., feeding through tube placed in the stomach or upper small bowel), inability to nipple feed, and increased caloric needs. (ecri.org)
  • When breast milk was categorized by percent of total enteral intake, significant differences were seen among LBW infants, with lower percentages of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) status at discharge with increased proportions of breast milk intake. (mdpi.com)
  • Low birth weight (LBW) preterm infants are specifically more susceptible to BSI during hospitalization due to a higher requirement of vascular lines for administration of parenteral nutrition, blood products, or intravenous medications ( 1 - 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Ozek, Eren 2018-06-27 00:00:00 AbstractBackground:In this case report, we present a preterm newborn with persistent lactic acidosis who received total parenteral nutrition (TPN) that lacked thiamine.Case presentation:A 28-week-old, 750 g female infant was born with an Apgar score of 8 at the 5th minute. (deepdyve.com)
  • Neonates admitted at birth between January 2006 and December 2010 with birth weights of ≤ 900 g. (scielo.org.za)
  • To determine the effects of closed catheter access system implementation in reducing the BSI rate in preterm neonates with low birth weight. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the low birth weight infant, fungal colonization represents a significant risk factor for cutaneous or systemic candidiasis in these infants. (aappublications.org)
  • Emerging studies suggest that low birthweight may be a risk factor for autism spectrum disorders. (innovations-report.com)
  • Links between low birthweight and a range of motor and cognitive problems have been well established for some time, but this is the first study that establishes that these children are also at increased risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). (innovations-report.com)
  • This study was designed to explore the relationship between activity level of a woman's occupation and her risk of delivering a low-birth-weight infant. (nih.gov)
  • These data suggest that active work is not associated with an increased risk of having a low-birth-weight baby. (nih.gov)
  • SUMMARY: Preventative strategies against fungal colonization and infection are critical in high-risk very low birthweight infants. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The diagnosis of NEC was associated with elevated IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/CC-motif ligand-2, macrophage inflammatory protein-1beta/CC-motif ligand-3, and C-reactive protein.Conclusion:Clinical characteristics, such as gender and ethnicity, and low blood TGF-beta levels are associated with higher risk of NEC. (rti.org)
  • Low birth weight is the leading cause of death in children under 5 years of age and increases the risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disease in adulthood. (medindia.net)
  • The results showed that phthalate exposure was ubiquitous in these newborns, and that prenatal phthalate exposure might be an environmental risk factor for low birth weight in infants," said Dr. Ge. (medindia.net)
  • Data were synthesized using risk ratios (RRs), risk differences (RDs) and weighted mean differences (WMDs). (who.int)
  • Hydrocortisone as prescribed in our trial did not reduce the risk of BPD when compared to placebo, possibly because we used anti-inflammatory doses that were not sufficiently high and/or the enrolled population of extremely preterm infants was too sick," Dr. Parikh says. (healthcanal.com)
  • In follow-up work, Dr. Parikh and his team at Nationwide Children's are examining the relationship between hydrocortisone and risk of a common inflammatory brain abnormality - diffuse excessive high signal intensity (DEHSI) - which occurs in up to 75 percent of extremely preterm infants. (healthcanal.com)
  • OBJECTIVE -To study the effect of birth weight on risk of type 2 diabetes in the schoolchildren in Taiwan. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS -A U-shaped relationship between birth weight and risk of type 2 diabetes was found in the schoolchildren aged 6-18 years in Taiwan. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Interestingly, studies in Pima Indians revealed a U-shaped relationship between birth weight and risk of type 2 diabetes ( 11 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Because GDM is frequently complicated with macrosomia ( 20 ), a link between high birth weight and risk of diabetes can be anticipated. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In preterm and low birth weight infants, feeding with formula milk compared with donor breast milk results in a higher rate of short-term growth but also a higher risk of developing necrotising enterocolitis. (who.int)
  • Results Infants who are born prematurely or who have low birthweight have up to four times the risk of SIDS than those infants born at term, and this risk increases with decreasing gestational age or birthweight. (bmj.com)
  • Predicting red blood cell transfusions in very low birth weight infants based on clinical risk factors. (jefferson.edu)
  • For the univariate analysis of the known risk factors for ROP, all infants without ROP were designated as the No ROP group, patients with any stage of ROP formed the ROP group, and all treated patients formed the Severe ROP group. (arvojournals.org)
  • Factors Associated with Successful First High-Risk Infant Clinic Visit for Very Low Birth Weight Infants in California. (cpqcc.org)
  • The adjusted relative risk, estimated using Poisson regression models with robust variance estimators, showed an increased risk of death, PDA, NEC, LOS, and BPD among infants with T21 relative to infants with no BD. (uiowa.edu)
  • Relative to infants with non-chromosomal BD, infants with T21 were at increased risk of PDA and NEC. (uiowa.edu)
  • A trend toward a lower risk of ROP was observed among infants with T21 compared to infants with non-chromosomal BD and infants without major BD. (uiowa.edu)
  • Infants with T18 had increased risk of PDA compared to infants with T13, infants with T21 and infants without BD and increased risk of BPD compared to infants with T21 and infants without BD. (uiowa.edu)
  • Risk factors associated with neonatal deaths among very low birth weight infants in Latvia. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Very-low-birth-weight newborns and infants are at significant risk for hypothermia because of their small body mass, large surface area, thin skin, minimal subcutaneous tissues, and posture. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • SIDS has a 4-parameter lognormal age distribution that spares infants shortly after birth - the time of maximal risk for almost all other causes of non-trauma infant death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although studies have identified risk factors for SIDS, such as putting infants to bed on their stomachs, there has been little understanding of the syndrome's biological process or its potential causes. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] In general, risk factors in the mother that may contribute to low birth weight include young ages, multiple pregnancies, previous LBW infants, poor nutrition, heart disease or hypertension, untreated celiac disease, substance use disorder, excessive alcohol use, and insufficient prenatal care. (wikipedia.org)
  • A prominent risk factor for preterm birth is prior history of preterm delivery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Particulate matter, a component of ambient air pollution, is associated with increased risk of low birth weight. (wikipedia.org)
  • Particulate matter exposure can cause inflammation, oxidative stress, endocrine disruption, and impaired oxygen transport access to the placenta, all of which are mechanisms for heightening the risk of low birth weight. (wikipedia.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS Weight and growth parameters in utero and early infancy may influence the age at onset of IDDM. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • As young adults, the majority of extremely low birth-weight infants are attaining similar levels of education, employment and independence as normal birth-weight infants, according to a study by researchers at the Michael G. DeGroote School of Medicine at McMaster University in the February 8 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) . (news-medical.net)
  • This is good news for the infants and their parents, as more than a quarter of low birth weight children have development difficulties such as cerebral palsy, blindness and delayed development, compared to two per cent of normal birth-weight infants. (news-medical.net)
  • Most extremely low birth weight infants are also the youngest of premature newborns, usually born at 27 weeks' gestational age or younger. (medscape.com)
  • In future studies, Penn researchers will investigate possible links between brain hemorrhage, a complication of premature birth, and autism by examining brain ultrasounds taken of these children as newborns. (innovations-report.com)
  • The Authors studied the physiologic course of bilirubinaemia in 513 low birth weight newborns and then related it to gestational age, birth weight and intrauterine growth. (eurekamag.com)
  • Subgroup analyses included evaluating the effects by type of milk-feeding, age of start of iron supplementation after birth, daily dose of supplemental iron administered, duration of supplementation, and gestational age as well as birth weight of infants. (who.int)
  • The optimal dose and duration of iron supplementation to LBW infants are, however, unknown. (diva-portal.org)
  • The study, Effects of Iron Supplementation on LBW Infants on Cognition and Behavior at 3 Years , is published in the January 2013 issue, released online Dec. 10, 2012. (umu.se)
  • Study authors conclude the results demonstrate long-term health benefits of early iron supplementation of otherwise healthy, marginally low birth weight infants. (umu.se)
  • Thus, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of probiotics for LOS prevention in preterm infants according to type of feeding (exclusive human milk (HM) vs. exclusive formula or mixed feeding). (mdpi.com)
  • 25 ml/kg/day compared with infants receiving ≥50 ml/kg/day of human milk in the first 28 days of life and 16.2% higher compared with infants receiving 25-49.99 ml/kg/day of human milk. (medela.us)
  • That is, increasing the average daily dose of human milk by 17.9 ml/kg/day in the first 14 days post-birth (a 1 standard deviation increase) is associated with a cost savings of $9,559. (medela.us)
  • [4] The infants in this study had back-up mechanical ventilation provided for failed NCPAP. (scielo.org.za)
  • 5 Gastroesophageal reflux is common in infants, particularly those born prematurely. (nursingcenter.com)
  • A score of 2 or higher on the ACE was associated with lower gestational age at birth, indicating infants born prematurely. (bipolarnews.org)
  • Further efforts are required to clarify the relationship between probiotics supplementation, HM, and feeding practices in preterm infants. (mdpi.com)
  • The study included 166 extremely low birth-weight people who weighed 1.1 to 2.2 lbs. at birth and were born between 1977 and 1982 as well as 145 socio-demographically comparable normal birth-weight participants. (news-medical.net)
  • Extremely low birth weight, ventilator-dependent infants between 10 and 21 days old were administered a seven-day taper of hydrocortisone or a saline placebo while being treated at Children's Memorial Hermann Hospital in Texas. (healthcanal.com)
  • Delivery room management of extremely low birth weight infants: spontaneous breathing or intubation? (omicsonline.org)
  • Change of renal function during vancomycin therapy in extremely low birthweight infants. (curehunter.com)
  • Twenty extremely low birthweight infants were treated with vancomycin (VCM). (curehunter.com)
  • Vancomycin is effective and safe in the treatment of serious infections in extremely low birthweight infants. (curehunter.com)
  • Segmental absence of intestinal muscle with ileal web in an extremely low birth weight infant. (scielo.org.ar)
  • It is seen 2-3% in very low birthweight infants and 5 % of extremely low birthweight infants. (scielo.org.ar)
  • Herein we report an extremely low birthweight infant with spontaneous intestinal perforation, segmental absence of intestinal muscle and an ileal web as an underlying cause. (scielo.org.ar)
  • Early onset hyperkalemia in extremely low birth weight infants. (semanticscholar.org)
  • article{Kilbride1988EarlyOH, title={Early onset hyperkalemia in extremely low birth weight infants. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The proportion of growth restriction was 33 % at birth and increased to 58 % at discharge from hospital. (cambridge.org)
  • 500 kJ/kg per d) and intra-uterine growth rate (15 g/kg per d) were not met, neither in the period from birth to 28 weeks post-conceptional age (PCA), nor from 37 weeks PCA to discharge. (cambridge.org)
  • Our results suggest that LBW infants fed breast milk had better growth z-scores and lower SGA status at discharge compared with those predominately fed preterm formula. (mdpi.com)
  • Ninety-three percent of the LBW infants were fed breast milk at discharge and 36% at 6 months, compared to 97% and 75%, respectively, of the county population. (diva-portal.org)
  • There was a decrease in mean z -scores for weight (ZSWs) from -0.32 (standard deviation 1.25) at birth to -1.94 (1.35) at discharge. (scielo.org.za)
  • Cow and Gate Nutriprem 2 Post Discharge Formula (For Preterm and Low Birthweight Infants) 800g has been specially formulated to meet the increased nutritional requirements of preterm and low birthweight infants when they are discharged from hospital. (expresschemist.co.uk)
  • Successful resuscitation and stabilization of the extremely preterm infant requires clinicians trained in delivery room preparation and management as well as immediate newborn care needs of such infants. (aappublications.org)
  • premature infant ( preterm infant ) one born before a gestational age of 37 completed weeks (259 days). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • conversely, those smaller than expected are considered small for gestational age (SGA), and are they also usually found to be intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) prior to birth. (medscape.com)
  • The primary objective of the study is to compare the growth of infants fed standard infant formula with infants fed a reduced calorie and protein formula. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Based on our earlier reports of decreased tissue expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta, we hypothesized that infants with NEC also have low blood TGF-beta levels. (rti.org)
  • Postnatal growth failure in preterm infants is due to interactions between genetic and environmental factors, which are not fully understood. (cambridge.org)
  • Factors negatively associated with growth restriction were energy intake ( P trend = 0·002), non-Caucasian ethnicity ( P = 0·04) and weight/predicted birth weight at birth ( P trend = 0·004). (cambridge.org)
  • Feeding preterm or low birth weight infants with formula milk might increase nutrient input and growth rates. (who.int)
  • To determine the effect of formula milk compared with donor human breast milk on growth and development in preterm or low birth weight infants. (who.int)
  • A pharmacodynamic Hb mass balance model that accounted for the dynamic hematological conditions experienced by these infants was simultaneously fitted to the plasma EPO, Hb, and RBC concentrations from each individual subject, while accounting for subject growth. (aspetjournals.org)
  • These high transfusion amounts were consistent with a relatively short RBC life span and rapidly expanding blood volume with infant growth. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In addition, infants with AKI had lower minimum levels of epithelial growth factor and uromodulin than those without AKI (1.4 and 1.6 times lower, respectively). (asnjournals.org)
  • Finally, laboratory examination and the growth parameters in preterm infants were analysed. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Results obtained show that neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia is strictly depending on gestational age, while both the birth weight and the intrauterine growth have no significant influence on its course. (eurekamag.com)
  • Among the three groups, infants with T18 were the most likely to be growth restricted while infants with T21 were the least likely to be growth restricted. (uiowa.edu)