Infant Food: Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.Spices: The dried seeds, bark, root, stems, buds, leaves, or fruit of aromatic plants used to season food.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Infant, Premature: A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Infant, Premature, DiseasesInfant Care: Care of infants in the home or institution.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Food Dispensers, Automatic: Mechanical food dispensing machines.Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Postal Service: The functions and activities carried out by the U.S. Postal Service, foreign postal services, and private postal services such as Federal Express.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Food Packaging: Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for processed and raw foods and beverages. It includes packaging intended to be used for storage and also used for preparation of foods such as microwave food containers versus COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. Packaging materials may be intended for food contact or designated non-contact, for example, shipping containers. FOOD LABELING is also available.Infant Formula: Liquid formulations for the nutrition of infants that can substitute for BREAST MILK.Food, Preserved: Food that has been prepared and stored in a way to prevent spoilage.Plastics: Polymeric materials (usually organic) of large molecular weight which can be shaped by flow. Plastic usually refers to the final product with fillers, plasticizers, pigments, and stabilizers included (versus the resin, the homogeneous polymeric starting material). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Cereals: Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.Arsenic: A shiny gray element with atomic symbol As, atomic number 33, and atomic weight 75. It occurs throughout the universe, mostly in the form of metallic arsenides. Most forms are toxic. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), arsenic and certain arsenic compounds have been listed as known carcinogens. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Device Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a device to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required preclinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance. It is not restricted to FDA.Equipment Safety: Freedom of equipment from actual or potential hazards.Federal Government: The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.Food Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a food or its container or wrapper. The concept includes ingredients, NUTRITIONAL VALUE, directions, warnings, and other relevant information.Freezing: Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.Cryopreservation: Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.Refrigeration: The mechanical process of cooling.Cryoprotective Agents: Substances that provide protection against the harmful effects of freezing temperatures.Food Safety: Activities involved in ensuring the safety of FOOD including avoidance of bacterial and other contamination.United StatesFood, Organic: Food that is grown or manufactured in accordance with nationally regulated production standards that include restrictions on the use of pesticides, non-organic fertilizers, genetic engineering, growth hormones, irradiation, antibiotics, and non-organic ingredients.Computer Security: Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.Health Food: A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. (from Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Infant Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of infants.Professional Corporations: Legally authorized corporations owned and managed by one or more professionals (medical, dental, legal) in which the income is ascribed primarily to the professional activities of the owners or stockholders.Nutritive Value: An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.Pesticides: Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.Marketing: Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.Research Report: Detailed account or statement or formal record of data resulting from empirical inquiry.Milk, HumanInfant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.Cronobacter sakazakii: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus CHRONOBACTER, found in the environment and in foods.Mali: A country in western Africa, east of MAURITANIA and south of ALGERIA. Its capital is Bamako. From 1904-1920 it was known as Upper Senegal-Niger; prior to 1958, as French Sudan; 1958-1960 as the Sudanese Republic and 1959-1960 it joined Senegal in the Mali Federation. It became an independent republic in 1960.PaintingsBooksBreast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.Food, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Cronobacter: A genus of gram-negative opportunistic foodborne pathogens.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.MalonatesEnterobacteriaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.

High turnover rate of Escherichia coli strains in the intestinal flora of infants in Pakistan. (1/891)

The Escherichia coli flora of infants in developed countries is dominated by one or a few strains which persist for prolonged periods of time, but no longitudinal studies have been performed in developing countries. To this end, we studied the rectal enterobacterial flora in 22 home-delivered Pakistani infants during their first 6 months of life. Three colonies were isolated and species typed on each of 11 sampling occasions. E. coli isolates were strain typed using electromorphic typing of cytoplasmic enzymes, and their O serogroups were determined. There was a very rapid turnover of enterobacterial strains in the rectal flora of individual infants. On average, 8.5 different E. coli strains were found per infant, and several biotypes of other enterobacteria. Less than 50% of the infants were colonized with E. coli from their mothers, but strains of maternal origin were four times more likely to persists in the infants' flora than other E. coli strains. Enterobacteria other than E. coli were always of non-maternal origin, and Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella pneumoniae biotypes recovered from contaminated feeds were later identified in the infants' rectal flora. An early colonization with klebsiella or enterobacter was significantly associated with diarrhoea during the neonatal period, although these bacteria were not likely to be the cause of the disease. The results suggest that poor hygienic conditions result in an unstable and diverse enterobacterial flora, which may influence infant health.  (+info)

Iron supplemented formula milk related to reduction in psychomotor decline in infants from inner city areas: randomised study. (2/891)

OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of unmodified cows' milk and iron supplemented formula milk on psychomotor development in infants from inner city areas when used as the main milk source. DESIGN: Double blind, randomised intervention trial. SETTING: Birmingham health centre. SUBJECTS: 100 infants, mean age 7.8 months (range 5.7 to 8.6 months), whose mothers had already elected to use unmodified cows' milk as their infant's milk source. INTERVENTION: Changing to an iron supplemented formula milk from enrolment to 18 months of age, or continuing with unmodified cows' milk. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Developmental assessments using Griffiths scales at enrolment and at 18 and 24 months. RESULTS: 85 participants completed the trial. There were no significant differences in haemoglobin concentration between the two groups at enrolment, but by 18 months of age 33% of the unmodified cows' milk group, but only 2% of the iron supplemented group, were anaemic (P<0.001). The experimental groups had Griffiths general quotient scores that were not significantly different at enrolment, but the scores in both groups declined during the study. By 24 months the decrease in the mean scores in the unmodified cows' milk group was 14.7 whereas the decrease in the mean scores in the iron supplemented group was 9.3 (P<0.02, 95% confidence interval 0.4 to 10.4). Mean subquotient scores were considerably lower in the unmodified cows' milk group at 24 months; significantly so for personal and social scores (P<0.02, 1.2 to 16.8 [corrected]). CONCLUSION: Replacing unmodified cows' milk with an iron supplemented formula milk up to 18 months of age in infants from inner city areas prevents iron deficiency anaemia and reduces the decline in psychomotor development seen in such infants from the second half of the first year.  (+info)

Effect of reducing the phytate content and of partially hydrolyzing the protein in soy formula on zinc and copper absorption and status in infant rhesus monkeys and rat pups. (3/891)

BACKGROUND: Although soy formulas have been designed to meet the nutrient requirements of human infants, they also contain phytate, which may negatively affect trace element absorption. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the effect of removing phytate on zinc and copper absorption and status in infant rhesus monkeys and suckling rat pups and evaluated differences between intact and partially hydrolyzed soy protein. DESIGN: In monkeys, regular and low-phytate soy formulas were fed exclusively for 4 mo and whole-body absorption and retention of 65Zn, 67Cu, 59Fe, 54Mn, and 47Ca were determined at different time points with a whole-body counter. Subsequently, zinc and copper absorption from several human infant formulas and the effect of phytate concentration were evaluated in suckling rat pups by using 65Zn and 64Cu. Finally, infant rhesus monkeys were fed low-phytate formulas with intact or hydrolyzed soy protein for 4 mo and plasma zinc and copper were measured monthly. RESULTS: In the first monkey study, zinc absorption at 1 mo was higher from low-phytate soy formula (36%) than from regular soy formula (22%), whereas there was no significant difference between groups in the absorption of other minerals. Plasma copper was significantly lower in monkeys fed low-phytate soy formula from 2 to 4 mo. In rat pups, zinc absorption was significantly higher from low-phytate soy formula (78%) than from regular soy formula (51%) and hydrolysis of the protein had no significant effect. Phytate content or protein hydrolysis did not significantly affect copper absorption. In the second monkey study, plasma copper concentrations were highest in monkeys fed the low-phytate, hydrolyzed-protein soy formula. CONCLUSION: Reducing the phytate content and partially hydrolyzing the protein in soy formula had a beneficial effect on zinc and copper absorption and status in infant rhesus monkeys.  (+info)

Leucine metabolism in preterm infants receiving parenteral nutrition with medium-chain compared with long-chain triacylglycerol emulsions. (4/891)

BACKGROUND: Although medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCTs) may be utilized more efficiently than long-chain triacylglycerols (LCTs), their effect on protein metabolism remains controversial. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to compare the effects of mixed MCT-LCT and pure LCT emulsions on leucine metabolism in preterm infants. DESIGN: Fourteen preterm [gestational age: 30+/-1 wk; birth weight: 1409+/-78 g (x +/- SE)] neonates were randomly assigned to receive, from the first day of life, either a 50:50 MCT-LCT (mixed MCT group; n = 7) or an LCT (LCT group; n = 7) lipid emulsion as part of an isonitrogenous, isoenergetic total parenteral nutrition program. On the fourth day, infants received intravenous feeding providing 3 g lipid, 15 g glucose, and 3 g amino acids kg(-1) x d(-1) and underwent 1) indirect calorimetry and 2) a primed, 2-h infusion of H13CO3Na to assess the recovery of 13C in breath, immediately followed by 3) a 3-h infusion of L-[1-13C]leucine. RESULTS: The respiratory quotient tended to be slightly but not significantly higher in the mixed MCT than in the LCT group (0.96+/-0.06 compared with 0.93+/-0.03). We did not detect a significant difference between the mixed MCT and LCT groups with regard to release of leucine from protein breakdown (B; 309+/-40 compared with 257+/-46 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1)) and nonoxidative leucine disposal (NOLD; 296+/-36 compared with 285+/-49 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1)). In contrast, leucine oxidation was greater in the mixed MCT than in the LCT group (113+/-10 compared with 67+/-10 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1); P = 0.007). Net leucine balance (NOLD - B) was less positive in the mixed MCT than in the LCT group (-14+/-9 compared with 28+/-10 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1); P = 0.011). CONCLUSION: Mixed MCTs may not be as effective as LCT-containing emulsions in promoting protein accretion in parenterally fed preterm neonates.  (+info)

The status of ORT (oral rehydration therapy) in Bangladesh: how widely is it used? (5/891)

During 1980-1990 BRAC, a Bangladeshi non-governmental organization, taught over 12 million mothers how to prepare oral rehydration therapy (ORT) at home with lobon (common salt) and gur (unrefined brown sugar). This was followed by a strong promotion and distribution of prepackaged ORS by various agencies including the government. In 1993 we assessed knowledge of ORT preparation, its local availability and its use for the management of diarrhoea. Over 9000 households in 90 villages were revisited; 306 government outreach health workers, 296 drug sellers, and 237 village doctors were interviewed; 152 government facilities and 495 pharmacies/shops were visited. ORT prepared by mothers in a sub-sample of the households was analyzed for chloride content and interviewers collected information on use of ORT for diarrhoeal episodes occurring in the preceding two weeks. The data quality was assessed through a resurvey of sample respondents within two weeks of the first interview. Over 70% of the mothers could prepare a chemically 'safe and effective' ORS. A significant proportion of these mothers were very young at the time of the mass campaigns using house to house teaching, implying an intergenerational transfer of the knowledge on ORT. ORT was found to be used in 60% of all diarrhoeal episodes, but the rate varied with the type of diarrhoea, being highest for daeria (severe watery diarrhoea) and lowest for amasha (dysentery). Drug sellers and village doctors now recommend ORT much more frequently than before. Members of the medical profession (qualified and unqualified) still lag behind in prescribing the use of ORT. The availability of pre-packaged ORS in rural pharmacies has improved enormously. There is convincing evidence that the widescale promotion in the past of ORS for dehydration in diarrhoea has led to this marked improvement today. Nevertheless the use of rice-based ORS, culturally appropriate messages and the promotion of ORS with food offer opportunities to further improve the utilization of ORT.  (+info)

A negative iodine balance is found in healthy neonates compared with neonates with thyroid agenesis. (6/891)

We studied the effects of the presence or absence of the thyroid gland on the iodine metabolism and excretion in term Dutch newborns by performing a retrospective study of the urinary iodine excretion in 193 term newborns with abnormal congenital hypothyroidism screening results. Thirty-six euthyroid newborns with decreased thyroxine-binding globulin levels were compared with 157 hypothyroid patients, 54 due to thyroid agenesis and 103 due to thyroid dysgenesis. A significant difference in the urinary iodine excretion was observed between the agenesis group (mean: 28 micrograms/24 h) and the euthyroid newborns (mean: 46 micrograms/24 h, P=0.001). In conclusion, healthy, euthyroid, term newborns excreted more iodine in their urine than newborns with thyroid agenesis. These results strongly indicated the existence of a temporarily negative iodine balance: the excretion of iodine prevailed over the intake and the newborn's thyroidal iodine, stored during pregnancy, could be used for thyroxine synthesis in the postnatal period. Since healthy term neonates were able to maintain adequate plasma free thyroxine concentrations under normal TSH stimulation, the prenatally acquired iodine stores could be considered sufficiently high to compensate for the transient postnatal losses.  (+info)

Age of introduction of complementary foods and growth of term, low-birth-weight, breast-fed infants: a randomized intervention study in Honduras. (7/891)

BACKGROUND: The optimal age at which to introduce complementary foods is a topic of considerable debate. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to evaluate this issue in a nutritionally vulnerable population in Honduras. DESIGN: Mothers of low-birth-weight (1500-2500 g) term (ie, small-for-gestational-age) infants were recruited in the hospital and assisted with exclusive breast-feeding during the first 4 mo. At 4 mo, mothers were randomly assigned to either continue exclusive breast-feeding to 6 mo (EBF; n = 59) or to feed complementary solid foods (jarred rice cereal, chicken, and fruit and vegetables) twice daily from 4 to 6 mo while continuing to breast-feed at their initial frequency (SF; n = 60). At 4 and 6 mo, breast milk and total energy intake were measured for a nonrandom subsample (those who could stay overnight in a central unit: 32 EBF and 31 SF). RESULTS: At 4 mo, breast milk intake in the subsample was not significantly different between groups (EBF: 729 +/- 135 g/d; SF: 683 +/- 151 g/d: P >0.2); from 4 to 6 mo it increased (by 28 g/d) in the EBF group but decreased (by 39 g/d) in the SF group (P < 0.005). Nonetheless, total energy intake (including solid foods) increased more from 4 to 6 mo in the SF than in the EBF group. However, there were no significant differences between groups in weight or length gain during the intervention or subsequently (6-12 mo). CONCLUSION: There was no growth advantage of complementary feeding of small-for-gestational-age, breast-fed infants between 4 and 6 mo of age.  (+info)

Preoperative fasting practices in pediatrics. (8/891)

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine current practice patterns for preoperative fasting at major pediatric hospitals. METHODS: Fasting guidelines for children at each of the hospitals listed in the second edition of the Directory of Pediatric Anesthesiology Fellowship Programs were solicited and analyzed. RESULTS: Fifty-one institutions were surveyed, and 44 responded. In 50%, clear fluids were permitted up to 2 h prior to anesthesia for all children. Breast milk was restricted to 4 h for children younger than 6 months in 61% of hospitals. Institutions were equally divided (39% each) between a 4-h and a 6-h fast for formula in infants younger than 6 months; for infants older than 6 months, 50% of hospitals restricted formula feeding to 6 h. There was no consensus for solid feeding in children younger than 3 yr, but 50% of hospitals agree that solids should be restricted after midnight in children older than 3 yr. CONCLUSIONS: There is no uniform fasting practice for children before elective surgery in the United States and Canada. However, there is agreement among most institutions that ingestion of clear fluids 2-3 h prior to general anesthesia is acceptable. Most also accept a 4-h restriction for breast milk and a 6-h restriction for nonhuman formula. There is great diversity among institutions regarding fasting for solids in children, with many restricting intake after midnight. There is little agreement about whether infant formula should be treated in the same way as solid food or how to categorize breast milk.  (+info)

  • UK government recommendations on weaning foods stipulate that these should be introduced gradually, starting with cereals, vegetables and fruits, followed by protein-rich foods and should not be started before 6 months, in line with recommendations for exclusive breastfeeding until that time. (
  • The products included ready-made soft, wet foods, powdered meals to be reconstituted with milk or water, breakfast cereals, and finger foods, such as rusks. (
  • In this report, the global Infant Food market is valued at USD XX million in 2016 and is expected to reach USD XX million by the end of 2022, growing at a CAGR of XX% between 2016 and 2022. (
  • They wanted to find out what sort of products are available in the UK for weaning infants from a predominantly milk based diet to a family food based diet, and to assess their nutritional value. (
  • The authors, from the University of Glasgow's Institute of Health and Wellbeing, therefore analysed the nutritional content of all infant foods intended for weaning and produced by four major UK manufacturers and two specialist suppliers between October 2010 and February 2011. (
  • New thinking on allergy prevention serves as the springboard to a category of baby foods that introduce peanut - and much more. (
  • On the strength of the groundbreaking LEAP (Learning Early About Peanut Allergy) study, the recommendation to start infants - from four to six months old - on peanut was born. (
  • The guidelines recommend that if an infant is at high risk for food allergy due to an egg allergy or severe eczema, you should speak to your physician about allergy testing before trying peanut. (
  • This is not to be used in kids with diagnosed food allergy, this is not oral immunotherapy, this is not for kids with a sensitivity," stresses pediatrician Dr. Wendy Sue Swanson, who's the chief medical officer for the new SpoonfulOne product launched in October by Before Brands, a California-based company. (
  • The worried warnings go something like this: "In some parts of the country, these vegetables contain large amounts of nitrates that can cause an unusual kind of anemia (low blood count) in young infants. (
  • So early, repeated exposure to a variety of vegetables can help establish healthy food habits for life. (
  • The global baby food market is forecast to reach US$38.7 billion by 2015, according to a recent report by leading research group A.M Mindpower solutions. (
  • Additional evidence, through observations of the baby food market in Australia and elsewhere, also supports the view that strong global growth rate in baby food markets is set to continue and will likely be driven from the Asia-Pacific region. (
  • According to A.M. Mindpower Solutions' report, supermarkets account for a large percentage of baby food demand in the U.S. However, online shopping is also gaining prominence in this market, with sites such as,, drug, selling baby food and formula. (
  • Major players such as Nestlé, Abbott and Mead Johnson will, A.M. Mindpower Solutions predicts, continue to dominate the American baby food market for the near future. (
  • China is the second largest baby food and infant formula market in the world and the largest in Asia, according to A.M. Mindpower Solutions. (
  • Meanwhile, the China infant formula market has undergone a period of major transition from high demand for milk powder in the domestic as well as in international markets to a sudden fall in retail sales from 2008 to 2010 following China's melamine-tainted food scandal. (
  • The weaning process aims to introduce infants to a wider range of tastes, textures, and flavours, to encourage them to accept different foods, and to boost their energy and nutrient intake. (
  • The Purpose of this study was to analyze the fluoride content in commercial infant foods and estimate of daily fluoride intake (DEl) during 3 -9 months old. (
  • Daily fluoride intake of infants estimates 0.175, 00.201 and 0.266mg/day for 3-4months, 5-6 months and 7-8months old, respectively. (
  • Daily fluoride intake of infants per kg was ranged 0.024-0.029mg/kg for 3-9 months old. (
  • This result indicate that daily fluoride intake from commercial infant foods could be within optimal fluoride level of 0.O7mgF/kg in Ophaug paper(1985) reported. (
  • Publications] C.Chittaison: 'Estimation of Fluoride Intake in Relation of F, Ca, Mg and P Contents in Infant Foods' Bull.Tokyo dent Coll.36(1). (
  • Her passion for food comes from having cooking lessons at a local college from the age of 10, and the nutrition side from a fascination for how the right foods can fuel the body. (
  • The move by Heinz comes after food safety regulators in eastern Zhejiang province said on Friday that they had found "excessive amounts of lead" in the company's AD Calcium Hi-Protein Cereal. (
  • Some undigested food (from other vegetable carbohydrate sources) benefits your little one - fermentation in the colon produces short chain fatty acids, which can improve nutrient absorption, enhance gut health, and even be used as a source of energy for both the microbes and baby. (
  • A leaky gut allows toxins and partially digested food to spill directly into the blood creating an unpredictable mix of physical, behavioural, emotional and neurological symptoms. (
  • In keeping with this thinking, each SpoonfulOne packet contains a powdered blend of the top eight allergenic foods, plus sesame. (