An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1500 grams (3.3 lbs), regardless of gestational age.
An infant during the first month after birth.
An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1000 grams (2.2 lbs), regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE.
A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).
Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.
Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Hospital units providing continuing surveillance and care to acutely ill newborn infants.
An infant having a birth weight lower than expected for its gestational age.
Care of infants in the home or institution.
Diseases of newborn infants present at birth (congenital) or developing within the first month of birth. It does not include hereditary diseases not manifesting at birth or within the first 30 days of life nor does it include inborn errors of metabolism. Both HEREDITARY DISEASES and METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS are available as general concepts.
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.
The failure of a FETUS to attain its expected FETAL GROWTH at any GESTATIONAL AGE.
The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.
A chronic lung disease developed after OXYGEN INHALATION THERAPY or mechanical ventilation (VENTILATION, MECHANICAL) usually occurring in certain premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE) or newborn infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME, NEWBORN). Histologically, it is characterized by the unusual abnormalities of the bronchioles, such as METAPLASIA, decrease in alveolar number, and formation of CYSTS.
Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.
Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)
Liquid formulations for the nutrition of infants that can substitute for BREAST MILK.
A method, developed by Dr. Virginia Apgar, to evaluate a newborn's adjustment to extrauterine life. Five items - heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and color - are evaluated 60 seconds after birth and again five minutes later on a scale from 0-2, 0 being the lowest, 2 being normal. The five numbers are added for the Apgar score. A score of 0-3 represents severe distress, 4-7 indicates moderate distress, and a score of 7-10 predicts an absence of difficulty in adjusting to extrauterine life.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.
Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.
ENTEROCOLITIS with extensive ulceration (ULCER) and NECROSIS. It is observed primarily in LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANT.
Female parents, human or animal.
Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.
The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
Any observable response or action of a neonate or infant up through the age of 23 months.
Morphological and physiological development of FETUSES.
The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.
The nursing of an infant at the breast.
Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of infants.
The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.
The care of women and a fetus or newborn given before, during, and after delivery from the 28th week of gestation through the 7th day after delivery.
Onset of OBSTETRIC LABOR before term (TERM BIRTH) but usually after the FETUS has become viable. In humans, it occurs sometime during the 29th through 38th week of PREGNANCY. TOCOLYSIS inhibits premature labor and can prevent the BIRTH of premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE).
Official certifications by a physician recording the individual's birth date, place of birth, parentage and other required identifying data which are filed with the local registrar of vital statistics.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and parasitic diseases. The parasitic infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
Continuous care and monitoring of newborn infants with life-threatening conditions, in any setting.
Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.
The sequence in which children are born into the family.
A bilateral retinopathy occurring in premature infants treated with excessively high concentrations of oxygen, characterized by vascular dilatation, proliferation, and tortuosity, edema, and retinal detachment, with ultimate conversion of the retina into a fibrous mass that can be seen as a dense retrolental membrane. Usually growth of the eye is arrested and may result in microophthalmia, and blindness may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Degeneration of white matter adjacent to the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES following cerebral hypoxia or BRAIN ISCHEMIA in neonates. The condition primarily affects white matter in the perfusion zone between superficial and deep branches of the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY. Clinical manifestations include VISION DISORDERS; CEREBRAL PALSY; PARAPLEGIA; SEIZURES; and cognitive disorders. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1021; Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch4, pp30-1)
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The event that a FETUS is born dead or stillborn.
Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.
The abrupt and unexplained death of an apparently healthy infant under one year of age, remaining unexplained after a thorough case investigation, including performance of a complete autopsy, examination of the death scene, and review of the clinical history. (Pediatr Pathol 1991 Sep-Oct;11(5):677-84)
The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.
The state of birth outside of wedlock. It may refer to the offspring or the parents.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
CHILDBIRTH at the end of a normal duration of PREGNANCY, between 37 to 40 weeks of gestation or about 280 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
The branch of medicine dealing with the fetus and infant during the perinatal period. The perinatal period begins with the twenty-eighth week of gestation and ends twenty-eight days after birth. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
A condition of the newborn marked by DYSPNEA with CYANOSIS, heralded by such prodromal signs as dilatation of the alae nasi, expiratory grunt, and retraction of the suprasternal notch or costal margins, mostly frequently occurring in premature infants, children of diabetic mothers, and infants delivered by cesarean section, and sometimes with no apparent predisposing cause.
Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.
The mildest form of erythroblastosis fetalis in which anemia is the chief manifestation.
The weight of the FETUS in utero. It is usually estimated by various formulas based on measurements made during PRENATAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Deaths occurring from the 28th week of GESTATION to the 28th day after birth in a given population.
The lengths of intervals between births to women in the population.
A condition of fetal overgrowth leading to a large-for-gestational-age FETUS. It is defined as BIRTH WEIGHT greater than 4,000 grams or above the 90th percentile for population and sex-specific growth curves. It is commonly seen in GESTATIONAL DIABETES; PROLONGED PREGNANCY; and pregnancies complicated by pre-existing diabetes mellitus.
A human infant born before 28 weeks of GESTATION.
Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.
Pathological processes or abnormal functions of the PLACENTA.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.
Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.
A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
Mechanical or anoxic trauma incurred by the infant during labor or delivery.
Two individuals derived from two FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother. Twins are either monozygotic (TWINS, MONOZYGOTIC) or dizygotic (TWINS, DIZYGOTIC).
A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).
Three individuals derived from three FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother.
The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.
The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
Hospital units equipped for childbirth.
A congenital heart defect characterized by the persistent opening of fetal DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS that connects the PULMONARY ARTERY to the descending aorta (AORTA, DESCENDING) allowing unoxygenated blood to bypass the lung and flow to the PLACENTA. Normally, the ductus is closed shortly after birth.
Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the mother.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The offspring in multiple pregnancies (PREGNANCY, MULTIPLE): TWINS; TRIPLETS; QUADRUPLETS; QUINTUPLETS; etc.
Use of nursing bottles for feeding. Applies to humans and animals.
The identification of selected parameters in newborn infants by various tests, examinations, or other procedures. Screening may be performed by clinical or laboratory measures. A screening test is designed to sort out healthy neonates (INFANT, NEWBORN) from those not well, but the screening test is not intended as a diagnostic device, rather instead as epidemiologic.
Pregnancy in human adolescent females under the age of 19.
Hospital facilities which provide care for newborn infants.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a blood disease (HEMATOLOGIC DISEASES) which involves BLOOD CELLS or COAGULATION FACTORS. The hematologic disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.
The three approximately equal periods of a normal human PREGNANCY. Each trimester is about three months or 13 to 14 weeks in duration depending on the designation of the first day of gestation.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.
Slow or difficult OBSTETRIC LABOR or CHILDBIRTH.
Deviations from the average values for a specific age and sex in any or all of the following: height, weight, skeletal proportions, osseous development, or maturation of features. Included here are both acceleration and retardation of growth.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.
Nutritional support given via the alimentary canal or any route connected to the gastrointestinal system (i.e., the enteral route). This includes oral feeding, sip feeding, and tube feeding using nasogastric, gastrostomy, and jejunostomy tubes.
The condition of carrying two or more FETUSES simultaneously.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Male parents, human or animal.
The administering of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient who cannot maintain adequate nutrition by enteral feeding alone. Nutrients are administered by a route other than the alimentary canal (e.g., intravenously, subcutaneously).
Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.
Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.
Methanes substituted with three halogen atoms, which may be the same or different.
Use of reflected ultrasound in the diagnosis of intracranial pathologic processes.
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
Expulsion of the product of FERTILIZATION before completing the term of GESTATION and without deliberate interference.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.
A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.
Nutrition of FEMALE during PREGNANCY.
Medical problems associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR, such as BREECH PRESENTATION; PREMATURE OBSTETRIC LABOR; HEMORRHAGE; or others. These complications can affect the well-being of the mother, the FETUS, or both.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
The middle third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 15th through the 28th completed week (99 to 196 days) of gestation.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
The physical measurements of a body.
Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).
Respiratory failure in the newborn. (Dorland, 27th ed)
State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.
The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The proportion of patients with a particular disease during a given year per given unit of population.
Childbirth taking place in the home.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.
Methods of giving food to humans or animals.
Electrically powered devices that are intended to assist in the maintenance of the thermal balance of infants, principally by controlling the air temperature and humidity in an enclosure. (from UMDNS, 1999)
The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.
The process of giving birth to one or more offspring.
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
A condition of substandard growth or diminished capacity to maintain normal function.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Abnormalities of motor function that are associated with organic and non-organic cognitive disorders.
The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Disorders affecting TWINS, one or both, at any age.
A complication of PREGNANCY, characterized by a complex of symptoms including maternal HYPERTENSION and PROTEINURIA with or without pathological EDEMA. Symptoms may range between mild and severe. Pre-eclampsia usually occurs after the 20th week of gestation, but may develop before this time in the presence of trophoblastic disease.
Opening or penetration through the wall of the INTESTINES.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.
The event that a FETUS is born alive with heartbeats or RESPIRATION regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE. Such liveborn is called a newborn infant (INFANT, NEWBORN).
Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.
The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.
Standardized tests that measure the present general ability or aptitude for intellectual performance.
Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Centers for acquiring, storing, and distributing human milk.
The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a cardiovascular disease. The disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.
A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.
The state of PREGNANCY in women with DIABETES MELLITUS. This does not include either symptomatic diabetes or GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE induced by pregnancy (DIABETES, GESTATIONAL) which resolves at the end of pregnancy.
Yellow discoloration of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA in the NEWBORN. It is a sign of NEONATAL HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA. Most cases are transient self-limiting (PHYSIOLOGICAL NEONATAL JAUNDICE) occurring in the first week of life, but some can be a sign of pathological disorders, particularly LIVER DISEASES.
The measurement of the dimensions of the HEAD.
A healthcare facility equipped to provide all but the most specialized forms of care, surgery, and diagnostic techniques.
The physical characteristics of the body, including the mode of performance of functions, the activity of metabolic processes, the manner and degree of reactions to stimuli, and power of resistance to the attack of pathogenic organisms.
Used for general articles concerning statistics of births, deaths, marriages, etc.
The beginning third of a human PREGNANCY, from the first day of the last normal menstrual period (MENSTRUATION) through the completion of 14 weeks (98 days) of gestation.
Two off-spring from the same PREGNANCY. They are from a single fertilized OVUM that split into two EMBRYOS. Such twins are usually genetically identical and of the same sex.
A condition in pregnant women with elevated systolic (>140 mm Hg) and diastolic (>90 mm Hg) blood pressure on at least two occasions 6 h apart. HYPERTENSION complicates 8-10% of all pregnancies, generally after 20 weeks of gestation. Gestational hypertension can be divided into several broad categories according to the complexity and associated symptoms, such as EDEMA; PROTEINURIA; SEIZURES; abnormalities in BLOOD COAGULATION and liver functions.
The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.
The care provided to women and their NEWBORNS for the first few months following CHILDBIRTH.
A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.
A method of continuously holding a partially wrapped baby to the chest, involving skin-to-skin contact. Originally it was a method of caring for LOW-BIRTH-WEIGHT INFANT in developing countries and is now more widespread in developed nations. Aside from encouraging breast feeding, the extra sleep that the infant gets assists in regulating body temperature, helps the baby conserve energy, and redirects calorie expenditures toward growth and weight gain.
DIARRHEA occurring in infants from newborn to 24-months old.
A subspecialty of Pediatrics concerned with the newborn infant.
Two offspring from the same PREGNANCY. They are from two OVA, fertilized at about the same time by two SPERMATOZOA. Such twins are genetically distinct and can be of different sexes.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Special hospitals which provide care to women during pregnancy and parturition.

Longitudinal changes in family outcomes of very low birth weight. (1/256)

OBJECTIVES: Although children with very low birth weight (VLBW, <1500 g) are at high risk for developmental impairments, we know little about the long-term effects of VLBW on families. This study examined long-term family outcomes and their stability over time. METHODS: Participants were the families of 64 children with <750 g birth weight, 54 with 750-1499 g birth weight, and 66 term-born controls. Family burden and parental distress were assessed annually as part of longitudinal follow-up of the children from mean ages 11-14 years. RESULTS: Family burden and parental distress were higher in the <750 g group than in the term-born group, but differences varied with the child's age and family environment. CONCLUSIONS: The findings document long-term effects of VLBW on families that are moderated by the degree of low birth weight, child's age, and family environment.  (+info)

Joint distribution approaches to simultaneously quantifying benefit and risk. (2/256)

BACKGROUND: The benefit-risk ratio has been proposed to measure the tradeoff between benefits and risks of two therapies for a single binary measure of efficacy and a single adverse event. The ratio is calculated from the difference in risk and difference in benefit between therapies. Small sample sizes or expected differences in benefit or risk can lead to no solution or problematic solutions for confidence intervals. METHODS: Alternatively, using the joint distribution of benefit and risk, confidence regions for the differences in risk and benefit can be constructed in the benefit-risk plane. The information in the joint distribution can be summarized by choosing regions of interest in this plane. Using Bayesian methodology provides a very flexible framework for summarizing information in the joint distribution. RESULTS: Data from a National Institute of Child Health & Human Development trial of hydrocortisone illustrate the construction of confidence regions and regions of interest in the benefit-risk plane, where benefit is survival without supplemental oxygen at 36 weeks postmenstrual age, and risk is gastrointestinal perforation. For the subgroup of infants exposed to chorioamnionitis the confidence interval based on the benefit-risk ratio is wide (Benefit-risk ratio: 1.52; 90% confidence interval: 0.23 to 5.25). Choosing regions of appreciable risk and acceptable risk in the benefit-risk plane confirms the uncertainty seen in the wide confidence interval for the benefit-risk ratio--there is a greater than 50% chance of falling into the region of acceptable risk--while visually allowing the uncertainty in risk and benefit to be shown separately. Applying Bayesian methodology, an incremental net health benefit analysis shows there is a 72% chance of having a positive incremental net benefit if hydrocortisone is used in place of placebo if one is willing to incur at most one gastrointestinal perforation for each additional infant that survives without supplemental oxygen. CONCLUSION: If the benefit-risk ratio is presented, the joint distribution of benefit and risk also should be shown. These regions avoid the ambiguity associated with collapsing benefit and risk to a single dimension. Bayesian methods allow even greater flexibility in simultaneously quantifying benefit and risk.  (+info)

Prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants: a 20-year experience. (3/256)

OBJECTIVE: Diet, indomethacin, and early use of dexamethasone have been implicated as possible causes of necrotizing enterocolitis and intestinal perforation. Because we seldom prescribe indomethacin or early dexamethasone therapy and we follow a special dietary regimen that provides late-onset, slow, continuous drip enteral feeding, we reviewed our 20 years of experience for the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis and bowel perforation. METHODS: We reviewed data on all 1239 very low birth weight infants (501-1500 g) admitted to our level III unit over a period of 20 years (1986-2005), for morphologic parameters, necrotizing enterocolitis, bowel perforation, use of the late-onset, slow, continuous drip protocol, and indomethacin therapy. Outcome data were also compared with Vermont Oxford Network data for the last 4 years. RESULTS: In 20 years, 1158 infants received the late-onset, slow, continuous drip feeding protocol (group I), whereas 81 infants had either a change in dietary regimen, use of indomethacin, or early use of dexamethasone (group II). The rate of necrotizing enterocolitis in group I of 0.4% was significantly lower than that in group II of 6%. Group I, in comparison with the Vermont Oxford Network, had significantly lower rates of necrotizing enterocolitis (0.4% vs 5.9%), surgical necrotizing enterocolitis (0.4% vs 3.1%), and bowel perforation (0.35% vs 2.2%). CONCLUSIONS: Our 20-year experience with 1239 very low birth weight infants suggests strongly that the late-onset, slow, continuous drip feeding protocol and avoidance of indomethacin and early dexamethasone treatment contribute to the prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis.  (+info)

No improvement in outcome of nationwide extremely low birth weight infant populations between 1996-1997 and 1999-2000. (4/256)

OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to investigate whether outcome in extremely low birth weight infants changes over time in Finland. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All infants with a birth weight <1000 g born in Finland in 1996-1997 and 1999-2000 were included in the study. Perinatal and follow-up data were collected in a national extremely low birth weight infant research register. Data concerning cerebral palsy and visual impairment were obtained from hospitals, the national discharge, and visual impairment registers. RESULTS: A total of 529 and 511 extremely low birth weight infants were born during 1996-1997 and 1999-2000. No changes were detected in prenatal, perinatal, neonatal, and postneonatal mortality rates between the periods. The survival rates including stillborn infants were 40% and 44%. The incidence of respiratory distress syndrome and septicemia increased from 1996-1997 to 1999-2000 (75% vs 83% and 23% vs 31%). The overall incidence of intraventricular hemorrhage increased (29% vs 37%), but the incidence of intraventricular hemorrhage grades 3 through 4 did not (16% vs 17%). The rates of oxygen dependency at the age corresponding with 36 gestational weeks, retinopathy of prematurity stages 3 to 5, cerebral palsy, and severe visual impairment did not change. Mortality remained higher in 1 university hospital area during both periods compared with the other 4 areas, but no regional differences in morbidity were detected during the later period. CONCLUSIONS: No significant changes were detected in birth or mortality rate in extremely low birth weight infants born in Finland during the late 1990s, but some neonatal morbidities seemed to increase. Regional differences in mortality were detected in both cohorts. Repeated long-term follow-up studies on geographically defined very preterm infant cohorts are needed for establishing reliable outcome data of current perinatal care. Regional differences warrant thorough audits to assess causalities.  (+info)

Improved neurodevelopmental outcomes for extremely low birth weight infants in 2000-2002. (5/256)

BACKGROUND: Neurodevelopmental impairment of extremely low birth weight infants increased in the 1990s. Modern therapeutic changes may have influenced more recent neonatal outcomes. OBJECTIVE: We sought to compare neonatal therapies and outcomes among all extremely low birth weight infants born in 2000-2002 (period III) to 2 previous periods: 1982-1989 (period I) and 1990-1999 (period II). METHODS: The population included 496 extremely low birth weight infants born at our perinatal center during period I, 749 during period II, and 233 during period III. Therapies, rates of death, and survival with and without impairment at 20 months' corrected age were compared. RESULTS: Between periods I and II, survival increased from 49% to 68% as did neonatal morbidity. This resulted in increased survival without impairment but also increased survival with impairment. Changes in therapy during period III included an increase in antenatal steroid use and a decrease in postnatal steroid use, although the rate of chronic lung disease did not change. Sepsis decreased, as did severe intraventricular hemorrhage. On follow-up, the rate of cerebral palsy decreased from 13% to 5%, resulting in a decrease in neurodevelopmental impairment from 35% to 23%. As a result, during period III versus II, survival without impairment increased, whereas survival with impairment decreased. CONCLUSION: Since 2000, neurodevelopmental impairment has decreased among extremely low birth weight infants. A variety of perinatal and neonatal factors were associated with the improved outcomes including increased antenatal steroid use and cesarean section delivery, as well as decreased sepsis, severe cranial ultrasound abnormalities, and postnatal steroid use despite no change in the rate of chronic lung disease.  (+info)

Altered basal cortisol levels at 3, 6, 8 and 18 months in infants born at extremely low gestational age. (6/256)

OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the developmental trajectory of cortisol levels in preterm infants after hospital discharge. STUDY DESIGN: In a cohort of 225 infants (gestational age at birth <33 weeks) basal salivary cortisol levels were compared in infants born at extremely low gestational age (ELGA, 23-28 weeks), very low gestational age (29-32 weeks), and term (37-42 weeks) at 3, 6, 8, and 18 months corrected age (CA). Infants with major neurosensory or motor impairment were excluded. RESULTS: At 3 months CA, salivary cortisol levels were lower in both preterm groups compared with the term infants (P = .003). Conversely, at 8 and 18 months CA, the ELGA infants had significantly higher basal cortisol levels than the very low gestational age and term infants (P = .016 and P = .006, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In ELGA infants, the shift from low basal cortisol levels at 3 months to significantly high levels at 8 and 18 months CA suggests long-term "resetting" of endocrine stress systems. Multiple factors may contribute to these higher cortisol levels in the ELGA infants, including physiological immaturity at birth, cumulative stress related to multiple procedures, and mechanical ventilation during lengthy hospitalization. Prolonged elevation of the cortisol "set-point" may have negative implications for neurodevelopment and later health.  (+info)

Postnatal dexamethasone therapy and cerebral tissue volumes in extremely low birth weight infants. (7/256)

OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to relate postnatal dexamethasone therapy in extremely low birth weight infants (birth weight of < or = 1000 g) to their total and regional brain volumes, as measured by volumetric MRI performed at term-equivalent age. METHODS: Among 53 extremely low birth weight infants discharged between June 1 and December 31, 2003, 41 had high-quality MRI studies; 30 of those infants had not received postnatal steroid treatment and 11 had received dexamethasone, all after postnatal age of 28 days, for a mean duration of 6.8 days and a mean cumulative dose of 2.8 mg/kg. Anatomic brain MRI scans obtained at 39.5 weeks (mean) postmenstrual age were segmented by using semiautomated and manual, pretested, scoring algorithms to generate three-dimensional cerebral component volumes. Volumes were adjusted according to postmenstrual age at MRI. RESULTS: After controlling for postmenstrual age at MRI, we observed a 10.2% smaller total cerebral tissue volume in the dexamethasone-treated group, compared with the untreated group. Cortical tissue volume was 8.7% smaller in the treated infants, compared with untreated infants. Regional volume analysis revealed a 20.6% smaller cerebellum and a 19.9% reduction in subcortical gray matter in the dexamethasone-treated infants, compared with untreated infants. In a series of regression analyses, the reductions in total cerebral tissue, subcortical gray matter, and cerebellar volumes associated with dexamethasone administration remained significant after controlling not only for postmenstrual age but also for bronchopulmonary dysplasia and birth weight. CONCLUSIONS: We identified smaller total and regional cerebral tissue volumes in extremely low birth weight infants treated with relatively conservative regimens of dexamethasone. These volume deficits may be the structural antecedents of neuromotor and cognitive abnormalities reported after postnatal dexamethasone treatment.  (+info)

Comparison of current health, functional limitations, and health care use of young adults who were born with extremely low birth weight and normal birth weight. (8/256)

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the current health status, physical ability, functional limitations, and health care use of extremely low birth weight and normal birth weight young adults. METHODS: A longitudinal study was conducted of a population-based cohort of 166 extremely low birth weight survivors (501-1000 g birth weight; 1977-1982 births) and a group of 145 sociodemographically comparable normal birth weight individuals. Current health status, history of illnesses, hospitalizations, use of health resources, and physical self-efficacy were assessed through questionnaires that were administered to the young adults by masked interviewers. RESULTS: Individuals completed the assessments at a mean age of 23 years. Neurosensory impairments were identified in 27% of extremely low birth weight and 2% of normal birth weight individuals. No differences were reported in the current health status for physical or mental summary scores. Extremely low birth weight young adults reported a higher prevalence of chronic health conditions in the past 6 months. A significantly higher proportion of extremely low birth weight individuals had functional limitations in seeing, hearing, and dexterity and experienced clumsiness and learning difficulties. Except for prescription glasses, medications for depression, and home-care services for extremely low birth weight individuals, there were no significant differences between groups in use of health care resources. Extremely low birth weight individuals had significantly weaker hand grip strength and lower scores for physical self-efficacy, perceived physical ability, and physical self-confidence. CONCLUSIONS: Extremely low birth weight young adults seem to enjoy similar current health status to their normal birth weight peers. However, they continue to have significantly poorer physical abilities and a higher prevalence of chronic health conditions and functional limitations. Contrary to expectations, they do not pose a significant burden to the health care system at young adulthood.  (+info)

Background:The goal was to identify cytokines associated with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Based on our earlier reports of decreased tissue expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta, we hypothesized that infants with NEC also have low blood TGF-beta levels. We further hypothesized that because fetal inflammation increases the risk of NEC, infants who develop NEC
Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate neurodevelopmental outcome in extremely-low-birth-weight (ELBW) infants, all of whom had 3 characteristics: gestational age (GA) less than or equal to24 weeks, birth weight less than or equal to750 g, and 1-minute Apgar score less than or equal to3. Study design: Surviving infants were evaluated at 18 to 22 months corrected age with a neurologic examination and the Bayley II Mental and Psychomotor Developmental Index (MDI and PDI).
An extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infant is defined as one with a birth weight of less than 1000 g (2 lb, 3 oz). Most extremely low birth weight infants are also the youngest of premature newborns, usually born at 27 weeks gestational age or younger.
bioavailability; bone mineral content; bone mineral density; phosphorus; preterm infant; BONE-MINERAL CONTENT; EXTREMELY PRETERM INFANTS; X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY; PREMATURE-INFANTS; BODY-COMPOSITION; HUMAN-MILK; GROWTH; AGE; ...
Preterm infants are at risk of exhausting their body iron stores much earlier than healthy term newborns. It is widespread practice to give enteral iron supplementation to preterm and low birth weight infants to prevent iron deficiency anaemia. Howev
We sought to determine whether there are sex-based differences in the requirements for calories or protein for optimal growth during the transition phase (TP) when an extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infant, defined as a preterm infant with a birth weight of | 1000 g, is progressing from parenteral to enteral feeds. A retrospective review of ELBW infants born from 2014 to 2016 was performed at a tertiary NICU. Infants with necrotizing enterocolitis, short bowel syndrome, or chromosomal anomalies were excluded. TP was defined as the period when the infants enteral feeds were increased from 30 up to 120 ml/kg/day while weaning parenteral nutrition (PN). Effects of sex and protein-calorie intake on the change in growth parameters from the beginning to the end of TP were analyzed. Pre-TP growth percentiles and calorie and protein intake were similar in both sexes. There was a significant (r = 0.22, p = 0.026) correlation of total calorie intake with a change in weight percentiles (wt.pc) for the whole
THURSDAY, Oct. 5, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Delivery characteristics of extremely preterm infants can be used to identify those with significantly lower incidence of early-onset sepsis (EOS), according to a study published online Oct. 5 in Pediatrics.. Karen M. Puopolo, M.D., Ph.D., from Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia , and colleagues analyzed data from infants born at 22 to 28 weeks gestation in Neonatal Research Network centers from 2006 to 2014 to determine whether factors evident at birth could be used to identify premature infants at lower risk of EOS (≤72 hours age).. The researchers found that of 15,433 infants, 37 percent met low-risk criteria (delivered via cesarean delivery, with membrane rupture at delivery, and absence of clinical chorioamnionitis). Among infants surviving ,12 hours, EOS incidence was 29 out of 5,640 (0.5 percent) in the low-risk group versus 209 out of 8,422 (2.5 percent) in the comparison group (adjusted relative risk, 0.24). Prolonged antibiotics (five or ...
Population-based surveys are needed to reliably follow the overall outcome of the extremely premature infants. In our study, we followed 2 population-based ELBW infant cohorts with all births included and, therefore, we consider our results to provide a real situation of the care and outcome of ELBW infants in our country. Because practically all infants born before the 27th GW were included in both cohorts, comparisons between the gestational-age groups in infants born at 22 to 26 GWs were possible. The birth weight-based inclusion criterion can be criticized because it will result in an increasing proportion of SGA infants with increasing gestational age, as was the case. We considered it, however, a relevant criterion because it was the criterion of the previous cohort, and also the criterion for the Finnish national ELBW infant register.. The stillborn rates were relatively high in both cohorts compared with reported rates elsewhere.1,23,24 In Finland, all infants without any signs of life ...
This application proposes to continue the participation of investigators at UCSF in an interactive network of six centers, the Asthma Clinical Research Network (ACRN) in conducting studies of novel therapies for asthma and in disseminating findings to the practicing community. The need for such a network was suggested by increases in the mortality, morbidity, prevalence, and costs of asthma, by research studies showing that asthma is linked to airway inflammation, and by the accelerating rate of development of potentially effective, but also potentially costly treatments. Defining the place of these new therapies was seen as requiring collaborative, multi-center studies examining subjects reflecting the diversity of the U.S. population. In its first 5 years, the ACRN established an interactive infrastructure and added a research site at Harlem Hospital, New York, which serves a predominantly minority population. The ACRN completed and published trials of the effects of regular use of a ...
Objective : In this study, we aimed to produce basic data on the prenatal environmental risk factors of low birth weight infants at a community level. Methods : In 2000, we conducted the direct interview using questionnaire about prenatal environmental risk factors with low birth weight infant-delivered mothers and normal weight infant-delivered mothers in Asan-city, Chungcheongnamdo Province, Korea. The questionsgiven to the mothers included past pregnancy history, menstrual status, disease history before and during the pregnancy, family history, environmental risk factors and exposure history. The responses of the twogroups were compared to calculate the prenatal environmental risk factors of each group. Results : Mothers smoking was significantly associated with low birth weight infants (adjusted odds ratio(AOR) 3.27; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.25-8.56) and preterm baby (AOR 4.20; 95% CI, 1.21-14.61). Other environmental risk factors were not significantly different between the two ...
Results Seventeen ELBW infants had PTU in labour delivery room (n=17) yielding 34 recordings. For 5 out of 17 (29.4%) infants significant improvement of ETT position could be offered by the use of PTU which otherwise was not detected. It is feasible to measure and record diaphragmatic excursion bilaterally during the labour ward resuscitation environment. The diagnostic accuracy of PTU for correct ETT was greater than that by traditional clinical methods and colorimetric CO2 detection. Inter-operator consistency and value of hand-held device (VScan®) is being evaluated.. ...
A set of maternal and neonatal risk factors appear to be useful in predicting which extremely-low-birth-weight infants will die after leaving the neonatal intensive care unit, researchers found.
Read the article here Women who have large birth weight infants (9 pounds or more) most likely had gestational diabetes, or glucose intolerance at the least. These women had the genetic predisposition to insulin imbalance BEFORE pregnancy…they just didnt know it. Most found out they had insulin imbalance and blood sugar issues at the 24th-28th…
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Archives of Disease in Childhood - Fetal and Neonatal Edition Jan 2018, 103 (1) F79-F81; DOI: 10.1136/archdischild-2017-312917 ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Predicting mortality risk for infants weighing 501 to 1500 grams at birth. T2 - A National Institutes of Health Neonatal Research Network report. AU - Horbar, J. D.. AU - Onstad, L.. AU - Wright, E.. AU - Yaffe, S. J.. AU - Catz, C.. AU - Wright, L. L.. AU - Malloy, M. H.. AU - Rhoades, G. G.. AU - Gordon, T.. AU - Phillips, E.. AU - Oh, W.. AU - Cassady, G.. AU - Philips, J.. AU - Lucey, J. F.. AU - Fanaroff, A. A.. AU - Hack, M.. AU - Tyson, J. E.. AU - Uauy, R.. AU - Poland, R.. PY - 1993/1/1. Y1 - 1993/1/1. N2 - Objectives: To develop and evaluate a model that predicts mortality risk based on admission data for infants weighing 501 to 1500 grams at birth, and to use the model to identify neonatal ICUs where the observed mortality rate differs significantly from the predicted rate. Design: Validation cohort study. Setting: University-based, tertiary care neonatal ICUs. Patients: Sample of 3,603 infants with birth weights of 501 to 1500 grams who were born at seven National ...
Why is it illusion to expect any benefit from generalization, unselected treatment strategy using the currently available targeted drugs? What are the genetic variation-based convincing data that accumulating proves now the need for a revolution in discovery drugs research arena and randomized trials design? Why and how quantitative genetics, personal genomics and systems biology [3- 6] represent the most rational scientific approaches to achieve the major goal of a patient-tailored management of solid cancers ...
With standardization of D2 surgery and systemic treatment with chemotherapy and targeted therapy with trastuzumab for HER2 (Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2)-positive gastric cancer, there is an end of this conventional medicine era. Now, two new scientific directions are being shaped: laparoscopic surgery for improving quality-of-life and systems pharmacology based on genome integrative analysis. Challenges and potential of this genomic medicine are discussed. (Citation: Gastric & Breast Cancer 2012; 11(3): 146-148). ...
To the Editor.-. In Poor Predictive Validity of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development for Cognitive Function of Extremely Low Birth Weight Children at School Age,1,2 we learn that things have not changed in the last 40 years. Early mental tests are still poor predictors of later intelligence,3 and normality at early ages is a better predictor of later normality than early abnormality is of later … ...
At present, the network infrastructure of various schools in the education industry has entered the fast lane and entered a period of rapid development, and the digital campus is coming to us. In the virtual age, different objects, different organizations, different enterprises, and different groups have their own difficulties. The education industry needs to use high-efficiency computing services and solutions. Therefore, solution providers are required to follow a three-high standard, that is, high performance, high availability, and high security. At present, the main task of the school is how to make the most of the servers running on the network, how to conveniently manage and configure the servers, and to use these server resources safely, reasonably and efficiently to become the primary task of network center administrators. With the deepening of informatization construction, the construction of the education industry data center is increasingly becoming a hot spot in the field of college ...
Modeling the Population Health Dynamics of Diabetes & Obesity Syndemics Bobby Milstein Syndemics Prevention Network Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - PowerPoint PPT presentation NOTE: The person who provided this presentation may remove the download file from their website at any time ...
Bagi Pengarah Pemasaran ZM Network Centre, Hafizah Abdul Latiff, idea menghasilkan produk berasaskan pemakanan Nabi Muhammad SAW, SihatSunnah tercetus selepas m
If youve got a few minutes to spend in the virtual company of some of the greats of EBM, the JAMA network have a microsite with videos of interviews largely animated by Richard Smith (former editor of the BMJ) http://ebm.jamanetwork.com Fairly light viewing, and you can get an insight into how each of them became involved in…
For more than 50 years, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) has supported and conducted research on the processes of human development and how they affect health, from preconception through adulthood. The history of the NICHD is not a series of solitary endeavors; instead, the NICHD is, and has always been, a family-a whole that is truly the sum of its unique and extraordinary parts.
Homicide, accidental suffocation, motor vehicle accidents, fire, drowning, and choking were the major causes of injury-related death for children less than a year of age, according to a study by researchers at the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD).
With more than one third of pregnancies in the United States being delivered by cesarean and the growing knowledge of morbidities associated with repeat cesarean deliveries, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine, …
Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics. OBJECTIVE: Prophylactic indomethacin reduces severe intraventricular hemorrhage but may increase spontaneous intestinal perforation (SIP) in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. Early feedings improve nutritional outcomes but may increase the risk of SIP. Despite their benefits, use of these therapies varies largely by physician preferences in part because of the concern for SIP. METHODS: This was a cohort study of 15 751 ELBW infants in the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network from 1999 to 2010 who survived beyond 12 hours after birth. The risk of SIP was compared between groups of infants with and without exposure to prophylactic indomethacin and early feeding in unadjusted analyses and in analyses adjusted for center and for risks of SIP. RESULTS: Among infants exposed to prophylactic indomethacin, the risk of SIP did not differ between the ...
Yesterday, House Democratic Whip Steny Hoyer (D-MD) and Rep. Peter King (R-NY) introduced H.R. 2152, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver Act, with 30 original cosponsors. It passed the House last year with broad bipartisan support. This legislation honors the legacy of Eunice Kennedy Shriver and supports people with intellectual disabilities and their families. The Eunice Kennedy Shriver Act would reauthorize the Special Olympics Sport and Empowerment Act, authorize the Department of Education to make grants to the Best Buddies organization to support the expansion and development of mentoring programs for people with intellectual disabilities, and support the establishment of Eunice Kennedy Shriver Institutes for Sport and Social Impact. All of these programs improve and advance opportunities for people with intellectual disabilities to fully participate and engage in sports and recreation, social activities, and other community opportunities.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhaled nitric oxide usage in preterm infants in the NICHD neonatal research network. T2 - Inter-site variation and propensity evaluation. AU - Truog, W. E.. AU - Nelin, L. D.. AU - Das, A.. AU - Kendrick, D. E.. AU - Bell, E. F.. AU - Carlo, W. A.. AU - Higgins, R. D.. AU - Laptook, A. R.. AU - Sanchez, P. J.. AU - Shankaran, S.. AU - Stoll, B. J.. AU - Van Meurs, K. P.. AU - Walsh, M. C.. N1 - Publisher Copyright: © 2014 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.. PY - 2014/11/5. Y1 - 2014/11/5. N2 - Objective:The use of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) in preterm infants remains controversial. In October 2010, a National Institutes of Health consensus development conference cautioned against use of iNO in preterm infants. This study aims (1) to determine the prevalence and variability in use of iNO in the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network (NICHD NRN) before and after the consensus conference and (2) separately, ...
MUDAHEMUKA, J C e BALLOT, D E. Birth weight recovery among very low birth weight infants surviving to discharge from Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital. S. Afr. j. child health [online]. 2014, vol.8, n.4, pp.149-153. ISSN 1999-7671. http://dx.doi.org/10.7196/SAJCH.709.. BACKGROUND: The recommended growth velocity (GV) of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants is 15 g/kg/day. Several factors have been associated with poor postnatal weight gain. OBJECTIVE: To provide current information on the postnatal growth of VLBW infants at Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital (CMJAH). METHODS: This was a longitudinal study of VLBW infants surviving to discharge from CMJAH neonatal unit from August to October 2013. RESULTS: Sixty-nine infants were included in the study. The mean GV was 13.2 g/kg/day, the median weight loss was 7.69% and the median time for regaining birth weight was 16 days. Fifty-one infants (73.9%) regained their birth weight at or before 21 days. There was a decrease ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of early dexamethasone therapy on pulmonary mechanics and chronic lung disease in very low birth weight infants. T2 - A randomized, controlled trial. AU - Durand, M.. AU - Sardesai, S.. AU - McEvoy, C.. PY - 1995/4/24. Y1 - 1995/4/24. N2 - Objective. To determine the changes in pulmonary mechanics before and during early dexamethasone therapy, and to evaluate the effect of dexamethasone on the duration of mechanical ventilation in very low birth weight (VLBW) ventilator-dependent infants at risk for chronic lung disease (CLD). Methods. A prospective randomized trial was conducted. Forty-three patients (birth weight 600 to 1500 g, gestational age 24 to 32 weeks) who failed to be weaned from the respirator at 7 to 14 days of age were enrolled; 23 infants received a 7-day course of dexamethasone (0.5 mg/kg/day intravenously for 3 days, 0.25 mg/kg/day for 3 days, and 0.1 mg/kg/day for 1 day), and 20 patients were in the control group. At similar mean airway pressure (MAP) and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hyperglycemia and retinopathy of prematurity in very low birth weight infants. AU - Garg, Ruchira. AU - Agthe, Alexander G.. AU - Donohue, Pamela K.. AU - Lehmann, Christoph U.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2003/4. Y1 - 2003/4. N2 - Objective: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) remains a leading cause of morbidity in the very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infant. This study investigates a possible association between serum/blood glucose and the development of ROP. Methods: A retrospective case - control study of all infants born between 1992 and 1997 at the Johns Hopkins Hospital with birth weights less than 1000 g who developed Stage 3 or 4 ROP was conducted. Controls either had Stage 1 ROP or no eye disease and were matched 2:1 with ROP patients for gestational age, birth weight and year of birth. Odds ratios (ORs) of ROP were calculated for multiple exposures over the first month after birth, including oxygen concentration (FiO2), blood ...
BackgroundPost-ligation cardiac syndrome (PLCS) is a common complication of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) surgical closure in low birth weight infants. It has been associated with mortality, but there is a lack of information about the neurodevelopmental outcome of the survivors. We aimed to explore the prevalence of PLCS and to assess whether this clinical condition is a risk factor for adverse outcome, (moderate or severe neurodevelopmental disabilities).MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed the medical charts of all the infants | 30 weeks of gestation who underwent ductus arteriosus ligation at our unit between 2005 and 2009.ResultsDuring the study period, 39 preterm infants [mean gestational age 26.4 (2) weeks] underwent surgical closure of the PDA at a mean postnatal age of 25.3 (2.3) days. Twenty six percent of the study population developed PLCS. Five infants died and the follow-up was accomplished in 24 infants (70% of the survivors) at a mean age of 5.3 (1.5) years (range 2-9 years).
OBJECTIVE: We studied the ante- and postnatal risk factors and clinical outcomes associated with pulmonary interstitial emphysema (PIE) in extremely low birth weight infants (ELBW, |1000 g at birth) in the present era of tocolytics, antenatal steroid
The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) is recruiting for a Supervisory Health Science Administrator to serve as a Branch Chief of the NICHD Developmental Biology and Structural Variation Branch (DBSVB) in the Division of Extramural Research (DER https://www.nichd.nih.gov/about/org/der). DBSVB provides a research focus to understand the biological processes that control normal embryonic development, as well as mechanisms that underlie molecular susceptibility and etiology of structural birth defects. The Branch supports studies to elucidate effects of genetic and epigenetic factors on fundamental developmental processes and mechanisms controlling the flow of genetic information and other factors during normal and abnormal development. The DBSVB seeks a candidate with a strong background in developmental biology; developmental genetics with an emphasis on the gene organization, regulation of gene action, gene regulatory networks, and the genetic ...
The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) established the Nulliparous Pregnancy Outcomes Study: Monitoring Mothers-to-be (nuMoM2b) to study women for whom the current pregnancy will lead to their first delivery (nulliparas). About 40% of pregnant women in the United States are nulliparas. Because little or no information from previous pregnancy outcomes is available to guide assignment of risk or mitigating interventions, adverse pregnancy outcomes in nulliparas are especially unpredictable. The underlying mechanisms of adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preterm birth, preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction and stillbirth are interrelated and therefore will be evaluated as part of this study. The information gained will benefit women who are pregnant or who are considering pregnancy and their physicians. In addition, the knowledge will support future research aimed at improving care and health outcomes for a critical group of at-risk women who ...
The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) established the Nulliparous Pregnancy Outcomes Study: Monitoring Mothers-to-be (nuMoM2b) to study women for whom the current pregnancy will lead to their first delivery (nulliparas). About 40% of pregnant women in the United States are nulliparas. Because little or no information from previous pregnancy outcomes is available to guide assignment of risk or mitigating interventions, adverse pregnancy outcomes in nulliparas are especially unpredictable. The underlying mechanisms of adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preterm birth, preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction and stillbirth are interrelated and therefore will be evaluated as part of this study. The information gained will benefit women who are pregnant or who are considering pregnancy and their physicians. In addition, the knowledge will support future research aimed at improving care and health outcomes for a critical group of at-risk women who ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Daytime Compared With Nighttime Differences in Management and Outcomes of Postpartum Hemorrhage. AU - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units (MFMU) Network. AU - Yee, Lynn M.. AU - McGee, Paula. AU - Bailit, Jennifer L.. AU - Reddy, Uma M.. AU - Wapner, Ronald J.. AU - Varner, Michael W.. AU - Thorp, John M.. AU - Leveno, Kenneth J.. AU - Caritis, Steve N.. AU - Prasad, Mona. AU - Tita, Alan T.N.. AU - Saade, George. AU - Sorokin, Yoram. AU - Rouse, Dwight J.. AU - Blackwell, Sean C.. AU - Tolosa, Jorge E.. PY - 2019/1/1. Y1 - 2019/1/1. N2 - OBJECTIVE: To assess whether postpartum hemorrhage management or subsequent morbidity differs based on whether delivery occurred during the day or night. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of a multicenter observational obstetric cohort of more than 115,000 mother-neonate pairs from 25 hospitals (2008-2011). This analysis included women delivering singleton ...
The invention from Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) provides a non-invasive, painless means for measuring microanatomical features of Nerve and Axon Diameter Distribution (ADD) to image the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems (CNS and PNS). ADD is altered in abnormal development (e.g., autism), in neurodegenerative processes (e.g., aging, alcoholism, Alzheimers disease) and diseases such as ALS (Lou Gehrigs disease). U.S. patent 7,643,863, related to this invention, consists of a novel diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) experiment and modeling framework, termed Composite Hindered and Restricted Model of Diffusion (CHARMED). It characterizes hindered and restricted anisotropic diffusion in brain white matter by marrying Diffusion Tensor MRI (DTI) and q-space MRI. DTI provides information primarily about how water diffuses in the extracellular compartment of tissues, where water mobility is hindered (i.e., where water diffuses ...
Sudden infant death syndrome is the the number-one cause of death in babies between a month and a year old, according to the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. In many, many instances, SIDS occurs because of internal causes that are impossible for anyone to control - for example, a…. ...
Pharmacokinetics of 17-hydroxyprogesterone caproate in multifetal gestation.Authors: Caritis SN, Sharma S, Venkataramanan R, Rouse DJ, Peaceman AM, Sciscione A, Spong CY, Varner MW, Malone FD, Iams JD, Mercer BM, Thorp JM Jr, Sorokin Y, Carpenter M, Lo J, Ramin S, Harper M, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network ...
2012-2015] Systems Analysis and Improvement to Optimize pMTCT: A Cluster Randomized Trial.. This project received funding support from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development of the National Institutes of Health under award number R01HD075057, via a subagreement from the University of Washington.. [2017-2022] Scaling up the Systems Analysis and Improvement Approach for pMTCT in Mozambique.. This project receives funding support from the National Institute of Mental Health of the National Institutes of Health under award number R01MH113435, via a subagreement from the University of Washington.. [2016-2019] Usability and Feasibility of a Phone-based Decision Support Tool for Option B+.. This project received funding support from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases of the National Institutes of Health under award number R21AI124399, via a subagreement from the University of Washington.. [2014-2017] Assessing a tablet-based clinical ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chest compression rates and pediatric in-hospital cardiac arrest survival outcomes. AU - the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network (CPCCRN) Investigators. AU - Sutton, Robert M.. AU - Reeder, Ron W.. AU - Landis, William. AU - Meert, Kathleen L.. AU - Yates, Andrew R.. AU - Berger, John T.. AU - Newth, Christopher J.. AU - Carcillo, Joseph A.. AU - McQuillen, Patrick S.. AU - Harrison, Rick E.. AU - Moler, Frank W.. AU - Pollack, Murray M.. AU - Carpenter, Todd C.. AU - Notterman, Daniel A.. AU - Holubkov, Richard. AU - Dean, J. Michael. AU - Nadkarni, Vinay M.. AU - Berg, Robert A.. AU - Zuppa, Athena F.. AU - Graham, Katherine. AU - Twelves, Carolann. AU - Diliberto, Mary Ann. AU - Tomanio, Elyse. AU - Kwok, Jeni. AU - Bell, Michael J.. AU - Abraham, Alan. AU - Sapru, Anil. AU - Alkhouli, Mustafa F.. AU - Heidemann, Sabrina. AU - Pawluszka, Ann. AU - Hall, Mark W.. AU - Steele, ...
I have often blogged about the impact of excess weight in pregnancy on both the health of the mother and the infant.. The need to manage gestational diabetes, a frequent complication in overweight and obese women, is well established but the evidence for mild cases is less clear.. This question was now addressed by Mark Landon and colleagues on behalf of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network in a paper just published in the New England Journal of Medicine.. This multicenter trial randomised a total of 958 women who were in the 24th to 31st week of gestation and who met the criteria for mild gestational diabetes mellitus (i.e., an abnormal result on an oral glucose-tolerance test but a fasting glucose level below 95 mg per deciliter [5.3 mmol per liter]) to usual prenatal care (control group) or dietary intervention, self-monitoring of blood glucose, and insulin therapy, if necessary (treatment group).. Although ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prenatal exposure to environmental phenols and childhood fat mass in the Mount Sinai Childrens Environmental Health Study. AU - Buckley, Jessie P.. AU - Herring, Amy H.. AU - Wolff, Mary S.. AU - Calafat, Antonia M.. AU - Engel, Stephanie M.. N1 - Funding Information: We thank Xiaoyun Ye, Amber Bishop, and Jack Reidy for the measurement of the phenols metabolites. This work was supported by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS, ES021700 ). The Mount Sinai Childrens Environmental Health Study was supported by grants from NIEHS ( ES009584 ), EPA ( R827039 and RD831711 ), ATSDR, and The New York Community Trust. JPB was supported by training grants from NIEHS ( T32 ES007018 ) and the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development ( T32-HD052468-05 ). PY - 2016/5/1. Y1 - 2016/5/1. N2 - Early life exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals may alter adipogenesis and energy balance leading to changes in obesity risk. Several ...
1 Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, UNIFESP, São Paulo, Brazil 2 Westat, Rockville, MD, USA 3 Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil 4 Clínica de Inmunodeficiencias/Depto. de Infectología, Hospital Infantil de Mexico Federico Gomez, Mexico City 5 Department of Child & Adolescent Health, the University of the West Indies, Jamaica 6 National Institute of Child Health and Faculty of Medicine of National University of San Marcos of Lima Peru 7 Hospital Federal dos Servidores do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil 8 Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina 9 Instituto de Pesquisas Biomédicas da Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul and Irmandade da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Porto Alegre, both in Porto Alegre, Brazil 10 Maternal and Pediatric Infectious Disease Branch, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, ...
LAWRENCE - The Kansas Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Research Center has been awarded a five-year, $5.40 million cooperative agreement from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.. The award provides support for administrative, statistical, participant recruitment, measurement methodology and various preclinical services to support the work of 43 scientists who hold 51 externally funded basic and applied research grants on the topic of intellectual and developmental disabilities at the Lawrence and Medical Center campuses, as well as at the Childrens Campus of Kansas City.. It also supports a specific research project to examine the efficacy of an intervention to improve spoken word production in minimally verbal school-age children with autism spectrum disorder.. The KIDDRC is one of only 14 nationally designated centers that seek to advance the diagnosis, prevention, treatment and amelioration of intellectual and developmental ...
The women were told to keep journals of their menstrual cycles, intercourse and home pregnancy tests. They were followed until pregnancy for up to a year of trying to get pregnancy. The researchers found that obese couples tooka lot longer to achieve pregnancy than couples who werent obese. Previous studies had focused on the weight of the woman, but this study takes the weight of both parents into consideration.. A lot of studies on fertility and body composition have focused on the female partner, but our findings underscore the importance of including both partners, said Rajeshwari Sundaram, Ph.D., a senior investigator in the Division of Intramural Population Health Research at NIHs Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, in the statement. Our results also indicate that fertility specialists may want to consider couples body compositions when counseling patients.. ...
Researchers have developed a test to measure the expressive language skills of people with Fragile X syndrome, a genetic disorder that may result in intellectual disability, cognitive impairment and symptoms of autism spectrum disorder. Expressive language refers to the use of words to convey meaning to others. The work was funded by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, part of the National Institutes of Health.
Women in Ireland and Northern Ireland accessing medical abortion through online telemedicine report overwhelmingly positive benefits for health, wellbeing, and autonomy, Aiken said. This examination and subsequent findings provide a new evidence to inform the policy debate surrounding abortion laws in Ireland and Northern Ireland. Funding for this research was in part provided by infrastructure grants for population research from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development of the National Institutes of Health.. The study was published online first at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1471-0528.14401/full. ...
A team of researchers led by UC Davis MIND Institute Director Leonard Abbeduto will investigate the effectiveness of testing procedures to examine the spoken language development of people with fragile X syndrome and people with Down syndrome, through a new five-year, $3 million grant from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development of the National Institutes of Health.
Health Behavior Branch, Division of Intramural Population Health Research (Gilman), Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, Md.; Department of Mental Health (Gilman), Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Md.; Department of Mathematics and Statistics (Sucha), and School of Epidemiology and Public Health (Sucha, Kingsbury), University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ont.; Department of Mathematics and Statistics (Horton), Amherst College, Amherst, Mass.; Department of Psychiatry (Murphy), Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School; Department of Epidemiology (Murphy), Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Mass.; Department of Psychiatry (Murphy), Dalhousie University Faculty of Medicine, Halifax, NS; School of Epidemiology, Public Health & Preventive Medicine (Colman), University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ont. ...
To combat obesity and diabetes, lawmakers in a number of U.S. cities have taxed sodas, sports drinks, and sweetened tea, and many are now considering health warning labels. Growing evidence suggests that both strategies-taxes and warning labels-can reduce the purchase and consumption of sugary drinks, research supported by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child…. Read More ...
Breastfeeding a very low birth weight baby is a challenging and exhausting experience for the mother. A better teaching protocol for breastfeeding and an improved breastfeeding ethos need to be implemented in the neonatal intensive care unit and special care nursery to support families of very low b …
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth is associated with variable degrees of brain injury, adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes and continuing special health care needs. STUDY AND AIMS: This observational, retrospective and cross-sectional study aims to describe the functional features of VLBW infants using the ICF-CY classification and to identify the association between gender, twinship, birth weight, gestational age, adjusted age and functioning as defined by the ICF biopsychosocial model. SAMPLE: 56 VLBW infants (corrected age of 12-24 months) were consecutively enrolled. INSTRUMENTS: Three assessment tools were used: a neuro-functional assessment (NFA); the Griffiths Mental Development Scales-Revised: Birth to 2 years (Griffiths 0-2) to evaluate psychomotor development and the ICF-CY questionnaire for ages 0-3. RESULTS: A two-step cluster component analysis with the Bayesian information criterion was conducted based on NFA and Griffiths 0-2 scores and four groups of infants functioning (very low, low, ...
Results The mean i-FABP concentration in the second group (1.75±0.62 ng/ml) was elevated in 1.4 times compared with the first group (1.23±0.23 ng/ml). Significant high urine i-FABP concentration was observed in died infants of second group (2.39±0.88 ng/ml, p,0.05). In contrast the serum LBP level in newborns of second group was lower (23.1±4.5 ng/ml) in 1.4 time compared to newborns of first group (32.1±2.3 ng/ml).. ...
BACKGROUND: Recent nutrition guidelines for extremely-low-birth-weight infants (ELBWIs) recommend implementation of high initial amino acid (AA) supplementation in parenteral nutrition.. OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate the influence of AA intake on refeeding syndrome-like electrolyte disturbances including hypophosphatemia in ELBWIs.. STUDY DESIGN: Medical records of 142 ELBWIs were reviewed. Demographic, nutritional, outcome, and electrolyte data were compared between ELBWIs with initial low (1.5 g/kg/day) and high (3 g/kg/day) AA intake. Multivariate analysis was conducted to determine the odds ratio of hypophosphatemia with high AA intake and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) ELBWIs.. RESULTS: The incidence of hypophosphatemia and severe hypophosphatemia increased from 51% and 8% in period I to 59% and 20% in period II, respectively (p = 0.36 and , 0.01). Specifically, SGA ELBWIs showed higher incidence of hypophosphatemia than appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA) ELBWIs in period II, whereas ...
Our main finding was that the size of the fetus in the first trimester of pregnancy was associated with the birth weight. Approximately half of this association was due to the effect of first trimester size on the duration of pregnancy. The clinical significance of this finding is underlined by the association between fetal growth in early pregnancy and the risk of delivering a small for gestational age infant. Before the widespread use of ultrasound, fetal growth was thought to be largely genetically determined in early pregnancy and variation in fetal growth was thought to be primarily a feature of the second half of pregnancy.13 With the widespread clinical use of ultrasound, analysis of routinely collected data showed that fetuses that were smaller than expected in early pregnancy were at increased risk of adverse outcome, particularly poor growth. Intrauterine growth restriction was postulated to be evident in very early pregnancy.6 However, other authors suggested that a prolonged interval ...
Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping. ...
The Massachusetts Department of Developmental Services (DDS) and CDDER are pleased to present a series of Webinars focused on Aging with Intellectual and Developmental Disability (IDD).
Dr Holscher from the University of Ulster added: The new ART Network in Northern Ireland will bring together all researchers and clinicians who work on Alzheimers disease to unite their strength and specialisations. Considering the changing age profile of the Northern Ireland population and the important position of Alzheimers disease within health care policy, this new Network offers an excellent strategic position to amalgamate research, attract new funding and develop a cluster of excellence in the very important area of Alzheimers research. Rebecca Wood, Chief Executive of the Alzheimers Research Trust said: We are delighted to be launching the Northern Ireland Network centre. The next big Alzheimers breakthrough will only come if researchers work together. Through the Network centre we hope to promote research collaborations within the Northern Ireland area as well as with our other Network centres through the UK. ...
"Early-onset sepsis with Staphylococcus auricularis in an extremely low-birth weight infant - an uncommon pathogen". Journal of ...
Neonatology and NICUs have greatly increased the survival of very low birth-weight and extremely premature infants. In the era ... Besides prematurity and extreme low birth-weight, common diseases cared for in a NICU include perinatal asphyxia, major birth ... infants of birth weight less than 1400 grams (3 lb, usually about 30 weeks gestation) rarely survived. Today, infants of 500 ... Even though medical advancements allow doctors to save low-birth-weight babies, it is almost invariably better to delay such ...
Low birth weight is at 27% while breastfeeding is at 65%. Nepal has reduced maternal mortality rate to 229, from 901 in 1990; ... Marriage is thought to be for life, and the divorce rate is extremely low, with less than one in a thousand marriages ending in ... infant mortality is down to 32.2 per thousand live births compared to 139.8 in 1990. Contraceptive prevalence rate is 53% but ... In the lower hills (700 m - 2,000 m), subtropical and temperate deciduous mixed forests containing mostly Sal (in the lower ...
2016). "Use and Cutaneous Side Effects of Skin Antiseptics in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants - A Retrospective Survey of ... Low-level exposure of MRSA to octenidine dihydrochloride does not select for resistance. J Antimicrob Chemother 2007; 59: 1280- ... In vitro suspension tests with 5 minute exposure time have shown that octenidine requires lower effective concentrations than ... However, cation-active compounds cause local irritation and are extremely poisonous when administered parenterally.[5] ...
"Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants Exposed Prenatally to Dexamethasone Versus Betamethasone". ... gestation and neonatal outcome of extremely low birth weight infants". American Journal of Perinatology. 27 (1): 61-6. doi: ... "Antenatal corticosteroids given to women prior to birth to improve fetal, infant, child and adult health: Clinical Practice ... decreasing the need to use surfactant after birth), and therefore result in better health outcomes for preterm infants. In 1969 ...
"Role of prophylactic surgical ligation of patent ductus arteriosus in extremely low birth weight infants: Systematic review and ... Findings from a 2015 systematic review concluded that, for closure of a PDA in preterm and/or low birth weight infants, ... "Ibuprofen for the prevention of patent ductus arteriosus in preterm and/or low birth weight infants". The Cochrane Database of ... "Ibuprofen for the treatment of patent ductus arteriosus in preterm or low birth weight (or both) infants". Cochrane Database ...
... and delivery of an extremely low birth weight infant. In follow-up studies of babies whose birth weights were below 1000g, it ... Moderate forms of exercise, such as walking, can lead to healthy weight loss. Some people who are obese turn to gastric bypass ... Children who were a normal weight but had obese fathers still had elevated ALT levels, which indicated that a child's ALT ... It is recommended that obese women should try to lose weight before becoming pregnant, yet women should not diet during ...
Morse, S. B. (1 January 2006). "Racial and Gender Differences in the Viability of Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants: A ... The baby's gestational age (number of completed weeks of pregnancy) at the time of birth and the baby's weight (also a measure ... Medical decisions regarding the resuscitation of extremely preterm infants (EPI) deemed to be in the "grey zone" usually take ... A preterm birth, also known as premature birth, is defined as babies born alive before 37 weeks of pregnancy are completed. ...
Perinatal outcome and long-term follow-up of extremely low birth weight infants depending on the mode of delivery. Journal of ... on the long-term psychomotor development of extremely low-birth weight infants." Picone, L., Regine, A., & Ribaudo, F. (2001). ... "show that pre-term birth, parental age, and infant gender accounted for more than 30% of the variance in cognitive-motor skills ... "The reliability coefficients for the general cognitive index tend to run in the low 90's" , and the data for validity is ...
Subramanian, KNS (18 June 2009). "Extremely Low Birth Weight Infant". eMedicine. Archived from the original on 21 November 2008 ... Weight-based classification further recognizes Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) which is less than 1,500 g, and Extremely Low Birth ... infants may be underweight for other reasons than a preterm delivery. Neonates of low birth weight (LBW) have a birth weight of ... for weight gain in formula-fed low-birth-weight infants. There is limited evidence to support prescribing a preterm formula for ...
"Early Working Memory in Children Born With Extremely Low Birth Weight: Assessed by Object Permanence". Journal of Child. 24 (4 ... Jean Piaget, the Swiss psychologist who first studied object permanence in infants, argued that it is one of an infant's most ... However, the reaction of infants that had not yet started developing object permanence was more oblivious. If an infant ... which lasts from birth to about two years of age.[1] Piaget thought that an infant's perception and understanding of the world ...
It is also still unclear if probiotic administration reduces LOS risk in extremely low birth weight infants due to the limited ... For infants with low birth weight, cases of early-onset sepsis is found to be about 26 per 1,000 and 8 per 1,000 live births. ... In a randomized controlled trial of 3,003 very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, Heart Rate Characteristics (HRC) monitoring ... Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis". Nutrients. 9 (8): 904. doi:10.3390/nu9080904. PMC ...
P07 - Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight in ICD-10 "eMedicine - Extremely Low Birth Weight Infant : ... Low birth weight: less than 2,500 g (5 lb 8 oz) Very low birth weight: less than 1,500 g (3 lb 5 oz) Extremely low birth weight ... Low birth weight (LBW) is defined by the World Health Organization as a birth weight of an infant of 2,499 g (5 lb 8.1 oz) or ... Low birth weight constitutes as sixty to eighty percent of the infant mortality rate in developing countries. Infant mortality ...
Original citation: "Birthweight: Infant's weight recorded at the time of birth" "eMedicine - Extremely Low Birth Weight Infant ... A related term is low birth weight (LBW), defined as an infant with a birth weight (that is, mass at the time of birth) of less ... One third of babies born with a low birth weight are also small for gestational age. Infants that are born at low birth weights ... Related definitions include very low birth weight (VLBW) which is less than 1500 g, and extremely low birth weight (ELBW) which ...
... especially in extremely low-birth-weight infants Postnatal exposure to lead Single-gene disorders that result in intellectual ... Functioning that is significantly below average with an IQ of about 70 or lower. If diagnosing an infant, the clinician would ... In infants, some babies may be hypotonia, a loose and floppy baby, or hypertonia, a stiff and rigid baby. Toddlers may have ... As an infant, the individual with intellectual disability might sit up, crawl, or walk later than what is developmentally ...
Birth Weight − A classic example of this is human birth weight. Babies of low weight lose heat more quickly and get ill from ... Infants of a more medium weight survive much more often. For the larger or smaller babies, the baby mortality rate is much ... However, extremely tall plants may be more susceptible to wind damage. Combined, these two selection pressures select to ... The bell curve of the human population peaks at a birth weight that the newly born babies exhibit the minimum death rate. ...
For extremely low birth weight infants, laboratory blood testing using bedside devices offers a unique opportunity to reduce ... Obladen, Sachsenweger and Stahnke (1987) studied 60 very low birth weight infants during the first 28 days of life. Infants ... but may be useful to reduce numbers of late transfusion in extremely low-birth-weight infants. A British task force to ... These reactions are the most frequent symptoms of anemia in very low birth weight infants. During the first weeks of life, all ...
... for cognitive function at school age for infants born with extremely low birth weight (ELBW). Data was studied from the BSID-II ... In 1983, 25 low-risk mother-infant pairs participated in a research project to predict the performance of 21 month olds on the ... as infants who score very low are at risk for future developmental problems. Prior to the first official scale by Nancy Bayley ... This brought on concern that decisions to provide intensive care for ELBW infants in the delivery room might be biased because ...
It occurs in the people in the following situations: Premature, very low birth weight infants - birth weights less than 1500 ... These individuals have an extremely poor capacity to absorb vitamin E and develop neurological complications that are reversed ... occurring as a consequence of abnormalities in dietary fat absorption or metabolism rather than from a diet low in vitamin E. ... "Vitamin E supplementation for prevention of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (4): ...
All other supportive technology can be provided as part of care to extremely low birth weight babies during skin-to-skin ... Kangaroo Mother Care originally referred only to care of low birth weight and preterm infants, and is defined as a care ... While Kangaroo Mother Care generally implies care of low birth weight and preterm infants, skin-to-skin contact should be ... Kangaroo care arguably offers the most benefits for pre-term and low-birth-weight infants, who experience more normalized ...
... and are referred to as extremely low birth weight or immature infants. Preterm birth is the most common cause of infant ... SGA can result in low birth weight, although premature birth can also result in low birth weight. Low birth weight increases ... Smoking during pregnancy may also lead to miscarriages and low birth weight (2500 grams, 5.5 lb). Low birth weight is a concern ... Congenital disorders are acquired before birth. Infants with certain congenital heart defects can survive only as long as the ...
This, in conjunction with the already high rate of low birth weight children and children born with abnormalities, poses severe ... The rate of infants being born with abnormalities is five times higher in this region than in European countries. The Aral Sea ... Renal tubular dysfunction has become a large health concern in children in the Aral Sea region as it is showing extremely high ... These toxins can be, and often are, passed on to the children of these mothers resulting in low birthweight children and ...
Proper prenatal nutrition is responsible for this small prevalence of low birthweight infants.[1] However, low birthweight ... Many children are born with the inherent disadvantage of low birth weight, often caused by intrauterine growth restriction and ... This region of the world has extremely high rates of underweight children. According to a 2006 Unicef study, 46% of its child ... of low birthweight occurs in the developing world, low birthweight is associated with being born to a mother in poverty with ...
Severe growth delays before birth including low birth weight and shorter than normal length occur. After birth, outward ... The prognosis is extremely poor and in most cases the infant dies shortly after birth or are stillborn. The first documented ... Gimelli G, Giglio S, Zuffardi O, Alhonen L, Suppola S, Cusano R, Lo Nigro C, Gatti R, Ravazzolo R, Seri M (September 2002). " ... Gimelli G, Giglio S, Zuffardi O, Alhonen L, Suppola S, Cusano R, Lo Nigro C, Gatti R, Ravazzolo R, Seri M (September 2002). " ...
Proper prenatal nutrition is responsible for this small prevalence of low birthweight infants. However, low birthweight rates ... low weight-for-height), stunting (low height-for-age) and underweight (low weight-for-age) Micronutrient-related malnutrition, ... This region of the world has extremely high rates of underweight children. According to a 2006 UNICEF study, 46% of its child ... Because 96% of low birthweight occurs in the developing world, low birthweight is associated with being born to a mother in ...
... of low birth weight babies developed retinopathy of prematurity, which rose to 72% in extremely low birth weight babies, ... January 1998). "Evaluation of criteria for chronic lung disease in surviving very low birth weight infants. Newborn Lung ... However, severe outcomes are much less frequent: for very low birth weight babies-those less than 1.5 kg (3.3 lb) at birth-the ... Prematurity, low birth weight and a history of oxygen exposure are the principal indicators, while no hereditary factors have ...
... a primary determinant of infant mortality risk is infant birth weight with lower birth weights increasing the risk of infant ... Until the 1990s, Russia and the Soviet Union did not count, as a live birth or as an infant death, extremely premature infants ... This reflected the amount of low birth weights concluding that 12.4% of births from smokers were low birth weights compared ... Causes of infant mortality and deaths that are related to medical conditions include: low birth weight, sudden infant death ...
There are two reasons for low birth weight, either premature delivery or the infant's size is just lower than average for its ... Other studies have also found that the correlations are relatively small unless the weight is extremely low (less than 1,500 g ... A meta analysis of low birth weight babies found that there is a significant relationship between low birth weight and impaired ... Aylward, GP; Pfeiffer SI; Wright A; Verhulst SJ (1989). "Outcome studies of low birth weight infants published in the last ...
Surfactant medications can decrease the risk of death for very low-birth-weight infants who are hospitalized by 30%. Such small ... However, newborns cannot be placed on ECMO if they are under 4.5 pounds (2 kg), because they have extremely small vessels for ... Complications include metabolic disorders (acidosis, low blood sugar), patent ductus arteriosus, low blood pressure, chronic ... IRDS affects about 1% of newborns and is the leading cause of death in preterm infants. Notably, data has shown the choice of ...
2001). "Growth and Development in the Normal Infant and Child, Table 7.1". Principles and Practice of Endocrinology and ... The decision to treat is based on a belief that the child will be disabled by being extremely short as an adult, so that the ... The cost of treatment depends on the amount of growth hormone given, which in turn depends on the child's weight and age. One ... The anthropometric measurements include height, sitting height, arm span, upper/ lower-body segment ratio, sitting height/ ...
Average global birth rates are declining fast, but vary greatly between developed countries (where birth rates are often at or ... "Global weight gain more damaging than rising numbers". BBC. June 18, 2012. Retrieved February 12, 2013.. ... Alternative scenarios for 2050 range from a low of 7.4 billion to a high of more than 10.6 billion.[69] Projected figures vary ... Another critical factor for such an estimate is the question of pre-modern infant mortality rates; these figures are very ...
Congenital lactose intolerance is an extremely rare genetic disorder in which little or no lactase is made from birth.[1] The ... Low-lactose and lactose-free versions of foods are often available to replace dairy-based foods for those with lactose ... This test can be used to diagnose lactose intolerance in infants, for whom other forms of testing are risky or impractical.[40] ... by weight) may not be very reliable. Kosher products labeled pareve or fleishig are free of milk. However, if a "D" (for "dairy ...
... at birth, but not as coordinated as ungulates (hoofed mammals).[47] Infant care by the mother is relatively prolonged compared ... Instead, their lower incisors varied in orientation-from somewhat procumbent to somewhat vertical-and the lower canines were ... Like the living strepsirrhines, adapiforms were extremely diverse,[13] with at least 30 genera and 80 species known from the ... but otherwise lemurs show very little if any difference in body size or weight between sexes. This lack of sexual dimorphism is ...
"Costs of caregiving: weight loss in captive adult male cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) following the birth of infants" ... Its lower canine teeth are longer than its incisors, creating the appearance of tusks.[13] Like other callitrichids, the cotton ... Its main predators include raptors, mustelids, felids, and snakes.[16][17] The cotton-top tamarin is extremely vigilant, always ... This burden may cause some male cotton-tops to lose up to 10-11% of their total body weight.[28] The large weight loss may ...
If infant death records are matched to birth records, it is possible to use birth variables, such as birth weight and ... such as strings with low Jaro-Winkler or Levenshtein distance). This value would be 1.0 in the case of perfect data, but given ... for extremely large data sets, may not provide much net improvement in computation speed. Thus, robust record linkage systems ... If a value of 0.95 were to be estimated for the m probability, then the match/non-match weights for the birth month identifier ...
He was extremely critical of the practice of Christianity as a state religion, primarily that of the Church of Denmark. His ... And this is quite in order or in the order of things and of existence, since a human being, even if from the moment of birth ... Yes, everything is soon turned upside-down: communication is indeed soon brought to its lowest point in regard to meaning, and ... compulsory infant baptism was abolished. Debates sprang up over the King's position as the head of the Church and over whether ...
This is thought to be due to a rise in low birth weight of infants and the increased survival rate of these infants. The ... Mixed CP is the most difficult to treat as it is extremely heterogeneous and sometimes unpredictable in its symptoms and ... often just after birth.[48] Multiple-birth infants are also more likely than single-birth infants to have CP.[53] They are also ... Term infants[edit]. In babies that are born at term risk factors include problems with the placenta, birth defects, low birth ...
... a systematic review and meta-analysis on birth weight, placental weight and length of gestation". Nutr J. 11: 75. doi:10.1186/ ... Infants (AI) Infants (UL) Children and adults (RDA) Children and adults (UL) Pregnant women (RDA) Pregnant women (UL) Lactating ... Shiroky JB; Frcp(c) (1997). "The use of folates concomitantly with low-dose pulse methotrexate". Rheum. Dis. Clin. North Am. 23 ... "The extremely slow and variable activity of dihydrofolate reductase in human liver and its implications for high folic acid ...
... as well as infants and toddlers (Birth to age 3) served through IDEA Part C. Special education expenditures have demonstrated ... Under the weighted funding system, the amount of aid provided to local districts is based on the funding "weight" associated ... "low expectations, and an insufficient focus on applying replicable research on proven methods of teaching and learning for ... is extremely helpful. ... Under a weighted special education funding system, (used by ...
At birth it is about 4-6 cm long, 2.5-5 cm wide, and about 1 cm thick. It is made up of two lobes that meet in upper midline, ... It was thought to be a cause of sudden infant death syndrome but is now an obsolete term. Due to the large numbers of apoptotic ... The thymus reaches maximum weight (20 to 37 grams) by the time of puberty. The thymus of older people is scarcely ... Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) is an extremely rare genetic autoimmune syndrome. ...
... colourless and odourless and extremely low in free fatty acids. Olive oils sold as the grades extra virgin olive oil and virgin ... One analysis of olive oil versus mineral oil found that, when used for infant massage, olive oil can be considered a safe ... measured by weight) of free oleic acid. Measured by quantitative analysis, acidity is a measure of the hydrolysis of the oil's ... Olive oil was also popular as a form of birth control; Aristotle in his History of Animals recommends applying a mixture of ...
... which is produced in large quantities at birth due to blood volume reduction from the infant's body and helps prevent jaundice ... Low IGF-1 levels may be associated with dementia in the very elderly, although causation has not been established.[62] People ... can be a useful part of a weight reduction program.[citation needed] Although IGF-1 is not absorbed intact by the body, some ... Fat concentration in bovine colostrum is extremely variable.[12] ... In preterm infants some IgA may be absorbed through the ...
A six-year study of breastfed infants whose mothers used a levonorgestrel-only method of birth control found the infants had ... In 2013 Skyla, a lower dose levonorgestrel IUD effective for up to three years, was approved by the FDA.[78] Skyla has a ... IUDs that release copper or levonorgestrel are extremely effective contraceptives... Both copper IUDs and levonorgestrel ... Weight. Potential side effect. Benefits. No need to remember to take daily action. ...
By January 2004, extremely low-gluten Church-approved hosts had become available in the United States, Italy and Australia.[158 ... low birthweight and preterm birth.[46]. *Hyposplenism (a small and underactive spleen)[47] occurs in about a third of cases and ... and weight loss or failure to gain weight. More common symptoms are subtle or primarily occur in organs other than the bowel ... "Gluten Introduction to Infant Feeding and Risk of Celiac Disease: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis". The Journal of ...
GH supports linear growth and increased muscle mass, and may lessen food preoccupation and weight gain.[39][40][41] ... Some symptoms that are usually found in infants, besides poor muscle tone, are a lack of eye coordination, some are born with ... Cassidy found that 40% of individuals with PWS have borderline/low average intelligence,[15] a figure higher than the 32% found ... Patients are also often extremely stubborn and prone to anger.[20] Psychiatric and behavioural problems are the most common ...
Height or weight is only partly inherited, and the language is not at all inherited. Just to be clear: the fact that humans can ... What happens after birth depends on many things such as home environment, education and other experiences. When a person is ... These medicines have only been in use about eighty years, and at first worked extremely well. The bacteria have evolved so that ... The association between beetles and angiosperms during the Lower Cretaceous period led to parallel radiations of angiosperms ...
Occasionally, in females where ulceration is correlated to the menstrual cycle or to birth control pills, progestogen or a ... In severe cases, this prevents adequate nutrient intake leading to malnutrition and weight loss.[3] ... Herpetiform ulceration is often extremely painful, and the lesions recur more frequently than minor or major aphthous ulcers. ... Aphthous ulcers on the labial mucosa (lower lip is retracted). Note erythematous "halo" surrounding ulcer. ...
She regularly took steam baths to prevent weight gain; by 1894 she had wasted away to near emaciation, reaching her lowest ... The birth of the heir apparent, Crown Prince Rudolf, improved her standing at court, but her health suffered under the strain, ... The empress developed extremely rigorous and disciplined exercise habits. Every castle she lived in was equipped with a ... leaving her neglected and resentful Austrian subjects to trade rumors that if the infant she was expecting were a son, she ...
Low birth weightEdit. Main article: Low birth weight. Low birth weight makes up 60-80% of the infant mortality rate in ... Until the 1990s, Russia and the Soviet Union did not count, as a live birth or as an infant death, extremely premature infants ... a primary determinant of infant mortality risk is infant birth weight with lower birth weights increasing the risk of infant ... This reflected the amount of low birth weights concluding that 12.4% of births from smokers were low birth weights compared ...
Birth of eldest child[edit]. On 15 November 1895, Alexandra gave birth to her eldest child and daughter, Grand Duchess Olga at ... At first the infant seemed healthy but in a few weeks' time, it was noticed that when he bumped himself, his bruises did not ... Princess Alix of Hesse, lower right, with her grandmother Queen Victoria and her four older siblings in mourning after the ... It did not help that Maria tended to be extremely possessive of her sons. In addition, Alexandra resented the ostentatiously ...
An infant vervet monkey, South Africa. In spite of low predator populations in many areas, human development has encroached on ... Offspring are usually not born in extremely close proximity due to the interbirth period of the mother. This time can be ... Typically, a female gives birth once a year, between September to February, after a gestation period of about 165 days. Usually ... the males are larger in weight and body length. Adult males weigh between 3.9 and 8.0 kg (8.6 and 17.6 lb), averaging 5.5 kg ( ...
Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and maternal smoking during pregnancy have been shown to cause lower infant birth weights. ... Many of these cancers have extremely low cure rates. Cigar smoking also increases the risk of lung and heart diseases such as ... low birth weight, and increases by 1.4 to 3 times the chance of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).[10] Incidence of erectile ... "Prevalence of maternal smoking and environmental tobacco smoke exposure during pregnancy and impact on birth weight: ...
As she gives birth, her sons will stay with her, increasing her relatedness to males in the group over time and thus her ... Some of the SSRIs and SNRIs appear to provide some relief from vasomotor symptoms.[6] Low dose paroxetine is the only non- ... In infants in the first year of life, the brain consumes 60% of all calories, so both babies and their mothers require a ... weight gain,[16] urinary incontinence,[16][19] urinary urgency,[16] interrupted sleeping patterns,[16][20][21][22] heavy night ...
Common nonskeletal features of FWS include low birth weight and developmental disabilities.[29][30] ... they cause birth defects; the incidence of birth defects in infants exposed to warfarin in utero appears to be around 5%, ... Green parts of members of the family Apiaceae, such as parsley, cilantro, and dill, are extremely rich sources of vitamin K; ... Usually, warfarin is avoided in the first trimester, and a low molecular weight heparin such as enoxaparin is substituted. With ...
Infants. Ambient levels of air pollution have been associated with preterm birth and low birth weight. A 2014 WHO worldwide ... They are categorized as either methane (CH4) or non-methane (NMVOCs). Methane is an extremely efficient greenhouse gas which ... and preterm births and low birth weights in Beijing. A group of 74,671 pregnant women, in four separate regions of Beijing, ... The proportion of low birth weight attributable to air pollution, was 13%. This is the largest attributable risk ever reported ...
2001). "ABO-incompatible (ABOi) heart transplantation in infants". New England Journal of Medicine. 344 (11): 793-800. doi: ... The most important factors are that the recipient not have produced isohemagglutinins, and that they have low levels of T cell- ... Skin, including face replant (autograft) and face transplant (extremely rare). *Islets of Langerhans (pancreas islet cells) ( ... As of January 2014, over 100 people that would otherwise be turned down because of their weight have successfully been ...
In zoos, Asian elephants die at a much younger age; captive populations are declining due to a low birth and high death rate.[5 ... First year mortality is nearly 30 per cent, and fecundity is extremely low throughout the prime reproductive years.[68] Data ... The tusk's weight was, however, exceeded by the weight of a shorter tusk of about 6 ft (1.8 m) in length which weighed 100 lb ( ... This discrepancy is clearest in Asian elephants: infant mortality is twice that seen in Burmese timber camps, and adult ...
At birth these regions are fibrous and moveable, necessary for birth and later growth. This growth can put a large amount of ... The lower jaw defines a chin. The simpler structure is found in jawless fish, in which the cranium is normally represented by a ... Craniosynostosis is a condition in which one or more of the fibrous sutures in an infant skull prematurely fuses,[9] and ... Their known functions are the lessening of the weight of the skull, the aiding of resonance to the voice and the warming and ...
... a systematic review and meta-analysis on birth weight, placental weight and length of gestation". Nutr J. 11: 75. doi:10.1186/ ... Infants (AI) Infants (UL) Adults (RDA) Adults (UL) Pregnant women (RDA) Pregnant women (UL) Lactating women (RDA) Lactating ... Not consuming enough folate can lead to folate deficiency.[10] This may result in a type of anemia in which low numbers of ... "The extremely slow and variable activity of dihydrofolate reductase in human liver and its implications for high folic acid ...
... infant is defined as one with a birth weight of less than 1000 g (2 lb, 3 oz). Most extremely low birth weight infants are also ... encoded search term (Extremely Low Birth Weight Infant) and Extremely Low Birth Weight Infant What to Read Next on Medscape ... Infants with extremely low birth weight are at higher risk for hearing impairment because of their low birth weight. [150] ... The birth of an extremely premature infant or an infant with an extremely low birth weight (ELBW) is associated with a unique ...
Breastfeeding Infants Who Were Extremely Low Birth Weight. Jo Ann Blaymore Bier, Anne E. Ferguson, Yesenia Morales, Jill A. ... Breastfeeding Infants Who Were Extremely Low Birth Weight. Jo Ann Blaymore Bier, Anne E. Ferguson, Yesenia Morales, Jill A. ... Breastfeeding Infants Who Were Extremely Low Birth Weight Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from Pediatrics ...
... Tara R Allen and Orlando P da Silva ... Tara R Allen and Orlando P da Silva, "Choice of Antibiotics in Late Neonatal Sepsis in the Extremely Low Birth Weight Infant," ...
Prophylactic indomethacin during the first 3 days after birth in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants (birth weight ≤1000 ... extremely low birth weight. GDB - Generic Database. I+E+ - infants who received prophylactic indomethacin during the first 24 ... Long-term effects of indomethacin prophylaxis in extremely-low-birth-weight infants. N Engl J Med. 2001;344(26):1966-1972pmid: ... Adverse effects of early dexamethasone in extremely-low-birth-weight infants. N Engl J Med. 2001;344(2):95-101pmid:11150359. ...
... model for extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants.. STUDY DESIGN: We included infants from the California Perinatal Quality ... Accounting for variation in length of NICU stay for extremely low birth weight infants.. Lee HC1, Bennett MV, Schulman J, Gould ... There were 2012 infants with median LOS 79 days (range 23 to 219). Lower birth weight, lack of antenatal steroids and lower ... Distribution of crude and predicted length of stay for extremely low birth weight infants. ...
Long-term follow-up of extremely low birth weight infants with neonatal renal failure.. Abitbol CL1, Bauer CR, Montané B, ... The long-term outcome of 20 preterm infants with extremely low birth weight and acute renal failure in the neonatal period was ... and potential treatment interventions for preservation of renal function in a growing population of surviving low birth weight ... Current mean age is 7.5+/-4.6 years (range 3.2-18.5 years). Nine patients showed deterioration in renal function (low GFR group ...
... we hypothesized that infants with NEC also have low blood TGF-beta levels. We further hypothesized that because fetal ... inflammation increases the risk of NEC, infants who develop NEC ... Data on 104 extremely-low-birth-weight infants with NEC and 893 ... 2014). Cytokines associated with necrotizing enterocolitis in extremely-low-birth-weight infants. Pediatric Research, 76(1), ... and low blood TGF-beta levels are associated with higher risk of NEC. Infants who developed NEC did not start with high blood ...
We randomly assigned 1974 infants with extremely low birth weight at 12 to 36 hours of age to undergo either aggressive or ... It is unclear whether aggressive phototherapy to prevent neurotoxic effects of bilirubin benefits or harms infants with ... extremely low birth weight (1000 g or less). METHODS: ... conservative phototherapy for infants with extremely low birth ... conservative phototherapy for infants with extremely low birth weight. New England Journal of Medicine, 359(18), 1885-1896. ...
In extremely-low-birth-weight infants, prophylaxis with indomethacin does not improve the rate of survival without neurosensory ... we randomly assigned 1202 infants with birth weights of 500 to 999 g (extremely low birth weight) to receive either ... Long-term effects of indomethacin prophylaxis in extremely-low-birth-weight infants N Engl J Med. 2001 Jun 28;344(26):1966-72. ... Conclusions: In extremely-low-birth-weight infants, prophylaxis with indomethacin does not improve the rate of survival without ...
Individuals exposed to early adverse life events such as being born at an extremely low birth weight (ELBW, 501-1000 g) are ... very low, or extremely low birth weight do not necessarily imply preterm birth. It is possible for those born low birth weight ... Extremely low birth weight infants (birth weight ,1000 g) also demonstrated less positive functioning than heavier infants, ... Here we review studies involving preterm as well as low birth weight given the limited research on low birth weight infants ...
Additional studies are needed to elucidate the pathogenesis of brain injury in infants with infection so that novel ... This large cohort study suggests that neonatal infections among ELBW infants are associated with poor neurodevelopmental and ... Neurodevelopmental and growth impairment among extremely low-birth-weight infants with neonatal infection JAMA. 2004 Nov 17;292 ... Context: Neonatal infections are frequent complications of extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW) infants receiving intensive care. ...
Infant, Newborn Infant, Small for Gestational Age Infant, Extremely Low Birth Weight Biological: Donor Milk Dietary Supplement ... Formula in Extremely Low Birth Weight (ELBW) Infants. This study is currently recruiting participants. See Contacts and ... Extremely Low Birth Weight (ELBW). Prematurity. Neurodevelopmental Impairment. Donor Breast Milk. Preterm Formula. ... extremely low birth weight, ELBW, ,1000 g). Studies suggest an IQ advantage of up to 8 points conferred by maternal milk ...
... the anticipated mortality rate for infants weighing less than 500 g who were born in the 1980s was nearly 100%, according to ... including extremely low-birth-weight infants.". The role of prenatal care contributes to improved survival of ELBW infants in ... including extremely low-birth-weight infants.". The role of prenatal care contributes to improved survival of ELBW infants in ... "The conversation we have with the parents of these extremely low-birth-weight infants has gotten better. We have a lot of ...
OBJECTIVES: Survival of extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW) infants in a resource-limited public hospital setting is still low in ... Survival of extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW) infants has improved markedly over the past decade, largely owing to improved ... Survival and morbidity in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. Indian Pediatr 2003;40(2):130-135. [ Links ]. ... Survival of very-low-birth-weight infants according to BW and gestational age in a public hospital. S Afr Med J2005;95(7):504- ...
Formula in Extremely Low Birth Weight (ELBW) Infants. This study is currently recruiting participants. See Contacts and ...
Growth and morbidity of extremely preterm infants after early full enteral nutrition Christoph Maas, Axel R Franz, Stefanie von ...
Extremely low birth weight, ventilator-dependent infants between 10 and 21 days old were administered a seven-day taper of ... "Despite advances in perinatal care, one of every two extremely low birth weight infants develops bronchopulmonary dysplasia and ... Neurodevelopmental outcomes of extremely preterm infants randomized to stress dose hydrocortisone. PLoS ONE. 2015 Sep 16;10(9): ... which occurs in up to 75 percent of extremely preterm infants. ... on Neurodevelopment for Extremely Low Birthweight Infants. 6:49 ...
... in extremely low birth weight infants (ELBW, ,1000 g at birth) in the present era of tocolytics, antenatal steroid ... in extremely low birth weight infants (ELBW, ,1000 g at birth) in the present era of tocolytics, antenatal steroid and ... Infant, Newborn. Infant, Very Low Birth Weight*. Intensive Care Units, Neonatal. Male. Oxygen / therapeutic use. Probability. ... RESULTS: Infants with PIE had lower 1 and 5 min Apgar scores (P=0.04 and 0.003 respectively), increased surfactant utilization ...
... ... and short term morbidity in extremely low birth weight infants (ELBWI; /=24 weeks). METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of 123 ... For analysis of morbidity and mortality, infants were matched for gestational age and birth weight. RESULTS: The rate of EI/MV ... A total of 26\% of spontaneously breathing infants had hypercapnia (PaCO2 >/=60 mm Hg [8.0 kPa]), compared with 7\% of infants ...
Change of renal function during vancomycin therapy in extremely low birthweight infants. - H Sakata, S Maruyama, T Ishioka, M ... Infant, Newborn. *Infant, Very Low Birth Weight. *Kidney (drug effects, physiology) *Sodium (urine) ... Change of renal function during vancomycin therapy in extremely low birthweight infants.. Abstract. Twenty extremely low ... Vancomycin is effective and safe in the treatment of serious infections in extremely low birthweight infants. ...
... in very low birthweight infants and 5 % of extremely low birthweight infants. Herein we report an extremely low birthweight ... Its incidence is 2-3% in very low birthweight (VLBW) infants and 5% in extremely low birthweight infants (ELBW).1 The best ... Segmental absence of intestinal muscle with ileal web in an extremely low birth weight infant. Case report ... Surgical management of extremely low birth weight infants with neonatal bowel perforation: a single-center experience and a ...
"Severe lactic acidosis in an extremely low birth weight infant due to thiamine deficiency, Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology ... Severe lactic acidosis in an extremely low birth weight infant due to thiamine deficiency. Ozdemir, Hulya; Bilgen, Hulya; Alp ... Severe lactic acidosis in an extremely low birth weight infant due to thiamine deficiency. Severe lactic acidosis in an ... lp/degruyter/severe-lactic-acidosis-in-an-extremely-low-birth-weight-infant-due-to-xEVNXboE0e ...
Infants with hyperkalemia were less mature than infants with normal potassium levels. All infants of less than 25 weeks ... Fluid intakes and urine flow rates were lower and body weight loss greater during the first 24 hours of hospitalization for ... Hyperkalemia frequently occurs within the first 48 hours of life in extremely immature infants. Serum potassium should be ... Hyperkalemia, defined as serum potassium concentration of greater than 6.5 mEq/L, occurred in 12 infants on the first day of ...
Nutritional support for extremely low-birth weight infants: Abandoning catabolism in the neonatal intensive care unit. ... Nutritional support for extremely low-birth weight infants: Abandoning catabolism in the neonatal intensive care unit. Current ... Amino acids, Neonatal intensive care unit, Outcome, Parenteral nutrition, Premature infants, Preterm neonates, Protein ... However, many premature infants are catabolic during the first week of life, which has directly been linked to growth failure, ...
Failed Endotracheal Intubation and Adverse Outcomes Among Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants ... To quantify the importance of successful endotracheal intubation on the first attempt among extremely low birth weight (ELBW) ... Death or neurodevelopmental impairment occurred in 29% of infants intubated on the first attempt, compared to 53% of infants ... infants who require resuscitation after delivery. STUDY DESIGN A retrospective chart review was conducted for all ELBW infants ...
1810 Value of Portable Transthorac Ultrasound to Aid Endotracheal Placement in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants In the ... 1810 Value of Portable Transthorac Ultrasound to Aid Endotracheal Placement in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants In the ... Background and Aims Correct endotracheal tube (ETT) position for extremely low birth weight (ELBW) neonates during initial ... Two recordings per infant were done - one in delivery room and second when the infant reaches NICU. Accuracy of PTU (Micromaxx ...
METHODS Infants (n=359) between 400 and 1000 g birth weight and 23 0/7-28 6/7 weeks gestational age who required endotracheal ... Neurodevelopmental outcomes of extremely low birthweight infants randomised to different PCO2 targets: the PHELBI follow-up ... Download PDF Neurodevelopmental outcomes of extremely low birthweight infants randomised to different PCO2 targets: the PHELBI ... Neurodevelopmental outcomes of extremely low birthweight infants randomised to different PCO2 targets: the PHELBI follow-up ...
Methods: This was an observational, cohort study including extremely low birth weight infants that who developed BPD and those ... Methods: This was an observational, cohort study including extremely low birth weight infants that who developed BPD and those ... Methods: This was an observational, cohort study including extremely low birth weight infants that who developed BPD and those ... Methods: This was an observational, cohort study including extremely low birth weight infants that who developed BPD and those ...
... and C-reactive protein in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. Together they form a unique fingerprint. * Extremely Low ... Retinol-binding protein, transthyretin, and C-reactive protein in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. Journal of ... Retinol-binding protein, transthyretin, and C-reactive protein in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. / Ambalavanan, ... title = "Retinol-binding protein, transthyretin, and C-reactive protein in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants", ...
Infant, Extremely Low Birth Weight*Infant, Extremely Low Birth Weight. *Extremely Low Birth Weight Infant ... Extremely Low Birth Weight" by people in this website by year, and whether "Infant, Extremely Low Birth Weight" was a major or ... "Infant, Extremely Low Birth Weight" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ... The time for a confirmative necrotizing enterocolitis probiotics prevention trial in the extremely low birth weight infant in ...
  • Infants born with a birth weight less than 1500 g are defined as very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. (medscape.com)
  • More than 8 million children aged under 5 die every year, and neonatal mortality and especially very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infant mortality are among the six factors to which over 90% of these deaths are attributed. (scielo.org.za)
  • Its incidence is 2-3% in very low birthweight (VLBW) infants and 5% in extremely low birthweight infants (ELBW). (scielo.org.ar)
  • The authors discuss the multifactorial etiology of this disease in the VLBW infant. (nann.org)
  • Scientific novelty of the paper lies in presenting for the first time the data on the development and introduction of new methods of preventing and eliminating critical states based on the study of cardiorespiratory adaptation of 473 infants with ELBW and VLBW and evaluation of their effectiveness. (acta-medica-eurasica.ru)
  • Understaffing in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) was associated with an increased risk for hospital-acquired infections among very-low-birthweight (VLBW) infants in a study published online March 18 in JAMA Pediatrics . (medscape.com)
  • The study looked at infection rates among all VLBW infants with a NICU stay of at least 3 days in the 67 NICUs of the Vermont Oxford Network, a national voluntary network of hospital NICUs. (medscape.com)
  • Infection rates among VLBW infants were 16.6% in 2008 and 13.9% in 2009. (medscape.com)
  • The study objectives were to identify the probiotic products used in VLBW infants within the US, and to determine whether their use was supported by reliable evidence. (nature.com)
  • A phone survey of all neonatal intensive care units (NICU) participating in VON within the US was conducted between May and September 2015 to identify NICUs that are using probiotics in VLBW infants. (nature.com)
  • An evidence based literature search, limited to randomized controlled trials in VLBW infants, was conducted to determine whether the use of identified probiotics were supported by reliable evidence. (nature.com)
  • During the survey period, 14.0% of NICUs were using probiotics in VLBW infants (70/500). (nature.com)
  • Probiotics were routinely given to all VLBW infants in 8.8% (44/500) NICUs, while it was given in selected VLBW infants in 5.2% (26/500) of NICUs. (nature.com)
  • The probiotics use in VLBW infants within the US is increasing, but is still limited. (nature.com)
  • Asaka, Y. & Takada, S. Activity-based assessment of the sleep behaviors of VLBW preterm infants and full-term infants at around 12 months of age. (nature.com)
  • In a prospective study we describe the delivery of small tidal volumes to extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and very low birth weight (VLBW) infants using a volume-targeted ventilation mode (VTV). (elsevier.com)
  • Tidal volume delivery was consistent for both ELBW and VLBW infants independent of gestational age, birth weight, and the target volume. (elsevier.com)
  • CONCLUSION: ELBW/ VLBW infants very often show major development delay with heavy sequelae both in sensorimotor function and mental development. (paedcro.com)
  • Very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants struggle with gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and beyond discharge. (nursingcenter.com)
  • The purpose of this article was to provide an overview of GER/GERD and share an evidence-based GER algorithm for consistent assessment and care of VLBW infants postdischarge to 12 months corrected age presenting with reflux-like symptoms. (nursingcenter.com)
  • However, insufficient evidence exists with regard to GER/GERD symptom identification and management in preterm infants, especially the VLBW infant. (nursingcenter.com)
  • Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a chronic inflammatory lung disease of very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) preterm infants, associated with arrested lung development and a need for supplemental oxygen. (frontiersin.org)
  • Over the past few decades, the incidence of BPD has significantly raised as a result of improved survival of VLBW infants requiring mechanical ventilation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Weisz DE, Jain A, Ting J, McNamara PJ, El-Khuffash A. Non-invasive cardiac output monitoring in preterm infants undergoing patent ductus arteriosus ligation: a comparison with echocardiography. (sickkids.ca)
  • For example, a retrospective multicenter cohort study published in April in JAMA Pediatrics showed that with active treatment, about 26% of infants weighing less than 400 g - or slightly less than 1 lb - survived to discharge. (healio.com)
  • Infectious Diseases in Children spoke with experts in neonatology and pediatrics about the challenges these babies face immediately after birth and later on in life, the specific advances that have increased their survival and how those developments have changed the conversation physicians are having with parents. (healio.com)
  • I have just seen a study In "Pediatrics" from the NICHD entitled "Unimpaired Outcomes for Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants at 18 to 22 Months" which contains some rather shocking (to me, at least) information, indicating that current outcomes are even worse than I thought. (blogspot.com)
  • EXAMINEES AND METHODS: At the Department for Pediatrics of the Children hospital "Kantrida", Clinical Hospital Center in Rijeka, in cooperation with the Regional Registry for at risk and impaired children and in the framework of the work of Clinic for children with developmental difficulties, 49 infants of birthrate 1499g (five of birth weight 630-999g and 44 of birth weight 1000-1499g) were monitored. (paedcro.com)
  • Accounting for variation in length of NICU stay for extremely low birth weight infants. (nih.gov)
  • Two recordings per infant were done - one in delivery room and second when the infant reaches NICU. (bmj.com)
  • In 2009, hospitals understaffed 32% of NICU infants and understaffed 92% of high-acuity infants. (medscape.com)
  • Strategies to promote inclusionary care better reflect today's nursing care today with a focus on family-centered care, comprehensive perinatal records, health care teams in the NICU, and infant care best practices. (elsevier.com)
  • Al (2009) Measuring preterm cumulative stressor's within the NICU: The neonatal infant stressor scale. (businesswire.com)
  • Methods: A prospective, multicenter cohort study of 156 ELBW infants at 16 neonatal intensive care units (NICU) within the NICHD Neonatal Research Network. (elsevier.com)
  • A retrospective review of ELBW infants born from 2014 to 2016 was performed at a tertiary NICU. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Extremely preterm infants represent the highest-risk patients in the NICU, and incidence is inversely proportional with gestational age. (springer.com)
  • 1 , 2 , 3 However, administration of indomethacin soon after birth in preterm infants may be associated with an increased risk for spontaneous intestinal perforation (SIP) 4 - 8 or necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) with intestinal perforation. (aappublications.org)
  • Registry data were used to classify infants by type of infection: uninfected (n = 2161), clinical infection alone (n = 1538), sepsis (n = 1922), sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis (n = 279), or meningitis with or without sepsis (n = 193). (nih.gov)
  • Rates of sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis are also lower in human milk fed ELBW infants, and they experience shorter hospital stays and fewer re-hospitalizations in the first year of life. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Abrahamsson TR, Rautava S, Moore AM, Neu J, Sherman PM. The time for a confirmative necrotizing enterocolitis probiotics prevention trial in the extremely low birth weight infant in North America is now! (sickkids.ca)
  • Growing evidence supports the role of probiotics in reducing the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis, time to achieve full enteral feeding, and late-onset sepsis (LOS) in preterm infants. (mdpi.com)
  • Prolonging small feeding volumes early in life decreases the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis in very low birth weight infants. (springer.com)
  • Data from multiple clinical trials, mostly conducted outside the US, indicate that probiotic prophylaxis is an effective intervention for prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm infants. (nature.com)
  • Mortality of necrotizing enterocolitis expressed by birth weight categories. (nature.com)
  • AlFaleh K, Anabrees J . Probiotics for prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants. (nature.com)
  • Probiotic administration can prevent necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants: a meta-analysis. (nature.com)
  • SIP is a common complication observed in ELBWIs with birth weight less than 1,000 g, and it has been described as a distinct clinical entity that differs from necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), in terms of both clinical and histologic presentation [ 1 , 4 , 5 ]. (neo-med.org)
  • Infants with necrotizing enterocolitis, short bowel syndrome, or chromosomal anomalies were excluded. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For analysis of morbidity and mortality, infants were matched for gestational age and birth weight. (omicsonline.org)
  • Initial ventilator settings, ventilator days, mortality, and morbidity were not different between ELBWIs with EI/MV in the DR and infants with secondary EI/MV attributable to RDS in the intensive care unit. (omicsonline.org)
  • ELBWIs with no EI/MV that was caused by RDS had a lower morbidity (ie, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, intraventricular hemorrhage >grade 2 and/or periventricular leukomalacia), mortality, and fewer hospital days (mean: 79 vs 105 days). (omicsonline.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS: In our setting, the individualized intubation strategy in the DR restricted EI/MV to those ELBWIs who ultimately needed it, without increasing morbidity or mortality in infants with secondary EI/MV attributable to RDS. (omicsonline.org)
  • OBJECTIVES: Pulmonary hypertension is associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants and contributes to morbidity and mortality. (uab.edu)
  • Survival rates and morbidity often vary within countries1 and while the survival rate for these infants has increased, there has been very little decrease in the proportion of infants with severe sequelae, for example, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, neurosensory disorders, or cerebral palsy. (utmb.edu)
  • LBW babies have a 20 times higher risk of death than babies with normal birth weight, and have a higher probability of lifetime morbidity, irrespective of ethnic differences across populations internationally 5 . (euweb.cz)
  • Infections are a major contribution to the morbidity and mortality of ELBW infants at any time of the clinical course [ 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a pulmonary disorder which causes significant morbidity and mortality in premature infants. (uky.edu)
  • Objectives To evaluate the implementation of four high evidence practices for the care of very preterm infants to assess their use and impact in routine clinical practice and whether they constitute a driver for reducing mortality and neonatal morbidity. (bmj.com)
  • Infant outcomes were in-hospital mortality, severe neonatal morbidity at discharge, and a composite measure of death or severe morbidity, or both. (bmj.com)
  • In the recent years, PH has been associated with significant morbidity and mortality in infants with BPD ( 5 , 6 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • According to data from a 2011 cohort study, infants born at 23-25 weeks' gestation who received antenatal exposure to corticosteroids had a lower rate of mortality and complications compared with those who did not have such exposure to corticosteroids. (medscape.com)
  • This was a cohort study of 15 751 ELBW infants in the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network from 1999 to 2010 who survived beyond 12 hours after birth. (aappublications.org)
  • This large cohort study suggests that neonatal infections among ELBW infants are associated with poor neurodevelopmental and growth outcomes in early childhood. (nih.gov)
  • Methods: This was an observational, cohort study including extremely low birth weight infants that who developed BPD and those who did not. (elsevier.com)
  • Functional assessment of a multicenter very low-birth-weight cohort at age 5 years. (jamanetwork.com)
  • We evaluated brain component volumes in a cohort of extremely low birth weight infants (ELBW, BW ≤ 1000 g) discharged from our neonatal intensive care unit during a 7-month period, from June 2003 through December 2003. (bmj.com)
  • To determine genetic variants associated with severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in a candidate gene cohort study of US preterm infants. (cdc.gov)
  • Preterm infants in the discovery cohort were enrolled through the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network, and those in the replication cohort were from the University of Iowa. (cdc.gov)
  • Eight hundred seventeen infants in the discovery cohort and 543 in the replication cohort were analyzed. (cdc.gov)
  • Severe ROP occurred in 126 infants in the discovery and in 14 in the replication cohort. (cdc.gov)
  • Study design: We conducted a cohort study of infants born with birth weight of 401 to 1000 g and gestational age of 23 to 30 weeks. (elsevier.com)
  • METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study comparing the rates of NEC in neonates with birth weight ≤ 1000 grams. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Compared with uninfected infants, those in each of the 4 infection groups were significantly more likely to have adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes at follow-up, including cerebral palsy (range of significant odds ratios [ORs], 1.4-1.7), low Bayley Scales of Infant Development II scores on the mental development index (ORs, 1.3-1.6) and psychomotor development index (ORs, 1.5-2.4), and vision impairment (ORs, 1.3-2.2). (nih.gov)
  • Neurodevelopmental follow-up examinations were available for 85% of enrolled infants using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II, the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) and the Child Development Inventory (CDI). (uzh.ch)
  • Black MM, Matula K. Essentials of Bayley scales of infant development II assessment . (springer.com)
  • Uniform follow-up evaluations, including assessments of mental and motor development with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II, were completed for all survivors at corrected ages of 18 to 22 months. (elsevier.com)
  • Prophylactic indomethacin in extremely low birth weight infants decreases severe intraventricular hemorrhage and patent ductus arteriosus but it is unknown whether concurrent enteral feeding and prophylactic indomethacin is associated with increased risk of spontaneous intestinal perforation. (aappublications.org)
  • Prophylactic indomethacin during the first 3 days after birth in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants (birth weight ≤1000 g) decreases the incidence of severe intraventricular hemorrhage and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). (aappublications.org)
  • The prophylactic administration of indomethacin reduces the frequency of patent ductus arteriosus and severe intraventricular hemorrhage in very-low-birth-weight infants (those with birth weights below 1500 g). (nih.gov)
  • In extremely-low-birth-weight infants, prophylaxis with indomethacin does not improve the rate of survival without neurosensory impairment at 18 months, despite the fact that it reduces the frequency of patent ductus arteriosus and severe periventricular and intraventricular hemorrhage. (nih.gov)
  • 1000 g). 7 CNLD results from a combination of arrested pulmonary development occurring as a consequence of antenatal factors, preterm delivery coupled with ventilator-induced barotrauma, volutrauma, oxygen toxicity and complications of persistent patent ductus arteriosus, lower respiratory tract infections and, possibly, undetermined genetic susceptibilities to chronic lung disease. (mja.com.au)
  • This study aimed to establish the determinants of survival in this weight category of neonates, who, owing to limited intensive care facilities, were not mechanically ventilated. (scielo.org.za)
  • Neonates admitted at birth between January 2006 and December 2010 with birth weights of ≤ 900 g. (scielo.org.za)
  • High-dose calcium reduces early-onset hyperkalemia in extremely preterm neonates. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Summary: Despite the fact that substantially improved nutritional therapies for preterm neonates have been implemented, still, some reluctance exists when it comes to providing high amounts of nutrition to the most immature infants. (eur.nl)
  • Background and Aims Correct endotracheal tube (ETT) position for extremely low birth weight (ELBW) neonates during initial resuscitation is critical. (bmj.com)
  • Early sepsis does not increase the risk of late sepsis in very low birth weight neonates. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Preterm infants have reduced pool of neutrophils and monocytes and their precursors, compared to term-neonates, and have deficient T cell function with greater proportion of naïve T cells and a low subpopulation of memory T cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study examines the impact of routine use of a probiotic, Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 (BioGaia®), on the rate of NEC in neonates at highest risk for developing NEC, those with birth weight ≤1000 grams. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Late-onset sepsis in very low birth weight neonates: the experience of the NICHD neonatal research network. (springer.com)
  • Mortality reduction by heart rate characteristic monitoring in very low birth weight neonates : A randomized trial. (ohsu.edu)
  • Tara R Allen and Orlando P da Silva, "Choice of Antibiotics in Late Neonatal Sepsis in the Extremely Low Birth Weight Infant," Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases , vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 28-31, 2003. (hindawi.com)
  • Clinical information was correlated with blood cytokine levels on postnatal day 1 (D1), D3, D7, D14, and D21.Results:Male gender, non-Caucasian/non-African American ethnicity, sepsis, lower blood TGF-beta and interleukin (IL)-2 levels, and higher IL-8 levels were associated with NEC. (rti.org)
  • Cardiovascular parameters and urine output and serum lactate in ELBW infants with sepsis before and after initiation of arginine-vasopressin therapy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We performed a multicenter, randomized, double-masked, clinical trial to assess the safety and efficacy of early PN supplemented with glutamine in decreasing the risk of death or late-onset sepsis in ELBW infants. (elsevier.com)
  • Parenteral glutamine supplementation as studied did not decrease mortality or the incidence of late-onset sepsis in ELBW infants. (elsevier.com)
  • Clinical microbiology of bacterial and fungal sepsis in very-low-birth-weight infants. (springer.com)
  • In addition, bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants has been correlated with poor neurodevelopmental outcomes, Owen and colleagues reported. (healio.com)
  • Despite advances in perinatal care, one of every two extremely low birth weight infants develops bronchopulmonary dysplasia and/or neurodevelopmental impairments," says Nehal Parikh, DO, principal investigator in the Center for Perinatal Research at The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital. (healthcanal.com)
  • Infants with responses less than the 10th percentile had more bronchopulmonary dysplasia and longer length of stay. (elsevier.com)
  • Singer L, Yamashita T, Lilien L, Collin M, Baley J. A longitudinal study of developmental outcome of infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia and very low birth weight. (jamanetwork.com)
  • While postnatal dexamethasone (dex) therapy ameliorates bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants, it also increases rates of neuromotor and cognitive abnormalities. (bmj.com)
  • Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a form of chronic lung disease, is frequently observed in preterm infants. (frontiersin.org)
  • We further hypothesized that because fetal inflammation increases the risk of NEC, infants who develop NEC have elevated blood cytokine levels in early neonatal period.Methods:Data on 104 extremely-low-birth-weight infants with NEC and 893 without NEC from 17 centers were analyzed. (rti.org)
  • METHODS: We randomly assigned 1974 infants with extremely low birth weight at 12 to 36 hours of age to undergo either aggressive or conservative phototherapy. (rti.org)
  • METHODS Infants (n=359) between 400 and 1000 g birth weight and 23 0/7-28 6/7 weeks gestational age who required endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation within 24 hours of birth were randomly assigned to high PCO2 or to a control group with mildly elevated PCO2 targets. (uzh.ch)
  • Design/Methods: Serum RBP, TTR, and CRP were measured in 79 ELBW infants at 28 days. (elsevier.com)
  • METHODS: All ELBW infants admitted to a regional perinatal center were evaluated for pulmonary hypertension with echocardiography at 4 weeks of age and subsequently if clinical signs suggestive of right-sided heart failure or severe lung disease were evident. (uab.edu)
  • METHODS: Forty-one infants intubated for at least 24 h, with birth weight between 500 and 1000 g, who were clinically stable and at ventilator setting compatible with an extubation attempt, were studied during a 2-h period of ETT CPAP. (unicatt.it)
  • METHODS: Infants (uky.edu)
  • Design/Methods: In this prospective multicenter study, former premature and FT infants who were 6 to 17 months of age received 2 doses of TIV during the 2006-2007 or 2007-2008 influenza seasons. (elsevier.com)
  • The long-term outcome of 20 preterm infants with extremely low birth weight and acute renal failure in the neonatal period was studied retrospectively over an 18-year period. (nih.gov)
  • The primary outcome was a composite of death or neurodevelopmental impairment determined for 91% of the infants by investigators who were unaware of the treatment assignments. (rti.org)
  • Purpose of review: Obviously, the ultimate goal in neonatology is to achieve a functional outcome in premature infants that is comparable to healthy term-born infants. (eur.nl)
  • However, many premature infants are catabolic during the first week of life, which has directly been linked to growth failure, disease, and suboptimal long-term outcome. (eur.nl)
  • This review describes the progress in research on parenteral nutrition for premature infants with a focus on amino acids and the influence of nutrition on later outcome. (eur.nl)
  • Early-Onset Invasive Candidiasis in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants: Perinatal Acquisition Predicts Poor Outcome. (sickkids.ca)
  • Long-term ophthalmic outcome of low birth weight children with and without retinopathy of prematurity. (jamanetwork.com)
  • We report a rare case of meningoencephalitis caused by B. cereus that resulted in a detrimental neurological outcome in an ELBW infant . (bvsalud.org)
  • Despite the comparatively limited facilities for such a resuscitation, the rapid ethical decisions made when considering the resuscitation of such a borderline viable fetus, were key in avoiding long term neurological and pulmonary problems and contributed to the outcome of a healthy infant. (edu.om)
  • Invasive candidiasis in low birth weight preterm infants: risk factors, clinical course and outcome in a prospective multicenter study of cases and their matched controls. (springer.com)
  • [ 3 ] The study reported that 83% of infants born at 22-25 weeks' gestation received intensive care (consisting of mechanical ventilation). (medscape.com)
  • [4] The infants in this study had back-up mechanical ventilation provided for failed NCPAP. (scielo.org.za)
  • 0.001), infants exposed to chorioamnionitis vs. not (P = 0.04), and those receiving mechanical ventilation vs. not (P = 0.02), as well as a positive correlation with fetal growth (P = 0.03). (elsevier.com)
  • Infants were randomized to treatment or placebo within 12 hours of beginning mechanical ventilation (IMV) and within 72 hours of birth. (uky.edu)
  • During a multicenter trial of permissive hypercapnia in extremely low birthweight infants (PHELBI), preterm infants (birthweight 400-1,000 g, gestational age 23 0/7-28 6/7 weeks) requiring mechanical ventilation within 24 h of birth were randomly assigned to a high PCO 2 target or a control group. (frontiersin.org)
  • Although the mortality rate has greatly diminished with the use of surfactants, the proportion of surviving infants with severe sequelae, such as chronic lung disease, cognitive delays, cerebral palsy, and neurosensory deficits (ie, deafness and blindness), has not improved as significantly. (medscape.com)
  • The incidence of hyperkalemia and associated clinical features in extremely preterm infants were determined by reviewing medical records of 32 infants with birth weights of less than or equal to 800 g born during a 1-year period. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The results of the present meta-analysis show that probiotics reduce LOS incidence in exclusively HM-fed preterm infants. (mdpi.com)
  • Papile LA, Burstein J, Burstein R, Koffler H. Incidence and evolution of subependymal and intraventricular hemorrhage: a study of infants with birth weights less than 1,500 gm. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Incidence of apnoea and bradycardia in preterm infants following DTPw and Hib immunization: a prospective study. (jamanetwork.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to obtain pilot data on the effectiveness and safety of prophylactic azithromycin in reducing the incidence and severity of BPD in an extremely low birth weight ( (uky.edu)
  • Until recently, the incidence of gasless abdomen in premature infants has not been well-documented. (neo-med.org)
  • Objective: This study describes the incidence, correlates and subsequent morbidities of hyperglycemia, a highly prevalent condition in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. (utmb.edu)
  • Higher energy and lipid intake during the first 2 weeks after birth were associated with a lower incidence of magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities of the brain at TEA in preterm infants [ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Reported incidence of GER in preterm infants varies from 22% to 85% depending on criteria used for diagnosis. (nursingcenter.com)
  • Some retrospective analyses suggested that higher arterial PCO 2 values in the first days of life of preterm infants might be associated with a reduced incidence of BPD ( 11 , 12 ), whereas other studies did not ( 13 , 14 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The incidence of BPD corresponds to 10,000 premature infants in the United States annually ( 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • This report begins to identify important clinical parameters that should lead to closer surveillance and potential treatment interventions for preservation of renal function in a growing population of surviving low birth weight individuals. (nih.gov)
  • The diagnosis of NEC was associated with elevated IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/CC-motif ligand-2, macrophage inflammatory protein-1beta/CC-motif ligand-3, and C-reactive protein.Conclusion:Clinical characteristics, such as gender and ethnicity, and low blood TGF-beta levels are associated with higher risk of NEC. (rti.org)
  • Linda D. Wallen, MD, associate division chief of clinical operations at Seattle Children's, said a combination of simple interventions - like the increased use of breast milk and the control of maternal infection - have contributed enormously to the survival of extremely low-birth-weight infants. (healio.com)
  • Risk factors and clinical outcomes of pulmonary interstitial emphysema in extremely low birth weight infants. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Recent findings: Although randomized clinical trials on early nutrition for premature infants remain relatively sparse, evidence is accumulating on its beneficial effects both on the short-term and long-term. (eur.nl)
  • Objective: The objective of this study was to test the cortisol response of extremely low birth weight infants to different cosyntropin doses and evaluate whether these doses differentiate between groups of infants with clinical conditions previously associated with differential response to cosyntropin. (elsevier.com)
  • Design: The design was a prospective, nested study conducted within a randomized clinical trial of low-dose hydrocortisone from November 1, 2001, to April 30, 2003. (elsevier.com)
  • Conclusions: A cosyntropin dose of 0.1 μg/kg did not differentiate between groups of infants with clinical conditions that affect response. (elsevier.com)
  • Extremely premature infants manifest clinical features suggestive of adrenal insufficiency. (elsevier.com)
  • This study aimed to evaluate the clinical and radiologic findings suggestive of spontaneous intestinal perforation (SIP) in extremely-low-birth-weight infants (ELBWIs) with persistent gasless abdomen, and to investigate the usefulness of abdominal ultrasonography for the diagnosis of SIP. (neo-med.org)
  • Design, Setting, and Participants: This dose-finding randomized clinical trial of cycled PT vs continuous PT among 305 ELBW infants in 6 US newborn intensive care units was conducted from March 12, 2014, to November 14, 2018. (uthscsa.edu)
  • Effect of fluconazole prophylaxis on candidiasis and mortality in premature infants: a randomized clinical trial. (springer.com)
  • 4 In contrast, the assessment of home oxygen requirements for infants involves a combination of clinical assessment, oximetry and intermittent blood gas analyses 5 , 6 (levels of evidence, E3, E4 1 ). (mja.com.au)
  • The predominant clinical findings in infants with CNLD are tachypnoea, wheeze, cough, chest wall retractions, and paradoxical respirations 7 - 9 , 13 - 19 that occur as a consequence of small airways disease (airflow obstruction, hyperplasia of bronchial epithelium, increased mucus production from glandular hyperplasia, decreased mucociliary clearance and bronchial hyper-reactivity). (mja.com.au)
  • The results suggest that high PCO 2 target levels did not result in lower pulmonary inflammatory activity and thus reflect clinical results. (frontiersin.org)
  • This patient was born at 25th week of gestation with extremely low birth weight (700 grams) and hyaline membrane disease . (bvsalud.org)
  • The patent weighted 800 grams at his supposed to be 33- 34 weeks age of gestation making him the smallest infant to be reported who have underwent PDA ligation in the Philippines . (bvsalud.org)
  • 30 weeks gestation) infants. (elsevier.com)
  • Participants: Ten infants born at fewer than 29 weeks gestation and weighing 400 to 1,000 g. (nursefacultyscholars.org)
  • 20% in infants less than 25 weeks gestation and decreasing to around 5% in 27 weeks gestation infants. (springer.com)
  • Participants 7336 infants born between 24+0 and 31+6 weeks' gestation in 2011/12 without serious congenital anomalies and surviving to neonatal admission. (bmj.com)
  • PTB is defined as birth before 37 weeks' gestation, very early PTB is before 32 weeks, early PTB occurs around 32-36 weeks, late PTB is between 34-36 weeks' gestation and early-term birth is delivered at 37-38 weeks' gestation Late PTB accounts for 75% of all PTB. (wikipedia.org)
  • BACKGROUND Tolerating higher partial pressures of carbon dioxide (PCO2) in mechanically ventilated extremely low birthweight infants to reduce ventilator-induced lung injury may have long-term neurodevelopmental side effects. (uzh.ch)
  • Effective steps are required to avoid extreme prematurity, encourage antenatal care, and provide antenatal steroids when preterm birth is anticipated. (scielo.org.za)
  • This review discusses how sleep and FC develop in early life, the dynamic relationship between sleep, preterm birth, and FC, and the challenges associated with understanding these processes. (nature.com)
  • The connection between preterm birth, early development of brain functional connectivity, and sleep is poorly understood. (nature.com)
  • Fig. 1: Relationship between preterm birth, sleep ontogenesis, and functional brain connectivity. (nature.com)
  • Preterm birth (PTB), also known as premature birth, is the birth of a baby at fewer than 37 weeks' gestational age, as opposed to full-term delivery at approximately 40 weeks. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cause of preterm birth is often not known. (wikipedia.org)
  • Preterm birth may be prevented in those at risk, if the hormone progesterone is taken during pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Preterm birth is the most common cause of death among infants worldwide. (wikipedia.org)
  • A preterm birth can be brought on by being induced, or can occur spontaneously. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main categories of causes of preterm birth are preterm labor induction and spontaneous preterm labor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, vaginal bleeding in the third trimester, heavy pressure in the pelvis, or abdominal or back pain could be indicators that a preterm birth is about to occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other areas of concern include respiratory distress and difficulties with feeding and weight gain. (healio.com)
  • We speculate that an individualized intubation strategy of the ELBWI is superior to immediate intubation of all ELBWIs with slight signs of respiratory distress after birth. (omicsonline.org)
  • Ischemia and hypoxia are the most important etiological possibilities as most cases are seen in infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and very low birthweight. (scielo.org.ar)
  • Hacking DF, Davis PG, Wong E, Wheeler K, McVernon J. Frequency of respiratory deterioration after immunisation in preterm infants. (jamanetwork.com)
  • 3 , 5 , 7 , 11 , 12 Morbidities of GERD in preterm infants include aspiration pneumonia, failure to thrive, and exacerbation of respiratory symptoms, including chronic lung disease. (nursingcenter.com)
  • Optimizing ventilator strategies may reduce respiratory morbidities in preterm infants. (frontiersin.org)
  • Pharmacokinetics, microbial response, and pulmonary outcomes of multidose intravenous azithromycin in preterm infants at risk for Ureaplasma respiratory colonization. (ohsu.edu)
  • 1000 g at birth) in the present era of tocolytics, antenatal steroid and postnatal surfactant administration. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In ELBW infants, postnatal dex therapy after two weeks of life, for a duration of 7 days or less, may adversely affect developing white matter growth, possibly contributing to increased rates of cerebral palsy and other neuromotor abnormalities. (bmj.com)
  • Postnatal growth curves describe the actual growth of the preterm infants during their stay in neonatal units and are descriptive rather than prescriptive. (springer.com)
  • Casey PH, Whiteside-Mansell L, Barrett K, Bradley RH, Gargus R. Impact of prenatal and/or postnatal growth problems in low birth weight preterm infants on school-age outcomes: an 8-year longitudinal evaluation. (springer.com)
  • Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the independenteffect of gestational age, birth weight, diuretics, postnatal steroids, and the nutritional protocol. (jnpm.org)
  • Furthermore, most inflammatory mediators were strongly affected by the age of the infants and increased from postnatal day 2 to 21. (frontiersin.org)
  • Prophylactic indomethacin reduces severe intraventricular hemorrhage but may increase spontaneous intestinal perforation (SIP) in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. (aappublications.org)
  • [ 2 ] Infants with extremely low birth weight (ELBW) are more susceptible to all complications of premature birth, both in the immediate neonatal period and after discharge from the nursery. (medscape.com)
  • In-Hospital growth parameters, including rate of weight gain, weight, length and head circumference at 36 weeks or discharge, whichever comes first. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Management was at discretion of the clinician, and infants were evaluated until discharge from the hospital or pre-discharge death occurred. (uab.edu)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary hypertension is relatively common, affecting at least 1 in 6 ELBW infants, and persists to discharge in most survivors. (uab.edu)
  • States who are not following up on the discharge status of extremely low birthweight infants may be under-estimating their infant mortality rates. (cdc.gov)
  • Risk factors for post-neonatal intensive care unit discharge mortality among extremely low birth weight infants. (unm.edu)
  • Of the 38 ELBW infants who survived to discharge, 37 had an anatomical brain MRI at term corrected age. (bmj.com)
  • Infants 401 to 1000 g were randomized within 72 hours of birth to receive either TrophAmine (control) or an isonitrogenous study amino acid solution with 20% glutamine whenever they received PN up to 120 days of age, death, or discharge from the hospital. (elsevier.com)
  • Ozek, Eren 2018-06-27 00:00:00 AbstractBackground:In this case report, we present a preterm newborn with persistent lactic acidosis who received total parenteral nutrition (TPN) that lacked thiamine.Case presentation:A 28-week-old, 750 g female infant was born with an Apgar score of 8 at the 5th minute. (deepdyve.com)
  • However, EUGR rates are similar to infants receiving parenteral nutrition . (bvsalud.org)
  • All ELBW infants are initially started on parenteral nutrition (PN). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Despite developmental immaturity, it is possible for these infants to achieve fetal growth rates. (bvsalud.org)
  • Chauhan SP, Hendrix NW, Magann EF, Morrison JC, Scardo JA, Berghella V. A review of sonographic estimate of fetal weight: vagaries of accuracy. (springer.com)
  • These 27 self-study modules serve as companion pieces to reinforce the most relevant and important elements addressed in Developmental Care of Newborns & Infants: A Guide for Health Professionals. (nann.org)
  • This presentation will cover the rationale and practices of developmental care to support long-term outcomes in preterm infants. (nann.org)
  • Understanding the influence of these factors on growth will assist healthcare professionals in discussing developmental issues and growth expectations with parents of ELBW infants. (utmb.edu)
  • However, the specific mechanisms linking sleep ontogenesis to the emergence of FC are poorly understood and have received little investigation, mainly due to the challenges of studying causal links between developmental phenomena and assessing FC in newborn infants. (nature.com)
  • Interestingly, in these infants at 2 years of age, the mental developmental index was higher in females, and the psychomotor developmental index was higher in males. (biomedcentral.com)
  • INTRODUCTION: Follow-up studies on long-term developmental outcomes of children born prematurely with extremely/very low birth weight have steadily increased in number. (paedcro.com)
  • The objective was to determine the prevalence of pulmonary hypertension among ELBW infants by screening echocardiography and evaluate subsequent outcomes. (uab.edu)
  • An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1000 grams (2.2 lbs), regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE. (sickkids.ca)
  • Nearly one in ten low birthweight infants are considered extremely low birthweight (ELBW), weighing less that 1000 grams at birth and 27 weeks or less gestational age. (utmb.edu)
  • This study looked at outcomes (both by gestational age and birthweight) of 5,250 children born weighing less than 1000 grams between 1998 and 2001 in NICHD study hospitals in the US. (blogspot.com)
  • increasing to 24% for infants 901-1000 grams. (blogspot.com)
  • After 27-28 weeks gestational age, infants born at 1000 grams or less are small for gestational age as well as premature -- an additional risk factor -- and the percentages of unimpaired decline again, so that, for example, less than 20% of children born at 31 weeks weighing 1000 grams are unimpaired. (blogspot.com)
  • The Milk Trial seeks to determine the effect on neurodevelopmental outcomes at age 22-26 months of donor human milk as compared to preterm infant formula as the in-hospital diet for infants whose mothers choose not to provide breast milk or are able to provide only a minimal amount. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Neurodevelopmental outcomes of extremely preterm infants randomized to stress dose hydrocortisone. (healthcanal.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS A higher PCO2 target did not influence neurodevelopmental outcomes in mechanically ventilated extremely preterm infants. (uzh.ch)
  • Randomized trials of other anti-inflammatory agents with assessment of brain volumes and neurodevelopmental outcomes are urgently needed in this population of vulnerable infants. (bmj.com)
  • Optimal early nutrition in preterm infants has been associated with better growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mean gestational age and birth weight were similar between groups. (uky.edu)
  • T he development of home oxygen programs for infants born prematurely who have chronic neonatal lung disease (CNLD) followed the successful introduction of such schemes for adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (mja.com.au)
  • 5 Gastroesophageal reflux is common in infants, particularly those born prematurely. (nursingcenter.com)
  • Prematurely born infants are also at greater risk for having subsequent serious chronic health problems as discussed below. (wikipedia.org)
  • This indicates that high PCO 2 target ranges are not effective in reducing ventilator-induced lung injury in preterm infants, as compared to control targets. (frontiersin.org)
  • Aziz K, Vickar DB, Sauve RS, Etches PC, Pain KS, Robertson CM. Province-based study of neurologic disability of children weighing 500 through 1249 grams at birth in relation to neonatal cerebral ultrasound findings. (jamanetwork.com)
  • RESULTS: Infants with PIE had lower 1 and 5 min Apgar scores (P=0.04 and 0.003 respectively), increased surfactant utilization (P=0.004), higher maximum inspired oxygen concentration (P=0.04) and mean airway pressure administration (P=0.02) during the first week of life, and increased neonatal mortality (P=0.01). (biomedsearch.com)
  • 7 Positive-pressure ventilation delivered at high pressure and a high concentration of inspired oxygen used in full-term infants may also result in CNLD. (mja.com.au)
  • 11 , 12 Conditions that may require home oxygen therapy in full-term infants include structural lung disease, meconium aspiration syndrome with pulmonary hypertension, or severe cyanotic congenital heart disease. (mja.com.au)
  • Gastroesophageal reflux and GERD have been well investigated in healthy term infants and children. (nursingcenter.com)
  • CONCLUSION: Pulmonary interstitial emphysema is associated with increased mortality in ELBW infants. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Conclusion PTU is a valuable adjunct tool to record symmetry of diaphragmatic movement as a measure of correct ETT placement in labour ward for ELBW infants. (bmj.com)
  • Conclusion: Most ELBW infants did not exhibit peripheral vasoconstriction during their first 12 h of life, despite low temperatures. (nursefacultyscholars.org)
  • CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that azithromycin prophylaxis in extremely low birth weight infants may effectively reduce post-natal steroid use for infants. (uky.edu)
  • Conclusion: Lower GA was identified as the main factor associated with hyperglycemia in ELBW infants during the first 2 weeks of life. (utmb.edu)
  • Over the last 2 decades, there has been a consistent downward shift in the US birth weight distribution, driven by a steady increase in births with weights less than 3500 g and a relative decrease in births with weights over 3500 g. (medscape.com)
  • 1% of total births, but one third of total infant mortality. (cdc.gov)
  • Globally more than 20 million LBW infants (15.5% of total births) are born every year, of which about 95% are from developing countries 2,3 . (euweb.cz)
  • Approximately 0.5% of births are extremely early periviable births, and these account for most of the deaths. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of the infants whose outcomes were known at 18-22 months, 49% died, 61% died or had profound impairment, and 73% died or had impairment. (medscape.com)
  • Prevalence and aetiology of neurological impairment in extremely low birthweight infants. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Objective: To determine whether delivery room cardiopulmonary resuscitation (DR-CPR) independently predicts morbidities and neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) in extremely low birth weight infants. (elsevier.com)
  • Death or neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) was observed for 73% of extremely low birth weight infants who developed candidiasis. (elsevier.com)
  • A large, randomized trial is needed to assess whether cycled PT would increase survival and survival without impairment in small, preterm infants. (uthscsa.edu)
  • Because of the morbidities that occur with premature birth it is imperative for healthcare professionals to know the influence that major medical complications and associated social factors have on the growth of ELBW infants. (utmb.edu)
  • Baraldi E, Filippone M: Chronic lung disease after premature birth. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To determine if neonatal infections in ELBW infants are associated with increased risks of adverse neurodevelopmental and growth sequelae in early childhood. (nih.gov)
  • Conclusions: A higher CRP and RBP/TTR molar ratio on day 28 are associated with death/BPD at 36 weeks in ELBW infants. (elsevier.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS: The combined or individual use of prophylactic indomethacin and early feeding was not associated with an increased risk of SIP in ELBW infants. (uab.edu)
  • Conclusions: Former premature infants had antibody responses to 2 TIV doses higher than or equal to those of FT children. (elsevier.com)
  • Conclusions: DR-CPR is a prognostic marker for higher rates of mortality and NDI for extremely low birth weight infants. (elsevier.com)
  • Conclusions: Hypothermia was associated with abnormal heart rates in transitional ELBW infants. (nursefacultyscholars.org)
  • Survival correlates with gestational age for infants who are appropriate for gestational age (AGA). (medscape.com)
  • First year survival was 15.5% for infants with a birth weight less than 500g. (medscape.com)
  • The number of these infants who are born every year may be small, but the problems they continue to face - despite technological and pharmacologic advances that have improved their chances for survival - are not. (healio.com)
  • Survival of extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW) infants in a resource-limited public hospital setting is still low in South Africa. (scielo.org.za)
  • Survival of ELBW infants is low. (scielo.org.za)
  • Survival of extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW) infants has improved markedly over the past decade, largely owing to improved care, availability of antenatal steroids, provision of surfactant and establishment of appropriately equipped intensive care units (ICUs) where resources permit. (scielo.org.za)
  • [2-4] Yet survival of these infants in a resource-limited setting like South African public hospitals is still low. (scielo.org.za)
  • The aims of this study were to review the survival of these infants and to evaluate factors determining their survival. (scielo.org.za)
  • Advances in neonatal intensive care have improved the chances for survival of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants . (bvsalud.org)
  • Advances in science and medicine have dramatically improved the odds of survival for premature infants. (healio.com)
  • Birth weight is an important index of maturation and chance for survival. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It is estimated that at least 75% of preterm infants would survive with appropriate treatment, and the survival rate is highest among the infants born the latest. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chances of survival without any long-term difficulties are lower. (wikipedia.org)
  • The earliest gestational age at which the infant has at least a 50% chance of survival is referred to as the limit of viability. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurodevelopmental and functional outcomes of extremely low birth weight infants in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network, 1993-1994. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Further research is needed to identify the best growth curves for monitoring these high-risk infants. (springer.com)
  • Results Seventeen ELBW infants had PTU in labour delivery room (n=17) yielding 34 recordings. (bmj.com)
  • This study analyses the results of neurodevelopmental follow-up of infants enrolled in a randomised multicentre trial. (uzh.ch)
  • RESULTS There were no differences in body weight, length and head circumference between the two PCO2 target groups. (uzh.ch)
  • Results: Demographic characteristics did not differ except that birth weight (715 ± 153 vs. 835 ± 132 g) and gestational age (25 vs. 26 weeks) were less in babies with BPD. (elsevier.com)
  • Results:Abdominal and peripheral temperatures were significantly correlated within each infant. (nursefacultyscholars.org)
  • Results: Two hundred seventy-six infants were tested. (elsevier.com)
  • RESULTS: Among infants exposed to prophylactic indomethacin, the risk of SIP did not differ between the indomethacin/early-feeding group compared with the indomethacin/no-early-feeding group (adjusted relative risk [RR] 0.74, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.49-1.11). (uab.edu)
  • RESULTS: Eleven out of 41 babies (26.8%) experienced failure of extubation (failure group) while 30 infants (73.2%) were successfully extubated (success group). (unicatt.it)
  • The results of the work are to optimize the management of children with extremely low and very low birth weight, which is of great importance for the theory and practice of child health care. (acta-medica-eurasica.ru)
  • RESULTS: A total of 43 extremely premature infants were enrolled in this pilot study. (uky.edu)
  • The results were adjusted for gestational age, 1-minute Apgar score, race and ethnicity, sex, multiple birth, presence of a major birth defect, vaginal delivery, and whether the mother received prenatal care. (medscape.com)
  • Results: Of 8685 infants, 1333 (15%) received DR-CPR. (elsevier.com)
  • Results: Among the 156 enrolled infants, 80 underwent initial peritoneal drainage and 76 initial laparotomy. (elsevier.com)
  • Results: Abdominal temperatures were low throughout the 12-hour study period (mean 35.17-36.68 1C). (nursefacultyscholars.org)
  • conversely, those smaller than expected are considered small for gestational age (SGA), and are they also usually found to be intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) prior to birth. (medscape.com)
  • Based on our earlier reports of decreased tissue expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta, we hypothesized that infants with NEC also have low blood TGF-beta levels. (rti.org)
  • Somatic Growth of Enteral-Only Fed Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants in a Resource-Restricted Setting. (bvsalud.org)
  • To determine the growth and prevalence of extrauterine growth restriction (EUGR) in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants receiving enteral-only nutrition in a resource -restricted (RR) environment . (bvsalud.org)
  • Adequate weight growth velocity (≥15 g/kg/day) was associated with maternal hypertension , completed antenatal steroids , caesarean section delivery and small for gestational age status. (bvsalud.org)
  • This is the first study to evaluate growth of ELBW infants in a RR setting where enteral-only nutrition , principally from fortified breastmilk, was the primary feeding option. (bvsalud.org)
  • Lay summaryExtra-uterine growth restriction (EUGR) is high in extremely low birth weight infants receiving enteral-only nutrition . (bvsalud.org)
  • Therefore, a secondary data analysis was conducted to help identify the growth percentile and those factors that may influence the growth of ELBW infants. (utmb.edu)
  • Hill, AS 2010, ' Predicting the growth percentile of extremely low birthweight infants ', Neonatal, Paediatric and Child Health Nursing , vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 12-19. (utmb.edu)
  • Hill, Alice S. / Predicting the growth percentile of extremely low birthweight infants . (utmb.edu)
  • The growth curves routinely used for monitoring preterm infants are four decades old and may not be suitable for the current population. (springer.com)
  • The Fenton chart which has updated the Babson and Benda's chart with data from very large sample size of preterm infants born in the last two decades appears to be suitable for monitoring growth of preterm infants during their stay in the neonatal units. (springer.com)
  • As the ones that watch over these infants and ensure their growth and development is on track every single day, we knew leveraging their insights would be key. (businesswire.com)
  • Sex-related differences in anthropometric parameters and growth are well established in infants and adults. (biomedcentral.com)
  • hence, distinct anthropometric standards for male and female preterm infants, such as Fenton growth chart 2013, are needed [ 7 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • One might surmise that if the growth characteristics are distinctively sex-specific, then the caloric and protein requirements could also be sex-specific in ELBW infants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our current study was designed to evaluate if there were sex-based differences in growth (weight gain and head growth ) based on the effect of protein and calorie intake during the TP of nutrition in ELBW infants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Variants in BDNF encoding brain-derived neurotrophic factor were associated with severe ROP in a large candidate gene study of infants with threshold ROP. (cdc.gov)
  • Severe lactic acidosis in an extremely l. (istanbul.edu.tr)
  • Genetic variants associated with severe retinopathy of prematurity in extremely low birth weight infants. (cdc.gov)
  • We included infants from the California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative with birth weight 401 to 1000 g who were discharged to home. (nih.gov)
  • In South Africa, perinatal mortality and low-birth-weight rates have in the past generally been reported only for infants weighing ≥ 1 000 g at birth, because smaller infants are often regarded as miscarriages and not recorded. (scielo.org.za)
  • Weight of less than 2.5 kg is known as low birth weight (LBW) and is associated with an increased chance of death in the perinatal period. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • As patients who died or were transferred to lower level of care were excluded, we assessed correlation of hospital mortality rates and transfers to risk-adjusted LOS. (nih.gov)
  • Accurate infant mortality rates are important for program planning and evaluation, identification of health disparities and emerging trends, and development of prevention strategies. (cdc.gov)
  • Thus, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of probiotics for LOS prevention in preterm infants according to type of feeding (exclusive human milk (HM) vs. exclusive formula or mixed feeding). (mdpi.com)
  • Parents feel helpless when their infant presents with irritability, arching with feedings, and frequent painful regurgitation. (nursingcenter.com)
  • A response curve for the 1.0-μg/kg dose for infants receiving enteral nutrition (proxy for clinically well infants) showed a 10th percentile of 16.96 μg/dl. (elsevier.com)
  • Absence of an increase in cardiorespiratory events after diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis immunization in preterm infants: a randomized, multicenter study. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Most extremely low birth weight infants are also the youngest of premature newborns, usually born at 27 weeks' gestational age or younger. (medscape.com)