Industrial Waste: Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.Sanitary Engineering: A branch of engineering concerned with the design, construction, and maintenance of environmental facilities conducive to public health, such as water supply and waste disposal.Incineration: High temperature destruction of waste by burning with subsequent reduction to ashes or conversion to an inert mass.Potassium Dichromate: Chromic acid (H2Cr2O7), dipotassium salt. A compound having bright orange-red crystals and used in dyeing, staining, tanning leather, as bleach, oxidizer, depolarizer for dry cells, etc. Medically it has been used externally as an astringent, antiseptic, and caustic. When taken internally, it is a corrosive poison.Water Pollution, Chemical: Adverse effect upon bodies of water (LAKES; RIVERS; seas; groundwater etc.) caused by CHEMICAL WATER POLLUTANTS.United States Public Health Service: A constituent organization of the DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES concerned with protecting and improving the health of the nation.Legislation as Topic: The enactment of laws and ordinances and their regulation by official organs of a nation, state, or other legislative organization. It refers also to health-related laws and regulations in general or for which there is no specific heading.Waste Disposal, Fluid: The discarding or destroying of liquid waste products or their transformation into something useful or innocuous.Refuse Disposal: The discarding or destroying of garbage, sewage, or other waste matter or its transformation into something useful or innocuous.Waste Products: Debris resulting from a process that is of no further use to the system producing it. The concept includes materials discharged from or stored in a system in inert form as a by-product of vital activities. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)Waste Management: Disposal, processing, controlling, recycling, and reusing the solid, liquid, and gaseous wastes of plants, animals, humans, and other organisms. It includes control within a closed ecological system to maintain a habitable environment.Medical Waste: Blood, mucus, tissue removed at surgery or autopsy, soiled surgical dressings, and other materials requiring special disposal procedures.Medical Waste Disposal: Management, removal, and elimination of biologic, infectious, pathologic, and dental waste. The concept includes blood, mucus, tissue removed at surgery or autopsy, soiled surgical dressings, and other materials requiring special control and handling. Disposal may take place where the waste is generated or elsewhere.Radioactive Waste: Liquid, solid, or gaseous waste resulting from mining of radioactive ore, production of reactor fuel materials, reactor operation, processing of irradiated reactor fuels, and related operations, and from use of radioactive materials in research, industry, and medicine. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Solid Waste: Garbage, refuse, or sludge, or other discarded materials from a wastewater treatment plant, water supply treatment plant, and air pollution control facility that include solid, semi-solid, or contained material. It does not include materials dissolved in domestic sewage, irrigation return flows, or industrial discharges.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Fish Diseases: Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).Hazardous Waste: Waste products which threaten life, health, or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, disposed of, or otherwise managed.Hazardous Waste Sites: Sites where HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES are deposited. Some have facilities for safely storing, processing, and recycling these waste products.Garbage: Discarded animal and vegetable matter from a kitchen or the refuse from food preparation. (From Random House College Dictionary, 1982)Government Agencies: Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.IndiaPublic Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Ships: Large vessels propelled by power or sail used for transportation on rivers, seas, oceans, or other navigable waters. Boats are smaller vessels propelled by oars, paddles, sail, or power; they may or may not have a deck.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).HumanitiesSeawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Chemical Warfare Agents: Chemicals that are used to cause the disturbance, disease, or death of humans during WARFARE.Organothiophosphorus Compounds: Compounds containing carbon-phosphorus bonds in which the phosphorus component is also bonded to one or more sulfur atoms. Many of these compounds function as CHOLINERGIC AGENTS and as INSECTICIDES.Chemical Warfare: Tactical warfare using incendiary mixtures, smokes, or irritant, burning, or asphyxiating gases.United States Government Agencies: Agencies of the FEDERAL GOVERNMENT of the United States.Search Engine: Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.Malathion: A wide spectrum aliphatic organophosphate insecticide widely used for both domestic and commercial agricultural purposes.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Malocclusion: Such malposition and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth as to interfere with the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Waste Water: Contaminated water generated as a waste product of human activity.Silicates: The generic term for salts derived from silica or the silicic acids. They contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals, and may contain hydrogen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th Ed)Magnesium Silicates: A generic term for a variety of compounds that contain silicon, oxygen, and magnesium, and may contain hydrogen. Examples include TALC and some kinds of ASBESTOS.Metals, Heavy: Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Hinduism: A complex body of social, cultural, and religious beliefs and practices evolved in and largely confined to the Indian subcontinent and marked by a caste system, an outlook tending to view all forms and theories as aspects of one eternal being and truth, and the practice of the way of works, the way of knowledge, or the way of devotion as a means of release from the round of rebirths. (From Webster, 3d ed)Ceremonial Behavior: A series of actions, sometimes symbolic actions which may be associated with a behavior pattern, and are often indispensable to its performance.Larva Migrans: Infections caused by nematode larvae which never develop into the adult stage and migrate through various body tissues. They commonly infect the skin, eyes, and viscera in man. Ancylostoma brasiliensis causes cutaneous larva migrans. Toxocara causes visceral larva migrans.Industrial Oils: Oils which are used in industrial or commercial applications.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.MiningEcology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)American Recovery and Reinvestment Act: Public Law No: 111-5, enacted February 2009, makes supplemental appropriations for job preservation and creation, infrastructure investment, energy efficiency and science, assistance to the unemployed, and State and local fiscal stabilization, for fiscal year ending September 30, 2009.Power Plants: Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.Electricity: The physical effects involving the presence of electric charges at rest and in motion.Nuclear Power Plants: Facilities that convert NUCLEAR ENERGY into electrical energy.

Water pollution and human health in China. (1/522)

China's extraordinary economic growth, industrialization, and urbanization, coupled with inadequate investment in basic water supply and treatment infrastructure, have resulted in widespread water pollution. In China today approximately 700 million people--over half the population--consume drinking water contaminated with levels of animal and human excreta that exceed maximum permissible levels by as much as 86% in rural areas and 28% in urban areas. By the year 2000, the volume of wastewater produced could double from 1990 levels to almost 78 billion tons. These are alarming trends with potentially serious consequences for human health. This paper reviews and analyzes recent Chinese reports on public health and water resources to shed light on what recent trends imply for China's environmental risk transition. This paper has two major conclusions. First, the critical deficits in basic water supply and sewage treatment infrastructure have increased the risk of exposure to infectious and parasitic disease and to a growing volume of industrial chemicals, heavy metals, and algal toxins. Second, the lack of coordination between environmental and public health objectives, a complex and fragmented system to manage water resources, and the general treatment of water as a common property resource mean that the water quality and quantity problems observed as well as the health threats identified are likely to become more acute.  (+info)

Selection of clc, cba, and fcb chlorobenzoate-catabolic genotypes from groundwater and surface waters adjacent to the Hyde park, Niagara Falls, chemical landfill. (2/522)

The frequency of isolation of three nonhomologous chlorobenzoate catabolic genotypes (clc, cba, and fcb) was determined for 464 isolates from freshwater sediments and groundwater in the vicinity of the Hyde Park industrial landfill site in the Niagara watershed. Samples were collected from both contaminated and noncontaminated sites during spring, summer, and fall and enriched at 4, 22, or 32 degrees C with micromolar to millimolar concentrations of chlorobenzoates and 3-chlorobiphenyl (M. C. Peel and R. C. Wyndham, Microb. Ecol: 33:59-68, 1997). Hybridization at moderate stringency to restriction-digested genomic DNA with DNA probes revealed the chlorocatechol 1,2-dioxygenase operon (clcABD), the 3-chlorobenzoate 3,4-(4,5)-dioxygenase operon (cbaABC), and the 4-chlorobenzoate dehalogenase (fcbB) gene in isolates enriched from all contaminated sites in the vicinity of the industrial landfill. Nevertheless, the known genes were found in less than 10% of the isolates from the contaminated sites, indicating a high level of genetic diversity in the microbial community. The known genotypes were not enriched from the noncontaminated control sites nearby. The clc, cba, and fcb isolates were distributed across five phenotypically distinct groups based on Biolog carbon source utilization, with the breadth of the host range decreasing in the order clc > cba > fcb. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns showed that the cba genes were conserved in all isolates whereas the clc and fcb genes exhibited variation in RFLP patterns. These observations are consistent with the recent spread of the cba genes by horizontal transfer as part of transposon Tn5271 in response to contaminant exposure at Hyde Park. Consistent with this hypothesis, IS1071, the flanking element in Tn5271, was found in all isolates that carried the cba genes. Interestingly, IS1071 was also found in a high proportion of isolates from Hyde Park carrying the clc and fcb genes, as well as in type strains carrying the clcABD operon and the biphenyl (bph) catabolic genes.  (+info)

PCR detection of genes encoding nitrite reductase in denitrifying bacteria. (3/522)

Using consensus regions in gene sequences encoding the two forms of nitrite reductase (Nir), a key enzyme in the denitrification pathway, we designed two sets of PCR primers to amplify cd1- and Cu-nir. The primers were evaluated by screening defined denitrifying strains, denitrifying isolates from wastewater treatment plants, and extracts from activated sludge. Sequence relationships of nir genes were also established. The cd1 primers were designed to amplify a 778 to 799-bp region of cd1-nir in the six published sequences. Likewise, the Cu primers amplified a 473-bp region in seven of the eight published Cu-nir sequences. Together, the two sets of PCR primers amplified nir genes in nine species within four genera, as well as in four of the seven sludge isolates. The primers did not amplify genes of nondenitrifying strains. The Cu primers amplified the expected fragment in all 13 sludge samples, but cd1-nir fragments were only obtained in five samples. PCR products of the expected sizes were verified as nir genes after hybridization to DNA probes, except in one case. The sequenced nir fragments were related to other nir sequences, demonstrating that the primers amplified the correct gene. The selected primer sites for Cu-nir were conserved, while broad-range primers targeting conserved regions of cd1-nir seem to be difficult to find. We also report on the existence of Cu-nir in Paracoccus denitrificans Pd1222.  (+info)

High-rate anaerobic treatment of wastewater at low temperatures. (4/522)

Anaerobic treatment of a volatile fatty acid (VFA) mixture was investigated under psychrophilic (3 to 8 degrees C) conditions in two laboratory-scale expanded granular sludge bed reactor stages in series. The reactor system was seeded with mesophilic methanogenic granular sludge and fed with a mixture of VFAs. Good removal of fatty acids was achieved in the two-stage system. Relative high levels of propionate were present in the effluent of the first stage, but propionate was efficiently removed in the second stage, where a low hydrogen partial pressure and a low acetate concentration were advantageous for propionate oxidation. The specific VFA-degrading activities of the sludge in each of the modules doubled during system operation for 150 days, indicating a good enrichment of methanogens and proton-reducing acetogenic bacteria at such low temperatures. The specific degradation rates of butyrate, propionate, and the VFA mixture amounted to 0.139, 0.110, and 0.214 g of chemical oxygen demand g of volatile suspended solids-1 day-1, respectively. The biomass which was obtained after 1.5 years still had a temperature optimum of between 30 and 40 degrees C.  (+info)

Effects of nickel and cobalt on kinetics of methanol conversion by methanogenic sludge as assessed by on-line CH4 monitoring. (5/522)

When metals were added in a pulse mode to methylotrophic-methanogenic biomass, three methane production rate phases were recognized. Increased concentrations of Ni and Co accelerated the initial exponential and final arithmetic increases in the methane production rate and reduced the temporary decrease in the rate. When Ni and Co were added continuously, the temporary decrease phase was eliminated and the exponential production rate increased. We hypothesize that the temporary decrease in the methane production rate and the final arithmetic increase in the methane production rate were due to micronutrient limitations and that the precipitation-dissolution kinetics of metal sulfides may play a key role in the biovailability of these compounds.  (+info)

Nocardioides nitrophenolicus sp. nov., a p-nitrophenol-degrading bacterium. (6/522)

A p-nitrophenol-degrading bacterial strain was isolated from industrial wastewater. This strain (NSP41T) was identified as a member of the genus Nocardioides from chemotaxonomic characterizations and phylogenetic inference based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The G + C content is 71.4 mol%. The diamino acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan is LL-diaminopimelic acid. The predominant menaquinone is MK-8(H4). The cellular fatty acid profile is similar to those of Nocardioides species. 16S rDNA sequence analysis show that strain NSP41T is the most related to Nocardioides simplex strains with a level of nucleotide similarity of 98.6%. The levels of 16S rDNA similarity between strain NSP41T and other Nocardioides species ranged from 93.8 to 95.1%. This organism is distinguishable from some other Nocardioides species as well as N. simplex strains by DNA-DNA relatedness data. This organism is different from N. simplex strains in some phenotypic characteristics. Therefore, on the basis of the data presented, a new species of the genus Nocardioides, Nocardioides nitrophenolicus, is proposed. The type strain of the new species is strain NSP41T (= KCTC 0457BPT).  (+info)

Phylogenetic diversity, polyamine pattern and DNA base composition of members of the order Planctomycetales. (7/522)

The 16S rDNA sequences of 20 novel isolates of members of the order Planctomycetales were compared to those of the type strains of described planctomycete species and 22 planctomycete isolates for which the 16S rDNA sequences had been previously determined. The novel isolates could be assigned to several phylogenetically broad groups, four of which are defined by the genera Gemmata, Isosphaera, Planctomyces and Pirellula. To evaluate polyamines as a chemotaxonomic marker within this order, the polyamine pool was determined for six planctomycete reference species and for 20 planctomycete isolates. All analysed members of the order Planctomycetales contained significant amounts of polyamines. sym-Homospermidine (HSPD) is present in all strains except Planctomyces limnophilus and related strains, which had high amounts of putrescine (PUT) as the dominant polyamine component. The distribution of PUT, HSPD and spermidine reflects the phylogenetic diversity within the Planctomycetales as closely related representatives of the phylogenetic groups defined by described species and novel isolates exhibit similar polyamine patterns. Determination of the DNA base composition revealed G + C contents of > 60 mol% for members of Gemmata and Isosphaera whereas, except for two isolates, strains which are phylogenetically associated with Planctomyces and Pirellula had G + C contents of 51-57 mol%.  (+info)

Chemical wastes, children's health, and the Superfund Basic Research Program. (8/522)

Three to 4 million children and adolescents in the United States live within 1 mile of a federally designated Superfund hazardous waste disposal site and are at risk of exposure to chemical toxicants released from these sites into air, groundwater, surface water, and surrounding communities. Because of their patterns of exposure and their biological vulnerability, children are uniquely susceptible to health injury resulting from exposures to chemical toxicants in the environment. The Superfund Basic Research Program, funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and directed by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, is extremely well positioned to organize multidisciplinary research that will assess patterns of children's exposures to hazardous chemicals from hazardous waste disposal sites; quantify children's vulnerability to environmental toxicants; assess causal associations between environmental exposures and pediatric disease; and elucidate the mechanisms of environmental disease in children at the cellular and molecular level.  (+info)

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  • Biomass & Bioenergy - The systematization of information on waste from production companies through the use of the Kanban concept, which encourages the recycling process, is the work proposed "Eco-Kanban: Systematic Reuse in Industrial Waste. (
  • The teacher explains that the study used a concept already settled in the industrial environment, in order to facilitate the understanding and practice of model reuse of waste: the kanban. (
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  • Boston- Marine researchers from the New England office of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and other environmental and research agencies returned to Gloucester State Pier on Tuesday after five days at sea where they were surveying the Boston Lightship Dumping Area in Massachusetts Bay for industrial waste containers disposed of decades ago. (
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  • for the dumping of industrial waste into ocean waters, or into waters described in such section 101(b) [ 33 U.S.C. 1411(b) ], if the Administrator determines that there has been demonstrated to exist an emergency, requiring the dumping of such waste, which poses an unacceptable risk relating to human health and admits of no other feasible solution. (
  • The other target of this work was to estimate the applicability of industrial waste materials as fillers in the polymeric composites and thus to offer a potential exploitation of biodegradable waste materials as an alternative to disposal. (
  • In this study, the polymeric composites were prepared by photopolymerization of glycerol diglycidyl ether and different industrial waste materials (rapeseed cake, phosphogypsum and horn meal) using a mixture of triarylsulfonium hexafluoroantimonates as photoinitiator. (
  • The effect of the amount and nature of the industrial waste materials on the kinetics of photopolymerization, values of contact angle and surface free energy, mechanical, thermal, rheological properties, swelling in water and biodegradability of the polymeric composites was studied. (
  • The application of agro-industrial waste in Aluminum Metal Matrix Composites has been getting more attention as they can reinforce particles in metal matrix which enhance the strength properties of the composites. (
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  • A resource for students interested in the field of environment, microbiology, industrial engineering, biotechnology, botany, and agricultural sciences, Advances in Biodegradation and Bioremediation of Industrial Waste provides recent knowledge and approaches on the bioremediation of complex industrial waste. (
  • This study proposes an easy and cheap technique to get rid of dangerous Malachite Green (MG) dye from waste material by victimization carbon from walnut shells. (
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  • The paper describes the synthesis methods of agroindustrial waste filled metal matrix composite materials and their mechanical, wear, corrosion, and physical properties. (
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  • The researchers found no evidence of industrial waste containers in the Boston Lightship Dumping Area from their preliminary investigation of the targeted dumping grounds, 12 miles east of Boston. (
  • The new technology allowed us to view a 300 foot sweep of ocean from where the submarine was stationed, and we found no industrial waste containers. (
  • The authors address the microbiological, biochemical, and molecular aspects of biodegradation and bioremediation which cover numerous topics, including microbial genomics and proteomics for the bioremediation of industrial waste. (