Interferon Inducers: Agents that promote the production and release of interferons. They include mitogens, lipopolysaccharides, and the synthetic polymers Poly A-U and Poly I-C. Viruses, bacteria, and protozoa have been also known to induce interferons.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Antigens, CD147: A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.Isopropyl Thiogalactoside: A non-metabolizable galactose analog that induces expression of the LAC OPERON.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Phenobarbital: A barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant. It potentiates GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID action on GABA-A RECEPTORS, and modulates chloride currents through receptor channels. It also inhibits glutamate induced depolarizations.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Dimethyl Sulfoxide: A highly polar organic liquid, that is used widely as a chemical solvent. Because of its ability to penetrate biological membranes, it is used as a vehicle for topical application of pharmaceuticals. It is also used to protect tissue during CRYOPRESERVATION. Dimethyl sulfoxide shows a range of pharmacological activity including analgesia and anti-inflammation.beta-Naphthoflavone: A polyaromatic hydrocarbon inducer of P4501A1 and P4501A2 cytochromes. (Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1994 Dec:207(3):302-308)Tumor Necrosis Factors: A family of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to cause NECROSIS of NEOPLASMS. Their necrotic effect on cells is mediated through TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTORS which induce APOPTOSIS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Tilorone: An antiviral agent used as its hydrochloride. It is the first recognized synthetic, low-molecular-weight compound that is an orally active interferon inducer, and is also reported to have antineoplastic and anti-inflammatory actions.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Acetamides: Derivatives of acetamide that are used as solvents, as mild irritants, and in organic synthesis.Methylcholanthrene: A carcinogen that is often used in experimental cancer studies.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Poly I-C: Interferon inducer consisting of a synthetic, mismatched double-stranded RNA. The polymer is made of one strand each of polyinosinic acid and polycytidylic acid.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Benzoflavones: Organic compounds containing a BENZENE ring attached to a flavone group. Some of these are potent arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase inhibitors. They may also inhibit the binding of NUCLEIC ACIDS to BENZOPYRENES and related compounds. The designation includes all isomers; the 7,8-isomer is most frequently encountered.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Leukemia, Erythroblastic, Acute: A myeloproliferative disorder characterized by neoplastic proliferation of erythroblastic and myeloblastic elements with atypical erythroblasts and myeloblasts in the peripheral blood.NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase (Quinone): A flavoprotein that reversibly catalyzes the oxidation of NADH or NADPH by various quinones and oxidation-reduction dyes. The enzyme is inhibited by dicoumarol, capsaicin, and caffeine.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Hemin: Chloro(7,12-diethenyl-3,8,13,17-tetramethyl-21H,23H-porphine-2,18-dipropanoato(4-)-N(21),N(22),N(23),N(24)) ferrate(2-) dihydrogen.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Pregnenolone Carbonitrile: A catatoxic steroid and microsomal enzyme inducer having significant effects on the induction of cytochrome P450. It has also demonstrated the potential for protective capability against acetaminophen-induced liver damage.Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A: A cytochrome P-450 suptype that has specificity for a broad variety of lipophilic compounds, including STEROIDS; FATTY ACIDS; and XENOBIOTICS. This enzyme has clinical significance due to its ability to metabolize a diverse array of clinically important drugs such as CYCLOSPORINE; VERAPAMIL; and MIDAZOLAM. This enzyme also catalyzes the N-demethylation of ERYTHROMYCIN.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Heme Oxygenase-1: A ubiquitous stress-responsive enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of HEME to yield IRON; CARBON MONOXIDE; and BILIVERDIN.Enzyme Repression: The interference in synthesis of an enzyme due to the elevated level of an effector substance, usually a metabolite, whose presence would cause depression of the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Interferons: Proteins secreted by vertebrate cells in response to a wide variety of inducers. They confer resistance against many different viruses, inhibit proliferation of normal and malignant cells, impede multiplication of intracellular parasites, enhance macrophage and granulocyte phagocytosis, augment natural killer cell activity, and show several other immunomodulatory functions.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Lac Operon: The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.Butyrates: Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxypropane structure.Lactose: A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.ThioglycosidesOperon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1: A liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase capable of biotransforming xenobiotics such as polycyclic hydrocarbons and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons into carcinogenic or mutagenic compounds. They have been found in mammals and fish. This enzyme, encoded by CYP1A1 gene, can be measured by using ethoxyresorufin as a substrate for the ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity.MethylgalactosidesMice, Inbred C57BLAryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases: A large group of cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) monooxygenases that complex with NAD(P)H-FLAVIN OXIDOREDUCTASE in numerous mixed-function oxidations of aromatic compounds. They catalyze hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of substrates and are important in the metabolism of steroids, drugs, and toxins such as PHENOBARBITAL, carcinogens, and insecticides.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Operator Regions, Genetic: The regulatory elements of an OPERON to which activators or repressors bind thereby effecting the transcription of GENES in the operon.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Xenobiotics: Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.NF-E2-Related Factor 2: A basic-leucine zipper transcription factor that was originally described as a transcriptional regulator controlling expression of the BETA-GLOBIN gene. It may regulate the expression of a wide variety of genes that play a role in protecting cells from oxidative damage.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.ArabinoseCell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Chlorodiphenyl (54% Chlorine)Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing): A mixed function oxidase enzyme which during hemoglobin catabolism catalyzes the degradation of heme to ferrous iron, carbon monoxide and biliverdin in the presence of molecular oxygen and reduced NADPH. The enzyme is induced by metals, particularly cobalt. EC 1.14.99.3.Thiogalactosides: Galactosides in which the oxygen atom linking the sugar and aglycone is replaced by a sulfur atom.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Rifampin: A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)Mixed Function Oxygenases: Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Embryonic Induction: The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer: Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.beta-Galactosidase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Isothiocyanates: Organic compounds with the general formula R-NCS.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Lac Repressors: Bacterial repressor proteins that bind to the LAC OPERON and thereby prevent the synthesis of proteins involved in catabolism of LACTOSE. When lactose levels are high lac repressors undergo an allosteric change that causes their release from the DNA and the resumption of lac operon transcription.Tretinoin: An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).Allantoin: A urea hydantoin that is found in URINE and PLANTS and is used in dermatological preparations.Maltose: A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Galactosidases: A family of galactoside hydrolases that hydrolyze compounds with an O-galactosyl linkage. EC 3.2.1.-.Caspases: A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.Butyric Acid: A four carbon acid, CH3CH2CH2COOH, with an unpleasant odor that occurs in butter and animal fat as the glycerol ester.Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Galactose: An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.Cytochrome P-450 CYP2B1: A major cytochrome P-450 enzyme which is inducible by PHENOBARBITAL in both the LIVER and SMALL INTESTINE. It is active in the metabolism of compounds like pentoxyresorufin, TESTOSTERONE, and ANDROSTENEDIONE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP2B1 gene, also mediates the activation of CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE and IFOSFAMIDE to MUTAGENS.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Hypocrea: A genus of fungus in the family Hypocreaceae, order HYPOCREALES. Anamorphs include TRICHODERMA.Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2: A cytochrome P450 enzyme subtype that has specificity for relatively planar heteroaromatic small molecules, such as CAFFEINE and ACETAMINOPHEN.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Thiocyanates: Organic derivatives of thiocyanic acid which contain the general formula R-SCN.Oxidoreductases, N-DemethylatingProtoporphyrins: Porphyrins with four methyl, two vinyl, and two propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings. Protoporphyrin IX occurs in hemoglobin, myoglobin, and most of the cytochromes.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Cycloheximide: Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Dactinomycin: A compound composed of a two CYCLIC PEPTIDES attached to a phenoxazine that is derived from STREPTOMYCES parvullus. It binds to DNA and inhibits RNA synthesis (transcription), with chain elongation more sensitive than initiation, termination, or release. As a result of impaired mRNA production, protein synthesis also declines after dactinomycin therapy. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1993, p2015)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Leukemia, Experimental: Leukemia induced experimentally in animals by exposure to leukemogenic agents, such as VIRUSES; RADIATION; or by TRANSPLANTATION of leukemic tissues.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Hexanones: 6-carbon straight-chain or branched ketones.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.CinnamatesRecombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium: A cellulose derivative which is a beta-(1,4)-D-glucopyranose polymer. It is used as a bulk laxative and as an emulsifier and thickener in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals and as a stabilizer for reagents.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin: A chemical by-product that results from burning or incinerating chlorinated industrial chemicals and other hydrocarbons. This compound is considered an environmental toxin, and may pose reproductive, as well as, other health risks for animals and humans.Optical Illusions: An illusion of vision usually affecting spatial relations.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Autophagy: The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.Tunicamycin: An N-acetylglycosamine containing antiviral antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces lysosuperificus. It is also active against some bacteria and fungi, because it inhibits the glucosylation of proteins. Tunicamycin is used as tool in the study of microbial biosynthetic mechanisms.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Glucuronosyltransferase: A family of enzymes accepting a wide range of substrates, including phenols, alcohols, amines, and fatty acids. They function as drug-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of UDPglucuronic acid to a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. EC 2.4.1.17.Diamines: Organic chemicals which have two amino groups in an aliphatic chain.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Glutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Mice, Inbred BALB CStructure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Heat-Shock Proteins: Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.Butylated Hydroxyanisole: Mixture of 2- and 3-tert-butyl-4-methoxyphenols that is used as an antioxidant in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Galactokinase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the formation of galactose 1-phosphate and ADP from ATP and D-galactose. Galactosamine can also act as the acceptor. A deficiency of this enzyme results in GALACTOSEMIA. EC 2.7.1.6.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins: A large group of proteins that control APOPTOSIS. This family of proteins includes many ONCOGENE PROTEINS as well as a wide variety of classes of INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS such as CASPASES.Metabolic Detoxication, Drug: Reduction of pharmacologic activity or toxicity of a drug or other foreign substance by a living system, usually by enzymatic action. It includes those metabolic transformations that make the substance more soluble for faster renal excretion.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Caspase 3: A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2: Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Liver Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.Benzoates: Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.Oxygenases: Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.Metallothionein: A low-molecular-weight (approx. 10 kD) protein occurring in the cytoplasm of kidney cortex and liver. It is rich in cysteinyl residues and contains no aromatic amino acids. Metallothionein shows high affinity for bivalent heavy metals.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Benz(a)Anthracenes: Four fused benzyl rings with three linear and one angular, that can be viewed as a benzyl-phenanthrenes. Compare with NAPHTHACENES which are four linear rings.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Interferon Type I: Interferon secreted by leukocytes, fibroblasts, or lymphoblasts in response to viruses or interferon inducers other than mitogens, antigens, or allo-antigens. They include alpha- and beta-interferons (INTERFERON-ALPHA and INTERFERON-BETA).Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Melibiose: A disaccharide consisting of one galactose and one glucose moiety in an alpha (1-6) glycosidic linkage.Phosphoenolpyruvate Sugar Phosphotransferase System: The bacterial sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) that catalyzes the transfer of the phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate to its sugar substrates (the PTS sugars) concomitant with the translocation of these sugars across the bacterial membrane. The phosphorylation of a given sugar requires four proteins, two general proteins, Enzyme I and HPr and a pair of sugar-specific proteins designated as the Enzyme II complex. The PTS has also been implicated in the induction of synthesis of some catabolic enzyme systems required for the utilization of sugars that are not substrates of the PTS as well as the regulation of the activity of ADENYLYL CYCLASES. EC 2.7.1.-.Catechols: A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Xenopus Proteins: Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)FucosePhenylacetates: Derivatives of phenylacetic acid. Included under this heading are a variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the benzeneacetic acid structure. Note that this class of compounds should not be confused with derivatives of phenyl acetate, which contain the PHENOL ester of ACETIC ACID.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Anticarcinogenic Agents: Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved.Aroclors: Industrial chemicals which have become widespread environmental pollutants. Each aroclor is a mixture of chlorinated biphenyls (1200 series) or chlorinated terphenyls (5400 series) or a combination of both (4400 series).Staurosporine: An indolocarbazole that is a potent PROTEIN KINASE C inhibitor which enhances cAMP-mediated responses in human neuroblastoma cells. (Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1995;214(3):1114-20)Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.ThionesCell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
Ovulation inducers[edit]. *Clomifeneα. Uterotonics[edit]. *Carbetocin. *Ergometrine. *Mifepristone + misoprostol (Co-packaged)[ ...
... and cytokines including the EMT inducer TGF-β.[54] The release of TGF-β by platelets in blood vessels near primary tumors ... This effect can be reversed by inducers of epithelial differentiation, such as GATA-3.[41] ...
Selected inducers, inhibitors and substrates of CYP2C19 Substrates Inhibitors Inducers *antidepressants *TCAs *amitriptyline[16 ... The following is a table of selected substrates, inducers and inhibitors of CYP2C19. Where classes of agents are listed, there ... "Drug Interactions & Labeling - Drug Development and Drug Interactions: Table of Substrates, Inhibitors and Inducers". FDA. ...
Potent inducers. Potent inhibitors. Substrates Rifampicin, Carbamazepine, Phenobarbital, Phenytoin, (St John's wort),. ... On the other hand, inducers increase P-450 activity by increasing its synthesis. Depending on the inducing drug's half life, ... Drugs that modify cytochrome P-450 enzyme are referred to as either inhibitors or inducers. Enzyme inhibitors block the ...
CART (mRNA inducer). *5-HT1A receptor (low affinity ligand). *MAO (weak competitive inhibitor) ...
Inducer role of Survector?]". Annales de dermatologie et de vénéréologie (in French). 115 (11): 1184-5. PMID 2977083. Vexiau P ...
Witchfire's spells include shields against flame, physical damage and magic; pain-inducers; and spells to end mind-control. She ...
Maltotriose is a maltose regulon inducer. MalEp and malKp are examples of mal promoters that depends on both CAP and MalT to ...
... is a CYP2D6 enzyme inducer. When taken with codeine,"hits", "cibas and codeine ", "Dors and 4s" it enables the ...
Death-inducer obliterator 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DIDO1 gene. Apoptosis, a major form of cell death, is ... In mice, the death inducer-obliterator-1 gene is upregulated by apoptotic signals and encodes a cytoplasmic protein that ... "Entrez Gene: DIDO1 death inducer-obliterator 1". Bonaldo MF, Lennon G, Soares MB (1997). "Normalization and subtraction: two ...
non-proteinogenic amino acids). It is a strong helix inducer in peptides. Oligomers of AIB form 310 helices. BAIBA is found as ...
"Activation tagging of the floral inducer FT". Science. 286 (5446): 1962-1965. doi:10.1126/science.286.5446.1962. PMID 10583961 ...
... a cytokine and inducer of TNFalpha". Immunity. 22 (1): 131-42. doi:10.1016/j.immuni.2004.12.003. PMID 15664165. Mabilleau G, ...
Apoptotic chromatin condensation inducer in the nucleus is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACIN1 gene. GRCh38: ... "Entrez Gene: ACIN1 apoptotic chromatin condensation inducer 1". Human ACIN1 genome location and ACIN1 gene details page in the ...
It is the opposite of an enzyme inducer. Enzyme activator Enzyme inhibitor Regulation of gene expression "Repression - ...
One such environmental inducer is high soil moisture. Nematodes are obligate parasites; this means the nematode requires a host ...
and inducer), Barlaam and Josaphat. English Lives of Buddha (David Nutt, London, 1896) xvi-xvii Thurston, Herbert. "St. ...
"Insects On Willows: Gall Inducers". Joensuu Molecular Ecology Group. Retrieved 3 November 2017. Harris, K M (2006). "The willow ...
The herb is considered an active diaphoretic (sweat inducer). The essential oil of Monarda fistulosa was analyzed using mass ...
YopO is a protein kinase also known as Yersinia protein kinase A (YpkA). YopO is a potent inducer of human macrophage apoptosis ...
"Uric Acid as Inducer of Calcium Oxalate Crystal Development". Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology. 41 (1): 26-31. ...
Kirk DL, Kirk MM (January 1986). "Heat shock elicits production of sexual inducer in Volvox". Science. 231 (4733): 51-4. ...
Kirk DL, Kirk MM (January 1986). "Heat shock elicits production of sexual inducer in Volvox". Science. 231 (4733): 51-4. doi: ...
Moreover, a chemical inducer of BiP, named BIX, reduced cerebral infarction in cerebral ischemic mice.[45] Conversely, enhanced ... "A molecular chaperone inducer protects neurons from ER stress". Cell Death and Differentiation. 15 (2): 364-75. doi:10.1038/sj. ...
Vitamin D is a potent inducer of endogenous GDNF. The most prominent feature of GDNF is its ability to support the survival of ...
Potentiation of Antitumor and Antimetastatic Activities of α-Difluoromethylornithine by Interferon Inducers. Prasad S. Sunkara ... The mechanism underlying this tumor suppression by combination of DFMO and interferon inducers is not yet known. Enhancement of ... The studies with Lewis lung carcinoma also showed that the interferon inducers potentiated both the antitumor and ... Previous studies using interferon and the data reported here with interferon inducers, along with the relatively nontoxic ...
Abstract 3865: Interleukin-18 is a Potent Inducer of EMMPRIN Expression Both in vitro and in vivo, and Their Crosstalk Induces ... Abstract 3865: Interleukin-18 is a Potent Inducer of EMMPRIN Expression Both in vitro and in vivo, and Their Crosstalk Induces ... Abstract 3865: Interleukin-18 is a Potent Inducer of EMMPRIN Expression Both in vitro and in vivo, and Their Crosstalk Induces ... Abstract 3865: Interleukin-18 is a Potent Inducer of EMMPRIN Expression Both in vitro and in vivo, and Their Crosstalk Induces ...
Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (CD147) confers resistance of breast cancer cells to anoikis through inhibition ... Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (CD147) confers resistance of breast cancer cells to anoikis through inhibition ... Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (CD147) confers resistance of breast cancer cells to anoikis through inhibition ... Overexpression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN or CD147), a member of the immunoglobulin family and ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis stimulation of glioma cell ... Tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis stimulation of glioma cell survival is dependent on Akt2 function. ... We have previously shown that tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK), a member of the tumor necrosis ... Tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis stimulation of glioma cell survival is dependent on Akt2 function. / ...
Inducers function by disabling repressors. The gene is expressed because an inducer binds to the repressor. The binding of the ... Inducers also function by binding to activators. Activators generally bind poorly to activator DNA sequences unless an inducer ... Removing the inducer stops transcription. Because a small inducer molecule is required, the increased expression of the target ... In molecular biology, an inducer is a molecule that regulates gene expression. An inducer can bind to protein repressors or ...
Does anyone know about non-metabolizable inducer for GAL promoter(s) in ,yeast cells? , ,Thanks , , ... Non-metabolizable inducer. Randy Morse Randall.Morse at WADSWORTH.ORG Mon Feb 20 16:34:12 EST 1995 *Previous message: Can ...
inducer synonyms, inducer pronunciation, inducer translation, English dictionary definition of inducer. n. 1. One that induces ... inducer. Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.. Related to inducer: corepressor ... Inducer - definition of inducer by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/inducer ... inducer - an agent capable of activating specific genes. agent - a substance that exerts some force or effect ...
An inducer is the axial inlet portion of a centrifugal pump rotor, the function of which is to raise the inlet head by an ... Inducers are frequently included in design of turbopumps for liquid propellant rocket engines, although they are used in other ... "Overview of Industrial and Rocket Turbopump Inducer Design" (PDF). Concepts NREC. Retrieved 17 May 2014. Sutton, George P. ( ... NASA SP-8052 Liquid rocket engine turbopump inducers. NASA. Japikse, David. " ...
Honokiol, a multifunctional tumor cell death inducer.. Tian W1, Xu D, Deng YC. ...
CCR6 identifies lymphoid tissue inducer cells within cryptopatches.. Lügering A1, Ross M, Sieker M, Heidemann J, Williams IR, ... Fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis of lymphoid tissue inducer (Lti) cells. Lamina propria cells were isolated ... CCR6 characterizes lymphoid tissue inducer (Lti) cells within cryptopatches. Fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis ... analysis revealed a similar expression of Notch receptors by CCR6-deficient lymphoid tissue inducer (Lti) cells (a). In ...
Guilt is the ever-present companion of the modern parent, a nagging voice so familiar that most of us simply think its our own, constantly detailing o ...
... John H. johnh at faraway.xxx Thu May 8 04:58:49 EST 2003 *Previous message: question about ... Previous message: question about Interferon Inducers. *Next message: =?GB2312?Q?=CE=D2=C3=C7=D5=E2=C0=EF=B8=D5=BD=F8=C1=CB=D2= ... I am a graduate student.Recently I am doing a paper about Interferon Inducers. However I only got limited information about ... Interferon Inducers. *Next message: =?GB2312?Q?=CE=D2=C3=C7=D5=E2=C0=EF=B8=D5=BD=F8=C1=CB=D2=BB=C5=FA=B8=DF=D6=CA=C1=BF=BF=DA= ...
Interleukin-32: a cytokine and inducer of TNFalpha.. Kim SH1, Han SY, Azam T, Yoon DY, Dinarello CA. ...
Activation Tagging of the Floral Inducer FT. By Igor Kardailsky, Vipula K. Shukla, Ji Hoon Ahn, Nicole Dagenais, Sioux K. ... Activation Tagging of the Floral Inducer FT. By Igor Kardailsky, Vipula K. Shukla, Ji Hoon Ahn, Nicole Dagenais, Sioux K. ...
Pharmacological Actions : Antiproliferative , Cell Differentiation Inducer, NF-kappaB Inhibitor. Additional Keywords : Drug ... 11 Abstracts with Cell Differentiation Inducer Research. Filter by Study Type. Animal Study. ...
Cancer Stemness Inducer Related Articles. Medical Errors Kill Enough People to Fill 4 Jumbo Jets a Week. - 7 Tips on Surviving ... 4 Abstracts with Cancer Stemness Inducer Research. Filter by Study Type. In Vitro Study. ... 3 Problem Substances Researched for Cancer Stemness Inducer Name. AC. CK. Focus. ...
MAGEC2, an epithelial-mesenchymal transition inducer, is associated with breast cancer metastasis. ...
2009) Identification of small-molecule inducers of pancreatic β-cell expansion. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106:1427-1432. ... A small molecule differentiation inducer increases insulin production by pancreatic β cells. Elhadji M. Dioum, Jihan K. Osborne ... A small molecule differentiation inducer increases insulin production by pancreatic β cells ... A small molecule differentiation inducer increases insulin production by pancreatic β cells ...
C. Morimoto et al., Selective loss of the suppressor-inducer T-cell subset in progressive multiple sclerosis, N.Engl.J.Med. 316 ... Zaffaroni M., Rossini S., Palma R., Ghezzi A., Marforio S., Cazzullo C.L. (1989) Loss of Suppressor-inducer T-Cells in Chronic- ... Loss of Suppressor-inducer T-Cells in Chronic-progressive Multiple Sclerosis: Preliminary Results. ...
Human homolog of fission yeast cdc25 mitotic inducer is predominantly expressed in G2. K Sadhu, S I Reed, H Richardson, and P ... We have cloned a human gene, which we call CDC25, whose product may function as a mitotic inducer. This human gene encodes a ... These data suggest that in human cells, as in fission yeast, the accumulation of CDC25 mitotic inducer during G2 may play a key ... Human homolog of fission yeast cdc25 mitotic inducer is predominantly expressed in G2 ...
WebMD provides information about interactions between Belladonna-Phenobarbital Oral and strong-moderate-cyp3a4-inducers- ... 2.US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Drug Development and Drug Interactions: Table of Substrates, Inhibitors and Inducers. ... Guanfacine/Strong & Moderate CYP3A4 Inducers Interactions. This information is generalized and not intended as specific medical ...
WebMD provides information about interactions between Unipen Intravenous and moderate-cyp3a4-inducers-crizotinib-ibrutinib- ... 5.US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Drug Development and Drug Interactions: Table of Substrates, Inhibitors and Inducers. ... Crizotinib; Ibrutinib; Idelalisib/Moderate CYP3A4 Inducers Interactions. This information is generalized and not intended as ... drug-interactions-table-substrates-inhibitors-and-inducers. Updated 11/14/2017. ...
Inhibitors and Inducers (including: CYP Enzymes, Clinical index drugs, transporters, and examples of clinical substrates, ... e) Moderate inducer of CYP2B6, CYP2C19 and weak inducer of CYP3A.. (f) Strong inducer of CYP3A and moderate inducer of CYP2C9, ... a) Strong inducer of CYP3A and moderate inducer of CYP1A2, CYP2C19.. (b) Strong inducer of CYP2C19, CYP3A, and moderate inducer ... a) Strong inducer of CYP1A2, CYP2C19, CYP3A, and moderate inducer of CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9.. (b) Strong inducer of CYP3A and ...
SEARCH RESULTS for: P-Glycoprotein Inducers [Drug Class] (6 results) * Share : JavaScript needed for Sharing tools. Bookmark & ...
Functions as a dosage-dependent inducer in mitotic control. Tyrosine protein phosphatase required for progression of the cell ...
  • Effect of XTANDI on Other Drugs: XTANDI is a strong CYP3A4 inducer and a moderate CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 inducer in humans. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Can I use Abstral if I am taking a CYP3A4 inducer? (sharecare.com)
  • Taking the cancer pain medication Abstral (fentanyl buccal tablet) with CYP3A4 inducers may reduce your blood level of fentanyl, Abstral's active ingredient. (sharecare.com)
  • A CYP3A4 inducer is anything that ramps up a certain enzyme in your body -- one that helps break down this drug. (sharecare.com)
  • AUC(0-24)ss was predicted from rivaroxaban plasma concentrations for each individual participant and was only considered for the time period during which participants concomitantly received rivaroxaban and a strong cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 3A4 (CYP3A4) inducer. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Notably, many drugs that relieve or worsen WED symptoms are inducers or inhibitors, respectively, of the CYP3A4 isoform ( Table 1 ). (scielo.br)
  • Honokiol, a multifunctional tumor cell death inducer. (nih.gov)
  • The mechanism underlying this tumor suppression by combination of DFMO and interferon inducers is not yet known. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A study of the cytotoxic properties of lembehyne B on tumor cell lines using flow cytometry demonstrated that this is a selective inducer of early apoptosis of the Jurkat, HL-60 and K562 cell cultures and hypodiploid (sub-G1) sub-population inducer in cell cycle studies for all cell lines used. (rsc.org)
  • Objective - Because extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN), a tumor cell-derived protein, induces matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in fibroblasts and because MMPs are important in atheroma formation, we investigated if EMMPRIN was expressed in granulocyte/macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-differentiated human peripheral blood monocytes (HPBM) and macrophage foam cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • This human tumor protein has been termed EMMPRIN or extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer. (ahajournals.org)
  • question about Interferon Inducers. (bio.net)
  • I am a graduate student.Recently I am doing a paper about Interferon Inducers. (bio.net)
  • The objective of the present investigation was to study the potentiation of antitumor and antimetastatic activities of dl -α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) by inducers of interferon, namely, tilorone and polyriboinosinic:polyribocytidilic acid complex [poly(I)·poly(C)]. The results of this study indicate that these interferon inducers enhance the antitumor activity of DFMO against B16 melanoma and Lewis lung carcinoma in mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The studies with Lewis lung carcinoma also showed that the interferon inducers potentiated both the antitumor and antimetastatic activities of DFMO. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Previous studies using interferon and the data reported here with interferon inducers, along with the relatively nontoxic nature of DFMO, suggest a potential use for the inhibitors of polyamine biosynthesis in combination with interferon or interferon inducers in cancer chemotherapy and other proliferative states. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The treatment factors were composed of the following resistance inducers: noresistance inducer (control), selenium (Se), silicon (Si), acibenzolar-s-methyl (ASM), methyl jasmonate (MeJa), thiamethoxam (TMT) and imidacloprid (IMI). (scielo.br)
  • In the two-factor scheme, factor A was composed of the abovementioned resistance inducers, and factor B was composed of the refrigerated storage periods (zero and 30 days). (scielo.br)
  • The application of pre-harvest resistance inducers was efficient in maintaining the physical-chemical characteristics of the 'Navelina' oranges in postharvest, increasing their bioactive compounds in comparison to the control. (scielo.br)
  • The resistance inducers Se, Si, MeJa, and IMI reduced rot rates, while ASM and MeJa prevented fresh fruit mass loss. (scielo.br)
  • The project will seek evidence that applying resistance inducers to trees can prevent the destruction of ecosystems already invaded by the pathogen. (fbbva.es)
  • Here, we generated a screening assay to mine inducers of Bdnf transcription in neuronal cells, using primary cultures of cortical cells prepared from a transgenic mouse strain, specifically, Bdnf-Luciferase transgenic ( Bdnf-Luc ) mice. (nature.com)
  • Analysis of a conserved cellulase transcriptional regulator reveals inducer-independent production of cellulolytic enzymes in Neurospora crassa. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We explored the identity of the inducer of the pathway regulator (RhaR) through expression analysis of the deletion mutants grown in transfer experiments to L-rhamnose and L-rhamnonate. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Dietary bioactive compounds were screened for Glo1 inducer activity in a functional reporter assay, hits were confirmed in cell culture, and an optimized Glo1 inducer formulation was evaluated in a randomized, placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial in 29 overweight and obese subjects. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This is a multicenter, cohort study evaluating an adapted rivaroxaban dose regimen in patients with acute, proximal deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) or acute pulmonary embolism (PE) who concomitantly use a strong cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 3A4 (CYP 3A4) inducer for the entire 3-month study duration. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • We describe here the first pre-transcriptional response to activin/TGF-beta mesoderm inducers in the early embryo. (nih.gov)
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  • The findings of this work reinforce the crucial importance of Nrf2 in FA and provide a rationale for using Nrf2-inducers as pharmacological agents. (curefa.org)
  • Selective loss of the suppressor-inducer T-cell subset in progressive multiple sclerosis, N.Engl.J.Med. (springer.com)
  • Compared to many other virus families, retroviruses have been considered to be relatively poor inducers of innate immune responses, a view that has been challenged in recent years. (asm.org)
  • In the particular case of nod -gene expression in Mesorhizobium loti , which makes root nodules on the Lotus plants, tetronic acid was reported to act as an effective inducer at a high (mM) concentration. (springer.com)
  • This factor can be activated throughout early cleavage and blastula stages, is activated by mesoderm inducers of the activin/TGF-beta superfamily but not the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family, and does not appear to require an endogenous FGF signal for activation. (nih.gov)
  • Secretion of Ipa proteins by Shigella flexneri: inducer molecules and kinetics of activation. (asm.org)
  • They opined that papillomatosis is noticed commonly in immune deficient animals and supplementation of immunomodulators will further found that the use of paraimmunity inducer along with autogenous vaccination enhanced the faster recovery. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Non-specific immunity may be acquired in a natural way during the course of an infection, or by treatment with inducers of non-specific immunity, immunomodulators, biological response modifiers (BRM) etc. (patentgenius.com)
  • In vivo functional analysis of L-rhamnose metabolic pathway in Aspergillus niger: a tool to identify the potential inducer of RhaR. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • To address these issues, a high throughput screening (HTS) method was devised to identify chemical inducers of growth and lipid accumulation. (unl.edu)