Chamomile: Common name for several daisy-like plants (MATRICARIA; TRIPLEUROSPERMUM; ANTHEMIS; CHAMAEMELUM) native to Europe and Western Asia, now naturalized in the United States and Australia.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Caspases: A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins: A large group of proteins that control APOPTOSIS. This family of proteins includes many ONCOGENE PROTEINS as well as a wide variety of classes of INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS such as CASPASES.Caspase 3: A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.Luteolin: 5,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxy-flavone, one of the FLAVONES.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2: Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.Flavonoids: A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins: A conserved class of proteins that control APOPTOSIS in both VERTEBRATES and INVERTEBRATES. IAP proteins interact with and inhibit CASPASES, and they function as ANTI-APOPTOTIC PROTEINS. The protein class is defined by an approximately 80-amino acid motif called the baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis repeat.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Flavones: A group of 4-keto-FLAVONOIDS.DNA Fragmentation: Splitting the DNA into shorter pieces by endonucleolytic DNA CLEAVAGE at multiple sites. It includes the internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, which along with chromatin condensation, are considered to be the hallmarks of APOPTOSIS.bcl-2-Associated X Protein: A member of the Bcl-2 protein family and homologous partner of C-BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN. It regulates the release of CYTOCHROME C and APOPTOSIS INDUCING FACTOR from the MITOCHONDRIA. Several isoforms of BCL2-associated X protein occur due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the mRNA for this protein.In Situ Nick-End Labeling: An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Chrysanthemum: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. The common names of daisy or marguerite are easily confused with other plants. Some species in this genus have been reclassified to TANACETUM.X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein: An inhibitor of apoptosis protein that is translated by a rare cap-independent mechanism. It blocks caspase-mediated cellular destruction by inhibiting CASPASE 3; CASPASE 7; and CASPASE 9.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Carduus: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain arctiin and onopordopicrin.Apoptosis Inducing Factor: A flavoprotein that functions as a powerful antioxidant in the MITOCHONDRIA and promotes APOPTOSIS when released from the mitochondria. In mammalian cells AIF is released in response to pro-apoptotic protein members of the bcl-2 protein family. It translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS and binds DNA to stimulate CASPASE-independent CHROMATIN condensation.CASP8 and FADD-Like Apoptosis Regulating Protein: An APOPTOSIS-regulating protein that is structurally related to CASPASE 8 and competes with CASPASE 8 for binding to FAS ASSOCIATED DEATH DOMAIN PROTEIN. Two forms of CASP8 and FADD-like apoptosis regulating protein exist, a long form containing a caspase-like enzymatically inactive domain and a short form which lacks the caspase-like domain.Caspase 9: A long pro-domain caspase that contains a caspase recruitment domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 9 is activated during cell stress by mitochondria-derived proapoptotic factors and by CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as APOPTOTIC PROTEASE-ACTIVATING FACTOR 1. It activates APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Caspase Inhibitors: Endogenous and exogenous compounds and that either inhibit CASPASES or prevent their activation.Kaempferols: A group of FLAVONOLS based on kaempferol. They are derived from naringenin and can be hydroxylated to QUERCETIN or reduced to leucopelargonidin.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Caspase 8: A long pro-domain caspase that contains a death effector domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 8 plays a role in APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES. Activation of this enzyme can occur via the interaction of its N-terminal death effector domain with DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.Cytochromes c: Cytochromes of the c type that are found in eukaryotic MITOCHONDRIA. They serve as redox intermediates that accept electrons from MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III and transfer them to MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Fas Ligand Protein: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that was originally discovered on cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage, including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. It plays an important role in immune homeostasis and cell-mediated toxicity by binding to the FAS RECEPTOR and triggering APOPTOSIS.Flavanones: A group of FLAVONOIDS characterized with a 4-ketone.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.bcl-X Protein: A member of the bcl-2 protein family that plays a role in the regulation of APOPTOSIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the BCL2L1 mRNA and are referred to as Bcl-XS and Bcl-XL.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Amino Acid Chloromethyl Ketones: Inhibitors of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES and sulfhydryl group-containing enzymes. They act as alkylating agents and are known to interfere in the translation process.Quercetin: A flavonol widely distributed in plants. It is an antioxidant, like many other phenolic heterocyclic compounds. Glycosylated forms include RUTIN and quercetrin.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors: Exogenous and endogenous compounds which inhibit CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Annexin A5: A protein of the annexin family isolated from human PLACENTA and other tissues. It inhibits cytosolic PHOSPHOLIPASE A2, and displays anticoagulant activity.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand: A transmembrane-protein belonging to the TNF family of intercellular signaling proteins. It is a widely expressed ligand that activates APOPTOSIS by binding to TNF-RELATED APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND RECEPTORS. The membrane-bound form of the protein can be cleaved by specific CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES to form a soluble ligand form.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of multiple ADP-RIBOSE groups from nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) onto protein targets, thus building up a linear or branched homopolymer of repeating ADP-ribose units i.e., POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.Jurkat Cells: A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Anticarcinogenic Agents: Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Caspase 7: A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 3 and CASPASE 10. Several isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.Receptors, TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand: Tumor necrosis factor receptor family members that are widely expressed and play a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. The receptors are specific for TNF-RELATED APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND and signal via conserved death domains that associate with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial: The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Leishmania enriettii: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that has been found as a natural infection of the Brazilian guinea pig. Its host-tissue relationship is, in general, comparable to that of L. braziliensis.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Genes, bcl-2: The B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 genes, responsible for blocking apoptosis in normal cells, and associated with follicular lymphoma when overexpressed. Overexpression results from the t(14;18) translocation. The human c-bcl-2 gene is located at 18q24 on the long arm of chromosome 18.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.bcl-2 Homologous Antagonist-Killer Protein: A multi-domain mitochondrial membrane protein and member of the bcl-2 Protein family. Bak protein interacts with TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53 and promotes APOPTOSIS.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Perilla frutescens: A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE that is an ingredient of Banxia Houpu (DRUGS, CHINESE HERBAL).Mice, Inbred C57BLNecrosis: The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.Cytochrome c Group: A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Hydroxytestosterones: 17 beta-Hydroxy-4-androsten-3-ones. Testosterone derivatives formed by the substitution of one or more hydroxyl groups in any position.Myeloid Cell Leukemia Sequence 1 Protein: A member of the myeloid leukemia factor (MLF) protein family with multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different protein isoforms. In hematopoietic cells, it is located mainly in the nucleus, and in non-hematopoietic cells, primarily in the cytoplasm with a punctate nuclear localization. MLF1 plays a role in cell cycle differentiation.BH3 Interacting Domain Death Agonist Protein: A member of the Bcl-2 protein family that reversibly binds MEMBRANES. It is a pro-apoptotic protein that is activated by caspase cleavage.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Staurosporine: An indolocarbazole that is a potent PROTEIN KINASE C inhibitor which enhances cAMP-mediated responses in human neuroblastoma cells. (Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1995;214(3):1114-20)Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2: A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in FIBROBLASTS.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Apium graveolens: A plant species of the family APIACEAE. The stalks are a food source.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.bcl-Associated Death Protein: A pro-apoptotic protein and member of the Bcl-2 protein family that is regulated by PHOSPHORYLATION. Unphosphorylated Bad protein inhibits the activity of BCL-XL PROTEIN.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21: A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that mediates TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53-dependent CELL CYCLE arrest. p21 interacts with a range of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and associates with PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN and CASPASE 3.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Ceramides: Members of the class of neutral glycosphingolipids. They are the basic units of SPHINGOLIPIDS. They are sphingoids attached via their amino groups to a long chain fatty acyl group. They abnormally accumulate in FABRY DISEASE.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Keratinocytes: Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Lamiaceae: The mint plant family. They are characteristically aromatic, and many of them are cultivated for their oils. Most have square stems, opposite leaves, and two-lipped, open-mouthed, tubular corollas (united petals), with five-lobed, bell-like calyxes (united sepals).Caspase 2: A long pro-domain caspase that contains a caspase recruitment domain in its pro-domain region. Activation of this enzyme can occur via the interaction of its caspase recruitment domain with CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS. Caspase 2 plays a role in APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating effector pro-caspases. Several isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind TUMOR NECROSIS FACTORS and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Viola: A plant genus of the family VIOLACEAE. Some species in this genus are called bouncing bet which is a common name more often used with SAPONARIA OFFICINALIS. Members contain macrocyclic peptides.Fas-Associated Death Domain Protein: A signal-transducing adaptor protein that associates with TNF RECEPTOR complexes. It contains a death effector domain that can interact with death effector domains found on INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 8 and CASPASE 10. Activation of CASPASES via interaction with this protein plays a role in the signaling cascade that leads to APOPTOSIS.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Cysteine Endopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.Genistein: An isoflavonoid derived from soy products. It inhibits PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE and topoisomerase-II (DNA TOPOISOMERASES, TYPE II); activity and is used as an antineoplastic and antitumor agent. Experimentally, it has been shown to induce G2 PHASE arrest in human and murine cell lines and inhibits PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Cunninghamella: A genus of zygomycetous fungi of the family Cunninghamellaceae, order MUCORALES. Some species cause systemic infections in humans.Apoptotic Protease-Activating Factor 1: A CARD signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in the mitochondria-stimulated apoptosis (APOPTOSIS, INTRINSIC PATHWAY). It binds to CYTOCHROME C in the CYTOSOL to form an APOPTOSOMAL PROTEIN COMPLEX and activates INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Farnesol: A colorless liquid extracted from oils of plants such as citronella, neroli, cyclamen, and tuberose. It is an intermediate step in the biological synthesis of cholesterol from mevalonic acid in vertebrates. It has a delicate odor and is used in perfumery. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Petroselinum: A plant genus of the family APIACEAE used for flavoring food.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.G2 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Cell Cycle Checkpoints: Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression through the CELL CYCLE. They ensure that the cell has completed, in the correct order and without mistakes, all the processes required to replicate the GENOME and CYTOPLASM, and divide them equally between two daughter cells. If cells sense they have not completed these processes or that the environment does not have the nutrients and growth hormones in place to proceed, then the cells are restrained (or "arrested") until the processes are completed and growth conditions are suitable.Inhibitory Concentration 50: The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Caspase 1: A long pro-domain caspase that has specificity for the precursor form of INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. It plays a role in INFLAMMATION by catalytically converting the inactive forms of CYTOKINES such as interleukin-1beta to their active, secreted form. Caspase 1 is referred as interleukin-1beta converting enzyme and is frequently abbreviated ICE.U937 Cells: A human cell line established from a diffuse histiocytic lymphoma (HISTIOCYTIC LYMPHOMA, DIFFUSE) and displaying many monocytic characteristics. It serves as an in vitro model for MONOCYTE and MACROPHAGE differentiation.Mice, Inbred BALB CColonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Hep G2 Cells: A human liver tumor cell line used to study a variety of liver-specific metabolic functions.Stilbenes: Organic compounds that contain 1,2-diphenylethylene as a functional group.Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Member 25: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype with specificity for TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR LIGAND SUPERFAMILY MEMBER 15. It is found in tissues containing LYMPHOCYTES and may play a role in regulating lymphocyte homeostasis and APOPTOSIS. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Apigenin: 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-flavone, one of the FLAVONES.ChromonesEtoposide: A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.MAP Kinase Kinase Kinase 5: A 150-kDa MAP kinase kinase kinase that may play a role in the induction of APOPTOSIS. It has specificity for MAP KINASE KINASE 3; MAP KINASE KINASE 4; and MAP KINASE KINASE 6.Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Transcription Factor RelA: A subunit of NF-kappa B that is primarily responsible for its transactivation function. It contains a C-terminal transactivation domain and an N-terminal domain with homology to PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-REL.Glycosides: Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Impatiens: A plant genus of subsucculent annual or perennial plants in the family BALSAMINACEAE, order Geraniales.MorpholinesCasein Kinase II: A ubiquitous casein kinase that is comprised of two distinct catalytic subunits and dimeric regulatory subunit. Casein kinase II has been shown to phosphorylate a large number of substrates, many of which are proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex: A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.GlucosidesPropidium: Quaternary ammonium analog of ethidium; an intercalating dye with a specific affinity to certain forms of DNA and, used as diiodide, to separate them in density gradients; also forms fluorescent complexes with cholinesterase which it inhibits.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Culture Media, Serum-Free: CULTURE MEDIA free of serum proteins but including the minimal essential substances required for cell growth. This type of medium avoids the presence of extraneous substances that may affect cell proliferation or unwanted activation of cells.CinnamatesDisease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Receptors, Death Domain: A family of cell surface receptors that signal via a conserved domain that extends into the cell CYTOPLASM. The conserved domain is referred to as a death domain due to the fact that many of these receptors are involved in signaling APOPTOSIS. Several DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS can bind to the death domains of the activated receptors and through a complex series of interactions activate apoptotic mediators such as CASPASES.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cytoprotection: The process by which chemical compounds provide protection to cells against harmful agents.Protein Kinase C-delta: A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.Mitochondrial Membranes: The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).Genes, p53: Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Autophagy: The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Transcription Factor CHOP: A CCAAT-enhancer binding protein that is induced by DNA DAMAGE and growth arrest. It serves as a dominant negative inhibitor of other CCAAT-enhancer binding proteins.Phosphatidylserines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.Cycloheximide: Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.Antimutagenic Agents: Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced mutations independently of the mechanism involved.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Melissa: A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE. The common names of beebalm or lemonbalm are also used for MONARDA.Rutin: A flavonol glycoside found in many plants, including BUCKWHEAT; TOBACCO; FORSYTHIA; HYDRANGEA; VIOLA, etc. It has been used therapeutically to decrease capillary fragility.Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.Neuroblastoma: A common neoplasm of early childhood arising from neural crest cells in the sympathetic nervous system, and characterized by diverse clinical behavior, ranging from spontaneous remission to rapid metastatic progression and death. This tumor is the most common intraabdominal malignancy of childhood, but it may also arise from thorax, neck, or rarely occur in the central nervous system. Histologic features include uniform round cells with hyperchromatic nuclei arranged in nests and separated by fibrovascular septa. Neuroblastomas may be associated with the opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2099-2101; Curr Opin Oncol 1998 Jan;10(1):43-51)Immunoprecipitation: The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Plant Components, Aerial: The above-ground plant without the roots.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.Gamma Rays: Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 - 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.
"Apoptosis and expression of bcl-2 in cyclosporin induced renal damage and its reversal by beneficial effects of 4,5,7 - ... Apigenin induces autophagy (a kind of cellular waste-recycling system) in leukemia cells, which may support a possible ... apigenin 8-C-glucoside) Isovitexin (apigenin 6-C-glucosid) Rhoifolin (apigenin 7-O-neohesperidoside) Schaftoside (apigenin 6-C- ... Induced autophagy interfers with the action of the chemotherapy drug vincristine. Apigenin is a potent inhibitor of CYP2C9, an ...
One study found that specific silencing of the ANT2 gene failed to induce apoptosis to tumor cells without a combining ... "Suppression of adenine nucleotide translocase-2 by vector-based siRNA in human breast cancer cells induces apoptosis and ... Oishi M, Iizumi Y, Taniguchi T, Goi W, Miki T, Sakai T (2013). "Apigenin sensitizes prostate cancer cells to Apo2L/TRAIL by ... According to a study by Oishi et al., knockdown of ANT2 upregulated DR5, resulting in Apo2L/TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Moreover, ...
Lee JS, Lee MS, Oh WK, Sul JY (2009). "Fatty acid synthase inhibition by amentoflavone induces apoptosis and antiproliferation ... Hypericum extract, by inducing both the CYP3A4 and the P-glycoprotein (P-gp), can reduce the plasma concentrations of different ... Viola H, Wasowski C, Levi de Stein M, Wolfman C, Silveira R, Dajas F, Medina JH, Paladini AC (1995). "Apigenin, a component of ... Bao YY, Zhou SH, Fan J, Wang QY (2013). "Anticancer mechanism of apigenin and the implications of GLUT-1 expression in head and ...
... induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in a TRAIL-mediated manner, and potentiates the pro-apoptotic effects of ... "Honokiol-induced apoptosis and autophagy in glioblastoma multiforme cells". Oncology Letters. 6 (5): 1435-1438. doi:10.3892/ol. ... Battle, T. E.; Arbiser, J; Frank, DA (2005). "The natural product honokiol induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in B-cell ... In a 2002 study, researchers induced cell death in fetal rat cortical neurons by directly applying 100μM in vitro. ...
Promotes sexual receptivity in estrus, and induces lordosis behavior. In non-human mammals, it also induces estrus (in ... 7,8-DHF, 8-prenylnaringenin, apigenin, baicalein, baicalin, biochanin A, calycosin, catechin, daidzein, daidzin, ECG, EGCG, ... Hill RA, Pompolo S, Jones ME, Simpson ER, Boon WC (December 2004). "Estrogen deficiency leads to apoptosis in dopaminergic ... and by inducing the secretion of prolactin. Allowed for by estrogen, progesterone and prolactin work together to ...
... reduces radiation-induced DNA damage and induces genes that modulate cell cycle progression and apoptosis". J. Radiat. Res. 53 ... 7,8-DHF, 8-prenylnaringenin, apigenin, baicalein, baicalin, biochanin A, calycosin, catechin, daidzein, daidzin, ECG, EGCG, ...
7,8-DHF, 8-prenylnaringenin, apigenin, baicalein, baicalin, biochanin A, calycosin, catechin, daidzein, daidzin, ECG, EGCG, ... Behl C, Widmann M, Trapp T, Holsboer F (November 1995). "17-beta estradiol protects neurons from oxidative stress-induced cell ... to prevent apoptosis of male sperm cells. While some studies in the early 1990s claimed a connection between globally ... estradiol induces breast development, widening of the hips, a feminine fat distribution (with fat deposited particularly in the ...
... and apoptosis. Conversely, LY294002 and a dominant-negative construct of Akt potentiated apigenin-induced apoptosis in leukemia ... Apigenin Induces Apoptosis in Human Leukemia Cells and Exhibits Anti-Leukemic Activity In Vivo Amit Budhraja, Ning Gao, Zhuo ... signaling cascades in apigenin-induced apoptosis in U937 human leukemia cells and anti-leukemic activity of apigenin in vivo. ... Apigenin induced apoptosis by inactivation of Akt with a concomitant activation of JNK, Mcl-1 and Bcl-2 downregulation, ...
Apigenin Induces DR5 Expression and Sensitizes TRAIL-Induced Apoptosis in Other Human Malignant Tumor Cells in a Synergistic ... the combination of apigenin and TRAIL did not induce apoptosis in normal human PBMC, although it markedly induced apoptosis in ... Apigenin also induces DR5 expression and synergistically sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptosis in other human malignant tumor ... We next investigated whether apigenin induces DR5 protein and strongly enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis in a synergistic ...
To investigate potential anticancer properties of apigenin on human breast cancer, ER-positive MCF-7 and... ... Apigenin is found in several dietary plant foods such as vegetables and fruits. ... Zhu H, Jin H, Pi J, Bai H, Yang F, Wu C, Jiang J, Cai J (2016) Apigenin induced apoptosis in esophageal carcinoma cells by ... Lu H-F, Chie Y-J, Yang M-S, Lu KW, Fu JJ, Yang JS, Chen HY, Hsia TC, Ma CY, Ip SW, Chung JG (2011) Apigenin induces apoptosis ...
We found that transient downregulation of XIAP by siRNAs resulted in an increase of apoptosis and a decrease in Bcl-2 levels ... is a suppressor of apoptosis that supports an increased survival and resistance to chemotherapy of human prostate cancer (PCa) ... Apigenin induces apoptosis by targeting inhibitor of apoptosis proteins and Ku70-Bax interaction in prostate cancer *Sanjeev ... Ng CP, Bonavida B . X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) blocks Apo2 ligand/tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ...
Apigenin induces the apoptosis of colon cancer cells.Mar 06, 2018. Click here to read the entire abstract. ... Butyrate induced apoptosis and inhibited cell proliferation via enhancing the intracellular expression of miR-22.Mar 06, 2017. ... Caffeic acid and caffeic acid phenethyl ester induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest of breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231.Sep 14, ... Tea polyphenols induce S phase arrest and apoptosis in gallbladder cancer cells.Feb 28, 2018. ...
Apigenin induces the apoptosis of colon cancer cells. Article Published Date : Mar 06, 2018 ... Ganoderma lucidum triterpenes induce apoptosis in MCF-7 cells and attenuate DMBA induced mammary and skin carcinomas. ... Carnosic acid cooperates with tamoxifen to induce apoptosis in breast cancer cells. ... Additional Keywords : Antiproliferative : CK(65) : AC(52), APIGENIN, Apoptotic, Bcl-xL down-regulation, COLON CANCER ...
... which ultimately induced apoptosis in MM cells. In addition, apigenin had a greater effects in depleting Hsp90 clients when ... Apigenin, a common flavonoid, has been reported to suppress proliferation in a wide variety of solid tumors and hematological ... Our results suggest that the primary mechanisms by which apigenin kill MM cells is by targeting the trinity of CK2-Cdc37-Hsp90 ... In this study, we investigated the effects of apigenin on MM cell lines and on primary MM cells. Cell viability assays ...
Apigenin exposure induces DNA damage, G2/M phase cell cycle arrest, p53 accumulation and apoptosis in kidney cancer cells.Mar ... Neferine-induced apoptosis is dependent on the suppression of Bcl-2 expression via downregulation of p65 in renal cancer cells. ... Betulinic acid induces apoptosis and inhibits metastasis of human renal carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo.Jan 10, 2018. ... Fisetin induces apoptosis through p53-mediated up-regulation of DR5 expression in human renal carcinoma caki cells.Aug 01, 2017 ...
Apigenin induces apoptosis and blocks growth of medroxyprogesterone acetate-dependent BT-474 xenograft tumors. ... Tamoxifen induces regression of estradiol-induced mammary cancer in the ACI.COP-Ept2 rat model. ... Apigenin prevents development of medroxyprogesterone acetate-accelerated 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced mammary tumors ... anthracene-induced mammary tumors in Sprague-Dawley rats by p53 reactivation and induction of massive apoptosis: a pilot study. ...
Luteolin, unlike apigenin, inhibited MMP1-induced Ca2+ release. Free intracellular Ca2+ is a central signal amplifier ... Apigenin and luteolin prevented MMP1-induced FAK activation, but not constitutive FAK phosphorylation. ... Apigenin and luteolin were tested in a three-dimensional (3-D) assay consisting of MDA-MB231 breast cancer spheroids and ... Apigenin and luteolin were tested in a three-dimensional (3-D) assay consisting of MDA-MB231 breast cancer spheroids and ...
Apigenin induces apoptosis and impairs head and neck carcinomas EGFR/ErbB2 signaling Laura Masuelli, Laura Marzocchella, ... Light-induced water oxidation in photosystem II Frank Muh, Athina Zouni [Frontiers in Bioscience, Landmark, 16, 3072-3132, June ... Angiogenic signaling aberrantly induced by tumor hypoxia Keizo Takenaga [Frontiers in Bioscience, Landmark, 16, 31-48, January ... Thymosin-alpha1 promotes the apoptosis of regulatory T cells and survival rate in septic mice Jian Wan, Yi Shan, Hongwei Shan, ...
Apigenin induces apoptosis in Hep G2 cells: possible role of TNF-α and IFN-γ. Toxicology 2006;217:206-12. ... Molecular targets for apigenin-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in prostate cancer cell xenograft. Molecular cancer ... The dietary flavonoid apigenin sensitizes malignant tumor cells to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand. Mol ... Molecular mechanisms for apigenin-induced cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis of hormone refractory human prostate carcinoma DU145 ...
... including regulation of signaling pathways involved in apoptosis, cellular proliferation, and inflammation and modulation of ... Apoptosis- and autophagy-inducing effects. . Apigenin. Flavone. 1.5626-100 µM. Colorectal cell lines HT-29 and HCT-15. Pro ... Yun, J.M.; Afaq, F.; Khan, N.; Mukhtar, H. Delphinidin, an anthocyanidin in pigmented fruits and vegetables, induces apoptosis ... Apigenin-induced apoptosis is enhanced by inhibition of autophagy formation in HCT116 human colon cancer cells. Int. J. Oncol. ...
Plant flavonoid apigenin inactivates Akt to trigger apoptosis in human prostate cancer: an in vitro and in vivo study ... A constitutively activated form of the p110 isoform of PI3-kinase induces prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia in mice ... Prostate intraepithelial neoplasia induced by prostate restricted Akt activation: The MPAKT model. Pradip K. Majumder, Jen Jen ... Increased phospho-AKT is associated with loss of the androgen receptor during the progression ofN-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced ...
The dietary flavonoid apigenin sensitizes malignant tumor cells to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand ... Combination of isoliquiritigenin and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand induces apoptosis in colon cancer ... Tunicamycin enhances tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-induced apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells ... Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand : a novel mechanism for Bacillus Calmette-Guerin-induced antitumor ...
Lepley, D. M., B. Li, D. F. Birt and J. C. Pelling (1996) The chemopreventive flavonoid apigenin induces G2/M arrest in ... 12 suppresses UV-induced apoptosis by inducing DNA repair both in vitro and in vivo (38). ... 85) examined the effects of apigenin on the cell cycle and indicated that apigenin induced a reversible G2/M arrest in cultured ... Interleukin-12 suppresses ultraviolet radiation-induced apoptosis by inducing DNA repair. Nat. Cell Biol. 4, 26-31. ...
Due to the apoptosis inducing properties, it can be considered as an effective adjuvant therapeutic agent in clinical trials.. ... Phenolics from Rubus fairholmianus induces cytotoxicity and apoptosis in human breast adenocarcinoma cells.. ... and apigenin might be the reason behind the caspase-mediated apoptosis. Further work is warranted to study the individual ... Chemical characterization, antioxidant, antiproliferative and apoptosis inducing properties of R. fairholmianus root methanolic ...
Apigenin inhibits proliferation and invasion, and induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in human melanoma cells.. Oncol Rep. ... Nodal induced by hypoxia exposure contributes to dacarbazine resistance and the maintenance of stemness in melanoma cancer ... Inhibition of SOX4 induces melanoma cell apoptosis via downregulation of NF-kappaB p65 signaling.. Oncol Rep. 2018 May 16. doi ... Licochalcone D induces apoptosis and inhibits migration and invasion in human melanoma A375 cells.. Oncol Rep. 2018;39:2160- ...
Apigenin induces apoptosis in human leukemia cells and exhibits anti-leukemic activity in vivo. Mol Cancer Ther. 2012 Jan;11(1 ... Apart from inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis in several leukemia cell lines, ajoene was able to induce apoptosis ... Apigenin-induced apoptosis of leukemia cells is mediated by a biomodal and differentially regulated residue-specific ... Apigenin is toxic to leukemia cells and induces apoptosis in several leukemia cell lines (Ruela-de-Sousa 2010; Budhraja 2012; ...
Apigenin, the flavone found in parsley, celery, and chamomile targets leptin/leptin receptor pathway and induces apoptosis in ... 2014). 6-Gingerol induces caspase dependent apoptosis and prevents PMA- induced proliferation in colon cancer cells by ... Hahm, E. R., Moura, M. B., Kelley, E. E., van Houten, B., Shiva, S., and Singh, S. V. (2011). Withaferin A induced apoptosis in ... It induces caspase dependent extrinsic apoptosis in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) over expressing BT-474 ...
Apigenin is known to induce ROS production and cause apoptosis through oxidative stress-activated ERK1/2 pathway in fibroblast- ... Stimulated ox-LDL increases chemoattractant concentration and induces monocyte transmigrating into intima then transforming to ... It has been shown that cyanidin inhibited TNF-α-induced endothelial cell apoptosis, elevated expression of eNOS and thioredoxin ... induced colitis of rats possibly through downregulation of TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation.90 Kaempferol, another flavonol-type ...
"Apoptosis and expression of bcl-2 in cyclosporin induced renal damage and its reversal by beneficial effects of 4,5,7 - ... Apigenin induces autophagy (a kind of cellular waste-recycling system) in leukemia cells, which may support a possible ... apigenin 8-C-glucoside) Isovitexin (apigenin 6-C-glucosid) Rhoifolin (apigenin 7-O-neohesperidoside) Schaftoside (apigenin 6-C- ... Induced autophagy interfers with the action of the chemotherapy drug vincristine. Apigenin is a potent inhibitor of CYP2C9, an ...
Here we focus on the ability of natural cancer chemopreventive agents to induce apoptosis, and attempt to provide evidence for ... both of which are known to maintain a homeostatic balance between cell survival and apoptosis. Understanding the mechanism of ... act by induction of apoptosis. Several natural compounds inhibit cell proliferation and angiogenesis. Certain natural products ... As cell and tissue homeostasis are mediated by the balance between proliferation and apoptosis, controlling this balance is ...
The apigenin-induced apoptosis was significantly increased in the CK2α-high AML cells compared with the normal BM cells (*P , ... Additionally, we report here that a CK2 inhibitor, apigenin, induces apoptosis preferentially in the leukemic blasts obtained ... In contrast, apigenin-induced apoptosis was negligible in U937 and K562 leukemia cell lines that express low levels of CK2α. ... The level of apoptosis induced by 48-h treatment with apigenin was significantly increased in the pCI-CK2α-transfected U937 ...
Lu HF, Chie YS, Tan TW, Wu SH, Ma YS, Ip SW, Chung JG: Apigenin induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in human lung cancer A549 ... Choi SI, CS J, Cho SY, YS L: Mechanisms of apoptosis induced by apigenin in HepG2 human hepatoma cells: Involvement of reactive ... Zheng P-W, Chiang L-C, Lin C-C: Apigenin induced apoptosis through p53-dependent pathway in human cervical carcinoma cells. ... Khan TH, Sultana S: Apigenin induces apoptosis in HepG2 cells: possible role of TNF-a and IFN-a. Toxicology. 2006, 217: 206-212 ...
Arrest and apoptosisCytotoxicityInhibits proliferationAutophagyFlavonoidsEffects of apigeninInhibitionInhibitTumor growthCombination of apigeninCellsPathwaysInductionChemopreventiveInflammationOxidative stress inducedLipopolysaccharide-inducedNecrosisPhosphorylationCaspase activationAnticancer propertiesVivoCellular proliferationActivities of apigeninTreatment with apigeninFound to induceProteinsEnhancesLuteolin preventedTherapeuticFlavonoid apigeninApoptoticCancerSTAT3Cell cycleSignificantlyVitroReactiveMotilityDiet-inducedCeleryParsleyOverexpressionMolecularRatsMelanomaMorphological changesPolyphenolsChamomileMice
- Apigenin induces growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis in various types of human malignant tumor cells including breast cancer ( 7 ), prostate cancer ( 8 ), colon cancer ( 9 ), and leukemic cells ( 10 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Harmaline induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in SGC-7901 cells. (greenmedinfo.com)
- Tea polyphenols induce S phase arrest and apoptosis in gallbladder cancer cells. (greenmedinfo.com)
- AE inhibited cell viability, and induced G2/M arrest and apoptosis in T24 cells. (blogspot.com)
- Cytotoxicity of apigenin towards cancer cells was evaluated by MTT assay whereas further genotoxic and oxidative stress parameters were measured by comet and lipid peroxidation assays, respectively. (springer.com)
- Cell viability assays demonstrated that apigenin exhibited cytotoxicity against both MM cell lines and primary MM cells but not against normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. (biomedcentral.com)
- MTT was used to study cytotoxicity, while the induction of apoptosis and the expression of apoptosis-related proteins were determined by ELISA. (biomedcentral.com)
- Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine whether α‑tocopherol could reduce AA‑induced oxidative stress and renal cell cytotoxicity, determined by cell survival rate, reactive oxygen species detection and apoptotic features. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Due to the fact that AA-induced renal injury was associated with oxidative damage and fibrotic renal injury ( 9 , 11 - 13 ), the effects of α-tocopherol on AA-induced renal cell cytotoxicity were studied. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Small interfering RNA-induced depletion of HER2 protein and lapatinib-induced blockade of HER2 tyrosine kinase activity both significantly prevented EVOO polyphenols-induced cytotoxicity. (biomedcentral.com)
- The cytotoxicity mechanism consists of the induction of apoptosis, whereas the selectivity against neuroectodermal tumor cells is founded on a specific energy-dependent pathway of drug incorporation. (blogspot.com)
- Inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced autophagy sensitizes melanoma cells to temozolomide treatment. (amedeo.com)
- Apigenin induces autophagy (a kind of cellular waste-recycling system) in leukemia cells, which may support a possible chemopreventive role. (wikipedia.org)
- Induced autophagy interfers with the action of the chemotherapy drug vincristine. (wikipedia.org)
- To induce autophagy, the MSC-GFP-LC3 was treated with different concentrations of Rapa for 24 hours and named MSC-LC3-Rapa. (ac.ir)
- All three compounds induced a change in transcript expression levels of inflammation-associated, proto-oncogene, autophagy-associated and apoptosis-associated genes. (apjtb.org)
- Moreover, although some flavonoids are mutagenic ( 13 ), apigenin has no mutagenic activity ( 14 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Hence, we studied two flavonoids, apigenin and luteolin exhibiting strong bio-activity in various test systems in cancer research and are readily available on the market. (frontiersin.org)
- In this review, we discuss host and microbiota-mediated metabolism of flavonoids and the potential mechanisms by which flavonoids can exert protective effects against colon tumorigenesis, including regulation of signaling pathways involved in apoptosis, cellular proliferation, and inflammation and modulation of the gut microbiome. (mdpi.com)
- In addition, like various other flavonoids, apigenin has been found to possess nanomolar affinity for the opioid receptors (Ke = 410 nM, 970 nM, and 410 nM for the μ-, δ-, and κ-opioid receptors, respectively), acting as a non-selective antagonist of all three opioid receptors. (wikipedia.org)
- Apigenin is particularly abundant in the flowers of chamomile plants, constituting 68% of total flavonoids. (wikipedia.org)
- In addition, in vitro and in vivo studies have suggested that flavonoids, such as (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallete (EGCG), quercetin, and curcumin, act by induction of apoptosis. (scirp.org)
- Flavonoids, a subclass of polyphenols, have attracted attention as potential anticancer candidates due to their ability to induce apoptosis and thus, to reduce cellular proliferation specifically in cancer cells. (spandidos-publications.com)
- The present study investigated the effects of two flavonoids (apigenin and luteolin) on the production of IL-31 and IL-33 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated astrocytes. (medworm.com)
- Our results show the novel effects of apigenin and raises the possibility that combined treatment with apigenin and TRAIL can be used as a promising strategy for the treatment of malignant tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
- In this study, we investigated the effects of apigenin on MM cell lines and on primary MM cells. (biomedcentral.com)
- 3 There has been significant progress in studying the biological effects of apigenin at cellular and molecular levels as a chemopreventive agent. (biofoundations.org)
- There are a number of biological effects of apigenin in numerous mammalian systems in vitro as well as in vivo, due to its low intrinsic toxicity and because of its striking effects on normal versus cancer cells. (biofoundations.org)
- Furthermore, human recombinant DR5/Fc chimera protein and caspase inhibitors dramatically inhibit apoptosis induced by the combination of apigenin and TRAIL. (aacrjournals.org)
- Recently, apigenin was also shown to inhibit the motility and invasiveness of carcinoma cells in vitro ( 4 , 5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- In this regard, using siRNA to inhibit CK2 activity induced apoptosis and enhanced the cytotoxic effect of melphalan on MM cells. (biomedcentral.com)
- Curcumin has been shown to inhibit metastasis, invasion, and angiogenesis in animal models and to induce cell death in leukemia cell lines. (lifeextension.com)
- Further study demonstrated that 3a could selectively inhibit the apoptosis induction and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation by enhancing the activity of catalase (CAT) in H O -treated human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. (bireme.br)
- Certain natural products have been shown to inhibit the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF- κ B) and Akt signaling pathways, both of which are known to maintain a homeostatic balance between cell survival and apoptosis. (scirp.org)
- This review outlines the development of novel proteasome inhibitors from preclinical to clinical studies, highlighting their abilities to inhibit the tumor proteasome and induce apoptosis in several human cancers. (oalib.com)
- Furthermore, in vivo administration of apigenin resulted in attenuation of tumor growth in U937 xenografts accompanied by inactivation of Akt and activation of JNK. (aacrjournals.org)
- Attenuation of tumor growth in U937 xenografts by apigenin raises the possibility that apigenin may have clinical implications and can be further tested for incorporating in leukemia treatment regimens. (aacrjournals.org)
- The naturally occurring glycosides formed by the combination of apigenin with sugars include: Apiin (apigenin 7-O-apioglucoside), isolated from parsley and celery Apigetrin (apigenin 7-glucoside), found in dandelion coffee Vitexin (apigenin 8-C-glucoside) Isovitexin (apigenin 6-C-glucosid) Rhoifolin (apigenin 7-O-neohesperidoside) Schaftoside (apigenin 6-C-glucoside 8-C-arabinoside) Amentoflavone Merck Index, 11th Edition, 763. (wikipedia.org)
- In this study, we investigated the functional role of Akt and c- jun -NH 2 -kinase (JNK) signaling cascades in apigenin-induced apoptosis in U937 human leukemia cells and anti-leukemic activity of apigenin in vivo . (aacrjournals.org)
- Conversely, LY294002 and a dominant-negative construct of Akt potentiated apigenin-induced apoptosis in leukemia cells. (aacrjournals.org)
- Interruption of the JNK pathway showed marked reduction in apigenin-induced caspase activation and apoptosis in leukemia cells. (aacrjournals.org)
- In this report, we show for the first time that apigenin markedly induces the expression of death receptor 5 (DR5) and synergistically acts with exogenous soluble recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) to induce apoptosis in malignant tumor cells. (aacrjournals.org)
- TRAIL is a promising candidate for cancer therapeutics due to its ability to selectively induce apoptosis in cancer cells. (aacrjournals.org)
- On the other hand, apigenin-mediated induction of DR5 expression is not observed in normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. (aacrjournals.org)
- Moreover, apigenin does not sensitize normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. (aacrjournals.org)
- Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis in various types of malignant tumor cells through its interaction with the death domain-containing receptor, death receptor 5 (DR5), which is also called TRAIL-R2 ( 15 - 18 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- However, some tumor cells are resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis ( 22 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- In this study, we show for the first time that apigenin up-regulates DR5 expression and synergistically enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis in various types of malignant tumor cells, but not in normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). (aacrjournals.org)
- To investigate potential anticancer properties of apigenin on human breast cancer, ER-positive MCF-7 and triple-negative MDA MB-231 cells were used. (springer.com)
- Moreover, toxicological safety of apigenin towards normal cells was evaluated in human lymphocytes. (springer.com)
- Furthermore, apigenin proved to be genotoxic towards the selected cancer cells with a potential to induce oxidative damage to lipids. (springer.com)
- The observed cytogenotoxic and pro-cell death activities of apigenin coupled with its low toxicity towards normal cells indicate that this natural product could be used as a future anticancer modality. (springer.com)
- X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) is a suppressor of apoptosis that supports an increased survival and resistance to chemotherapy of human prostate cancer (PCa) cells. (nature.com)
- We found that transient downregulation of XIAP by siRNAs resulted in an increase of apoptosis and a decrease in Bcl-2 levels and sensitized PCa cells to cisplatin. (nature.com)
- 8 , 9 The IAP family member survivin was also shown to interfere with hormonal therapy 10 and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) contributed to the resistance of circulating prostate cells to anoikis. (nature.com)
- Constitutive depletion of antiapoptotic proteins in cancer cells can promote further changes leading to resistance rather than susceptibility to apoptosis. (nature.com)
- Apigenin induces the apoptosis of colon cancer cells. (greenmedinfo.com)
- Carnosic acid cooperates with tamoxifen to induce apoptosis in breast cancer cells. (greenmedinfo.com)
- Ganoderma lucidum triterpenes induce apoptosis in MCF-7 cells and attenuate DMBA induced mammary and skin carcinomas. (greenmedinfo.com)
- The treatment also downregulated the expression of the antiapoptotic proteins Mcl-1, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, XIAP and Survivin, which ultimately induced apoptosis in MM cells. (biomedcentral.com)
- Our results suggest that the primary mechanisms by which apigenin kill MM cells is by targeting the trinity of CK2-Cdc37-Hsp90, and this observation reveals the therapeutic potential of apigenin in treating multiple myeloma. (biomedcentral.com)
- Here, we study the effect of apigenin on motility, invasion, and its mechanism of action in metastatic prostate carcinoma cells (PC3-M). We found that apigenin inhibits PC3-M cell motility in a scratch-wound assay. (aacrjournals.org)
- Alterations in the cytoskeleton are consistent with impaired cell movement in apigenin-treated cells. (aacrjournals.org)
- Furthermore, apigenin-treated cells adhere more strongly to the extracellular matrix. (aacrjournals.org)
- These results show that apigenin inhibits motility and invasion of prostate carcinoma cells, disrupts actin cytoskeleton organization, and inhibits FAK/Src signaling. (aacrjournals.org)
- Apigenin was shown to be nonmutagenic in the Ames assay and in Chinese hamster V79 cells ( 11 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Neuroprotective Effects of 1,2-Diarylpropane Type Phenylpropanoid Enantiomers from Red Raspberry against H O -Induced Oxidative Stress in Human Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells. (bireme.br)
- In addition, their neuroprotective effects against H O -induced oxidative stress in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were investigated, and the results showed enantioselectivity, in which that 3a exhibited noticeable neuroprotective activity, while its enatiomer 3b exhibited no obvious protective effect. (bireme.br)
- Licochalcone D induces apoptosis and inhibits migration and invasion in human melanoma A375 cells. (amedeo.com)
- Nodal induced by hypoxia exposure contributes to dacarbazine resistance and the maintenance of stemness in melanoma cancer stemlike cells. (amedeo.com)
- Cancer cells have some marked features i.e., they tune out the signals of proliferation and differentiation, they are capable to sustain proliferation, they overcome the apoptosis, and they have power of invasion and angiogenesis. (frontiersin.org)
- Apigenin dimers can reverse the highest level of drug resistance found in cancer stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
- In vitro studies have shown that apigenin may be toxic to red blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
- Apigenin may also stimulate adult neurogenesis, with at least one study claiming that apigenin "stimulate[s] adult neurogenesis in vivo and in vitro, by promoting neuronal differentiation" and may be useful "for stimulating adult neurogenesis and for the treatment of neurological diseases, disorders and injuries, by stimulating the generation of neuronal cells in the adult brain. (wikipedia.org)
- Through effects on cell signaling, inflammation, cell cycle, and protease production, apigenin has demonstrated effectiveness against a wide range of cancer types, while not showing toxicity to normal cells. (wikipedia.org)
- An induced overexpression of CK2α potentially enhanced the sensitivity of U937 cells to the apigenin-induced cell death. (aacrjournals.org)
- Cell viability and apoptosis of SH-SY5Y cells were determined by CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry, respectively. (springer.com)
- Xu J, Wei C, Xu C, Bennett MC, Zhang G, Li F, Tao E (2007) Rifampicin protects PC12 cells against MPP+-induced apoptosis and inhibits the expression of an alpha-Synuclein multimer. (springer.com)
- In laboratory studies and at high doses, apigenin inactivated the estrogen receptor and inhibited the growth of HER-2 neu positive breast cancer cells. (vitalitymagazine.com)
- Apigenin also inhibited NF-κB, a biochemical switch that turns on cancer-promoting genes, and encouraged cell death in breast cancer cells. (vitalitymagazine.com)
- However, previous studies have indicated that AA can induce oxidative stress in renal cells leading to nephropathy. (spandidos-publications.com)
- The results indicated that AA markedly induced H2O2 levels and caspase‑3 activity in renal tubular epithelial cells. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Various studies have demonstrated that oxidative stress can induce cell apoptosis or cell necrosis ( 30 - 32 ), and consequently AA-induced oxidative stress can cause apoptosis or necrosis of renal cells ( 29 , 33 - 35 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
- Conclusion: Our data demonstrate for the first time that AAE alters expression of NDUFS7 and NDUFV2 mitochondrial subunits and induce epigenetic changes in HEp-2 cancer cells leading to a possible suppression of oncogenes. (eurekaselect.com)
- However, the antibody did not activate tmTNF-α-mediated reverse signaling, which facilitates tumor survival and resistance to apoptosis, but instead inhibited NF-κB activation and Bcl-2 expression by decreasing tmTNF-α-positive cells. (aacrjournals.org)
- Subtoxic concentrations of AFMC sensitize human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549 cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. (biomedcentral.com)
- The caspase-3 inhibitor zDEVD-fmk and the caspase-8 inhibitor zIETD-fmk blocked the apoptosis of A549 cells induced by co-treatment with AFMC and TRAIL. (biomedcentral.com)
- In addition, we found that treatment of A549 cells with AFMC significantly induced the expression of death receptor 5 (DR5). (biomedcentral.com)
- In contrast, AFMC-mediated induction of DR5 expression was not observed in human embryo lung WI-38 cells, and AFMC did not sensitize WI-38 cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. (biomedcentral.com)
- AFMC synergistically enhances TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in NSCLC cells through up-regulating DR5 expression. (biomedcentral.com)
- 2014). The activation of RELA (v-rel avian reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog A, also known as p65), a member of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) family, also decreases miR-23a expression in leukemic cells, inducing GLS expression (Rathore et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- In mouse embryo fibroblast cells, DUSP1 protein abundance is greatly increased after oxidative stress in a p53-dependent manner and also when apoptosis is triggered. (aacrjournals.org)
- Apigenin induces apoptosis via extrinsic pathway, inducing p53 and inhibiting STAT3 and NF B signaling in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells. (bioon.com.cn)
- Sulforaphane inhibits constitutive and interleukin-6-induced activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 in prostate cancer cells. (bioon.com.cn)
- Cells that are under oxidative stress may undergo apoptosis. (springer.com)
- We have previously demonstrated that oxidative stress-induced apoptosis could be a potential mechanism mediating chromosome breakages in nasopharyngeal epithelial cells. (springer.com)
- Hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) was used to induce apoptosis in normal nasopharyngeal epithelial cells (NP69) and NPC cells (HK1). (springer.com)
- These results reaffirm our previous findings that oxidative stress-induced apoptosis could be one of the potential mechanisms underlying chromosome breakages in nasopharyngeal epithelial cells. (springer.com)
- Chamomile contains a chemical known as apigenin, which according to scientists has the power to reduce the lifespan of cancer cells and prevent its spreading. (valuefood.info)
- Chamomile was also found to induce apoptosis in cancer cells without affecting the normal cells. (valuefood.info)
- For instance, when a survival gene like AKT (RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase) is up-regulated in MSCs by genetic engineering methods, the survival of the stem cells has increased permanently and apoptosis rate has decreased remarkably. (ac.ir)
- Iba-1 and α-tubulin immunocytochemistry was done to study the LPS- and β-amyloid-induced morphological changes in microglial cells. (biomedcentral.com)
- Deng Y, Bi R, Guo H, Yang J, Du Y, Wang C, Wei W. Andrographolide Enhances TRAIL-Induced Apoptosis via p53 -Mediated Death Receptors Up-Regulation and Suppression of the NF-кB Pathway in Bladder Cancer Cells. (ijbs.com)
- Our results showed that combination treatment of Andro and TRAIL retarded growth, attenuated proliferation, decreased colony formation, inhibited migration and promoted caspases-mediated apoptosis in T24 cells. (ijbs.com)
- These results indicated that non-toxic doses of Andrographolide sensitized bladder cancer cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis, suggesting it as an effective therapeutic agent for TRAIL resistant human bladder cancers. (ijbs.com)
- Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), has been reported as a candidate for cancer treatment due to its selective inducement of apoptosis in cancer cells while sparing normal cells [ 4 , 5 ]. (ijbs.com)
- induction of RANKL in mammary-gland epithelial cells while deletion of RANKL decreases the incidence MPA-induced breast cancer. (blogspot.com)
- C-terminal subunit binds directly to Lyn through interactions with the Lyn SH3 and SH2 tein is expressed on multiple myeloma cells and is induced by dexamethasone. (blogspot.com)
- In 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, the result revealed α-mangostin and apigenin were more cytotoxic to BT474 cells. (apjtb.org)
- Longer exposure times to α-mangostin and apigenin caused more floating cells and a lower density of adhered cells with more vacuoles present in the colonies in BT474 only. (apjtb.org)
- α-Mangostin and apigenin caused necrosis in BT474 cells in a 24 h exposure, but a small amount of early apoptotic cells could also be detected at 24, 48 and 72 h exposure, whereas doxorubicin caused early apoptosis to BT474 cells at 24 h. (apjtb.org)
- Aloe-emodin induced in vitro G2/M arrest of cell cycle in human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells. (blogspot.com)
- HRPC has been also associated with abrogation of apoptosis and multiple changes in intracellular signaling pathways. (nature.com)
- Apigenin's chemopreventive activity in multiple organ sites is likely tied to its ability to modulate pathways involved in cell cycle control ( 12 , 19 , 20 ), apoptosis ( 12 , 16 , 21 , 22 ), and signal transduction ( 12 , 19 , 23 - 25 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Chronic UV responses result in dysregulation of apoptosis leading to abnormal proliferation of keratinocytes containing DNA damage, acquisition of p53 mutations and alterations in signal transduction pathways, all of which contribute to the onset of skin cancer (9). (redorbit.com)
- Here we focus on the ability of natural cancer chemopreventive agents to induce apoptosis, and attempt to provide evidence for the preventive and therapeutic effects of natural compounds, EGCG, quercetin, and curcumin, in a succinct manner highlightingκand Akt signaling pathways in vivo . (scirp.org)
- Concerning apoptosis, caspase-dependent and caspase-independent pathways have been reported previously ( 36 , 37 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
- Therefore, research continues to focus on the pathways followed by key proteins involved in cell cycle progression and apoptosis. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Trimerization of the death domains leads to the recruitment and activation of Fas-associated death domain protein, which promotes transmission of an apoptotic signal and induces apoptosis via both the extrinsic and intrinsic mitochondrial pathways [ 6 , 8 , 9 ]. (ijbs.com)
- Thus, the expression of DR5 may contribute to the tumor-selective induction of apoptosis mediated by TRAIL. (aacrjournals.org)
- Nho, C.W. The chemopreventive effects of Saussurea salicifolia through induction of apoptosis and phase II detoxification enzyme. (eurekaselect.com)
- Our data suggest that TFB has a signicant anti-arthritic effect in AA through the induction of apoptosis in synovial. (biomedcentral.com)
- AE induced p53 expression and was accompanied by the induction of p21 and caspase-3 activation, which was associated with apoptosis. (blogspot.com)
- P105/RELA or cREL is processed to NF-κB1 (p50)/RELA or cREL heterodimers, which translocate to the nucleus and bind promoters of genes regulating proliferation, apoptosis, migration inflammation, angiogenesis, and innate immunity. (aacrjournals.org)
- It is generally accepted that multiple cellular events, such as ionic imbalance, excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, apoptosis, inflammation, and necrosis involve the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke injury ( 3 ). (ijbs.com)
- In the present study, angiotensin-II infusion (1 μg/kg/min) in ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation mice model significantly decreased immune cell infiltration, goblet cell hyperplasia, and eosinophil numbers in lungs. (medworm.com)
- In conclusion, Z20, as a potential TLR4-MD2 inhibitor, effectively attenuated LPS-induced organ injury and inflammation. (medworm.com)
- AIMS: The objective of this study was to identify the phytochemical profile and to evaluate the biological effects of the crude ethanolic extract (EE) and the ethanolic fraction (EF) of leaves of the species Cissus spinosa Cambess, after oxidative stress induced by cyclophosphamide (CP) in mice. (pucrs.br)
- Additionally, caspase-activated DNase (CAD) may be the vital player in mediating the chromosomal breakages during oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. (springer.com)
- We hypothesised that oxidative stress-induced apoptosis may result in chromosome breaks preferentially at the MAR/SAR sites. (springer.com)
- MAR/SAR may play a vital role in defining the location of chromosomal breakages mediated by oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, where CAD is the major nuclease. (springer.com)
- For instance, CK2 counteract apoptosis by protecting Bid from tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced caspase-8-mediated degradation ( 17 , 18 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising anti-cancer agent. (biomedcentral.com)
- TRAIL specifically binds to cell-death receptors DR4 or DR5 (also named tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 10 TNFRSF10A and TNFRSF10B, respectively), resulting in trimerization of the receptor and clustering of the intracellular death domain of the receptor and leading to death-inducing signaling complex formation [ 6 , 7 ]. (ijbs.com)
- Together, kinase assays, immunoprecipitation and western blot analysis showed that apigenin inhibited CK2 kinase activity, decreased phosphorylation of Cdc37, disassociated the Hsp90/Cdc37/client complex and induced the degradation of multiple kinase clients, including RIP1, Src, Raf-1, Cdk4 and AKT. (biomedcentral.com)
- Apigenin and luteolin prevented MMP1-induced FAK activation, but not constitutive FAK phosphorylation. (frontiersin.org)
- Additionally, apigenin decreases activation of FAK and Src, and phosphorylation of Src substrates FAK Y576/577 and Y925. (aacrjournals.org)
- CK2 is also involved in the phosphorylation of several proteins related to apoptosis, including apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain ( 18 , 19 ), p53 ( 20 ), nuclear factor-κB ( 21 ), inhibitor of κB ( 22 ), as well as c-Myc ( 23 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Signal-induced phosphorylation and ubiquitination of the 105 and p100 precursors and IκBs results in proteasome-mediated processing of NF-κB1 (p50), NF-κB2 (p52), and IκBs. (aacrjournals.org)
- MAPKs are activated via phosphorylation on threonine and tyrosine and are inactivated by a unique family of dual specificity phosphatases, MAPK phosphatases, which are encoded by immediate early genes and induced in response to environmental stressors and growth factor stimulation. (aacrjournals.org)
- These findings revealed a neuroprotective effect of APG, which possibly induced by the STAT3 phosphorylation-mediated Mn-SOD up-regulation. (ijbs.com)
- Constitutively active myristolated Akt prevented apigenin-induced JNK, caspase activation, and apoptosis. (aacrjournals.org)
- Although certain mechanisms of AA-induced cell death remain unclear, the caspase activation may be associated with AA-induced apoptosis ( 38 , 39 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
- Apigenin (4′,5,7-trihydroxyflavone, AP), an active component of many medicinal Chinese herbs, exhibits anticancer properties in vitro and in vivo . (biomedcentral.com)
- LEMON BALM AND PARSLEY - These herbs contain apigenin which has powerful antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties to protect the breasts. (vitalitymagazine.com)
- The topical application of apigenin in mice decreases the number and size of tumors in the skin induced by chemical carcinogens ( 2 ) or by UV exposure in vivo ( 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Moreover, apigenin inhibits melanoma growth and metastatic potential in vivo by i.p. administration ( 6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Among the fractions mainly containing the single phenols hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, the polyphenol acid elenolic acid, the lignans (+)-pinoresinol and 1-(+)-acetoxypinoresinol, and the secoiridoids deacetoxy oleuropein aglycone, ligstroside aglycone, and oleuropein aglycone, all the major EVOO polyphenols ( i.e. secoiridoids and lignans) were found to induce strong tumoricidal effects within a micromolar range by selectively triggering high levels of apoptotic cell death in HER2-overexpressors. (biomedcentral.com)
- Dietary flavonoid apigenin is expected to have preventive and therapeutic potential against malignant tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
- thus, the ability to induce apoptosis and suppress cell growth is a promising therapeutic approach and a highly active area of cancer research. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Novel therapeutic strategies for multiple myeloma Naoya Mimura1, Teru Hideshima2, apoptosis is then triggered as a terminal cellular response . (blogspot.com)
- Therefore, transforming growth factor-β and apoptotic index may be used to assess apigenin and its effect on ciclosporin-induced renal damage. (wikipedia.org)
- In conclusion, the findings from the present investigation demonstrate that GFA pre-administration can significantly prevent cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity, which may be related to its antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and antiinflammatory effects' - See Panax ginseng at Amazon.com . (qualitycounts.com)
- Apigenin is expected to be a promising cancer-preventive agent contained in foods. (aacrjournals.org)
- Gastroprotective activities of adlay on the growth of the stomach cancer AGS cell line and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcers. (greenmedinfo.com)
- Apigenin and luteolin were tested in a three-dimensional (3-D) assay consisting of MDA-MB231 breast cancer spheroids and immortalized lymph endothelial cell (LEC) monolayers. (frontiersin.org)
- Apigenin inhibits the activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway in numerous cell types including prostate cancer cell lines ( 12 , 19 ), potentially by blocking the ATP binding site of phosphoinositide 3-kinase ( 26 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- As cell and tissue homeostasis are mediated by the balance between proliferation and apoptosis, controlling this balance is important for cancer chemoprevention. (scirp.org)
- Sun, S.Y., Hail, N. Jr. and Lotan, R. (2004) Apoptosis as a novel target for cancer chemoprevention. (scirp.org)
- Major carcinogens and oncogenic viruses induce NF-κB activation, and a variety of subsequent oncogenic events contribute to a progressive increase in constitutive NF-κB activation as an important common pathway in most forms of cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
- The aim of the present review was to provide an overall summary of the presently available data on the modulation of the process of apoptosis by flavones in different types of cancer. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Recent progress in Andro-specific research confirmed its effectiveness and specificity in promoting cancer-cell apoptosis [ 17 ]. (ijbs.com)
- α-Mangostin and apigenin are worth investigating as potential new sources of chemotherapeutic agents for breast cancer treatment. (apjtb.org)
- ß-catenin nuclear translocation induced by HIF-1a overexpression leads to the radioresistance of prostate cancer. (abcam.co.jp)
- We also previously reported that apigenin induces cell cycle arrest ( 11 ) and p21/WAF1 up-regulation in a tumor suppressor p53-independent manner ( 12 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Arango D, Parihar A, Villamena FA, Wang L, Freitas MA, Grotewold E, Doseff AI (2012) Apigenin induces DNA damage through the PKCδ-dependent activation of ATM and H2AX causing down-regulation of genes involved in cell cycle control and DNA repair. (springer.com)
- Ashwagandha effect on microglial proliferation, migration, and its apoptosis-inducing potential was studied by cell cycle analysis, migration assay, and Annexin-V FITC assay, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
- Moreover, α-mangostin and apigenin arrested the cell-cycle at the G 1 -phase, but at the G 2 /M-phase by doxorubicin. (apjtb.org)
- Bai H, Jin H, Yang F, Zhu H, Cai J (2014) Apigenin induced MCF-7 cell apoptosis-associated reactive oxygen species. (springer.com)
- At molecular level, ASH ameliorated the HFD-induced reactive gliosis and microgliosis and suppressed the expression of inflammatory markers such as PPARγ, iNOS, MCP-1, TNFα, IL-1β, and IL-6. (biomedcentral.com)
- METHODS: To elucidate the underlying electrophysiological mechanisms a diet-induced obese mouse model was used. (bvsalud.org)
- The current study was designed to test the hypothesis whether dry leaf powder of W . somnifera has anxiolytic and anti-neuroinflammatory potential in diet-induced obesity. (biomedcentral.com)
- An induced overexpression of CK2α increased the levels of Ser 473 phosphorylated (p)-Akt/protein kinase B (PKB), p-PDK1, pFKHR, p-BAD, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Mcl-1, and XIAP. (aacrjournals.org)
- EVOO polyphenols-induced HER2 downregulation occurred regardless the molecular mechanism contributing to HER2 overexpression ( i.e . naturally by gene amplification and ectopically driven by a viral promoter). (biomedcentral.com)
- Luteolin suppresses development of medroxyprogesterone acetate-accelerated 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced mammary tumors in Sprague-Dawley rats. (nih.gov)
- Raspberry ketone protects against isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats. (bireme.br)
- AIM: The cardioprotective role of raspberry ketone (RK) against isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction (MI) in rats was assessed. (bireme.br)
- Apigenin has been shown to prevent renal damage caused by ciclosporin in rats, associated with reduced expression of the cell death mediator bcl-2 in histopathological sections. (wikipedia.org)
- Apigenin fed by gavage inhibits prostate tumor xenograft growth in mice through up-regulation of insulin-like growth factor-3 ( 12 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Nephroprotective Effects of Anthocyanin from the Fruits of Panax ginseng (GFA) on Cisplatin-Induced Acute Kidney Injury in Mice - Phytother Res. (qualitycounts.com)