Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Th17 Cells: Subset of helper-effector T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete IL-17, IL-17F, and IL-22. These cytokines are involved in host defenses and tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases.Th1-Th2 Balance: Homeostatic control of the immune system by secretion of different cytokines by the Th1 and Th2 cells. The concentration dependent binding of the various cytokines to specific receptors determines the balance (or imbalance leading to disease).Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Interleukin-17: A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer: Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.Mice, Inbred BALB CHistory, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Mice, Inbred C57BLHistory, 15th Century: Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.History, 16th Century: Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.GATA3 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is found predominately in LYMPHOID CELL precursors and has been implicated in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of HELPER T-CELLS. Haploinsufficiency of GATA3 is associated with HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; and renal anomalies syndrome.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Interleukin-12: A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC 1.14.16.2.Interleukins: Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.Interleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 1, Group F, Member 3: An orphan nuclear receptor found in the THYMUS where it plays a role in regulating the development and maturation of thymocytes. An isoform of this protein, referred to as RORgammaT, is produced by an alternatively transcribed mRNA.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Interleukin-13: A cytokine synthesized by T-LYMPHOCYTES that produces proliferation, immunoglobulin isotype switching, and immunoglobulin production by immature B-LYMPHOCYTES. It appears to play a role in regulating inflammatory and immune responses.Interleukin-5: A cytokine that promotes differentiation and activation of EOSINOPHILS. It also triggers activated B-LYMPHOCYTES to differentiate into IMMUNOGLOBULIN-secreting cells.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Interleukin-23: A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-23 is comprised of a unique 19 kDa subunit and 40 kDa subunit that is shared with INTERLEUKIN-12. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cellsT-Box Domain Proteins: Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.STAT6 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-4. Stat6 has been shown to partner with NF-KAPPA B and CCAAT-ENHANCER-BINDING PROTEINS to regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of interleukin-4 responsive GENES.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Adoptive Transfer: Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.STAT4 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-12 in T-LYMPHOCYTES. Stat4 is an important signaling molecule for differentiation in TH1 CELLS.Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental: An experimental animal model for central nervous system demyelinating disease. Inoculation with a white matter emulsion combined with FREUND'S ADJUVANT, myelin basic protein, or purified central myelin triggers a T cell-mediated immune response directed towards central myelin. The pathologic features are similar to MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, including perivascular and periventricular foci of inflammation and demyelination. Subpial demyelination underlying meningeal infiltrations also occurs, which is also a feature of ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, ACUTE DISSEMINATED. Passive immunization with T-cells from an afflicted animal to a normal animal also induces this condition. (From Immunol Res 1998;17(1-2):217-27; Raine CS, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p604-5)Allergens: Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Research Personnel: Those individuals engaged in research.Research Support as Topic: Financial support of research activities.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Pharmacies: Facilities for the preparation and dispensing of drugs.National Institutes of Health (U.S.): An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
  • Interleukin-9 produced by TH9 cells promotes survival of leukocytes such as CD4+, mast cells and others as well as promote growth of mast cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Double immunfluorescnce staining has confirmed that some of these infiltrating cells consist of mast cells, Th2 and Th9 cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • IL-5 is mostly secreted by allergen-reactive T cells, mast cells, and eosinophils [ 5 ]. (medsci.org)
  • HSPCs are capable of differentiating into basophils and mast cells that are potent producers of the type 2 cytokine IL‐4. (els.net)
  • IgE can bind to the high-affinity IgE receptor FcεRI on basophils and mast cells. (jci.org)
  • Allergen-specific IgE binds to FcεRI on mast cells and basophils. (jci.org)
  • Subsequent exposure to the culprit allergen can trigger IgE-mediated FcεRI cross-linking on mast cells and basophils, leading to a type I hypersensitivity reaction. (jci.org)
  • IL-9 was found to be the first physiological stimulus triggering BCL3 expression in T cells and mast cells by the analysis done in mouse. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mast cells are long-lived, innate immune cells of the myeloid lineage which are found in peripheral tissues located throughout the body, and positioned at the interface between the host and the environment. (bioscirep.org)
  • Mast cells are found in high concentrations during helminth infection. (bioscirep.org)
  • Using Kit w-sh mast cell deficient mice, a recently published study in Bioscience Reports by Gonzalez et al. (bioscirep.org)
  • Rep., 2018) focused on the role of mast cells in the immune response to infection by the helminth Hymenolepis diminuta . (bioscirep.org)
  • The authors showed that mast cells play a role in the modulation of Th2 immune response characterized by a unique IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 cytokine profile, as well as subsequent robust worm expulsion during H. diminuta infection. (bioscirep.org)
  • However, interactions between mast cells and other innate and adaptive immune cells during helminth infections are yet to be fully clarified. (bioscirep.org)
  • Mast cell development and survival are dependent on the surface expression of the receptor tyrosine kinase c-kit, present in the W-locus (chromosome 5) in mice. (bioscirep.org)
  • In addition to mutant Kit-based mast cell deficient mice, ( Kit W-sh/W-sh and WBB6F1- KitW/Wv ), genetically modified mouse models such as Mcpt5Cre and Cpa3Cre have been shown to be useful in addressing the function of MC in vivo [ 3 ]. (bioscirep.org)
  • Mast cell degranulation and activation of Th2 cells triggered either by allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) or by alternative mechanisms, such as locally produced neurotransmitters, underlie the pathophysiological process of airway constriction during an asthma attack. (cdc.gov)
  • Yet specific immunotherapy risks allergic reactions including anaphylaxis as a consequence of preformed allergen-specific IgE antibodies binding to the protein, subsequent cross-linking and mast cell degranulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Pre-existing allergen-specific IgE can bind to multiple sites on protein allergen, leading to IgE cross-linking on mast cells, inducing mast cell degranulation and subsequent allergic reactions, even anaphylaxis [ 18 - 20 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Applications Tested: This 3E4 antibody has been tested by intracellular staining and flow cytometric analysis of stimulated normal human peripheral blood cells using the Foxp3/Transcription Factor Buffer Set (cat 00-5523) and protocol. (fishersci.com)
  • However, using both a tamoxifen-responsive inducible Foxp3 retroviral construct and TGF-β-induced iTreg cells from hCD2-Foxp3 knock in reporter mice, we show that it is prior antigen-induced activation rather than Foxp3 expression per se that determines the ability of iTreg cells to competitively cluster around DCs. (nih.gov)
  • STAT6 repress the expression of transcription factors T-bet and Foxp3 in TH9 cells, that normally block IL-9 production. (wikipedia.org)
  • GATA-3 in TH9 cells development represses transcriptional factor FOXP3, which would other wise let to other T helper cell subpopulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • TGF- phosphorylates Smad3, leading to the forming of Smad3/Smad4 heterodimers, that may translocate towards the nucleus and bind towards the enhancer (conserved noncoding series 1 [CNS, inducing Foxp3 expression (18, 19). (mysleepschool.com)
  • In addition to publications and presentations at scientific meetings, specialist and lay audiences will be reached via the group's websites and social media, Cardiff University, the British Society for Immunology, the γδ T-cell Forum and via the engagement and involvement activities of the Systems Immunity URI in Cardiff and the Centre of the Cell in London. (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • Immunology and Cell Biology 88, no. 6 (2010): 624-31. (humanzyme.com)
  • Students in life sciences with an interest in performing a master thesis or MD thesis in human T cell biology/tumor immunology may contact C. Schlapbach directly via email. (insel.ch)
  • Here, we will demonstrate the soft agar colony formation assay using a murine lung carcinoma cell line, CMT167, to demonstrate the tumor suppressive effects of two members of the Wnt signaling pathway, Wnt7A and Frizzled-9 (Fzd-9). (jove.com)
  • relevance in murine CMV infection (focus on CD4+ T-cells producing IL-10 or IL-22). (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • Isolation and subsequent analysis of murine lamina propria mononuclear cells from colonic tissue. (uk-erlangen.de)
  • NADH dehydrogenase complex I is overexpressed in incipient metastatic murine colon cancer cells. (abcam.com)
  • Liver X receptor β activation induces pyroptosis of human and murine colon cancer cells. (bio-protocol.org)
  • The innate immune system is not only the first line of defense against microbes in vertebrates, but also critical for the activation and development of adaptive immunity, including various types of T cells [ 11 - 15 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Many of these cells produce IL-17 upon TCR stimulation and may promote host protective immunity and intestinal homeostasis. (ecco-ibd.eu)
  • Here, we review the recent advances in understanding the functions of CD4 + T cells in immunity and in immune tolerance, and their use for ACT. (frontiersin.org)
  • Each type of CD4 + T helper (Th) cells is endowed with a specific cytokine profile that regulates adaptive and innate immunity. (frontiersin.org)
  • Due to their multiple functions in immunity and immune tolerance, targeting CD4 + T cells has important clinical applications to treat cancer and chronic viral diseases, or to induce tolerance in autoimmune diseases and allograft. (frontiersin.org)
  • Our recent data demonstrate a striking plasticity of γδ T-cells to modulate immunity at epithelial sites and during infection. (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • Th cells are important mediators of adaptive immunity and involved in various diseases. (flt-3inhibitors.com)
  • Furthermore to IL-17F and IL-17A, Th17 cells generate IL-22 and IL-21 and so are very important to immunity against extracellular bacterias and fungi, but also donate to the pathology of autoimmune illnesses and hypersensitive irritation (16C20). (plant-finder.com)
  • In addition to IL-17A and IL-17F, Th17 cells create IL-21 and IL-22 and are important for immunity against extracellular Epacadostat inhibition bacteria and fungi, but also contribute to the pathology of autoimmune diseases and sensitive swelling (16C20). (elegantindulgence.net)
  • Collectively, innate and adaptive immune cells produce multiple effector molecules that contribute to the development of protective antihelminth immunity (e). (els.net)
  • Dendritic cells (DCs) constitute a diverse set of hematopoietic cell types that play important roles in innate and adaptive immunity. (bdbiosciences.com)
  • In this way, T cells may additionally instruct the professional APCs, which can promote different types of T-cell-dependent immunity or tolerance. (bdbiosciences.com)
  • Moreover, the possible contribution of innate immune cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) to the modulation of adaptive immunity will be outlined in this review. (springer.com)
  • Intracellular Helicobacter pylori induces temporal waves in macrophage immunity. (nimml.org)
  • Next we investigated how innate pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) may facilitate the recognition of H. pylori to subsequently induce classic molecular cascades that efficiently modulate immunity. (nimml.org)
  • Th9 Cells Drive Host Immunity against Gastrointestinal Worm Infection. (springer.com)
  • CD4+ T helper 2 cells (TH2) that drive Type 2 immunity are critical for host-protection against parasitic helminths that cause significant morbidity and mortality in more than 2 billion people world-wide. (grantome.com)
  • Here, we provide evidence that Trefoil factor 2 (TFF2), a mucus-stabilizing protein known to repair damaged epithelia, is central to the initiation of TH2 cells and development of Type 2 immunity. (grantome.com)
  • Th1 cells mediate Cell mediated Immunity, through activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. (blogspot.com)
  • This further induces production of IL-17 & IL-22 which signal massive recruitment of neutrophils and cellular based immunity. (blogspot.com)
  • Since T cells are not only responsible for controlling tumor cells and pathogens, but also provide important mechanisms of tissue repair, the scientists mainly focus on T cells and the direct and indirect impact of microbial factors on T cell-mediated immunity as a central and unifying theme of their work. (twincore.de)
  • 2017. MyD88 signaling in dendritic cells and the intestinal epithelium controls immunity against intestinal infection with C. rodentium. (twincore.de)
  • Because of the robust tumor immunity mediated by T H 9 cells in mice, we hypothesize that they can be found at higher numbers in the immune infiltrate of primary melanomas compared to metastasized melanoma, since metastasis requires immune evasion of the tumor, and that the number of T H 9 cells correlates with disease prognosis. (insel.ch)
  • However studies carried out in our lab have shown strong downregulation of TLR2 and TLR4 in B cells and monocytes of newly diagnosed T2DM subjects which was mainly due to the upregulation of immunomodulatory enzymes indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), arginase-1, and heme oxygenase-1, indicating that chronic hyperglycemia can impair immunity by downregulating TLR manifestation . (biomarketx.net)
  • The gastrointestinal tract represents one of the most challenging sites for the immune system as immune cells must be able to mount an efficient response to invading pathogens while living peacefully with the diverse commensal microbiota. (ecco-ibd.eu)
  • So-called 'unconventional' lymphocytes sense pathogens, regulate recruitment and function of other immune cells, and help protect the skin and intestine. (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • Helminths trigger a specific type of immune response different from that induced by microbial pathogens. (els.net)
  • 1,5,7,12 This sensing of damaged cells or pathogens allows DCs to carry out their sentinel-like functions to maintain the body's integrity. (bdbiosciences.com)
  • Innate immune cells are recognized for their rapid and critical contribution to the body's first line of defense against invading pathogens and harmful agents. (springer.com)
  • Functional heterogeneity of human memory CD4 + T cell primed by pathogens or vaccines. (focisnet.org)
  • In this study, Becattini et al examine whether individual pathogens (including a fungus, bacteria and a vaccine) instigate one predominant subtype of human CD4 + helper cells and whether a single antigen specific clone can differentiate to multiple subtypes. (focisnet.org)
  • DCs are part of the innate immune system that recognize microbial-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) from pathogens via pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and are at present crucial target cells for vaccination. (twincore.de)
  • They discovered receptors that alerted the second arm of the immune system, the more familiar T cells and B cells that attack pathogens. (blogspot.com)
  • Th17 plasticity, CC-5013 inhibitor the capability to acquire various other T helper cell phenotypes, is certainly reflected with the elevated expression of the stem cell personal and bivalent chromatin marks at T helper lineage transcription elements that enable responsiveness towards the cytokine environment (31C34). (plant-finder.com)
  • T helper cell subtypes and characteristics. (blogspot.com)
  • Helminth parasites promote the production of cytokine alarmins from both epithelial cells and tissue‐resident immune cells (a). (els.net)
  • Liver X receptor ligand cytotoxicity in colon cancer cells and not in normal colon epithelial cells depends on LXRβ subcellular localization. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Autonomous Cure of Damaged Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells by TLR2 and TLR4-Dependent Production of IL-22 in Response to Spirulina Polysaccharides. (humanzyme.com)
  • One such strategy is characterized by adopting the host's T cell tolerance mechanisms. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • The objective of this project is to define the molecular mechanisms underlying CD4+ T-cell polarisation by γδ T-cells and identify ways to manipulate them for future interventions. (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • Although immunotherapy can induce desensitization, the mechanisms underlying this process are not completely understood. (jci.org)
  • Effector functions of the helminth‐induced type 2 immune response also include tolerance mechanisms that mitigate tissue damage associated with trafficking of these large multicellular parasites. (els.net)
  • In-depth analysis of the cells and tissues of patients treated with such targeted interventions provides a wealth of information on the mechanisms that drive allergies and tolerance to allergens. (jci.org)
  • Our data suggest that mechanisms of mononuclear phagocyte response to H. pylori occur sequentially and may depend on the location of the bacterium with respect to the host cell. (nimml.org)
  • Klein B, Caraux J, Thomas P, Goube De Laforest P. Nature and mechanisms of action of co-operating cells controlling human T-colony formation. (springer.com)
  • However the molecular mechanisms that initiate TH2 development in vivo remain unclear and are topics of much scientific debate. (grantome.com)
  • Due to their central role in this multistep process, T cells are known to be at the core of immunological effector mechanisms. (twincore.de)
  • You will find 4 important mechanisms that majorly contribute to the development of hyperglycemia induced cardiovascular damage: (1) improved sorbitol production due to activation of polyol pathway, (2) improved O-GlcNAcylation of cytosolic proteins, Doramapimod tyrosianse inhibitor (3) activation of protein kinase C, and (4) improved formation of Advanced Glycation End-Product (AGE) . (biomarketx.net)
  • The underlying common element in all these mechanisms is the improved production of reactive oxygen varieties (ROS) Doramapimod tyrosianse inhibitor in endothelial cells under diabetic condition . (biomarketx.net)
  • Numbers of molecules enhance or dampen IL-9 production and contribute to TH9 development such as: Activin A that can fully substitute the role of TGF-β in TH9 cells, then Jagged2, programmed cell death ligand (PD-L2), cyclooxy- genase (COX)-2, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 4 (TNFRSF4 or OX40), and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP). (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunofluorescence staining was performed to track UC‑MSC localization and lymphocyte cell infiltration in vivo . (spandidos-publications.com)
  • IL-25 also induces IL-9 production in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • The adoptive cell transfer (ACT) of ex vivo expanded tumor-reactive T cells is one of the most promising approaches for the treatment of patients with advanced malignancies, such as melanoma and leukemia. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cazac BB and Roes J (2000) TGF‐beta receptor controls B cell responsiveness and induction of IgA in vivo. (els.net)
  • However, these research didn't exclude the chance that some IL-17-harmful cells might have been extended and transferred in vivo. (plant-finder.com)
  • Upon in vivo injection, IL-33 has been known to induce production of IL-5, IL-13, IgE, and IgA. (biolegend.com)
  • in vivo not only as a result of the T-cell intrinsic loss-of-function of IRF4 but also owing to T-cell extrinsic defects in IRF4-controlled functions, such as DC development . (mtor-inhibitors.com)
  • Studies of human in vivo differentiated T H 9 cells are lacking. (insel.ch)
  • Our data now indicate for the first time the existence of human in vivo differentiated T H 9 cells, thus raising the possibility to investigate their true identity and functional properties. (insel.ch)
  • Established immunological methods for the analysis of human T cell biology (cell culture, intracellular FACS staining, FACS sorting, ELISA, Luminex cytokine multiplex assay, RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence double staining) are used in combination with a novel method for ex vivo analysis of human tissue-resident T cells. (insel.ch)
  • These data demonstrate that STAT5-dependent amplification of Notch-modifying Lfng augments Th2 response via Dll4 and is critical for amplifying viral exacerbation during allergic airway disease. (jimmunol.org)
  • Respiratory virus-induced asthma exacerbations are the most common trigger for induction of worsening airways disease, and understanding the etiology in allergic airway disease may provide better treatments. (jimmunol.org)
  • Allergen-specific immunotherapy and biologic therapies that target key molecules driving the Th2 response are already used in the clinic, and a wave of novel drug candidates are under development. (jci.org)
  • IL-4 and IL-13 drive IgE class switch recombination of B cells, leading to allergen-specific IgE production. (jci.org)
  • Th2 cells also provide B cells with help, driving immunoglobulin class-switching towards allergen-specific IgE [ 11 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • PXR, a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, is expressed in immune cells, but the role of PXR in T lymphocyte remains unknown. (nii.ac.jp)
  • (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Brown CB, Boyer AS, Runyan RB and Barnett JV (1999) Requirement of type III TGF‐beta receptor for endocardial cell transformation in the heart. (els.net)
  • 1995) Reduced surface expression of transforming growth factor beta receptor type II in mitogen‐activated T cells from Sezary patients. (els.net)
  • Expression of IRF4 in T and B cells is strongly induced by antigen receptor signaling. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • In particular, we are focused on how IL-4 is able to drive Th2 cell development, what is a Th2 cell and why is the clinical targeting of the IL-4 receptor proving to be an effective therapy in clinical trials for atopic disease. (malaghan.org.nz)
  • Most recently, cancer immunotherapy field is growing tremendously, such as utilization of cancer vaccinations, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy and immune checkpoint blockade therapy [ 10 , 11 ]. (jcancer.org)
  • C-kit is a receptor for the ligand, stem cell factor (SCF), an important growth factor for MC. (bioscirep.org)
  • A chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) that responds to transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) enables the engineering of T cells that convert this immunosuppressive cytokine into a potent T-cell stimulant. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Adoptive therapy with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-redirected T cells has achieved remarkable efficacy in the treatment of hematopoietic malignancies. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • The ability to alter antigen specificity by T-cell receptor (TCR) or chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) gene transfer has facilitated personalized cellular immune therapies in cancer. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • T cells can be distinguished from other lymphocytes by the presence of a T-cell receptor on the cell surface . (wikipedia.org)
  • The earliest cells which arrived in the thymus are termed double-negative, as they express neither the CD4 nor CD8 co-receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the TCRα locus has been re-arranged, the cell will express the full TCR on the surface and upregulate the co-receptor genes CD4 and CD8 and be termed "double-positive" (DP) cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells then downregulate the non-selected co-receptor and become single-positive either CD4+ or CD8+ T cells (SP cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • This new volume of Methods in Cell Biology looks at receptor-receptor interactions, with sections on allosteric and effector interactions, crystallization and modeling, measuring receptor-receptor interactions and oligomerization in individual classes. (stanford.edu)
  • Innate immune cells play a decisive role in host fate by enabling high bacterial loads and minimizing the immunological impact of this burden in the gastric mucosa. (nimml.org)
  • Thus, RSV infections impose severe threats for exacerbating chronic lung disease, and this has been hypothesized to be associated with the development of an altered Th2 immune environment. (jimmunol.org)
  • Development of UCP1-positive brown adipocytes in white adipose tissues (so called beige or brite cells) is highly induced by a variety of environmental cues such as chronic cold exposure or by PPARγ agonists, therefore, this cell type has potential as a therapeutic target for obesity treatment. (jove.com)
  • Multiple sclerosis is a chronic and debilitating autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system, in which T and B cells are believed to play a major. (frugallyeducate.com)
  • Accumulating evidence suggests that Th17 cells play a role in the development of chronic allograft injury in transplantation of various organs. (ovid.com)
  • Th17 cell may have a role in severe asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). (cdc.gov)
  • To review innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) and their role in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). (springermedizin.de)
  • Sexual dimorphism has already been noted as an important factor in autoimmune diseases: the aim of this study was to establish whether sexual dimorphism in autoimmune diseases is the result of differing pathways being involved in the regulation of T-helper (Th) cell network homeostasis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we used flow-cytometry-based bacterial cell sorting and 16S sequencing to characterize taxa-specific coating of the intestinal microbiota with immunoglobulin A (IgA-SEQ) and show that high IgA coating uniquely identifies colitogenic intestinal bacteria in a mouse model of microbiota-driven colitis. (docality.com)
  • Cells committed to the MC lineage leave the bone marrow as MC progenitors, and circulate in the bloodstream before homing to peripheral tissues including the skin, lung, peritoneum and the intestinal epithelia [ 1 ]. (bioscirep.org)
  • Together, our data demonstrate a novel mechanism of DLL4/Notch-induced Smyd3 epigenetic pathways that maintain regulatory CD4 T cells in viral infections. (nih.gov)
  • TGF‐β is secreted by immune and nonhematopoietic cells and acts on virtually all cell types through ubiquitously expressed receptors, which transduce the TGF‐β signal through canonical Smad‐dependent pathway and noncanonical Smad‐independent pathways. (els.net)
  • 2001) Cross‐talk between the p42/p44 MAP kinase and Smad pathways in transforming growth factor beta 1‐induced furin gene transactivation. (els.net)
  • To validate polarising signals in cell culture and human tissues, by studying expression of corresponding molecules in blood and intestine, and using agonists/antagonists to manipulate pathways in γδ:CD4+ T-cell co-cultures. (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • The understanding of these cells along with pathways that activate and perpetuate these cells leads to new potential therapeutic targets for CRS treatment. (springermedizin.de)
  • STAT6, IRF4, GATA3 are absolutely required for TH9 cell development and other such as PU.1, BATF, NF-κB, NFAT1, STAT5, AP-1 contribute to TH9 sub-population commitment and to IL-9 production. (wikipedia.org)
  • IRF4 binds to the promoter of Il-9 gene in TH9 cells and it is dependent on STAT6. (wikipedia.org)
  • IRF4 protein is expressed predominantly in blood cells. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • IRF4 antagonizes Notch signaling and limits the size of marginal zone B cells (Simonetti et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • IRF4 is obligatory required for the terminal differetiation of mature B cells to plasma cells and has been shown to play a central role in the pathogenesis of MM. IRF4 is recurrently translocated and juxtaposed to the IgH promoter t(6;14)(p25;q32) in a significant proportion (~21%) of MM cases. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • More commonly, IRF4 have been shown to be overexpressed without genetic alterations in majority of MM cases and MM cells are particularly sensitive to the down-regulation of IRF4. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)