Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Decarboxylated monoamine derivatives of TRYPTOPHAN.
Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of TRYPTOPHAN to 5-HYDROXYTRYPTOPHAN in the presence of NADPH and molecular oxygen. It is important in the biosynthesis of SEROTONIN.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A genus of PLANT VIRUSES, in the family CAULIMOVIRIDAE, that are transmitted by APHIDS in a semipersistent manner. Aphid-borne transmission of some caulimoviruses requires certain virus-coded proteins termed transmission factors.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The dynamic collection of metabolites which represent a cell's or organism's net metabolic response to current conditions.
The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.
An inorganic compound that is used as a source of iodine in thyrotoxic crisis and in the preparation of thyrotoxic patients for thyroidectomy. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A plant species of the family POACEAE that is widely cultivated for its edible seeds.
A plant genus of the family CLUSIACEAE. Members contain benzophenones.
A part of the embryo in a seed plant. The number of cotyledons is an important feature in classifying plants. In seeds without an endosperm, they store food which is used in germination. In some plants, they emerge above the soil surface and become the first photosynthetic leaves. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A class of plant growth hormone isolated from cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi, a fungus causing Bakanae disease in rice. There are many different members of the family as well as mixtures of multiple members; all are diterpenoid acids based on the gibberellane skeleton.
A furanyl adenine found in PLANTS and FUNGI. It has plant growth regulation effects.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
A genus of gram-negative aerobic bacteria that occurs free-living in the soil or associated with the roots of cereal crops or grasses (POACEAE).
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
The process whereby a society changes from a rural to an urban way of life. It refers also to the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.
An enzyme that in the course of pyrimidine biosynthesis, catalyzes the oxidation of dihydro-orotic acid to orotic acid utilizing oxygen as the electron acceptor. This enzyme is a flavoprotein which contains both FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE and FLAVIN MONONUCLEOTIDE as well as iron-sulfur centers. EC 1.3.3.1.
Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-3 RECEPTORS.
Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.
Substances produced from the reaction between acids and bases; compounds consisting of a metal (positive) and nonmetal (negative) radical. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.

The auxin-insensitive bodenlos mutation affects primary root formation and apical-basal patterning in the Arabidopsis embryo. (1/2030)

In Arabidopsis embryogenesis, the primary root meristem originates from descendants of both the apical and the basal daughter cell of the zygote. We have isolated a mutant of a new gene named BODENLOS (BDL) in which the primary root meristem is not formed whereas post-embryonic roots develop and bdl seedlings give rise to fertile adult plants. Some bdl seedlings lacked not only the root but also the hypocotyl, thus resembling monopteros (mp) seedlings. In addition, bdl seedlings were insensitive to the auxin analogue 2,4-D, as determined by comparison with auxin resistant1 (axr1) seedlings. bdl embryos deviated from normal development as early as the two-cell stage at which the apical daughter cell of the zygote had divided horizontally instead of vertically. Subsequently, the uppermost derivative of the basal daughter cell, which is normally destined to become the hypophysis, divided abnormally and failed to generate the quiescent centre of the root meristem and the central root cap. We also analysed double mutants. bdl mp embryos closely resembled the two single mutants, bdl and mp, at early stages, while bdl mp seedlings essentially consisted of hypocotyl but did form primary leaves. bdl axr1 embryos approached the mp phenotype at later stages, and bdl axr1 seedlings resembled mp seedlings. Our results suggest that BDL is involved in auxin-mediated processes of apical-basal patterning in the Arabidopsis embryo.  (+info)

The DNA binding site of the Dof protein NtBBF1 is essential for tissue-specific and auxin-regulated expression of the rolB oncogene in plants. (2/2030)

The Dof proteins are a large family of plant transcription factors that share a single highly conserved zinc finger. The tobacco Dof protein NtBBF1 was identified by its ability to bind to regulatory domain B in the promoter of the rolB oncogene. In this study, we show that the ACT T TA target sequence of NtBBF1 in domain B is necessary for tissue-specific expression of rolB. beta-Glucuronidase (GUS) activity of tobacco plants containing a rolB promoter-GUS fusion with a mutated NtBBF1 target sequence within domain B is almost completely suppressed in apical meristems and is severely abated in the vascular system. The ACT T TA motif is shown here also to be one of the cis-regulatory elements involved in auxin induction of rolB. The pattern of NtBBF1 expression in plants is remarkably similar to that of rolB, except in mesophyll cells of mature leaves, in which only NtBBF1 expression could be detected. Ectopic expression of rolB in mesophyll cells was achieved by particle gun delivery if the NtBBF1 binding sequence was intact. These data provide evidence that in the plant, a Dof protein DNA binding sequence acts as a transcriptional regulatory motif, and they point to NtBBF1 as the protein involved in mediating tissue-specific and auxin-inducible expression of rolB.  (+info)

IAR3 encodes an auxin conjugate hydrolase from Arabidopsis. (3/2030)

Amide-linked conjugates of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) are putative storage or inactivation forms of the growth hormone auxin. Here, we describe the Arabidopsis iar3 mutant that displays reduced sensitivity to IAA-Ala. IAR3 is a member of a family of Arabidopsis genes related to the previously isolated ILR1 gene, which encodes an IAA-amino acid hydrolase selective for IAA-Leu and IAA-Phe. IAR3 and the very similar ILL5 gene are closely linked on chromosome 1 and comprise a subfamily of the six Arabidopsis IAA-conjugate hydrolases. The purified IAR3 enzyme hydrolyzes IAA-Ala in vitro. iar 3 ilr1 double mutants are more resistant than either single mutant to IAA-amino acid conjugates, and plants overexpressing IAR3 or ILR1 are more sensitive than is the wild type to certain IAA-amino acid conjugates, reflecting the overlapping substrate specificities of the corresponding enzymes. The IAR3 gene is expressed most strongly in roots, stems, and flowers, suggesting roles for IAA-conjugate hydrolysis in those tissues.  (+info)

Biosynthesis of indole-3-acetic acid in Azospirillum brasilense. Insights from quantum chemistry. (4/2030)

Quantum chemical methods AM1 and PM3 and chromatographic methods were used to qualitatively characterize pathways of bacterial production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The standard free energy changes (delta G(o)'sum) for the synthesis of tryptophan (Trp) from chorismic acid via anthranilic acid and indole were calculated, as were those for several possible pathways for the synthesis of IAA from Trp, namely via indole-3-acetamide (IAM), indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPyA), and indole-3-acetonitrile (IAN). The delta G(o)'sum for Trp synthesis from chorismic acid was -402 (-434) kJ.mol-1 (values in parentheses were calculated by PM3). The delta G(o)'sum for IAA synthesis from Trp were -565 (-548) kJ.mol-1 for the IAN pathway, -481 (-506) kJ.mol-1 for the IAM pathway, and -289 (-306) kJ.mol-1 for the IPyA pathway. By HPLC analysis, the possibility was assessed that indole, anthranilic acid, and Trp might be utilized as precursors for IAA synthesis by Azospirillum brasilense strain Sp 245. The results indicate that there is a high motive force for Trp synthesis from chorismic acid and for IAA synthesis from Trp, and make it unlikely that anthranilic acid and indole act as the precursors to IAA in a Trp-independent pathway.  (+info)

Reconstitution of an electrogenic auxin transport activity mediated by Arabidopsis thaliana plasma membrane proteins. (5/2030)

Plasma membrane proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana leaves were reconstituted into proteoliposomes and a K+ diffusion potential was generated. The resulting ionic fluxes, determined in the presence of the plant hormone auxin (indole-3 acetic acid), showed an additional electrogenic and saturable component, with a K(M) of 6 microM. This flux was neither detected in liposomes in the presence of indole-3 acetic acid, nor in proteoliposomes in the presence of an inactive auxin analog and was completely inhibited by 3 microM naphtylphthalamic acid, a specific inhibitor of the auxin efflux carrier. The efficiency of the reconstituted carrier and the mechanism of its regulation by naphtylphthalamic acid are discussed.  (+info)

Novel gating mechanism of polyamine block in the strong inward rectifier K channel Kir2.1. (6/2030)

Inward rectifying K channels are essential for maintaining resting membrane potential and regulating excitability in many cell types. Previous studies have attributed the rectification properties of strong inward rectifiers such as Kir2.1 to voltage-dependent binding of intracellular polyamines or Mg to the pore (direct open channel block), thereby preventing outward passage of K ions. We have studied interactions between polyamines and the polyamine toxins philanthotoxin and argiotoxin on inward rectification in Kir2.1. We present evidence that high affinity polyamine block is not consistent with direct open channel block, but instead involves polyamines binding to another region of the channel (intrinsic gate) to form a blocking complex that occludes the pore. This interaction defines a novel mechanism of ion channel closure.  (+info)

Glutamate receptor expression regulates quantal size and quantal content at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. (7/2030)

At the Drosophila glutamatergic neuromuscular junction, the postsynaptic cell can regulate synaptic strength by both changing its sensitivity to neurotransmitter and generating a retrograde signal that regulates presynaptic transmitter release. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying these forms of plasticity, we have undertaken a genetic analysis of two postsynaptic glutamate receptors that are expressed at this synapse. Deletion of both genes results in embryonic lethality that can be rescued by transgenic expression of either receptor. Although these receptors are redundant for viability, they have important differences. By transgenically rescuing the double mutant, we have investigated the relationship of receptor gene dosage and composition to synaptic function. We find that the receptor subunit composition regulates quantal size, Argiotoxin sensitivity, and receptor desensitization kinetics. Finally, we show that the activity of the receptor can regulate the retrograde signal functioning at this synapse. Thus, the diversity of receptors expressed at this synapse provides the cell with mechanisms for generating synaptic plasticity.  (+info)

AUX1 regulates root gravitropism in Arabidopsis by facilitating auxin uptake within root apical tissues. (8/2030)

Plants employ a specialized transport system composed of separate influx and efflux carriers to mobilize the plant hormone auxin between its site(s) of synthesis and action. Mutations within the permease-like AUX1 protein significantly reduce the rate of carrier-mediated auxin uptake within Arabidopsis roots, conferring an agravitropic phenotype. We are able to bypass the defect within auxin uptake and restore the gravitropic root phenotype of aux1 by growing mutant seedlings in the presence of the membrane-permeable synthetic auxin, 1-naphthaleneacetic acid. We illustrate that AUX1 expression overlaps that previously described for the auxin efflux carrier, AtPIN2, using transgenic lines expressing an AUX1 promoter::uidA (GUS) gene. Finally, we demonstrate that AUX1 regulates gravitropic curvature by acting in unison with the auxin efflux carrier to co-ordinate the localized redistribution of auxin within the Arabidopsis root apex. Our results provide the first example of a developmental role for the auxin influx carrier within higher plants and supply new insight into the molecular basis of gravitropic signalling.  (+info)

Indoleacetic acid (IAA) is a breakdown product of tryptophan metabolism and is often produced by the action of bacteria in the mammalian gut. Some endogenous production of IAA in mammalian tissues also occurs. It may be produced by the decarboxylation of tryptamine or the oxidative deamination of tryptophan. IAA frequently occurs at low levels in urine and has been found in elevated levels in the urine of patients with phenylketonuria ((PMID: 13610897 ). Using material extracted from human urine, it was discovered by Kogl in 1933 that Indoleacetic acid is also an important plant hormone (PMID: 13610897 ). Specifically IAA is a member of the group of phytohormones called auxins. IAA is generally considered to be the most important native auxin. Plant cells synthesize IAA from tryptophan. (wikipedia) IAA and some derivatives can be oxidised by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) to cytotoxic species. IAA is only toxic after oxidative decarboxylation; the effect of IAA/HRP is thought to be due in part to ...
plant growth hormones for sale Manufacturers Directory - find plant growth hormones for sale from plant growth hormones for sale online Wholesalers for your sourcing needs from China.
The plant specific transcription factor LEAFY (LFY) plays a pivotal role in the developmental switch to floral meristem identity in Arabidopsis. Our recent study revealed that LFY additionally acts downstream of AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR5/MONOPTEROS to promote flower primordium initiation. LFY also promotes initiation of the floral organ and floral organ identity. To further investigate the interplay between LFY and auxin during flower development, we examined the phenotypic consequence of disrupting polar auxin transport in lfy mutants by genetic means. Plants with compromised LFY activity exhibit increased sensitivity to disruption of polar auxin transport. Compromised polar auxin transport activity in the lfy mutant background resulted in formation of fewer floral organs, abnormal gynoecium development, and fused sepals. In agreement with these observations, expression of the auxin response reporter DR5rev::GFP as well as of the direct LFY target CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON2 were altered in lfy mutant flowers.
The phytohormone auxin is transported through the plant body either via vascular pathways or from cell to cell by specialized polar transport machinery. This machinery consists of a balanced system of passive diffusion combined with the activities of auxin influx and efflux carriers. Synthetic auxins that differ in the mechanisms of their transport across the plasma membrane together with polar auxin transport inhibitors have been used in many studies on particular auxin carriers and their role in plant development. However, the exact mechanism of action of auxin efflux and influx inhibitors has not been fully elucidated. In this report, the mechanism of action of the auxin influx inhibitors (1-naphthoxyacetic acid (1-NOA), 2-naphthoxyacetic acid (2-NOA), and 3-chloro-4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (CHPAA)) is examined by direct measurements of auxin accumulation, cellular phenotypic analysis, as well as by localization studies of Arabidopsis thaliana L. auxin carriers heterologously expressed in ...
PINOID, a serine threonine protein kinase in Arabidopsis, controls auxin distribution through a positive control of subcellular localization of PIN auxin efflux carriers. Compared with the rapid progress in understanding mechanisms of auxin action in dicot species, little is known about auxin action in monocot species. Here, we describe the identification and characterization of OsPID, the PINOID ortholog of rice. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the rice genome contains a single PID ortholog, OsPID. Constitutive overexpression of OsPID caused a variety of abnormalities, such as delay of adventitious root development, curled growth of shoots and agravitropism. Abnormalities observed in the plants that overexpress OsPID could be phenocopied by treatment with an inhibitor of active polar transport of auxin, indicating that OsPID could be involved in the control of polar auxin transport in rice. Analysis of OsPID mRNA distribution showed a complex pattern in shoot meristems, indicating that it ...
Lateral roots are initiated postembryonically in response to environmental cues, enabling plants to explore efficiently their underground environment. However, the mechanisms by which the environment determines the position of lateral root formation are unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that in Arabidopsis thaliana lateral root initiation can be induced mechanically by either gravitropic curvature or by the transient bending of a root by hand. The plant hormone auxin accumulates at the site of lateral root induction before a primordium starts to form. Here we describe a subcellular relocalization of PIN1, an auxin transport protein, in a single protoxylem cell in response to gravitropic curvature. This relocalization precedes auxin-dependent gene transcription at the site of a new primordium. Auxin-dependent nuclear signaling is necessary for lateral root formation; arf7/19 double knock-out mutants normally form no lateral roots but do so upon bending when the root tip is removed. Signaling ...
Further evidence for a role of EIR1 in auxin transport comes from Luschnig et al.s experiments with the altered lateral root1 (alf1) mutant, in which elevated endogenous auxin levels lead to decreased root elongation and increased lateral root formation (Celenza et al., 1995). The double mutant eir1 alf1 does not display the root-elongation defect, suggesting that eir1 acts to suppress the effects of high endogenous auxin levels conferred by alf1. Importantly, the eir1 mutation does not confer resistance to auxin that is simply added to the medium, a characteristic that experiments with the aux1 mutant suggest is more likely to be associated with defects in an auxin influx carrier.. Perhaps the most compelling evidence offered by Luschnig et al. (1998) that the eir1 mutation causes defects in an auxin efflux carrier comes from their experiments with EIR1-expressing yeast cells, which are resistant to toxic fluoroindoles. Although other explanations are possible, resistance to these compounds is ...
Lateral roots originate deep within the parental root from a small number of founder cells at the periphery of vascular tissues and must emerge through intervening layers of tissues. We describe how the hormone auxin, which originates from the developing lateral root, acts as a local inductive signal which re-programmes adjacent cells. Auxin induces the expression of a previously uncharacterized auxin influx carrier LAX3 in cortical and epidermal cells directly overlaying new primordia. Increased LAX3 activity reinforces the auxin-dependent induction of a selection of cell-wall-remodelling enzymes, which are likely to promote cell separation in advance of developing lateral root primordia.. Nature Cell Biology 10 (8), 946-954 ...
Conversely, cytokinin regulates auxin biosynthesis. By measuring the incorporation of deuterium into IAA by gas chromatography - multiple reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry (GC-MRM-MS), Jones et al. (Jones et al., 2010) observed that treatment with various cytokinins led to increased auxin synthesis in young leaves, the shoot apex and the root system; this effect was amplified in the cytokinin hypersensitive ARR mutant arr3 arr4 arr5 arr6. By contrast, treatment of the cytokinin-insensitive quadruple AHP mutant ahp1 ahp2 ahp3 ahp4 resulted in a decrease in IAA biosynthesis, suggesting that the relationship between cytokinin signalling and auxin synthesis may not be straightforward; roots of this mutant also had a higher baseline rate of IAA biosynthesis than wild type, further hinting at the complexity of this interaction. Cytokinin treatments did not increase IAA biosynthesis in the axr3-1 mutant, which is hypersensitive to auxin because the increased stability of the AXR3/IAA17 protein; ...
Chlorophyta appear to encode at least some of the proteins necessary for auxin biosynthesis and metabolism, which correlates with auxin measurements in members of this division of green algae (Cooke et al., 2002; Lau et al., 2009; Ross and Reid, 2010). On top, putative auxin transport proteins such as AUX1-like and ABCB/PGP-like proteins appear to be present in Chlorophyta, while PIN-like proteins are only encoded in some Streptophyta. While single-celled Chlorophyta seem to possess the potential to transport auxin, at present it is not clear if they import and export auxin from and to the environment, respectively. In the absence of PIN-like auxin carriers, the AUX1-like and ABCB/PGP-like proteins could facilitate putative auxin fluxes in Chlorophyta. While our analyses of S. pratensis and C. orbicularis EST libraries suggest that PIN proteins emerged in the Streptophyta clade, functional data will be required to determine if directional PIN-mediated auxin transport emerged to coordinate ...
Although polar transport and the TIR1-dependent signaling pathway of the plant hormone auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) are well characterized, understanding of the biosynthetic pathway(s) leading to the production of IAA is still limited. Genetic dissection of IAA biosynthetic pathways has been complicated by the metabolic redundancy caused by the apparent existence of several parallel biosynthetic routes leading to IAA production. Valuable complementary tools for genetic as well as biochemical analysis of auxin biosynthesis would be molecular inhibitors capable of acting in vivo on specific or general components of the pathway(s), which unfortunately have been lacking. Several indole derivatives have been previously identified to inhibit tryptophan-dependent IAA biosynthesis in an in vitro system from maize endosperm. We examined the effect of one of them, 6-fluoroindole, on seedling development of Arabidopsis thaliana and tested its ability to inhibit IAA biosynthesis in feeding experiments ...
The phytohormone auxin regulates diverse aspects of plant development, including tissue elongation, tropic growth, embryogenesis, apical dominance, lateral root initiation, and vascular differentiation (Teale et al., 2006). Proteins in the TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE1/AUXIN SIGNALING F-BOX protein (TIR1/AFB) family have recently been demonstrated to function as nuclear receptors for auxin (Dharmasiri et al., 2005a; Kepinski and Leyser, 2005). The auxin signal transduction system operating via the E3 ubiquitin-ligase complex SCFTIR1/AFB (for Skp1-Cul1-F-box protein), which includes TIR1/AFBs, plays a critical role in many auxin-mediated responses through transcriptional regulation (Mockaitis and Estelle, 2008).. Auxin-induced elongation of plant organs, such as hypocotyls, coleoptiles, and roots, has been explained by the acid-growth theory since the 1970s (Rayle and Cleland, 1970; Hager et al., 1971; Moloney et al., 1981). The theory states that auxin enhances proton extrusion via the plasma ...
Auxins are key regulators of plant development. Plants employ a specialized delivery system termed polar auxin transport to convey indole-3-acetic acid from source to target tissues. Auxin transport is mediated by the combined activities of specialized influx and efflux carriers. Mutational approaches in the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, have led to the molecular genetic characterization of putative auxin influx and efflux carrier components, AUX1 and AtPIN1. Both genes belong to distinct gene families that are being functionally characterized by using a reverse genetic approach in Arabidopsis. AtPIN proteins are asymmetrically localized within plant plasma membranes, providing a molecular mechanism for the characteristic polarity of auxin transport. We outline the epitope tagging strategy being used in our laboratory to immunolocalize AUX1 and discuss the implications of its subcellular localization for auxin redistribution within root apical tissues. Lastly, we describe a novel ...
The plant growth hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) transcriptionally activates expression of several genes in plants. We have previously identified a 164-bp promoter region (-318 to -154) in the PS-IAA4/5 gene that confers IAA inducibility. Linker-scanning mutagenesis across the region has identified two positive domains: domain A (48 bp; -203 to -156) and domain B (44 bp; -299 to -256), responsible for transcriptional activation of PS-IAA4/5 by IAA. Domain A contains the highly conserved sequence 5-TGTCCCAT-3 found among various IAA-inducible genes and behaves as the major auxin-responsive element. Domain B functions as an enhancer element which may also contain a less efficient auxin-responsive element. The two domains act cooperatively to stimulate transcription; however, tetramerization of domain A or B compensates for the loss of A or B function. The two domains can also mediate IAA-induced transcription from the heterologous cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (-73 to +1). In vivo ...
The NH2-terminal sequence of ARF1 is similar to that in twoArabidopsis expressed sequence tags (GenBank accession numbers Z37232 and R30405), IAA24 (GenBank accession number U79556) and ARF3 (6) and the COOH-terminal region of the maize transcriptional activator Viviparous-1 (VP1) (7) and itsArabidopsis homolog ABI3 (8) (Fig. 2B). The COOH-terminal sequence of ARF1 is similar to the COOH-terminal regions of Aux/IAA proteins, including IAA24 (Fig. 2C). The Aux/IAA proteins contain four islands of amino acid sequence similarity (boxes I to IV, Fig. 2A) (1). ARF1 and IAA24 differ from most Aux/IAA proteins in being larger and containing boxes III and IV only. Box III is part of a motif related to the amphipathic βαα-fold found in β-ribbon DNA-binding domains of prokaryotic Arc and MetJ repressor proteins, and Aux/IAA proteins are hypothesized to be transcription factors (9). Analyses with both Garnier-Osguthorpe-Robson and Chou-Fasman algorithms predict that box III in ARF1 conforms to an ...
Most legume plants can form nodules, specialized lateral organs that form on roots, and house nitrogen-fixing bacteria collectively called rhizobia. The uptake of the phytohormone auxin into cells is known to be crucial for development of lateral roots. To test the role of auxin influx in nodulation we used the auxin influx inhibitors 1-naphthoxyacetic acid (1-NOA) and 2-NOA, which we found reduced nodulation of Medicago truncatula. This suggested the possible involvement of the AUX/LAX family of auxin influx transporters in nodulation. Gene expression studies identified MtLAX2, a paralogue of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) AUX1, as being induced at early stages of nodule development. MtLAX2 is expressed in nodule primordia, the vasculature of developing nodules, and at the apex of mature nodules. The MtLAX2 promoter contains several auxin response elements, and treatment with indole-acetic acid strongly induces MtLAX2 expression in roots. mtlax2 mutants displayed root phenotypes similar to ...
Adventitious root (AR) formation in the stem base of cuttings is the basis for propagation of many plant species and petunia is used as model to study this developmental process. Following AR formation from 2 to 192 hours after excision (hpe) of cuttings, transcriptome analysis by microarray revealed a change of the character of the rooting zone from stem base to root identity. The greatest shift in the number of differentially expressed genes was observed between 24 and 72 hpe, when the categories storage, mineral nutrient acquisition, anti-oxidative and secondary metabolism, and biotic stimuli showed a notable high number of induced genes. Analyses of phytohormone-related genes disclosed multifaceted changes of the auxin transport system, auxin conjugation and the auxin signal perception machinery indicating a reduction in auxin sensitivity and phase-specific responses of particular auxin-regulated genes. Genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis and action showed a more uniform pattern as a high number
The plant hormone indoleacetic acid (IAA or auxin) transcriptionally activates a select set of early genes. The Auxl IAA class of early auxin-responsive genes encodes a large family of short-lived, nuclear proteins. Aux/IAA polypeptides homo-and heterodimerize, and interact with auxin-response transcription factors (ARFs) via C-terminal regions conserved in both protein families. This shared region contains a predicted βαα motif similar to the prokaryotic β-Ribbon DNA binding domain, which mediates both protein dimerization and DNA recognition. Here, we show by circular dichroism spectroscopy and by chemical cross-linking experiments that recombinant peptides corresponding to the predicted βαα region of three Aux/IAA proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana contain substantial α-helical secondary structure and undergo homo- and heterotypic interactions in vitro. Our results indicate a similar biochemical function of the plant βαα domain and suggest that the βαα fold plays an important ...
Several recent observations indicated a link between ROP function and PIN endocytosis (Chen et al., 2012; Lin et al., 2012; Nagawa et al., 2012). Our results (Figure 10) show that downregulating ROP signaling or loss of ROP3 function disrupts PIN1 and PIN3 recycling. Together, these results imply that different ROPs could perform distinct functions in the regulation of PIN trafficking, thereby leading to altered PIN polarity and perturbing directional auxin transport. Moreover, our results also show that ROP3 differentially affects auxin transporters, even within the PIN family (Figure 9; Supplemental Figure 8). On the other hand, despite overlapping with AUX1 in its expression domain, ROP3 has no impact on the polarity of AUX1 (Figures 9P to 9R). These data suggest that ROP3 specifically affects the localization of PIN proteins in regions of the root where they coexpress during development.. ROPs are activated by auxin (Tao et al., 2002; Xu et al., 2010) and activated ROPs interact with ...
How did selectivity for the one natural auxin IAA evolve? Are there still novel natural auxins to be discovered? From the structural biology of the auxin receptor TIR1 we have learnt a great deal about how auxin is recognised and how it starts the signalling cascades which alter plant development. Work in our lab has also shown how a different member of the auxin receptor family (AFB5) has a different, wider selectivity profile. An important family of auxin herbicides work through AFB5, and AFB5 is also implicated in the control of branching. This project will explore how and why the receptors have come to differ, and whether there might be a novel plant hormone to be discovered.. Structural biology of auxin transport proteins: a project with Dr Alex Cameron (Life Sciences, Warwick). The goal is to express, purify and determine the structure of auxin transport proteins by crystallography. These transporters determine some of the most profound morphogenic events in biology, such as polarity in ...
p,Ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation is a common feature in diverse plant cell signaling pathways; however, the factors that control the dynamics of regulated protein turnover are largely unknown. One of the best-characterized families of E3 ubiquitin ligases facilitates ubiquitination of auxin (aux)/indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) repressor proteins in the presence of auxin. Rates of auxin-induced degradation vary widely within the Aux/IAA family, and sequences outside of the characterized degron (the minimum region required for auxin-induced degradation) can accelerate or decelerate degradation. We have used synthetic auxin degradation assays in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and in plants to characterize motifs flanking the degron that contribute to tuning the dynamics of Aux/IAA degradation. The presence of these rate motifs is conserved in phylogenetically distant members of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Aux/IAA family, as well as in their putative Brassica rapa orthologs. We ...
The periodic formation of plant organs such as leaves and flowers gives rise to intricate patterns that have fascinated biologists and mathematicians alike for hundreds of years. The plant hormone auxin plays a central role in establishing these patterns by promoting organ formation at sites where it accumulates due to its polar, cell-to-cell transport. Although experimental evidence as well as modeling suggest that feedback from auxin to its transport direction may help specify phyllotactic patterns, the nature of this feedback remains unclear. Here we reveal that polarization of the auxin efflux carrier PIN-FORMED 1 (PIN1) is regulated by the auxin response transcription factor MONOPTEROS (MP). We find that in the shoot, cell polarity patterns follow MP expression, which in turn follows auxin distribution patterns. By perturbing MP activity both globally and locally, we show that localized MP activity is necessary for the generation of polarity convergence patterns and that localized MP ...
The establishment of embryonic polarity axes foreshadows the main body structure of multicellular adult organisms. Plants developed a polar cell-to-cell transport of the growth hormone auxin to generate an asymmetric auxin response in embryos, instructive for apical-basal polarity axis formation. Using theory-guided experiments, I recently established that the dynamic spatial and temporal onset of auxin biosynthesis is a trigger to orient auxin fluxes and therefore apical-basal axis body axis, at various time points of Arabidopsis embryo development. Here I proposed a direct approach to understand how auxin biosynthesis influences embryo patterning and how this is translated into gene expression changes. The objectives of my project are: (i) to characterize the downstream elements of the auxin response activated by a embryonic local auxin production, (ii) to identify the factors that dynamically and developmentally control auxin biosynthetic genes expression. The proposed research is ...
In shoots, polar auxin transport is basipetal (that is, from the shoot apex toward the base) and is driven by the basal localization of the auxin efflux carrier complex. The focus of this article is to summarize the experiments that have examined how the asymmetric distribution of this protein compl …
phdthesis{3006170, abstract = {Plants as sessile organisms evolved a specific body structure and at the cellular level mechanisms that allow to survive under extreme environmental conditions. The body shape and subcellular processes are largely dependent on coordinated activity of a small molecule indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), auxin. Local gradients of IAA correlate spatiotemporally with such developmental events like embryogenesis, phyllotaxis, organ initiation or tropisms. Auxin maxima and minima are mostly mediated by auxin efflux carriers PINs. Asymmetric distribution of these proteins determines the directional flow and facilitates the auxin gradient formation. Aberrations in apical or basal auxin-carriers localisation leads to severe developmental defects. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the mechanisms initiating and controlling polar proteins localisation. Next to polarly distributed PINs, there is a growing group of polarly localized proteins transporting hormones or nutrients ...
The export option will allow you to export the current search results of the entered query to a file. Different formats are available for download. To export the items, click on the button corresponding with the preferred download format. By default, clicking on the export buttons will result in a download of the allowed maximum amount of items. To select a subset of the search results, click Selective Export button and make a selection of the items you want to export. The amount of items that can be exported at once is similarly restricted as the full export. After making a selection, click one of the export format buttons. The amount of items that will be exported is indicated in the bubble next to export format. ...
The interactive plot requires a browser with JavaScript and HTML 5 canvas support. Select a region with data to zoom. Select a region with no data or click the mouse on the plot to revert to the orginal display. Moving the mouse pointer over or near a line will display the coordinates of the peak. The number of digits shown do not reflect the uncertainty of the value. ...
Vegetative propagation of economically important woody, horticultural and agricultural species rely on an efficient adventitious root (AR) formation. The formation of ARs is a complex genetic trait regulated by the interaction of environmental and endogenous factors among which the phytohormone auxin plays an essential role. This article summarizes the current knowledge related to the intricate network through which auxin controls adventitious rooting. How auxin and recently identified auxin-related compounds affect AR formation in different plant species is discussed. Particular attention is addressed to illustrate how auxin has a central role in the hormone cross-talk leading to AR development. In parallel, we describe the molecular players involved in the control of auxin homeostasis, transport and signaling, for a better understanding of the auxin action during adventitious rooting. ...
HHMI researchers have identified an enzyme involved in the production of auxin, a plant growth hormone that influences plant growth. Although auxin has been studied for more than 100 years, scientists have not had a good grasp of how the hormone is synthesized by plants
We carried out several experiments to show directly thatyucca plants contain elevated auxin levels. First, we used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to measure endogenous levels of free IAA (15). To obtain sufficient quantity of tissue for IAA measurements, we used a rather weak recapitulation line. This line contained about 50% more free IAA than wild-type plants, suggesting that strong yucca alleles contain even higher levels of free IAA (Fig. 2A).. Next, we used physiological and genetic experiments to test whether this modest increase in free IAA is physiologically important. It has been established previously that Arabidopsis explants cannot proliferate without addition of auxin to the medium. It has also been established that the ratio of auxin to cytokinin determines the relative growth of roots, shoots, and callus (16). In general, a high ratio of auxin to cytokinin leads to root growth, but a lower ratio induces callus and shoot growth (16). Extensive root growth was observed ...
Auxin is involved in many aspects of root development and physiology, including the formation of lateral roots. Improving our understanding of how the auxin response is mediated at the protein level over time can aid in developing a more complete molecular framework of the process. This study evaluates the effects of exogenous auxin treatment on the Arabidopsis root proteome after exposure of young seedlings to auxin for 8, 12, and 24 h, a timeframe permitting the initiation and full maturation of individual lateral roots. Root protein extracts were processed to peptides, fractionated using off-line strong-cation exchange, and analyzed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography and data independent acquisition-based mass spectrometry. Protein abundances were then tabulated using label-free techniques and evaluated for significant changes. Approximately 2000 proteins were identified during the time course experiment, with the number of differences between the treated and control roots increasing over
Polar transport of the phytohormone auxin through PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux carriers is essential for the spatiotemporal control of plant development. The Arabidopsis thaliana serine/threonine kinase D6 PROTEIN KINASE (D6PK) is polarly localized at the plasma membrane of many cells where it colocalizes with PINs and activates PIN-mediated auxin efflux. Here, we show that the association of D6PK with the basal plasma membrane and PINs is dependent on the phospholipid composition of the plasma membrane as well as on the phosphatidylinositol phosphate 5-kinases PIP5K1 and PIP5K2 in epidermis cells of the primary root. We further show that D6PK directly binds polyacidic phospholipids through a polybasic lysine-rich motif in the middle domain of the kinase. The lysine-rich motif is required for proper PIN3 phosphorylation and for auxin transport-dependent tropic growth. Polybasic motifs are also present at a conserved position in other D6PK-related kinases and required for membrane and ...
The phytohormone auxin controls processes such as cell elongation, root hair development and root branching. Tropisms, growth curvatures triggered by gravity, light and touch, are also auxin-mediated responses. Auxin is synthesized in the shoot apex and transported through the stem, but the molecula …
Plant development is regulated by a number of mobile factors. The Arabidopsis BYPASS1 (BPS1) gene was previously shown to control shoot and root development by preventing formation of a mobile compound, but how this compound functions and whether it modulates other signalling pathways is unclear. Now, Leslie Sieburth and colleagues show that Arabidopsis BPS1, as well as two related genes, BPS2 and BPS3, control the production of a mobile factor, the bps signal, which regulates patterning and growth in parallel with auxin signalling (p. 805). By analysing single, double and triple mutants, the researchers show that all three BPS genes control bps signal synthesis. Importantly, bps triple mutants display severe embryogenesis defects, including disruptions to vascular, root and shoot stem cell populations. Finally, bps triple mutants exhibit normal auxin-induced gene expression and localisation of the PIN1 auxin transporter, suggesting that the bps signal functions in an auxin-independent manner. ...
Sugar regulates a variety of genes and controls plant growth and development similarly to phytohormones. As part of a screen for Arabidopsis mutants with defects in sugar-responsive gene expression, we identified a loss-of-function mutation in the HOOKLESS1 (HLS1) gene. HLS1 was originally identified to regulate apical hook formation of dark-grown seedlings (Lehman et al., 1996, Cell 85: 183-194). In hls1, sugar-induced gene expression in excised leaf petioles was more sensitive to exogenous sucrose than that in the wild type. Exogenous IAA partially repressed sugar-induced gene expression and concomitantly activated some auxin response genes such as AUR3 encoding GH3-like protein. The repression and the induction of gene expression by auxin were attenuated and enhanced, respectively, by the hls1 mutation. These results suggest that HLS1 plays a negative role in sugar and auxin signaling. Because AUR3 GH3-like protein conjugates free IAA to amino acids (Staswick et al., 2002, Plant Cell 14: ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Bending models of halotropism. T2 - Incorporating protein phosphatase 2A, ABCB transporters, and auxin metabolism. AU - Han, Eun Hyang. AU - Petrella, Dominic P.. AU - Blakeslee, Joshua J.. PY - 2017/6/1. Y1 - 2017/6/1. N2 - Salt stress causes worldwide reductions in agricultural yields, a problem that is exacerbated by the depletion of global freshwater reserves and the use of contaminated or recycled water (i.e. effluent water). Additionally, salt stress can occur as cultivated areas are subjected to frequent rounds of irrigation followed by periods of moderate to severe evapotranspiration, which can result in the heterogeneous aggregation of salts in agricultural soils. Our understanding of the later stages of salt stress and the mechanisms by which salt is transported out of cells and roots has greatly improved over the last decade. The precise mechanisms by which plant roots perceive salt stress and translate this perception into adaptive, directional growth away from ...
To cause growth in the required domains, auxins must of necessity be active preferentially in them. Local auxin maxima can be formed by active biosynthesis in certain cells of tissues, for example via tryptophan-dependent pathways,[14] but auxins are not synthesized in all cells (even if cells retain the potential ability to do so, only under specific conditions will auxin synthesis be activated in them). For that purpose, auxins have to be not only translocated toward those sites where they are needed but also they must have an established mechanism to detect those sites. Translocation is driven throughout the plant body, primarily from peaks of shoots to peaks of roots (from up to down). For long distances, relocation occurs via the stream of fluid in phloem vessels, but, for short-distance transport, a unique system of coordinated polar transport directly from cell to cell is exploited. This short-distance, active transport exhibits some morphogenetic properties. This process, polar auxin ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
To control morphogenesis, molecular regulatory networks have to interfere with the mechanical properties of the indi-vidual cells of developing organs and tissues, but how this is achieved is not well known. We study this issue here in the shoot meristem of higher plants, a group of undifferenti-ated cells where complex changes in growth rates and direc-tions lead to the continuous formation of new organs [1, 2]. Here, we show that the plant hormone auxin plays an impor-tant role in this process via a dual, local effect on the extracellular matrix, the cell wall, which determines cell shape. Our study reveals that auxin not only causes a limited reduction in wall stiffness but also directly interferes with wall anisotropy via the regulation of cortical microtubule dy-namics. We further show that to induce growth isotropy and organ outgrowth, auxin somehow interferes with the cortical microtubule-ordering activity of a network of proteins, in-cluding AUXIN BINDING PROTEIN 1 and KATANIN 1. Numer-ical
Actinorhizal symbioses are mutualistic interactions between plants and the soil bacteria Frankia that lead to the formation of nitrogen-fixing root nodules. Little is known about the signaling mechanisms controlling the different steps of the establishment of the symbiosis. The plant hormone auxin has been suggested to play a role. Here we report that auxin accumulates within Frankia-infected cells in actinorhizal nodules of Casuarina glauca. Using a combination of computational modeling and experimental approaches, we establish that this localized auxin accumulation is driven by the cell-specific expression of auxin transporters and by Frankia auxin biosynthesis in planta. Our results indicate that the plant actively restricts auxin accumulation to Frankia-infected cells during the symbiotic interaction.. Plant Physiology 154 (3), 1372-1380 ...
article{445484, abstract = {The rate, polarity, and symmetry of the flow of the plant hormone auxin are determined by the polar cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux carriers. Flavonoids, a class of secondary plant metabolites, have been suspected to modulate auxin transport and tropic responses. Nevertheless, the identity of specific flavonoid compounds involved and their molecular function and targets in vivo are essentially unknown. Here we show that the root elongation zone of agravitropic pin2/eir1/wav6/agr1 has an altered pattern and amount of flavonol glycosides. Application of nanomolar concentrations of flavonols to pin2 roots is sufficient to partially restore root gravitropism. By employing a quantitative cell biological approach, we demonstrate that flavonoids partially restore the formation of lateral auxin gradients in the absence of PIN2. Chemical complementation by flavonoids correlates with an asymmetric distribution of the PIN1 protein. pin2 complementation ...
China Agrochemical Product Plant Growth Hormone 98%Tc Iaa/Heteroauxin, Find details about China Iaa, Plant Growth Regulator from Agrochemical Product Plant Growth Hormone 98%Tc Iaa/Heteroauxin - Shanghai Bosman Industrial Co., Ltd.
ONeill, DP and Ross, JJ (2002) Auxin regulation of the gibberellin pathway in pea. Plant Physiology, 130 (4). pp. 1974-1982. ISSN 0032-0889 ...
The evolution of complex body plans in land plants has been paralleled by gene duplication and divergence within nuclear auxin-signaling networks. A deep mechanistic understanding of auxin signaling proteins therefore may allow rational engineering of novel plant architectures. Toward that end, we analyzed natural variation in the auxin receptor F-box family of wild accessions of the reference plant Arabidopsis thaliana and used this information to populate a structure/function map. We employed a synthetic assay to identify natural hypermorphic F-box variants and then assayed auxin-associated phenotypes in accessions expressing these variants. To more directly measure the impact of the strongest variant in our synthetic assay on auxin sensitivity, we generated transgenic plants expressing this allele. Together, our findings link evolved sequence variation to altered molecular performance and auxin sensitivity. This approach demonstrates the potential for combining synthetic biology approaches ...
Multipotent stem cell populations, the meristems, are fundamental for the indeterminate growth of plant bodies. One of these meristems, the cambium, is responsible for extended root and stem thickening. Strikingly, although the pivotal role of the plant hormone auxin in promoting cambium activity has been known for decades, the molecular basis of auxin responsiveness on the level of cambium cells has so far been elusive. Here, we reveal that auxin-dependent cambium stimulation requires the homeobox transcription factor WOX4. In Arabidopsis thaliana inflorescence stems, 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid-induced auxin accumulation stimulates cambium activity in the wild type but not in wox4 mutants, although basal cambium activity is not abolished. This conclusion is confirmed by the analysis of cellular markers and genome-wide transcriptional profiling, which revealed only a small overlap between WOX4-dependent and cambium-specific genes. Furthermore, the receptor-like kinase PXY is required for a stable auxin
Plant growth regulator, Plant growth hormone,US $ 25 - 200 / Kilogram, Plant Growth Regulator, Organic Fertilizer, 1214-39-7, 6-BA.Source from Xiangtan New Sunshine Trade Co., Ltd. on Alibaba.com.
2-amino-2-quinolin-6-ylacetic acid 108763-20-8 MSDS report, 2-amino-2-quinolin-6-ylacetic acid MSDS safety technical specifications search, 2-amino-2-quinolin-6-ylacetic acid safety information specifications ect.
2-amino-2-quinolin-6-ylacetic acid 108763-20-8 Precursor and Downstream products, 2-amino-2-quinolin-6-ylacetic acid Precursor products, 2-amino-2-quinolin-6-ylacetic acid Downstream products ect.
One of the most fascinating aspects of plant morphology is the regular geometric arrangement of leaves and flowers, called phyllotaxy. The shoot apical meristem (SAM) determines these patterns, which vary depending on species and developmental stage. Auxin acts as an instructive signal in leaf initiation, and its transport has been implicated in phyllotaxy regulation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Altered phyllotactic patterns are observed in a maize (Zea mays) mutant, aberrant phyllotaxy1 (abph1, also known as abphyl1), and ABPH1 encodes a cytokinin-inducible type A response regulator, suggesting that cytokinin signals are also involved in the mechanism by which phyllotactic patterns are established. Therefore, we investigated the interaction between auxin and cytokinin signaling in phyllotaxy. Treatment of maize shoots with a polar auxin transport inhibitor, 1-naphthylphthalamic acid, strongly reduced ABPH1 expression, suggesting that auxin or its polar transport is required for ABPH1 ...
The molecular mechanisms underlying gravity perception and signal transduction which control asymmetric plant growth responses are as yet unknown, but are likely to depend on the directional flux of the plant hormone auxin. We have isolated an Arabidopsis mutant of the AtPIN2 gene using transposon mutagenesis. Roots of the Atpin2::En701 null-mutant were agravitropic and showed altered auxin sensitivity, a phenotype characteristic of the agravitropic wav6-52 mutant. The AtPIN2 gene was mapped to chromosome 5 (115.3 cM) corresponding to the WAV6 locus and subsequent genetic analysis indicated that wav6-52 and Atpin2::En701 were allelic. The AtPITN2 gene consists of nine exons defining an open reading frame of 1944 bp which encodes a 69 kDa protein with 10 putative transmembrane domains interrupted by a central hydrophilic loop. The topology of AtPIN2p was found to be similar to members of the major facilitator superfamily of transport proteins. We have shown that the AtPIN2 gene was expressed in ...
Hormone Biology. Rahman, Abidur [1], Bannigan, Alex [3], Sulaman, Waheeda [3], Pechter, Priit [2], Blancaflor, Elison [2], Baskin, Tobias [3]. Auxin, actin, and growth of the Arabidopsis thaliana primary root.. To understand how auxin regulates root growth, we quantified cell division, elemental elongation, and examined actin in the primary root of Arabidopsis thaliana . In treatments for 48 hours that inhibit root elongation rate by 50%, we find that auxins and auxin-transport inhibitors can be put into two classes based on their effects on cell division, elongation, and actin. Indoleacetic acid (IAA), 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), and tri-iodobenzoic acid (TIBA) inhibit root growth primarily through reducing the length of the growth zone rather than the maximal rate of elemental elongation and they do not reduce cell production rate. These three compounds have little effect on the extent of filamentous actin, as imaged in living cells or with chemical fixation and immuno-cytochemistry, but ...
Auxin induces rapid gene expression changes throughout root development. How auxin-induced transcriptional responses relate to changes in protein abundance is not well characterized. This report identifies early auxin responsive proteins in roots at 30 min and 2 h after hormone treatment using a quantitative proteomics approach in which 3,514 proteins were reliably quantified. A comparison of the ,100 differentially expressed proteins at each the time point showed limited overlap, suggesting a dynamic and transient response to exogenous auxin. Several proteins with established roles in auxin-mediated root development exhibited altered abundance, providing support for this approach. While novel targeted proteomics assays demonstrate that all six auxin receptors remain stable in response to hormone. Additionally, 15 of the top responsive proteins display root and/or auxin response phenotypes, demonstrating the validity of these differentially expressed proteins. Auxin signaling in roots dictates ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Free and conjugated lndole-3-acetic acid in developing bean seeds. AU - Bialek, Krystyna. AU - Cohen, Jerry D.. PY - 1989. Y1 - 1989. N2 - The changes in conjugated indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels compared to the levels of free IAA have been analyzed during the development of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seed using quantitative mass spectrometry. Free and ester-linked IAA levels are both relatively high in the early stages of seed development but drop during seed maturation. Concomitantly, the amide-linked IAA becomes the major form of IAA present as the seed matures. In fully mature seed, amide IAA accounts for 80% of the total IAA. The total IAA pool in the seed is maintained at approximately the same level (150-170 nanograms/seed) once the level of free IAA has attained its maximum. Thus, the amount of amide IAA conjugates that accumulate in mature seed is closely related to the amounts of free and ester-linked IAA that disappeared from the rapidly growing seed. Analysis of ...
The plant pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas savastanoi, the causal agent of olive and oleander knot disease, uses the so-called indole-3-acetamide pathway to convert tryptophan to indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) via a two-step pathway catalyzed by enzymes encoded by the genes in the iaaM/iaaH operon. Moreover, pathovar nerii of P. savastanoi is able to conjugate IAA to lysine to generate the less biologically active compound IAA-Lys via the enzyme IAA-lysine synthase encoded by the iaaL gene. Interestingly, iaaL is now known to be widespread in many Pseudomonas syringae pathovars, even in the absence of the iaaM and iaaH genes for IAA biosynthesis. Here, two knockout mutants, ΔiaaL and ΔiaaM, of strain Psn23 of P. savastanoi pv. nerii were produced. Pathogenicity tests using the host plant Nerium oleander showed that ΔiaaL and ΔiaaM were hypervirulent and hypovirulent, respectively and these features appeared to be related to their differential production of free IAA. Using the Phenotype ...
Pollination in flowering plants requires that anthers release pollen when the gynoecium is competent to support fertilization. We show that in Arabidopsis thaliana, two paralogous auxin response transcription factors, ARF6 and ARF8, regulate both stamen and gynoecium maturation. arf6 arf8 double-null mutant flowers arrested as infertile closed buds with short petals, short stamen filaments, undehisced anthers that did not release pollen and immature gynoecia. Numerous developmentally regulated genes failed to be induced. ARF6 and ARF8 thus coordinate the transition from immature to mature fertile flowers. Jasmonic acid (JA) measurements and JA feeding experiments showed that decreased jasmonate production caused the block in pollen release, but not the gynoecium arrest. The double mutant had altered auxin responsive gene expression. However, whole flower auxin levels did not change during flower maturation, suggesting that auxin might regulate flower maturation only under specific envi
1OVM: Crystal structure of thiamindiphosphate-dependent indolepyruvate decarboxylase from Enterobacter cloacae, an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid
Changes in distribution of trans-zeatin (t-Z), gibberellin A7 and A4(GA7/4), ( + )abscisic acid [( + )ABA] and indoleacetic acid (IAA) in the egg cells of Nicotiana tabacum var. macrophylla before and after fertilization were studied with immunoelectron microscopy. The ovules just at pollination or 96 h after pollination were fixed with 2% EDC [ 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide] and then with the mixed paraformaldehyde and glutaraldehyde for acidic phytohormones (or only with the aldehydes for t-Z), then slightly posffixed in 0.5% OsO4 solution for 30 min. After etched in 1% H2O2 for 10 min, the ultrathin sections embedded in Epon 812 resin were immunostained with rabbit anti-t-Z (and t-ZR) polyclonal antibody (PAB), anti-lAA methyl ester PAb, mouse anti-GA7 and GA4 methyl esters monoclonal antibody(MAb), or anti-( + ) ABA methyl ester MAb, respectively. Protein A- or sheep anti-mouse IgG-colloidal gold (Φ 10 nm) were used to indicate rabbit PAbs or mouse MAbs respectively. In the ...
The other IBA-response mutants utilize stored fatty acids during germination normally (Figure 3, Table 2). Because these mutants are generally as resistant to IBA as the putative peroxisomal mutants (Figure 2), we do not believe that they are simply extremely leaky peroxisomal mutants. These nonperoxisomal mutants can be further subdivided into three classes. The class 2 mutants (ibr1-1, ibr1-2, ibr2, and ibr3) are resistant to the auxin effects of IBA on both root elongation and lateral root proliferation, but have wild-type responses to other auxins (IAA and 2,4-D) and auxin transport inhibitors (NPA, TIBA, and HFCA). The class 2 mutants could be defective in enzymes that convert IBA to IAA but are not necessary for the β-oxidation of seed storage lipids. Alternatively, these mutants may be defective in an IBA receptor, signaling pathway, or response factor. If these mutants have normal IBA to IAA conversion, it will suggest that IBA plays at least two roles in the promotion of lateral roots, ...
A plant growth enhancing composition comprising as an active ingredient a synergistic mixture of (a) gibberellins, (b) the heteroauxin indole-3-acetic acid and the cytokinin 6-(4-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-tr
Synchronized tissue polarization during regeneration or de novo vascular tissue formation is a plant-specific example of intercellular communication and coordinated development. According to the canalization hypothesis, the plant hormone auxin serves as polarizing signal that mediates directional channel formation underlying the spatio-temporal vasculature patterning. A necessary part of canalization is a positive feedback between auxin signaling and polarity of the intercellular auxin flow. The cellular and molecular mechanisms of this process are still poorly understood, not the least, because of a lack of a suitable model system. We show that the main genetic model plant, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) can be used to study the canalization during vascular cambium regeneration and new vasculature formation. We monitored localized auxin responses, directional auxin-transport channels formation, and establishment of new vascular cambium polarity during regenerative processes after stem ...
Dora Agri is a leading supplier of New Biostimulants and Plant Growth Regulators, Especially amino acids, humic acid, Seaweed fertilizer, biofertilizer, and Chitosan
Author SummaryLeaf venation patterns of most angiosperm plants are hierarchical structures that develop during leaf growth. A remarkable characteristic of these structures is the abundance of closed loops: the venation array divides the leaf surface into disconnected polygonal sectors. The initial vein generations are repetitive within the same species, while high-order vein generations are much more diverse but still show preserved statistical properties. The accepted view of vein formation is the auxin canalization hypothesis: a high flow of the hormone auxin triggers cell differentiation to form veins. Although the role of auxin in vein formation is well established, some issues are difficult to explain within this model, in particular, the abundance of loops of high-order veins. In this work, we explore the previously proposed idea that elastic stresses may play an important role in the development of venation patterns. This appealing hypothesis naturally explains the existence of hierarchical
1. Evidence has accumulated that the action of auxins in promoting growth is exerted not upon the cell wall but upon the cell contents; i.e ., the protoplasm. Following indications previously obtained, therefore, the effect of auxins on the rate of protoplasm streaming in the Avena coleoptile was studied. 2. Indole-3-acetic acid, the most active auxin available in pure form, was found to increase the rate of streaming in the epidermal cells of the Avena coleoptile at concentrations between 0.5 and 0.002 mg. per liter, the maximum increase being brought about at 0.01 mg. per liter. This concentration is approximately that which, applied in agar to one side of the decapitated coleoptile, would give a curvature of 1°; i.e ., it is well within the range of concentrations active in growth promotion. It is, however, much less than that which produces maximum elongation in immersed sections of Avena coleoptiles. 3. This accelerating effect is readily determined quantitatively by comparison with the ...
AUX/LAX genes encode a family of auxin influx transporters that perform distinct functions during Arabidopsis development. Péret B, Swarup K, Ferguson A, Seth M, Yang Y, Dhondt S, James N, Casimiro I, Perry P, Syed A, Yang H, Reemmer J, Venison E, Howells C, Perez-Amador MA, Yun J, Alonso J, Beemster GT, Laplaze L, Murphy A, Bennett MJ, Nielsen E, Swarup R. Plant Cell. 2012 24:2874-85 (2012). -. The Arabidopsis YUCCA1 flavin monooxygenase functions in the indole-3-pyruvic acid branch of auxin biosynthesis. Stepanova AN, Yun J, Robles LM, Novak O, He W, Guo H, Ljung K, Alonso JM. Plant Cell. 23:3961-3973 (2011). -. A Small-Molecule Screen Identifies L-Kynurenine That Competitively Inhibits TAA1/TAR Activity in Ethylene-Directed Auxin Biosynthesis and Root Growth. He W, Brumos J, Li H, Ji Y, Ke M, Gong X, Zeng Q, Li W, Zhang X, An F, Wen X, Li P, Xie D, Stepanova A, Alonso J, and Guo H. Plant Cell. 23: 3944-3960 (2011). -. Bypassing transcription: a shortcut in cytokinin-auxin interactions. ...
The plant hormone auxin has long been known to play a significant role in plant growth, even featuring in Charles Darwins book The Power and Movement of Plants.. However until the mid-2000s the identity of any receptor for the hormone remained a mystery. Until that time, the site of auxin reception was somewhat of an enigma with the main candidate being a protein named Auxin Binding Protein (ABP) that, in many biochemical studies, was shown to bind auxin at physiological concentrations (for review of ABP1 work1). This protein is present in Arabidopsis but investigations into its in vivo function were somewhat stalled by a 2001 publication that demonstrated that an abp1 T-DNA insertion mutant was embryo lethal2. This did not overly surprise the research community given the fundamental and wide-ranging role of auxin in plant development.. Meanwhile researchers at York University in the UK and at Indiana University in the US were working on a novel hypothesis that proposed the auxin receptor ...
Swarup K, Benková E, Swarup R, Casimiro I, Péret B, Yang Y, Parry G, Nielsen E, De Smet I, Vanneste S, Levesque M, Carrier D, James N, Calvo V, Ljung K, Kramer E, Roberts R, Graham N, Marillonnet S, Patel K, Jones J, Taylor C, Schachtman D, May S, Sandberg G, Benfey P, Friml J, Kerr I, Beeckman T, Laplaze L, Bennett M. 2008. The auxin influx carrier LAX3 promotes lateral root emergence. Nature Cell Biology. 10(8), 946-954 ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Biochemical Society Transactions.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
In a second part of the course, the student will investigate the effects of the plant hormone auxin on root growth (few concentrations tested) and on reporter lines for the hormone signalling pathway. Activation or repression of the signalling pathways will be tested by colorimetric staining. Results will be collected and conclusion will be written and discussed. This part of the practical includes tissue culture as in the first part (including preparation of the growth medium), result analysis (root growth measurements), colorimetric staining and microscopy ...
cd - Nakasone et al.: A gene encoding SMALL ACIDIC PROTEIN 2 potentially mediates the response to synthetic auxin, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, in Arabidopsis thaliana. [6] kommt man leider noch nicht dran!----In diesem Zusammenhang aber auch vielleicht interessant: A small acidic protein 1 (SMAP1) mediates responses of the Arabidopsis root to the synthetic auxin 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2006)[7] ...
When conditions get tough, animals typically fight or flee, but plants are rooted in their environment, and, as a result, have become remarkably adaptable. The Friml group investigates the mechanisms underlying plants adaptability during embryonic and postembryonic development.. Plants and animals have different life strategies. Plants are highly adaptive, and able to modify development and physiology to environmental changes; they can easily regulate growth, initiate new organs or regenerate tissues. Many of these developmental events are mediated by the plant hormone auxin. The Friml group investigates the unique properties of auxin signaling, which can integrate both environmental and endogenous signals. Employing methods spanning molecular physiology, developmental and cell biology, genetics, biochemistry, and mathematical modeling, the group focuses on auxin transport, cell polarity, endocytic recycling, as well as non-transcriptional mechanisms of signaling. In their work, the Friml group ...
Plant Growth Hormones. Castings conatin Auxins and Cytokinins, which are growth hormones for bigger and more fibrous plant roots. ROOTS CAN EASILY GROW FAST, FULL AND FIBROUS.. High Availability of Nutrients. The TRACE ELEMENTS combined with its structure and high MICROBIAL ACTIVITY allow it to out perform what is expected of a low analysis (NPK) fertilizer.. All of these elements working together allow our worm castings to DRAMATICALLY EXCEED EXPECTATIONS!. ...
to identify novel components of SCF complex regulation and/or auxin signaling we used the f-box protein and auxin receptor mutant tir1-1 for a second site forward genetic screen. in a previous screen in [http://www.cbs.umn.edu/plantbio/faculty/GrayWilliam bill grays lab] several enhancers of tir1-1-mediated auxin resistance had been identified (see zhang et al., [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18550827?dopt=AbstractPlus pnas 2008]; ito and gray, [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16877699?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum plant physiology 2006]; quint et al., [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16045473?ordinalpos=2&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum plant journal 2005]; chuang et al., [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15208392?ordinalpos=3&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum plant cell 2004]; gray et al., ...
Photoinactivation of the plant-hormone indoleacetic acid by fluorescent substances. Nature 4269. Ferri, M. G., 1952. Water ... Fluorescence and photoinactivation of indoleacetic acid. Arch. Biochem. & Byophys. 31. Ferri, M. G., 1951. Nuevas informaciones ... Stomatal behaviour as influenced by treatment with naphtoxyacetic acid. Contrib. Boyce Thompson Inst. 15. Ferri, M. G., 1949. ...
H. Mondal; R. K. Mandal; B. B. Biswas (22 November 1972). "RNA Stimulated by Indole Acetic Acid". Nature New Biology. 240 (99 ... He is known for his contributions to the metabolism of nucleic acid and the regulation of protein synthesis in plant cells. He ... 283-. ISBN 978-81-317-3220-5. Progress in Nucleic Acid Research and Molecular Biology. Academic Press. 16 June 1975. pp. 181-. ... successful in identifying the RNA polymerase associated with the transcription and methylation processes of Ribonucleic acid in ...
In the history of research into this causative pathway, the roles of L-tryptophan and indoleacetic acid to 3-methylindole were ... Lactobacillus bacteria in the rumen degrade L-tryptophan to indoleacetic acid; bacteria in the rumen convert this to 3- ... 3-methylindole is produced exclusively from indoleacetic acid and not directly from L-tryptophan.) Club cells in the terminal ... The change in diet to vegetation rich in L-tryptophan causes a corresponding increase of the amino acid typically found in ...
Aerts, R.; Prinsen, E. & Muys, B. (2008). "Potential pathways of indole acetic acid (IAA) biosynthesis in Euphorbia abyssinica ... This is because the sap contains the growth regulator hormone indole-3-acetic acid; branches and twigs that become detached ...
... as well as amines and carboxylic acids. Skatole is produced from tryptophan via indoleacetic acid. Decarboxylation gives ... "Catabolic pathway for the production of skatole and indoleacetic acid by the acetogen Clostridium drakei, Clostridium ... also include urine as white crystals of uric acid) Seabirds or bats (large accumulations) - guano Herbivorous insects, such as ...
A. clavatus has the properties to oxidize tryptamine to indole acetic acid. It can absorb and collect hydrocarbons from fuel ... A. clavatus also produces riboflavin, ribonuclease, acid phosphodiesterase and acid phosphatase when in liquid culture. ... Substantial degree of lipid synthesis occurs, whereas cellulose and usnic acid are degraded. ... oil, incorporate metaphosphate and synthesize ethylene, clavatol and kojic acid. It is also responsible for the production of ...
Michalczuk L, Bandurski RS (1980). "UDP-glucose: indoleacetic acid glucosyl transferase and indoleacetyl-glucose: myo-inositol ...
"Cloning of the gene for indoleacetic acid-lysine synthetase from Pseudomonas syringae subsp. savastanoi". J. Bacteriol. 166 (2 ... specifically those forming carbon-nitrogen bonds as acid-D-amino-acid ligases (peptide synthases). The systematic name of this ... Hutzinger O, Kosuge T (1968). "Microbial synthesis and degradation of indole-3-acetic acid. 3. The isolation and ...
"Synthesis of new indolecarboxylic acids related to the plant hormone indoleacetic acid" (PDF). Journal of the Brazilian ... and β-amino acid derivatives". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 124 (9): 1866-1867. doi:10.1021/ja017833p. PMID ... "Direct asymmetric anti-Mannich-type reactions catalyzed by a designed amino acid". Journal of the American Chemical Society. ...
There follows oxidation by aldehyde dehydrogenase to 5-HIAA, the indole acetic-acid derivative. The latter is then excreted by ... In animals including humans, serotonin is synthesized from the amino acid L-tryptophan by a short metabolic pathway consisting ... One product of serotonin breakdown is 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), which is excreted in the urine. Serotonin and 5-HIAA ... Biochemically, the indoleamine molecule derives from the amino acid tryptophan, via the (rate-limiting) hydroxylation of the 5 ...
... an indole-acetic acid producing bacterium isolated from sugarcane cultivars of México". Plant and Soil. 154 (2): 145-150. doi: ... The bacterium is known for stimulating plant growth and being tolerant to acetic acid. With one to three lateral flagella, and ... Besides to be a nitrogen-fixing bacterium, G. diazotrophicus synthesizes Indole-3-acid acetic, that could contribute to promote ... Cavalcante, Vladimir A.; Dobereiner, J. (1988-05-01). "A new acid-tolerant nitrogen-fixing bacterium associated with sugarcane ...
The compound's mechanism of action is to mimic the growth hormone indoleacetic acid (IAA). When sprayed on plants it induces ... It is a phenoxy herbicide and a plant growth regulator, an analog of 2,4,5-T in which the latter's acetic acid sidechain is ... Fenoprop, also called 2,4,5-TP, is the organic compound 2-(2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy)propionic acid. ... Phenoxy herbicides 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid Pesticide Properties Database. "Fenoprop". University of Hertfordshire. ...
"A gene encoding a protein modified by the phytohormone indoleacetic acid". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of ... The most active JA in plants is jasmonic acid. Jasmonic acid can be further metabolized into methyl jasmonate (MeJA), which is ... Auxins, especially 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), are also commonly applied to stimulate root ... Salicylic acid (SA) is a hormone with a structure related to phenol. It was originally isolated from an extract of white willow ...
ACC synthesis increases with high levels of auxins, especially indole acetic acid (IAA) and cytokinins. Ethylene is perceived ... Ethylene is biosynthesized from the amino acid methionine to S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM, also called Adomet) by the enzyme ... SAM is then converted to 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) by the enzyme ACC synthase (ACS). The activity of ACS ... Smoke contains ethylene, and once this was realized the smoke was replaced with ethephon or naphthalene acetic acid, which ...
Tanada, T. (1968). "A rapid photoreversible response of barley root tips in the presence of 3-indoleacetic Acid". Proceedings ...
The first group to be discovered act by mimicking the growth hormone indoleacetic acid (IAA). When sprayed on broad-leaf plants ... The best known phenoxy herbicides are (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid (MCPA), 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and ... butyric acid (2,4-DB) and 4-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)butyric acid (MCPB) which act as propesticides for 2,4-D and MCPA ... It is a benzoic acid rather than a phenoxyacetic acid. In the 1970s, agrochemical companies were working to develop new ...
The natural plant hormone responsible for phototropism is now known to be indoleacetic acid (IAA). The Cholodny-Went model is ...
Tryptophan is converted to indoleacetic acid, which decarboxylates to give the methylindole. Skatole can be synthesized via the ... One obtained thereby volitile fatty acids; acetic acid; normal and isobutyric acid; as well as the aromatic substances: phenol ... "Catabolic pathway for the production of skatole and indoleacetic acid by the acetogen Clostridium drakei, Clostridium ... Skatole is derived from the amino acid tryptophan in the digestive tract of mammals. ...
Tanja Pless; Michael Boettger; Peter Hedden & Jan Graebe (1984). "Occurrence of 4-Cl-indoleacetic acid in broad beans and ... Canavanine, a toxic analogue of the amino acid arginine, has been identified in Hairy Vetch as an appetite suppressant for ... This process can effectively lead to the depletion of vital protective reserves of the sulfur amino acid cysteine and thereby ... It inhibits the conversion of the sulfur amino acid methionine to cysteine. Cystathionine, an intermediary product of this ...
Tanada, Takuma (1968-02-01). "A Rapid Photoreversible Response of Barely Root Tips in the Presence of 3-Indoleacetic Acid". ...
ACC synthesis increases with high levels of auxins, especially indole acetic acid (IAA) and cytokinins. Ethylene is perceived ... which are then available as buffers for dietary acids. Ammonium is excreted in the urine, resulting in net acid loss. Ammonia ... Chen S, Zheng S, Liu Z, Tang C, Zhao B, Du J, Jin H (Feb 2015). "Endogenous sulfur dioxide protects against oleic acid-induced ... It was shown that endogenous sulfur dioxide plays a role in diminishing an experimental lung damage caused by oleic acid. ...
Basu, P. S.; A. C. Ghosh (2001). "Production of Indole Acetic Acid in Culture by a Rhizobium Species from the Root Nodules of a ... Basu, P. S.; A. C. Ghosh (1998). "Indole Acetic Acid and Its Metabolism in Root Nodules of a Monocotyledonous Tree Roystonea ... In addition to evidence of nitrogen fixation, the nodules were also found to be producing indole acetic acid, an important ... D-004, is a mixture of fatty acids, is being studied as a potential alternative to finasteride for the treatment of BPH. ...
"Occurrence of 4-Cl-indoleacetic acid in broad beans and correlation of its levels with seed development". Plant Physiology. 74 ... The mechanism of action is the insecticide binding at the GABAA site in the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) chloride ionophore ... In the laboratory, the related reaction involving zinc chloride in concentrated hydrochloric acid: R − OH + HCl → Δ ZnCl 2 R − ... For example, peas and broad beans contain the natural chlorinated plant hormone 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid (4-Cl-IAA); and ...
"Involvement of plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid in indoleacetic acid synthesis in Pseudomonas savastanoi", Journal of Bacteriology ... Kosuge showed the importance of indoleacetic acid (IAA), a plant hormone which is produced by P. savastanoi, in producing the ... "Nucleotide sequences of the Pseudomonas savastanoi indoleacetic acid genes show homology with Agrobacterium tumefaciens T-DNA ...
"Nitric oxide mediates the indole acetic acid induction activation of a mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade involved in ... "Effects of salicylic acid on the bioproductivity of plants." Salicylic acid: A Plant Hormone. Springer, Dordrecht, 2007. 15-23 ... At a molecular level when a cutting is first excised at the stem there is an immediate increase in jasmonic acid, known to be ... It was known as early as 1935 that when indolyl-3-acetic acid (IAA), also known as auxin, is applied to the stem of root ...
Yamada Y, Tsukamoto H, Shiraishi T, Nomura T, & Oku H. (1990). "Detection of Indoleacetic Acid Biosynthesis in Some Species of ... deformans also produces the auxin indole-3-acetic acid from L-tryptophan via indole-3-pyruvic acid and indole-3-acetaldehyde. ... For example, chlorogenic acid, which is known to have antifungal activity in vitro, is present in resistant strains but not ... The activation of salicylic acid-dependent pathways suggests a mechanism to achieve systemic acquired resistance. Peach leaf ...
Reaction of the resulting amine with the imidazolide derivative of 5-methoxy-3-indoleacetic acid produces the amide reverse ...
Whitehead TR, Price NP, Drake HL, Cotta MA (March 2008). "Catabolic pathway for the production of skatole and indoleacetic acid ... The first one consists of the degradation of the amino acid into indole-3-acetate. And in the second step, the IAD catalyses ... Fermentation of aromatic amino acids (in this case tryptophan) leads to a large variety of products that remain with their ... November 2017). "A gut bacterial pathway metabolizes aromatic amino acids into nine circulating metabolites". Nature. 551 (7682 ...
Ahmad F.; Ahmad I.; Khan M. S. (2005). "Indole Acetic Acid Production by the Indigenous Isolates of Azotobacter and Fluorescent ... They are also used in production of alginic acid, which is applied in medicine as an antacid, in the food industry as an ... The shape of the cell is affected by the amino acid glycine, which is present in the nutrient medium peptone. Under ... If atmospheric nitrogen is not fixed, the source of nitrogen can alternatively be nitrates, ammonium ions, or amino acids. The ...
Indole acetic acid derivative.. Reversible COX-1/COX-2 inhibitor.. PO and topical.. Bioavailability = 50-60%; protein binding ... Flufenamic acid. Comes in free acid form and aluminium salt form; anthranilic acid.. As per diclofenac.. Topical.. N/A. Soft ... Tolfenamic acid. Comes as free acid; practically insoluble in water; degrades upon contact with light; anthranilic acid.. As ... Comes in free acid form; niflumic acid derivative.. As per diclofenac.. PO, rectal.. Not available.. Inflammatory conditions.. ...
ACC synthesis increases with high levels of auxins, especially indole acetic acid (IAA) and cytokinins. ... Valerian constituents (e.g., isovaleric acid, isovaleramide, valerenic acid, valerenol). *Unsorted benzodiazepine site positive ... Ethylene is biosynthesized from the amino acid methionine to S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM, also called Adomet) by the enzyme ... Ethylene appears to have been discovered by Johann Joachim Becher, who obtained it by heating ethanol with sulfuric acid;[48] ...
"Nitric oxide mediates the indole acetic acid induction activation of a mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade involved in ... "Effects of salicylic acid on the bioproductivity of plants." Salicylic acid: A Plant Hormone. Springer, Dordrecht, 2007. 15-23. ... It was known as early as 1935 that when indolyl-3-acetic acid (IAA), also known as auxin, is applied to the stem of root ... At a molecular level when a cutting is first excised at the stem there is an immediate increase in jasmonic acid, known to be ...
... the synthesis of indole acetic acid (auxin) and alcoholic fermentation.[184]. Carboxypeptidase cleaves peptide linkages during ... The free zinc ion is a powerful Lewis acid up to the point of being corrosive. Stomach acid contains hydrochloric acid, in ... In proteins, zinc ions are often coordinated to the amino acid side chains of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, cysteine and ... Extremely pure zinc reacts only slowly at room temperature with acids.[36] Strong acids, such as hydrochloric or sulfuric acid ...
"A gene encoding a protein modified by the phytohormone indoleacetic acid". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of ... Once it was determined that the two compounds are the same, it was named abscisic acid. The name "abscisic acid" was given ... Auxins, especially 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), are also commonly applied to stimulate root ... The most active JA in plants is jasmonic acid. Jasmonic acid can be further metabolized into methyl-JA, which is a volatile ...
"Occurrence of 4-Cl-indoleacetic acid in broad beans and correlation of its levels with seed development". Plant Physiology. 74 ... In the laboratory, the related reaction involving zinc chloride in concentrated hydrochloric acid: R. −. OH. +. HCl. →. Δ. ZnCl ... amino acids, flavonoids, steroids, and fatty acids.[2][4] Organochlorides, including dioxins, are produced in the high ... For example, peas and broad beans contain the natural chlorinated plant hormone 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid (4-Cl-IAA);[13][14 ...
There follows oxidation by aldehyde dehydrogenase to 5-HIAA, the indole acetic-acid derivative. The latter is then excreted by ... In animals including humans, serotonin is synthesized from the amino acid L-tryptophan by a short metabolic pathway consisting ... One product of serotonin breakdown is 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), which is excreted in the urine. Serotonin and 5-HIAA ... or other acid) to bring the pH to 3, and then adding NaOH to make a pH of 13 for 1 hour. Asperigillus niger would be the ...
... zolmitriptan N-oxide and an indole acetic acid derivative. It has an elimination half-life of about three hours before it ...
... indoleacetic acids MeSH D03.438.473.404.200 - etodolac MeSH D03.438.473.404.478 - hydroxyindoleacetic acid MeSH D03.438.473.412 ... pipemidic acid MeSH D03.383.725.547.650 - piromidic acid MeSH D03.383.725.547.900 - 3-pyridinecarboxylic acid, 1,4-dihydro-2,6- ... niflumic acid MeSH D03.066.515.635 - pipemidic acid MeSH D03.066.515.650 - piromidic acid MeSH D03.066.515.950 - xanthinol ... nalidixic acid MeSH D03.438.810.835.055.550 - nedocromil MeSH D03.438.810.835.055.580 - oxolinic acid MeSH D03.438.810.835.188 ...
He also researched russeting in fruit, discovering that it is caused by the secretion of indole acetic acid by bacteria, and ...
Symptoms include formation of galls on infected trees; tumour formation is induced by indoleacetic acid biosynthesis by the ...
... and auxin/indole acetic acid (AUX/IAA) repressor of the jasmonate and auxin signaling cascade, respectively, indicating a point ... Nucleic Acids Res. 35:1145-1154 Eulgem T, Rushton PJ, Robatzek S and Somssich IE (2000) The WRKY superfamily of plant ... Nucleic Acids Research. 41(21). 9764-9778 Babu, Iyer, Balaji and Aravind (2006) The natural history of the WRKY-GCM1 zinc ... Nucleic Acids Research. 34(22). 6505-6520 Babu, Iyer, Balaji and Aravind (2006) The natural history of the WRKY-GCM1 zinc ...
Raven, J (1975). "Transport of Indoleacetic-acid in plant-cells in relation to pH and electrical potential gradients, and its ... In research, 1-N-Naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) are used as specific inhibitors of the ... 9-Hydroxyfluorene-9-carboxylic acid (HFCA), TIBA, and trans-cinnamic acid (TCA) are also example of Polar Auxin Transport ... As weak acids, the protonation state of auxins is dictated by the pH of the environment; a strongly acidic environment inhibits ...
Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives / Carboxylic acidCarboxylic acid derivative / Carbonyl group / Organopnictogen compound / ... Indoleacetic acid. Accession Number. DB07950. Type. Small Molecule. Groups. Experimental. Description. Not Available. Structure ... monocarboxylic acid, indole-3-acetic acids (CHEBI:16411) / Indole alkaloids, Auxins (C00954) Targets. ... Indolyl carboxylic acids and derivatives. Direct Parent. Indole-3-acetic acid derivatives. Alternative Parents. 3-alkylindoles ...
Aromatic aminotransferase activity and indoleacetic acid production in Rhizobium meliloti.. B L Kittell, D R Helinski, G S ... Aromatic aminotransferase activity and indoleacetic acid production in Rhizobium meliloti.. B L Kittell, D R Helinski, G S ... Aromatic aminotransferase activity and indoleacetic acid production in Rhizobium meliloti.. B L Kittell, D R Helinski, G S ... Bacterial indoleacetic acid (IAA) production, which has been proposed to play a role in the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis, is a ...
... indoleacetic acid explanation. Define indoleacetic acid by Websters Dictionary, WordNet Lexical Database, Dictionary of ... 1H-indole-3-acetic acid. .. Noun. 1.. indoleacetic acid - a plant hormone promoting elongation of stems and roots. Synonyms: ... indoleacetic acid --. indolebutyric acid. Indolence. Indolency. Indolent. Indolently. Indoles. Indolin. Indomable. indomethacin ... indoleacetic acid in´dole`a`cet´ic ac´id Pronunciation: ĭn´dōl ...
Two auxin-responsive domains interact positively to induce expression of the early indoleacetic acid-inducible gene PS-IAA4/5. ... Two auxin-responsive domains interact positively to induce expression of the early indoleacetic acid-inducible gene PS-IAA4/5. ... Two auxin-responsive domains interact positively to induce expression of the early indoleacetic acid-inducible gene PS-IAA4/5. ... Two auxin-responsive domains interact positively to induce expression of the early indoleacetic acid-inducible gene PS-IAA4/5. ...
Indoleacetic acid. Description. Indoleacetic acid (IAA) is a breakdown product of tryptophan metabolism and is often produced ... Showing metabocard for Indoleacetic acid (HMDB0000197). IdentificationTaxonomyOntologyPhysical propertiesSpectraBiological ... Ilkhanizadeh B, Owji AA, Tavangar SM, Vasei M, Tabei SM: Spot urine 5-hydroxy indole acetic acid and acute appendicitis. ... Ilkhanizadeh B, Owji AA, Tavangar SM, Vasei M, Tabei SM: Spot urine 5-hydroxy indole acetic acid and acute appendicitis. ...
The diameter and wall thickness of tracheids produced after indoleacetic acid treatment were not significantly different from ... Neither indoleacetic acid nor gibberellic acid stimulated renewed cambial activity when applied after the cessation of wood ... The diameter and wall thickness of tracheids produced after indoleacetic acid treatment were not significantly different from ... However, lateral application of indoleacetic acid (IAA) to intact shoots increased both tracheid diameter and wall thickness; ...
The report generally describes 6-fluoro-3-indoleacetic acid, examines its uses, production methods, patents. 6-Fluoro-3- ... 6-fluoro-3-indoleacetic acid market forecast. 6. 6-FLUORO-3-INDOLEACETIC ACID MARKET PRICES. 6.1. 6-fluoro-3-indoleacetic acid ... 6-fluoro-3-indoleacetic acid prices in other regions. 7. 6-FLUORO-3-INDOLEACETIC ACID END-USE SECTOR 7.1. 6-fluoro-3- ... 6-fluoro-3-indoleacetic acid application spheres, downstream products. 3. 6-FLUORO-3-INDOLEACETIC ACID MANUFACTURING METHODS. 4 ...
In a transient assay measuring protein accumulation, an Aux/IAA 13-amino acid domain II consensus sequence was s … ... Auxin rapidly induces auxin/indoleacetic acid (Aux/IAA) transcription. The proteins encoded are short-lived nucleus-localized ... Rapid degradation of auxin/indoleacetic acid proteins requires conserved amino acids of domain II and is proteasome dependent ... Auxin rapidly induces auxin/indoleacetic acid (Aux/IAA) transcription. The proteins encoded are short-lived nucleus-localized ...
Abstract: Cultural and nutritional conditions were optimized for Indole Acetic Acid (IAA) production by Rhizobium spp. isolated ... mannitol and L-glutamic acid were the best promoters for IAA production. Addition of cell wall affecting agents increased the ...
... acetic acid; Linear Formula: C12H13NO3; find USP-1417113 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar ... 5-Methoxy-2-methyl-3-indoleacetic acid, 2-(5-Methoxy-2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl) ... 1H-indol-3-yl)acetic acid, 5-. Methoxy-. 2-. methyl-. 3-. indoleacetic acid ...
Research Notes: Cloning of the Genes for Indoleacetic Acid Synthesis from Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae. Frank F. White. ... Genes for indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) biosynthesis in Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae, the causal agent of brown spot disease ...
A Synergistic Stimulation of Avena sativa Coleoptile Elongation by Indoleacetic Acid and Carbon Dioxide A. W. Bown, I. J. ... A Synergistic Stimulation of Avena sativa Coleoptile Elongation by Indoleacetic Acid and Carbon Dioxide ... A Synergistic Stimulation of Avena sativa Coleoptile Elongation by Indoleacetic Acid and Carbon Dioxide ... A Synergistic Stimulation of Avena sativa Coleoptile Elongation by Indoleacetic Acid and Carbon Dioxide ...
Occurrence of 4-Cl-Indoleacetic Acid in Broad Beans and Correlation of Its Levels with Seed Development. Tanja Pless, Michael ... Seeds and leaves of Vicia faba L. contain considerable amounts of 4-Cl-indoleacetic acid as determined by gas-liquid ... The peak of 4-Cl-indoleacetic acid content per seed coincides with the maximum rate of water accumulation in the seeds. ... Occurrence of 4-Cl-Indoleacetic Acid in Broad Beans and Correlation of Its Levels with Seed Development ...
... and Indoleacetic Acid Applications on Peach Susceptibility to Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae... ... Two field experiments were conducted to study the effects of added nitrogen, calcium, and indoleacetic acid, in the presence or ... Influence of Ring Nematode Infestation and Calcium, Nitrogen, and Indoleacetic Acid Applications on Peach Susceptibility to ...
... the heteroauxin indole-3-acetic acid and the cytokinin 6-(4-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-tr ... such as indoleacetic acid and naphthaleneacetic acid, which induce stem elongation and promote root formation. Other synthetic ... 5-trichlorobenzoic acid (TBA); and 3,5-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid (dicamba), for example. All the above acids are active in ... 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4D); 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T); 2-(4-chloro-2-methyl-phenoxy) propionic acid ( ...
What is indoleacetic acid? Meaning of indoleacetic acid medical term. What does indoleacetic acid mean? ... Looking for online definition of indoleacetic acid in the Medical Dictionary? indoleacetic acid explanation free. ... Related to indoleacetic acid: abscisic acid, gibberellin. indoleacetic acid. (ĭn′dō-lə-sē′tĭk). n.. A plant hormone, C10H9NO2, ... such as the indoleacetic acid (IAA), is possibly the main mechanism of plant growth promotion by rhizobia.. Indoleacetic Acid ...
TI - Growth and composition of eucalyptus and maize on Kenya soils fertilized with phosphate and indole acetic acid / UR - ... title,Growth and composition of eucalyptus and maize on Kenya soils fertilized with phosphate and indole acetic acid /,/title, ... title = {Growth and composition of eucalyptus and maize on Kenya soils fertilized with phosphate and indole acetic acid / },. ... Growth and composition of eucalyptus and maize on Kenya soils fertilized with phosphate and indole acetic acid / ...
Improvement of Analytical Method for the Activities of Indoleacetic Acid Oxidase and Isozymes. ... HE Zhichang ZHU Yingguo (College of Life Sciences,Wuhan University,Wuhan 430072);A Study on Indole-3-acetic Acid Oxidase and ...
... J ... All proteins contain four conserved domains ranging in size from 9 to 43 amino acids. Their most prominent feature is the ... of a highly charged N terminus consisting of two clusters of acidic residues separated by a cluster of basic amino acids. ...
Auxin/Indoleacetic acid (Aux/IAA) genes participate in the auxin signaling pathway and play key roles in plant growth and ... Ramos JA, Zenser N, Leyser O, Callis J. Rapid degradation of auxin/indoleacetic acid proteins requires conserved amino acids of ... Auxin/Indoleacetic acid (Aux/IAA) genes participate in the auxin signaling pathway and play key roles in plant growth and ... Genome-wide analysis of the auxin/indoleacetic acid (Aux/IAA) gene family in allotetraploid rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). ...
According to their indole acetic acid production, four of the phytobacteria isolated from plants collected in the dry season ... ORTEGA-ACOSTA, Orlando et al. Isolated phytobacteria producing indole acetic acid from Lemna gibba plants and their ecological ... The presence of endophytic bacteria producing large amounts of indole acetic acid in Lemna gibba plants suggests that these ... according to the amount of indole acetic acid production. ... Palavras-chave : Indole Acetic Acid; phytobacteria; Lemna gibba ...
Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of indoleacetic acid and tryptophan following aqueous chloroformate ...
"Indoleacetic Acids" by people in this website by year, and whether "Indoleacetic Acids" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Indoleacetic Acids" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Indoleacetic Acids" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Indoleacetic Acids". ...
... / Plant Development / Plant Growth Regulators/metabolism / Plant Leaves/genetics / Plant Leaves/ ...
Indoleacetic acid (IAA, 3-IAA) is the most common, naturally occurring, plant hormone of the auxin class. It is the best known ... Other less expensive synthetic auxin analogs on the market for use in horticulture are indolebutyric acid IBA and 1- ... naphthaleneacetic acid NAA. Views Read Edit View history. It induces caspase-8 and caspase-9 , which results in caspase-3 ...
Indole acetic acid and flavonoids production by rhizospheric bacteria isolated from Medicago sativa L. rhizosphere. By: Ismail ... Indole acetic acid and flavonoids production by rhizospheric bacteria isolated from Medicago sativa L. rhizosphere. Ahemad M, ... Indole acetic acid and flavonoids production by rhizospheric bacteria isolated from Medicago sativa L. rhizosphere. Int. J. ... All of these strains were tested for the secretion of Indole acetic acid (IAA) and flavonoids. Three strains were known to be ...
Figure 1. Indole acetic acid (IAA) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) production by isolates. (a) Standard graph ... Figure 1. Indole acetic acid (IAA) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) production by isolates. (a) Standard graph ... 2.2.4. Detection of Indole Acetic Acid (IAA). A total of 500 µL of 24-h old bacterial cultures were used to inoculate 50 mL of ... Patten, C.L.; Glick, B.R. Role of Pseudomonas putida indoleacetic acid in development of the host plant root system. Appl. ...
... acetic acid sodium salt \ IB0724 for more molecular products just contact us ... Index / BioBasic / 3_Indole_acetic acid sodium salt / Product Detail : IB0724 3_Indole_acetic acid sodium salt Related keywords ... amino acid conjugation of benzoic acid. WP1307: Fatty Acid Beta Oxidation. WP1311: Folic Acid Network. WP133: Fatty Acid Omega ... amino acid conjugation of benzoic acid. WP1020: Fatty Acid Biosynthesis. WP105: Fatty Acid Beta Oxidation 2. WP1061: Fatty Acid ...
Indole acetic acid production from pseudomonas fluorescens and its effect on root elongation of vigna radiata. Author: Janani, ...
2. Production of indole acetic acid (IAA) from Cladosporium sp. had the highest content than others (311 ppm). The lowest IAA ... ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI IN Paraserianthes falcataria: PRODUCTION OF INDOLE ACETIC ACID Authors. * REINE SUCI WULANDARI ... WULANDARI, R. S., & SURYANTINI, R. (2019). ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI IN Paraserianthes falcataria: PRODUCTION OF INDOLE ACETIC ACID. ...
  • Two auxin-responsive domains interact positively to induce expression of the early indoleacetic acid-inducible gene PS-IAA4/5. (pnas.org)
  • Auxin rapidly induces auxin/indoleacetic acid (Aux/IAA) transcription. (nih.gov)
  • Single amino acid substitutions in these 13 amino acids, corresponding to known auxin response mutants, resulted in a sixfold to 20-fold increase in protein accumulation. (nih.gov)
  • A number of natural substances do same as auxin activity, but indoleacetic acid (IAA) is the first extracted and well-known growth regulator [5]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Genome-wide analysis of the auxin/indoleacetic acid (Aux/IAA) gene family in allotetraploid rapeseed (Brassica napus L. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Auxin / Indoleacetic acid ( Aux/IAA ) genes participate in the auxin signaling pathway and play key roles in plant growth and development. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Other less expensive synthetic auxin analogs on the market for use in horticulture are indolebutyric acid IBA and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid NAA. (bluetreasure.me)
  • 50ppm Indole 3-Acitic Acid was chosen as auxin. (biologyjournals.net)
  • In CGI-58 loss-of-function mutants of Arabidopsis, in addition to the increase in TAG content in leaves, the production of jasmonic acid and IAA, or auxin, are significantly impaired ( see Park et al ), implying that CGI-58, through its interaction with PXA1, participates in the regulation of both lipid homeostasis and hormone signaling in plants ( see figure ). (asbmb.org)
  • Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is the most common, naturally-occurring, plant growth regulator - as a principal auxin of higher plants. (thomassci.com)
  • All proteins contain four conserved domains ranging in size from 9 to 43 amino acids. (nih.gov)
  • proteins and peptides , steroids (fat-soluble molecules whose basic structure is a skeleton of four carbon rings), or derivatives of the amino acid tyrosine, characterized by a 6-carbon, or benzene, ring. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The changes in total carbohydrates was mainly in polysaccharide fractions, while those of the total nitrogen were mainly in proteins and nucleic acids mainly RNA , 10 ppm concentration was the most promotive but 80 ppm was the least promotive. (bvsalud.org)
  • Seeds accumulate well-balanced free of charge amino acids, which stored inside the seed storage proteins (SSPs). (intechopen.com)
  • Trichloroacetic acid is an acetic acid analogue commonly used to precipitate proteins, DNA and RNA. (thomassci.com)
  • In the presence of SDS Trichloroacetic acid will precipitate proteins which can then be quantified by the Lowry method. (thomassci.com)
  • Structural characterization of the early indoleacetic acid-inducible genes, PS-IAA4/5 and PS-IAA6, of pea (Pisum sativum L. (nih.gov)
  • All four of these AATs were constitutively produced and utilized the aromatic amino acids tryptophan, phenylalanine, and tyrosine as amino substrates. (asm.org)
  • Indoleacetic acid (IAA) is a breakdown product of tryptophan metabolism and is often produced by the action of bacteria in the mammalian gut. (hmdb.ca)
  • All the 26 Rhizobium strains produced indole acetic acid [IAA], but maximum amount was produced by only five strains in yeast extract mannitol [YEM] medium supplemented with L-tryptophan . (bvsalud.org)
  • The bacterium produced a high amount (22.3 microg/ml) of indole acetic acid (IAA) from L-tryptophan supplemented basal medium. (who.int)
  • The plant growth hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) transcriptionally activates expression of several genes in plants. (pnas.org)
  • Research Notes: Cloning of the Genes for Indoleacetic Acid Synthesis from Pseudomonas syringae pv. (apsnet.org)
  • Cloning of the Genes for Indoleacetic Acid Synthesis from Pseudomonas syringae pv. (apsnet.org)
  • Genes for indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) biosynthesis in Pseudomonas syringae pv. (apsnet.org)
  • The most popular root-promoting hormones are the auxins indoleacetic acid (IAA), indolebutyric acid (IBA), and napthaleneacetic acid (NAA). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The present study characterized bacteria endophytes isolated from Lemna gibba plants (collected in the "chinampera area" of Xochimilco canals over two seasons) according to the amount of indole acetic acid production. (scielo.org.mx)
  • According to their indole acetic acid production, four of the phytobacteria isolated from plants collected in the dry season were characterized as low producers and four as high producers. (scielo.org.mx)
  • The objective of this study was to isolate some Pseudomonas fluorescens species from rhizospheric soil of faba bean and tested their indole acetic acid production. (sciencepublishinggroup.com)
  • All isolates Pseudomonas fluorescens were tseted for indole acetic acid production have a potential to produce phytohormone. (sciencepublishinggroup.com)
  • However, instead of interacting with an ATGL-like lipase, Arabidopsis CGI-58 interacts with the peroxisomal ABC transporter 1 protein , also known as PXA1, which is responsible for the uptake of fatty acids into peroxisomes for β-oxidation ( see Zolman et al , Footitt et al and De Marcos Lousa et al ). (asbmb.org)
  • For instance, PXA1, in addition to playing a role in the uptake and turnover of cellular fatty acids for energy generation, also facilitates the uptake of lipophilic hormone precursors of the jasmonate and indole acetic acid pathway for their subsequent activation through β-oxidation ( see Hayashi et al and Theodoulou et al 18, 19). (asbmb.org)
  • Cloning and sequencing of the cDNA for S-acyl fatty acid synthase thioesterase from the uropygial gland of mallard duck. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 2001) with four main groups: i) Sulfur compounds, ii) phenolic and indolic compounds, iii) volatile fatty acid (VFA), iv) ammonia and amines (Schiffman et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The NutrEval FMV evaluates overall nutritional status to determine personalized supplementation needs for antioxidants, B-vitamins, minerals, essential fatty acids, amino acids, digestive support, and other select nutrients. (directlabs.com)
  • Stearic acid is a long-chain saturated fatty acid that can be derived from either animal fats or vegetable oils. (thomassci.com)
  • Caprylic acid is the common name for the eight-carbon saturated fatty acid known by the systematic name octanoic acid. (thomassci.com)
  • He is known for his contributions to the metabolism of nucleic acid and the regulation of protein synthesis in plant cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • We investigated the effect of avasimibe (C1- 1011), a novel ACAT inhibitor, on bile acid synthesis and cholesterol 7α- hydroxylase in cultured rat hepatocytes and rats fed different diets. (tudelft.nl)
  • Avasimibe (3 μmol/L) increased bile acid synthesis (2.9- fold) after preincubation with βVLDL and cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase activity (1.7-and 2.6-fold, with or without βVLDL), the latter paralleled by a similar induction of its messenger RNA (mRNA). (tudelft.nl)
  • Avasimibe did not affect sterol 27-hydroxylase and oxysterol 7α-hydroxylase, 2 enzymes in the alternative pathway in bile acid synthesis. (tudelft.nl)
  • The expression of GH3-6 was induced by drought, abscisic acid (ABA) and high salt. (chinbullbotany.com)
  • Reduced content of stress responsive abscisic acid suggest lesser stress convened to endophyte-associated plants. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Aromatic aminotransferase activity and indoleacetic acid production in Rhizobium meliloti. (asm.org)
  • Bacterial indoleacetic acid (IAA) production, which has been proposed to play a role in the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis, is a poorly understood process. (asm.org)
  • Cultural and nutritional conditions were optimized for Indole Acetic Acid (IAA) production by Rhizobium spp. (scialert.net)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Growth behaviour and bioproduction of indole acetic acid by a Rhizobium sp. (who.int)
  • Neither indoleacetic acid nor gibberellic acid stimulated renewed cambial activity when applied after the cessation of wood production. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Continued research at The Great Plains Laboratory has resulted in new information on Clostridia bacteria markers that will soon be available for the urine organic acid test. (greatplainslaboratory.com)
  • High 3-indoleacetic acid in urine is a byproduct of C. stricklandii, C. lituseburense, C. subterminale, and C. putrefaciens. (greatplainslaboratory.com)
  • The present study demonstrated the effect of jasmonic acid (JA) on pigments and vitamins involved in photosynthesis or other metabolic activities during salt stress in Brassica napus L. Exposure to different concentrations of NaCl decreased pigments such as total chlorophyll, β-carotene, and lycopene to significant low levels but interestingly salinity increased total protein of B. napus L. seedlings, which was. (academicjournals.org)
  • AAT1 and AAT2 were also not required for the production of a minimal level of aromatic amino acids, but both were able to scavenge nitrogen from the aromatic amino acids during nitrogen deprivation. (asm.org)
  • The effect of different carbon and nitrogen sources on IAA production were also studied and it revealed that, mannitol and L-glutamic acid were the best promoters for IAA production. (scialert.net)
  • Influence of Ring Nematode Infestation and Calcium, Nitrogen, and Indoleacetic Acid Applications on Peach Susceptibility to Pseudomonas syringae pv. (apsnet.org)
  • Two field experiments were conducted to study the effects of added nitrogen, calcium, and indoleacetic acid, in the presence or absence of ring nematodes ( Mesocriconema xenoplax ), on susceptibility of peach to bacterial canker. (apsnet.org)
  • The bacterial strains tested were shown to solubilize insoluble phosphate, fix nitrogen, produce indole acetic acid and ammonia, but only strains from Sphingomonas , Bacillus , and Enterobacte r can produce siderophore. (springer.com)
  • Formic Acid is the smallest of the carboxylic acids. (thomassci.com)
  • The strong acidity of HFBA ensures that other acidic groups such as carboxylic acid moieties on biomolecules remain protonated, and thus the samples are able to interact with organic solvents in such processes as reverse phase chromatography. (thomassci.com)
  • Residues identified as essential by single alanine substitutions were not sufficient when all flanking amino acids were alanine, indicating the importance of flanking regions. (nih.gov)
  • Their most prominent feature is the presence of a highly charged N terminus consisting of two clusters of acidic residues separated by a cluster of basic amino acids. (nih.gov)
  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is an evolutionarily conserved neuropeptide with 10 amino acid residues, which possesses some structural variants. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as indole-3-acetic acid derivatives. (hmdb.ca)
  • Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (wakehealth.edu)
  • Meanwhile, the effect of LeDnaJ on the thermotolerance and IAA (indoleacetic acid) biosynthesis in L. edodes was analyzed via the over-expression method. (figshare.com)
  • Comparative studies on tobacco pith and sweet potato root isoperoxidases in relation to injury, indoleacetic acid , and ethylene effects. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Growth promotion of blackcurrant softwood cuttings by recombinant strain Pseudomonas fluorescens BSP53a synthesizing an increased an increased amount of indole-3-acetic acid. (sciencepublishinggroup.com)
  • These are compounds containing an acetic acid (or a derivative) linked to the C3 carbon atom of an indole. (hmdb.ca)
  • Your search returned 77 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ELISA ELISA Kit across 9 suppliers. (biocompare.com)
  • They are, in addition to antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase and protein tyrosine phosphatase-like molecules, one of the markers of type 1 diabetes mellitus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The presence of endophytic bacteria producing large amounts of indole acetic acid in Lemna gibba plants suggests that these organisms could promote plant development and act as potential bioinoculants. (scielo.org.mx)
  • Bacteria were isolated from wheat rhizosphere and natural rock phosphate soils and screened for their ability to solubilize Tri-Calcium Phosphate (TCP) and Natural Rock Phosphate (NP), to produce indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), siderophores and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase. (springer.com)
  • Rapid in situ assay for indoleacetic acid production by bacteria immobilized on a nitrocellulose membrane. (sciencepublishinggroup.com)
  • High 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid is associated with small intestinal bacteria overgrowth due to its production by the following Clostridia bacteria: C. diificile, C. stricklandii, C. lituseburense, C. subterminale, C. putrefaciens, and C. propionicum. (greatplainslaboratory.com)
  • The elevations of 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid in celiac disease and cystic fibrosis are so prevalent that involvement of these Clostridia bacteria may play a role in these illnesses. (greatplainslaboratory.com)
  • In C. difficileinfections 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid is utilized by this bacteria to produce 4-cresol. (greatplainslaboratory.com)
  • Moderate amounts of phenyllactic acid may be due to gastrointestinal overgrowth of the intestine of the following Clostridia bacteria: C. sordellii, C. stricklandii, C. mangenoti, C. ghoni, and C. bifermentans. (greatplainslaboratory.com)
  • 2 days before the test: (unless instructed otherwise by your physician) Discontinue creatine, alpha-ketoglutarate, and malic acid supplements, as well as citrate, malate, or orotate forms of minerals. (directlabs.com)
  • L-Malic Acid is a dicarboxylic acid that is made by all living organisms. (thomassci.com)
  • L-Malic Acid is used as a food additive. (thomassci.com)
  • Formic acid is a reagent used for formylation, hydrolysis, and cyclocondensations. (thomassci.com)
  • Gallic Acid is a trihydroxybenzoic acid, a type of phenolic acid. (thomassci.com)
  • Intriguingly, Agrobacterium also recognizes plant-derived signals including γ-amino butyric acid and salicylic acid (SA) to activate quorum quenching that reduces the level of QS signals, thereby avoiding the elicitation of plant defense and preserving energy. (frontiersin.org)
  • Indole-3-butyric acid is used as plant growth hormone. (thomassci.com)
  • Isolated nucleic acid fragments encoding an acyl-ACP thioesterase enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of palmitoyl, stearoyl and oleoyl-ACP thioesters are described. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Yet beyond its interaction with ATGL, many of the mechanisms of CGI-58 action remain somewhat unclear, including its inherent lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase activity ( see Ghosh et al and Montero-Moran et al ) and its potential role in lipid-signaling pathways . (asbmb.org)
  • In a transient assay measuring protein accumulation, an Aux/IAA 13-amino acid domain II consensus sequence was sufficient to target firefly luciferase (LUC) for low protein accumulation equivalent to that observed previously for full-length PSIAA6. (nih.gov)
  • A unique feature of the AR-LUX assay is that effects on modulation of active endogenous AR-levels are reliably reflected in the luciferase induction response, as exemplified by vitamin D, all-trans-retinoic acid, epigallocatechin gallate, and forskolin. (tudelft.nl)
  • All of these strains were tested for the secretion of Indole acetic acid (IAA) and flavonoids. (innspub.net)
  • Some quantitative effects of indoleacetic acid on the wood production and tracheid dimensions of Picea. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The report generally describes 6-fluoro-3-indoleacetic acid, examines its uses, production methods, patents. (marketpublishers.com)
  • Production of phytohormones, such as the indoleacetic acid (IAA), is possibly the main mechanism of plant growth promotion by rhizobia. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 2. Production of indole acetic acid (IAA) from Cladosporium sp. (permi.or.id)
  • This study focused on the growth rate and production of the Indole Acetic Acid (IAA) hormone and the ability of rot fungus to dissolve phosphate. (ijcmas.com)
  • Solubilization of Pi was accompanied by organic acid production. (springer.com)
  • The expression of T-DNA in plant hosts leads to the production of a large amount of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), cytokinin (CK), and opines. (frontiersin.org)
  • The production of chitinase, β-1, 3-glucanase, siderophores, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), and phosphate solubilization, by B579 were screened with the selected medium by in vitro tests. (springer.com)
  • The current study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of Mr. Trivedi's biofield energy treatment on rice (Oryza sativa) for its growth-germination of seedling, glutathione (GSH) content in seedling and mature plants, indole acetic acid (IAA) content in shoots and roots and DNA polymorphism by random amplified polymorphic-DNA (RAPD). (merlot.org)
  • Indoleacetic Acids" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (wakehealth.edu)
  • Using direct protein degradation measurements in transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings, full-length IAA1, PSIAA6, and the N-terminal 73 PSIAA6 amino acids targeted LUC for rapid degradation with 8-min half-lives. (nih.gov)
  • GH3-6 encodes a protein possessing adenylation activity that can conjugate amino acid to indole acetic acid (IAA), which leads to temporarily or permanently inactive IAA. (chinbullbotany.com)
  • A plant growth enhancing composition comprising as an active ingredient a synergistic mixture of (a) gibberellins, (b) the heteroauxin indole-3-acetic acid and the cytokinin 6-(4-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-trans-betenylamino) purine in definite proportions. (patents.com)
  • L-Ascorbic Acid, Sodium Salt is used as an antimicrobial and antioxidant in foodstuffs, a reductant for the isolation of chloroplasts. (thomassci.com)
  • This concentration of CO 2 -stimulated growth after a lag period of 12 to 15 minutes, and a synergistic relationship between indoleacetic acid and CO 2 in stimulating growth has been demonstrated. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Here, we determined the possible mechanisms responsible for the indole acetic acid (IAA) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate-deaminase (ACC-deaminase) producing strain of Trichoderma longibrachiatum T6 (TL-6) in promoting wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) growth and enhancing plant tolerance to NaCl stress. (springer.com)
  • Seeds and leaves of Vicia faba L. contain considerable amounts of 4-Cl-indoleacetic acid as determined by gas-liquid chromatography and gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Very high amounts of phenyllactic acid are found in the rare genetic disease phenylketonuria (PKU). (greatplainslaboratory.com)
  • Naturally occurring variant amino acids had no effect. (nih.gov)
  • Naproxen is a member of the arylacetic acid group of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. (theodora.com)
  • L-Ascorbic Acid, Sodium Salt is a vitamin widely distributed in the plant and animal kingdom. (thomassci.com)
  • The chemical names for naproxen and naproxen sodium are (S)-6-methoxy-(alpha)-methyl-2-naphthaleneacetic acid and (S)-6-methoxy-(alpha)-methyl-2-naphthaleneacetic acid, sodium salt, respectively. (theodora.com)