No data available that match "indoleacetic acids"


The auxin-insensitive bodenlos mutation affects primary root formation and apical-basal patterning in the Arabidopsis embryo. (1/2030)

In Arabidopsis embryogenesis, the primary root meristem originates from descendants of both the apical and the basal daughter cell of the zygote. We have isolated a mutant of a new gene named BODENLOS (BDL) in which the primary root meristem is not formed whereas post-embryonic roots develop and bdl seedlings give rise to fertile adult plants. Some bdl seedlings lacked not only the root but also the hypocotyl, thus resembling monopteros (mp) seedlings. In addition, bdl seedlings were insensitive to the auxin analogue 2,4-D, as determined by comparison with auxin resistant1 (axr1) seedlings. bdl embryos deviated from normal development as early as the two-cell stage at which the apical daughter cell of the zygote had divided horizontally instead of vertically. Subsequently, the uppermost derivative of the basal daughter cell, which is normally destined to become the hypophysis, divided abnormally and failed to generate the quiescent centre of the root meristem and the central root cap. We also analysed double mutants. bdl mp embryos closely resembled the two single mutants, bdl and mp, at early stages, while bdl mp seedlings essentially consisted of hypocotyl but did form primary leaves. bdl axr1 embryos approached the mp phenotype at later stages, and bdl axr1 seedlings resembled mp seedlings. Our results suggest that BDL is involved in auxin-mediated processes of apical-basal patterning in the Arabidopsis embryo.  (+info)

The DNA binding site of the Dof protein NtBBF1 is essential for tissue-specific and auxin-regulated expression of the rolB oncogene in plants. (2/2030)

The Dof proteins are a large family of plant transcription factors that share a single highly conserved zinc finger. The tobacco Dof protein NtBBF1 was identified by its ability to bind to regulatory domain B in the promoter of the rolB oncogene. In this study, we show that the ACT T TA target sequence of NtBBF1 in domain B is necessary for tissue-specific expression of rolB. beta-Glucuronidase (GUS) activity of tobacco plants containing a rolB promoter-GUS fusion with a mutated NtBBF1 target sequence within domain B is almost completely suppressed in apical meristems and is severely abated in the vascular system. The ACT T TA motif is shown here also to be one of the cis-regulatory elements involved in auxin induction of rolB. The pattern of NtBBF1 expression in plants is remarkably similar to that of rolB, except in mesophyll cells of mature leaves, in which only NtBBF1 expression could be detected. Ectopic expression of rolB in mesophyll cells was achieved by particle gun delivery if the NtBBF1 binding sequence was intact. These data provide evidence that in the plant, a Dof protein DNA binding sequence acts as a transcriptional regulatory motif, and they point to NtBBF1 as the protein involved in mediating tissue-specific and auxin-inducible expression of rolB.  (+info)

IAR3 encodes an auxin conjugate hydrolase from Arabidopsis. (3/2030)

Amide-linked conjugates of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) are putative storage or inactivation forms of the growth hormone auxin. Here, we describe the Arabidopsis iar3 mutant that displays reduced sensitivity to IAA-Ala. IAR3 is a member of a family of Arabidopsis genes related to the previously isolated ILR1 gene, which encodes an IAA-amino acid hydrolase selective for IAA-Leu and IAA-Phe. IAR3 and the very similar ILL5 gene are closely linked on chromosome 1 and comprise a subfamily of the six Arabidopsis IAA-conjugate hydrolases. The purified IAR3 enzyme hydrolyzes IAA-Ala in vitro. iar 3 ilr1 double mutants are more resistant than either single mutant to IAA-amino acid conjugates, and plants overexpressing IAR3 or ILR1 are more sensitive than is the wild type to certain IAA-amino acid conjugates, reflecting the overlapping substrate specificities of the corresponding enzymes. The IAR3 gene is expressed most strongly in roots, stems, and flowers, suggesting roles for IAA-conjugate hydrolysis in those tissues.  (+info)

Biosynthesis of indole-3-acetic acid in Azospirillum brasilense. Insights from quantum chemistry. (4/2030)

Quantum chemical methods AM1 and PM3 and chromatographic methods were used to qualitatively characterize pathways of bacterial production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The standard free energy changes (delta G(o)'sum) for the synthesis of tryptophan (Trp) from chorismic acid via anthranilic acid and indole were calculated, as were those for several possible pathways for the synthesis of IAA from Trp, namely via indole-3-acetamide (IAM), indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPyA), and indole-3-acetonitrile (IAN). The delta G(o)'sum for Trp synthesis from chorismic acid was -402 (-434) kJ.mol-1 (values in parentheses were calculated by PM3). The delta G(o)'sum for IAA synthesis from Trp were -565 (-548) kJ.mol-1 for the IAN pathway, -481 (-506) kJ.mol-1 for the IAM pathway, and -289 (-306) kJ.mol-1 for the IPyA pathway. By HPLC analysis, the possibility was assessed that indole, anthranilic acid, and Trp might be utilized as precursors for IAA synthesis by Azospirillum brasilense strain Sp 245. The results indicate that there is a high motive force for Trp synthesis from chorismic acid and for IAA synthesis from Trp, and make it unlikely that anthranilic acid and indole act as the precursors to IAA in a Trp-independent pathway.  (+info)

Reconstitution of an electrogenic auxin transport activity mediated by Arabidopsis thaliana plasma membrane proteins. (5/2030)

Plasma membrane proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana leaves were reconstituted into proteoliposomes and a K+ diffusion potential was generated. The resulting ionic fluxes, determined in the presence of the plant hormone auxin (indole-3 acetic acid), showed an additional electrogenic and saturable component, with a K(M) of 6 microM. This flux was neither detected in liposomes in the presence of indole-3 acetic acid, nor in proteoliposomes in the presence of an inactive auxin analog and was completely inhibited by 3 microM naphtylphthalamic acid, a specific inhibitor of the auxin efflux carrier. The efficiency of the reconstituted carrier and the mechanism of its regulation by naphtylphthalamic acid are discussed.  (+info)

Novel gating mechanism of polyamine block in the strong inward rectifier K channel Kir2.1. (6/2030)

Inward rectifying K channels are essential for maintaining resting membrane potential and regulating excitability in many cell types. Previous studies have attributed the rectification properties of strong inward rectifiers such as Kir2.1 to voltage-dependent binding of intracellular polyamines or Mg to the pore (direct open channel block), thereby preventing outward passage of K ions. We have studied interactions between polyamines and the polyamine toxins philanthotoxin and argiotoxin on inward rectification in Kir2.1. We present evidence that high affinity polyamine block is not consistent with direct open channel block, but instead involves polyamines binding to another region of the channel (intrinsic gate) to form a blocking complex that occludes the pore. This interaction defines a novel mechanism of ion channel closure.  (+info)

Glutamate receptor expression regulates quantal size and quantal content at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. (7/2030)

At the Drosophila glutamatergic neuromuscular junction, the postsynaptic cell can regulate synaptic strength by both changing its sensitivity to neurotransmitter and generating a retrograde signal that regulates presynaptic transmitter release. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying these forms of plasticity, we have undertaken a genetic analysis of two postsynaptic glutamate receptors that are expressed at this synapse. Deletion of both genes results in embryonic lethality that can be rescued by transgenic expression of either receptor. Although these receptors are redundant for viability, they have important differences. By transgenically rescuing the double mutant, we have investigated the relationship of receptor gene dosage and composition to synaptic function. We find that the receptor subunit composition regulates quantal size, Argiotoxin sensitivity, and receptor desensitization kinetics. Finally, we show that the activity of the receptor can regulate the retrograde signal functioning at this synapse. Thus, the diversity of receptors expressed at this synapse provides the cell with mechanisms for generating synaptic plasticity.  (+info)

AUX1 regulates root gravitropism in Arabidopsis by facilitating auxin uptake within root apical tissues. (8/2030)

Plants employ a specialized transport system composed of separate influx and efflux carriers to mobilize the plant hormone auxin between its site(s) of synthesis and action. Mutations within the permease-like AUX1 protein significantly reduce the rate of carrier-mediated auxin uptake within Arabidopsis roots, conferring an agravitropic phenotype. We are able to bypass the defect within auxin uptake and restore the gravitropic root phenotype of aux1 by growing mutant seedlings in the presence of the membrane-permeable synthetic auxin, 1-naphthaleneacetic acid. We illustrate that AUX1 expression overlaps that previously described for the auxin efflux carrier, AtPIN2, using transgenic lines expressing an AUX1 promoter::uidA (GUS) gene. Finally, we demonstrate that AUX1 regulates gravitropic curvature by acting in unison with the auxin efflux carrier to co-ordinate the localized redistribution of auxin within the Arabidopsis root apex. Our results provide the first example of a developmental role for the auxin influx carrier within higher plants and supply new insight into the molecular basis of gravitropic signalling.  (+info)

*Mário Guimarães Ferri

Photoinactivation of the plant-hormone indoleacetic acid by fluorescent substances. Nature 4269. Ferri, M. G., 1952. Water ... Fluorescence and photoinactivation of indoleacetic acid. Arch. Biochem. & Byophys. 31. Ferri, M. G., 1951. Nuevas informaciones ... Stomatal behaviour as influenced by treatment with naphtoxyacetic acid. Contrib. Boyce Thompson Inst. 15. Ferri, M. G., 1949. ...

*Fog fever

In the history of research into this causative pathway, the roles of L-tryptophan and indoleacetic acid to 3-methylindole were ... Lactobacillus bacteria in the rumen degrade L-tryptophan to indoleacetic acid; bacteria in the rumen convert this to 3- ... 3-methylindole is produced exclusively from indoleacetic acid and not directly from L-tryptophan.) Club cells in the terminal ... The change in diet to vegetation rich in L-tryptophan causes a corresponding increase of the amino acid typically found in ...

*Plant hormone

"A gene encoding a protein modified by the phytohormone indoleacetic acid". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (3): 1718-23. ... Once it was determined that the two compounds are the same, it was named abscisic acid. The name "abscisic acid" was given ... Auxins, especially 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), are also commonly applied to stimulate root ... Abscisic acid's effects are degraded within plant tissues during cold temperatures or by its removal by water washing in out of ...

*Indoleacetylglucose-inositol O-acyltransferase

Michalczuk L, Bandurski RS (1980). "UDP-glucose: indoleacetic acid glucosyl transferase and indoleacetyl-glucose: myo-inositol ...

*Indoleacetate-lysine synthetase

"Cloning of the gene for indoleacetic acid-lysine synthetase from Pseudomonas syringae subsp. savastanoi". J. Bacteriol. 166 (2 ... specifically those forming carbon-nitrogen bonds as acid-D-amino-acid ligases (peptide synthases). The systematic name of this ... Hutzinger O, Kosuge T (1968). "Microbial synthesis and degradation of indole-3-acetic acid. 3. The isolation and ...

*Mannich reaction

"Synthesis of new indolecarboxylic acids related to the plant hormone indoleacetic acid" (PDF). Journal of the Brazilian ... The enantioselectivity is further controlled by hydrogen bonding between the proline carboxylic acid group and the imine. The ... and β-amino acid derivatives". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 124 (9): 1866-1867. PMID 11866595. doi:10.1021/ ... "Direct asymmetric anti-Mannich-type reactions catalyzed by a designed amino acid". Journal of the American Chemical Society. ...

*Coleoptile

The natural plant hormone responsible for phototropism is now known to be indoleacetic acid (IAA). The Cholodny-Went model is ...

*Vicia

Tanja Pless; Michael Boettger; Peter Hedden & Jan Graebe (1984). "Occurrence of 4-Cl-indoleacetic acid in broad beans and ... Canavanine, a toxic analogue of the amino acid arginine, has been identified in Hairy Vetch as an appetite suppressant for ... This process can effectively lead to the depletion of vital protective reserves of the sulfur amino acid cysteine and thereby ... It inhibits the conversion of the sulfur amino acid methionine to cysteine. Cystathionine, an intermediary product of this ...

*Photomorphogenesis

Tanada, Takuma (1968-02-01). "A RAPID PHOTOREVERSIBLE RESPONSE OF BARLEY ROOT TIPS IN THE PRESENCE OF 3-INDOLEACETIC ACID*". ...

*Takuma Tanada

Tanada, T. (1968). "A rapid photoreversible response of barley root tips in the presence of 3-indoleacetic Acid". Agricultural ...

*Organochloride

ISBN 0-632-03852-7. Pless, Tanja; Boettger, Michael; Hedden, Peter; Graebe, Jan (1984). "Occurrence of 4-Cl-indoleacetic acid ... The mechanism of action is the insecticide binding at the GABAA site in the gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) chloride ionophore ... In the laboratory, the related reaction involving zinc chloride in concentrated hydrochloric acid: R − OH + HCl → Δ ZnCl 2 R − ... For example, peas and broad beans contain the natural chlorinated plant hormone 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid (4-Cl-IAA); and ...

*Phenoxy herbicide

... s (or "phenoxies") are a family of chemicals related to the growth hormone indoleacetic acid (IAA). When ... The best known phenoxy herbicides are MCPA, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5 ... Chemically, they are carboxylic acids, typically applied in an ester or salt form. First introduced in 1946, these herbicides ... Agent Orange Western People Thistle and rush control in grassland15 Aug 2007 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) - ...

*Indole-3-acetic acid

"Synthesis of Indoleacetic Acid from Glutamic Acid and a Proposed Mechanism for the Conversion". Journal of the American ... Some Chlorophenoxyacetic Acids". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 63 (6): 1768-1768. doi:10.1021/ja01851a601. "Indole-3-Acetic Acid: Material ... Sep 2015). "Regulation of indole-3-acetic acid biosynthesis by branched-chain amino acids in Enterobacter cloacae UW5". FEMS ... 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T), both phenoxy herbicides and analogs of ...

*Taphrina deformans

Yamada Y, Tsukamoto H, Shiraishi T, Nomura T, & Oku H. (1990). "Detection of Indoleacetic Acid Biosynthesis in Some Species of ... T. deformans also produces the auxin indole-3-acetic acid from L-tryptophan via indole-3-pyruvic acid and indole-3-acetaldehyde ...

*Atevirdine

Reaaction of the resulting amine with the imidazolide derivative of 5-Methoxy-3-indoleacetic acid affords the amide reverse ...

*Birendra Bijoy Biswas

H. Mondal; R. K. Mandal; B. B. Biswas (22 November 1972). "RNA Stimulated by Indole Acetic Acid". Nature New Biology. 240: 111- ... He is known for his contributions to the metabolism of nucleic acid and the regulation of protein synthesis in plant cells. He ... 283-. ISBN 978-81-317-3220-5. Progress in Nucleic Acid Research and Molecular Biology. Academic Press. 16 June 1975. pp. 181-. ... successful in identifying the RNA polymerase associated with the transcription and methylation processes of Ribonucleic acid in ...

*Polar auxin transport

Raven, J (1975). "Transport of Indoleacetic-acid in plant-cells in relation to pH and electrical potential gradients, and its ... In research, 1-N-Naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) are used as specific inhibitors of the ... 9-Hydroxyfluorene-9-carboxylic acid (HFCA), TIBA, and trans-cinnamic acid (TCA) are also example of Polar Auxin Transport ... As weak acids, the protonation state of auxins is dictated by the pH of the environment; a strongly acidic environment inhibits ...

*4-Chloroindole-3-acetic acid

Pless, Tanja; Boettger, Michael; Hedden, Peter; Graebe, Jan (1984). "Occurrence of 4-Cl-indoleacetic acid in broad beans and ... 4-Chloroindole-3-acetic acid (4-Cl-IAA) is an organic compound that functions as a plant hormone. It is a member of the class ... Reinecke, Dennis M. (1999). "4-Chloroindole-3-acetic acid and plant growth". Plant Growth Regulation. 27 (1): 3-13. doi:10.1023 ... Ernstsen, Arild; Sandberg, Goeran (1986). "Identification of 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-aldehyde in seeds of ...

*Pseudomonas savastanoi

Symptoms include formation of galls on infected trees; tumour formation is induced by indoleacetic acid biosynthesis by the ...

*List of MeSH codes (D03)

... indoleacetic acids MeSH D03.438.473.404.200 --- etodolac MeSH D03.438.473.404.478 --- hydroxyindoleacetic acid MeSH D03.438. ... pipemidic acid MeSH D03.383.725.547.650 --- piromidic acid MeSH D03.383.725.547.900 --- 3-pyridinecarboxylic acid, 1,4-dihydro- ... niflumic acid MeSH D03.066.515.635 --- pipemidic acid MeSH D03.066.515.650 --- piromidic acid MeSH D03.066.515.950 --- ... nalidixic acid MeSH D03.438.810.835.055.550 --- nedocromil MeSH D03.438.810.835.055.580 --- oxolinic acid MeSH D03.438.810.835. ...

*Glomus iranicum var. tenuihypharum

At the start of cultivation there was an increase in auxin (indoleacetic acid) expression for greater production of roots and ... resulting in more leaf development and production after 50 days of growth and a significant reduction of abscisic acid ...

*Ethylene

ACC synthesis increases with high levels of auxins, especially indole acetic acid (IAA) and cytokinins. Ethylene is perceived ... It can be produced via dehydration of ethanol with sulfuric acid or in the gas phase with aluminium oxide. Ethylene serves as a ... The main method practiced since the mid-1990s is the direct hydration of ethylene catalyzed by solid acid catalysts: C2H4 + H2O ... Ethylene is biosynthesized from the amino acid methionine to S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM, also called Adomet) by the enzyme ...

*Gaseous signaling molecules

ACC synthesis increases with high levels of auxins, especially indole acetic acid (IAA) and cytokinins. Ethylene is perceived ... which are then available as buffers for dietary acids. Ammonium is excreted in the urine, resulting in net acid loss. Ammonia ... Chen S, Zheng S, Liu Z, Tang C, Zhao B, Du J, Jin H (Feb 2015). "Endogenous sulfur dioxide protects against oleic acid-induced ... It was shown that endogenous sulfur dioxide plays a role in diminishing an experimental lung damage caused by oleic acid. ...

*Roystonea regia

Basu, P. S.; A. C. Ghosh (2001). "Production of Indole Acetic Acid in Culture by a Rhizobium Species from the Root Nodules of a ... Basu, P. S.; A. C. Ghosh (1998). "Indole Acetic Acid and Its Metabolism in Root Nodules of a Monocotyledonous Tree Roystonea ... In addition to evidence of nitrogen fixation, the nodules were also found to be producing indole acetic acid, an important ... D-004, is a mixture of fatty acids, is being studied as a potential alternative to finasteride for the treatment of BPH. ...

*Serotonin

This is followed by oxidation by aldehyde dehydrogenase to 5-HIAA, the indole acetic acid derivative. The latter is then ... In animals including humans, serotonin is synthesized from the amino acid L-tryptophan by a short metabolic pathway consisting ... One product of serotonin breakdown is 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), which is excreted in the urine. Serotonin and 5-HIAA ... High plasma levels of other large neutral amino acids compete for transport and prevent the elevated plasma tryptophan from ...
Indoleacetic acid (IAA) is a breakdown product of tryptophan metabolism and is often produced by the action of bacteria in the mammalian gut. Some endogenous production of IAA in mammalian tissues also occurs. It may be produced by the decarboxylation of tryptamine or the oxidative deamination of tryptophan. IAA frequently occurs at low levels in urine and has been found in elevated levels in the urine of patients with phenylketonuria ((PMID: 13610897 ). Using material extracted from human urine, it was discovered by Kogl in 1933 that Indoleacetic acid is also an important plant hormone (PMID: 13610897 ). Specifically IAA is a member of the group of phytohormones called auxins. IAA is generally considered to be the most important native auxin. Plant cells synthesize IAA from tryptophan. (wikipedia) IAA and some derivatives can be oxidised by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) to cytotoxic species. IAA is only toxic after oxidative decarboxylation; the effect of IAA/HRP is thought to be due in part to ...
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The plant specific transcription factor LEAFY (LFY) plays a pivotal role in the developmental switch to floral meristem identity in Arabidopsis. Our recent study revealed that LFY additionally acts downstream of AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR5/MONOPTEROS to promote flower primordium initiation. LFY also promotes initiation of the floral organ and floral organ identity. To further investigate the interplay between LFY and auxin during flower development, we examined the phenotypic consequence of disrupting polar auxin transport in lfy mutants by genetic means. Plants with compromised LFY activity exhibit increased sensitivity to disruption of polar auxin transport. Compromised polar auxin transport activity in the lfy mutant background resulted in formation of fewer floral organs, abnormal gynoecium development, and fused sepals. In agreement with these observations, expression of the auxin response reporter DR5rev::GFP as well as of the direct LFY target CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON2 were altered in lfy mutant flowers.
The phytohormone auxin is transported through the plant body either via vascular pathways or from cell to cell by specialized polar transport machinery. This machinery consists of a balanced system of passive diffusion combined with the activities of auxin influx and efflux carriers. Synthetic auxins that differ in the mechanisms of their transport across the plasma membrane together with polar auxin transport inhibitors have been used in many studies on particular auxin carriers and their role in plant development. However, the exact mechanism of action of auxin efflux and influx inhibitors has not been fully elucidated. In this report, the mechanism of action of the auxin influx inhibitors (1-naphthoxyacetic acid (1-NOA), 2-naphthoxyacetic acid (2-NOA), and 3-chloro-4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (CHPAA)) is examined by direct measurements of auxin accumulation, cellular phenotypic analysis, as well as by localization studies of Arabidopsis thaliana L. auxin carriers heterologously expressed in ...
PINOID, a serine threonine protein kinase in Arabidopsis, controls auxin distribution through a positive control of subcellular localization of PIN auxin efflux carriers. Compared with the rapid progress in understanding mechanisms of auxin action in dicot species, little is known about auxin action in monocot species. Here, we describe the identification and characterization of OsPID, the PINOID ortholog of rice. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the rice genome contains a single PID ortholog, OsPID. Constitutive overexpression of OsPID caused a variety of abnormalities, such as delay of adventitious root development, curled growth of shoots and agravitropism. Abnormalities observed in the plants that overexpress OsPID could be phenocopied by treatment with an inhibitor of active polar transport of auxin, indicating that OsPID could be involved in the control of polar auxin transport in rice. Analysis of OsPID mRNA distribution showed a complex pattern in shoot meristems, indicating that it ...
Lateral roots originate deep within the parental root from a small number of founder cells at the periphery of vascular tissues and must emerge through intervening layers of tissues. We describe how the hormone auxin, which originates from the developing lateral root, acts as a local inductive signal which re-programmes adjacent cells. Auxin induces the expression of a previously uncharacterized auxin influx carrier LAX3 in cortical and epidermal cells directly overlaying new primordia. Increased LAX3 activity reinforces the auxin-dependent induction of a selection of cell-wall-remodelling enzymes, which are likely to promote cell separation in advance of developing lateral root primordia.. Nature Cell Biology 10 (8), 946-954 ...
Chlorophyta appear to encode at least some of the proteins necessary for auxin biosynthesis and metabolism, which correlates with auxin measurements in members of this division of green algae (Cooke et al., 2002; Lau et al., 2009; Ross and Reid, 2010). On top, putative auxin transport proteins such as AUX1-like and ABCB/PGP-like proteins appear to be present in Chlorophyta, while PIN-like proteins are only encoded in some Streptophyta. While single-celled Chlorophyta seem to possess the potential to transport auxin, at present it is not clear if they import and export auxin from and to the environment, respectively. In the absence of PIN-like auxin carriers, the AUX1-like and ABCB/PGP-like proteins could facilitate putative auxin fluxes in Chlorophyta. While our analyses of S. pratensis and C. orbicularis EST libraries suggest that PIN proteins emerged in the Streptophyta clade, functional data will be required to determine if directional PIN-mediated auxin transport emerged to coordinate ...
The phytohormone auxin regulates diverse aspects of plant development, including tissue elongation, tropic growth, embryogenesis, apical dominance, lateral root initiation, and vascular differentiation (Teale et al., 2006). Proteins in the TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE1/AUXIN SIGNALING F-BOX protein (TIR1/AFB) family have recently been demonstrated to function as nuclear receptors for auxin (Dharmasiri et al., 2005a; Kepinski and Leyser, 2005). The auxin signal transduction system operating via the E3 ubiquitin-ligase complex SCFTIR1/AFB (for Skp1-Cul1-F-box protein), which includes TIR1/AFBs, plays a critical role in many auxin-mediated responses through transcriptional regulation (Mockaitis and Estelle, 2008).. Auxin-induced elongation of plant organs, such as hypocotyls, coleoptiles, and roots, has been explained by the acid-growth theory since the 1970s (Rayle and Cleland, 1970; Hager et al., 1971; Moloney et al., 1981). The theory states that auxin enhances proton extrusion via the plasma ...
Auxins are key regulators of plant development. Plants employ a specialized delivery system termed polar auxin transport to convey indole-3-acetic acid from source to target tissues. Auxin transport is mediated by the combined activities of specialized influx and efflux carriers. Mutational approaches in the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, have led to the molecular genetic characterization of putative auxin influx and efflux carrier components, AUX1 and AtPIN1. Both genes belong to distinct gene families that are being functionally characterized by using a reverse genetic approach in Arabidopsis. AtPIN proteins are asymmetrically localized within plant plasma membranes, providing a molecular mechanism for the characteristic polarity of auxin transport. We outline the epitope tagging strategy being used in our laboratory to immunolocalize AUX1 and discuss the implications of its subcellular localization for auxin redistribution within root apical tissues. Lastly, we describe a novel ...
Adventitious root (AR) formation in the stem base of cuttings is the basis for propagation of many plant species and petunia is used as model to study this developmental process. Following AR formation from 2 to 192 hours after excision (hpe) of cuttings, transcriptome analysis by microarray revealed a change of the character of the rooting zone from stem base to root identity. The greatest shift in the number of differentially expressed genes was observed between 24 and 72 hpe, when the categories storage, mineral nutrient acquisition, anti-oxidative and secondary metabolism, and biotic stimuli showed a notable high number of induced genes. Analyses of phytohormone-related genes disclosed multifaceted changes of the auxin transport system, auxin conjugation and the auxin signal perception machinery indicating a reduction in auxin sensitivity and phase-specific responses of particular auxin-regulated genes. Genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis and action showed a more uniform pattern as a high number
The plant hormone indoleacetic acid (IAA or auxin) transcriptionally activates a select set of early genes. The Auxl IAA class of early auxin-responsive genes encodes a large family of short-lived, nuclear proteins. Aux/IAA polypeptides homo-and heterodimerize, and interact with auxin-response transcription factors (ARFs) via C-terminal regions conserved in both protein families. This shared region contains a predicted βαα motif similar to the prokaryotic β-Ribbon DNA binding domain, which mediates both protein dimerization and DNA recognition. Here, we show by circular dichroism spectroscopy and by chemical cross-linking experiments that recombinant peptides corresponding to the predicted βαα region of three Aux/IAA proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana contain substantial α-helical secondary structure and undergo homo- and heterotypic interactions in vitro. Our results indicate a similar biochemical function of the plant βαα domain and suggest that the βαα fold plays an important ...
How did selectivity for the one natural auxin IAA evolve? Are there still novel natural auxins to be discovered? From the structural biology of the auxin receptor TIR1 we have learnt a great deal about how auxin is recognised and how it starts the signalling cascades which alter plant development. Work in our lab has also shown how a different member of the auxin receptor family (AFB5) has a different, wider selectivity profile. An important family of auxin herbicides work through AFB5, and AFB5 is also implicated in the control of branching. This project will explore how and why the receptors have come to differ, and whether there might be a novel plant hormone to be discovered.. Structural biology of auxin transport proteins: a project with Dr Alex Cameron (Life Sciences, Warwick). The goal is to express, purify and determine the structure of auxin transport proteins by crystallography. These transporters determine some of the most profound morphogenic events in biology, such as polarity in ...
p,Ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation is a common feature in diverse plant cell signaling pathways; however, the factors that control the dynamics of regulated protein turnover are largely unknown. One of the best-characterized families of E3 ubiquitin ligases facilitates ubiquitination of auxin (aux)/indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) repressor proteins in the presence of auxin. Rates of auxin-induced degradation vary widely within the Aux/IAA family, and sequences outside of the characterized degron (the minimum region required for auxin-induced degradation) can accelerate or decelerate degradation. We have used synthetic auxin degradation assays in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and in plants to characterize motifs flanking the degron that contribute to tuning the dynamics of Aux/IAA degradation. The presence of these rate motifs is conserved in phylogenetically distant members of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Aux/IAA family, as well as in their putative Brassica rapa orthologs. We ...
phdthesis{3006170, abstract = {Plants as sessile organisms evolved a specific body structure and at the cellular level mechanisms that allow to survive under extreme environmental conditions. The body shape and subcellular processes are largely dependent on coordinated activity of a small molecule indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), auxin. Local gradients of IAA correlate spatiotemporally with such developmental events like embryogenesis, phyllotaxis, organ initiation or tropisms. Auxin maxima and minima are mostly mediated by auxin efflux carriers PINs. Asymmetric distribution of these proteins determines the directional flow and facilitates the auxin gradient formation. Aberrations in apical or basal auxin-carriers localisation leads to severe developmental defects. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the mechanisms initiating and controlling polar proteins localisation. Next to polarly distributed PINs, there is a growing group of polarly localized proteins transporting hormones or nutrients ...
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Vegetative propagation of economically important woody, horticultural and agricultural species rely on an efficient adventitious root (AR) formation. The formation of ARs is a complex genetic trait regulated by the interaction of environmental and endogenous factors among which the phytohormone auxin plays an essential role. This article summarizes the current knowledge related to the intricate network through which auxin controls adventitious rooting. How auxin and recently identified auxin-related compounds affect AR formation in different plant species is discussed. Particular attention is addressed to illustrate how auxin has a central role in the hormone cross-talk leading to AR development. In parallel, we describe the molecular players involved in the control of auxin homeostasis, transport and signaling, for a better understanding of the auxin action during adventitious rooting. ...
HHMI researchers have identified an enzyme involved in the production of auxin, a plant growth hormone that influences plant growth. Although auxin has been studied for more than 100 years, scientists have not had a good grasp of how the hormone is synthesized by plants
Auxin is involved in many aspects of root development and physiology, including the formation of lateral roots. Improving our understanding of how the auxin response is mediated at the protein level over time can aid in developing a more complete molecular framework of the process. This study evaluates the effects of exogenous auxin treatment on the Arabidopsis root proteome after exposure of young seedlings to auxin for 8, 12, and 24 h, a timeframe permitting the initiation and full maturation of individual lateral roots. Root protein extracts were processed to peptides, fractionated using off-line strong-cation exchange, and analyzed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography and data independent acquisition-based mass spectrometry. Protein abundances were then tabulated using label-free techniques and evaluated for significant changes. Approximately 2000 proteins were identified during the time course experiment, with the number of differences between the treated and control roots increasing over
Plant development is regulated by a number of mobile factors. The Arabidopsis BYPASS1 (BPS1) gene was previously shown to control shoot and root development by preventing formation of a mobile compound, but how this compound functions and whether it modulates other signalling pathways is unclear. Now, Leslie Sieburth and colleagues show that Arabidopsis BPS1, as well as two related genes, BPS2 and BPS3, control the production of a mobile factor, the bps signal, which regulates patterning and growth in parallel with auxin signalling (p. 805). By analysing single, double and triple mutants, the researchers show that all three BPS genes control bps signal synthesis. Importantly, bps triple mutants display severe embryogenesis defects, including disruptions to vascular, root and shoot stem cell populations. Finally, bps triple mutants exhibit normal auxin-induced gene expression and localisation of the PIN1 auxin transporter, suggesting that the bps signal functions in an auxin-independent manner. ...
Sugar regulates a variety of genes and controls plant growth and development similarly to phytohormones. As part of a screen for Arabidopsis mutants with defects in sugar-responsive gene expression, we identified a loss-of-function mutation in the HOOKLESS1 (HLS1) gene. HLS1 was originally identified to regulate apical hook formation of dark-grown seedlings (Lehman et al., 1996, Cell 85: 183-194). In hls1, sugar-induced gene expression in excised leaf petioles was more sensitive to exogenous sucrose than that in the wild type. Exogenous IAA partially repressed sugar-induced gene expression and concomitantly activated some auxin response genes such as AUR3 encoding GH3-like protein. The repression and the induction of gene expression by auxin were attenuated and enhanced, respectively, by the hls1 mutation. These results suggest that HLS1 plays a negative role in sugar and auxin signaling. Because AUR3 GH3-like protein conjugates free IAA to amino acids (Staswick et al., 2002, Plant Cell 14: ...
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Auxin regulates a host of plant developmental and physiological processes, including embryogenesis, vascular differentiation, organogenesis, tropic growth, and root and shoot architecture. Genetic and biochemical studies carried out over the past decade have revealed that much of this regulation involves the SCFTIR1/AFB-mediated proteolysis of the Aux/IAA family of transcriptional regulators. With the recent finding that the TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE1 (TIR1)/AUXIN SIGNALING F-BOX (AFB) proteins also function as auxin receptors, a potentially complete, and surprisingly simple, signaling pathway from perception to transcriptional response is now before us. However, understanding how this seemingly simple pathway controls the myriad of specific auxin responses remains a daunting challenge, and compelling evidence exists for SCFTIR1/AFB-independent auxin signaling pathways ...
The pin-formed mutant pin 1-1, one of the Arabidopsis flower mutants, has several structural abnormalities in inflorescence axes, flowers, and leaves. In some cases, pin1-1 forms a flower with abnormal structure (wide petals, no stamens, pistil-like structure with no ovules in the ovary) at the top of inflorescence axes. In other cases, no floral buds are formed on the axes. An independently isolated allelic mutant (pin1-2) shows similar phenotypes. These mutant phenotypes are exactly the same in wild-type plants cultured in the presence of chemical compounds known as auxin polar transport inhibitors: 9-hydroxyfluorene-9-carboxylic acid or N-(1-naphthyl)phthalamic acid. We tested the polar transport activity of indole-3-acetic acid and the endogenous amount of free indole-3-acetic acid in the tissue of inflorescence axes of the pin1 mutants and wild type. The polar transport activity in the pin 1-1 mutant and in the pin1-2 mutant was decreased to 14% and 7% of wild type, respectively. These ...
Carbon monoxide (CO) and nitric oxide (NO) are essential modulators that regulate the plant response to iron deficiency (-Fe). Auxin is a phytohormone that plays important roles in plant growth and development. We report here that in Arabidopsis -Fe enhanced heme oxygenase-dependent CO generation and auxin transport through redistribution of PIN1 protein, which subsequently increased NO accumulation; NO signaling regulated the activity of ferric chelate reductase (FCR) and the expression of Fe-uptake genes including basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor (FIT) and the ferric reduction oxidase 2 (FRO2). Over-expression of HY1 encoding heme oxygenase, or treatment with CO donor enhanced basipetal auxin transport, FCR activity, and the expressions of FIT and FRO2 under -Fe. Such effects were compromised in the mutant aux1-7 impaired in auxin transport or in the mutant noa1 or nia1/nia2 defective in NO biosynthesis. -Fe failed to promote auxin transport and FCR activity in hy1 mutant; such inability
Differential cell growth enables flexible organ bending in the presence of environmental signals such as light or gravity. A prominent example of the developmental processes based on differential cell growth is the formation of the apical hook that protects the fragile shoot apical meristem when it breaks through the soil during germination. Here, we combined in silico and in vivo approaches to identify a minimal mechanism producing auxin gradient-guided differential growth during the establishment of the apical hook in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Computer simulation models based on experimental data demonstrate that asymmetric expression of the PIN-FORMED auxin efflux carrier at the concave (inner) versus convex (outer) side of the hook suffices to establish an auxin maximum in the epidermis at the concave side of the apical hook. Furthermore, we propose a mechanism that translates this maximum into differential growth, and thus curvature, of the apical hook. Through a combination of ...
Auxin is a key signaling molecule for most organogenesis and patterning processes occurring during plant development [50]. The auxin transduction pathway is mainly comprised of two transcriptional regulator families: ARFs and Aux/IAAs [37, 51]. ARFs directly bind to down-stream target genes and regulate their expression during development [52]. ARFs are also involved in the reproduction of various plant species [3, 53]. Characterization and analysis of CpARFs allowed us to reveal the mechanisms behind auxin involvement in fruit and flower development of papaya [54].. In this study, the reference genome sequence of papaya, which is relatively small in size (372 Mbp) [55], was used to identify the complete CpARF family. The number of CpARF genes was less than that in Arabidopsis (23 ARFs) [37]. Protein domain analysis provided us useful information on the biological function of ARFs. A typical ARF contains a DBD, an MR, and a CTD [37]. Aux/IAAs bind to CTDs of ARFs and form heterodimers. The ...
Phylogenetic relationship of Aux/IAA proteins among wheat and another species. The full-length amino-acid sequences of 85 wheat, 31 rice, 29 Arabidopsis, 7 toma
The Congress President H Ottoline Leyser (Sainsbury Laboratory, University of Cambridge, UK) gave the opening lecture on the regulation of shoot branching and its plasticity in response to ever-changing environmental conditions. The outgrowth of buds is controlled by the interplay between several phytohormones, including auxin, cytokinin and strigolactones. Auxin is transported downwards from the shoot tip and inhibits bud outgrowth, whereas cytokinins, which are produced primarily in roots and transported upward to buds, promote bud outgrowth. Strigolactones, which are produced in roots and shoots and transported to buds to repress bud activity, negatively regulate the activity of auxin efflux carriers called PIN proteins, and reduce the transport of auxin from the shoot tip to buds. Leyser concluded that the downward movement of auxin in the main stem inhibits bud activity by preventing auxin transport out of buds, whereas strigolactones dampen auxin transport and enhance competition between ...
An emerging theme in biology is the importance of cellular signaling dynamics. In addition to monitoring changes in absolute abundance of signaling molecules, many signal transduction pathways are sensitive to changes in temporal properties of signaling components (Purvis and Lahav, 2013). The phytohormone auxin regulates myriad processes in plant development. Many of these require the nuclear auxin signaling pathway, in which degradation of the Aux/IAA repressor proteins allows for transcription of auxin-responsive genes (Korasick et al., 2015). Using a heterologous yeast system, we found that Aux/IAAs exhibit a range of auxin-induced degradation rates when co-expressed in isolation with F-box proteins (Havens et al., 2012). Subsequent studies connecting signaling dynamics to plant growth and development confirmed that Aux/IAAs show similar differences in plants (Guseman et al., 2015; Moss et al., 2015). Here, we describe in detail the use of a heat-shock-inducible fluorescence degradation system to
Plant organs are typically organized into three main tissue layers. The middle ground tissue layer comprises the majority of the plant body and serves a wide range of functions, including photosynthesis, selective nutrient uptake and storage, and gravity sensing. Ground tissue patterning and maintenance in Arabidopsis are controlled by a well-established gene network revolving around the key regulator SHORT-ROOT (SHR). In contrast, it is completely unknown how ground tissue identity is first specified from totipotent precursor cells in the embryo. The plant signaling molecule auxin, acting through AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR (ARF) transcription factors, is critical for embryo patterning. The auxin effector ARF5/MONOPTEROS (MP) acts both cell-autonomously and noncell-autonomously to control embryonic vascular tissue formation and root initiation, respectively. Here we show that auxin response and ARF activity cell-autonomously control the asymmetric division of the first ground tissue cells. By ...
Plant organs are typically organized into three main tissue layers. The middle ground tissue layer comprises the majority of the plant body and serves a wide range of functions, including photosynthesis, selective nutrient uptake and storage, and gravity sensing. Ground tissue patterning and maintenance in Arabidopsis are controlled by a well-established gene network revolving around the key regulator SHORT-ROOT (SHR). In contrast, it is completely unknown how ground tissue identity is first specified from totipotent precursor cells in the embryo. The plant signaling molecule auxin, acting through AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR (ARF) transcription factors, is critical for embryo patterning. The auxin effector ARF5/MONOPTEROS (MP) acts both cell-autonomously and noncell-autonomously to control embryonic vascular tissue formation and root initiation, respectively. Here we show that auxin response and ARF activity cell-autonomously control the asymmetric division of the first ground tissue cells. By ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A novel auxin conjugate hydrolase from wheat with substrate specificity for longer side-chain auxin amide conjugates. AU - Campanella, James. AU - Olajide, Adebanke F.. AU - Magnus, Volker. AU - Ludwig-Müller, Jutta. PY - 2004/8/1. Y1 - 2004/8/1. N2 - This study investigates how the ILR1-like indole acetic acid (IAA) amidohydrolase family of genes has functionally evolved in the monocotyledonous species wheat (Triticum aestivum). An ortholog for the Arabidopsis IAR3 auxin amidohydrolase gene has been isolated from wheat (TaIAR3). The TaIAR3 protein hydrolyzes negligible levels of IAA-Ala and no other IAA amino acid conjugates tested, unlike its ortholog IAR3. Instead, TaIAR3 has low specificity for the ester conjugates IAA-Glc and IAA-myoinositol and high specificity for the conjugates of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA-Ala and IBA-Gly) and indole-3-propionic-acid (IPA-Ala) so far tested. TaIAR3 did not convert the methyl esters of the IBA conjugates with Ala and Gly. IBA and IBA ...
In higher plants, aerial plant architecture is mainly characterized by the arrangement of leaves and flowers around the stem. Leaves and flowers are formed from the shoot apical meristem (SAM) at well-characterized angles. This pattern of organ development is known as phyllotaxis. A cotyledon is an embryonic leafy organ that is first formed after fertilization, and developed in the apical portion of the embryo from the globular stage onwards. In the case of dicotyledonous plants, the aerial part of the seedling displays bilateral symmetry, as demonstrated by two symmetrically located cotyledons on either side of the SAM. Previous studies have shown that organ positioning is mediated by localized concentrations of the phytohormone auxin during both embryonic and postembryonic development (Benková et al., 2003). Local accumulation of auxin is induced by a directed intercellular transport system from the site of its biosynthesis, referred to as polar auxin transport. In this process, auxin efflux ...
With this PhD project offered within the IMPRS, function analysis of fungal aldehyde dehydrogenases in T. vaccinum is intended, especially both getting a better inside into the IAA biosynthesis in T. vaccinum and investigating IAA transport in ectomycorrhizal fungi. Ethanol detoxification could be proven since overexpressing ald1 mutants showed increased ethanol stress tolerance. In the T. vaccinum genome seven further ald genes could be annotated, which are analyzed by qPCR for induction by chemical triggers like alcohols, aldehydes and biotic signals. To link between systemic reactions of the tree to one or more specific root factors, like mycorrhiza, a volatile collection system was developed, which allows us to characterize changes in the volatile pattern of young coniferous trees ...
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Arabidopsis Myrosinase Genes AtTGG4 and AtTGG5 Are Root-Tip Specific and Contribute to Auxin Biosynthesis and Root-Growth Regulation. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The hormone auxin is transported through many plant tissues with a definite velocity. It is thought that certain channels, or pumps, located at the basal ends of cells, are responsible for the hormones transport. It is also known that auxin will induce veins when applied to suitable tissues. T. Sachs has suggested that it is the flow of the hormone that induces vessels. He suggests that discrete strands form because the transport capacity of a pathway increases with the flux that that pathway carries, leading to a canalization of flow. I cast this in the form of a more specific hypothesis: I suppose the permeability for the transport of auxin through the basal plasmalemma of a cell (by means of whatever kind of pump or channel) to increase with flux. I then show that discrete veins will form provided that the transport permeability increases rapidly enough with flux, and provided that the movement of auxin is not too polar, in the sense that there is a substantial amount of diffusive movement ...
SePRO Corporation has announced the introduction of Cutless Granular, a landscape growth regulator. Cutless Granular is registered with the U.S. EPA for systemic growth suppression of woody ornamental plants and perennial ground covers, resulting in a more compact growth form and reduced need for trimming.. According to SePRO, Cutless Granular contains the active ingredient flurprimido, which interferes with the biosynthesis of gibberellic acid (GA), a plant growth hormone responsible for cell elongation and division. By disrupting GA biosynthesis, cell elongation and division are suppressed, resulting in reduced shoot growth and internode length in landscape ornamentals.. Also according to SePRO, Cutless Granular improves the overall shrub shape and generates fuller more attractive plants by stimulating branching and promoting darker green foliage. Plants treated with Cutless Granular will require less trimming and will reduce annual labor costs for maintaining landscaped shrubs, hedges and ...
Brief irradiation of 3-d-old maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings with red light (R; 180 J m(-2)) inhibits elongation of the mesocotyl (70-80% inhibition in 8 h) and reduces its indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) content. The reduction in IAA content, apparent within a few hours, is the result of a reduction in ...
Currently, my work is focused on two projects. The first project deals with the the identification of genetic suppressors of tir-1-1 mediated auxin resistance. In my second project I am studying natural variation in transcriptional auxin responses. Additional interests comprise the natural variation of responses jasmonates and other oxylipins. ...
Hamann et al. (1999) ,, The auxin-insensitive bodenlos mutation affects primary root formation and apical-basal patterning in the Arabidopsis embryo ,,[http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10068632 Development 126: 1387-1395 abstract] ,, Tom, Franziska W ...
Shoots are positively phototropic. When a shoot tip is exposed to light, it accumulates more auxin on the side thats in the shade than the side thats in the light. This makes the cells elongate faster, shaded side, so the shoot goes towards light. ...
SCATCHARD PLOT- plots data on binding of hormone to receptor to determine the dissociation constant for the hormone to the binding molecule. Particularly useful to determine whether one or more binding molecules are present in the solution being tested. If two molecules bind hormone are present, the plot is not linear. This shows the importance of obtaining binding data to a number of concentrations of added hormone. To eliminate complications due to molecules that do not bind specifically, but rather bind irreversibly, at each concentration of radiolabeled hormone added, free cold hormone is added, and the bound-radiolabeled hormone is again quantified. The amount of hormone still bound after this chase is the amount of irreversible ( non-specific ) binding. ...
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Tudjon meg többet a következőkről indole-5-carbaldehyd. Támogatjuk a tudományt termékkínálatunkkal, szolgáltatásainkkal, kiváló folyamatainkkal és az ezeket megvalósító munkatársainkkal.
Actinorhizal symbioses are mutualistic interactions between plants and the soil bacteria Frankia that lead to the formation of nitrogen-fixing root nodules. Little is known about the signaling mechanisms controlling the different steps of the establishment of the symbiosis. The plant hormone auxin has been suggested to play a role. Here we report that auxin accumulates within Frankia-infected cells in actinorhizal nodules of Casuarina glauca. Using a combination of computational modeling and experimental approaches, we establish that this localized auxin accumulation is driven by the cell-specific expression of auxin transporters and by Frankia auxin biosynthesis in planta. Our results indicate that the plant actively restricts auxin accumulation to Frankia-infected cells during the symbiotic interaction.. Plant Physiology 154 (3), 1372-1380 ...
article{445484, abstract = {The rate, polarity, and symmetry of the flow of the plant hormone auxin are determined by the polar cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux carriers. Flavonoids, a class of secondary plant metabolites, have been suspected to modulate auxin transport and tropic responses. Nevertheless, the identity of specific flavonoid compounds involved and their molecular function and targets in vivo are essentially unknown. Here we show that the root elongation zone of agravitropic pin2/eir1/wav6/agr1 has an altered pattern and amount of flavonol glycosides. Application of nanomolar concentrations of flavonols to pin2 roots is sufficient to partially restore root gravitropism. By employing a quantitative cell biological approach, we demonstrate that flavonoids partially restore the formation of lateral auxin gradients in the absence of PIN2. Chemical complementation by flavonoids correlates with an asymmetric distribution of the PIN1 protein. pin2 complementation ...
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ONeill, DP and Ross, JJ (2002) Auxin regulation of the gibberellin pathway in pea. Plant Physiology, 130 (4). pp. 1974-1982. ISSN 0032-0889 ...
The evolution of complex body plans in land plants has been paralleled by gene duplication and divergence within nuclear auxin-signaling networks. A deep mechanistic understanding of auxin signaling proteins therefore may allow rational engineering of novel plant architectures. Toward that end, we analyzed natural variation in the auxin receptor F-box family of wild accessions of the reference plant Arabidopsis thaliana and used this information to populate a structure/function map. We employed a synthetic assay to identify natural hypermorphic F-box variants and then assayed auxin-associated phenotypes in accessions expressing these variants. To more directly measure the impact of the strongest variant in our synthetic assay on auxin sensitivity, we generated transgenic plants expressing this allele. Together, our findings link evolved sequence variation to altered molecular performance and auxin sensitivity. This approach demonstrates the potential for combining synthetic biology approaches ...
Multipotent stem cell populations, the meristems, are fundamental for the indeterminate growth of plant bodies. One of these meristems, the cambium, is responsible for extended root and stem thickening. Strikingly, although the pivotal role of the plant hormone auxin in promoting cambium activity has been known for decades, the molecular basis of auxin responsiveness on the level of cambium cells has so far been elusive. Here, we reveal that auxin-dependent cambium stimulation requires the homeobox transcription factor WOX4. In Arabidopsis thaliana inflorescence stems, 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid-induced auxin accumulation stimulates cambium activity in the wild type but not in wox4 mutants, although basal cambium activity is not abolished. This conclusion is confirmed by the analysis of cellular markers and genome-wide transcriptional profiling, which revealed only a small overlap between WOX4-dependent and cambium-specific genes. Furthermore, the receptor-like kinase PXY is required for a stable auxin
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One of the most fascinating aspects of plant morphology is the regular geometric arrangement of leaves and flowers, called phyllotaxy. The shoot apical meristem (SAM) determines these patterns, which vary depending on species and developmental stage. Auxin acts as an instructive signal in leaf initiation, and its transport has been implicated in phyllotaxy regulation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Altered phyllotactic patterns are observed in a maize (Zea mays) mutant, aberrant phyllotaxy1 (abph1, also known as abphyl1), and ABPH1 encodes a cytokinin-inducible type A response regulator, suggesting that cytokinin signals are also involved in the mechanism by which phyllotactic patterns are established. Therefore, we investigated the interaction between auxin and cytokinin signaling in phyllotaxy. Treatment of maize shoots with a polar auxin transport inhibitor, 1-naphthylphthalamic acid, strongly reduced ABPH1 expression, suggesting that auxin or its polar transport is required for ABPH1 ...
The molecular mechanisms underlying gravity perception and signal transduction which control asymmetric plant growth responses are as yet unknown, but are likely to depend on the directional flux of the plant hormone auxin. We have isolated an Arabidopsis mutant of the AtPIN2 gene using transposon mutagenesis. Roots of the Atpin2::En701 null-mutant were agravitropic and showed altered auxin sensitivity, a phenotype characteristic of the agravitropic wav6-52 mutant. The AtPIN2 gene was mapped to chromosome 5 (115.3 cM) corresponding to the WAV6 locus and subsequent genetic analysis indicated that wav6-52 and Atpin2::En701 were allelic. The AtPITN2 gene consists of nine exons defining an open reading frame of 1944 bp which encodes a 69 kDa protein with 10 putative transmembrane domains interrupted by a central hydrophilic loop. The topology of AtPIN2p was found to be similar to members of the major facilitator superfamily of transport proteins. We have shown that the AtPIN2 gene was expressed in ...
Hormone Biology. Rahman, Abidur [1], Bannigan, Alex [3], Sulaman, Waheeda [3], Pechter, Priit [2], Blancaflor, Elison [2], Baskin, Tobias [3]. Auxin, actin, and growth of the Arabidopsis thaliana primary root.. To understand how auxin regulates root growth, we quantified cell division, elemental elongation, and examined actin in the primary root of Arabidopsis thaliana . In treatments for 48 hours that inhibit root elongation rate by 50%, we find that auxins and auxin-transport inhibitors can be put into two classes based on their effects on cell division, elongation, and actin. Indoleacetic acid (IAA), 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), and tri-iodobenzoic acid (TIBA) inhibit root growth primarily through reducing the length of the growth zone rather than the maximal rate of elemental elongation and they do not reduce cell production rate. These three compounds have little effect on the extent of filamentous actin, as imaged in living cells or with chemical fixation and immuno-cytochemistry, but ...
Auxin induces rapid gene expression changes throughout root development. How auxin-induced transcriptional responses relate to changes in protein abundance is not well characterized. This report identifies early auxin responsive proteins in roots at 30 min and 2 h after hormone treatment using a quantitative proteomics approach in which 3,514 proteins were reliably quantified. A comparison of the ,100 differentially expressed proteins at each the time point showed limited overlap, suggesting a dynamic and transient response to exogenous auxin. Several proteins with established roles in auxin-mediated root development exhibited altered abundance, providing support for this approach. While novel targeted proteomics assays demonstrate that all six auxin receptors remain stable in response to hormone. Additionally, 15 of the top responsive proteins display root and/or auxin response phenotypes, demonstrating the validity of these differentially expressed proteins. Auxin signaling in roots dictates ...
The plant pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas savastanoi, the causal agent of olive and oleander knot disease, uses the so-called "indole-3-acetamide pathway" to convert tryptophan to indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) via a two-step pathway catalyzed by enzymes encoded by the genes in the iaaM/iaaH operon. Moreover, pathovar nerii of P. savastanoi is able to conjugate IAA to lysine to generate the less biologically active compound IAA-Lys via the enzyme IAA-lysine synthase encoded by the iaaL gene. Interestingly, iaaL is now known to be widespread in many Pseudomonas syringae pathovars, even in the absence of the iaaM and iaaH genes for IAA biosynthesis. Here, two knockout mutants, ΔiaaL and ΔiaaM, of strain Psn23 of P. savastanoi pv. nerii were produced. Pathogenicity tests using the host plant Nerium oleander showed that ΔiaaL and ΔiaaM were hypervirulent and hypovirulent, respectively and these features appeared to be related to their differential production of free IAA. Using the Phenotype ...
1OVM: Crystal structure of thiamindiphosphate-dependent indolepyruvate decarboxylase from Enterobacter cloacae, an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid
A plant growth enhancing composition comprising as an active ingredient a synergistic mixture of (a) gibberellins, (b) the heteroauxin indole-3-acetic acid and the cytokinin 6-(4-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-tr
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Author SummaryLeaf venation patterns of most angiosperm plants are hierarchical structures that develop during leaf growth. A remarkable characteristic of these structures is the abundance of closed loops: the venation array divides the leaf surface into disconnected polygonal sectors. The initial vein generations are repetitive within the same species, while high-order vein generations are much more diverse but still show preserved statistical properties. The accepted view of vein formation is the auxin canalization hypothesis: a high flow of the hormone auxin triggers cell differentiation to form veins. Although the role of auxin in vein formation is well established, some issues are difficult to explain within this model, in particular, the abundance of loops of high-order veins. In this work, we explore the previously proposed idea that elastic stresses may play an important role in the development of venation patterns. This appealing hypothesis naturally explains the existence of hierarchical
AUX/LAX genes encode a family of auxin influx transporters that perform distinct functions during Arabidopsis development. Péret B, Swarup K, Ferguson A, Seth M, Yang Y, Dhondt S, James N, Casimiro I, Perry P, Syed A, Yang H, Reemmer J, Venison E, Howells C, Perez-Amador MA, Yun J, Alonso J, Beemster GT, Laplaze L, Murphy A, Bennett MJ, Nielsen E, Swarup R. Plant Cell. 2012 24:2874-85 (2012). -. The Arabidopsis YUCCA1 flavin monooxygenase functions in the indole-3-pyruvic acid branch of auxin biosynthesis. Stepanova AN, Yun J, Robles LM, Novak O, He W, Guo H, Ljung K, Alonso JM. Plant Cell. 23:3961-3973 (2011). -. A Small-Molecule Screen Identifies L-Kynurenine That Competitively Inhibits TAA1/TAR Activity in Ethylene-Directed Auxin Biosynthesis and Root Growth. He W, Brumos J, Li H, Ji Y, Ke M, Gong X, Zeng Q, Li W, Zhang X, An F, Wen X, Li P, Xie D, Stepanova A, Alonso J, and Guo H. Plant Cell. 23: 3944-3960 (2011). -. Bypassing transcription: a shortcut in cytokinin-auxin interactions. ...
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When conditions get tough, animals typically fight or flee, but plants are rooted in their environment, and, as a result, have become remarkably adaptable. The Friml group investigates the mechanisms underlying plants adaptability during embryonic and postembryonic development.. Plants and animals have different life strategies. Plants are highly adaptive, and able to modify development and physiology to environmental changes; they can easily regulate growth, initiate new organs or regenerate tissues. Many of these developmental events are mediated by the plant hormone auxin. The Friml group investigates the unique properties of auxin signaling, which can integrate both environmental and endogenous signals. Employing methods spanning molecular physiology, developmental and cell biology, genetics, biochemistry, and mathematical modeling, the group focuses on auxin transport, cell polarity, endocytic recycling, as well as non-transcriptional mechanisms of signaling. In their work, the Friml group ...
Where has this been on all our lives?! Bonide is an all-natural growth stimulant -- completely organic -- that encourages blossom set in vegetables. Once the plant blooms, it sets fruit. And if it blooms early and heavily, the fruit that follows will be earlier, larger, and tastier than ever before!Although its primarily used for tomatoes, Bonide works for any vegetable in the garden. The results for tomato growth have been impressive: the fruit tends to mature up to 3 weeks earlier (wow!), and is larger, meatier, and with fewer seeds than usual. Bonide is a liquid, and contains the natural plant growth hormone Kinetin. Its great when poor weather delays blossom set, but to tell the truth, its good in any conditions. Perfect for the organic garden, its entirely safe and all natural.Grow the best veggie garden of your life with Bonide! 1-quart bottle.
Biology Assignment Help, Tools and techniques - effects of plant growth regulators, Tools and Techniques - Effects of Plant Growth Regulators We have discussed about the effect of auxins. In this section we shall discuss the methodology being followed in hormone studies: a) Observations : The knowledge about role of ligh
Darwin was already interested in auxin in the 19th century. Only in recent years, however, has the hormone started to relinquish its secrets, thanks to intensive molecular research. Auxin is produced in the young, growing parts of plants and then transported throughout the plant - to a low-lying stem for example. The stem needs to straighten out as soon as possible to be able to absorb the suns rays efficiently; therefore more auxin will be delivered to the underside of the stem than to the topside, resulting in the underside growing faster and the stem straightening out. For the same reason, plants in front of windows will always turn to the light. This dynamic regulation of auxin transport allows plants to take optimal advantage of local and changing conditions. A new means of transport for auxin? ...
... , auxin antibody, plant hormone antibodies, AS09 421Indole 3 acetic acid (IAA) is the principal auxin in higher plants. This hormone is produced in in cells in the apex and young leaves of a plant. Plant cells
A ninefold increase instead of a twofold increase; thats a remarkable jump in vulnerability among the non-breastfed. The breastfed kids, in short, were about 1/4 as vulnerable as the nonbreastfed. What about breastfeeding might explain such resilience? The researchers didnt want to guess. Possibly breastfeeding gives some direct physiological benefit - the milk itself contributes physiologically, say, in roughly the way that the antibodies in mothers milk make kids more resistant to infection. Goodness knows, breastfeeding gives so many other benefits, this wouldnt surprise me. On the other hand, the protective effect might simply come from because breastfeeding creates tighter bonds with the mothers, inspiring higher levels of maternal care. Animal studies, however, have shown that physical contact between mother and baby during the first few days of life bolsters neural and hormonal pathways important in stress responses, and that deprivation of maternal care creates hypersensitive stress ...
A new study shows how a genetic defect in a specific hormonal pathway may make people more susceptible to developing melanoma, the deadliest type of skin cancer.
Representation in the model the processes influencing the auxin distribution along the central root axis. a. Acropetal flow is considered in the model along the
Anti-Anti-RACK1A | Receptor for activated C kinase 1A ANTIBODY, At1g18080, O24456, WD-40 repeat auxin-dependent protein ARCA, AS11 1810, Guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit beta-like protein A, Receptor for activated C kinase 1A, WD-40 repeat auxin
باکتری-های سودوموناس فلورسنت از مهم-ترین باکتری-های محرک رشد گیاه در ریزوسفر گیاهان مختلف زراعی می-باشند که با داشتن خصوصیات محرک رشدی متعدد، می-توانند موجب بهبود رشد گیاه گردند. تولید غلظت-های بالای IAA یکی از ویژگی‌های بارز برای اکثر این باکتری-ها است. به-منظور بررسی توانایی تولید اکسین توسط سویه-های مختلف باکتری سودوموناس فلورسنت در زمان-های متفاوت و در محیط-های کشت- TSB و DF و همچنین تعیین تاثیرات این سویه-ها بر شاخص-های رشد گیاه ذرت، آزمایشی در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی اجرا گردید. نتایج نشان-دهنده توانایی تمام سویه-ها، در تولید IAA بود. متوسط میزان تولید IAA در
3-amino-2-hydroxy-3,5-dihydro-4H-pyrimido[5,4-b]indol-4-one - chemical structural formula, chemical names, chemical properties, synthesis references
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[109 Pages Report] Check for Discount on United States Monochloro Acetic Acid Market Report 2017 report by QYResearch Group. In this report, the United States MonoChloro Acetic Acid market...
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Find medical information for Acetic Acid (265), including its uses, information and definitions, as well as for other most popular pharmaceutical and
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The development of lateral roots (LR) is known to be severely inhibited by salt or osmotic stress. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying LR development in osmotic/salt stress conditions are poorly understood. Here we show that the gene encoding the WRKY transcription factor WRKY46 (WRKY46) is expressed throughout lateral root primordia (LRP) during early LR development and that expression is subsequently restricted to the stele of the mature LR. In osmotic/salt stress conditions, lack of WRKY46 (in loss-of-function wrky46 mutants) significantly reduces, while overexpression of WRKY46 enhances, LR development. We also show that exogenous auxin largely restores LR development in wrky46 mutants, and that the auxin transport inhibitor 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) inhibits LR development in both wild-type (WT; Col-0) and in a line overexpressing WRKY46 (OV46). Subsequent analysis of abscisic acid (ABA)-related mutants indicated that WRKY46 expression is down-regulated by ABA signaling, and up
HERNANDEZ-MONTIEL, Luis G et al. Efficiency of two inoculation methods of Pseudomonas putida on growth and yield of tomato plants. J. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. [online]. 2017, vol.17, n.4, pp.1003-1012. ISSN 0718-9516. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0718-95162017000400012.. The objective of this study was to determine the efficiency of applying microcapsules and liquid inoculation of three Pseudomonas putida strains on growth and yield of tomato plants in greenhouse where the results showed differences between both treatments. Rhizobacterial strainsFA-8, FA-56, and FA-60 of P. putida, were assessed individually and combined to determine their capacity to produce indoleacetic acid (IAA). The three strains demonstrated the capacity to produce IAAin vitro, of which FA-56 stood out with 23.02 µg mL-1 in the microcapsule treatment with significant increases in plant height, stem diameter, radical volume, dry biomass, fruit yield, and rhizobacterial population (CFU). These responses could have been ...
Anthranilate synthase beta subunit 1; Part of a heterotetrameric complex that catalyzes the two-step biosynthesis of anthranilate, an intermediate in the biosynthesis of L-tryptophan. In the first step, the glutamine- binding beta subunit of anthranilate synthase (AS) provides the glutamine amidotransferase activity which generates ammonia as a substrate that, along with chorismate, is used in the second step, catalyzed by the large alpha subunit of AS to produce anthranilate. Plays an important regulatory role in auxin production via the tryptophan-dependent biosynthetic pathway (289 aa ...
Converts inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P3) to inositol 1,4-bisphosphate. Modulates cotyledon vein development through regulating auxin homeostasis. Involved in blue light responses. Decreases the amount of KIN10 degraded by the proteasome under low nutrient conditions. Participates with IP5P12 in the control of Ins(1,4,5)P3/Ca(2+) levels that is crucial for maintaining pollen dormancy and regulating early germination of pollen. May modulate auxin transport by regulating vesicle trafficking and thereby plays a role in root gravitropism.
Dyslexia, or specific reading disability, is the unexpected failure in learning to read and write when intelligence and senses are normal. One of the susceptibility genes, DYX1C1, has been implicated in neuronal migration, but little is known about its interactions and functions. As DYX1C1 was suggested to interact with the U-box protein CHIP (carboxy terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein), which also participates in the degradation of estrogen receptors alpha (ERalpha) and beta (ERbeta), we hypothesized that the effects of DYX1C1 might be at least in part mediated through the regulation of ERs. ERs have shown to be important in brain development and cognitive functions. Indeed, we show that DYX1C1 interacts with both ERs in the presence of 17beta-estradiol, as determined by co-localization, co-immunoprecipitation and proximity ligation assays. Protein levels of endogenous ERalpha or exogenous ERbeta were reduced upon over-expression of DYX1C1, resulting in decreased transcriptional responses to ...
Plant hormones are important signaling molecules that control many developmental processes, including cell division, differentiation, organogenesis. In contrast to their animal counterparts, plant hormones can regulate a multitude of apparently unrelated physiological processes, their roles often overlap and they mutually modulate their effects. This indicates the important role of synergistic and antagonistic interactions between different plant hormones. However, the molecular basis of hormonal interactions is still largely unknown. The physiologically best characterized interaction is between auxin and cytokinin. These two plant hormones exhibit synergistic interaction to promote cell division in cell culture, but antagonistic interaction to regulate lateral root development or lateral bud outgrowth. The main aim of our studies is to reveal the molecular components and mechanisms balancing the output of auxin and cytokinin pathways in order to regulate plant organogenesis. We use lateral root ...
Plant hormones are important signaling molecules that control many developmental processes, including cell division, differentiation, organogenesis. In contrast to their animal counterparts, plant hormones can regulate a multitude of apparently unrelated physiological processes, their roles often overlap and they mutually modulate their effects. This indicates the important role of synergistic and antagonistic interactions between different plant hormones. However, the molecular basis of hormonal interactions is still largely unknown. The physiologically best characterized interaction is between auxin and cytokinin. These two plant hormones exhibit synergistic interaction to promote cell division in cell culture, but antagonistic interaction to regulate lateral root development or lateral bud outgrowth. The main aim of our studies is to reveal the molecular components and mechanisms balancing the output of auxin and cytokinin pathways in order to regulate plant organogenesis. We use lateral root ...
Arabidopsis CEGENDUO protein: an auxin-inducible F-box protein that negatively regulates auxin-mediated lateral root formation; has been sequenced
In this study, systematic inhibitor response to ErbB missense mutations in gastric cancer (GC) is investigated by combining computational analysis and experimental assay. The response profile is created for 6 ATP-competitive, reversible inhibitors against 9, 17, 5 and 17 GC-associated missense mutations of ErbB1, ErbB2, ErbB3 and ErbB4 kinase domains, respectively. From the profile a number of p...
A peptide and its receptors work to regulate auxin response and control leaf tooth growth in plants.. The plant hormone auxin has been known to take part in the development of leaf teeth, but the exact mechanism of their formation has been a mystery up till now. In this study, the research group has found that a peptide called EPIDERMAL PATTERNING FACTOR-LIKE 2 (EPFL2) and its receptor protein, ERECTA family receptor kinases, control the amount of auxin during leaf tooth growth. In plant leaves where the EPFL2 peptide is inactive, the leaf becomes round without teeth.. ...
We use a variety of plant systems including the model flowering plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, tobacco, rice, and the model grass, Brachypodium distachyon to characterize homeostasis mechanisms (i.e. how levels are regulated within the cell) for metabolites that function as signaling compounds. For example, we use stable isotope labeling to examine the regulation of growth and development by the signaling molecule indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), also known as auxin. We are developing analytical tools (primarily high throughput sample prep, quantitative metabolite profiling, and fluorescence-based cell sorting) and mutants that are disrupted in some aspect of metabolite regulation in order to characterize IAA homeostasis. Mass spectrometry features prominently in our experimental approach. Our long-term goal is to understand how auxin biosynthetic pathways interact with biosynthetic pathways for other important signaling molecules such as cytokinins, gibberellins, salicylic acid, ethylene, jasmonic ...
This is a fungus disease of rice in which leaves and stems of infected plants showed abnormally tall growth. The infection is known as Bakanae disease and is due to the fungal production of a plant growth hormone. It is also known as Cotton Boll Rot ...
MERCIER, Helenice et al. Endogenous auxin and cytokinin contents associated with shoot formation in leaves of pineapple cultured in vitro. Braz. J. Plant Physiol. [online]. 2003, vol.15, n.2, pp.107-112. ISSN 1677-9452. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1677-04202003000200006.. The in vitro culture of pineapple leaves on a shoot induction medium (SIM) results in the formation of protuberances and further development in shoots, and plantlets. The contents of endogenous indoleacetic acid (IAA) and five cytokinins (Cks), N6(2-isopentenyl)adenine (iP), N6(2-isopentenyl)adenosine (iPR), zeatin (Z), zeatin riboside (ZR) and N6-benzyladenine (BA), present in the basal portion of those leaves, were correlated to the organogenic response that occurs over 15 days of culture. The endogenous auxin/cytokinins ratio was lowest on the 3rd day, mainly due to a strong increase in the iP level. It seems that endogenous iP concentration triggered the induction signal for an organogenic response in pineapple leaf bases. ...
Plant root systems and associated symbiotic organisms act as critical links between the growing shoot and the rhizosphere, providing both vital nutrients and water to sustain growth. Many tools have been developed to study plant root systems; however, the efficient quantification of root traits remains a key bottleneck to effectively utilizing expanding collections of genomic and germplasm resources during the study of root system development and function. This dissertation presents results from root system phenotyping research where root phenotyping platforms were developed and used to investigate the genetic components of root system architecture and development in crop plants. It begins with a review chapter that discusses the importance of root system architecture (RSA) during resource acquisition and provides an overview of established root growth and measurement techniques while highlighting modern root phenotyping approaches that have been developed for genetic mapping studies. ...
In plants, undifferentiated meristem tissue provides stem cells to produce roots and shoots. The root meristem contains a few of these stem cells in a region called the quiescent center. Ortega-Martínez et al. studied Arabidopsis plants with a defect in a gene that controls ethylene biosynthesis and found that it produced more of the gaseous hormone ethylene. The quiescent center cells in these mutants went through more cell divisions than normal, resulting in extra stem cells in the root meristem. Adding exogenous ethylene also increased quiescent cell division, and blocking its synthesis in the mutants prevented extra divisions.. O. Ortega-Martínez, M. Pernas, R. J. Carol, L. Dolan, Ethylene modulates stem cell division in the Arabidopsis thaliana root. Science 317, 507-510 (2007). [Abstract] [Full Text] ...
Most endophytic bacteria in consortia, which provide robust and broad metabolic capacity, are attractive for applications in plant metabolic engineering. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of engineered endophytic bacterial strains on rice sprout ethylene level and growth under saline stress. A protocol was developed to synthesize engineered strains by expressing bacterial 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase gene on cells of endophytic Enterobacter sp. E5 and Kosakonia sp. S1 (denoted as E5P and S1P, respectively). Results showed that ACC deaminase activities of the engineered strains E5P and S1P were significantly higher than those of the wild strains E5 and S1. About 32-41% deaminase was expressed on the surface of the engineered strains. Compared with the controls without inoculation, inoculation with the wild and engineered strains increased the deaminase activities of sprouts. Inoculation with the engineered strains increased 15-21% more deaminase activities of
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Indoleacetic acid - DrugBankIndoleacetic acid - DrugBank

Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives / Carboxylic acidCarboxylic acid derivative / Carbonyl group / Organopnictogen compound / ... Indoleacetic acid. Accession Number. DB07950. Type. Small Molecule. Groups. Experimental. Description. Not Available. Structure ... monocarboxylic acid, indole-3-acetic acids (CHEBI:16411) / Indole alkaloids, Auxins (C00954) Targets. ... Indolyl carboxylic acids and derivatives. Direct Parent. Indole-3-acetic acid derivatives. Alternative Parents. 3-alkylindoles ...
more infohttps://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB07950

indoleacetic acid | Definition of indoleacetic acid by Websters Online Dictionaryindoleacetic acid | Definition of indoleacetic acid by Webster's Online Dictionary

... indoleacetic acid explanation. Define indoleacetic acid by Websters Dictionary, WordNet Lexical Database, Dictionary of ... 1H-indole-3-acetic acid. .. Noun. 1.. indoleacetic acid - a plant hormone promoting elongation of stems and roots. Synonyms: ... indoleacetic acid --. indolebutyric acid. Indolence. Indolency. Indolent. Indolently. Indoles. Indolin. Indomable. indomethacin ... indoleacetic acid in´dole`a`cet´ic ac´id Pronunciation: ĭn´dōl ...
more infohttps://webster-dictionary.org/definition/indoleacetic%20acid

Human Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for Indoleacetic acid (HMDB0000197)Human Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for Indoleacetic acid (HMDB0000197)

Indoleacetic acid. Description. Indoleacetic acid (IAA) is a breakdown product of tryptophan metabolism and is often produced ... Showing metabocard for Indoleacetic acid (HMDB0000197). IdentificationTaxonomyOntologyPhysical propertiesSpectraBiological ... Ilkhanizadeh B, Owji AA, Tavangar SM, Vasei M, Tabei SM: Spot urine 5-hydroxy indole acetic acid and acute appendicitis. ... Ilkhanizadeh B, Owji AA, Tavangar SM, Vasei M, Tabei SM: Spot urine 5-hydroxy indole acetic acid and acute appendicitis. ...
more infohttp://www.hmdb.ca/metabolites/HMDB00197

Aromatic aminotransferase activity and indoleacetic acid production in Rhizobium meliloti. | Journal of BacteriologyAromatic aminotransferase activity and indoleacetic acid production in Rhizobium meliloti. | Journal of Bacteriology

Aromatic aminotransferase activity and indoleacetic acid production in Rhizobium meliloti.. B L Kittell, D R Helinski, G S ... Aromatic aminotransferase activity and indoleacetic acid production in Rhizobium meliloti.. B L Kittell, D R Helinski, G S ... Aromatic aminotransferase activity and indoleacetic acid production in Rhizobium meliloti.. B L Kittell, D R Helinski, G S ... Bacterial indoleacetic acid (IAA) production, which has been proposed to play a role in the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis, is a ...
more infohttps://jb.asm.org/content/171/10/5458

6-Fluoro-3-indoleacetic acid (CAS 443-75-4) Market Research Report 20196-Fluoro-3-indoleacetic acid (CAS 443-75-4) Market Research Report 2019

The report generally describes 6-fluoro-3-indoleacetic acid, examines its uses, production methods, patents. 6-Fluoro-3- ... 6-fluoro-3-indoleacetic acid market forecast. 6. 6-FLUORO-3-INDOLEACETIC ACID MARKET PRICES. 6.1. 6-fluoro-3-indoleacetic acid ... 6-fluoro-3-indoleacetic acid prices in other regions. 7. 6-FLUORO-3-INDOLEACETIC ACID END-USE SECTOR 7.1. 6-fluoro-3- ... 6-fluoro-3-indoleacetic acid application spheres, downstream products. 3. 6-FLUORO-3-INDOLEACETIC ACID MANUFACTURING METHODS. 4 ...
more infohttps://marketpublishers.com/report/industry/chemicals_petrochemicals/cbindex_443-75-4_market_research_report.html

Indoleacetic acid | definition of indoleacetic acid by Medical dictionaryIndoleacetic acid | definition of indoleacetic acid by Medical dictionary

What is indoleacetic acid? Meaning of indoleacetic acid medical term. What does indoleacetic acid mean? ... Looking for online definition of indoleacetic acid in the Medical Dictionary? indoleacetic acid explanation free. ... Related to indoleacetic acid: abscisic acid, gibberellin. indoleacetic acid. (ĭn′dō-lə-sē′tĭk). n.. A plant hormone, C10H9NO2, ... such as the indoleacetic acid (IAA), is possibly the main mechanism of plant growth promotion by rhizobia.. Indoleacetic Acid ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/indoleacetic+acid

Some quantitative effects of indoleacetic acid on the wood production and tracheid dimensions of Picea.Some quantitative effects of indoleacetic acid on the wood production and tracheid dimensions of Picea.

The diameter and wall thickness of tracheids produced after indoleacetic acid treatment were not significantly different from ... Neither indoleacetic acid nor gibberellic acid stimulated renewed cambial activity when applied after the cessation of wood ... The diameter and wall thickness of tracheids produced after indoleacetic acid treatment were not significantly different from ... However, lateral application of indoleacetic acid (IAA) to intact shoots increased both tracheid diameter and wall thickness; ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Some-quantitative-effects-indoleacetic-acid/24419775.html

A Synergistic Stimulation of Avena sativa Coleoptile Elongation by Indoleacetic Acid and Carbon Dioxide | Plant PhysiologyA Synergistic Stimulation of Avena sativa Coleoptile Elongation by Indoleacetic Acid and Carbon Dioxide | Plant Physiology

A Synergistic Stimulation of Avena sativa Coleoptile Elongation by Indoleacetic Acid and Carbon Dioxide A. W. Bown, I. J. ... A Synergistic Stimulation of Avena sativa Coleoptile Elongation by Indoleacetic Acid and Carbon Dioxide ... A Synergistic Stimulation of Avena sativa Coleoptile Elongation by Indoleacetic Acid and Carbon Dioxide ... A Synergistic Stimulation of Avena sativa Coleoptile Elongation by Indoleacetic Acid and Carbon Dioxide ...
more infohttp://www.plantphysiol.org/content/54/1/15

Indomethacin Related Compound A United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard | 5-Methoxy-2-methyl-3-indoleacetic acid |...Indomethacin Related Compound A United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard | 5-Methoxy-2-methyl-3-indoleacetic acid |...

... acetic acid; Linear Formula: C12H13NO3; find USP-1417113 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar ... 5-Methoxy-2-methyl-3-indoleacetic acid, 2-(5-Methoxy-2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl) ... 1H-indol-3-yl)acetic acid, 5-. Methoxy-. 2-. methyl-. 3-. indoleacetic acid ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/product/usp/1417113?lang=en®ion=US

US Patent # 5,188,655. Plant growth enhancing compositions using gibberellins, indoleacetic
     acid and kinetin - Patents.comUS Patent # 5,188,655. Plant growth enhancing compositions using gibberellins, indoleacetic acid and kinetin - Patents.com

... the heteroauxin indole-3-acetic acid and the cytokinin 6-(4-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-tr ... such as indoleacetic acid and naphthaleneacetic acid, which induce stem elongation and promote root formation. Other synthetic ... 5-trichlorobenzoic acid (TBA); and 3,5-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid (dicamba), for example. All the above acids are active in ... 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4D); 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T); 2-(4-chloro-2-methyl-phenoxy) propionic acid ( ...
more infohttp://www.patents.com/us-5188655.html

Occurrence of 4-Cl-Indoleacetic Acid in Broad Beans and Correlation of Its Levels with Seed Development | Plant PhysiologyOccurrence of 4-Cl-Indoleacetic Acid in Broad Beans and Correlation of Its Levels with Seed Development | Plant Physiology

Occurrence of 4-Cl-Indoleacetic Acid in Broad Beans and Correlation of Its Levels with Seed Development. Tanja Pless, Michael ... Seeds and leaves of Vicia faba L. contain considerable amounts of 4-Cl-indoleacetic acid as determined by gas-liquid ... The peak of 4-Cl-indoleacetic acid content per seed coincides with the maximum rate of water accumulation in the seeds. ... Occurrence of 4-Cl-Indoleacetic Acid in Broad Beans and Correlation of Its Levels with Seed Development ...
more infohttp://www.plantphysiol.org/content/74/2/320

Improvement of Analytical Method for the Activities of Indoleacetic Acid Oxidase and Isozymes--《Plant Physiology Communications...Improvement of Analytical Method for the Activities of Indoleacetic Acid Oxidase and Isozymes--《Plant Physiology Communications...

Improvement of Analytical Method for the Activities of Indoleacetic Acid Oxidase and Isozymes. ... HE Zhichang ZHU Yingguo (College of Life Sciences,Wuhan University,Wuhan 430072);A Study on Indole-3-acetic Acid Oxidase and ...
more infohttp://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTotal-ZWSL199306013.htm

Genome-wide analysis of the auxin/indoleacetic acid (Aux/IAA) gene family in allotetraploid rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) | BMC...Genome-wide analysis of the auxin/indoleacetic acid (Aux/IAA) gene family in allotetraploid rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) | BMC...

Auxin/Indoleacetic acid (Aux/IAA) genes participate in the auxin signaling pathway and play key roles in plant growth and ... Ramos JA, Zenser N, Leyser O, Callis J. Rapid degradation of auxin/indoleacetic acid proteins requires conserved amino acids of ... Auxin/Indoleacetic acid (Aux/IAA) genes participate in the auxin signaling pathway and play key roles in plant growth and ... Genome-wide analysis of the auxin/indoleacetic acid (Aux/IAA) gene family in allotetraploid rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). ...
more infohttps://bmcplantbiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12870-017-1165-5

Indoleacetic acid - Wikipedia - Auxin thesisIndoleacetic acid - Wikipedia - Auxin thesis

Indoleacetic acid (IAA, 3-IAA) is the most common, naturally occurring, plant hormone of the auxin class. It is the best known ... Other less expensive synthetic auxin analogs on the market for use in horticulture are indolebutyric acid IBA and 1- ... naphthaleneacetic acid NAA. Views Read Edit View history. It induces caspase-8 and caspase-9 , which results in caspase-3 ...
more infohttp://bluetreasure.me/auxin-thesis.php

Details - Growth and composition of eucalyptus and maize on Kenya soils fertilized with phosphate and indole acetic acid / -...Details - Growth and composition of eucalyptus and maize on Kenya soils fertilized with phosphate and indole acetic acid / -...

TI - Growth and composition of eucalyptus and maize on Kenya soils fertilized with phosphate and indole acetic acid / UR - ... title,Growth and composition of eucalyptus and maize on Kenya soils fertilized with phosphate and indole acetic acid /,/title, ... title = {Growth and composition of eucalyptus and maize on Kenya soils fertilized with phosphate and indole acetic acid / },. ... Growth and composition of eucalyptus and maize on Kenya soils fertilized with phosphate and indole acetic acid / ...
more infohttps://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/119471

Indole acetic acid and flavonoids production by rhizospheric bacteria isolated from Medicago sativa L. rhizosphere	Indole acetic acid and flavonoids production by rhizospheric bacteria isolated from Medicago sativa L. rhizosphere

Indole acetic acid and flavonoids production by rhizospheric bacteria isolated from Medicago sativa L. rhizosphere. By: Ismail ... Indole acetic acid and flavonoids production by rhizospheric bacteria isolated from Medicago sativa L. rhizosphere. Ahemad M, ... Indole acetic acid and flavonoids production by rhizospheric bacteria isolated from Medicago sativa L. rhizosphere. Int. J. ... All of these strains were tested for the secretion of Indole acetic acid (IAA) and flavonoids. Three strains were known to be ...
more infohttps://innspub.net/ijb/indole-acetic-acid-flavonoids-production-rhizospheric-bacteria-isolated-medicago-sativa-l-rhizosphere/

Gentaur Molecular :BioBasic \ 3 Indole acetic acid sodium salt  \ IB0724Gentaur Molecular :BioBasic \ 3 Indole acetic acid sodium salt \ IB0724

... acetic acid sodium salt \ IB0724 for more molecular products just contact us ... Index / BioBasic / 3_Indole_acetic acid sodium salt / Product Detail : IB0724 3_Indole_acetic acid sodium salt Related keywords ... amino acid conjugation of benzoic acid. WP1307: Fatty Acid Beta Oxidation. WP1311: Folic Acid Network. WP133: Fatty Acid Omega ... amino acid conjugation of benzoic acid. WP1020: Fatty Acid Biosynthesis. WP105: Fatty Acid Beta Oxidation 2. WP1061: Fatty Acid ...
more infohttp://www.antibody-antibodies.com/product_det.php?id=162735&supplier=search&name=3_Indole_acetic%20acid%20sodium%20salt%C2%A0

Isolation of <i>Pseudomonas fluorescens</i> Species from faba Bean Rhizospheric Soil and Assessment of Indole Acetic Acid...Isolation of <i>Pseudomonas fluorescens</i> Species from faba Bean Rhizospheric Soil and Assessment of Indole Acetic Acid...

All isolates ,i,Pseudomonas fluorescens,/i, were tseted for indole acetic acid production have a potential to produce ... species from rhizospheric soil of faba bean and tested their indole acetic acid production. Isolation of ,i,Pseudomonas ... Faba Bean, Indole Acetic Acid, Phytohormone, Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria, Pseudomonas fluorescens To cite this article ... Bric, J. M., Bostock, R. M. and Silverstone, S. E. (1991). Rapid in situ assay for indoleacetic acid production by bacteria ...
more infohttp://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo?journalid=219&doi=10.11648/j.ajbio.20160402.11

Endophytic fungal association via gibberellins and indole acetic acid can improve plant growth under abiotic stress: an example...Endophytic fungal association via gibberellins and indole acetic acid can improve plant growth under abiotic stress: an example...

Analysis of the CF showed presence of GAs (GA1, GA3, GA4, GA8, GA9, GA12, GA20 and GA24) and indole acetic acid. The endophyte ... Reduced content of stress responsive abscisic acid suggest lesser stress convened to endophyte-associated plants. On contrary, ... Analysis of the CF showed presence of GAs (GA1, GA3, GA4, GA8, GA9, GA12, GA20 and GA24) and indole acetic acid. The endophyte ... Shahab S, Ahmed N, Khan NS: Indole acetic acid production and enhanced plant growth promotion by indigenous PSBs. Af J Agri Res ...
more infohttps://0-bmcmicrobiol-biomedcentral-com.brum.beds.ac.uk/articles/10.1186/1471-2180-12-3

Zinc in the structure of Crystal Structure Of the Complex Of C-Lobe of Lactoferrin With Indole Acetic Acid At 2.68 A Resolution...Zinc in the structure of Crystal Structure Of the Complex Of C-Lobe of Lactoferrin With Indole Acetic Acid At 2.68 A Resolution...

Crystal Structure Of the Complex Of C-Lobe of Lactoferrin With Indole Acetic Acid At 2.68 A Resolution ... Zinc in the structure of Crystal Structure Of the Complex Of C-Lobe of Lactoferrin With Indole Acetic Acid At 2.68 A Resolution ... sites of Zinc atom in the structure of Crystal Structure Of the Complex Of C-Lobe of Lactoferrin With Indole Acetic Acid At ...
more infohttp://zinc.atomistry.com/pdb3o97.html

Indole-Acetic Acid Oxidase Enzyme Activity in Three Wheat Cultivars under Salt Stress Conditions at the Early Seedling Stage
 ...Indole-Acetic Acid Oxidase Enzyme Activity in Three Wheat Cultivars under Salt Stress Conditions at the Early Seedling Stage ...

... indole acetic acid content and on the activity of indole acetic acid oxidase in rice seedlings. Acta Biol Hung 16: 243-253. ... Rabin RS, Klein RM (1957) Chlorogenic acid as a competitive inhibitor of indole acetic acid oxidase. Arch Biochem & Biophys 70 ... Indole-acetic acid enzyme activity in three wheat cultivars differing in their salt response was studied at the early seedling ... Indole-Acetic Acid Oxidase Enzyme Activity in Three Wheat Cultivars under Salt Stress Conditions at the Early Seedling Stage ...
more infohttp://googlescholar.medcraveonline.com/scholars/article_fulltext/4530

Callus Induction and Shoot Regeneration Using Indole Acetic Acid and N-Isopentenylamino Purine Combinations and Two Types of...Callus Induction and Shoot Regeneration Using Indole Acetic Acid and N-Isopentenylamino Purine Combinations and Two Types of...

"Callus Induction and Shoot Regeneration Using Indole Acetic Acid and N-Isopentenylamino Purine Combinations and Two Types of ... Fazeli Behgo, T., Alizadeh Ajirlo, S. Callus Induction and Shoot Regeneration Using Indole Acetic Acid and N-Isopentenylamino ... Callus Induction and Shoot Regeneration Using Indole Acetic Acid and N-Isopentenylamino Purine Combinations and Two Types of ... Fazeli Behgo, T., Alizadeh Ajirlo, S. (2023). Callus Induction and Shoot Regeneration Using Indole Acetic Acid and N- ...
more infohttp://breeding.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_6248.html
  • A plant growth enhancing composition comprising as an active ingredient a synergistic mixture of (a) gibberellins, (b) the heteroauxin indole-3-acetic acid and the cytokinin 6-(4-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-trans-betenylamino) purine in definite proportions. (patents.com)
  • a) 35-45 percent by weight of gibberellins, (b) 35-45 percent by weight of indole-3-acetic acid, and (c) 15-25 percent by weight of 6-(4-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-trans-betenylamino) purine. (patents.com)
  • 2. The composition according to claim 1 wherein said composition comprises about 40 percent by weight of gibberellins, about 40 percent by weight of indole-3-acetic acid and about 20 percent by weight of 6-(4-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-trans-betenylamino) purine. (patents.com)
  • The peak of 4-Cl-indoleacetic acid content per seed coincides with the maximum rate of water accumulation in the seeds. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Reduced content of stress responsive abscisic acid suggest lesser stress convened to endophyte-associated plants. (beds.ac.uk)