Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Sulfur Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.Volatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.Biphenyl CompoundsInhibitory Concentration 50: The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.Heterocyclic Compounds: Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Sulfhydryl Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Organotin Compounds: Organic compounds which contain tin in the molecule. Used widely in industry and agriculture.Small Molecule Libraries: Large collections of small molecules (molecular weight about 600 or less), of similar or diverse nature which are used for high-throughput screening analysis of the gene function, protein interaction, cellular processing, biochemical pathways, or other chemical interactions.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Aniline CompoundsMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Spiro Compounds: A group of compounds consisting in part of two rings sharing one atom (usually a carbon) in common.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Nitrogen Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Drug Design: The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.Organometallic Compounds: A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Nitroso CompoundsDrug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Organophosphorus Compounds: Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.Organoselenium Compounds: Organic compounds which contain selenium as an integral part of the molecule.Azo CompoundsEpoxy Compounds: Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Drug Discovery: The process of finding chemicals for potential therapeutic use.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.High-Throughput Screening Assays: Rapid methods of measuring the effects of an agent in a biological or chemical assay. The assay usually involves some form of automation or a way to conduct multiple assays at the same time using sample arrays.Polycyclic Compounds: Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.p-Methoxy-N-methylphenethylamine: A potent mast cell degranulator. It is involved in histamine release.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: Organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen in the form of an unsaturated, usually hexagonal ring structure. The compounds can be single ring, or double, triple, or multiple fused rings.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Organic Chemicals: A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.TriterpenesMicrobial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Benzyl CompoundsSpectrophotometry, Infrared: Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Terphenyl Compounds: Compounds consisting of benzene rings linked to each other in either ortho, meta or para positions. Permitted are any substitutions, but ring fusion to any of the benzene rings is not allowed.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Furans: Compounds with a 5-membered ring of four carbons and an oxygen. They are aromatic heterocycles. The reduced form is tetrahydrofuran.Glycosides: Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Plant Bark: The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.Allyl CompoundsIndicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Trialkyltin Compounds: Organometallic compounds which contain tin and three alkyl groups.Heterocyclic Compounds, 2-Ring: A class of organic compounds containing two ring structures, one of which is made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The heterocycle may be either aromatic or nonaromatic.PicratesBiotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Selenium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain selenium as an integral part of the molecule.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship: A quantitative prediction of the biological, ecotoxicological or pharmaceutical activity of a molecule. It is based upon structure and activity information gathered from a series of similar compounds.Diterpenes: Twenty-carbon compounds derived from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.Flavonoids: A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.SesquiterpenesTerpenes: A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Biological Products: Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Plant Components, Aerial: The above-ground plant without the roots.Bicyclo CompoundsPlant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Indoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.Bridged Compounds: Cyclic hydrocarbons that contain multiple rings and share one or more atoms.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Heterocyclic Compounds with 4 or More Rings: A class of organic compounds containing four or more ring structures, one of which is made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The heterocycle may be either aromatic or nonaromatic.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.ThiazolesKetonesSpectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.GlucosidesSpectrometry, Mass, Fast Atom Bombardment: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.Benzofurans: Compounds that contain a BENZENE ring fused to a furan ring.Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Benzene DerivativesCombinatorial Chemistry Techniques: A technology, in which sets of reactions for solution or solid-phase synthesis, is used to create molecular libraries for analysis of compounds on a large scale.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.BrazilFerrous Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain divalent iron.Benzhydryl Compounds: Compounds which contain the methyl radical substituted with two benzene rings. Permitted are any substituents, but ring fusion to any of the benzene rings is not allowed.Drugs, Chinese Herbal: Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.Carboxylic Acids: Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.Amines: A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Monoterpenes: Compounds with a core of 10 carbons generally formed via the mevalonate pathway from the combination of 3,3-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate. They are cyclized and oxidized in a variety of ways. Due to the low molecular weight many of them exist in the form of essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE).EthersGold Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain gold as an integral part of the molecule.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Coumarins: Synthetic or naturally occurring substances related to coumarin, the delta-lactone of coumarinic acid.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.EstersHydrocarbons, HalogenatedTemperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Hydroxybenzoates: Benzoate derivatives substituted by one or more hydroxy groups in any position on the benzene ring.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Ruthenium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain ruthenium as an integral part of the molecule.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Benzoates: Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.Ferric Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.HydrocarbonsBoron Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain boron as an integral part of the molecule.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Catechols: A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.Benzylidene Compounds: Compounds containing the PhCH= radical.Vanadium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain vanadium as an integral part of the molecule.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Oils, Volatile: Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Pyridines: Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated: Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.Sulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent sulfur bonds -S-. The sulfur atom can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Sulfonium Compounds: Sulfur compounds in which the sulfur atom is attached to three organic radicals and an electronegative element or radical.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Lactones: Cyclic esters of hydroxy carboxylic acids, containing a 1-oxacycloalkan-2-one structure. Large cyclic lactones of over a dozen atoms are MACROLIDES.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Polyphenols: A large class of organic compounds having more than one PHENOL group.Methanol: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring: A class of organic compounds containing three ring structures, one of which is made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The heterocycle may be either aromatic or nonaromaticFree Radical Scavengers: Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Mutagens: Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Porifera: The phylum of sponges which are sessile, suspension-feeding, multicellular animals that utilize flagellated cells called choanocytes to circulate water. Most are hermaphroditic. They are probably an early evolutionary side branch that gave rise to no other group of animals. Except for about 150 freshwater species, sponges are marine animals. They are a source of ALKALOIDS; STEROLS; and other complex molecules useful in medicine and biological research.Aldehydes: Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.Sulfonic Acids: Inorganic or organic oxy acids of sulfur which contain the RSO2(OH) radical.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Organothiophosphorus Compounds: Compounds containing carbon-phosphorus bonds in which the phosphorus component is also bonded to one or more sulfur atoms. Many of these compounds function as CHOLINERGIC AGENTS and as INSECTICIDES.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Hydrocarbons, FluorinatedEnvironmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Pyridinium CompoundsBrain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Alkaloids: Organic nitrogenous bases. Many alkaloids of medical importance occur in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and some have been synthesized. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antiprotozoal Agents: Substances that are destructive to protozoans.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Imidazoles: Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Compound Eye, Arthropod: Light sensory organ in ARTHROPODS consisting of a large number of ommatidia, each functioning as an independent photoreceptor unit.Molecular Docking Simulation: A computer simulation technique that is used to model the interaction between two molecules. Typically the docking simulation measures the interactions of a small molecule or ligand with a part of a larger molecule such as a protein.CinnamatesPyransVinyl CompoundsAmino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Mutagenicity Tests: Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.
... and reactant occurrence. The program also supports 3D modeling of individual molecules, as well as labeling of functional ... The program also notes regulated and unregulated compounds, and uses specialized algorithms that avoid these. It also gives the ... One can scale node sizes by molecular weight, product occurrence, ...
Like aragonite it is very frequently twinned, the compound crystals being pseudo-hexagonal in form. Three crystals are usually ... Crystals are of frequent occurrence and they usually have very bright and smooth faces. The mineral also occurs in compact ... twinned together on two faces of the prism, producing six-rayed stellate groups with the individual crystals intercrossing at ...
Individuals with Raine Syndrome were either homozygous or compound heterozygous for the mutation of FAM20C. Also observed have ... There are reports of recurrence in children born of the same parents, and an increased occurrence in children of closely ... Simpson et al.'s (2007) report states that to date, effected individuals have had chromosome 7 uniparental isodisomy and a 7p ...
Semenoff emphasized the occurrence in a magnetic field of an electronic Landau level precisely at the Dirac point. This level ... Earlier researchers tried to isolate graphene starting with intercalated compounds, producing very thin graphitic fragments ( ... and possibly even individual layers. An early, detailed study on few-layer graphite dates to 1962 when Boehm reported producing ... Before 2004 intercalated graphite compounds were studied under a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Researchers ...
In Canada, however, the overround for an individual match in Sport Select odds often exceeds 130%. To make matters worse for ... Another controversial frustration for PRO·LINE players in Atlantic Canada is the occurrence of Atlantic Lottery (ALC) 'capping ... bookies often pay bonuses for winning parlay bets to help offset the compounded vig. Sport Select does not. ... It does not offer betting on individual matches, partly because betting on a single sporting event is illegal under the ...
The spellings in the first table only apply to word-medial kana: word-initial occurrences of わ, い, う, え,and お were never ... For example, 学期 (gakki "semester") is spelled がくき (gakuki) in historical kana because the on'yomi of 学 used in this compound is ... they therefore will never apply to individual words. In historical kana, however, ぢ (and づ) were sometimes used where じ (or ず) ... In modern Japanese orthography, ぢ (di) is only used in compound words where rendaku causes ち (chi) to become voiced. This is ...
Inclusion compounds. *Organometallic chemistry deals with a special class of coordination compounds where organic fragments are ... Multiple occurring monodentate ligands receive a prefix according to the number of occurrences: di-, tri-, tetra-, penta-, or ... In bi- and polymetallic complexes, in which the individual centres have an odd number of electrons or that are high-spin, the ... Metal complexes, also known as coordination compounds, include all metal compounds, aside from metal vapors, plasmas, and ...
Six Sigma the tendency to replace every occurrence of "data" in compound managerial terminology with "information", see e.g. ... An internal sponsoring department or individual that gains influence due to the fad's implementation. Big words and complex ...
... pharmacies had been regulated by laws that were developed when they solely made custom prescriptions for individual ... truly legitimate/traditional compounding does not cease to be so merely by having a high frequency or occurrence - indeed, ... International Academy of Compounding Pharmacists International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding "Drug Compounding: FDA ... In 2011 the Pharmacy Board convened a Compounding Working Party to advise on revised compounding standards. Draft compounding ...
Occurrences are small, most containing fewer than 100 individuals. The plant grows on large rock outcrops in pockets of soil ... The leaves are compound, divided into leaflets. The nodding flowers have greenish white or lavender sepals up to 1.5 ... Many occurrences are within Medicine Bow National Forest, and the others are on land managed by the Bureau of Land Management ...
The occurrence of ionization depends on the energy of the individual particles or waves, and not on their number. An intense ... such as photochemical aging of varnishes or the breakdown of flavoring compounds in beer to produce the "lightstruck flavor". ...
Since 1997 between 192 and 374 individual plants have been observed on the site. Most of these individuals are seedlings or ... It has silvery white, pinnately compound leaves and flowers from June through October. The species was listed as endangered in ... Over the last century seven historical occurrences were known to exist. The species was extirpated from these sites and was ...
The leaves are compound, made up of up to 25 leaflets which may be folded. The flowers are purple, pinkish purple, or purple- ... Most occurrences are at 3600 to 4000 meters in elevation. It grows mainly on calcareous soils such as broken limestone. It may ... so what appear to be two separate plants may actually be one individual sprouting up twice. This underground stem has sometimes ...
... the subjective value associated with a gamble by an individual is that individual's statistical expectation of the valuations ... See under "External links". C. Lewin (1970). An early book on compound interest, Institute and Faculty of Actuaries See ... criterion which sets asset value as a function of the sizes of the expected payouts and the probabilities of their occurrence. ... Its history is correspondingly early: Richard Witt discusses compound interest in depth already in 1613, in his book " ...
Secondly, the juvenile individuals with FP might die before reaching adulthood. The tumours appear to be benign and can be ... First, the toxic compound lyngbyatoxin from the cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscule, and second the toxin okadaic acid - a ... but an association seems to exist between the distribution of especially the dinoflagellates and the occurrence of FP, and as ... As the tumours progress, individuals with large numbers of tumours may become anaemic, have a lack of proteins and iron, and in ...
Mosaicism is the occurrence of two or more cell lines with different genotypes within a single individual. It is different from ... Alkylating agents- Compounds that attach an alkyl group to the four bases. When an alkyl group is added to guanine, it can lead ... When an individual has inherited an abnormality it is usually present in all of their cells. However some mutations like DNA ... Base Analogs- Chemical compounds that are sufficiently similar in structure and chemistry to the nitrogenous bases of DNA, such ...
... fulviventris individuals are capable of distinguishing nestmates from non-nestmates through recognition of a range of compounds ... is negatively correlated with the occurrence of aggression. In other words, the longer it takes two bees to initiate aggressive ... Trigona fulviventris individuals have been observed to abstain from engaging in aggressive behaviors with individuals of other ... T. fulviventris individuals are among the largest of their genus, ranging in size from 5 to 6.5 millimeters in length. Trigona ...
The inflorescence is a compound umbel of several dense headlike clusters of flowers. Each individual flower has five sharp- ... There are 19 known occurrences of this plant, all within one Florida county. Eight are on protected land, such as the Lake ... Their status is not certain, but four of these occurrences are believed extirpated or on the verge of destruction. Remaining ... Germination also may be inhibited by the scrub rosemary, which produces allelopathic compounds. USFWS. Eryngium cuneifolium ...
This compound is ingested from the plants the beaver eats.[50]. Occurrence in whiskyEdit. Phenol is a measurable component in ... Injections of phenol were used as a means of individual execution by Germany during the Second World War.[45] It was originally ... Phenol is an aromatic organic compound with the molecular formula C6H5OH. It is a white crystalline solid that is volatile. The ... OccurrencesEdit. Phenol is a normal metabolic product, excreted in quantities up to 40 mg/L in human urine.[44] ...
An analogous compound, bismuth oxynitrate is used as a white pigment. References[edit]. *^ Anthony, John W.; Bideaux, Richard A ... Use and occurrence[edit]. It has been used in cosmetics since the days of ancient Egypt. It is part of the "pearly pigment ... Focusing on the coordination environment of the individual ions, the bismuth centers adopt a distorted square antiprismatic ... Bismuth oxychloride is an inorganic compound of bismuth with the formula BiOCl. It is a lustrous white solid used since ...
Individuals with the syndrome have platelet dysfunction. Since platelets are necessary for blood clotting, individuals will ... with a significantly higher occurrence in Puerto Ricans, with a prevalence of 1 in 1800. Many of the clinical research studies ... and storage of an abnormal fat-protein compound (lysosomal accumulation of ceroid lipofuscin). It is considered to affect ... If an individual receives one normal gene and one gene for the disorder, the person will be a carrier for the disease, but ...
Occurrence in land plants (embryophytes)[edit]. Occurrences in vascular plants[edit]. Phenolic compounds are mostly found in ... and may lead to isolation of individual compounds. The recovery of natural phenols from biomass residue is part of biorefining. ... Occurrences in mammals[edit]. In female elephants, the two compounds 3-ethyl phenol and 2-ethyl 4,5 dimethylphenol have been ... a naturally occurring compound found in sesame seeds Synthetic[edit]. Phenol. the parent compound, used as a disinfectant and ...
These compounds can have a significant impact on the neurobiology of exposed organisms. Some observed effects of exposure to ... The impact that these two metals will have is highly dependent upon the individual due to genetic variations. Mercury and lead ... 2003). "Ambient air quality and occurrence of multiple sclerosis relapse". Neuroepidemiology. 22 (1): 95-99. doi:10.1159/ ... Organohalogen compounds, such as dioxins, are commonly found in pesticides or created as by-products of pesticide manufacture ...
The occurrence of the two phonemes was generally unrelated to the nature of the corresponding Proto-Celtic vowel, which could ... Individual manuscripts may vary greatly from these guidelines. The Old Irish alphabet consists of the following eighteen ... from late compounding; from lengthening of short vowels before unlenited /m, N, L, R/, still in progress in Old Irish (compare ... and compound do·aig); dál "assembly" < *daθl (cf. Old Welsh datl). However, *θr, *βr, *βl survive: críathraid "he perforates ...
... individual factors and interactions between them are the sources of contributing and compounding events and conditions. ... to accident prevention is to reduce or mitigate the occurrence of human error by focusing on the contributing and compounding ... "the result of an imbalance between the demands placed upon an individual and the capacity of that individual to respond to the ... but the majority of dive accidents are caused by individual diver panic and an associated degradation of the individual diver's ...
Conifer is a Latin word, a compound of conus (cone) and ferre (to bear), meaning "the one that bears (a) cone(s)". ... Durzan and Steward noted that their results, drawn from determinations made in late summer, did not rule out the occurrence of ... the several scales of a cone develop into individual arils, giving the appearance of a cluster of berries. ... Ammonium nitrogen was shown to foster arginine and amides and lead to a large increase of free guanidine compounds, whereas in ...
Our goal was to investigate correlations as a function of individual... ... People vary widely in their sensitivities to bitter compounds, but the intercorrelation of these sensitivities is unknown. ... Belitz, H.-D., &Wieser, H. (1985). Bitter compounds: Occurrence and structure-activity relationships.Food Reviews International ... Covariation in individuals sensitivities to bitter compounds: Evidence supporting multiple receptor/transduction mechanisms. ...
Variability in radiocarbon ages of individual organic compounds from marine sediments. Science, 1997, 277: 796-799CrossRef ... Thus, the occurrence of 13C-enriched C25HBI could be an ideal marker for good source rocks. The decreased concentration of CO2 ... The occurrence and significance of C25HBI in Cenozoic saline lacustrine source rocks from the Western Qaidam Basin, NW China. ... Biomarker and compound-specific δ 13C evidence for changing environmental conditions and carbon limitation at Lake Koucha, ...
INDIVIDUAL SIGN IN. Sign In,Set Up Account You will be directed to acponline.org to register and create your Annals account ... THE NATURAL OCCURRENCE OF ANTITHYROID COMPOUNDS AS A CAUSE OF SIMPLE GOITER(THE NATURAL OCCURRENCE OF ANTITHYROID COMPOUNDS AS ... THE NATURAL OCCURRENCE OF ANTITHYROID COMPOUNDS AS A CAUSE OF SIMPLE GOITER(THE NATURAL OCCURRENCE OF ANTITHYROID COMPOUNDS AS ...
a. Occurrence, Detection and General Reactions. b. Synthesis. c. Biosynthesis. d. Individual Deoxy-Sugars. 5. Branched-Chain ... Rodds Chemistry of Carbon Compounds, Second Edition, Volume I: Aliphatic Compounds, Part F: Penta- and Higher Polyhydric ... a. Occurrence. b. General Properties and Reactions. c. Methods of Preparation. d. Individual Thio-Sugars. 7. Unsaturated ... Oligosaccharides, Polysaccharides and Related Compounds. 1. Oligosaccharides. 2. Disaccharides and Related Compounds. a. ...
The present invention relates to polymerizable compounds, to processes and intermediates for preparing them, and to their use ... where the individual radicals same or different at each occurrence. have different following meanings: each independently one ... the terms low molecular compound and unpolymerisable compound, usually monomeric, compounds having no functional group ... The content of these individual compounds is preferably in each case 2 to 20%. LC medium, wherein the proportion of compounds ...
Occurrence of Organic Wastewater Compounds in the Tinkers Creek Watershed and Two Other Tributaries to the Cuyahoga River, ... For a given sample matrix, individual compounds detected by more than one analytical method are included independently in ... Occurrence of Organic Wastewater Compounds in the Tinkers Creek Watershed and Two Other Tributaries to the Cuyahoga River, ... With the exception of hydrophobic compounds, it was common at most sites to have more compounds detected in samples collected ...
Every eligible individual including all adults aged 18 years and older with a valid home address had a nonzero probability of ... By intervening potential psychological issues, it might be able to prevent the occurrence of some asthma cases. Whereas among ... The comorbidity of depression and asthma could place a compounding financial burden in many nations health care systems; thus ... Normalized individual design weights were accounted for in all analyses to adjust for the multistage sampling design. The ...
Studies show that individuals who drink green tea has reduced occurrences of cardiovascular disease. ... Flavonoids, a type of polyphenolic compound, have antioxidant powers. This compound can be found copiously in berries - ... Of particular compound responsible for this is catechin. Together with its polyphenol content, green tea is effective in ... These compounds have shown to promote better blood flow to the heart and hold off artery hardening. ...
An account of the circumstances of the occurrence is given, together with the results of an investigation into the incidents. ... The clinical cases are described in outline and individual response to absorption of the pesticide considered. Some relevant ... issues on the use of protective clothing when working with organophosphorous compounds are discussed. ...
No obvious correlation could be found between the occurrence of individual halocarbons and chl a. On some occasions ... Volatile halogenated compounds were found to vary both with regions, and with daylight. For the iodinated compounds, the ... This is 2 orders of magnitude greater than the one for a similar compound 3, in which no dpa arm is attached to the tyrosine ... Two different routes for the synthesis of the compound 4 are presented. Its structure was fully characterized by 1H NMR, COSY, ...
The concentration of individual BTs is in the rank order of TBT , DBT , MBT (Table 1). Additionally, the mean ratio of the ... compounds, vietnam, area, hai, butyltin, three, occurrence, nang, saigon, phone, sediments, harbour, marina, bivalves. ... Occurrence of methylated tin and dimethyl mercury compounds in a mangrove core from Sepetiba Bay Brazil. pdf595 Кб ... Occurrence of butyltin compounds in marine sediments and bivalves from three harbour areas (Saigon Da Nang and Hai Phong) in ...
... and reactant occurrence. The program also supports 3D modeling of individual molecules, as well as labeling of functional ... The program also notes regulated and unregulated compounds, and uses specialized algorithms that avoid these. It also gives the ... One can scale node sizes by molecular weight, product occurrence, ...
These proportions are used to divide the average TTHM concentration into the concentration for the four individual compounds. ... Although there is sufficient occurrence data available for key THMs in large water systems to develop a national occurrence ... Assumptions are also made about the occurrence of TTHMs and the individual DBPs. EPA has derived a weighted average TTHM ... Occurrence data from an EPA DBF field study indicate that chloroform is the most common THM (in general, about 70 percent of ...
Like aragonite it is very frequently twinned, the compound crystals being pseudo-hexagonal in form. Three crystals are usually ... Crystals are of frequent occurrence and they usually have very bright and smooth faces. The mineral also occurs in compact ... twinned together on two faces of the prism, producing six-rayed stellate groups with the individual crystals intercrossing at ...
... compound heterozygous occurrences of rare non-synonymous HACE1 variants were only infrequently observed in control individuals ... In all affected individuals, hypotonia was noted either at birth or by 3-4 months of age, and there were delayed early motor ... The finding of individuals who are apparently null for HACE1 function is unexpected, because HACE1 has previously been ... In family A, originating from the Mirpur region of North-Eastern Pakistan and Kashmir (figure 1A), five individuals had an ...
Compounds. The only yttrium compound of commercial interest is yttrium oxide (Y2O3). Yttrium oxide is used to make phosphors ... In the end, the heavy black mineral found by Arrhenius resulted in the discovery of ten new elements! (See the individual ... Occurrence in nature. Yttrium is a moderately abundant element in the Earths crust. Its abundance is estimated to be about 28 ... But they are not simple compounds, like copper oxide (CuO) or yttrium oxide (Y203). Instead, they are complex mixtures of the ...
However, the increasing availability of substrate and inhibitor probes for the individual UGTs provides the prospect for ... and the occurrence of atypical glucuronidation kinetics. ... In vitro-in vivo correlation for drugs and other compounds ... environmental chemicals and endogenous compounds. Identification of the UGT(s) involved in the metabolism of a given compound ...
Northern populations contained the highest levels of desirable fragrance compounds, α- and β-santalol, as did individuals from ... northern and southeastern and semi-arid southwestern regions of West Australia for patterns in composition and co-occurrence of ... northern and southeastern and semi-arid southwestern regions of West Australia for patterns in composition and co-occurrence of ... Northern populations contained the highest levels of desirable fragrance compounds, α- and β-santalol, as did individuals from ...
... of monitoring data with sufficient scope and resolution to provide decision makers with a better understanding of occurrence ... the correlation of individual compounds with land use was investigated, and the relationship between neonicotinoid occurrence ... Factors influencing the occurrence and distribution of neonicotinoid insecticides in surface waters of southern Ontario, Canada ... Struger, J., Grabuski, J., Cagampan, S., Sverko, E., McGoldrick, D., & Marvin, C. H. (2017). Factors influencing the occurrence ...
For individuals, it has traditionally used a technique to determine what is called the maximally exposed individual (MEI) by ... In the analysis of animal bioassay data on the occurrence of multiple tumor types, the cancer potencies should be estimated for ... procedures to aggregate cancer risks from exposure to multiple compounds. ... Many types of variability enter into the risk-assessment process: variability within individuals, among individuals, and among ...
1. A compound of structural formula I: structural formula I: or pharmaceutically acceptable salts and individual enantiomers ... its definition on each occurrence is independent at every other occurrence. Also, combinations of substituents/or variables are ... 2. The compound according to claim 1 wherein -C(O)NR2R3 is attached to a carbon atom on A. 3. The compound according to claim 1 ... Many of the compounds of formula I have an IC50 of less than 200 nM. For example, the compounds below have IC50,250 nM in the " ...
Twelve organochlorine compounds of interest are presented as two insecticide groups, two individual insecticides, and one ... Occurrence of Selected Organochlorine Compounds in Fish Tissue from Eastern Iowa Streams, 1995. Introduction. Human activities ... Initial results are presented in this Fact Sheet on the occurrence of several organochlorine compounds in fish tissue from the ... Concentrations of Organochlorine Compounds. Concentrations of organochlorine compounds detected in fish tissue from many ...
... it follows that ASD and ADHD co-occurrence may compound the risk of further comorbidity. However, to our knowledge, whether ... Recently, researchers have explored the endophenotype of individuals with both ASD and ADHD. Whether these individuals are more ... The co-occurrence of autistic and ADHD dimensions in adults: an etiological study in 17,770 twins. Transl Psychiatry. 2014;4(9 ... CONCLUSIONS: Co-occurrence of ADHD is common in children with ASD. Children with both ASD and ADHD have an increased risk of ...
For individuals with a severe form of epilepsy, a new study finds that the occurrence of seizures could be significantly ... Cannabis compound may halve seizures for patients with severe epilepsy. Published Wednesday 19 April 2017 Published Wed 19 Apr ... Researchers from the Ohio State University found that individuals with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) who took cannabidiol every ... after finding that the cannabis compound more than halved atonic seizure frequency in patients with the condition. ...
  • The concentrations of all four compounds were combined and are presented as the total DDT concentration for each site. (usgs.gov)
  • The non-detection of these compounds indicates that their concentrations are reduced to levels less than analytical detection limits or that they are transformed to degradates through conventional DWT processes. (unl.edu)
  • Concentrations of OWCs detected in finished water generally were low and did not exceed Federal drinking-water standards or lifetime health advisories, although such standards or advisories have not been established for most of these compounds. (unl.edu)
  • Many compounds of anthropogenic as well as natural origin can contribute to the overall estrogenicity of surface waters and some of them can exhibit adverse effects on aquatic biota even in very low concentrations. (muni.cz)
  • This study focused on freshwater ponds and reservoirs affected by water blooms and determined the estrogenic activity of water by in vitro bioassay as well as concentrations of several important groups of estrogenic compounds (estrogenic hormones, alkylphenols, and phytoestrogens) by LC-MS/MS analyses. (muni.cz)
  • All concentrations of total PCBs (computed as the sum of the 18 reported PCB congeners) in the individual streambed-sediment samples were less than the threshold effect concentration, but the concentrations were elevated in the two sites on San Pedro Creek compared to concentrations at other sites. (usgs.gov)
  • Indeed, the gastric juice of patients with stomach cancer have been shown to have higher concentrations of both nitrates and compounds that can form introso compounds, compared to healthy individuals[ 1 ]. (wjgnet.com)
  • Although the concentrations of Geosmin are extremely low in the parts per trillion range (one square inch in 250 square miles), it is not uncommon for the average person to detect the presence of this compound at these extremely low concentrations. (cityofhenderson.com)
  • Although individual concentrations of anthropogenic OPs are in the order of pg/l to ng/l, the myriad co-occurrence of hundreds of thousands of these micropollutants can reach micromolar concentrations. (csic.es)
  • In groundwater, the median value of the summed concentrations of acetochlor, alachlor, and metolachlor was less than 0.05 μg/L, and the median value of the summed concentrations of the six metabolites was 1.2 μg/L. All surface water samples contained at least one detectable metabolite compound. (usgs.gov)
  • In surface water, the median value of the summed concentrations of the three parent compounds was 0.13 μg/L, and the median value of the summed concentrations of the six metabolites was 6.4 μg/L. These data demonstrate the importance of analyzing both parent compounds and metabolites to more fully understand the environmental fate and transport of herbicides in the hydrologic system. (usgs.gov)
  • Keywords TBT Copper Concentrations on boat hulls XRF-measurements Introduction The Baltic Sea is a polluted sea with many hazardous sub- One of the substances of high concern is the occurrence stances at elevated levels in both water, sediment, and biota. (deepdyve.com)
  • Measured concentrations and mass flows of phenolic endocrine disruptors, particularly nonylphenolic compounds, bisphenol A and parabens in municipal wastewater effluents and in the Glatt River, Switzerland, show that rain events leading to discharges of untreated wastewater into rivers have a great impact on the riverine mass flows of contaminants. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Two examples are presented and briefly discussed: (1) timing of peak concentrations for individual compounds varied greatly across this geographic gradient because of different application periods and the effects of local rain patterns, irrigation, and soil drainage and (2) reconstructions of continuous diazinon concentrations at sites in California are used to evaluate compliance with total maximum daily load targets. (altmetric.com)
  • Four separate laboratory methods were used to analyze for 32 antibiotic, 20 pharmaceutical, 57 to 66 wastewater, and 33 hydrophobic compounds. (usgs.gov)
  • A total of 12 antibiotic, 20 pharmaceutical, 41 wastewater, and 22 hydrophobic compounds were detected in water at one or more sites. (usgs.gov)
  • This was particularly true for antibiotic, pharmaceutical, and wastewater compounds in water. (usgs.gov)
  • Continuous progress in the development of analytical techniques is crucial to understand how these alkylphenolic compounds behave in wastewater treatment, the aquatic environment and in laboratory experiments. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In the context of this report, OWCs refer to a wide range of compounds such as antibiotics, prescription and nonprescription pharmaceuticals, personal-care products, household and industrial compounds (for example, antimicrobials, fragrances, surfactants, fire retardants, and so forth) and a variety of other chemicals. (usgs.gov)
  • exp skull fractures OR skull fracture$.mp} OR {(exp fractures, open OR compound fracture$.mp OR depressed fracture$.mp) AND (exp skull OR skull$.mp OR cranium$.mp OR calvarium$.mp)} AND {exp antibiotics OR antibiotic$.mp OR exp penicillin OR penicillin$.mp OR benzylpenicillin.mp OR exp metronidazole OR metronidazole.mp OR flagyl.mp}] LIMIT to human AND English language. (bestbets.org)
  • The group designated (other combinations) was made up of patients on a variety of antibiotics, the number on each antibiotic being too small for individual analysis. (bestbets.org)
  • When it was determined by several government and volunteer agencies that the whales needed medical attention, Grandpa's Compounding Pharmacy was contacted to compound antibiotics in large quantities to save these misguided sea occupants. (ijpc.com)
  • Veterinary ionophore antibiotics (IPAs) are polyether compounds used extensively in the livestock industry to promote animal growth and prevent coccidia infection. (jove.com)
  • 5,7 This then prompted questions about how adaptive and maladaptive pathways differed in individuals who experienced adversity, and generated pathway models (from the 1990s onwards). (scielo.org.za)
  • A major area of expertise is the analysis of emerging contaminants by gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, which provides a foundation for assessing their occurrence, exposure pathways, and impacts. (usgs.gov)
  • Whereas the perceived and actual risks of trace levels of pharmaceuticals in drinking water is a topic of ongoing discussion, this review concentrates on the sources and pathways of water contamination in the U.S. to assess our understanding of the occurrence of pharmaceuticals in U.S. drinking water, and to identify opportunities for pollution control. (mdpi.com)
  • They are also going to monitor the individuals included in their study to determine whether a direct connection exists between exposure to these substances and the occurrence of heart attacks and strokes in humans. (uu.se)
  • Probably other compounds or possible interactions between individual substances cause the estrogenic activity in these types of water bodies and in this case, the results of LC-MS/MS analyses cannot sufficiently predict the biological effects. (muni.cz)
  • People vary widely in their sensitivities to bitter compounds, but the intercorrelation of these sensitivities is unknown. (springer.com)
  • Our goal was to investigate correlations as a function of individual sensitivities to several bitter compounds representative of different chemical classes and, from these correlations, infer the number and variety of potential bitterness transduction systems for these compounds. (springer.com)
  • Therefore, there are also subjects who possess diminished absolute sensitivity to bitter stimuli but do not differ from other subjects in their relative sensitivities to these compounds. (springer.com)
  • We've talked about dietary triggers, environmental triggers, gut microbial triggers, and now we are going to talk about infection in the oral cavity and in the sinuses-other resident places in the body where a smoldering activation of the immune system can occur that alters the functional status of the neuroendocrine immune system that then spreads itself through unique susceptibilities or sensitivities into differing diseases in differing individuals. (jeffreybland.com)
  • This construct that a factor in the environment could spread itself through different susceptibilities or sensitivities into different expressed diseases in differing individuals is a very different model than that of, for instance, bacterially induced disease, where we say a specific bacterium, such as a pneumococcus bacterium, produces a specific disease called pneumonia, for which a specific molecule is there to treat it (that would be, say, an antibiotic like penicillin). (jeffreybland.com)
  • In chronic disease, it would appear as if the "bug" (in the previous example, the bacteria), is related to its environment, which is related to the susceptibilities or sensitivities of the individual, and ultimately, then, it spreads itself into a myriad of potential diseases, not just one disease. (jeffreybland.com)
  • Although medical approaches and therapies differ considerably because of differing beliefs about MCS by physicians, all individuals who report suffering from chemical sensitivities should receive a competent, complete medical evaluation and compassionate, understanding care. (health.gov)
  • Researchers from the Ohio State University found that individuals with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) who took cannabidiol every day for 14 weeks saw the frequency of atonic seizures fall by more than 50 percent. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • However, the new study from Dr. Patel and colleagues suggests that cannabidiol may be a promising treatment strategy for LGS, after finding that the cannabis compound more than halved atonic seizure frequency in patients with the condition. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A method and system for compiling attribute combinations are presented in which expanded attribute profiles associated with a group of query-attribute-positive individuals and expanded attribute profiles associated with a group of query-attribute-negative individuals are accessed, and combinations of attributes having a higher frequency of occurrence in the set of expanded attribute profiles associated with the group of query-attribute-positive individuals are identified. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Geosmin is a harmless compound produced by some species of algae in source water and the frequency of occurrence for these types of events is known to increase during droughts. (cityofhenderson.com)
  • The optimal amount of the drug and the frequency of administration must be determined for each patient, since dosage requirements have been found to vary with clinical circumstances as well as with individual response to the drug. (intekom.com)
  • Recovery experiments were performed, showing losses of the most volatile compounds during extraction and extract concentration as well as strong signal enhancement for FOSEs due to matrix effects. (jove.com)
  • Topics included: toxic volatile compounds of fungi, the occurrence of aflatoxin (1402682) in workplace aerosols, the occurrence of mycotoxins in fungal spores, the effects of mycotoxins in the lung, and the needs of future research. (cdc.gov)
  • 2. The computer based method of claim 1, wherein storing the identified attribute combinations further comprises storing the frequencies of occurrence of the identified attribute combinations for the set of expanded attribute profiles associated with the group of query-attribute-positive individuals and for the set of expanded attribute profiles associated with the group of query-attribute-negative individuals. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 3. The computer based method of claim 2 further comprising: f) storing statistical results, generated based on the frequencies of occurrence, which indicate the strength of association of each of the identified attribute combinations with the query attribute. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The predictions are generated based on a first set of attributes associated with the individual and a second set of attribute combinations. (google.es)
  • e) generating, based on the identified attribute combinations and the statistical results, one or more statistical predictions indicating the potential association between the individual and the query attribute. (google.es)
  • A method and system for computer based destiny modification are presented in which a set of attributes associated with an individual is compared against attribute combinations that are statistically associated with a query attribute, the query attribute representing an attribute which may desirable for. (google.es)
  • A method and system for computer based destiny modification are presented in which a set of attributes associated with an individual is compared against attribute combinations that are statistically associated with a query attribute, the query attribute representing an attribute which may desirable for the individual to have, or which may be undesirable for the individual have. (google.es)
  • ii) identifying attribute combinations in the second set that contain the largest attribute combination, to indicate attributes that can be added to the first set to modify the individuals potential for association with the query attribute. (google.es)
  • Based on the comparison, changes to the set of attributes associated with the individual are indicated and can then be implemented to increase/decrease the potential of the individual to acquire (an association with) the query attribute. (google.es)
  • Origin and diagenetic transformations of C 25 and C 30 highly branched isoprenoid sulphur compounds: Further evidence for the formation of organically bound sulphur during early diagenesis. (springer.com)
  • present evidence for the development and implementation of carnisonol, a compound that is biologically stable in vivo and shows impressive effects on improving metabolism and inflammation in rodent models of diet-induced obesity and metabolic dysfunction. (jci.org)
  • There is very little evidence in value of giving antibiotic in depressed compound skull fracture. (bestbets.org)
  • Marine microbiomes play a major role in the breakdown and remineralization of some ADOC compounds, thus determining their fate in seawater while using them as nutritional source. (csic.es)
  • Eight (62%) of the 13 workers who reported two or more symptoms associated hair care products with symptom occurrence. (cdc.gov)
  • 70%) and the occurrence of non-core symptoms (53%) [1, (Tables 1 and 2). (termedia.pl)
  • Some individuals notice that flu-like symptoms (dizzy, irritable, tired, burning eyes) disappear when they are away from the building for a day or two but return when they come back to work, or even their own home. (gerson.org)
  • Since then, physicians have noted that constipation is one of the most common symptoms of Parkinson's, appearing in around half the individuals diagnosed with the condition and often preceding the onset of movement-related impairments. (scientificamerican.com)
  • POCIS extracts also were analyzed by the antibiotic method, and SPMD extracts were analyzed by the hydrophobic-compound method. (usgs.gov)
  • Analytes associated with a given laboratory method are referred to in aggregate by the method name (for example, antibiotic-method analytes are referred to as "antibiotic compounds") even though some analytes associated with the method may not be strictly classified as such. (usgs.gov)
  • Also, the total numbers of compounds detected in water and sediment at the reference sites were less than the total numbers of compounds detected at sites in the Tinkers Creek watershed. (usgs.gov)
  • Samples were analyzed for 28 organochlorine compounds by the USGS National Water Quality Laboratory in Arvada, Colorado. (usgs.gov)
  • The occurrence in drinking-water supplies of many of the OWCs analyzed for during this study is unregulated and most of these compounds have not been routinely monitored for in the Nation's source- or potable-water supplies. (unl.edu)
  • This study provides the first documentation that many of these compounds can survive conventional water-treatment processes and occur in potable-water supplies. (unl.edu)
  • Stagnant water bodies have generally received little attention regarding the presence of endocrine disruptive compounds, although they can integrate diverse pollutants from multiple different sources. (muni.cz)
  • There does not seem to be any general causal link of the massive phytoplankton occurrence with the estrogenicity of water or concentration of phytoestrogens, since they showed no direct relationship with the phytoplankton abundance or composition across sites. (muni.cz)
  • Most individuals will notice the earthy/musty odor more predominately in their hot water supply. (cityofhenderson.com)
  • The pomegranate contains a mixture of fat soluble and water soluble compounds - these two components both have positive but different health benefits. (mrsupplement.com.au)
  • Cumulative arsenic index for each individual was then estimated on the basis of age, water consumption, and location of residence. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Individuals and water samples were collected monthly from November 2001 to December 2002, when salinity, temperature, and total and organic particulate matter concentration were also recorded in the water column. (bioone.org)
  • The known occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the built and natural water environment, including in drinking water supplies, continues to raise concerns over inadvertent exposures and associated potential health risks in humans and aquatic organisms. (mdpi.com)
  • This review examines the occurrence and movement of pharmaceuticals in the built and natural water environment, with special emphasis on contamination of the drinking water supply, and opportunities for sustainable pollution control. (mdpi.com)
  • By examining individual differences, ratings and rankings could be grouped into two general clusters-urea/phenylalanine/tryptophan/epicatechin, and quinine/caffeine/SOA/denatonium benzoate/tetralone/magnesium sulfate-none of which contained PROP. When subjects were grouped into the extremes of sensitivity to PROP, a significant difference was found in the bitterness ratings, but not in the rankings. (springer.com)
  • However, there is substantial genetic variability in the activity of the responsible hepatic enzyme, CYP2D6 , and, as a consequence, individual patient response to codeine varies from no effect to high sensitivity. (aappublications.org)
  • Patients with documented or suspected obstructive sleep apnea appear to be at particular risk because of opioid sensitivity, compounding the danger among rapid metabolizers in this group. (aappublications.org)
  • of these, only one has FDA approval, and all available assays have poor sensitivity in correctly classifying an individual with the disease. (discovermagazine.com)
  • This strategy employs synthetic photoswitch compounds that attach covalently to genetically-specified channel or receptor proteins. (berkeley.edu)
  • By controlling the activity of individual subtypes in the brain with high spatial, temporal and biochemical precision, we are learning what each channel and receptor "does for a living" in the brain. (berkeley.edu)
  • Thus, VR1 antagonists are useful compounds to unravel the contribution of this receptor to pain perception, as well as to induce analgesia. (pnas.org)
  • These compounds appear to be noncompetitive VR1 antagonists that recognize a receptor site distinct from that of capsaicin. (pnas.org)
  • Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are neurodevelopmental disorders that begin during childhood with long-term clinical and social implications for affected individuals, their families, and the community. (aappublications.org)
  • There has subsequently been increased interest in understanding the etiology and clinical implications of their co-occurrence. (aappublications.org)
  • In-depth genetic and clinical analysis revealed a co-occurrence of a mutant CNGA3 allele in a high proportion of these patients (10 of 16), likely contributing to the disease phenotype. (jci.org)
  • All available demographic, clinical and autopsy data were collected for each individual. (mja.com.au)
  • Pollutants such as benzene from cigarette smoke, copy machine fumes, cleaning compounds, paints and formaldehyde from carpeting, drapes and particle board in furniture can create a condition called "sick building syndrome. (gerson.org)
  • Interestingly, there are many plants that are capable of filtering these common air pollutants and can reduce the occurrence of "sick building syndrome. (gerson.org)
  • The widespread use of neonicotinoid insecticides and recent increased regulatory scrutiny requires the generation of monitoring data with sufficient scope and resolution to provide decision makers with a better understanding of occurrence and distribution in the environment. (mendeley.com)
  • Twelve organochlorine compounds of interest are presented as two insecticide groups, two individual insecticides, and one industrial chemical. (usgs.gov)
  • The present invention relates to polymerizable compounds, to processes and intermediates for preparing them, and to their use for optical, electro-optical and electronic purposes, more particularly in liquid-crystal (LC) media and LC displays, especially in LC displays of the PS or PSA ('polymer sustained' or 'polymer sustained alignment') type. (google.com)
  • This is easier the more slowly and continuously the psychical processes occur, so that the word feeling has come to be used mainly for relatively slow processes and for those which in their regular form of occurence never pass beyond a certain medium intensity, such as the feelings of rhythm. (yorku.ca)
  • The total concentration of the butyltin compounds (BTs) in sediment from shipyards and vessel repair yards (Nam Trieu, Song Cam, Lach Tray and Ba Son) were always higher than those measured in cargo ports (Hai Phong, Da Nang, and Sai Gon). (docme.ru)
  • This publication contains a history and description of the mercury industry in every State which has had production and individual descriptions of all mercury properties which have reported significant production. (cdc.gov)
  • Accompanying tables give the important facts about all known mercury occurrences. (cdc.gov)
  • Recently, researchers have explored the endophenotype of individuals with both ASD and ADHD. (aappublications.org)
  • Researchers at Baylor University presented the results of a study of the emergence of Chagas disease in Texas which demonstrate not only a surprisingly high incidence of the parasite in the state of Texas, but also showing elevated rates of associated heart disease in afflicted individuals. (discovermagazine.com)
  • These researchers are now going on to study how these compounds affect atherosclerosis in experimental models. (uu.se)
  • Recently, various organizations and regulatory bodies, including the World Health Organization, the US Food and Drug Administration, and the European Medicines Agency, have promulgated stern warnings regarding the occurrence of adverse effects of codeine in children. (aappublications.org)
  • Drug surveillance has documented the occurrence of unanticipated respiratory depression and death after receiving codeine in children, many of whom have been shown to be ultrarapid metabolizers. (aappublications.org)
  • What emerged was a list of protective factors (i.e. attributes of an individual that could result in better outcomes under high levels of adversity) supporting resilience. (scielo.org.za)
  • For a given sample matrix, individual compounds detected by more than one analytical method are included independently in counts for each method. (usgs.gov)
  • Sensitive and selective determination was performed using gas chromatography/chemical ionisation-mass spectrometry (GC/CI-MS). Five mass-labelled internal standard (IS) compounds were applied to ensure the accuracy of the analytical results. (jove.com)
  • However, health effects of these compounds depend on their bioavailability and, therefore, it is important to understand how they are absorbed, metabolized, and eliminated from the body, in order to ascertain their in vivo actions. (hindawi.com)