A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.
Health Care Costs
The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.
Cost of Illness
The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.
Costs and Cost Analysis
Employer Health Costs
The containment, regulation, or restraint of costs. Costs are said to be contained when the value of resources committed to an activity is not considered excessive. This determination is frequently subjective and dependent upon the specific geographic area of the activity being measured. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
The expenses incurred by a hospital in providing care. The hospital costs attributed to a particular patient care episode include the direct costs plus an appropriate proportion of the overhead for administration, personnel, building maintenance, equipment, etc. Hospital costs are one of the factors which determine HOSPITAL CHARGES (the price the hospital sets for its services).
Quality-Adjusted Life Years
Economic aspects of the fields of pharmacy and pharmacology as they apply to the development and study of medical economics in rational drug therapy and the impact of pharmaceuticals on the cost of medical care. Pharmaceutical economics also includes the economic considerations of the pharmaceutical care delivery system and in drug prescribing, particularly of cost-benefit values. (From J Res Pharm Econ 1989;1(1); PharmacoEcon 1992;1(1))
Provisions of an insurance policy that require the insured to pay some portion of covered expenses. Several forms of sharing are in use, e.g., deductibles, coinsurance, and copayments. Cost sharing does not refer to or include amounts paid in premiums for the coverage. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Managed Care Programs
Health insurance plans intended to reduce unnecessary health care costs through a variety of mechanisms, including: economic incentives for physicians and patients to select less costly forms of care; programs for reviewing the medical necessity of specific services; increased beneficiary cost sharing; controls on inpatient admissions and lengths of stay; the establishment of cost-sharing incentives for outpatient surgery; selective contracting with health care providers; and the intensive management of high-cost health care cases. The programs may be provided in a variety of settings, such as HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS and PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATIONS.
Quality of Life
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Severity of Illness Index
A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.
Decision Support Techniques
An autoimmune disorder mainly affecting young adults and characterized by destruction of myelin in the central nervous system. Pathologic findings include multiple sharply demarcated areas of demyelination throughout the white matter of the central nervous system. Clinical manifestations include visual loss, extra-ocular movement disorders, paresthesias, loss of sensation, weakness, dysarthria, spasticity, ataxia, and bladder dysfunction. The usual pattern is one of recurrent attacks followed by partial recovery (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, RELAPSING-REMITTING), but acute fulminating and chronic progressive forms (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, CHRONIC PROGRESSIVE) also occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p903)
Sensitivity and Specificity
Health Services Accessibility
Conservation of Natural Resources
Insurance Claim Review
Review of claims by insurance companies to determine liability and amount of payment for various services. The review may also include determination of eligibility of the claimant or beneficiary or of the provider of the benefit; determination that the benefit is covered or not payable under another policy; or determination that the service was necessary and of reasonable cost and quality.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Health Services Research
The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Practice Guidelines as Topic
Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
... indirect costs are more so. For someone born in 2000, a U.S. study estimated an average discounted lifetime cost of $4.39 ... In some cases, the extra cost required to educate a child with autism nearly doubles the average cost to educate the average ... HBOT can cost up to $150 per hour with individuals using anywhere from 40 to 120 hours as a part of their integrated treatment ... In the United States, it can cost between $6595 to $10,421 extra to educate a child with autism. In the 2011-2012 school year, ...
Wilde, Lynn (February 15, 2006). "Moving has direct, indirect costs". The Signpost. pp. 5, 7. Retrieved February 29, 2020. ... The university had opted to demolish the 44-year-old facility due to increasing upkeep costs and the building not meeting ...
Claremont is funding GLI's indirect costs. Although the transfer took effect on January 2, 2010, the 2010 MLI was held at the ...
Mervis, Jeffrey (August 18, 1991). "Kennedy Resigns As Indirect Costs Controversy Mounts". The Scientist. Retrieved April 22, ... Maher, Brent D. (February 2019). "Technically Allowed: Federal Scrutiny of Stanford University's Indirect Cost Expenditures and ... over whether the university improperly billed the government for research expense as part of the Stanford Indirect Costs ... "Stanford, government agree to settle dispute over research costs". Stanford University. Retrieved June 30, 2019. Kennedy, ...
Sports injuries have direct and indirect costs. The direct costs are usually calculated by taking into account the cost of ... Indirect costs may be taken into account as well, when an injury prevents an individual from returning to work it may hinder ... For high school athletics, the yearly estimated cost of sport injuries ranges from $5.4 billion to $19.2 billion. Medical costs ... "The steep economic cost of contact sports injuries". PBS NewsHour. 2017-10-20. Retrieved 2018-12-05. "Injuries and health care ...
Diffusion of innovations
Costs may be monetary or nonmonetary, direct or indirect. Direct costs are usually related to financial uncertainty and the ... Indirect costs are more difficult to identify. An example would be the need to buy a new kind of pesticide to use innovative ... Indirect costs may also be social, such as social conflict caused by innovation. Marketers are particularly interested in the ... costs. Public consequences comprise the impact of an innovation on those other than the actor, while private consequences refer ...
Diffusion of innovations
Costs may be monetary or nonmonetary, direct or indirect. Direct costs are usually related to financial uncertainty and the ... Indirect costs are more difficult to identify. An example would be the need to buy a new kind of pesticide to use innovative ... Indirect costs may also be social, such as social conflict caused by innovation. Marketers are particularly interested in ... Benefits versus costs. Benefits of an innovation obviously are the positive consequences, while the costs are the ...
... has indirect costs too, including emigration. Young people leave their countries in hope to find employment ... The higher pay of larger firms, in addition to the costs of employment (such as transport or housing costs), make it almost ... "In Britain a report by the London School of Economics (LSE), the Royal Bank of Scotland and the Prince's Trust puts the cost of ... Toynbee, Polly (2 July 2012). "This lost generation will cost us more than the cuts save". The Guardian. London. Archived from ...
Long-term effects of alcohol
Indirect costs due to alcohol dependence are significant. The biggest indirect cost comes from lost productivity, followed by ... Direct costs are estimated through prevalence and incidence studies, while indirect costs are estimated through the human ... The economic burden such as direct, indirect, and intangible cost of diseases can be estimated through cost-of-illness studies ... Premature mortality is another large contributor to indirect costs of alcohol dependence. In 2004, 3.8% of global deaths were ...
Likewise important are indirect costs of revealing strategic information. On one hand, this allows firms access to their ... Besides these costs, there are so-called incentive effects. If the incentive for the sender is based on the results of ( ... Increasing transparency has many benefits as already stated, but also many costs. The expenses on the supplier's/sender's side ... Another example are privacy or integrity costs to the sender. Information like a genetic predisposition for a disease or ...
It generally applies to indirect labor and indirect cost. Overhead also includes all costs involved in manufacturing with the ... Factory overhead, also called manufacturing overhead or work overhead, or factory burden in American English, is the total cost ... exception of the cost of raw materials. A dictionary of business and management (5th ed.). Oxford [England]: Oxford University ...
Youth and disability
Indirect costs include reductions in parents' ability to work because of additional time that is required to care for a child ... Their families also incur extra direct and indirect costs.. Families with disabled yout spend money on health ... These costs alone can decrease the financial stability of a family. Having a child with disabilities increases the likelihood ... The IDEA also authorized federal grants to states to cover some of the costs of special education services for youth aged three ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Bogart, Ernest Ludlow (1920). Direct and Indirect Costs of the Great World War. Oxford ... During the 1920s and 1930s, dozens of books and articles appeared about the high cost of war, and some argued that financiers ...
... indirect costs have more impact on their activities than direct costs. With respect to indirect costs, although there is a ... Within these costs, 64.4% are direct, representing US$167.4 million. 35.6% of the remaining costs are indirect, and represent ... Indirect costs include, "[...] the loss of human capital for the duration of the detention and for the death of the kidnapped ... These costs are equivalent to 1.71% of the total INVÍAS budget for 2003. For 2004, costs for damages to the road infrastructure ...
Sexual coercion among animals
Indirect costs are those that affect females in the future. One such cost happens because sexual coercion does not allow ... This can happen when they decide that the cost of resisting would be greater than the cost of mating. They use submission to ... Another ultimate cost comes from when males commit infanticide to obtain mating access. This loss of offspring leads to a ... A major direct cost of sexual coercion is physical injury. Male seed beetles (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) have sclerotized spine on ...
Cerebrovascular diseases in Australia
Total productivity costs of stroke were $2.987 billion and total indirect financial costs were $4.098 billion. Total financial ... Stroke also contributed to major indirect financial costs in Australia. In 2012, the cost of lost earnings due to decreased ... In 2012, the cost of lost earnings due to decreased employment of working age stroke survivors was A$975 million and the cost ... Other groups of individuals such as carers, employers, the Australian Government and the rest of society also bear costs ...
Both direct and indirect costs impact society and the economy. People can pass their epigenetic marks including de-myelinated ... Some costs are straightforward and directly related to maltreatment, such as hospital costs for medical treatment of injuries ... "The Estimated Annual Cost of Child Abuse and Neglect". Prevent Child Abuse America. Fox M (2 May 2016). "Poor Parenting Can Be ... Other costs, less directly tied to the incidence of abuse, include lower academic achievement, adult criminality, and lifelong ...
1940 South Carolina hurricane
Damage and Indirect Costs". North Carolina Geological Survey. Archived from the original on August 2, 2008. Retrieved June 19, ...
1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens
There were also indirect and intangible costs of the eruption. Unemployment in the immediate region of Mount St. Helens rose ... The ash removal cost $2.2 million and took 10 weeks in Yakima. The need to remove ash quickly from transport routes and civil ... When combined with the four indirect victims mentioned earlier, those numbers range from 59 to 64. The ash fall created some ... The resulting 13-foot (4.0 m) river depth temporarily closed the busy channel to ocean-going freighters, costing Portland, ...
Grants also include funding to support indirect and overhead costs. To promote sustainability, grant applicants will be ... The Foundation supported the subscription costs of the Tropical Diseases Bulletin and the Abstracts of Hygiene so they could be ... In addition, the Foundation supported the cost of subscriptions to some professional journals so that they could be distributed ... For example, since 1998 it has contributed to the production costs of the Commonwealth Forestry Association's newsletter and ...
There are indirect and direct costs associated with needlestick injuries. The US Government Accountability Office (GAO) ... Costs of needlestick injuries include prophylaxis, wages and time lost by workers, quality of life, emotional distress, costs ... Though they are more expensive than sharp-tipped needles, this cost is balanced by the reduction in injuries, which are ... The American Hospital Association found that a case of infection by blood-borne pathogens could cost $1 million for testing, ...
Medical technology assessment
"The friction cost method for measuring indirect costs of disease." Journal of health economics 14, no. 2 (1995): 171-189. ... and the estimation of indirect medical costs. Vallejo-Torres L, Steuten LM, Buxton MJ, Girling AJ, Lilford RJ, Young T. ... "Costs, effects and c/e‐ratios alongside a clinical trial." Health economics 3, no. 5 (1994): 309-319. Koopmanschap, Marc A., ... Examples of the work if iMTA include the development of the widely used cost-effectiveness acceptability curves (CEACs), the ...
"Indirect genetic benefits in a spider with direct costs of mating". Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 61: 31-38. doi:10.1007 ... The cost of inbreeding is low, and females show no avoidance to this behaviour. Since inbreeding does occur, but at low rates, ... Polyandry can occur if the benefits of mating more than once are greater than the costs. It can also occur if males force ... Mature females release a pheromone to reduce their attractiveness towards males due to the high costs of re-mating for the egg ...
2006 Lebanon War
... in direct and indirect costs, while the cost for Israel was estimated at US$3.5 billion. Indirect costs to Israel include a cut ... "Factbox - Costs of war and recovery in Lebanon and Israel". Reuters. 9 July 2007. Archived from the original on 6 March 2009. ... The UN estimated the cost for the initial clean-up at $64 million. Hezbollah rocket attacks caused numerous forest fires inside ... Julian Borger (15 August 2006). "Lebanon war cost Israel $1.6bn". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 13 May ...
2018-2019 United States federal government shutdown
The Congressional Budget Office estimated the shutdown cost the American economy at least $11 billion USD, excluding indirect ... the CBO estimate excluded indirect costs that were difficult to quantify. The furloughing of 145,000 federal workers and ... Because of this, my income has been severely cut and I am unable to pay the entire cost of my mortgage, along with my other ... Budgets were watched carefully to be able to pay public defenders, DNA testing, informants, and travel costs to interview ...
Bogart, Ernest Ludlow (1919). David Kinley (ed.). Direct and Indirect Costs of the Great World War (2nd ed.). Vancouver: Oxford ... The Reich government did not want to present any perceived form of public referendum on the war, which would be the indirect ... Approximately half of the Canadian war cost was covered by War Savings Certificates and war bonds known as "Victory Bonds" as ... According to the Massachusetts Historical Society, "Because the first World War cost the federal government more than $30 ...
Indirect impacts include increased costs to combat and control the disease. Methods of combating and controlling the disease ... In addition to the costs mentioned above, additional costs include research and development costs in producing resistant ... of the total cost of production. For smallholder farmers this can be cost-prohibitive. Copper-based fungicides such as Bordeaux ... The use of chemicals must first and fore-most make economic sense and the cost of their use can be as much as 50% ...
Missile approach warning system
Procuring EW self-protection systems has direct and indirect cost implications. Direct costs involve the initial price of the ... Installing and integrating EW systems on aircraft is another direct cost Indirect cost on the other hand involves degradation ... The overall cost effectiveness of systems i.e. price versus performance is more important in deciding which system to select. ... Low life cycle cost. Disadvantages To detect approaching missiles, the rocket motor of the missile must be burning - it ...
Porter's generic strategies
The second dimension is achieving low direct and indirect operating costs. This is achieved by offering high volumes of ... big airlines started to offer the same low-cost attributes, and so cost focus became cost leadership! A cost leadership ... Small businesses can be "cost focused" not "cost leaders" if they enjoy any advantages conducive to low costs. For example, a ... Some commentators have made a distinction between cost leadership, that is, low cost strategies, and best cost strategies. They ...
Overheads are often related to accounting concepts such as fixed costs and indirect costs. Overhead expenses are all costs on ... Activity-based costing (ABC) aims to reduce the proportion of costs treated as overheads by allocating costs to each activity ... Also, since these costs do not necessarily contribute directly to sales, they are considered as indirect overheads. Although in ... "Capitalization Period of Direct and Indirect Costs". www.irs.gov. Retrieved 2015-11-01. Jaffe, Lionel F.; Gursky, Herbert; Guze ...
Estimating the Indirect Costs of Teaching | RAND
Medicares Prospective Payment System pays teaching hospitals using a regression coefficient in a log-log cost function. ... Estimating the Indirect Costs of Teaching. by Jeannette Rogowski, Joseph P. Newhouse ... Rogowski, Jeannette and Joseph P. Newhouse, Estimating the Indirect Costs of Teaching, Journal of Health Economics, RP-166, ... Rogowski, Jeannette and Joseph P. Newhouse, Estimating the Indirect Costs of Teaching. Journal of Health Economics, 2004. https ...
Direct and Indirect Costs of Arthritis and Other Rheumatic Conditions --- United States, 1997
Indirect cost estimates were generated for respondents aged 18--64 years. Direct and indirect costs for arthritis for each ... synthetic state cost estimates were generated from national cost data. Second, national direct and indirect cost estimates were ... Direct cost analyses modeled probability and magnitude of health-care expenditures; indirect cost analyses modeled probability ... To estimate AORC costs reliably, CDC generated national cost estimates from statistical models that controlled for costs ...
Indirect Cost Recovery and Distribution - Policy Library
Distribution of Indirect Costs. Beginning January 1, 2015, portion of indirect costs recovered from external grants will be set ... If the funded project budget includes indirect costs, portions of the recovered indirect costs will be returned to the ... Marys University collects indirect costs (Facilities and Administrative costs) following the most recently negotiated Federal ... In furtherance of this effort, the University will allocate a percentage of indirect costs (Facilities and Administrative costs ...
Indirect costs - Wikipedia
Indirect costs related to transport Administration cost Selling & distribution cost Office cost Security cost Shipping and ... Most cost estimates are broken down into direct costs and indirect costs. Direct costs are directly attributable to the object ... There are two types of indirect costs. One are the fixed indirect costs which contains activities or costs that are fixed for a ... Indirect costs may be either fixed or variable. Indirect costs include administration, personnel and security costs. These are ...
Improving Indirect Cost Recovery | Bridgespan
Project grants are typically "priced" at direct costs plus indirect costs and most funders cap indirect costs with flat rate ... Additional resources on indirect cost recovery. Bridgespan resources *Pay-What-It-Takes Philanthropy, Stanford Social ... In 2016, Bridgespans Pay-What-It-Takes Philanthropy analyzed the true indirect cost of 20 high-performing nonprofits, ... Barriers to Change: Phase one report, Real Cost Project, Philanthropy CA Full Cost Project (2015) ...
The Indirect Cost of War on Africa's economies | Voice of America - English
On Saturday Rebecca Peters, the director of IANSA gave us a breakdown of the direct cost of wars in the Liberia and Sierra ... The Indirect Cost of War on Africas economies November 01, 2009 06:29 AM ... Today she tells us about the indirect impact of war on the economies and of lives in Africa in general, as well as, how the ... On Saturday Rebecca Peters, the director of IANSA gave us a breakdown of the direct cost of wars in the Liberia and Sierra ...
Update: Direct and Indirect Costs of Arthritis and Other Rheumatic Conditions --- United States, 1997
... direct costs plus $35.1 billion in indirect costs). By state, indirect costs for AORC ranged from $49 million in Wyoming to $ ... No changes were made to the cost estimates or attributable fractions for direct costs. The national indirect cost estimates ... Direct cost estimates are unchanged from those in the previous report for AORC, but the revised indirect cost estimates are now ... Although indirect costs were lower than estimated previously, costs for arthritis remain high and underscore the need for ...
5-200 Contribution of Direct and Indirect Costs | UCOP
5-220 Contribution of Indirect Costs. Indirect costs may be contributed to a sponsored project when associated with direct cost ... 5-220 Contribution of Indirect Costs. Indirect costs may be contributed to a sponsored project when associated with direct cost ... Waivers of indirect costs requested only for the purpose of creating cost sharing will not be approved. However, indirect cost ... Waivers of indirect costs requested only for the purpose of creating cost sharing will not be approved. However, indirect cost ...
How HAIs lead to direct, indirect and unintended hospital costs
... infections occur annually in acute-care hospitals which result in tens of thousands of patient deaths and cost billions of ... not including cost-shifting to private payers. Including cost-shifting, HAIs may cost closer to between $35 billion and $45 ... Indirect HAI Costs. CMS no longer reimburses hospitals for care provided to a patient who contracts an HAIs, which will impact ... The total direct, indirect and nonmedical social costs of HAIs are estimated at around $96 billion to $147 billion annually, ...
Indirect costs of obesity: A review of the current literature | RTI
The indirect costs were grouped into six categories: costs associated with absenteeism, ... and Web of Science searches were conducted to identify published studies from 1992 to present that report indirect costs by ... This study reviews the recent literature on the relationship between obesity and indirect (non-medical) costs. Medline ... The indirect costs were grouped into six categories: costs associated with absenteeism, disability, premature mortality, ...
How Indirect Are The Legitimate Costs Of Doing Science? | The Scientist Magazine®
... payment of indirect costs has become a matter of public debate, not to mention public ridicule. These costs--a universitys ... How Indirect Are The Legitimate Costs Of Doing Science?. "What we will hear today is a story of taxpayer dollars going to ... John D. Dingell (D-Mich.) thus opened a March 13 congressional hearing investigating alleged misuses of indirect costs ... and the indirect costs issue in general, have come to be perceived as a new high in bureaucratic bumbling, as well as the ...
Indirect costs of rheumatoid arthritis
Indirect costs of rheumatic diseases In the category of indirect costs one of the key positions is related to premature exit ... Indirect costs were calculated using the HCA method. An increase in indirect costs in the group of patients aged under 65 was ... Methods of calculating indirect economic costs and their limitations. Indirect costs of the disease are related to the loss of ... Below an attempt at overall assessment of indirect costs is presented. The authors of the report "Indirect costs in health ...
Indirect costs of IBD | EFCCA
The aim of the study is to assess the influence of IBD on the patients productivity at work and relevant costs for society. www ... is supporting a new study which aims to assess the indirect or invisible ... New survey on the indirect costs of IBD. ... Indirect costs in this study refer to lost earnings ( ... New survey on the indirect costs of IBD. The aim of the study is to assess the influence of IBD on the patients productivity at ...
Incentive Based Budgeting (IBB): Research and Indirect Cost Recovery Algorithm | Sponsored Project Administration | The...
The bulk of F&A or indirect cost revenue will be distributed to responsibility centers This will predominantly based on the ... Incentive Based Budgeting (IBB): Research and Indirect Cost Recovery Algorithm. The IBB algorithm 4a is about the distribution ... The bulk of F&A or indirect cost revenue will be distributed to responsibility centers ...
Direct and indirect costs of nephrolithiasis in an employed population: opportunity for disease management?
Interventions that prevent recurrence among known stone formers may be a cost-effective component of disease management ... The direct and indirect costs of nephrolithiaisis are substantial among working-age adults. ... Direct and indirect costs of nephrolithiasis in an employed population: opportunity for disease management? Kidney Int. 2005 ... We sought to estimate the direct and indirect costs of nephrolithiasis for working age adults (18-64) with employer-provided ...
INDIRECT COST RATE GUIDE FOR NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS | U.S. Agency for International Development
... non-profit organizations to understand the requirements for the determination of indirect cost rates for application on cost ... This Indirect Cost Rate Guide (Guide) has been prepared to assist ... Definition of Indirect Costs and Indirect Cost Rate. Indirect Costs. According to 2 CFR 200, Subpart F, Appendix IV, Section A. ... indirect costs must be accumulated into separate indirect cost pools. Each indirect cost pool must then be allocated ...
Indirect costs of a nontarget pathogen mitigate the direct benefits of a virus-resistant transgene in wild Cucurbita | PNAS
Indirect costs of a nontarget pathogen mitigate the direct benefits of a virus-resistant transgene in wild Cucurbita. Miruna A ... However, the indirect costs due to Erwinia exposure may mitigate the reproductive benefits of the VRT. The fitness of the VRT ... This indirect cost of the VRT (mediated by a nontarget herbivore and pathogen) mitigated the overall beneficial effect of the ... Indirect costs of a nontarget pathogen mitigate the direct benefits of a virus-resistant transgene in wild Cucurbita ...
GAO Report Urges NIH to Assess Impact of Possible Increases in Indirect Costs - 2013 - Washington Highlights - Government...
... facilities and administrative cost) reimbursements from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) ... 1 released a report on indirect cost (facilities and administrative cost) reimbursements from the National Institutes of Health ... both direct and indirect. The department also sharply disagreed with GAOs analysis of the indirect cost reimbursement data. ... GAO recommended that "NIH assess the impact of growth in indirect costs on its mission, including, as necessary, planning for ...
The Indirect Costs of Parenting with Migraine - Impact on Adolescents
... direct and indirect costs. While direct costs can be quantified with figures, by adding the amount spent on migraine treatment ... Migraines Indirect Costs. Richard Lipton, M.D., F.A.H.S is director of the Montefiore Headache Center. His research is ... The Indirect Costs of Parenting with Migraine. New research published in Headache finds parental migraine can negatively impact ... Having an accurate estimate of both the direct and indirect costs of migraine is a useful tool for the advocacy of increased ...
Intervention 14771: Germany: State aid for indirect CO2 costs
Indirect costs in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A review of t | COPD
In studies that assessed total (direct and indirect) costs, indirect costs accounted for 27%-61% of total costs, depending on ... Consideration of indirect as well as direct costs is necessary to gain a more complete view of the societal burden of COPD. ... Estimated mean annual indirect costs were $893-$2,234/person (US dollars) with COPD ($1,521-$3,348 in 2010 [US dollars]) and ... Conclusions: COPD is associated with substantial indirect costs. The disease places a burden on employers in terms of lost ...
Federal Register :: Notice of Indirect Cost Rates for the Office of National Marine Sanctuaries for Fiscal Years...
... is announcing the establishment of new indirect cost rates on the recovery of indirect costs for its component organizations ... Costs include direct and indirect costs. Direct costs are costs for activities that are clearly and readily attributable to a ... The ONMSs Indirect Cost Rates and Policies. The ONMS will apply the indirect cost rates for FY 2008 and 2009 as recommended by ... recommend the appropriate indirect cost allocation methodology; and, (3) determine the indirect cost rates for the ...
Annual direct and indirect costs attributable to nocturia in Germany, Sweden, and the UK
... Weidlich, Diana Catalyst Health Econ ... The annual indirect societal cost arising from both presenteeism and absenteeism was estimated to be approximately a, ... In addition, in the UK, the annual indirect cost due to absenteeism was an estimated A 4.32 pound billion (a,notsign5.64 ... The annual direct cost of healthcare resource use attributable to managing nocturia was estimated to be approximately a, ...
Overhead (Indirect Costs) on University-Administered Research Funds, Recovery of | Lakehead University
2.0 Overhead (Indirect Costs) Defined. Indirect costs include: accounting, human resources and payroll (invoicing, research ... 4.4 Indirect costs may be identified as a separate budget item or expressed as a function of the total cost. Other alternative ... These indirect costs include many expenditures that are frequently taken for granted but are real costs incurred by the ... However, it should be noted that this contribution falls well below the full indirect costs (excluding capital costs and ...
Justifying a Network with Indirect Cost Savings - Community Broadband Bits Episode 80 | community broadband networks
... joined by Eric Lampland for a discussion of how a community could justify building a community owned network from the indirect ... Justifying a Network with Indirect Cost Savings - Community Broadband Bits Episode 80. * ... Holiday Bonus Rebroadcast - Eric Lampland on Indirect Cost Savings. *Blair Levin Discusses Gig.U and More for Community ... Eric and I start by discussing how quickly the cost savings per household add up to equal more than the cost of building a ...
Direct and indirect costs for systemic lupus erythematosus in Sweden. A nationwide health economic study based on five defined...
The total annual cost was 208,555 SEK ($33,369 = 22,941€), of which direct cost was 63,672kr ($10,188 = 7004€) and the indirect ... and indirect costs (70%) are substantial. Medication accounts for less than 10% of the total cost. The tax paid national ... Direct and indirect costs for systemic lupus erythematosus in Sweden. A nationwide health economic study based on five defined ... Indirect costs were calculated based on sickness leave and disability pensions from the Swedish Social Insurance Agency. ...
Indirect Cost of Financial Distress financial definition of Indirect Cost of Financial Distress
What is Indirect Cost of Financial Distress? Meaning of Indirect Cost of Financial Distress as a finance term. What does ... Indirect Cost of Financial Distress mean in finance? ... Definition of Indirect Cost of Financial Distress in the ... Indirect costs of financial distress. (redirected from Indirect Cost of Financial Distress) Indirect costs of financial ... As with other indirect costs, the indirect costs of financial distress are difficult to calculate with certainty. ...
Indirect costs associated with accessing eye care services as a barrier to service use in Ethiopia
The main barrier for seeking service is related to the indirect medical costs of the service. This suggests that efforts are ... Indirect costs associated with accessing eye care services as a barrier to service use in Ethiopia Trop Med Int Health. 2004 ... The primary reason for a failure to use eye care services were indirect costs (overall, reported by 40% of respondents) ... The main barrier for seeking service is related to the indirect medical costs of the service. This suggests that efforts are ...
GU Cancers Symposium 2014 - An indirect treatment comparison and cost-effectiveness analysis of abiraterone acetate and...
Cost and Reimbursement as Determinants of the Quality of Diabetes Care: II. Indirect Influences on Cost | Clinical Diabetes
The Indirect Costs of Diabetes Care. In general, there are four categories of indirect costs related to diabetes care. They are ... Controlling Indirect Costs. The same strategy for managing indirect costs of care applies to all categories of work ... Cost and Reimbursement as Determinants of the Quality of Diabetes Care: II. Indirect Influences on Cost. ... Cost and Reimbursement as Determinants of the Quality of Diabetes Care: II. Indirect Influences on Cost ...
ExpendituresReimbursementApproved indirect cost rateAbsenteeismProductivityOverheadExpensesPersons age 18 to 64Burden51.1 billion in direct costsAttributable to DiabetesPrevalenceMethodsReimbursementsEstimatingIncreasesEstimatesUniversity'sSocietal costsEither direct or indirectRheumatoid arthritisCategories of indirect costsFacilities and Administrative Costs1997IllnessAllocationSubstantial indirect costsMortalityAdministrative CostsRespondentsProposalsMedicationDiagnosis and treatmentProposalMedicalEarningsIncludeDisabilityCentersRecoverLostEstimate the directIncurFundsGrantsLossesRate2018NonmedicalHealthcareTotal costAssessFull indirectAnnual indirectPercentagePrincipal investigatorMusculoskeletal DiseasesIncremental costPresenteeismConclusionDataSubstantiallyHigher
- Funds will be distributed in June for indirect expenditures in the preceding year. (stmarytx.edu)
- At the end of the fiscal year, the Finance office will create a report on the indirect cost expenditures for the fiscal year. (stmarytx.edu)
- In this analysis, direct costs were medical-care expenditures, and indirect costs were lost earnings attributable to AORC. (cdc.gov)
- These indirect costs include many expenditures that are frequently taken for granted but are real costs incurred by the University to support the infrastructure required to allow a sponsored research project to proceed. (lakeheadu.ca)
- MTDC = Modified Total Direct Costs, which are calculated as total direct costs less equipment ($5,000 or more), patient care, student stipends and tuition remission, capital expenditures, rent, and that portion of any subcontract over $25,000. (uthsc.edu)
- The objectives of this study were 1 ) to estimate the direct medical and indirect productivity-related costs attributable to diabetes and 2 ) to calculate and compare the total and per capita medical expenditures for people with and without diabetes. (tripod.com)
- Direct medical and indirect expenditures attributable to diabetes in 2002 were estimated at $132 billion. (tripod.com)
- Attributable indirect expenditures resulting from lost workdays, restricted activity days, mortality, and permanent disability due to diabetes totaled $39.8 billion. (tripod.com)
- Diabetes cost the U.S. an estimated $132 billion in 2002 in medical expenditures and lost productivity. (tripod.com)
- RESULTS -The total estimated cost of diabetes in 2007 is $174 billion, including $116 billion in excess medical expenditures and $58 billion in reduced national productivity. (diabetesjournals.org)
- CONCLUSIONS -The actual national burden of diabetes is likely to exceed the $174 billion estimate because it omits the social cost of intangibles such as pain and suffering, care provided by nonpaid caregivers, excess medical costs associated with undiagnosed diabetes, and diabetes-attributed costs for health care expenditures categories omitted from this study. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Advantage uses specific state and local agency/organizations referred to as companion accounts to account for university funded direct cost project expenditures. (asu.edu)
- In 2015, the penalty increases and reimbursement changes are predicted to cost a 300-bed hospital $1.3 million annually. (beckershospitalreview.com)
- In the lead essay, Thomas Edgington, president of the Federation of Societies of Experimental Biology, outlines a series of proposals for improving the current system of indirect costs reimbursement. (the-scientist.com)
- The department also sharply disagreed with GAO's analysis of the indirect cost reimbursement data. (aamc.org)
- Cost and Reimbursement as Determinants of the Quality of Diabetes Care: II. (diabetesjournals.org)
- This is the second of a three-part series on the cost and reimbursement issues that influence the delivery of diabetes care. (diabetesjournals.org)
- The complete budget proposal released by the Trump administration last week spelled out those lower reimbursement rates for NIH -- payments for indirect costs would be capped at 10 percent of an NIH grant value. (insidehighered.com)
- NSF's long-standing policy regarding the reimbursement of administrative costs is full reimbursement of indirect costs, based on the awardee's current Federally negotiated indirect cost rate agreement. (nsf.gov)
- Protester's request that GAO recommend reimbursement of protest costs is granted in part where the agency unduly delayed taking corrective action in response to certain clearly meritorious protest grounds, and denied in part, where the other protest grounds were not clearly meritorious and are readily severable. (gao.gov)
Approved indirect cost rate1
- If direct project costs are contributed to a sponsored project, indirect costs associated with the cost sharing are calculated as part of the cost sharing at the appropriate negotiated or approved indirect cost rate. (ucop.edu)
- The indirect costs were grouped into six categories: costs associated with absenteeism, disability, premature mortality, presenteeism, workers' compensation, and total indirect costs. (rti.org)
- The disease places a burden on employers in terms of lost productivity and associated costs and on individuals in terms of lost income related to absenteeism, activity limitation, and disability. (dovepress.com)
- This enabled an estimation of (1) annual levels of healthcare resource use, (2) annual cost of healthcare resource use, and (3) annual societal cost arising from presenteeism and absenteeism attributable to nocturia in each country. (diva-portal.org)
- The annual indirect societal cost arising from both presenteeism and absenteeism was estimated to be approximately a,notsign20.76 billion in Germany and 19.65 billion kr (a,notsign2.10 billion) in Sweden. (diva-portal.org)
- In addition, in the UK, the annual indirect cost due to absenteeism was an estimated A 4.32 pound billion (a,notsign5.64 billion). (diva-portal.org)
- Indirect costs include increased absenteeism ($2.6 billion) and reduced productivity while at work ($20.0 billion) for the employed population, reduced productivity for those not in the labor force ($0.8 billion), unemployment from disease-related disability ($7.9 billion), and lost productive capacity due to early mortality ($26.9 billion). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Indirect costs include increased absenteeism ($3.3 billion) and reduced productivity while at work ($26.9 billion) for the employed population, reduced productivity for those not in the labor force ($2.3 billion), inability to work because of disease-related disability ($37.5 billion), and lost productivity due to 277,000 premature deaths attributed to diabetes ($19.9 billion). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Indirect costs are broadly defined as the value of productivity losses caused by absenteeism, disability, or (premature) death. (ahajournals.org)
- What also aren't new are the problems caused by the present system's inadequacies, according to Carl Leopold, a Cornell University botanist, who writes of a longstanding conflict between academic productivity and the acquisition of indirect costs. (the-scientist.com)
- Indirect costs of the disease are related to the loss of productivity as a result of the disease, disability or premature death of the patient. (termedia.pl)
- The aim of the study is to assess the influence of IBD on the patients productivity at work and relevant costs for society. (efcca.org)
- Eligible studies were published in English between January 2000 and April 2012 and calculated the indirect burden of COPD in a US population in terms of prevalence, incidence or costs of productivity loss, disability, morbidity, or mortality. (dovepress.com)
- We describe costs associated with medical care, loss of productivity, and death among cases of RMSF on two American Indian reservations (estimated population 20,000) between 2002 and 2011. (ajtmh.org)
- Indirect cost constituted of patient's and family caregivers lost days of productivity. (auth.gr)
- According to the World Health Organization (WHO), these might include psychological costs, lessened productivity, lost earnings, and other nonmonetary costs. (healthline.com)
- The objectives of this study are to quantify the economic burden of diabetes caused by increased health resource use and lost productivity, and to provide a detailed breakdown of the costs attributed to diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
- RESULTS The total estimated cost of diagnosed diabetes in 2017 is $327 billion, including $237 billion in direct medical costs and $90 billion in reduced productivity. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Diabetes imposes a substantial burden on society in the form of higher medical costs, lost productivity, premature mortality, and intangible costs in the form of reduced quality of life. (diabetesjournals.org)
- The estimated economic burden associated with diagnosed diabetes in the U.S. in 2012 was $245 billion in the form of higher medical costs ($176 billion) and reduced productivity ($69 billion) ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- The objective of this review is to contribute to this knowledge pool by examining direct costs and indirect (lost productivity) costs of both overweight and obesity to provide comparable estimates. (biomedcentral.com)
- A gradient exists between increasing BMI and direct healthcare costs and indirect costs due to reduced productivity and early premature mortality. (biomedcentral.com)
- Aggregated data from national data sources were used to estimate the costs for rehabilitation and lost productivity due to premature death and early retirement. (ersjournals.com)
- These are joined by the mean costs due to loss of productivity (€2,313), costs per case for rehabilitation (€74) and contact tracing (€922), adding up to €11,240. (ersjournals.com)
- Companies that suffer security breaches incur both direct costs, such as lost productivity and overtime pay for those cleaning up the breach's aftermath, and indirect costs, such as loss of customer confidence, lost sales and legal liabilities. (sans.org)
- The objective of this study was to determine from a societal perspective the medical consumption (direct costs) and productivity losses (indirect costs) caused by cerebrovascular disorders in the Netherlands. (ahajournals.org)
- 7 8 The underlying rationale is that direct costs and productivity losses are assigned to the year in which they occur (in this case, 1993). (ahajournals.org)
- Some indirect costs may be overhead. (wikipedia.org)
- But some overhead costs can be directly attributed to a project and are direct costs. (wikipedia.org)
- In construction, all costs which are required for completion of the installation, but are not directly attributable to the cost object are indirect, such as overhead. (wikipedia.org)
- As the leader of a foundation, I have now come to understand that solutions to financing overhead costs are neither clear nor straightforward. (bridgespan.org)
- The Overhead, Special Cost, and Closeout Branch (M/OAA/CAS/OCC), within the Cost Audit Support Division, Office of Acquisition and Assistance, within the Bureau for Management is the central unit authorized to negotiate indirect cost rates with concerns awarded contracts, grants or cooperative agreements by USAID. (usaid.gov)
- Unless the indirect costs of research are recovered in the form of overhead charges to the sponsor(s) of research, they will have to be found within the operating budgets of the University. (lakeheadu.ca)
- Also known as Facilities and Administrative (F & A) Costs or overhead. (umich.edu)
- Republicans on the subcommittee expressed interest in streamlining those facilities and maintenance costs -- often referred to as overhead payments -- to provide more direct funding for research. (insidehighered.com)
- Barbara Comstock, a Virginia Republican and chairwoman of the House subcommittee on research and technology, said last week that it was important to see if it's possible to streamline overhead costs "so that more money can go directly into research. (insidehighered.com)
- The Agency must document all its cleanup costs, including direct expenses (e.g., salary and contractual) and indirect expenses (e.g., overhead). (epa.gov)
- The proposed costs were to include indirect costs, such as fringe, overhead, and general and administrative (G&A) costs. (gao.gov)
- FCA accounts for all overhead and indirect costs, including those that are shared with other public agencies. (wikipedia.org)
- It takes into account past and future outlays, overhead (oversight and support services) costs, and operating costs. (wikipedia.org)
- In construction, the costs of materials, labor, equipment, etc., and all directly involved efforts or expenses for the cost object are direct costs. (wikipedia.org)
- It is the policy of the University that all work conducted under extramural funds shall pay "all expenses, both direct and indirect" ( Academic Personnel Manual APM-020 ). (ucop.edu)
- These costs--a university's expenses for maintaining its physical plant, its personnel, its library, and other services that support research--are tacked onto individual grants. (the-scientist.com)
- While direct costs can be quantified with figures, by adding the amount spent on migraine treatment, medication and other healthcare-related expenses, the indirect costs are more difficult to measure. (americanheadachesociety.org)
- The cost of education covers tuition and fees, room and board, and allowances for books and supplies, transportation, and miscellaneous expenses. (vanderbilt.edu)
- The family share of expenses represents our best estimate of your family's capacity to absorb, over time, the costs of education. (vanderbilt.edu)
- Costs include both direct (billed) and indirect (estimated) expenses that form a comprehensive, estimated Cost of Attendance figure that is listed on Tuition & Fees page on our website . (coa.edu)
- Students living off campus will not have room and board charges on their bill although estimated living expenses will still be taken into account for those that are eligible for need-based aid (i.e., as an indirect cost). (coa.edu)
- Indirect expenses may include books, travel or other miscellaneous expenses and will vary from student to student. (coa.edu)
- Your actual expenses and the costs that appear on your financial aid offer may be different. (du.edu)
- These costs can include the following expenses incurred by EPA and the cleanup contractor: time spent on a cleanup-related activity, travel to and from the site, contractor costs at the site, and equipment used at the site, etc. (epa.gov)
- Indirect costs are EPA's expenses for managing the Agency. (epa.gov)
Persons age 18 to 641
- Indirect cost for persons age 18 to 64 with a work history add another $77.5 billion, or 0.5% of the GDP in between 2009 and 2011, to the cost for all persons with a musculoskeletal disease, either treated as a primary condition or in addition to another condition. (boneandjointburden.org)
- Although indirect costs were lower than estimated previously, costs for arthritis remain high and underscore the need for better interventions to reduce the economic burden of arthritis. (cdc.gov)
- Indirectly, HAIs lead to a considerable financial burden and even bankruptcy for many patient families, as well as costs for medical malpractice cases and hospital liability. (beckershospitalreview.com)
- To review and summarize existing literature on the indirect burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the US. (dovepress.com)
- Consideration of indirect as well as direct costs is necessary to gain a more complete view of the societal burden of COPD. (dovepress.com)
- The indirect burden of accessing eye care on the family may be lessened by encouraging patients to have surgery earlier (before they require assistance to reach the hospital), and by improving the efficiency of existing services. (nih.gov)
- When the association between total direct/indirect cost and QoL was examined no significant results were drawn.CONCLUSIONS: The burden of LC on health care systems remains very high and was associated with the increased number of total chemotherapy cycles, longer OS, adenocarcinoma histological type of cancer, female gender and younger patients. (auth.gr)
- The burden for those who survive is enormous and the cost of care a major expense for individuals and the nation. (silverbook.org)
- The estimated $132 billion cost likely underestimates the true burden of diabetes because it omits intangibles, such as pain and suffering, care provided by nonpaid caregivers, and several areas of health care spending where people with diabetes probably use services at higher rates than people without diabetes (e.g., dental care, optometry care, and the use of licensed dietitians). (tripod.com)
- Diabetes imposes a substantial cost burden to society and, in particular, to those individuals with diabetes and their families. (tripod.com)
- This cost estimate documents the extraordinary national economic burden of diabetes. (tripod.com)
- Previous research highlighting the high cost of diabetes in terms of its economic burden and cost to society has been helpful in health policy debates and decision-making ( 1 - 4 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- The estimates in this article highlight the substantial financial burden that diabetes imposes on society, in addition to intangible costs from pain and suffering, resources from care provided by nonpaid caregivers, and costs associated with undiagnosed diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Furthermore, there continue to be changes in the demographics of the population with diabetes, health care use and delivery patterns, technology, medical costs, insurance coverage, and economic conditions that affect the economic burden associated with diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
- The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of asthma and to provide an estimate of the cost burden in Germany. (ersjournals.com)
- This observational study identified attributes of patient-reported satisfaction with therapy for multiple myeloma (MM), described the treatment-related time burden and indirect costs, and investigated the effect of administration route (oral vs. injectable) on these outcomes among patients with newly diagnosed MM (NDMM) and among caregivers. (springer.com)
51.1 billion in direct costs3
- This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which found that, in 1997, the total cost of AORC in the United States was $116.3 billion (i.e., $51.1 billion in direct costs plus $65.2 billion in indirect costs), approximately 1.4% of the U.S. gross domestic product. (cdc.gov)
- The total cost of AORC in the United States in 1997 was $86.2 billion (including $51.1 billion in direct costs and $35.1 billion in indirect costs), approximately 1% of the U.S. gross domestic product. (cdc.gov)
- The revised total cost of AORC in the United States was $86.2 billion (i.e., $51.1 billion in direct costs plus $35.1 billion in indirect costs). (cdc.gov)
Attributable to Diabetes1
- For the cost categories analyzed, care for people with diagnosed diabetes accounts for 1 in 4 health care dollars in the U.S., and more than half of that expenditure is directly attributable to diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Our aim was to estimate the prevalence-based cost of illness imposed by nocturia (a 2 nocturnal voids per night) in Germany, Sweden, and the UK in an average year. (diva-portal.org)
- RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS -This study uses a prevalence-based approach that combines the demographics of the population in 2007 with diabetes prevalence rates and other epidemiological data, health care costs, and economic data into a Cost of Diabetes Model. (diabetesjournals.org)
- RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We use a prevalence-based approach that combines the demographics of the U.S. population in 2017 with diabetes prevalence, epidemiological data, health care cost, and economic data into a Cost of Diabetes Model. (diabetesjournals.org)
- CONCLUSIONS After adjusting for inflation, economic costs of diabetes increased by 26% from 2012 to 2017 due to the increased prevalence of diabetes and the increased cost per person with diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
- The growth in diabetes prevalence and medical costs is primarily among the population aged 65 years and older, contributing to a growing economic cost to the Medicare program. (diabetesjournals.org)
- State-level estimates of diabetes prevalence and costs are provided in Supplementary Table A-16 . (diabetesjournals.org)
- Rising medical costs are a matter for concern globally, and many attempts have been made to estimate the costs associated with the increasing prevalence of both overweight and obesity [ 3 - 8 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence and cost of illness of asthma in Germany by retrospectively analysing routine health insurance data. (ersjournals.com)
- To the authors' best knowledge this study involves the single largest database of any prevalence and cost studies of asthma in Germany. (ersjournals.com)
- As there is no national registry this study estimates the direct and indirect medical costs and prevalence of asthma in Germany by analysing medical claims data augmented by data from the federal office of statistics (Statistisches Bundesamt) and the association of German pension funds 22 , 23 . (ersjournals.com)
- Methods This study can be characterized as a cost-of-illness study based on prevalence data. (ahajournals.org)
- However, CDC has re-estimated indirect costs by enhancing the statistical methods. (cdc.gov)
- Methods for generating the increment and total costs attributable to AORC were the same as described previously ( 4 ). (cdc.gov)
- Costs must be allocable to sponsored agreements under the principles and methods of Circular A-21. (uky.edu)
- Health service and societal costs of overweight and obesity are typically estimated by top-down approaches which derive population attributable fractions for a range of conditions associated with increased body fat or bottom-up methods based on analyses of cross-sectional or longitudinal datasets. (biomedcentral.com)
- The evidence base of cost of obesity studies is continually expanding, however, the scope of these studies varies widely and a lack of standardised methods limits comparisons nationally and internationally. (biomedcentral.com)
- To improve the availability of quality evidence an international consensus on standardised methods for cost of obesity studies is warranted. (biomedcentral.com)
- The healthcare costs associated with obesity are typically calculated using two main approaches, a top down method based on estimation of population attributable fractions (PAF method) and two "bottom up" methods, based on analyses of cross-sectional and longitudinal datasets respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
- Other methods such as simulation modelling can also be used to estimate costs of overweight and obesity, however this review will focus on the PAF method and analyses of cross-sectional and longitudinal datasets. (biomedcentral.com)
- Rep. John D. Dingell (D-Mich.) thus opened a March 13 congressional hearing investigating alleged misuses of indirect costs reimbursements by Stanford University. (the-scientist.com)
- November 8, 2013 -The Government Accountability Office (GAO) Nov. 1 released a report on indirect cost (facilities and administrative cost) reimbursements from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to universities. (aamc.org)
- Decades earlier, government auditors found that Stanford University had misused reimbursements to pay for costs related to a yacht and for decorations for its then president's house. (insidehighered.com)
- Rogowski, Jeannette and Joseph P. Newhouse, Estimating the Indirect Costs of Teaching. (rand.org)
- Estimating the direct and indirect costs of lung cancer: a prospective analysis in a Greek University Pulmonary Department. (auth.gr)
- A multiple regression analysis of domestic and local airline indirect costs was carried out to formulate cost estimating equations for airline indirect costs. (mit.edu)
- GAO recommended that "NIH assess the impact of growth in indirect costs on its mission, including, as necessary, planning for how to deal with potential future increases in indirect costs that could limit the amount of funding available for total research. (aamc.org)
- As research like the Adolescent Perspectives study uncovers more evidence of additional societal impacts of migraine, our appraised indirect cost increases. (americanheadachesociety.org)
- Similarly, vertebral compression fractures due to osteoporosis contribute to spinal deformity, reduced mobility, and the need for assistance with activities of daily living, which increases the indirect societal costs. (boneandjointburden.org)
- The risk of being a cost outlier increases risk in terms of death and referral for further treatment. (edu.pl)
- Determining precise estimates for the increases is mired by the large presence of heterogeneity among the available cost estimation literature. (biomedcentral.com)
- The incremental cost attributable to AORC for each person was calculated as the difference between observed costs and corresponding expected values, which was determined by applying parameter estimates from persons without AORC to estimates from persons with AORC. (cdc.gov)
- Direct-cost estimates were generated for the overall total and the following treatment categories: 1) outpatient, 2) inpatient, 3) prescription drugs, and 4) residual (i.e., home health care, vision aids, dental visits, and medical devices). (cdc.gov)
- Indirect costs (i.e., lost earnings attributable to AORC) were estimated by using a series of two- and four-stage regression models ( 6 ) with adjustments for the same sociodemographic, comorbidity, and health-insurance variables used for the direct cost estimates. (cdc.gov)
- Indirect cost estimates were generated for respondents aged 18--64 years. (cdc.gov)
- Direct and indirect costs for arthritis for each state were determined by applying the state's proportion of national doctor-diagnosed arthritis from the 2001 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey (response rate: 51.1%) to national cost estimates derived from the 1997 MEPS. (cdc.gov)
- Most cost estimates are broken down into direct costs and indirect costs. (wikipedia.org)
- CDC's estimates of the national and state-specific costs of AORC in the United States in 1997 have been published previously ( 4 ). (cdc.gov)
- As with the previous study, a series of two- and four-stage Duan econometric regression models ( 6 ) were used to derive individual-level direct and indirect cost estimates. (cdc.gov)
- Indirect costs also were estimated by using the Duan two- and four-stage models with adjustments for the same sociodemographic and comorbidity variables as used for the direct cost estimates. (cdc.gov)
- No changes were made to the cost estimates or attributable fractions for direct costs. (cdc.gov)
- The national indirect cost estimates decreased by $30.1 billion. (cdc.gov)
- This report presents enhanced population-based indirect and total cost estimates of AORC for states and the nation in 1997, based on a revised statistical model. (cdc.gov)
- Direct cost estimates are unchanged from those in the previous report for AORC, but the revised indirect cost estimates are now less than the direct costs, which is the opposite of what was found in the original analysis ( 4 ). (cdc.gov)
- Because the indirect costs only included value of time lost from work among persons aged 18--64 years, these estimates might be considered conservative. (cdc.gov)
- While the cost per session depends on the parent's location, some estimates report a lactation consultant who's certified by the International Board of Lactation Consultant Examiners can charge anywhere between $200 to $350 per session. (healthline.com)
- All cost and utilization estimates are extrapolated to the U.S. population in 2017, with cost estimates calculated in 2017 dollars using the hospital services, physician services, and prescription drug components of the medical consumer price index or total consumer price index ( 5 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- In the four studies which presented separate estimates for direct and indirect costs of overweight and obesity, the indirect costs were higher, accounting for between 54% and 59% of the estimated total costs. (biomedcentral.com)
- Cost of illness (COI) estimates for arthritic conditions are considerable when all levels of the healthcare system are taken into account. (bmj.com)
- On the basis of the therapy guidelines of the German Central Committee against Tuberculosis and the new World Health Organization guidelines, this study estimates the mean direct outpatient and combined in- and outpatient costs of TB, together with other attributable costs of the disease on the basis of the most recent German official health statistics and scientific literature. (ersjournals.com)
- Voluntary cost sharing is discouraged under the University's policy requiring full cost recovery for work conducted under extramural awards as it commits University resources and creates additional award administration documentation requirements. (ucop.edu)
- Consistent treatment of costs is necessary to avoid inappropriate charges to the federal government or other sponsors when sponsored agreements are charged directly for specified costs, then charged again, through the University's indirect cost rate. (uky.edu)
- However, approximately 50% of people with hip fractures do not regain their prior activity level, leading to societal costs for added care. (boneandjointburden.org)
Either direct or indirect2
- Raciborski F, Kłak A, Kwiatkowska B. Indirect costs of rheumatoid arthritis. (termedia.pl)
Categories of indirect costs2
Facilities and Administrative Costs4
- In furtherance of this effort, the University will allocate a percentage of indirect costs (Facilities and Administrative costs) to principal investigators (PIs), departments, schools, and provost office (OARSP) to help support their research activities. (stmarytx.edu)
- St. Mary's University collects indirect costs (Facilities and Administrative costs) following the most recently negotiated Federal Indirect Cost Rate Agreement (34% on campus and 8% off campus projects of Modified Total Direct Cost (MTDC). (stmarytx.edu)
- What Are Facilities and Administrative Costs (aka indirect costs)? (uthsc.edu)
- Faculty Paul Nacon - Senior Director, Huron Consulting Group Chicago, IL and Henderson, NV Paul has more than 40 years of experience in auditing, accounting, and management consulting with a heavy emphasis on facilities and administrative costs. (slidegur.com)
- To estimate the direct and indirect costs of AORC in the United States, CDC analyzed data from the 1997 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) ( 4 ). (cdc.gov)
- The 1997 MEPS did not include the nursing home component, excluding those costs from the analysis. (cdc.gov)
- These costing guidelines will apply to all new and competing proposals submitted on or after April 1, 1997. (uky.edu)
- The main objectives of this study were to calculate total costs of illness and cost-driving disease features among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in Sweden. (diva-portal.org)
- 7 yrs have elapsed since the publication of our work and today an up-to-date, more comprehensive cost-of-illness study, now also addressing the costs of MDR-TB, is overdue. (ersjournals.com)
- We used a bottom-up cost-of-illness method for economic analysis. (who.int)
- Paul is recognized by professional organizations and peer groups as a national expert in cost allocation and federal compliance. (slidegur.com)
- Prior to joining Huron, Paul was the National Director for the Division of Cost Allocation with the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services in Washington DC. (slidegur.com)
- His experience working with universities, hospitals and not-for-profit organizations has provided him a strong background in fringe benefit rate development, indirect cost rate development, cost allocation methodology, performance improvement assistance, as well as conducting compliance and performance audits. (slidegur.com)
- The proposal is submitted to either the Department of Human Services (DHHS), Division of Cost Allocation(DCA) or the Department of Defense (DOD), Office of Naval Research (ONR). (slidegur.com)
- For example, training in handling hazardous materials is an allocation cost. (epa.gov)
- The contractor provides EPA with a site specific allocation of the cost and EPA treats them as direct costs. (epa.gov)
Substantial indirect costs2
- Some of the components of direct medical costs include hospital admissions, increased length of stay and patient mortality that results from. (beckershospitalreview.com)
- Costs of premature mortality vary substantially across countries. (rti.org)
- Herd feed costs are influenced by factors including number of pigs weaned, number weaned per sow, days to slaughter, feed efficiency and feed wastage, while carcass tons produced takes into account progeny growth rate, progeny slaughter weight, mortality levels and sow cull weight. (thepigsite.com)
- Omitted from this analysis are expenditure categories such as health care system administrative costs, over-the-counter medications, clinician training programs, and research and infrastructure development. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Campus Contracts and Grants Officers should carefully review all proposals and awards to make sure that any cost sharing requirements are consistent with agency and University policies and appropriate for the value of the project to the University. (ucop.edu)
- To ensure consistency with Foundation and Federal-wide policies, proposals submitted in response to this program solicitation are subject to the awardee's current Federally negotiated indirect cost rate. (nsf.gov)
- Social Solutions International, Inc., requests that we recommend that the firm be reimbursed the costs of filing and pursuing its protest of the award of a contract to IT Shows, Inc., by the United States Agency for International Development under request for proposals No. SOL-OAA-14-000024 for staffing support services for the agency's global health programs. (gao.gov)
- A technical evaluation committee (TEC) evaluated the proposals under the non-cost factors. (gao.gov)
- Medication accounts for less than 10% of the total cost. (diva-portal.org)
- But, there are other costs involved than just the cost of the medication or piece of equipment. (vetlogic.co)
- Costs for hospital care, medication and sick benefit were taken from claims data. (ersjournals.com)
- Analysed claims data cover hospital costs, medication spending and sick benefits. (ersjournals.com)
- Higher WTTR was significantly associated with lower healthcare utilization (physician visits, physical therapy, and medication intake), work absence days and indirect costs. (springer.com)
Diagnosis and treatment1
- Total direct cost included diagnosis and treatment cost. (auth.gr)
- Mandatory cost sharing/matching refers to that portion of the University contribution to a sponsored project which is required by the terms of the project's Request for Proposal or Application (RFP/RFA). (ucop.edu)
- However, if a campus anticipates voluntary cost sharing at the time of proposal submission, it is appropriate to so inform the sponsor. (ucop.edu)
- in the "Indirect Cost Rate Proposal (ICR) Checklist for First Time NICRA" comments on documentation to be provided by small business to support the proposed indirect cost rate. (usaid.gov)
- Web ICR provides one unified screen to enter and manage space information specific to Facilities and Administrative (F&A) cost rate proposal and as required by the OMB Circular A-21. (robotechcad.com)
- And there are enough members of Congress elected since the last major fight over indirect costs that advocates see good reason to spend time pushing back against the White House proposal. (insidehighered.com)
- This proposal guts NIH support for these research costs. (insidehighered.com)
- The attributable fraction (AF) for direct costs was estimated by dividing the sum of AORC-attributable medical costs for all AORC patients by the sum of medical costs for all persons in the sample for overall total and the four treatment categories. (cdc.gov)
- According to Dr. White, the estimated direct medical cost of HAIs is around $10 billion annually, not including cost-shifting to private payers. (beckershospitalreview.com)
- This study reviews the recent literature on the relationship between obesity and indirect (non-medical) costs. (rti.org)
- Detailed medical and pharmacy claims from 25 large employers and absentee data from a subset of firms were used to estimate the direct and indirect costs associated with nephrolithiasis in a privately insured, non-elderly population. (nih.gov)
- Acute medical costs totaled more than $1.3 million. (ajtmh.org)
- The main barrier for seeking service is related to the indirect medical costs of the service. (nih.gov)
- In many states, such as Georgia, attorneys and other agencies may request copies of medical records for disability determination at no cost to the requesting agencies. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Indirect costs, like medical care costs, can be estimated and calculated in total for all the medical conditions an individual has, and as the increment attributable solely to musculoskeletal conditions. (boneandjointburden.org)
- Age and laboratory costs for hospitalized medical patients. (edu.pl)
- These might include medical care, and the costs of policing, incarceration, and legal services. (healthline.com)
- Health resource use and associated medical costs are analyzed by age, sex, type of medical condition, and health resource category. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Medical costs attributed to diabetes include $27 billion for care to directly treat diabetes, $58 billion to treat the portion of diabetes-related chronic complications that are attributed to diabetes, and $31 billon in excess general medical costs. (diabetesjournals.org)
- This study combines research findings from the medical, public health, and economics literature with new empirical analysis to provide detailed information on the cost of diabetes by demographic group, health care delivery setting, medical conditions treated, and cost component. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Health resource use and associated medical costs are analyzed by age, sex, race/ethnicity, insurance coverage, medical condition, and health service category. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Hundreds of billions of dollars a year are spent on direct medical costs associated with doctor visits, hospital services, prescriptions, and over-the-counter drugs. (nih.gov)
- Results The cost of cerebrovascular disorders in the Netherlands in 1993 amounted to 2.5 billion Dutch guilders, of which 1.9 billion were spent on medical consumption. (ahajournals.org)
- Direct costs are directly associated with healthcare interventions, ie, medical consumption. (ahajournals.org)
- 2 3 4 5 6 The purpose of this study was to identify and estimate the costs of stroke in the Netherlands, both direct (medical consumption) and indirect (production loss). (ahajournals.org)
- Utilization of preventive and medical services and work absence was assessed and annual costs were calculated from a societal perspective. (springer.com)
- Out-of-pocket costs for treatment of mental and drug problems, treatment of medical illnesses, as well as costs of crimes were assessed. (who.int)
- indirect cost analyses modeled probability of employment and magnitude of lost earnings. (cdc.gov)
- Indirect costs in this study refer to lost earnings (unemployment, reduced employment) not only of the IBD patient but also of informal caregivers such as family members/friends who have lost working days in order to take care of an IBD patient. (efcca.org)
- In the studies conducted by Rice and colleagues starting in the early 1960s, indirect cost associated with earnings losses due to musculoskeletal diseases constituted between 38% and 59% of the total cost of these diseases. (boneandjointburden.org)
- Indirect costs include administration, personnel and security costs. (wikipedia.org)
- A grant requesting $100k in direct costs with an indirect cost rate of 50%, for example, means that the request will include an additional request for $50k for indirect costs for a total request of $150k, as opposed to a request for $100k of indirect costs for a total request of $200k. (wikipedia.org)
- However, the indirect models did not include health insurance. (cdc.gov)
- It can include the cost of storage, the labor involved with keeping items on the shelf (costs to count, monitor, rotate, etc.), and the cost of insurance. (vetlogic.co)
- Direct costs are listed on the student ledger and may include tuition, student health and activity fees, room, board, and lab or course fees if applicable. (coa.edu)
- These costs are not directly traceable to any particular cleanup activity and include the following activities: administrative matters, personnel issues, guidance development, and office, utility, and supply costs, etc. (epa.gov)
- Environmental costs as indirect costs include the full range of costs throughout the life-cycle of a product (Life cycle assessment), some of which even do not show up in the firm's bottom line. (wikipedia.org)
- Indirect costs were calculated based on sickness leave and disability pensions from the Swedish Social Insurance Agency. (diva-portal.org)
- Disability determinations represent a specific area of concern in documentation and indirect cost to providers. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Indirect costs measure disease impact in terms of lost wages due to disability or death. (boneandjointburden.org)
- We believe the first step a nonprofit should take is to recover the true costs of doing its work. (bridgespan.org)
- Web-ICR is a web-based surveying and management tool for higher education institutions to efficiently and accurately keep track of and recover indirect costs for federal grants and contracts according to OMB Circular A-21. (robotechcad.com)
- It is the policy of the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire to recover the Federal Negotiated Indirect Cost Rate from all agencies that are legally bound by that agreement and from all other federal, state, and private funding sources that will reimburse the University at the negotiated rate. (uwec.edu)
- If EPA does the cleanup work using Superfund money, it will try to recover those costs from responsible parties. (epa.gov)
- EPA may recover all of its costs that are "not inconsistent" with the National Contingency Plan (NCP). (epa.gov)
- Private parties may recover costs that are "consistent" with the NCP. (epa.gov)
- The statute of limitations is the amount of time EPA, states, and private parties have to take action in court to recover their costs. (epa.gov)
- To quantify the long-term costs of Australians aged 45-64 having lost PLYs because of mental disorders. (cambridge.org)
- The government is projected to incur costs comprising a 22% increase in social security payments and a 45% increase in lost taxes as a result of depression through its impact on PLYs. (cambridge.org)
- Costs such as lost business as a result of bankruptcy or liquidation . (thefreedictionary.com)
- Indirect costs of financial distress are lost business that occurs because potential customers do not wish to take the risk of using a company that may not be able to deliver its goods or services . (thefreedictionary.com)
- Indirect costs associated with lost wages for people ages 18 years to 64 years are not calculated for those with an osteoporosis condition. (boneandjointburden.org)
- Given that no representative random sampling study of the number of workdays lost due to TB in Germany (International Classification of Disease (ICD)-10 A15-A19) exists, calculation of the indirect costs is simplified by taking the latest available sick leave period (in 2009) for gainfully employed compulsory members of the AOK, which is the statutory health insurance fund with the largest number of members in Germany [ 8 ]. (ersjournals.com)
- The average cost of cleaning up from the attacks, including lost income, is 5,000 EUR. (sans.org)
Estimate the direct1
- We sought to estimate the direct and indirect costs of nephrolithiasis for working age adults (18-64) with employer-provided insurance. (nih.gov)
- A cost is considered reasonable if the nature of the goods or services acquired and the amount involved reflect the action that a prudent person would have taken under the circumstances prevailing at the time the decision was made to incur the cost. (uky.edu)
- This funding is derived from indirect cost recovery funds received by the University from any new external projects awarded to the University after January 1, 2015. (stmarytx.edu)
- Faculty with a grant for which no indirect funds are requested/allowable will not be eligible for the one course release. (uwec.edu)
- Additional funds to support the reassignments will be paid from the Provost and Vice Chancellor's 150 indirect cost account. (uwec.edu)
- The study also indicates that there is room for substantial savings in the German social insurance system, with indirect costs amounting to 74.8% of total costs and payment of sick benefits through the sickness funds amounting to 58.3% of indirect costs. (ersjournals.com)
- Beginning January 1, 2015, portion of indirect costs recovered from external grants will be set-up in accounts for the Principle Investigator (PI) or Project Director (PD) of the grant, the department that the PI/PD comes from, the Dean of the School or relevant Vice President of the PI/PD, and to the Provost's Office. (stmarytx.edu)
- Project grants are typically "priced" at direct costs plus indirect costs and most funders cap indirect costs with flat rate policies ranging from 10 percent to 20 percent of direct costs. (bridgespan.org)
- This Indirect Cost Rate Guide (Guide) has been prepared to assist non-profit organizations to understand the requirements for the determination of indirect cost rates for application on cost reimbursable grants and other agreements awarded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). (usaid.gov)
- The Province of Ontario has recognized the importance of the indirect cost recovery on grants awarded by NSERC, SSHRC and CIHR. (lakeheadu.ca)
- For these grants, the Province of Ontario provides to Lakehead University a "Research Infrastructure Envelope Fund" contribution toward the indirect costs associated with administering Federal Council grants. (lakeheadu.ca)
- Grants or contracts will not be subject to more than one indirect cost rate. (uthsc.edu)
- Successful applicants for these grants will likely be working in established labs which have funding for supplies and any required animal handling costs. (fraxa.org)
- Please note an important change to the treatment of indirect costs that was incorporated into the BIO Doctoral Dissertation Improvement Grants (DDIG) program solicitation (NSF 11-569). (nsf.gov)
- Indirect losses follow a disaster and are secondary to direct losses. (stlouisfed.org)
- Indirect losses are the wages that the workers will not earn because the business is not operational and the output that will not be available to consumers. (stlouisfed.org)
- They suffer the direct losses from the immediate damage plus the indirect losses in income. (stlouisfed.org)
- M/OAA/CAS/OCC establishes Negotiated Indirect Cost Rate Agreements (NICRA) for U.S. and foreign organizations with awards issued by the Bureau for Management's, Office of Acquisition and Assistance (M/OAA) in Washington, DC. (usaid.gov)
- The F&A rate for private sponsors is 20 percent of Total Direct Costs, unless the sponsor has a different published rate (e.g. (uthsc.edu)
- Results in one indirect cost rate applicable to all activities. (slidegur.com)
- The rate of sow turnover within a commercial herd has both direct and indirect effects on HFC. (thepigsite.com)
- This regulation of metabolic rate was due to differential rates of synthesis for a fixed energy cost per unit mass of protein synthesized. (biologists.org)
- We conclude that the cost of protein synthesis is independent of the rate of synthesis, developmental stage, size and physiological feeding state during sea urchin development. (biologists.org)
- If costs of synthesis vary as a function of the rate of synthesis, then it would be predicted that developmental stages with highly variable rates of synthesis would have variable costs. (biologists.org)
- In March, after the release of the White House's skinny budget for the 2018 fiscal year, Health and Human Services Secretary Tom Price told congressional appropriators that large proposed cuts to the National Institutes of Health could be covered by reducing indirect-cost payments to universities. (insidehighered.com)
- The total direct, indirect and nonmedical social costs of HAIs are estimated at around $96 billion to $147 billion annually, including loss of work, legal costs and other patient factors. (beckershospitalreview.com)
- Answers to questions included in the questionnaire are very important for the assessment of nonmedical costs of inflammatory bowel diseases in Europe. (efcca.org)
- Roughly 1.7 million hospital-associated infections occur annually in acute-care hospitals which result in tens of thousands of patient deaths and cost billions of dollars to the healthcare system. (beckershospitalreview.com)
- The annual direct cost of healthcare resource use attributable to managing nocturia was estimated to be approximately a,notsign2.32 billion in Germany, 5.11 billion kr (a,notsign0.54 billion) in Sweden, and A 1.35 pound billion (a,notsign1.77 billion) in the UK. (diva-portal.org)
- Many serious infectious diseases are acquired in the healthcare setting and those healthcare-associated infections cost U.S. hospitals between $28.4 and $45 billion each year. (silverbook.org)
- In Ontario, between 1999/00 and 2003/04, ICU stays accounted for 15.9% of inpatient direct healthcare costs but represented only 8.1% of inpatient days. (springer.com)
- Arthritic disorders pose a challenge to anyone concerned about healthcare costs, and their escalation leads to growing demands for more money to be devoted to arthritis research and caring. (bmj.com)
- Are health risk attitude and general risk attitude associated with healthcare utilization, costs and working ability? (springer.com)
- This paper investigates the association of risk attitudes with the utilization of preventive and general healthcare services, work absence and resulting costs to explore their contribution to the heterogeneity in utilization. (springer.com)
- What we did was calculate a kind of total cost of war for the 23 countries that we studied, Peters said. (voanews.com)
- They are known as total cost outliers (TCO), direct cost outliers (DCO), and indirect cost outliers (ICO). (edu.pl)
- Total cost outliers accounted for almost 37% of total hospital costs, 40% of direct costs, and 34% of indirect costs. (edu.pl)
- It is not the amount you must pay directly to the University, but, rather, the family's share of the total cost of education. (vanderbilt.edu)
- According to a 2004 study from the University of California, San Francisco , the total cost of IPV against women in the United States exceeds $8.3 billion each year. (healthline.com)
- For example, in Canada, the total cost of arthritis and rheumatism in 1994 was broadly estimated to be between $C4.3 and $C7.3 billion. (bmj.com)
- Within the framework of World IBD Day 2019 the European Federation of Crohn's and Ulcerative Colitis Associations (EFCCA) is supporting a new study which aims to assess the indirect or invisible costs of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, collectively known as Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). (efcca.org)
- The costs of disaster can be difficult to assess for a number of reasons. (stlouisfed.org)
- Organizations do not really assess the direct cost of security-related incidents very well in the first place, but they are often not at all aware of the indirect costs of incidents. (sans.org)
- This study aimed to assess out of-pocket costs of consequences of drug use disorder. (who.int)
- It is important when research funding is received from external sources that every effort is made to ensure that whenever possible that the full indirect costs, associated with the funded research project, are recovered. (lakeheadu.ca)
- However, it should be noted that this contribution falls well below the full indirect costs (excluding capital costs and faculty time) which have been estimated by the Canadian Association of University Business Officers to be at least 50% of direct costs. (lakeheadu.ca)
- Estimated mean annual indirect costs were $893-$2,234/person (US dollars) with COPD ($1,521-$3,348 in 2010 [US dollars]) and varied with the population studied, specific cost outcomes, and economic inputs. (dovepress.com)
- Annual indirect costs attributable to musculoskeletal disease alone (incremental cost) account for an estimated $130.7 billion. (boneandjointburden.org)
- Often, such as when applying for funding under a grant, indirect costs are specified as a fixed percentage, this percentage having been negotiated in advance. (wikipedia.org)
- In this case, the indirect costs percentage is specified relative to direct costs, not to the total request. (wikipedia.org)
- HHS said, "From our analysis, we found that as a percentage of all research grant obligations, indirect costs to universities have actually decreased slightly, from 21.6 percent in FY 2002 to 21.4 percent in FY 2012. (aamc.org)
- If the funded project budget includes indirect costs, portions of the recovered indirect costs will be returned to the principal investigator, department, school, provost's office, and general operating budget according to the model below. (stmarytx.edu)
- Total costs attributable to AORC were calculated by multiplying the mean incremental cost of AORC by the number of persons with AORC as estimated by MEPS. (cdc.gov)
- No significant conclusion was drawn regarding QoL and total direct/indirect cost. (auth.gr)
- This data also led us to divide the group into segments based on their business models-an idea we think holds promise for better understanding variability in true costs. (bridgespan.org)
- see individual cost screens for detailed lists of data sources. (cdc.gov)
- Cost, demographic, clinical, and LOS data were retrieved through case-costing, patient registry, and hospital abstract systems of The Ottawa Hospital Data Warehouse for all new in-patient ward (30,483) and ICU (2,239) encounters between April 2012 and March 2013. (springer.com)
- Globally, according to the Copenhagen Consensus Center and using 2013 data, the annual cost of IPV worldwide is $4.4 trillion, which is about 5.2 percent of global GDP. (healthline.com)
- The PAFs are applied to national cost data for the relevant conditions to give an overall estimate of the cost of overweight and obesity. (biomedcentral.com)
- The additional service utilisation associated with overweight and obesity is determined by multivariate regression analysis and monetised using cost data for the country concerned. (biomedcentral.com)
- Costs for rehabilitation, premature death and early retirement were estimated using the human capital approach and data from national statistics. (ersjournals.com)
- From a societal point of view, the following cost categories were defined and calculated, where possible, based on the most recent available data in each case. (ersjournals.com)
- In the following sections, the data, analysis, and results by cost category are described for both the direct and the indirect costs. (ahajournals.org)
- Allowed are costs for doctoral candidates to conduct research in specialized facilities or field settings away from the home campus, to participate in scientific meetings, and to provide opportunities for greater diversity in collecting and creativity in analyzing data than would otherwise be possible using only locally available resources. (nsf.gov)
- Provided the true relationship is log-log, adding one biases the coefficient substantially but not predicted cost. (rand.org)
- Indirect costs do not vary substantially within certain production volumes or other indicators of activity, and so they may sometimes be considered to be fixed costs. (wikipedia.org)
- The excess costs of HAIs increase substantially among patients who also contract MRSA. (beckershospitalreview.com)
- The financing will be used to cover the higher electricity costs following the introduction of the ETS. (globaltradealert.org)
- The costs for patients with short disease duration were higher. (diva-portal.org)
- Damage in the neuropsychiatric and musculoskeletal domains were also linked to higher direct and indirect costs, while organ damage in the renal and ocular systems increased direct costs. (diva-portal.org)
- As discussed in the first article of this series, 1 the complexity of adequate diabetes care delivery that meets guidelines for care 2 renders the direct costs of care higher than those for other forms of contemplative primary or specialty care. (diabetesjournals.org)
- These costs are less defined than the costs of guidelines, and they threaten a higher risk of being excessive. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Chemotherapy drugs constituted the higher factor of total direct cost. (auth.gr)
- Indirect cost was considerably higher for patients than family caregivers and did not significantly differ in relation to the above factors. (auth.gr)
- It was discovered that, in terms of gender, men are positively correlated with higher cost utilization. (edu.pl)
- If for any reason the costs are higher due to inefficiency or miscommunication, you can see how your profit margin can be decreased quickly. (vetlogic.co)
- Indirect costs related to RA were up to five times higher than indirect costs incurred by patients with OA or HBP, or both. (bmj.com)
- Mexican consumers face higher costs getting to the point of cash access than they do to withdraw cash once they arrive. (tufts.edu)
- Since business owners often receive cash income directly into the business, the wealthy show higher costs of time and money spent traveling to these transactions. (tufts.edu)