Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.
Chemical agents that react with SH groups. This is a chemically diverse group that is used for a variety of purposes. Among these are enzyme inhibition, enzyme reactivation or protection, and labelling.
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
Narrow pieces of material impregnated or covered with a substance used to produce a chemical reaction. The strips are used in detecting, measuring, producing, etc., other substances. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A standard reagent for the determination of reactive sulfhydryl groups by absorbance measurements. It is used primarily for the determination of sulfhydryl and disulfide groups in proteins. The color produced is due to the formation of a thio anion, 3-carboxyl-4-nitrothiophenolate.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A subclass of IMIDES with the general structure of pyrrolidinedione. They are prepared by the distillation of ammonium succinate. They are sweet-tasting compounds that are used as chemical intermediates and plant growth stimulants.
Organic salts or esters of methanesulfonic acid.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Method of analyzing chemicals using automation.
Methods for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of an indicator, such as a dye, radionuclide, or chilled liquid, into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Any technique by which an unknown color is evaluated in terms of standard colors. The technique may be visual, photoelectric, or indirect by means of spectrophotometry. It is used in chemistry and physics. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Analogs of those substrates or compounds which bind naturally at the active sites of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, steroids, or physiological receptors. These analogs form a stable covalent bond at the binding site, thereby acting as inhibitors of the proteins or steroids.
A reagent that is highly selective for the modification of arginyl residues. It is used to selectively inhibit various enzymes and acts as an energy transfer inhibitor in photophosphorylation.
An iterative questionnaire designed to measure consensus among individual responses. In the classic Delphi approach, there is no interaction between responder and interviewer.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A cytotoxic sulfhydryl reagent that inhibits several subcellular metabolic systems and is used as a tool in cellular physiology.
A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
Esters of the hypothetical imidic acids. They react with amines or amino acids to form amidines and are therefore used to modify protein structures and as cross-linking agents.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A reagent commonly used in biochemical studies as a protective agent to prevent the oxidation of SH (thiol) groups and for reducing disulphides to dithiols.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Preservative for wines, soft drinks, and fruit juices and a gentle esterifying agent.
Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
Chloride and mercury-containing derivatives of benzoic acid.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
An organic mercurial used as a sulfhydryl reagent.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
General agreement or collective opinion; the judgment arrived at by most of those concerned.
A water-soluble, enzyme co-factor present in minute amounts in every living cell. It occurs mainly bound to proteins or polypeptides and is abundant in liver, kidney, pancreas, yeast, and milk.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
An alkylating sulfhydryl reagent. Its actions are similar to those of iodoacetate.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.
Method of measuring performance against established standards of best practice.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The covalent bonding of an alkyl group to an organic compound. It can occur by a simple addition reaction or by substitution of another functional group.
Compounds with three aromatic rings in linear arrangement with an OXYGEN in the center ring.
Iodinated derivatives of acetic acid. Iodoacetates are commonly used as alkylating sulfhydryl reagents and enzyme inhibitors in biochemical research.
Hydroxylated benzoic acid derivatives that contain mercury. Some of these are used as sulfhydryl reagents in biochemical studies.
The methyl imidoester of suberic acid used to produce cross links in proteins. Each end of the imidoester will react with an amino group in the protein molecule to form an amidine.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The development and use of techniques and equipment to study or perform chemical reactions, with small quantities of materials, frequently less than a milligram or a milliliter.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
An infant during the first month after birth.
The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A toxic thiol mercury salt formerly used as a diuretic. It inhibits various biochemical functions, especially in mitochondria, and is used to study those functions.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The analysis of a chemical substance by inserting a sample into a carrier stream of reagent using a sample injection valve that propels the sample downstream where mixing occurs in a coiled tube, then passes into a flow-through detector and a recorder or other data handling device.
Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
Organic mercury compounds in which the mercury is attached to a phenyl group. Often used as fungicides and seed treatment agents.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.
An antineoplastic agent with alkylating properties. It also acts as a mutagen by damaging DNA and is used experimentally for that effect.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Methods utilizing the principles of MICROFLUIDICS for sample handling, reagent mixing, and separation and detection of specific components in fluids.
A fluorescent calcium chelating agent which is used to study intracellular calcium in tissues.
A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A derivative of ACETIC ACID that contains one IODINE atom attached to its methyl group.
A family of spiro(isobenzofuran-1(3H),9'-(9H)xanthen)-3-one derivatives. These are used as dyes, as indicators for various metals, and as fluorescent labels in immunoassays.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Compounds that contain a BENZENE ring fused to a furan ring.
Hydrocarbons with at least one triple bond in the linear portion, of the general formula Cn-H2n-2.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
5,5'-Nitrilodibarbituric acid ammonium derivative. Used as an indicator for complexometric titrations.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.
Organic compounds which contain mercury as an integral part of the molecule.
Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.
Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Method of tissue preparation in which the tissue specimen is frozen and then dehydrated at low temperature in a high vacuum. This method is also used for dehydrating pharmaceutical and food products.
A rating of a body of water based on measurable physical, chemical, and biological characteristics.
A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Materials that add an electron to an element or compound, that is, decrease the positiveness of its valence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Covalent attachment of HALOGENS to other compounds.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Mercury-containing benzoic acid derivatives.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Metallochrome indicator that changes color when complexed to the calcium ion under physiological conditions. It is used to measure local calcium ion concentrations in vivo.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A very strong halogenated derivative of acetic acid. It is used in acid catalyzed reactions, especially those where an ester is cleaved in peptide synthesis.
Passive agglutination tests in which antigen is adsorbed onto latex particles which then clump in the presence of antibody specific for the adsorbed antigen. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Red dye, pH indicator, and diagnostic aid for determination of renal function. It is used also for studies of the gastrointestinal and other systems.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of beta-D-glucose and oxygen to D-glucono-1,5-lactone and peroxide. It is a flavoprotein, highly specific for beta-D-glucose. The enzyme is produced by Penicillium notatum and other fungi and has antibacterial activity in the presence of glucose and oxygen. It is used to estimate glucose concentration in blood or urine samples through the formation of colored dyes by the hydrogen peroxide produced in the reaction. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
Chemical bond cleavage reactions resulting from absorption of radiant energy.
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of boric acid.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
Incorporation of biotinyl groups into molecules.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Organic compounds that contain the (-NH2OH) radical.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Bifunctional cross-linking agent that links covalently free amino groups of proteins or polypeptides, including those in cell membranes. It is used as reagent or fixative in immunohistochemistry and is a proposed antisickling agent.
Aminobenzenesulfonic acids. Organic acids that are used in the manufacture of dyes and organic chemicals and as reagents.
2,2-Dihydroxy-1H-indene-1,3-(2H)-dione. Reagent toxic to skin and mucus membranes. It is used in chemical assay for peptide bonds, i.e., protein determinations and has radiosensitizing properties.

Mechanism and specificity of the terminal thioesterase domain from the erythromycin polyketide synthase. (1/5815)

BACKGROUND: Polyketides are important compounds with antibiotic and anticancer activities. Several modular polyketide synthases (PKSs) contain a terminal thioesterase (TE) domain probably responsible for the release and concomitant cyclization of the fully processed polyketide chain. Because the TE domain influences qualitative aspects of product formation by engineered PKSs, its mechanism and specificity are of considerable interest. RESULTS: The TE domain of the 6-deoxyerythronolide B synthase was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. When tested against a set of N-acetyl cysteamine thioesters the TE domain did not act as a cyclase, but showed significant hydrolytic specificity towards substrates that mimic important features of its natural substrate. Also the overall rate of polyketide chain release was strongly enhanced by a covalent connection between the TE domain and the terminal PKS module (by as much as 100-fold compared with separate TE and PKS 'domains'). CONCLUSIONS: The inability of the TE domain alone to catalyze cyclization suggests that macrocycle formation results from the combined action of the TE domain and a PKS module. The chain-length and stereochemical preferences of the TE domain might be relevant in the design and engineered biosynthesis of certain novel polyketides. Our results also suggest that the TE domain might loop back to catalyze the release of polyketide chains from both terminal and pre-terminal modules, which may explain the ability of certain naturally occurring PKSs, such as the picromycin synthase, to generate both 12-membered and 14-membered macrolide antibiotics.  (+info)

Clinical and immunochemical study of the serum IgG fraction not precipitated in a zinc-sodium salicylate reagent. (2/5815)

A reagent made of zinc sulphate (0-08 M) in a 0-4 M sodium salicylate solution at pH 7-3 precipitated most of the IgG when a small volume of human serum was added. Sera with normal IgG levels or polyclonal hyperglobulinaemia showed a close correlation between total IgG and zinc-precipitated IgG (r = + 0-95). In clinical material, not including IgG myeloma, zinc-soluble IgG varied between 0 and 6 mg/ml and was independent of the IgG serum concentration. In 31 normal subjects the average IgG concentration, as determined by the Technicon immunonephelometric method, was 10-2 +/- 1-7 mg/ml for total IgG and 2-2 +/- 1-0 mg/ml for the soluble fraction. Among 173 sera, including 24 from cord blood, 16 from pregnant women, and 133 from patients with miscellaneous diseases, no pathological conditions except three cases of IgG myeloma were found with a zinc-soluble IgG definitely above the normal values; zinc-soluble IgG levels were often low in patients with hyperglobulinaemia, and the difference was highly significant in liver disease. kappa and gamma light chains as well as the four IgG-Hp chain subclasses were found in both zinc-soluble fractions of normal IgG. A study of myeloma monoclonal IgG showed that globulins of classes 1, 3, and 4 could be either soluble or insoluble in the zinc reagent. One, G2, was mainly insoluble. Hexose and antistreptolysin contents per milligram normal IgG were not significantly different in either fraction. It is suggested that zinc-soluble IgG consists of the recently synthesized molecules, the zinc-solubility of which has not yet been decreased by protein association, lipid interaction, antigen binding, or enzymatic denaturation. Within this hypothesis, a low level of soluble IgG would mean either an increased precatabolic protein or a decreased synthesis.  (+info)

Improved antibody detection by the use of range expansion and longer filter wavelength in a low ionic strength-protamine sulphate Auto-Analyzer system. (3/5815)

Range expansion, achieved by insertion of a variable resistance between the colorimeter and the recorder together with the use of 550 nm colorimeter filters, has resulted in markedly improved sensitivity for antibody detection, and improved sample identification, in a low ionic strength-protamine sulphate (LISPS) system. Range expansion also permits a lower concentration of red cells to be used, thus economizing on fully typed cells. Glycerol stored frozen cells were found to be only slightly less sensitive than fresh cells in this system.  (+info)

Light-induced calcium influx into retinal axons is regulated by presynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activity in vivo. (4/5815)

Visual activity is thought to be a critical factor in controlling the development of central retinal projections. Neuronal activity increases cytosolic calcium, which was hypothesized to regulate process outgrowth in neurons. We performed an in vivo imaging study in the retinotectal system of albino Xenopus laevis tadpoles with the fluorescent calcium indicator calcium green 1 dextran (CaGD) to test the role of calcium in regulating axon arbor development. We find that visual stimulus to the retina increased CaGD fluorescence intensity in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axon arbors within the optic tectum and that branch additions to retinotectal axon arbors correlated with a local rise in calcium in the parent branch. We find three types of responses to visual stimulus, which roughly correlate with the ON, OFF, and SUSTAINED response types of RGC reported by physiological criteria. Imaging in bandscan mode indicated that patterns of calcium transients were nonuniform throughout the axons. We tested whether the increase in calcium in the retinotectal axons required synaptic activity in the retina; intraocular application of tetrodotoxin (10 microM) or nifedipine (1 and 10 microM) blocked the stimulus-induced increase in RGC axonal fluorescence. A second series of pharmacological investigations was designed to determine the mechanism of the calcium elevation in the axon terminals within the optic tectum. Injection of bis-(o-aminophenoxy)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid-AM (BAPTA-AM) (20 mM) into the tectal ventricle reduced axonal calcium levels, supporting the idea that visual stimulation increases axonal calcium. Injection of BAPTA (20 mM) into the tectal ventricle to chelate extracellular calcium also attenuated the calcium response to visual stimulation, indicating that calcium enters the axon from the extracellular medium. Caffeine (10 mM) caused a large increase in axonal calcium, indicating that intracellular stores contribute to the calcium signal. Presynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) may play a role in axon arbor development and the formation of the topographic retinotectal projection. Injection of nicotine (10 microM) into the tectal ventricle significantly elevated RGC axonal calcium levels, whereas application of the nAChR antagonist alphaBTX (100 nM) reduced the stimulus-evoked rise in RGC calcium fluorescence. These data suggest that light stimulus to the retina increases calcium in the axon terminal arbors through a mechanism that includes influx through nAChRs and amplification by calcium-induced calcium release from intracellular calcium stores. Such a mechanism may contribute to developmental plasticity of the retinotectal system by influencing both axon arbor elaboration and the strength of synaptic transmission.  (+info)

Purification and properties of a low-molecular-weight, high-alkaline pectate lyase from an alkaliphilic strain of Bacillus. (5/5815)

A low-molecular-weight, high-alkaline pectate lyase (pectate transeliminase, EC was found in an alkaline culture of Bacillus sp. strain KSM-P15, purified to homogeneity, and crystallized. The enzyme had a relative molecular weight of approximately 20,300 as measured by sedimentation equilibrium, with a sedimentation coefficient (s20,w0) of 1.73 S. It was a basic protein with an isoelectric point of pH 10.3, and the alpha-helical content was only 6.6%. In the presence of Ca2+ ions, the enzyme degraded polygalacturonic acid in a random manner to yield 4,5-unsaturated oligo-galacturonides and had its optimal activity around pH 10.5 and 50-55 degrees C. It also had a protopectinase-like activity on cotton fibers. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of the intact protein (28 amino acids) and its two lysyl endopeptidase-cleaved peptide fragments (8 and 12 amino acids) had very low sequence similarity with pectate lyases reported to date. These results strongly suggest that the pectate lyase of Bacillus sp. strain KSM-P15 may be a novel enzyme and belongs in a new family.  (+info)

CLIP-170 highlights growing microtubule ends in vivo. (6/5815)

A chimera with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) has been constructed to visualize the dynamic properties of the endosome-microtubule linker protein CLIP170 (GFP-CLIP170). GFP-CLIP170 binds in stretches along a subset of microtubule ends. These fluorescent stretches appear to move with the growing tips of microtubules at 0.15-0.4 microm/s, comparable to microtubule elongation in vivo. Analysis of speckles along dynamic GFP-CLIP170 stretches suggests that CLIP170 treadmills on growing microtubule ends, rather than being continuously transported toward these ends. Drugs affecting microtubule dynamics rapidly inhibit movement of GFP-CLIP170 dashes. We propose that GFP-CLIP170 highlights growing microtubule ends by specifically recognizing the structure of a segment of newly polymerized tubulin.  (+info)

Sites of reaction of pilocarpine. (7/5815)

Analysis of the sites of reaction of a biologically important compound, pilocarpine, a molecule with imidazole and butyrolactone rings connected by a methylene bridge, has been accomplished in a quadrupole ion trap with the aim of characterizing its structure/reactivity relationships. Ion-molecule reactions of pilocarpine with chemical ionizing agents, dimethyl ether (DME), 2-methoxyethanol, and trimethyl borate (TMB), along with collision-activated dissociation elucidated the reaction sites of pilocarpine and made possible the comparison of structural features that affect sites of reaction. Based on MS/MS experiments, methylation occurs on the imidazole ring upon reactions with CH3OCH2+ or (CH3OCH2CH2OH)H+ ions but methylation occurs on the lactone ring for reactions with (CH3O)2B+ ions. Bracketing experiments with two model compounds, alpha-methyl-gamma-butyrolactone and N-methyl imidazole, show the imidazole ring to have a greater gas-phase basicity and methyl cation affinity than the lactone ring. The contrast of methylation by TMB ions on the lactone ring is explained by initial addition of the dimethoxyborinium ion, (CH3O)2B+, on the imidazole ring with subsequent collisional activation promoting an intramolecular transfer of a methyl group to the lactone ring with concurrent loss of CH3OBO. Semiempirical molecular orbital calculations are undertaken to further address the favored reaction sites.  (+info)

Do charge-remote fragmentations occur under matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization post-source decompositions and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization collisionally activated decompositions? (8/5815)

The precursor ions of tetraphenylporphyrins that are substituted with fatty acids can be introduced into the gas phase by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) and undergo post-source and collisionally activated decompositions (CAD) in a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The goal of the research is to obtain a better understanding of post-source decompositions (PSD); specifically, we asked the question of whether ions undergoing PSD have sufficient energy to give charge-remote fragmentations along an alkyl chain. We chose the porphyrin macrocycle because we expected it to act as an inert "support," allowing the molecule to be desorbed by MALDI and to be amenable to charge-remote fragmentation. MALDI-PSD and MALDI-CAD spectra are similar to high-energy CAD spectra and considerably more informative than low-energy CAD spectra, showing that charge-remote fragmentations of the fatty acid moieties do occur upon MALDI-PSD and MALDI-CAD.  (+info)

Browse Sigma-Aldrichs Derivatization Reagents TLC to find products in Chromogenic & Charring agents (general), Fluorescent agents (general), Sprays, TLC Reagents, TLC Visualization (Staining) Reagents (alphabetic sort), TLC Visualization (Staining) Reagents (by application)
New, simple and cost effective spectrophotometric methods have been developed for the quality assessment of isoniazid (INH), in bulk and in pharmaceutical formulations by using novel reagents. The proposed methods involve the utility of ethyl 2-[(E)-(4-hydroxyphenyl) diazenyl]-3-oxobutanoate and benzil as novel reagents for the determination of INH. Developed methods are based on the condensation reaction of INH with reagents to give orange colored chromogen with an absorption band at 454 nm (for method A) and 436 nm (for method B). The applicability of these methods is demonstrated by the determination of the studied drug in commercial tablets and the results are statistically evaluated. The new procedures described in this paper are fast, convenient and have the novelty of carrying out the quantitative determination of INH in pure and in pharmaceutical formulation.
ChemPep supplies custom peptides, catalog peptides, generic peptides, cosmetic peptides, antibodies, Fmoc amino acids, Boc amino acids, Cbz amino acids, unusual amino acids, solid phase resins, linkers, peptide coupling reagents, N-protecting reagents; specializing in custom peptide synthesis.
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Abstract. The coupling reagent ethyl 2-cyano-2-(2-nitrobenzenesulfonyloxyimino)acetate (o-NosylOXY) produces only byproducts that can be easily recovered and reused for the synthesis of the same reagent, making coupling reactions to yield amides, hydroxamates, peptides, and esters more environmentally friendly and cost-effective.. ...
The Novabiochem® brand offers one of the most extensive ranges of high-quality coupling reagents for in situ activation on the market.
[[{type:media,view_mode:media_original,fid:4287,attributes:{alt:,class:media-image,typeof:foaf:Image}}]] We have improved the detection reagents used in our FluoroSpot assays. As of January 2, 2018, the new detection reagents are included in our FluoroSpot kits. The implemented changes only involve the tag/anti-tag reagents and do not affect the monoclonal antibodies or the biotin/streptavidin detection system.
Many chemicals are subject to strict legal stipulations.. Our offer is not directed toward consumers within the meaning of Section 13 of the German Civil Code (BGB), but exclusively toward companies (Section 14 of the German Civil Code), legal entities under public law or public-law special funds. Our products - insofar as a deviating agreement has not been reached - may not be used in unprocessed form as additives for foodstuffs or animal feed, medications for humans or animals, cosmetics or for in-vivo diagnostics purposes.. Notice: Your complete company data is required for purchasing chemicals. All new or additionally added addresses are initially examined by order processing. Please note that country-specific export restrictions apply to some products. ...
Chromatographic Specialties Inc. is a Canadian distributor of innovative chromatography products. We offer products for GC, HPLC, sample preparation, reference standards, instrumentation, and more. ...
Principal Investigator:OHRUI Hiroshi, Project Period (FY):1998 - 2000, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)., Section:一般, Research Field:Bioproduction chemistry/Bioorganic chemistry
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In recent years, amide coupling has become the most frequently used reaction in medicinal chemistry. However there are numerous reagents available.
Early buyers will receive 10% customization on reports.. This report studies the global chromatography reagents market for the forecast period of 2015 to 2020. This market is expected to reach USD 6.310 Billion by 2020 from USD 4.477 Billion in 2015, at a CAGR of 7.1%.. The global chromatography reagents market is segmented on the basis of types of reagents, applications, and regions.. Based on types, the chromatography reagents market is categorized into solvents, buffers, derivatization reagents, and ion pair reagents. In 2015, the solvents segment is estimated to account for the larger share of the chromatography reagents market.. Based on applications, the market is segmented into life sciences, environmental testing, food and beverage testing, and other application areas such as research, forensics, as a diagnostic tool, and applications in cosmetics, chemicals, oil, and petrochemical industries. Other application areas are expected to account for the largest share of the chromatography ...
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All reagents should be stored refrigerated (2-8°C). Return all reagents to 2-8°C promptly after use. Unopened reagents can be used for one year from the date of manufacture, as indicated by the expiration date on the package and bottle labels. Opened reagents can be used for one month if stored at 2-8°C ...
A multizone test device for the determination of analyte from a liquid test medium upon contact with the liquid test medium and a labeled reagent comprising a chemical group having a detectable chemical property. The test device preferably comprises multilayers including a reagent layer incorporated with an immobilized reagent and a detection layer incorporated with an immobilized form of an interactive detection reagent for the labeled reagent. The immobilized reagent in the reagent layer and the labeled reagent comprise specific binding partners which will bind to each other dependent upon the amount of analyte present. Labeled reagent which does not become bound to the immobilized reagent in the reagent layer migrates into the detection layer and interacts with the immobilized interactive detection reagent therein which results in the localized generation of a detectable reaction product which preferably is also immobilized in the detection zone. As a result, reverse migration of the labeled reagent,
All reagents should be stored refrigerated (2-8°C). Return all reagents to 2-8°C promptly after use. Unopened reagents can be used for one year from the date of manufacture, as indicated by the expiration date on the package and bottle labels. Opened reagents can be used for one month if stored at 2-8°C ...
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The Simons reagent actually consists of two reagents in two, separate bottles, marked A and B. Bottle A has a yellow label, and bottle B has a green label.. IMPORTANT: This test is to be used only after you have first received a positive result with Mandelin, Mecke or Marquis reagent. It should never be used alone. Always use one of the other reagents first to identify the presence of a particular set of substances Only afterwards should you use this test.. IMPORTANT: Never have more than one reagent bottle open at a time. If you mix up the caps and put the wrong cap on the wrong reagent bottle, this may cross-contaminate the reagents and ruin them. Be sure to perform the tests in a well-lit location.. ...
A heterogeneous specific binding assay method for determining the amount of a suspected analyte in an aqueous test medium wherein a reaction mixture is formed by combining the test medium with assay reagents including a labeled reagent, an immobilizable component, and a binding substance which causes the immobilizable component to precipitate. Free and bound species of the labeled reagent are formed as a function of the amount of the analyte in the test medium. One of the free and bound species of the labeled reagent is immobilized by binding of the immobilizable component with the binding substance. The immobilized labeled reagent is seperated from labeled reagent which has not been immobilized, and the amount of label in the labeled reagent in one of the separated fractions is determined and related to the amount of analyte in the test medium. The improvement provided is the use of an immobilizable component comprising a water dispersible, aggregatable reagent comprising a binding partner for the one
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PCR. The USB line of PCR reagents includes a range of tools for robust and accurate PCR applications. ExoSAP-IT for PCR product cleanup is a unique, single-step, enzymatic cleanup that efficiently removes primers and dNTPs prior to DNA sequencing. USB HotStart-IT products provide consistent results at an unmatched value. A variety of other reagents are available for real-time, endpoint, and long and accurate PCR.. Key applications include:. ...
Improved volatility, better thermal stability or a lower limit of detection in gas chromatography with GC derivatization reagents from MACHEREY-NAGEL.
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Buy H-D-Phe(3-Cl)-OH (CAS 80126-52-9) from P3 Biosystems, a US supplier of Phenylalanine (Phe), Unusual Amino Acids, Amino Acids, Protected Amino Acids, Peptide Coupling Reagents, Solid Phase Synthesis Resins and Peptides
Modern chemical protocols require a variety of protecting groups, coupling reagents, solvents, linkers for solid phase organic and peptide chemistry.
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In article ,199609231357.JAA11376 at,, mf at (W) wrote: #hey netters: # Ive been working on a method to isolate proteins comprising a putative #complex using an antibody to a single known protein in the complex. Ive #prepared polyclonal antibodies to the target protein, then Ive affinity #purified these antibodies and coupled them to a protein A bed (using DMP #as a covalent coupling reagent). Then Ive taken extracts from appropriate #cells that we have previously shown express the target protein and passed #them across the bed to isolate the complex. At this point things have #gotten a little difficult. Eluates from the column have shown by western #that there is a very low yield of the target protein; moreover, when Ive #taken a small amount of the bed matrix and boiled in SDS-PAGE sample #buffer, I get the target protein in expected amounts. Taken together Ive #interpreted this data as an indication that the elution conditions Im #using (0.2N Acetic acid, ...
Our salts for analysis are manufactured under strict production guidelines. Analytical purity and best quality reliably characterize each batch. Salts in p.a. quality made by Carl ROTH meet the high requirements for reproducible results. Most of our salts are additionally specified according to international standards like ACS and ISO. ...
The Centre for AIDS Reagents (CFAR) is a non-for-profit reagent repository based at the National Institute for Biological Standards and Control (NIBSC). Our mission is to acquire, archive and disseminate valuable reagents to support HIV research. Reagents are obtained through generous donations from scientists, participation in EU-funded consortia, partnerships with private companies, and our collaboration with the NIH AIDS Reagent Program. Through this network, we hope to facilitate advancement in HIV research and encourage wider networking and knowledge sharing. ...
Reagents. Details of primary and secondary antibodies used in this study are shown in Supplemental Table 1. DHE was from Invitrogen. The SCP and Nox2tat ([H]-RKKRRQRRRCSTRVRRQL-[NH2]) were provided by PeptideSynthetics (Peptide Protein Research Ltd.). All other reagents and chemicals were from Sigma-Aldrich unless otherwise stated. Animals. Nox2KO mice on a C57BL/6J background were originally obtained from the Jackson Laboratory. Nox2KO mice lack phagocyte superoxide production and manifest an increased susceptibility to infection. Littermates of WT and Nox2KO mice were bred at the University of Surrey from heterozygotes and genotyped. Animals were housed under standard conditions with a 12-hour-light/12-hour dark cycle, and food and water were available ad libitum. Male mice were randomly grouped (n = 10-12/per group) and used at young age (3-4 months), middle age (11-12 months), and old age (20-22 months) for the experiments. Endothelial cell-specific expression (under the murine Tie2 ...
The paper was one of four published by my lab in early May in Science. Collectively, these papers, along with one in June 1984 in Lancet, convinced the scientific community that HIV (then called HTLV-III) was the cause of AIDS. We described the technique and results of the HIV blood test as well as made available HIV-producing cell lines, and other reagents for the global scientific community.. Our paper in Science described frequent detection and short term culture of HIV from 48 patients with AIDS or in people with conditions defined by CDC as at great risk for AIDS; no virus was detected in blood cells obtained from 115 healthy heterosexuals. Because of the great difficulties in isolating HIV at the time, due to the low number of T cells in blood of AIDS patients and the very limited number of virologists accustomed to culturing human T cells with interleukin-2 (IL-2), I believed verification would be painfully slow. Consequently, my colleagues and I realized that a safe, simple, sensitive ...
Ion-pairing chromatography has traditionally been implemented with the addition of an ion-pairing reagent into the mobile phase. Here, an alternative method is presented, in which the ion-pairing reagent is deposited on column as a sample additive instead of in the mobile phase.
CE and FDA Approved David HCG Pregnancy Test Kit with Wholesale Price(id:11045344). ce europe detection reagent tester igg igm rapid test kit COVID-19 Rapid Test Kit / Test Covid / COVID 19 IgG/IgM / Conavirus Kit Developed-in-just-six-weeks. ce europe detection reagent tester igg igm rapid test kit drug of abuse detection, rapid diagnosis of infectious diseases and tumor detection. Because of excellent quality, such as good reproducibility and ce europe detection reagent tester igg igm rapid test kit. ...
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216 S11-E2 Page 2 Name Key I. (9 points) Answer in the boxes below the following questions for the Grignard reagent C 3 -Mg. (1) (2 points) Is the carbon atom associated with magnesium electrophilic or
Grignard Reagents Market: Pharmaceutical Industry to Remain the Dominating End User Segment Throughout the Forecast Period: NAFTA and Europe Industry Analysis and Opportunity Assessment, 2016 - 2026
Organolithium reagents are organometallic compounds that contain carbon - lithium bonds. They are important reagents in organic synthesis, and are frequently used to transfer the organic group or the lithium atom to the substrates in synthetic steps, through nucleophilic addition or simple deprotonation. Organolithium reagents are used in industry as an initiator for anionic polymerization, which leads to the production of various elastomers. They have also been applied in asymmetric synthesis in the pharmaceutical industry. Due to the large difference in electronegativity between the carbon atom and the lithium atom, the C-Li bond is highly ionic. This extremely polar nature of the C-Li bond makes organolithium reagents good nucleophiles and strong bases. For laboratory organic synthesis, many organolithium reagents are commercially available in solution form. These reagents are highly reactive, and are sometimes pyrophoric. Studies of organolithium reagents began in the 1930 and were pioneered ...
COVID-19 antigen rapid detection reagent Chinese manufacturer GYF from Brand:gyf;Model:COVID-19-jiuxiang;specification:50pcs/box; Certification:ce; Certification:fda; Certification:cfda; accuracy:98%;
Samples containing unknown levels of analytes are incubated with the antibody-coated MACSPlex Capture Beads, and analytes bind to the specific antibody. Two detection reagents, composed of a cocktail of either biotin-conjugated or APC-conjugated antibodies specific for the analytes, are added. Consequently, sandwich complexes are formed between the MACSPlex Capture Beads, the analyte and the Detection Reagent Biotin while the Detection Reagent APC binds to the biotinylated detection antibodies. These complexes can be analyzed based on the fluorescence characteristics. Standards of known quantities of given analytes are provided with the kit and are used for the quantification of the analytes within the unknown samples ...
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As part of our complete cell culture offering, Cornings comprehensive line of standard and custom media helps create an optimal environment for all stages of cell culture growth and scaling. Our broad selection of vessels, surfaces, and media support your research, development, and production needs.. Corning® sera products can help enhance your cell culture research with additions such as bovine serum albumin (BVA), hormones, growth factors, enzymes, lipids, trace elements, minerals, and nutrients. Our sera products are held to the highest level of sterility - all while meeting strict specifications for endotoxins, residual hemoglobin concentration, pH, and microbiological quality.. To achieve successful growth and consistency, media often requires nutrients, supplements, and other reagents specific to the application and cell type. Whether derived from plants or animals, or used for growing microorganisms, such as bacteria or yeast, our comprehensive line of supplements and reagents can help ...
With its low-profile support, Corning filtration systems deliver the lowest hold-up volume of any major brand to reduce the loss of valuable media and other reagents.. With its low-profile support, Corning filtration systems deliver the lowest hold-up volume of any major brand to reduce the loss of valuable media and other reagents.. Learn More ...
Ong, Quyen, Hameyer, Helge, Handa, Sheetal and Jones, Keith (2001) Synthetic studies on morphine-based analgesics: an approach to angular substitution in 4a-aryldecahydroisoquinolines via dienolate chemistry. Tetrahedron Letters, 42(44), pp. 7879-7882. ISSN (print) 0040-4039 ...
Histofine® primary antibodies and ancillary reagents are developed by Nichirei Biosciences Inc. These primary antibodies designed to stain human tissue sections are compatible with FFPE tissue sections and used for histopathological analysis. Pretreatment methods and dilutions indicated in this catalog are recommended staining conditions using the Histofine® Simple Stain™ MAX PO (MULTI) detection reagent. For other detection reagents, optimization of staining conditions is recommended.. ...
A wide range of AmpMedia products are available for the detection and quantification of various microorganisms. All AmpMedia products are available ready to use in liquid form. AmpMedia are supplemented with different indicator systems. Selection of the appropriate indicator system is driven by the specific application. As the LabImager TR is capable of the detection of any colour change, alongside with ph- and Redox indicators, the whole currently and future available chromogenic indicator system can be used. Fluorogenic substrates can also be used when the uv-imager UV-detection system will be used for detection ...
System contamination is a significant issue for labs analyzing gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) as typical methods include derivatization and liquid injection. Here, an acid conversion solvent extraction method is evaluated for compatibility with both headspace and liquid injection techniques. This extraction method can improve lab efficiency and reduce contamination by eliminating the use of derivatization reagents.
ATCC® Transfection reagents may be used for the transfer of nucleic acids for a variety of applications, including protein expression and the overexpression of mutant genes. Our transfection reagents are cationic lipid-based; due to their positive charge, these transfection reagents interact with the negatively charged backbone of nucleic acids and cell membranes. This effect, coupled with the hydrophobic nature of the associated lipids, allows the cationic lipid-DNA complex to be transported into eukaryotic cells. ATCC offers:. ...
Annexin V-Biotin Apoptosis Reagent (ab14165). Quick and reliable detection of phosphatidylserine exposure by flow cytometry or microscopy.
The inositol portion was synthesised using the key TA step which had an superb yield of 74% on using (only) 1 mol% catalyst loading, giving the desired diastereomer exclusively. This step has been improved upon the previously reported result (61% yield at 4 mol% catalyst loading). The attacment of the inositol portion to the B+C part was achieved using standard coupling reagents and on deprotection yielded Hygromycin A in 17 linear steps and 10% overall yield a great improvement over the previous synthesis ...
Proven, cost-efficient LANCE Ultra reagents can be used to quantitate peptide modifications, detecting specific meythylation and acetylation states. No wash, homogenous LANCE Ultra reagents are HTS friendly - design your own epigenetics screening strategy for greatest efficiency.. Epigenetic enzymatic assays are optimized using a biotinylated histone H3-derived peptide as substrate. The modified peptide is captured by the Eu-labeled antibody (Ab) and ULight-Streptavidin (SA) which bring the Eu donor and ULight acceptor dye molecules into close proximity. Upon irradiation at 320 or 340 nm, the energy from the Eu donor is transferred to the ULight acceptor dye which, in turn, generates light at 665 nm. The intensity of the light emission is proportional to the level of biotinylated substrate modification.. ...
Opal Polymer HRP Ms + Rb is a ready-to-use immunohistochemistry detection reagent specifically optimized for use with Opal and TSA® Plus detection reagents for maximum sensitivity, reduced incubation time and low background. This product reacts specifically with primary antibodies raised in mouse and rabbit and is part of a rapid, biotin-free detection protocol.
3-(diethoxyphosphoryloxy)-1,2,3-benzotriazin-4(3H)-one: a coupling reagent for mediating amide bond formation with little or no racemization; structure in first source
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Apparatus and methods for aspirating and dispensing reagents are provided. Aspirating of reagents is accomplished by a probe, a vial insert and reagent vial according to the present invention wherein a seal is formed between the probe and the vial insert when the probe engages the vial insert. Dispensing of reagents is accomplished by a probe and a probe dispense and wash station according to the present invention wherein a seal is formed between the probe and the vial insert when the probe engages the probe dispense and wash station.
Miyawaki and his team are currently using Scale to study mouse brains and neurons. However, they are not oblivious to the myriad other uses their new reagent has. In fact, they are working on creating similar reagents that are mild enough to use on living tissue. Maybe Ive read too much science fiction, but Im picturing a doctor painting a swab of reagent on a patients chest to look at his heart. Im pretty sure thats not how it would work though, mores the pity. ...
Alkaline Phosphatase Enhancer Reagents datasheet (ab671). Abcam offers quality products including antibodies, assays and other reagents.
One important observation about HCP immunoassays is that they occasionally give dilution-dependent results. Dilution dependence arises because the HCPs in the sample (perhaps one or a few HCPs) do not dilute in parallel with those in the standard (a mixture of 1000s of proteins). Limiting amounts of reagents can come in the form of coat, conjugate antibodies, or even Streptavidin-HRP that are associated with antigen excess and non-linear dilution behavior. It is advised to check all reagents to minimize impacts of reagent limitation sample dilution linearity. From a product purity perspective, however, sample dilution non-linearity is not an assay artifact but rather could be an important indication that a large amount of a particular HCP has co-purified with product. Phospholipase B-like 2 (PLBL2) was found to co-purify with multiple CHO-derived Mab products. It may be that this is a common impurity in Mabs produced across the biotech industry since it was found to have co-purified with ...
This product is composed of the Corona Virus COVID-19 specific dominant epitope antigen, fixed on a nitrocellulose specific membrane, a coloured latex-labelled anti-human IgM antibody release pad and other reagents. The latex immunochromatographic technology was used to detect the Corona ...
Description: Quantitativesandwich ELISA kit for measuring Human Interleukin-34(IL34) in samples from serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell culture supernates. Now available in a cost efficient pack of 5 plates of 96 wells each, conveniently packed along with the other reagents in 5 separate kits ...
Description: Quantitativesandwich ELISA kit for measuring Mouse Interleukin 17, IL-17 in samples from serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell culture supernates. Now available in a cost efficient pack of 5 plates of 96 wells each, conveniently packed along with the other reagents in 5 separate kits ...
MCF7 whole cell lysate Lysates datasheet (ab29537). Abcam offers quality products including antibodies, assays and other reagents.
Recombinant human SDF1 beta protein Full length protein datasheet (ab9800). Abcam offers quality products including antibodies, assays and other reagents.
The Thermo Scientific Pierce c-Myc Tag IP/Co-IP Kit provides the affinity resin and other reagents necessary to easily perform immunoprecipitation (IP) or co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) experiments using a c-Myc-tagged protein as the bait.The c-Myc peptide (EQKLISEEDL) has become a popular fusion ta
This report contains market size and forecasts of Immunohistochemistry Reagent in global, including the following market information: Global Immunohistochemistry Reagent Market Revenue, 2016-2021, 2022-2027, ($ millions) Global Immunohistochemistry Reagent Market Sales, 2016-2021, 2022-2027, (K Units) Global top five Immunohistochemistry Reagent companies in 2020 (%) The global Immunohistochemistry Reagent market was valued at xx million in […]. ...
Learning, knowledge, research, insight: welcome to the world of UBC Library, the second-largest academic research library in Canada.
Protein modification reagents such as SATA, HPG, Sulfo-NHS-Acetate, and Trauts Reagent are useful for adding labels to or blocking functional groups on proteins, peptides, and other molecules.
ClearChem Diagnostics offers a complete list of Drugs of Abuse reagents through Thermo Scientific. Drugs of Abuse reagents are performed for addiction treatment, medical determinations, and to provide a quick index of drug-related problem.
Performing CRISPR/Cas9 experiment using RNP? jetCRISPR is an innovative reagent designed to deliver gRNA and Cas9 protein into cells. Request your sample today!
"Indicator Reagents". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a14_127.pub2. ... A redox indicator (also called an oxidation-reduction indicator) is an indicator which undergoes a definite color change at a ... Redox Indicator example: The molecule 2,2'- Bipyridine is a redox Indicator. In solution, it changes from light blue to red at ... Chemical analysis pH indicator Complexometric indicator Ram W. Sabnis, Erwin Ross, Jutta Köthe, Renate Naumann, Wolfgang ...
"pH measurements with indicators". Retrieved 29 September 2011. "Titrating Soluble RM, R2NM and ROM Reagents" (PDF). shenvilab. ... Redox indicators are also used. A drop of indicator solution is added to the titration at the beginning; the endpoint has been ... Thus, a careful selection of the indicator will reduce the indicator error. For example, if the equivalence point is at a pH of ... Small volumes of the titrant are then added to the analyte and indicator until the indicator changes color in reaction to the ...
West, T. S. (1969). Complexometry with EDTA and related reagents (3rd ed.). Poole, UK: BDH Chemicals Ltd. pp. 14-82. Adams, ... Because indicators have intense absorption spectra, the indicator concentration is relatively low, and the indicator itself is ... Normally, the indicator causes the color of the solution to change depending on the pH. Indicators can also show change in ... In some indicators, such as phenolphthalein, one of the species is colorless, whereas in other indicators, such as methyl red, ...
"Colored Indicators for Simple Direct Titration of Magnesium and Lithium Reagents". Journal of Organometallic Chemistry. 9: 165- ... It is a colorimetric indicator for organolithium compounds. 2,2′-Biquinoline is a bidentate ligand. Unlike the related ...
The compound was once used as an indicator reagent. Aqueous solutions are yellow at low pH, reddish-purple in weakly acidic ... Murexide is used in analytical chemistry as a complexometric indicator for complexometric titrations, most often of calcium ...
"Eriochrome Black T ACS reagent indicator grade 1787-61-7". Dubenskaya, L. O.; Levitskaya, G. D. (1999). "Use of eriochrome ... When used as an indicator in an EDTA titration, the characteristic blue end-point is reached when sufficient EDTA is added and ... Eriochrome Black T is a complexometric indicator that is used in complexometric titrations, e.g. in the water hardness ... J.T. Baker MSDS Describes a procedure for determining the hardness of water using EDTA with Eriochrome indicator (Chemical ...
Cobalticyanide paper (Rinnmann's test for Zn) can be used as a chemical indicator for zinc. 4 g of K3Co(CN)6 and 1 g of KClO3 ... Diethylzinc ((C 2H5) 2Zn) is a reagent in synthetic chemistry. It was first reported in 1848 from the reaction of zinc and ... These considerations must be balanced against the paucity of adequate zinc biomarkers, and the most widely used indicator, ... Knochel, Paul; Jones, Philip (1999). Organozinc reagents: A practical approach. ISBN 978-0-19-850121-3. Archived from the ...
... can also be used in place of Schiff reagent in quantitative Feulgen staining of DNA. It can also be used to mediate ... Thionine is a pH-dependent redox indicator with E0 = 0.06 at pH 7.0. Its reduced form, leuco-thionine, is colorless. When both ...
Universal indicator consists of a mixture of indicators such that there is a continuous color change from about pH 2 to pH 10. ... One way to provide them is to apply the law of mass conservation in terms of the two "reagents" H and A. C A = [ A ] + [ HA ... Universal indicator paper is made from absorbent paper that has been impregnated with universal indicator. Another method of ... Indicators may be used to measure pH, by making use of the fact that their color changes with pH. Visual comparison of the ...
H. tubulosa is an indicator species of old-growth forests. In China, H. physodes and H. pseudoenteromorpha are used as raw ... materials in the preparation of litmus reagent. In 15th-century Europe, Hypogymnia physodes was one component (in addition to ...
The waves continue until the reagents are consumed. The reaction can also be performed in a beaker using a magnetic stirrer. ... Ferroin, a complex of phenanthroline and iron, is a common indicator. These reactions, if carried out in petri dishes, result ...
It is chosen under the spectrophotometric determination method and used as indicator because the reagent forms different ... Benedict's reagent Tollens' reagent Lucas' reagent Drug checking "spiro(3h-2,1-benzoxathiole-3,9'-(9h)xanthene)-3',4',5',6'- ... Bromopyrogallol red is commonly used in analytical chemistry as a spectrophotometric reagent and complexometric indicator. When ... Instead of an indicator, bromopyrogallol red is now used as a catalyst, and its reaction rate depends upon enzyme and substrate ...
Reagent testing uses chemical indicators that show a colour change in the presence of particular drugs. These tests are widely ... and Mecke reagents being used to detect MDMA and Ehrlich's reagent common for detecting LSD. However, reagent testing only ... This can provide a false sense of security when illicit drugs are deliberately adulterated to fool reagent tests. The presence ... CS1: long volume value, CS1 French-language sources (fr), Drug culture, Drug safety, Drug testing reagents, Harm reduction). ...
4-Biphenylacetic Acid and 4-Biphenylcarboxylic Acid/Triphenylmethane as Indicators in the Titration of Lithium Alkyls. Study of ... Organolithium reagents are also better than Grignard reagents in their ability to react with carboxylic acids to form ketones. ... These reagents are highly reactive, and are sometimes pyrophoric. Studies of organolithium reagents began in the 1930s and were ... Organolithium reagents can also carry out nucleophilic attacks with epoxides to form alcohols. Organolithium reagents provide a ...
They then worked to develop other strips that could test for key indicators of diseases, such as proteins and ketones. ... They did this by making an impermeable barrier between the multiple reagents on the strip. Several other testing strips were ... Originally they researched different antibiotics before they moved on to dry reagent systems. The first thing Alfred and his ... "INDICATOR FOR DETECTING GLUCOSE" Bohning, James J. (December 14, 1998). Helen Murray Free, Transcript of an Interview Conducted ...
... (Gibbs reagent) is an organic compound used as an colorimetric indicator to detect phenolic ... Upon reaction with phenol itself, 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol is formed, a chemical that is used as a redox indicator. Arip, ... Svobodová, D.; Křenek, P.; Fraenkl, M.; Gasparič, J. (1977). "Colour Reaction of Phenols with the Gibbs Reagent. The Reaction ... Gibbs reagent) with permethrin - an optical sensor for rapid detection of permethrin in treated wood". Chem Cent J. 7: 122. doi ...
Starch is often used in chemistry as an indicator for redox titrations where triiodide is present. Starch forms a very dark ... A very sensitive reagent for iodines, found in starch (amidone)]. Annalen der Physik. 49 (1-2): 146-153. Bibcode:1815AnP....49 ... Naiman, Barnet (1937). "Preservation of starch indicator". Journal of Chemical Education. 14 (3): 138. Bibcode:1937JChEd..14.. ... "Kinetic Analysis of Amylase Using Quantitative Benedict's and Iodine Starch Reagents". Journal of Chemical Education. 85 (3): ...
Cell Assays reagents and kits (i.e. FluoProbes indicators, high sensitive viability assay UptiBlue) and an innovate ... Interchim is a privately owned French company specialized in manufacturing and distribution of reagents, consumables and ...
... is soluble in water and has applications as a coloring agent, biological stain, optical detecting reagent, and a pH ... indicator. One example would be the measurement of intracellular pH. Pyranine is also found in yellow highlighters, giving them ...
Chemical tests use reagents to indicate the presence of a specific chemical in an unknown solution. The reagents cause a unique ... If no visible change is present, an indicator is added to the solution. For example, a pH indicator changes color based on the ... The amount of reagent required for a change to occur is proportional to the amount of the unknown substances. This reveals the ... A reagent with a known volume and concentration is added to a solution with an unknown substance and concentration. ...
... is an organic reagent, most commonly used as a tetrasodium salt as an indicator for metal titrations. When used ... Analytical reagents, Triarylmethane dyes, Benzoxathioles, Acetic acids, All stub articles, Organic compound stubs). ...
Typical tests involve titrations with weighable, anhydrous protic reagents, e.g. menthol in the presence of a color-indicator. ... Although the reagents still need to be dry, ultrasound can allow Grignard reagents to form in wet solvents by activating the ... Grignard reagents react with a variety of carbonyl derivatives. The most common application of Grignard reagents is the ... Formation of the Grignard reagent is complete. A small amount of magnesium still remains in the flask. The Grignard reagent ...
Later, the filter is tested with Nessler's reagent (an ammonia indicator) and a spectrophotometer reads the amount of ammonia ... through the tube and ammonia sticks to the filters which can then be tested for NH3 concentrations using Nessler's reagent and ...
The activity of glutathione reductase is used as indicator for oxidative stress. The activity can be monitored by the NADPH ... consumption, with absorbance at 340 nm, or the formed GSH can be visualized by Ellman's reagent. Alternatively the activity can ...
Indicator-H+(Yellow) + Protein → Indicator(Blue-green) + Protein-H+ The major source of error with reagent strips occurs with ... Traditional reagent strip testing for protein uses the principle of the protein error of indicators to produce a visible ... Contrary to the general belief that indicators produce specific colours in response to particular pH levels, certain indicators ... Reagent strip tests can detect concentrations as low as five red blood cells per microliter; however, care must be taken when ...
The reagent pad contains an indicator that is buffered to a pH of 3, which changes from yellow to green in the presence of ... The presence of nitrites, which causes a pink color on the reagent strip pad, therefore acts as an indicator of urinary tract ... The consequent pH change is measured using a pH indicator. The reading obtained from reagent strips, as opposed to ... pH indicators are used to measure the pH of the sample. Urine pH varies with diet and a wide range of values occur in healthy ...
These reagents are added to a flask, mixed, and the flask is stoppered. The initial color of the solution is blue, but upon ... The reaction also works with other reducing agents besides glucose and other redox indicator dyes besides methylene blue. The ... These, in turn, can be affected by reagent concentration and temperature. In most cases, the overall reaction rate is ... The glucose solution is added to the solution containing indicator (dye indigo carmine) the color changes occur. This reaction ...
Sometimes a humidity indicator is included in the desiccant to show, by color changes, the degree of water-saturation of the ... Studies show that molecular sieves are superior as desiccants relative to chemical drying reagents such as sodium-benzophenone ... One commonly used indicator is cobalt chloride (CoCl2). Anhydrous cobalt chloride is blue. When it bonds with two water ... Desiccator Humidity buffering Humidity indicator card Moisture sorption isotherm Solar air conditioning Oxygen scavenger ( ...
During incubation, metabolism produces color changes that are either spontaneous or revealed by the addition of reagents. For ... the pH within the well decreases and that change is indicated by a change in the color of the pH indicator. All positive and ...
If the molecule has not been well characterized, or has only one mAb, it is usually given the provisional indicator "w" (as in ... "CDw186"). For instance, CD2 mAbs are reagents that react with a 50‐kDa transmembrane glycoprotein expressed on T cells. The CD ...
For example, when preparing Grignard reagents, magnesium (the cheapest reagent) is often used in excess, which reacts to remove ... Thus, sodium/benzophenone can be used as an indicator of air-free and moisture-free conditions in the purification of solvents ... A number of reagents can be used to detect and/or destroy O2 and water. Deeply colored radicals are often used because they ... One such reagent is benzophenone ketyl, which is easily generated by this reaction Na + Ph2CO → Na+Ph2CO•− This deep purple ...
Even so, one report claims that a conventional 13.6% NaOCl reagent solution lost 17% of its strength after being stored for 360 ... using starch as indicator, until the blue color disappears. According to one US patent, the stability of sodium hypochlorite ...
The first step is an oxidation of testosterone with Jones reagent to afford androst-4-ene-3,17-dione with a 73% yield. Step 2 ... In 1993, Formestane was introduced as Lenatron in to the market with the indicators for advanced cancer in postmenauposal women ... The synthesis of exemestane also consists of three steps, as shown in figure 3. First off, a Vilsmeier-Haack reagent is ... The internal temperature of the reagent is then cooled to 10-15 °C, before adding commercially available boldenone (androsta-1, ...
... has a number of advantages over other Ca2+ indicators. Because the protein is large, it has a low leakage rate from ... This has also explained the need for a thiol reagent like beta mercaptoethanol in the regeneration of the protein since such ... Cellular Ca2+ ion indicators". Biochem. J. 270 (2): 309-312. doi:10.1042/bj2700309. PMC 1131721. PMID 2400391. Ridgway EB, ... Miyawaki A, Llopis J, Heim R, McCaffery JM, Adams JA, Ikura M, Tsien RY (1997). "Fluorescent indicators for Ca2+ based on green ...
A significant result is widely seen as an important indicator that the correlation is not random. While correlations track the ... such as chemical reagents) necessary to reproduce the results. In 2008 some 60% of researchers said they would share raw data; ...
Its compounds will be called hypochlorites.) Unangst, P. C. "Hypochlorous Acid" in Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic ... McFeters, GA; Camper, AK (1983). Enumeration of indicator bacteria exposed to chlorine. Advances in Applied Microbiology. Vol. ...
Grignard reagents may be similarly titrated. Ferroin - Complex of Fe2+ by ortho-phenantroline Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry ... It is used as a redox indicator with standard potential +1.06 V. The reduced ferrous form has a deep red colour and the ... The alkyllithium content of solutions can be determined by treatment of such reagents with small amounts of phenanthroline (ca ... 9, p. 653 Lin, Ho-Shen; Paquette, Leo A. (1994). "A Convenient Method for Determining the Concentration of Grignard Reagents". ...
Careful lab monitoring of health indicators showed no side effects of MSM supplementation and no adverse events were reported. ... Hareau G, Kocienski P (2001). "Dimethyl Sulfone". Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis. doi:10.1002/047084289X.rd371 ...
The companies manufacturing reagents and equipment are 70 per cent United States owned, which makes it difficult to purchase ... "Renaissance and decay: A comparison of socioeconomic indicators in pre-Castro and current-day Cuba" (PDF). Archived from the ... Pan American Health Organization, Health situation in the Americas: Basic Indicators 2008 [2] page 9, "resources, access & ... ISBN 978-0-691-03445-4. "Cuba Demographic indicators". Pan American Health Organization. Cusack, Carmen (2010). "Healthcare in ...
These contributions included new reagents for certain types of titrations. One such new reagent, Oesper's Salt, is named for ... This improved indicator resulted in better testing results. He published this finding in 1934. Following extensive European ... 2013). Indicators: International Series of Monographs in Analytical Chemistry. Elsevier. p. 588. ISBN 978-1483118970. Oesper, R ... A further contribution to analytical chemistry was his demonstration of the use of naphthidine as an indicator for certain ...
In NSCLC samples, low miR-324a levels may serve as an indicator of poor survival. Either high miR-185 or low miR-133b levels ... miRNA modulation reagents to enable up-regulation or suppression of endogenous mature microRNA function (Articles with short ...
Mechanical and electromechanical indicators - General requirements ISO 269:1985 Correspondence envelopes - Designation and ... Control test with Agulhon's reagent [Withdrawn without replacement] ISO 758:1976 Liquid chemical products for industrial use - ... 1983 Radiographic image quality indicators for non-destructive testing - Principles and identification [Withdrawn: replaced ...
"World Population Prospects 2022: Demographic indicators by region, subregion and country, annually for 1950-2100" (XSLX). ... that they were running short on reagents required for COVID-19 testing and expected to be able to continue testing for three ...
Spectroscopic indicators are the D2O-exchangeable SH signal in the 1H NMR spectrum (33S is NMR-active but signals for divalent ... Thiols, especially in the presence of base, are readily oxidized by reagents such as bromine and iodine to give an organic ... NaHSO4 Organolithium compounds and Grignard reagents react with sulfur to give the thiolates, which are readily hydrolyzed: RLi ... disulfide (R−S−S−R). 2 R−SH + Br2 → R−S−S−R + 2 HBr Oxidation by more powerful reagents such as sodium hypochlorite or hydrogen ...
No materials or reagents used in the PCR and analysis rooms should ever be taken into the PCR preparation room without thorough ... Sequence-tagged sites is a process where PCR is used as an indicator that a particular segment of a genome is present in a ... Reagents should be dispensed into single-use aliquots. Pipettors with disposable plungers and extra-long pipette tips should be ... It requires no more than a test tube, a few simple reagents, and a source of heat." DNA fingerprinting was first used for ...
The technique itself reduces the use of a larger volume of reagent needed, which inevitably will lower experiment cost. Also, ... "Droplet digital PCR for simultaneous quantification of general and human-associated fecal indicators for water quality ...
... indicators and reagents MeSH D27.720.470.410.080 - affinity labels MeSH D27.720.470.410.080.600 - photoaffinity labels MeSH ... reagent kits, diagnostic MeSH D27.720.470.410.680.680 - reagent strips MeSH D27.720.470.410.690 - reducing agents MeSH D27.720. ... 470.410.700 - sulfhydryl reagents MeSH D27.720.470.410.750 - thiobarbituric acid reactive substances MeSH D27.720.470.420 - ion ... D27.720.470.410.200 - chromogenic compounds MeSH D27.720.470.410.210 - cross-linking reagents MeSH D27.720.470.410.360 - ...
Aided by phenanthroline indicators, he produced hexanitratocerate as a primary standard. Studies of periodic acid, iodic acid, ... and acquired Ericsen Instruments' Karl Fischer reagent business (now the Watermark brand), and several other specialty organic ... Smith started producing commercial quantities of 1,10-phenanthroline and its derivatives, producing a range of indicators for ... and Analytical Reagents & Research Chemicals Catalog Division. The Smith Chemical Company was started in G. Frederick Smith's ...
Philo of Byzantium may be the first writer known to describe an invisible ink using a reagent around 217-218 BC, with oak galls ... Phenolphthalein, commonly used as a pH indicator, turns pink in the presence of a base such as ammonia fumes or sodium ... Vinegar contains acetic acid that affects the pH indicator in red cabbage water. Vinegar may also be developed by heat, as ...
Instead of precious metal-containing NOx absorbers, most manufacturers selected base-metal SCR systems that use a reagent such ... and will operate a malfunction indicator lamp and affect engine performance. Simple "oxygen sensor simulators" have been ...
Furthermore, vitamin E specifically is known to decrease DHCEO levels, which is an indicator of oxidative stress in SLOS, as ... When treated with the LB reagent, SLOS samples turn pink immediately and gradually become blue; normal blood samples are ... and may be used as indicators of SLOS. Other cholesterol derivatives which possess a double bond at the 7th or 8th position and ... reagent. This is a simple colorimetric assay developed with the intention of use for large scale screening. ...
Other important indicators include parental concern, clinical instinct, and temperature greater than 40 °C. Many diagnostic ... Instrumentation can control sampling, reagent use, reaction times, signal detection, calculation of results, and data ... quantified the importance of increased pain as an indicator of infection. The review showed that the most useful finding is an ... however the tests are costly to develop and the reagents used in the test often require refrigeration. Some serological methods ...
James S. Nowick, Guido Lutterbach, "Sodium Bromide" in Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis John Wiley & Sons, 2001. ... Bromothymol blue is a popular indicator in analytical chemistry. Commercially available organobromine pharmaceuticals include ...
If one knows the moles of each enantiomer produced then: Enantiomeric excess is used as one of the indicators of the success of ... "Asymmetric reductions with chiral reagents from lithium aluminum hydride and (+)-(2S,3R)-4-dimethylamino-3-methyl-1,2-diphenyl- ...
Indicator organisms are used because even when a person is infected with a more pathogenic bacteria, they will still be ... The composition of the nutrient usually includes reagents that resist the growth of non-target organisms and make the target ... When indicator organisms levels exceed pre-set triggers, specific analysis for pathogens may then be undertaken and these can ... Indicator organisms are bacteria such as non-specific coliforms, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa that are very ...
The main selenium indicator plants are Astragalus species (including some locoweeds), prince's plume (Stanleya sp.), woody ... Selenium dichloride is an important reagent in the preparation of selenium compounds (e.g. the preparation of Se7). It is ... Certain species of plants are considered indicators of high selenium content of the soil because they require high levels of ...
Biological substances, international standards and reference reagents : 1990  World Health Organization (‎World Health ... study report and proposal to establish WHO reference reagents / D. Xing ... [‎et al]‎  ... on the availability and specifications of international biological standards and international biological reference reagents. ...
2022 Buffers and Reagents. Theme by Clean Themes. bioPLUS™ Buffers and Reagents ...
As an indicator for alkyllithium reagents[edit]. Alkyllithium reagents form deeply colored derivatives with phenanthroline. The ... 1 mg) followed by titration with alcohols to a colourless endpoint.[20] Grignard reagents may be similarly titrated.[21] ... Altman, Ryan A. (2008). "1,10-Phenanthroline, 4,7-Dimethoxy". Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis. eEROS. doi: ... Lin, Ho-Shen; Paquette, Leo A. (1994). "A Convenient Method for Determining the Concentration of Grignard Reagents". Synth. ...
Blood grouping reagents : preparation and application methods / by T. C. F. Roy, G. S. Nicholson, F. A. Ala. by Roy, T. C. F , ... Specifications for reagents mentioned in the International pharmacopoeia. Material type: Text; Format: print Publication ... Production of basic diagnostic laboratory reagents / J. Frei ... [et al.] ; editors : C. C. Heuck, M. M. El-Nageh, L. Poller. ... AIDS research and reference reagent program catalog / National Institutes of Health. by National Institutes of Health (U.S.). ...
7460-E LaMotte Salinity Indicator Reagent A throughout the US and Canada. Purchase online from Promag Enviro for your water ...
Reagents and Materials *Heart Infusion broth with 1% carbohydrate and 0.16 brom cresol purple indicator. Most of the ... Reagents and Materials. LAP disk (Remel). PYR reagent. Loops. Deionized Sterile water ... Reagents and Materials. PYR disk (Remel). PYR reagent. Loops. Deionized Sterile water ... Reagents and Materials. TSA-sheep blood agar. *Procedure *The CAMP test is performed on TSA-sheep blood agar. A single streak ...
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Indicators and Reagents [‎6]‎. Interinstitutional Relations [‎35]‎. International Agencies [‎32]‎. International Cooperation [‎ ...
Indicators and Reagents [‎1]‎. Indonesia [‎3]‎. Industrial Development [‎1]‎. Industrial Waste [‎2]‎. ...
In health care, technology includes drugs; diagnostics, indicators and reagents; devices, equipment and supplies; medical and ... Biomarker: (or biological marker) an objectively measured variable or trait that is used as an indicator of a normal biological ... Endpoint: a measure or indicator chosen for determining an effect of an intervention. ... increase in CD4+ cell counts as an indicator of improved survival of HIV/AIDS patients, and a negative culture as a predictor ...
... is a public repository for biological activity data of small molecules and RNAi reagents. The mission of PubChem is to deliver ... is a public repository for biological activity data of small molecules and RNAi reagents. The mission of PubChem is to deliver ... Indicators and Reagents * Molecular Structure * RNA Interference* * Software Substances * Indicators and Reagents ...
Indicators and Dyes. Carl ROTH offers many indicators and dyes of high purity, which can be used in special applications. ...
A simple questionnaire was designed based on the key indicators of schistosomiasis. Each child was asked to respond (yes/no) to ... The urine reagent strip method is a cheap (at least 3 times cheaper than the filtration diagnostic method [22]), easy to ... Rapid diagnosis of schistosomiasis in Yemen using a simple questionnaire and urine reagent strips ... The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of a simple morbidity questionnaire coupled with urine reagent strip ( ...
Reagent calculator siRNA/miRNA calculator for screening DharmaFECT calculator for screening BioIT beta tools P-value to Z-score ... Transfection Indicators are intended as a qualitative indicator of delivery and should not be used for quantitative estimation ... siGLO Red Transfection Indicator A novel Cy3-labeled, RISC-independent control, modified to localize to the nucleus as a clear ... siGLO Green Transfection Indicator (50 nM) was transfected into HeLa cells with DharmaFECT 1 (0.15 ug/100 uL well). After 24 ...
Indicators and Reagents. *Irrigating Solutions. *Laboratory Chemicals. *Laxatives. *Osmotic Laxatives. *Pharmaceutic Aids ...
Buy your Taylor Technologies R-0638O-C Taylor Phenolphthalein Indicator Liquid Reagent, 2 oz with Orange Cap, Dropper Bottle ( ... Taylor Phenolphthalein Indicator Liquid Reagent, 2 oz with Orange Cap, Dropper Bottle (each) ... Taylor Phenolphthalein Indicator Liquid Reagent, 2 oz with Orange Cap, Dropper Bottle (each). ...
The Altmetric Attention Score for a research output provides an indicator of the amount of attention that it has received. The ... Suboptimal Handling of Piccolo Samples or Reagent Discs for Consideration in Ebola Response On This Page ... Finally, we assessed effects of storing reagent discs at room temperature or 32°C for varying lengths of time. Although discs ... Suboptimal Handling of Piccolo Samples or Reagent Discs for Consideration in Ebola Response. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019 ...
Analysis Reagent & Biological Reagent,E General Analytical Chemical Reagents,RE04 Indicators ... you can find the chemical specification and price under the catalogue High Purity Reagent, ... Ⅳ.Chiral Reagents,Chiral Building Blocks Chiral Reagents. Chiral Resolution Reagents Asymmetric Synthesis Reagents Chiral ... High Purity Reagent,Analysis Reagent & Biological Reagent C High Purity Inorganic Chemical Reagents. D High Purity Organic ...
Indicators and Reagents [‎6]‎. Interinstitutional Relations [‎35]‎. International Agencies [‎32]‎. International Cooperation [‎ ...
Categories: Indicators and Reagents Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
... this precludes any ascorbic acid interference with the subsequent POD indicator reaction. Upon addition of the starter reagent ... Sample and addition of R1 (blank reagent) - Addition of R2 (Biuret reagent) and start of the reaction: Divalent copper reacts ... The indicator reaction utilizes the pyruvate for a kinetic determination of NADH consumption. As a group the transaminases ... The indicator reaction utilizes the oxaloacetate for a kinetic determination of NADH consumption. As a group the transaminases ...
Replace damaged or contaminated reagents and supplies;. *If the laboratory has a steam autoclave, verify the quality of the ... steam and determine if the equipment needs repair prior to validation testing with mechanical and biological indicators; ...
pH Indicator Solution Phenol Red-2000 Series 16oz AVAILABLE FOR PURCHASE IN CONTINENTAL US ONLY ... Thiosulfate N/10 Reagent 2 oz SKU: R-0007-C. $5.97 Add to Cart ...
The indicator solution is especially useful in weakly buffered solutions. ... Reagent UNISOL 410 forColorimetric pH determination in the range of 4−10. ... Reagent UNISOL 410 for colorimetric pH determination in the range of 4−10. The indicator solution is especially useful in ... Reagent UNISOL 410 for colorimetric pH determination in the range of 4−10. The indicator... more ...
See best offers on pH Indicator Solution #14, .75 oz. from Leslies Pool Supplies. ... Note: their brown plastic bottles help protect very light-sensitive reagents.) Segregating reagents from containers of ... All reagents have a shelf life, whether they are liquids, powders, crystals, tablets, or test-strip pads. If kept dry, powders ... Storing reagents at a consistent temperature in the range if 36-85F (2-29C); extreme temperature fluctuation, say from a ...
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Taylor Technologies R-0004 pH Indicator Reagent, 2 Ounce. Taylor Technologies R-0004 pH Indicator Reagent, 2 OunceTaylor R-0004 ... Taylor R-0004-A Ph Indicator Refill .75 ounce. The taylor r-0004-a ph indicator solution is a Replacement reagent for the ... Taylor Replacement Reagents Total Alkalinity #8-2 oz.. Taylor Replacement Reagents Total Alkalinity #8-2 oz.Quality Taylor ...
  • Segregating reagents from containers of treatment chemicals. (
  • Since 1989, FC-BIOS has been a leading source of laboratory & process supplies including cosumables, equipments, chemicals & reagents. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: A single reagent method of phosphate estimation in phosphatase(s) assay. (
  • Herein, we explored the diagnostic value of various ß-D-glucan assay reagents. (
  • CONCLUSION: Despite the high diagnostic value of ß-D-glucan detection in invasive fungal infections, caution should be exercised in interpreting the value of the assay reagents. (
  • During the assay the swabbed protein residues react with the indicator molecule. (
  • We can test for the presence of these important compounds in food by using chemical reagents that react in predictable ways in the presence of these nutrients. (
  • Chemical reagents. (
  • Reagent UNISOL 410 for colorimetric pH determination in the range of 4−10. (
  • Development of colorimetric indicators: a new technique to determine glutaraldehyde and alkaline glutaraldehyde contamination. (
  • Colorimetric redox indicator methods. (
  • What I mean is, won't there still be difficulty determining even approximate semantic equivalency for all of the details of data provenance - many of which absolutely must be resolved in order to perform large-scale re- pooling of related observations made in the context of different studies - even if nearly identical assays/instruments/reagents are used? (
  • However, self-reported dysuria, self-reported haematuria in the questionnaire and microhaematuria by reagent strips (alone or with macrohaematuria) revealed good diagnostic performance. (
  • BACKGROUND: ß-D-glucan detection is a useful diagnostic indicator of invasive mycosis. (
  • En cas de suspicion du paludisme en zone impaludée, il parait non négligeable de considérer la COVID-19 comme un diagnostic différentiel. (
  • Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. (
  • Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. (
  • Taylor Replacement Reagents Total Alkalinity #8-2 oz. (
  • Taylor Replacement Reagents Total Alkalinity #8-2 oz.Quality Taylor brand test kit reagents, for you. (
  • 1.4 All applicable ASTM Standards are expected to reference one or more of these reagent water types where reagent water is needed as a component of an analytical measurement process. (
  • Leucogentian violet and leucomalachite green are used as precursors in the production of their parent compounds and have direct applications as chromogenic reagents in analytical chemistry and as radiochromic indicators in dosimeters. (
  • [7] It is used as a redox indicator with standard potential +1.06 V. The reduced ferrous form has a deep red colour and the oxidised form is light-blue. (
  • CD4+ T-lymphocyte levels are also used as prognostic indicators in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease (8). (
  • Similar to A-23187, 4-Bromo A-23187 is used for in situ calibrations of fluorescent Ca 2+ indicators to equilibrate intracellular and extracellular calcium concentrations and to allow Mn 2+ to enter cells to quench indicator fluorescence. (
  • Carl ROTH offers many indicators and dyes of high purity, which can be used in special applications. (
  • Biotium offers a wide range of calcium indicator dyes, including Fluo-4 AM Ester , a bright and cell permeable dye that is used for high-throughput screening. (
  • The calcium indicator dyes vary in their calcium dissociation constant (Kd), color and brightness. (
  • This study assessed the validity of a morbidity questionnaire and urine reagent strips as a rapid tool for screening schoolchildren for urinary schistosomiasis as compared with the presence of eggs in urine as the gold-standard parasitological diagnosis. (
  • The results indicated that reagent strips are a valid method for detection of microhaematuria for identifying individuals and communities infected with Schistosoma haematobium. (
  • Calcium and magnesium ions react with an indicator to form a red complex compound. (
  • RIDA®CHECK indicators are able to cross-react with bio-degradable disinfectants (mainly Chlorhexidine) which are almost entirely used for clinical or pharmaceutical purposes. (
  • Spectrophotometric analyzers determine the concentration of chlorine dioxide by measuring the optical absorbance of the indicator in the sample solution. (
  • Note: their brown plastic bottles help protect very light-sensitive reagents. (
  • pH Indicator Solution 16oz. (
  • The indicator solution is especially useful in weakly buffered solutions. (
  • Taylor pH Indicator Solution #14 .75 oz. (
  • Taylor Technologies R-0014-A pH Indicator Solution #14, .75 oz. (
  • The taylor r-0004-a ph indicator solution is a Replacement reagent for the taylor test kits. (
  • The indicator is released from this compound by titration with a solution of ethylenedinitrilotetraacetic acid disodium salt dihydrate (Titriplex ® III). (
  • Biuret reagent is a blue solution that, when it reacts with protein, will change color to pink-purple. (
  • Add 3 drops of Biuret reagent solution to each test tube. (
  • Vitamin C Reagent (dichlorophenolindophenol) indicator solution is blue. (
  • A colorless end point will be reached when a solution containing vitamin C (such as orange juice) is added to this indicator. (
  • First, prepare test solution by grinding vitamin C reagent tablet into a powder using a mortar and pestle or back of a spoon. (
  • Fill each with 50 drops of blue vitamin C indicator solution. (
  • Now add juice one drop at a time to the indicator solution in the test tube. (
  • To completely solublize the Calcium Indicator, keep the reconstituted Calcium Indicator at room temperature for 10 minutes before the preparation of 1X Dye-loading solution. (
  • 3. To prepare 1X Dye-loading Solution for one cell plate, pipette 10 ml of 1X PBX Signal Enhancer to a separate tube, add 10 µl of Calcium Indicator to 10 ml of 1X PBX Signal Enhancer, mix by inverting the tube several times. (
  • When the solution turns a faint pink color, then we can determine how much reagent was added and calculate potash. (
  • A more satisfactory starch solution for use as an indicator is prepared as follows:* Mix 5.0 gm.of powdered sodium starch glycollate with 1-2 ml. ethyl alcohol, add 100ml. (
  • We also add thiazole yellow as the endpoint indicator for titration. (
  • Upright vacuum cleaner refrigeration equipment should be considered designed for storage a number of reagents and even freeze-dried programs, and even go along with powder-coated stainless-steel cabinets designed for very easy maintaining as a result of leaks. (
  • Blood grouping reagents : preparation and application methods / by T. C. F. Roy, G. S. Nicholson, F. A. Ala. (
  • Blood glucose tests using capillary blood samples, reagent sticks, and blood glucose meters are the usual methods for monitoring day-to-day diabetes control. (
  • No preparation of reagents, no laboratory equipment. (
  • Using the Piccolo Xpress point-of-care blood chemistry analyzer on guinea pig blood, we found that values of many analytes are still readily comparable when samples and reagent discs are handled at various conditions outside of manufacturer recommendations. (
  • This platform, together with the General Chemistry 13 reagent disc used here, is widely used in past and ongoing Ebola outbreak responses ( 3 - 6 ) and in laboratory research on viral pathogenesis, therapeutics, and vaccine efficacy ( 7 - 9 ). (
  • Because of the hazardous nature of the reagents, "Free Shipping" does not apply to this product and shipping restrictions may apply. (
  • Transfection Indicators are intended as a qualitative indicator of delivery and should not be used for quantitative estimation of experimental results (e.g. gene knockdown or knockout). (
  • Calcium Indicator should be protected from light and stored at -20˚C. 10X PBX Signal Enhancer should be stored at room temperature. (
  • 1. Remove a vial of Calcium Indicator from -20°C, and allow to sit at room temperature for 5 minutes to warm up. (
  • 4. Aliquot the unused Calcium Indicator to several microfuge tubes, seal tightly and store at -20°C. 1X PBX Signal Enhancer could be stored at room temperature. (
  • This flotation process has been applied in many copper sulphide ore and got good economic indicators. (
  • The aim of the study was to develop a new indicator sensor pad for detection of glutaraldehyde permeation of chemical protective gloves. (
  • This kit includes an acid reagent and pH paper to adjust the sample to the correct 2.8 pH and a fluoride suppressor reagent. (
  • competence of laboratory staff, improve laboratory infrastructure, maintain or replace old, obsolete or inadequately serviced equipment, provide for uninterrupted supply of essential laboratory reagents and consumables, and ensure appropriate quality assurance and quality control of laboratory examinations. (
  • A database about Preparation of Laboratory Reagents. (
  • If chlorine dioxide is present, the indicator chemical in the tube will change color. (
  • Spectrophotometry (or colorimetry) has been used to measure chlorine dioxide in water using indicators that change colors when oxidized by chlorine dioxide. (
  • Practically every reagent expected on chemical make up studies usually requires refrigeration, as well as will have to be preserved within a proper warmth in order to consistent. (
  • A lot of these refrigeration equipment can be responsible simply because moreover storage highly consistent reagents, simply because every the require is with living room warmth. (
  • Tabulates key information on the availability and specifications of international biological standards and international biological reference reagents. (
  • PubChem ( is a public repository for biological activity data of small molecules and RNAi reagents. (
  • extreme temperature fluctuation, say from a refrigerator to a hot car trunk, causes reagents to deteriorate. (
  • Linked to consists of an important more dry temperature designed for dehydrated reagents, and items that can be slippery in some cases fluid toxic contamination. (
  • A reagent to distinguish aqueous from non-aqueous liquids could quite conceivably be mounted on paper, he says, making it no more challenging to use than universal indicator or litmus paper and providing another level of screening in security. (
  • The isolation of candidate events independent of target-specific epitopes is successfully demonstrated for HL60 (EpCAM positive) and sk-mel28 (EpCAM negative) cells using identical protocols and reagents. (
  • It is currently the most sensitive enzymatic indicator of liver disease, with normal values rarely found in the presence of hepatic disease. (
  • Reagecon has introduced a range of Reagents and Standard Solutions for the Pharmacopoeias. (
  • Adds reagents or indicator solutions, and subjects specimens for processing to operations such as heating, filtering or titrating. (
  • From flow cytometers and sorters for simple to complex research applications to an extensive selection of reagents, tools, educational resources and protocols, we support you in navigating your multicolor flow cytometry workflow journey. (
  • Historically, reagent water Types I, II, III, and IV have been linked to specific processes for their production. (
  • The ground fertilizer sample is dissolved in water and then reagents are added to it including sodium tetraphenylboron. (
  • Avoiding switching bottle caps, placing bottle caps on soiled surfaces, repouring reagents into contaminated containers, or touching test strip pads. (
  • Beginning at age 12 years, perform an annual urinalysis to test for a slightly increased AER, referred to as microalbuminuria, which is an indicator of risk for diabetic nephropathy. (
  • This flotation process can reduce the dosage of flotation reagents and optimize flotation index. (
  • Patient plasma and reagent RBC suspension are placed at the top of the tube and then centrifuged. (
  • AIDS research and reference reagent program catalog / National Institutes of Health. (
  • In the cyanmethemoglobin method, a fixed quantity of blood is diluted with a reagent and haemoglobin concentration is determined after a fixed time interval in an accurate, well calibrated photometer. (
  • Serum and tissue nitrite was estimated using Greiss reagent and served as an indicator of NO production. (
  • To investigate the utility of data from samples or reagent discs handled under suboptimal conditions, we evaluated 14 conditions outside of manufacturer recommendations by using Strain 13/N guinea pig blood and plasma samples. (
  • We then evaluated 2 blood collection anticoagulants, 8 sample storage conditions, and 4 reagent disc storage conditions. (
  • The presence of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) in the blood of a patient, as found in most forms of epithelial cancer 1 - 5 , has been identified as a reliable indicator of the prognosis of various cancer types. (