North AmericaIndians, North American: Individual members of North American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.IndiaNorth CarolinaIndian Ocean: A body of water covering approximately one-fifth of the total ocean area of the earth, extending amidst Africa in the west, Australia in the east, Asia in the north, and Antarctica in the south. Including the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, it constitutes the third largest ocean after the ATLANTIC OCEAN and the PACIFIC OCEAN. (New Encyclopaedia Britannica Micropaedia, 15th ed, 1990, p289)Indians, South American: Individual members of South American ethnic groups with historic ancestral origins in Asia.United StatesAsian Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent.North SeaUnited States Indian Health Service: A division of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that is responsible for the public health and the provision of medical services to NATIVE AMERICANS in the United States, primarily those residing on reservation lands.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.AlaskaMexican Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican descent.North DakotaEuropean Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.South AmericaGeography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)ArizonaGenetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.EuropeIndian Ocean Islands: Numerous islands in the Indian Ocean situated east of Madagascar, north to the Arabian Sea and east to Sri Lanka. Included are COMOROS (republic), MADAGASCAR (republic), Maldives (republic), MAURITIUS (parliamentary democracy), Pemba (administered by Tanzania), REUNION (a department of France), and SEYCHELLES (republic).Inuits: Inuktitut-speakers generally associated with the northern polar region.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Indians, Central American: Individual members of Central American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia. Mexican Indians are not included.Bison: A genus of the family Bovidae having two species: B. bison and B. bonasus. This concept is differentiated from BUFFALOES, which refers to Bubalus arnee and Syncerus caffer.New MexicoRisk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)South DakotaEthnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Central AmericaMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.African Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.American Samoa: A group of islands of SAMOA, in the southwest central Pacific. Its capital is Pago Pago. The islands were ruled by native chiefs until about 1869. An object of American interest beginning in 1839, Pago Pago and trading and extraterritorial rights were granted to the United States in 1878. The United States, Germany, and England administered the islands jointly 1889-99, but in 1899 they were granted to the United States by treaty. The Department of the Interior has administered American Samoa since 1951. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p44)Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome: A syndrome characterized by outbreaks of late term abortions, high numbers of stillbirths and mummified or weak newborn piglets, and respiratory disease in young unweaned and weaned pigs. It is caused by PORCINE RESPIRATORY AND REPRODUCTIVE SYNDROME VIRUS. (Radostits et al., Veterinary Medicine, 8th ed, p1048)Southwestern United States: The geographic area of the southwestern region of the United States. The states usually included in this region are Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas, and Utah.Atlantic OceanAmerican Heart Association: A voluntary organization concerned with the prevention and treatment of heart and vascular diseases.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Societies, Medical: Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.Carya: A plant genus of the family JUGLANDACEAE that bears edible nuts.OklahomaAnimal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.New Brunswick: A province of eastern Canada, one of the Maritime Provinces with NOVA SCOTIA; PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND; and sometimes NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR. Its capital is Fredericton. It was named in honor of King George III, of the House of Hanover, also called Brunswick. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p828 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p375)Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Lentiviruses, Ovine-Caprine: A subgenus of LENTIVIRUS comprising viruses that produce multi-organ disease with long incubation periods in sheep and goats.Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus: A species of ARTERIVIRUS causing reproductive and respiratory disease in pigs. The European strain is called Lelystad virus. Airborne transmission is common.Encephalitis Virus, Eastern Equine: A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing encephalomyelitis in Equidae and humans. The virus ranges along the Atlantic seaboard of the United States and Canada and as far south as the Caribbean, Mexico, and parts of Central and South America. Infections in horses show a mortality of up to 90 percent and in humans as high as 80 percent in epidemics.Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)MexicoEvolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Asia: The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.MontanaMicrosatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Paleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.Africa, Northern: The geographical area of Africa comprising ALGERIA; EGYPT; LIBYA; MOROCCO; and TUNISIA. It includes also the vast deserts and oases of the Sahara. It is often referred to as North Africa, French-speaking Africa, or the Maghreb. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p856)Asian Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.DNA, Ribosomal Spacer: The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).Panax: An araliaceous genus of plants that contains a number of pharmacologically active agents used as stimulants, sedatives, and tonics, especially in traditional medicine. Sometimes confused with Siberian ginseng (ELEUTHEROCOCCUS).Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Encephalomyelitis, Eastern Equine: A form of arboviral encephalitis (primarily affecting equines) endemic to eastern regions of North America. The causative organism (ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS, EASTERN EQUINE) may be transmitted to humans via the bite of AEDES mosquitoes. Clinical manifestations include the acute onset of fever, HEADACHE, altered mentation, and SEIZURES followed by coma. The condition is fatal in up to 50% of cases. Recovery may be marked by residual neurologic deficits and EPILEPSY. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp9-10)Bird Diseases: Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Continental Population Groups: Groups of individuals whose putative ancestry is from native continental populations based on similarities in physical appearance.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Americas: The general name for NORTH AMERICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; and SOUTH AMERICA unspecified or combined.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Dinosaurs: General name for two extinct orders of reptiles from the Mesozoic era: Saurischia and Ornithischia.Coyotes: The species Canis latrans in the family CANIDAE, a smaller relative of WOLVES. It is found in the Western hemisphere from Costa Rica to Alaska.Introduced Species: Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Northwestern United States: The geographic area of the northwestern region of the United States. The states usually included in this region are Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington, and Wyoming.Crows: Common name for the largest birds in the order PASSERIFORMES, family Corvidae. These omnivorous black birds comprise most of the species in the genus Corvus, along with ravens and jackdaws (which are often also referred to as crows).Deer: The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Cross-Cultural Comparison: Comparison of various psychological, sociological, or cultural factors in order to assess the similarities or diversities occurring in two or more different cultures or societies.Porcupines: Common name for large, quilled rodents (RODENTIA) comprised of two families: Old World porcupines (Hystricidae) and New World porcupines (Erethizontidae).Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Gene Flow: The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.Influenza in Birds: Infection of domestic and wild fowl and other BIRDS with INFLUENZA A VIRUS. Avian influenza usually does not sicken birds, but can be highly pathogenic and fatal in domestic POULTRY.Animals, ZooHistory, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.CaliforniaTrees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Orobanchaceae: The broom-rape plant family of the order Lamiales.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Founder Effect: A phenomenon that is observed when a small subgroup of a larger POPULATION establishes itself as a separate and isolated entity. The subgroup's GENE POOL carries only a fraction of the genetic diversity of the parental population resulting in an increased frequency of certain diseases in the subgroup, especially those diseases known to be autosomal recessive.Latin America: The geographic area of Latin America in general and when the specific country or countries are not indicated. It usually includes Central America, South America, Mexico, and the islands of the Caribbean.Genetic Speciation: The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.WyomingRhabdoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by RHABDOVIRIDAE. Important infections include RABIES; EPHEMERAL FEVER; and vesicular stomatitis.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.West Nile virus: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Malignant Hyperthermia: Rapid and excessive rise of temperature accompanied by muscular rigidity following general anesthesia.Antivenins: Antisera used to counteract poisoning by animal VENOMS, especially SNAKE VENOMS.AfricaFishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Licensure, Pharmacy: The granting of a license to practice pharmacy.Songbirds: PASSERIFORMES of the suborder, Oscines, in which the flexor tendons of the toes are separate, and the lower syrinx has 4 to 9 pairs of tensor muscles inserted at both ends of the tracheal half rings. They include many commonly recognized birds such as CROWS; FINCHES; robins; SPARROWS; and SWALLOWS.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Siberia: A region, north-central Asia, largely in Russia. It extends from the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean and from the Arctic Ocean to central Kazakhstan and the borders of China and Mongolia.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Arctic Regions: The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)Malaysia: A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Didelphis: A genus of large OPOSSUMS in the family Didelphidae, found in the Americas. The species Didelphis virginiana is prominent in North America.Geology: The science of the earth and other celestial bodies and their history as recorded in the rocks. It includes the study of geologic processes of an area such as rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Sciuridae: A family of the order Rodentia which contains 49 genera. Some of the more common genera are MARMOTA, which includes the marmot and woodchuck; Sciurus, the gray squirrel, S. carolinensis, and the fox squirrel, S. niger; Tamias, the eastern and western chipmunk; and Tamiasciurus, the red squirrel. The flying squirrels, except the scaly-tailed Anomaluridae, also belong to this family.Novirhabdovirus: A genus in the family RHABDOVIRIDAE, infecting numerous species of fish with broad geographic distribution. The type species is INFECTIOUS HEMATOPOIETIC NECROSIS VIRUS.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.West Indies: Islands lying between southeastern North America and northern South America, enclosing the Caribbean Sea. They comprise the Greater Antilles (CUBA; DOMINICAN REPUBLIC; HAITI; JAMAICA; and PUERTO RICO), the Lesser Antilles (ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA and the other Leeward Islands, BARBADOS; MARTINIQUE and the other Windward Islands, NETHERLANDS ANTILLES; VIRGIN ISLANDS OF THE UNITED STATES, BRITISH VIRGINI ISLANDS, and the islands north of Venezuela which include TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO), and the BAHAMAS. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1330)West Nile Fever: A mosquito-borne viral illness caused by the WEST NILE VIRUS, a FLAVIVIRUS and endemic to regions of Africa, Asia, and Europe. Common clinical features include HEADACHE; FEVER; maculopapular rash; gastrointestinal symptoms; and lymphadenopathy. MENINGITIS; ENCEPHALITIS; and MYELITIS may also occur. The disease may occasionally be fatal or leave survivors with residual neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13; Lancet 1998 Sep 5;352(9130):767-71)Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Extinction, Biological: The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Midwestern United States: The geographic area of the midwestern region of the United States in general or when the specific state or states are not indicated. The states usually included in this region are Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, Ohio, Oklahoma, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wisconsin.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Great Lakes Region: The geographic area of the Great Lakes in general and when the specific state or states are not indicated. It usually includes Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Blastomycosis: A fungal infection that may appear in two forms: 1, a primary lesion characterized by the formation of a small cutaneous nodule and small nodules along the lymphatics that may heal within several months; and 2, chronic granulomatous lesions characterized by thick crusts, warty growths, and unusual vascularity and infection in the middle or upper lobes of the lung.DNA, Chloroplast: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.Smilax: A plant genus of the family SMILACACEAE. Members contain smiglasides (phenylpropanoid glycosides) and steroidal saponins. Commercially it is sometimes adulterated with HEMIDESMUS, which would affect experimental results.Paragonimiasis: Infection with TREMATODA of the genus PARAGONIMUS.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Cultural Characteristics: Those aspects or characteristics which identify a culture.Reassortant Viruses: Viruses containing two or more pieces of nucleic acid (segmented genome) from different parents. Such viruses are produced in cells coinfected with different strains of a given virus.American Medical Association: Professional society representing the field of medicine.Snake Bites: Bites by snakes. Bite by a venomous snake is characterized by stinging pain at the wound puncture. The venom injected at the site of the bite is capable of producing a deleterious effect on the blood or on the nervous system. (Webster's 3d ed; from Dorland, 27th ed, at snake, venomous)Asteraceae: A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Wolves: Any of several large carnivorous mammals of the family CANIDAE that usually hunt in packs.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Campanulaceae: A plant family of the order Campanulales, subclass Asteridae, class MagnoliopsidaReindeer: A genus of deer, Rangifer, that inhabits the northern parts of Europe, Asia, and America. Caribou is the North American name; reindeer, the European. They are often domesticated and used, especially in Lapland, for drawing sleds and as a source of food. Rangifer is the only genus of the deer family in which both sexes are antlered. Most caribou inhabit arctic tundra and surrounding arboreal coniferous forests and most have seasonal shifts in migration. They are hunted extensively for their meat, skin, antlers, and other parts. (From Webster, 3d ed; Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1397)Russia (Pre-1917)Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Dentition: The teeth collectively in the dental arch. Dentition ordinarily refers to the natural teeth in position in their alveoli. Dentition referring to the deciduous teeth is DENTITION, PRIMARY; to the permanent teeth, DENTITION, PERMANENT. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Culture: A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.Raptors: BIRDS that hunt and kill other animals, especially higher vertebrates, for food. They include the FALCONIFORMES order, or diurnal birds of prey, comprised of EAGLES, falcons, HAWKS, and others, as well as the STRIGIFORMES order, or nocturnal birds of prey, which includes OWLS.Hawaii: A group of islands in Polynesia, in the north central Pacific Ocean, comprising eight major and 114 minor islands, largely volcanic and coral. Its capital is Honolulu. It was first reached by Polynesians about 500 A.D. It was discovered and named the Sandwich Islands in 1778 by Captain Cook. The islands were united under the rule of King Kamehameha 1795-1819 and requested annexation to the United States in 1893 when a provisional government was set up. Hawaii was established as a territory in 1900 and admitted as a state in 1959. The name is from the Polynesian Owhyhii, place of the gods, with reference to the two volcanoes Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa, regarded as the abode of the gods. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p493 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p2330)TexasConservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Southeastern United States: The geographic area of the southeastern region of the United States in general or when the specific state or states are not included. The states usually included in this region are Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, West Virginia, and Virginia.American Cancer Society: A voluntary organization concerned with the prevention and treatment of cancer through education and research.Carotid Stenosis: Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)ChileChiroptera: Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.Raccoons: Carnivores of the genus Procyon of the family PROCYONIDAE. Two subgenera and seven species are currently recognized. They range from southern Canada to Panama and are found in several of the Caribbean Islands.Carnivora: An order of MAMMALS, usually flesh eaters with appropriate dentition. Suborders include the terrestrial carnivores Fissipedia, and the aquatic carnivores PINNIPEDIA.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Acculturation: Process of cultural change in which one group or members of a group assimilate various cultural patterns from another.Linkage Disequilibrium: Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Ranidae: The family of true frogs of the order Anura. The family occurs worldwide except in Antarctica.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.British Columbia: A province of Canada on the Pacific coast. Its capital is Victoria. The name given in 1858 derives from the Columbia River which was named by the American captain Robert Gray for his ship Columbia which in turn was named for Columbus. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p178 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p81-2)Fish Diseases: Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Greenland

Prevalence of peripheral arterial disease and associated risk factors in American Indians: the Strong Heart Study. (1/2099)

Studies of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in minority populations provide researchers with an opportunity to evaluate PAD risk factors and disease severity under different types of conditions. Examination 1 of the Strong Heart Study (1989-1992) provided data on the prevalence of PAD and its risk factors in a sample of American Indians. Participants (N = 4,549) represented 13 tribes located in three geographically diverse centers in the Dakotas, Oklahoma, and Arizona. Participants in this epidemiologic study were aged 45-74 years; 60% were women. Using the single criterion of an ankle brachial index less than 0.9 to define PAD, the prevalence of PAD was approximately 5.3% across centers, with women having slightly higher rates than men. Factors significantly associated with PAD in univariate analyses for both men and women included age, systolic blood pressure, hemoglobin A1c level, albuminuria, fibrinogen level, fasting glucose level, prevalence of diabetes mellitus, and duration of diabetes. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to predict PAD for women and men combined. Age, systolic blood pressure, current cigarette smoking, pack-years of smoking, albuminuria (micro- and macro-), low density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and fibrinogen level were significantly positively associated with PAD. Current alcohol consumption was significantly negatively associated with PAD. In American Indians, the association of albuminuria with PAD may equal or exceed the association of cigarette smoking with PAD.  (+info)

Ancestral Asian source(s) of new world Y-chromosome founder haplotypes. (2/2099)

Haplotypes constructed from Y-chromosome markers were used to trace the origins of Native Americans. Our sample consisted of 2,198 males from 60 global populations, including 19 Native American and 15 indigenous North Asian groups. A set of 12 biallelic polymorphisms gave rise to 14 unique Y-chromosome haplotypes that were unevenly distributed among the populations. Combining multiallelic variation at two Y-linked microsatellites (DYS19 and DXYS156Y) with the unique haplotypes results in a total of 95 combination haplotypes. Contra previous findings based on Y- chromosome data, our new results suggest the possibility of more than one Native American paternal founder haplotype. We postulate that, of the nine unique haplotypes found in Native Americans, haplotypes 1C and 1F are the best candidates for major New World founder haplotypes, whereas haplotypes 1B, 1I, and 1U may either be founder haplotypes and/or have arrived in the New World via recent admixture. Two of the other four haplotypes (YAP+ haplotypes 4 and 5) are probably present because of post-Columbian admixture, whereas haplotype 1G may have originated in the New World, and the Old World source of the final New World haplotype (1D) remains unresolved. The contrasting distribution patterns of the two major candidate founder haplotypes in Asia and the New World, as well as the results of a nested cladistic analysis, suggest the possibility of more than one paternal migration from the general region of Lake Baikal to the Americas.  (+info)

Pap screening clinics with native women in Skidegate, Haida Gwaii. Need for innovation. (3/2099)

PROBLEM ADDRESSED: First Nations women in British Columbia, especially elders, are underscreened for cancer of the cervix compared with the general population and are much more likely to die of the disease than other women. OBJECTIVE OF PROGRAM: To develop a pilot program, in consultation with community representatives, to address the Pap screening needs of First Nations women 40 years and older on a rural reserve. MAIN COMPONENTS OF PROGRAM: Identification of key links to the population; consultation with the community to design an outreach process; identification of underscreened women; implementation of community Pap screening clinics; evaluation of the pilot program. CONCLUSIONS: We developed a Pap screening outreach program that marked a departure from the usual screening approach in the community. First Nations community health representatives were key links for the process that involved family physicians and office staff at a local clinic on a rural reserve. Participation rate for the pilot program was 48%, resulting in an increase of 15% over the previously recorded screening rate for this population. More screening clinics of this type and evaluation for sustainability are proposed.  (+info)

Comprehensive computerized diabetes registry. Serving the Cree of Eeyou Istchee (eastern James Bay). (4/2099)

PROBLEM BEING ADDRESSED: Diabetes is rapidly evolving as a major health concern in the Cree population of eastern James Bay (Eeyou Istchee). The Cree Board of Health and Social Services of James Bay (CBHSSJB) diabetes registry was the initial phase in the development of a comprehensive program for diabetes in this region. OBJECTIVE OF PROGRAM: The CBHSSJB diabetes registry was developed to provide a framework to track the prevalence of diabetes and the progression of diabetic complications. The database will also identify patients not receiving appropriate clinical and laboratory screening for diabetic complications, and will provide standardized clinical flow sheets for routine patient management. MAIN COMPONENTS OF PROGRAM: The CBHSSJB diabetes registry uses a system of paper registration forms and clinical flow sheets kept in the nine community clinics. Information from these sheets is entered into a computer database annually. The flow sheets serve as a guideline for appropriate management of patients with diabetes, and provide a one-page summary of relevant clinical and laboratory information. CONCLUSIONS: A diabetes registry is vital to follow the progression of diabetes and diabetic complications in the region served by the CBHSSJB. The registry system incorporates both a means for regional epidemiologic monitoring of diabetes mellitus and clinical tools for managing patients with the disease.  (+info)

A case-control study of risk factors for Haemophilus influenzae type B disease in Navajo children. (5/2099)

To understand the potential risk factors and protective factors for invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease, we conducted a case-control study among Navajo children less than two years of age resident on the Navajo Nation. We analyzed household interview data for 60 cases that occurred between August 1988 and February 1991, and for 116 controls matched by age, gender, and geographic location. The Hib vaccine recipients were excluded from the analyses. Conditional logistic regression models were fit to examine many variables relating to social and environmental conditions. Risk factors determined to be important were never breast fed (odds ratio [OR] = 3.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.52, 8.26), shared care with more than one child less than two years of age (OR = 2.32, 95% CI = 0.91, 5.96); wood heating (OR = 2.14, 95% CI = 0.91, 5.05); rodents in the home (OR = 8.18, 95% CI = 0.83, 80.7); and any livestock near the home (OR = 2.18, 95% CI = 0.94, 5.04).  (+info)

Variation by body mass index and age in waist-to-hip ratio associations with glycemic status in an aboriginal population at risk for type 2 diabetes in British Columbia, Canada. (6/2099)

BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether obesity and age modify or confound relations between abdominal adiposity and metabolic risk factors for type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was assess the consistency of relations between abdominal adiposity and glycemic variables across discrete categories of obesity and age. DESIGN: We performed a stratified analysis of prevalence data from a rural screening initiative in British Columbia, Canada. Subjects were Salishan Indians, all healthy relatives of individuals with type 2 diabetes [n = 151; age: 18-80 y; body mass index (BMI, in kg/m2): 17.0-48.2]. We measured waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (2 categories); insulin, glycated hemoglobin (Hb A1c), and 2-h glucose concentrations (2 categories); and BMI (4 categories). BMI and age-specific odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs were calculated. RESULTS: WHR-glycemic variable relations were not consistent across BMI and age strata. Risks associated with high WHR were: for persons with BMIs from 25 to 29, elevated insulin (OR: 6.71; 95% CI: 1.41, 34.11) and Hb A1c (OR: 16.23; 95% CI: 2.04, 101.73) concentrations; for persons aged 18-34 y, elevated insulin concentrations [OR: indeterminate (+infinity); 95% CI: 1.89, +infinity]; and, for persons aged 35-49 y, elevated Hb A1c (OR: +infinity; 95% CI: 3.17, +infinity) and 2-h glucose (OR: 9.15; 95% CI: 1.74, 59.91) concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: WHR discriminates risk of type 2 diabetes in overweight but not obese individuals. Abdominal adiposity is associated with elevated insulin concentrations in younger age groups and with impaired glucose control in middle-aged groups, suggesting metabolic staging by age on a continuum from insulin resistance to impaired glucose tolerance.  (+info)

Trends in body weight among American Indians: findings from a telephone survey, 1985 through 1996. (7/2099)

OBJECTIVES: This study compared trends in body mass index for American Indian men and women across selected regions of the United States. METHODS: Self-reported data were collected from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. RESULTS: Among women in the Dakotas, New Mexico and Arizona, and Washington and Oregon, average adjusted body mass index increased significantly by 0.1 to 0.2 units per year. Among men in Alaska and the Dakotas, average adjusted body mass index also increased significantly by 0.1 to 0.2 units each year. CONCLUSIONS: Because of rapid increases in average body mass index, some American Indian populations could be burdened by an increased incidence of chronic disease.  (+info)

Influence of ethnic background on clinical and serologic features in patients with systemic sclerosis and anti-DNA topoisomerase I antibody. (8/2099)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of ethnicity on clinical and serologic expression in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and anti-DNA topoisomerase I (anti-topo I) antibody. METHODS: Clinical and serologic features, as well as HLA class II allele frequencies, were compared among 47 North American white, 15 North American black, 43 Japanese, and 12 Choctaw Native American SSc patients with anti-topo I antibody. RESULTS: The frequency of progressive pulmonary interstitial fibrosis was lower, and cumulative survival rates were better in white compared with black and Japanese patients. Sera of white and black patients frequently recognized the portion adjacent to the carboxyl terminus of topo I, sera of Japanese patients preferentially recognized the portion adjacent to the amino terminus of topo I, and sera of Choctaw patients recognized both portions of topo I. Anti-RNA polymerase II and anti-SSA/Ro antibodies were present together with anti-topo I antibody more frequently in sera of Japanese patients than in sera of white patients. The HLA-DRB1 alleles associated with anti-topo I antibody differed; i.e., DRB1*1101-*1104 in whites and blacks, DRB1*1502 in Japanese, and DRB1*1602 in Choctaws. Multivariate analysis showed that ethnic background was an independent determinant affecting development of severe lung disease as well as survival. CONCLUSION: Clinical and serologic features in SSc patients were strongly influenced by ethnic background. The variability of disease expression in the 4 ethnic groups suggests that multiple factors linked to ethnicity, including genetic and environmental factors, modulate clinical manifestations, disease course, and autoantibody status in SSc.  (+info)

This thesis explores the relationship between health access risk factors and diabetes in an urban First Nations population living in Canada. The proportion of Aboriginal peoples in Canada living in urban areas is increasing. Despite this, health data on urban Aboriginal populations in Canada is sparse and often unreliable. The Our Health Counts (OHC) study collected data from a self-identified urban First Nations population living in Hamilton, ON through respondent driven sampling. As statistical techniques for this data are not yet fully developed, advanced logistic regression modeling strategies were used to assess the relationship between health access risk factors and diabetes. Feeling health services were not culturally appropriate was significantly associated with an increased odds for diabetes (12.07, 95% 2.52, 57.91). A strong potential effect between diabetes was also found for the following barriers: not being able to locate a doctor in the area; feeling health care services accessed ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Body composition and overweight prevalence in 1704 schoolchildren from 7 American Indian communities. AU - Caballero, Benjamin. AU - Himes, John H.. AU - Lohman, Timothy. AU - Davis, Sally M.. AU - Stevens, June. AU - Evans, Marguerite. AU - Going, Scott. AU - Pablo, Juanita. PY - 2003/8. Y1 - 2003/8. N2 - Background: Nationwide data on obesity prevalence in American Indian communities are limited. Objective: We describe the body composition and anthropometric characteristics of schoolchildren from 7 American Indian communities enrolled in the Pathways study, a randomized field trial evaluating a program for the primary prevention of obesity. Design: A total of 1704 children in 41 schools were enrolled in the study. Basic anthropometric measurements included weight, height, and triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses. Percentage body fat was estimated from bioelectrical impedance and anthropometric variables with the use of an equation developed and validated for this ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Association of cardiometabolic genes with arsenic metabolism biomarkers in American Indian communities. T2 - Environmental Health Perspectives. AU - Balakrishnan,Poojitha. AU - Vaidya,Dhananjay. AU - Franceschini,Nora. AU - Saroja Voruganti,V.. AU - Gribble,Matthew O.. AU - Haack,Karin. AU - Laston,Sandra. AU - Umans,Jason G.. AU - Francesconi,Kevin A.. AU - Goessler,Walter. AU - North,Kari E.. AU - Lee,Elisa. AU - Yracheta,Joseph. AU - Best,Lyle G.. AU - Maccluer,Jean W.. AU - Kent,Jack. AU - Cole,Shelley A.. AU - Navas-Acien,Ana. PY - 2017/1/1. Y1 - 2017/1/1. N2 - Background: Metabolism of inorganic arsenic (iAs) is subject to inter-individual variability, which is explained partly by genetic determinants. oBjectives: We investigated the association of genetic variants with arsenic species and principal components of arsenic species in the Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS). Methods: We examined variants previously associated with cardiometabolic traits (~ 200,000 from Illumina ...
Not necessarily. According to the National Center for Health Statistics, 41 percent of U.S. women of childbearing age (or their partners) had been surgically sterilized as of 1995-a surprisingly high number, Im sure youll agree. "Surgical sterilization has grown to be the most common method of contraception among women of reproductive age in the United States," the NCHS says. I mention these facts to put claims about Native American sterilization in perspective. They may be greatly exaggerated-come on, 40 percent sterilized against their will?-but theyre not completely insane. Allegations of forced sterilization of Native American women were controversial in the 70s and are only slightly less so today. Some activists at the time accused the U.S. government of genocide. Scholar Jane Lawrence rehashed the whole affair in "The Indian Health Service and the Sterilization of Native American Women," American Indian Quarterly, summer 2000, writing, "Various studies revealed that the Indian Health ...
Compared with the non-Hispanic white (NHW) population, the urban American Indian and Alaskan Native (AIAN) community was more likely to have lower survival rates following invasive prostate and breast cancer, according to a new study by Emerson et al in Cancer Research.. "Its been reported that the AIAN community has a higher cancer burden than other racial/ethnic groups," said lead author Marc A. Emerson, MPH, PhD candidate, of the Department of Epidemiology at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, who was an Intramural Research Training Award fellow in the Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences at the National Cancer Institute while conducting this work. "However, accurate, population-based information on the cancer experience for this population residing in an urban setting is severely lacking.". Previous AIAN data regarding cancer incidence and mortality are linked with the Indian Health Service (IHS); however, access to IHS facilities for the majority of AIANs is ...
This fact-filled book on long-ago games played by Native Americans describes ball games that stretched over several miles. With many sidebars on Native American
RATIONALE: Studying samples of tumor tissue in the laboratory from Native American women with breast cancer may help doctors identify and learn more about biomarkers related to breast cancer in these patients. It may also help doctors learn more about the prognosis of these patients.. PURPOSE: This laboratory study is looking at biomarkers in Native American women with breast cancer. ...
National Jewish Health has launched a new quitline program aimed at reducing commercial tobacco use among American Indians. The American Indian commercial tobacco program launched on August 1, 2015, and is serving American Indians in Alabama, Arkansas, Colorado, Michigan, Montana, Nevada, Pennsylvania and Wyoming.. Nationally, American Indians are more likely to use commercial tobacco and have more difficulty quitting than those in other racial and ethnic groups. Culturally specific cessation resources are vital for tribal communities, which respect cultural traditions around tobacco, ways of communicating, and barriers to smoking cessation. Despite being relatively easy-to-access cessation resources, quitlines have been known for having low rates of use by American Indians and Alaska Natives. With strong oral traditions, tribal communities often value face-to-face communication over telephone communication. Add to that long histories of mis-treatment by and mis-trust of governmental agencies - ...
Diabetes-related kidney failure among Native American adults (American Indians/Alaskan Natives) decreased 54% between 1996 and 2013, following the implementation of population-based approaches to diabetes management and improvements in clinical care begun by the Indian Health Service (IHS) in the mid-1980s, according to a report in the CDCs Vital Signs.. Native Americans have a greater chance of developing diabetes than any other US racial/ethnic group. About 2 of 3 Native Americans with kidney failure have diabetes, according to the report. The rate of diabetes-related kidney failure in Native Americans has declined faster than any racial/ethnic group in the United States.. "The 54% decline in kidney failure from diabetes followed implementation of public health and population approaches to diabetes as well as improvements in clinical care by the IHS," Mary L. Smith, Indian Health Service principal deputy director said during a press conference hosted by the CDC. "We believe these strategies ...
Native American reservation inequality underlies a range of societal issues that affect the lives of Native American populations residing on reservations in the United States. About one third of the Native American population, about 700,000 persons, lives on an Indian Reservation in the United States. Reservation poverty and other discriminatory factors have led to persisting social inequality on Native American reservations. Disparities between many aspects of life at the national level and at the reservation level, such as quality of education, quality of healthcare, substance abuse, teenage pregnancy, violence, and suicide rates are significant in demonstrating the inequality of opportunities and situations between reservations and the rest of the country. Many contemporary disparities are rooted in the history of Indian reservations. The reservation system was created following the expansion of the United States into tribal lands throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, during United States ...
American Indians (AI) and Alaska Natives (AN) of the United States (US), and First Nations (FN) peoples of Canada, experience higher rates of many chronic diseases. While the burden of specific health issues differs by group, an increasing prevalence of cardiovascular disease and type-2 diabetes exists. For Northern Plains AI tribes of the US, rates of type-2 diabetes have reached epidemic levels. Research is needed to understand and address complex chronic health concerns for these groups, including efforts to resolve the disparity between need for kidney donation and donation consent rates. This presentation will describe an essential approach to intervention studies that incorporates participatory research principles and builds trusted partnerships with AI/AN and FN communities. The presentation will focus on the process and the outcomes of behavioral intervention research designed to increase intent to serve as an organ or tissue donor for Northern Plains AI tribes. Related future research ...
American Indians (AI) and Alaska Natives (AN) of the United States (US), and First Nations (FN) peoples of Canada, experience higher rates of many chronic diseases. While the burden of specific health issues differs by group, an increasing prevalence of cardiovascular disease and type-2 diabetes exists. For Northern Plains AI tribes of the US, rates of type-2 diabetes have reached epidemic levels. Research is needed to understand and address complex chronic health concerns for these groups, including efforts to resolve the disparity between need for kidney donation and donation consent rates. This presentation will describe an essential approach to intervention studies that incorporates participatory research principles and builds trusted partnerships with AI/AN and FN communities. The presentation will focus on the process and the outcomes of behavioral intervention research designed to increase intent to serve as an organ or tissue donor for Northern Plains AI tribes. Related future research ...
COVID-19 is the most recent example of the vulnerability of American Indian reservations to pandemic disease. The Navajo Nations COVID-19 infection rate is higher than that of any US state-even New York. This is especially puzzling when considering population density. The Navajo Nation encompasses over 27,000 square miles and has a population of about 150,000 people.
Aboriginal people living in industrialized countries experience disproportionately high rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus (diabetes), diabetes complications, and associated risk factors when compared to their non-Aboriginal counterparts [1-4]. In Canada, Aboriginal peoples are comprised of three distinct Indigenous groups, namely First Nations, Inuit and Métis. Rates of diabetes are 2.5 to 4 times higher among First Nations people than the general population, with higher rates among women than men and a younger age at diagnosis [5]. In addition, some First Nations people have higher rates of documented smoking, obesity, hypertension and dyslipidemia and have increasing rates of serious diabetes-related complications [6-8]. This epidemiological trend requires urgent clinical action: primary prevention of diabetes is necessary to protect future generations, but initiatives to improve the quality of care provided to First Nations people already living with diabetes are urgently needed to reduce ...
According to national data, meth use rates for American Indian/Alaska Native populations remain among the highest of any ethnicity - almost two times higher than other groups, according to the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Specifically, American Indians or Alaska Natives almost are twice as likely to have used meth in the past year than whites (1.1% vs. 0.6%) or Hispanics (1.1% vs. 0.6%), and approximately five times more likely to have used meth than African Americans (1.1% vs. 0.2%).. "The data about methamphetamine abuse in the Native American community are troubling," Kerlikowske said. "This ad campaign will supplement the important work for prevention and treatment already being done by the Native American community, local prevention groups, law enforcement, and treatment providers.". The Native American Anti-Meth Campaign, in its third year coordinated by ONDCPs National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign, is the only national anti-meth advertising campaign tailored to reach ...
The ties between people and their natural environment is the subject for several artists in the second, "relationship", portion of the show. Among the most striking items is a circular heap of broken bone china that is illuminated by a spotlight. On the wall beside it plays black-and-white footage of a hunt for buffaloes, a species that was driven to the verge of extinction. The buffalo were hunted in part for sport, in part for commercial ends-their bones used to make the china-and in part to destroy the livelihoods of Native Americans who could then more easily be forced to move by European settlers.. Power is the theme of the final portion of the show. This includes references to old and recent protests by Native Americans, such as against a proposed pipeline in South Dakota, and to the fact that Native American women helped to inspire the wider womens suffrage movement in America. The highlight of this section is a modern take on a wedding coat used by the Osage people. Such coats are ...
Earl Townsend Jr., who died in 2007, was a passionate collector and historian of Native American artifacts. His impressive collection of prehistoric stone artifacts remains one of the largest and best in existence. As an historian, he was widely recognized as the greatest authority of Native American birdstones. His landmark book, "Birdstones of the North American Indian," originally published in 1959, is considered the premier reference book for birdstone study among collectors.. An enthusiastic and determined group of bidders helped make the Dec. 3 auction of Native American artifacts the most successful auction in Antique Helper history. It was a record-breaking sale for Antique Helper and the artifact collecting community. Bringing an unprecedented hammer total of $1.2 million, this was reportedly the most successful auction of Native American artifacts to date. Ninety-eight percent of the lots sold on auction day. The majority sold at, double, triple or even quadruple high estimate.. [This ...
In an FTC action challenging allegedly illegal business practices by a payday loan operation affiliated with American Indian Tribes, a United States Magistrate Judge just issued a report and recommendation on the scope of the FTC Act.
TITLE: Gerontology and Geriatric Research to Benefit American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN) Elders & Tribes. WHEREAS, we, the members of the National Congress of American Indians of the United States, invoking the divine blessing of the Creator upon our efforts and purposes, in order to preserve for ourselves and our descendants the inherent sovereign rights of our Indian nations, rights secured under Indian treaties and agreements with the United States, and all other rights and benefits to which we are entitled under the laws and Constitution of the United States, to enlighten the public toward a better understanding of the Indian people, to preserve Indian cultural values, and otherwise promote the health, safety and welfare of the Indian people, do hereby establish and submit the following resolution; and. WHEREAS, the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) was established in 1944 and is the oldest and largest national organization of American Indian and Alaska Native tribal ...
Write a 2-3 page paper analyzing the lives of Native American women in the second half of the nineteenth century. Answer the following questions within the text of your essay: How did the cultural experiences of Native American.
Poor glucose control during pregnancy is a significant concern for Canadian women with diabetes. This problem is magnified in First Nations women, who have among the highest rates of gestational diabetes (GDM) in the world (up to 18% of First Nations women will develop GDM during pregnancy and 70% of these will go on to develop type 2 diabetes later). Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) technology has the potential to help women maintain tighter control during pregnancy, however, in the First Nations population, there are many unique barriers that may affect use of this technology. Such barriers include remoteness of the community, cultural apprehension, lack or difficulty of access to care, and language differences.. A total of 60 participants from three participating First Nations communities in Southern Ontario will participate in the study. Participants will self-select to either the CGM group (n=30) or the control group (n=30) after consenting to participate in the study. Participants in ...
Despite this setback, the Executive Order raised awareness about the need to protect the public and workers from secondhand smoke and it laid the groundwork for a fourth campaign. With President Shellys support, Team Navajo introduced the Navajo Nation Commercial Tobacco-Free and Smoke-free Act of 2011 (legislation number 0261). In response, the NNGE introduced a counter proposal, Navajo Nation Smoking Regulation Act of 2011 (legislation number 0241). NNGEs bill proposed prohibiting the use of cigarettes and secondhand smoke in all public spaces and workplaces, except for casino gaming floors, and would have exempted casinos from secondhand smoke regulation until all their construction debts were paid.34 NNGE conducted a campaign alleging the loss of tribal revenues if smoking were prohibited in casinos. Team Navajos comprehensive secondhand smoke protection bill (legislation number 0261), with its inclusion of casinos, was not able to overcome these allegations, despite Team Navajos ...
Conversion of g, gram amounts of CATTAIL,NARROW LEAF SHOOTS (NORTHERN PLAINS INDIANS) into portion 100 g, grams measuring units. Exchange amounts between 1 g, gram and 1 or multiples of portion 100 g, grams measure of CATTAIL,NARROW LEAF SHOOTS (NORTHERN PLAINS INDIANS) product.
Total fertility rate: United Nations Population Division. Regional aggregates calculated by UNFPA based on data from United Nations Population Division.. The designations employed and the presentation of material on the map do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of UNFPA concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. The dotted line represents approximately the Line of Control in Jammu and Kashmir agreed upon by India and Pakistan. The final status of Jammu and Kashmir has not yet been agreed upon by the parties.. ...
Total fertility rate: United Nations Population Division. Regional aggregates calculated by UNFPA based on data from United Nations Population Division.. The designations employed and the presentation of material on the map do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of UNFPA concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. The dotted line represents approximately the Line of Control in Jammu and Kashmir agreed upon by India and Pakistan. The final status of Jammu and Kashmir has not yet been agreed upon by the parties.. ...
Aboriginal: Aboriginal includes persons who reported being an Aboriginal person - that is, First Nations (North American Indian), Métis or Inuk (Inuit), and/or those who reported Registered or Treaty Indian status registered under the Indian Act of Canada, and/or those who reported membership in a First Nation or Indian band. Age-standardization: Age-standardized rate is a rate that would have existed if the population had the same age distribution as the selected reference population. The BC Community Health Profiles use estimates for a given year (1991 or 2011) as the reference population, and chronic disease incidence and prevalence rates have been age-standardized using the direct standardization method with five-year age groups. Alcohol-related deaths: Alcohol-related deaths include deaths where alcohol was a contributing factor (indirectly related) as well as those due to alcohol (directly related). Chronic disease: Chronic diseases, also known as non-communicable diseases, are diseases ...
Aboriginal: Aboriginal includes persons who reported being an Aboriginal person - that is, First Nations (North American Indian), Métis or Inuk (Inuit), and/or those who reported Registered or Treaty Indian status registered under the Indian Act of Canada, and/or those who reported membership in a First Nation or Indian band. Age-standardization: Age-standardized rate is a rate that would have existed if the population had the same age distribution as the selected reference population. The BC Community Health Profiles use estimates for a given year (1991 or 2011) as the reference population, and chronic disease incidence and prevalence rates have been age-standardized using the direct standardization method with five-year age groups. Alcohol-related deaths: Alcohol-related deaths include deaths where alcohol was a contributing factor (indirectly related) as well as those due to alcohol (directly related). Chronic disease: Chronic diseases, also known as non-communicable diseases, are diseases ...
George Catlin (1796-1872) Scalp Dance From The North American Indian Portfolio London, 1844 Lithographs with original hand-coloring Sheet size: approx. 16 1/2 x 23 George Catlin was the earliest great artist to travel extensively among the Plains Indians of North America and visually record their customs and artifacts
Lets start with the "window dressing" or as they say in politics, the "talking points". Patients First has very little to do with patients. It is a document about the structure of health care and how it is delivered. It is about how the health care bureaucracy or system is to be organized. It claims it is about equity, helping individuals and groups that have barriers to accessing health care services but the model it is proposing has nothing to do with equity. Rather, the model being proposed is about providing a model of health care that provides equal access to all. That is not equity, that is equality. That is not dissimilar from our current model which has left many individuals and groups on the outside of the system looking in.. There is a specific reference to our First Nations population suggesting that Patients First will somehow improve their access to health care. I think we would all agree that the health status of our First Nations people is a national disgrace. While it is ...
Adventures of the Ojibbeway and Ioway Indians in England, France, and Belgium: Being Notes of Eight Years Travels and Residence in Europe With His North American Indian ...
Ideas of cultural and physical difference frequently intertwined with ideas of descent and heredity in the 17th and 18th centuries. Nowhere, perhaps, is this clearer than in the puzzle of Indian origins, a pressing issue once it became clear that the Americas represented a "new world." Geography, customs, beliefs, bodies, and languages were all pressed into service to answer a question of ancestry and migration. Theories were innumerable: the Indians were the inhabitants of Atlantis, or Phoenicians, or Welsh. Perhaps the most prominent view-first published in 1594, but probably discussed long before, and reaching its fullest articulation in the southeastern trader James Adairs History of the North American Indians (1775)-was that the Indians descended from the ten Lost Tribes, Jews who continued to keep the covenant even after being deported to Assyria after the conquest of Israel centuries before Christ. Another theory, first introduced by José de Acosta and increasingly accepted in the 18th ...
Seminole definition, a member of any of several groupings of North American Indians comprising emigrants from the Creek Confederacy territories to Florida or their descendants in Florida and Oklahoma, especially the culturally conservative present-day Florida Indians. See more.
PERHAPS the most familiar application of the principle that like produces like is the attempt which has been made by many peoples in many ages to injure or destroy an enemy by injuring or destroying an image of him, in the belief that, just as the image suffers, so does the man, and that when it perishes he must die. A few instances out of many may be given to prove at once the wide diffusion of the practice over the world and its remarkable persistence through the ages. For thousands of years ago it was known to the sorcerers of ancient India, Babylon, and Egypt, as well as of Greece and Rome, and at this day it is still resorted to by cunning and malignant savages in Australia, Africa, and Scotland. Thus the North American Indians, we are told, believe that by drawing the figure of a person in sand, ashes, or clay, or by considering any object as his body, and then pricking it with a sharp stick or doing it any other injury, they inflict a corresponding injury on the person represented. For ...
Miami: Algonquian -speaking North American Indians who lived in the area of what is now Green Bay, Wis., U.S., when first encountered by French explorers in the 17th century. The Miami...
12.25 x 15.25 framed. Plate facing page 110, The North American Indian (1907-1930) v.15, Southern California Shoshoneans. The Diegueños. Plateau Shoshoneans. The Washo.
Although coronary heart disease CHD is currently the leading cause of death among American Indians, information on the prevalence of CHD and its association with known cardiovascular risk factors is limited. The Strong Heart Study was initiated in 1988 to quantify cardiovascular disease and its risk factors among three geographically diverse...
Native American news, videos and information from Indigenous communities, First Nations and Aboriginal people through out the world
Women of All Red Nations (WARN) was a Native American womens organization. It was established in 1974 by Lorelei DeCora Means, Madonna Thunderhawk, Phyllis Young, Janet McCloud, and others. WARN included more than 300 women from 30 different tribal communities. Many of its members had previously been active in the American Indian Movement and were participants in the 1973 Wounded Knee incident. The inaugural conference took place in Rapid City, South Dakota. WARN championed the health of Native American women, the restoration and securing of treaty rights, eliminating Indian mascots for sports teams, and combating the commercialization of Indian culture. They highlighted the high rates of health issues caused by nuclear mining and storage on Indian land, such as birth defects, miscarriages and deaths. They also expressed concerns about forced sterilization of Indian women and the adoption of Indian children by non-Indians. They published the article "The Theft of Life" in their annual ...
Low-income individuals are less likely than their wealthier counterparts to invest in long-term assets and educational attainment. To some extent this might simply reflect the preferences of this population. On the other hand, it may be indicative of significant obstacles that prevent poorer individuals and households from creating wealth for themselves and ultimately their communities. Borrowing and access to capital is an important means by which most individuals and households are able to buy homes, automobiles and send their children (and themselves) to school. While it is quite well documented that American Indians residing on reservations tend to be poorer than the average American citizen, we know very little about the use of credit and creditworthiness of this population.. Recent research by Dimitrova-Grajzl et al (2015) provides a useful examination of credit scores and the types of borrowing that occurs for residents of American Indian reservations. Their research uses confidential-use ...
Characteristics of the fall 1980 full-time, first-time freshmen enrolled in New Jersey colleges and universities are tabulated and trends in the past five years are summarized. Highlights include the following: There was a modest decline in entering freshmen over the previous year, consistent with projections in the statewide plan. The decline was not uniform across sectors, with a higher decline at Rutgers University than at state, independent, and community colleges. Women continued to comprise the majority of freshmen at 52 percent. The racial/ethnic distribution was six percent Hispanic, 12 percent black, and 82 percent other (including white, American Indian/Alaskan native, Asian/Pacific Islander, and non-resident aliens). The greatest percentage decline was among blacks. A two to three percent decline occurred in all age groups except 35 and over, in which it grew about one percent in the last year. The number of New Jersey residents declined by four percent in the
This community event aims to increase understanding of the cultural differences and similarities in the American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations. The presenter will address the history and perceptions as well as the cancer disparities and outcomes these populations experience both locally and nationally. This event hopes to encourage dialogue in a safe atmosphere to better serve these unique populations. Presenter: Miquela Taffa (Laguna Pueblo) This event is free and open to the public. We welcome both community members and Washington University faculty, staff, and students who work with or are interested in these populations. Please feel free to bring lunch to this meeting. Light refreshments will be served. For more information, please contact Saffiyah Poole at [email protected] This event is co-hosted by the Program for the Elimination of Cancer Disparities (PECaD), part of Siteman Cancer Center, and the Kathryn M. Buder Center for American Indian Studies ...
American Indian Religious Freedom Act: Congress eventually passed the American Indian Religious Freedom Act (AIRFA; 1978). AIRFA was intended to ensure the protection of Native American religions and their practitioners, and it successfully stripped away many of the bureaucratic obstacles with which they had been confronted. Before 1978, for instance, the terms of the…
The Municipality of Sioux Lookout is a hub with a population of 5,500 that also serves as a health and service hub for 29 remote First Nations communities.
The government of the United States has established a land base for the American Indian Tribes of Florida. Historically, most of that land has been designated as reservations. ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
The Navajo Nation Leaking Storage Tank Soil and Water Cleanup Standards 2012 In the Navajo Way, the Earth is our Mother, the mountains part of her sacred body, the water courses her veins and arteries.
The FBI and Navajo Nation Division of Public Safety are investigating an apparent homicide that occurred in Sheep Springs, New Mexico on November 25.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Social Determinants of American Indian Nutritional Health. AU - Warne, Donald. AU - Wescott, Siobhan. PY - 2019/2/13. Y1 - 2019/2/13. N2 - The American Indian (AI) population suffers from significant health disparities, including nutrition-related chronic diseases (diabetes, cancer, and heart disease). Several risk factors for disease and social determinants of health have unique histories in the AI population, including historical trauma, boarding schools, adverse childhood experiences, poverty, federal food programs, and food deserts. To effectively address these disparities, a multipronged approach in collaboration with stakeholders is needed to address the upstream social determinants of health and to increase access to healthier foods. Promising practices and strategies can be considered in several focus areas, including 1) improving existing food programs, 2) promoting breastfeeding and early childhood nutrition, 3) promoting food sovereignty and access to traditional ...
Reactions related to American Indian history[edit]. Indian Country Today Media Network wrote that government treatment of ... United States of America, Plaintiff, v. Cliven Bundy, Defendant.. Date decided. July 9, 2013 (2013-07-09) and October 8, 2013 ( ... "Indian Country Today Media Network.com.. *^ Smith, John L. (April 24, 2012). "Shoshone sisters also couldn't beat BLM". Las ... damaging ancient American Indian cultural sites and threatening the safety of recreationists."[15] ...
... working with soldiers from a variety of American Indian tribes, including the Navajo. Collectively the Native Americans who ... American Civil War in Indian Territory (1861-65)[edit]. See also: Choctaw in the American Civil War ... Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma, Jena Band of Choctaw Indians, Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians. MOWA Band of Choctaw Indians, ... "Indian Lands, Indian Subsidies". Downsizing the Federal Government. February 2012.. *^ a b "Department Supports Choctaw ...
Heizer, Robert F., volume editor (1978). Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 8: California. Washington, DC: Smithsonian ... Survey of California and Other Indian Languages. Notes[edit]. *^ author unknown. "American Indians". SDSU Library and ... California Indian Museum and Cultural Center, Santa Rosa. *"California Indian History," California Native American Heritage ... Many landless Indians found wage labor on ranches. Following the United States victory in the Mexican-American War, it took ...
What about Irish? Japanese? American Indians? Finland? Most countries had their problems with alcohol consumption. It is sad. ... However, a while back Americans suddenly claimed that they alone had the right to use the word "vodka" since they had been ... The Poles and the Americans have left their last claims on superiority in vodka production, when the world community accepted ... Interestingly, other "sources" expand on this legend to blame the evil Americans [2]: It is hard even to imagine that vodka ...
Outside the Indian subcontinent[edit]. See also: Ayurveda in America. Ayurveda is a system of traditional medicine developed ... Redy, Sita (2002). "Asian Medicine in America: The Ayurvedic Case". Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social ... "Indian Journal of Pharmacology. 40 (S1): 10-12.. *^ a b Ernst, E. (2002). "Heavy metals in traditional Indian remedies". ... The Ayurvedic practitioner Michael Tierra wrote that "[t]he history of Ayurveda in North America will always owe a debt to the ...
... although the majority of them live in Indian reservations in the North and Centre-Western part of the country. ... The populations in the North consisted of a significant proportion of Native American ancestry that was about two times higher ... "Racial Reality - White Americans". Sitesled.com. Retrieved 30 August 2017.. *^ "El 56% de los argentinos tiene antepasados ... Indian and White) and mixed European, African and Indian people, though it was not accompanied by an entire lack of racism. ...
1907). Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Bulletin #30. Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American ... Swanton, John R. (2007) [1952]. The Indian Tribes of North America. Bulletin #145 (Genealogical Publishing reprint ed.). ... at the height of the American Revolutionary War. The Shawnee north of the Ohio River were also unhappy about the American ... Pre-Conquest Native American settlements[edit]. Eskippakithiki[edit]. Eskippakithiki, aka Indian Old Fields, was Kentucky's ...
Burnham, Philip (2000). Indian Country, God's Country: Native Americans and the National Parks. Washington, D.C.: Island Press ... Keller, Robert; Turek, Michael (1998). American Indians & National Parks. Tucson: The University of Arizona Press. pp. 30-42. ... 6000 BCE marks the beginning of the Archaic period in North America. Archaeologists differ as to the origin of the Mesa Verde ... a question of whether Navajo dancers were paid fairly also resulted in questions regarding the lack of local American Indians ...
Handbook of South American Indians. Bulletin 143. I. -Bureau of American Ethnology. pp. 55-79.. ... especially Central and North America destroying many crops. The blight spread to Europe in the 1840s where, because of an ... but the earliest certain potato crop in North America was in Londonderry, New Hampshire in 1719. The plants were from Ireland, ... "American Journal of Botany. 95 (2): 252-257. doi:10.3732/ajb.95.2.252. PMID 21632349. Retrieved 28 February 2012.. ...
North American Indian Medicine Power, 2012, pp. 354-55. *^ a b Guttmacher, Peter (1994). North American Indians of Achievement ... Cloud Shield count, in: Garrick Mallery, Pictographs of the North American Indians, 4th Annual Report, Bureau of American ... According to Frederick Hoxie's Encyclopedia of North American Indians, Crazy Horse was the third in his male line to bear the ... "Crazy Horse". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. 1900.. *. "Crazy Horse". Oglala (Lakota) Sioux Indian War Leader. ...
Map of North America in 1750, before the French and Indian War, the North American theater of the worldwide conflict known as ... Carl Waldman; Molly Braun (2009). Atlas of the North American Indian. Infobase Publishing. p. 234. ISBN 978-1-4381-2671-5. .. ... William C. Sturtevant (1978). Handbook of North American Indians. Government Printing Office. pp. 1-. GGKEY:0GTLW81WTLJ.. ... formerly called the British North America Act, 1867).[9] Originally three provinces of British North America, New Brunswick, ...
Handbook of North American Indians. 8. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. p. 486. ISBN 0-16-004578-9.. ... "North American Numbering Plan Letter" (PDF) (Press release). Bellcore. 1996-11-22. Retrieved 2009-06-26.. ... "North American Numbering Plan Administration. Archived from the original on September 22, 2010. Retrieved 2009-06-26.. ... the highest concentration of Filipino/Filipino Americans of any mid-sized city in North America. This partly explains Daly ...
1978). Handbook of North American Indians. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution.. *^ a b c d e f Brandon, William (1961). ... The American Heritage Book of Indians. American Heritage Publishing Company.. *^ "Lenape Talking Dictionary". Retrieved 2012-05 ... "Part 3: French West Indians in Philadelphia", Africans in America, PBS, 1998, accessed 29 March 2012 ... In 1637, Swedish, Dutch and German stockholders formed the New Sweden Company to trade for furs and tobacco in North America. ...
Handbook of North American Indians: Great Basin, Volume 11. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1986: 284-307. ISBN 978-0- ... Handbook of North American Indians: Great Basin, Volume 11. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1986: 308-335. ISBN 978-0- ... Handbook of North American Indians: Great Basin, Volume 11. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1986: 262-283. ISBN 978-0- ... Reservations and Indian colonies[edit]. "Shoshone at Ft. Washakie, Wyoming Native American reservation. Chief Washakie (at left ...
The North American Indian. Vol. 4. New York, p.48. *^ Denig, Edwin Thompson (1961): Five Indian Tribes of the Upper Missouri. ... William C. Sturtevant, Handbook of North American Indians: Southwest (1979, ISBN 0160504007), page 714: "Among other tribes the ... Bureau of American Ethnology. Bulletin 194. Washington, p. 24. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Hoxie, Frederick E. (1995): ... Osborn, Alan J. "Ecological Aspects of Equestrian Adaptation in Aboriginal North America", American Anthropologist, No l. 85, ...
In response to repeated murders of American Indians by White Americans and lenient punishments issued to the assailants (the ... "American Indian Heritage Month: Commemoration vs. Exploitation". History and the Headlines. Retrieved 16 June 2015.. ... Reilly, Edward J. (8 November 2012). Legends of American Indian Resistance. Santa Barbara, California: Greenwood. pp. 261-262. ... In spite of these obstacles, approximately 200 American Indians turned out to protest the murder of the Wesley and the lenient ...
American Indian North American SouthwestEdit. With the arrival of the Spanish in southwestern North America, the Native ... Southeastern North American IndiansEdit. From 1539 to 1543, a Spanish expedition led by Hernando de Soto departed Cuba for ... After 1700, most North American Indian "tribes" were relatively new composite groups formed by these refugees who were trying ... Taylor, Alan (2001). American Colonies: The Settling of North America. New York: Penguin Books. pp. 72-74. ISBN 978-0-14-200210 ...
During the French and Indian War, Halifax was established as the British Headquarters of the North American Station (see Royal ... The Yard served as the main base for the British Royal Navy in North American during the Seven Years' War, the American ... The war left many fearful that the North might attempt to annex British North America, particularly after the Fenian raids ... French and Indian WarEdit. *Amherst, Nova Scotia, Jeffery Amherst. American RevolutionEdit. *Guysborough, Nova Scotia (Guy's ...
Leland Clifton Wyman (1983). "Navajo Ceremonial System". Handbook of North American Indians (PDF). Humboldt State University. p ... "American Journal of Public Health. 32 (5): 487-494. doi:10.2105/ajph.32.5.487. PMC 1526899 .. ... The American entomologist Vincent Dethier, in his humorous To Know A Fly (1962), pointed out that as a laboratory animal, ... Cirillo, Vincent J. (2016). ""I Am the Baby Killer!" House Flies and the Spread of Polio". American Entomologist. 62 (2): 83. ...
Culin, Stewart (1975). Games of the North American Indians. Courier Dover. ISBN 0-486-23125-9.. ... Indigenous North American stickball. References[edit]. *^ Liss, Howard (1970). Lacrosse. Funk & Wagnalls. p. 13.. .mw-parser- ... Vennum, Thomas (2002). American Indian Lacrosse: Little Brother of War. Smithsonian Institution. ISBN 978-1560983026.. [page ... Vennum, Thomas (2002). American Indian Lacrosse: Little Brother of War. Smithsonian Institution. p. 287. ISBN 978-1560983026.. ...
"The North American bullfrog draft genome provides insight into hormonal regulation of long noncoding RNA". Nature ... Latimeria chalumnae, West Indian Ocean coelacanth and oldest known living lineage of Sarcopterygii (2013[24][25]) ... "Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 112 (38): 11893-8. doi:10.1073/pnas.1513318112 ... "Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 112 (11): E1257-62. doi:10.1073/pnas. ...
The seeds of the pinyon pine, known as "pine nuts" or "piñóns", are an important food for American Indians living in the ... All species of pine produce edible seeds, but in North America only pinyon produces seeds large enough to be a major source of ... Dutcher, B.H. (October 1893). "Piñon Gathering among the Panamint Indians". American Anthropologist. 6 (4): 377-380. doi: ... Harvesting techniques of the prehistoric American Indians are still used today to collect the pinyon seeds for personal use or ...
Curtis, Edward S. (2015). The North American Indian, Volume 13: The Hupa, The Yurok, The Karok, The Wiyot, Tolowa and Tututni, ... Native American Book Publishers, LLC. ISBN 0-40308-412-1.. *^ "California Place Names of Indian Origin" (PDF). American ... Sturtevant, William C. (1978). Handbook Of North American Indians: California. Government Printing Office. ISBN 0-16-004574-6. ... Nestor, Sandy (2004). Indian Placenames in America. 1. McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-7167-0.. ...
North American Indians a comprehensive account. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Prentice-Hall, 2005. Print. ... Bernstein, Alison R. American Indians and World War II Toward a New Era in Indian Affairs. New York: University of Oklahoma P, ... "The American Indian and Alaska Native Population: 2000" (PDF). Census 2000 Brief. 2002-02-01. Retrieved 2007-03-10.. ... The Navajo or Diné of the Southwestern United States are the second largest Native American tribe of Northern America. In the ...
The Circle : News from an American Indian Perspective [Minneapolis] 01 Sep 2011: 7. ... There are about 6,000 speakers in the Northern Plain States of North Dakota and South Dakota. Most native speakers are in their ... since it is not taught in the government-run boarding schools for American Indian youth.[13] To help preservation efforts, ... The stress is one of the harder aspects about the language.[21] The Stoney Indian Language Project was created to help make a ...
Tales of the Cochiti Indians. Bureau of American Ethnology. *Benedict, Ruth. 1959. An Anthropologist at Work: Writings of Ruth ... Benedict wrote her dissertation "The Concept of the Guardian Spirit in North America", and received the PhD in anthropology in ... For instance, Americans considered it quite natural for American prisoners of war to want their families to know they were ... Benedict held the post of President of the American Anthropological Association and was also a prominent member of the American ...
... including African Americans, American Indians and Alaska Natives, and white people. For Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders ... About half of all Americans (47%) have at least 1 of 3 key risk factors for heart disease: high blood pressure, high ...
American Indian, member of any of the aboriginal peoples of the Western Hemisphere. Eskimos (Inuit and Yupik/Yupiit) and Aleuts ... Native Americans, or American Indians - Childrens Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11). *American Indians, or Native Americans - Student ... indigenous American. American Indian, also called Indian, Native American, indigenous American, aboriginal American, Amerindian ... American Indian names; Ho-ChunkLearn how some American Indian peoples came to be known by names given to them by outsiders and ...
... of information and materials to demonstrate that American history cannot be understood without understanding American Indian ... Most Americans received only a tiny glimpse into the rich and diverse cultures, histories, and contemporary lives of Native ... expert speakers who explore the need and how to transform this narrative and inspire a more comprehensive vision of American ... Hopi Festival 6: Alternative History of America. 4 months ago 248 views ...
Indians of North America. Welcome to the Indians of North America Page. Groups of native people lived on the North American ... These natives have been known as Indians, American Indians, Native Americans, the native races of North America, and other ... Indians of North America. From FamilySearch Wiki. Revision as of 00:41, 3 February 2010 by Btrfly (talk , contribs) (→‎Did you ... the Indian reservations, Bureau of Indian Affairs agencies, Indian schools, health facilities, and other facts about the Indian ...
On this page, youll find links to health issues that affect American Indians and Alaska Natives. ... Native Americans with Diabetes (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Also in Spanish ... Diabetes in American Indians and Alaska Natives (Indian Health Service) - PDF * FastStats: Health of American Indian or Alaska ... Indian Health Focus: Injuries 2017 Edition (Indian Health Service) * Infant Mortality and American Indians/Alaska Natives ( ...
... medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/north-american-indian-childhood-cirrhosis/ North American Indian childhood cirrhosis. ... North American Indian childhood cirrhosis results from at least one known mutation in the UTP4 gene. This gene provides ... North American Indian childhood cirrhosis has been found only in children of Ojibway-Cree descent in the Abitibi region of ... North American Indian childhood cirrhosis is a rare liver disorder that occurs in children. The liver malfunction causes ...
Students who attended them were required to talk and dress as mainstream Americans. ... government operated 100 boarding schools for American Indians on and off reservations. One expert says the schools were part of ... American Indian Boarding Schools Haunt Many The U.S. government operated 100 boarding schools for American Indians on and off ... American Indians and the American government have lived with a harsh legacy for 130 years. The government took tens of ...
Indian American Vijay K Taneja, popular in the community for his mega Bollywood shows in the US, has pleaded guilty to a ... A large number of Indian Americans in and around Washington area have been a victim of his mortgage fraud. ... Indian American pleads guilty Indian American Vijay K Taneja, popular in the community for his mega Bollywood shows in the US, ... Indian American Vijay K Taneja, popular in the community for his mega Bollywood shows in the US, has pleaded guilty to a ...
As sovereign nations, American Indian and Alaska Native tribes have the ability to pass a wide range of laws to control alcohol ... Alcohol remains one of the most pressing public health concerns in many American Indian and Alaska Native communities. ... Improving the health and well-being of all in America.. * How We Work * Grants and Grant Programs ... As sovereign nations, American Indian and Alaska Native tribes have the ability to pass a wide range of laws to control alcohol ...
2018 Scientific American, a Division of Nature America, Inc.. All Rights Reserved. ... Radiation death sparks Indian safety enquiryUniversity of Delhi sold off a radioactive source for scrap.. ... Scientific American is part of Springer Nature, which owns or has commercial relations with thousands of scientific ... Radiation death sparks Indian safety enquiry. University of Delhi sold off a radioactive source for scrap. ...
... who co-founded the American Indian Movement that pushed for indigenous rights during the 1960s and 70s, died in his native ... While in prison, Banks founded the American Indian Movement, or AIM, with other imprisoned Native Americans. The group became ... Reuters) - Civil rights activist Dennis Banks, who co-founded the American Indian Movement that pushed for indigenous rights ... The 72-day siege, a protest against tribal officials accused of corruption and the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs, left two ...
American Indians and educational laboratories. [Willard P Bass; Henry G Burger; Southwestern Cooperative Educational Laboratory ... Indians of North America--Education a schema:Intangible ;. schema:name "Indians of North America--Education"@en ;. . ... Indians of North America--Education a schema:Intangible ;. schema:name "Indians of North America--Education"@en ;. . ... Indians of North America--Education schema:about ; # Indians of North ...
Jose Maria Echeandia was appointed in Mexico to be governor of California and when he came north he brought with him new ideas ... A History of American Indians in California:. 1769-1848 On July 16, 1769, the Spanish founded the first mission in California. ... For example, they would make pacts with one Indian group, then require them to bring in other Indians to serve as laborers. ... The missions were built with Indian labor. This seems ironic given the devastating effect the mission system had on Indian ...
... schools with 0-2 percent American Indian enrollment to a low around 60 percent for schools with 50-80 percent American Indians ... American Indians. Formative Evaluation of the E-Rate Program. BIA Data. Findings. Conclusion. References. Appendix: Tables and ... Most non-BIA schools serving American Indians applied for the E-Rate program. The application rates vary from a high of over 80 ... The BIA schools also had much higher application rates than other schools with 100 percent American Indian enrollment. ...
... is about to be snubbed and the Indians are about to appear ungrateful, something that never sits well with Americans; even when ... FASStrategic Security Blog PostsUncategorizedThrough the Indian Looking Glass. Through the Indian Looking Glass. Posted on Aug. ... At the same time, the dramatically different views of the Indian and American legislatures are going to cause bruised feelings ... So what are we to make of the brouhaha in New Delhi? According to reports in both the Indian and western press, the US-Indian ...
This fact-filled book on long-ago games played by Native Americans describes ball games that stretched over several miles. With ... With many sidebars on Native American life and spirituality, readers will be intrigued by how many fun games can be played ... This fact-filled book on long-ago games played by Native Americans describes ball games that stretched over several miles. ...
American Indians and the mass media. [Meta G Carstarphen; John P Sanchez;] -- Chronicling milestones in the relationship ... between Indians and the media, some of the chapters employ a historical perspective, and other focus on contemporary practices ... foundations for American Indian media / Patty Loew --. American Indian news frames in Americas first newspaper, Publick ... foundations for American Indian media / Patty Loew -- American Indian news frames in Americas first newspaper, Publick ...
Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin # ... Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin # ... Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 ... Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 ...
Related Cheraw Indian Resources. *Bruch, Susan M. Catawba. Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Vol. 1. Detroit: Gale ... SC Native Americans SC Indian Tribes SC Cheraw Indians Name, Language - Cheraw Indians. *Alternate spellings: Charaw, Sara, ... Swanton, John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1984, pp. 76-77. ... Contact Information - Cheraw Indians. *Sumter Tribe of Cheraw Indians. SC Location, Territory - Cheraw Indians. *Traditional: ...
Yuchi Indian Chief -. Painted by George Catlin at Fort Moultrie in January 1848. © Smithsonian American Art Museum. ... SC Native Americans SC Indian Tribes SC Yuchi Indians Name, Language - Yuchi Indians. *Alternate spellings: Hogologe, Uchee, ... Leitch, Barbara A Concise Dictionary of Indian Tribes of North America. Algonac, MI: Reference Publications, 1979, pp. 536-38. ... Swanton, John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Instition Press, 1984, pp. 103-4. *Byron, Jim ...
The Indian Christian Americans have formed the Federation of Indian American Christian Organizations of North America (FIACONA ... and Indian Anticolonialism in North America. Oxford University Press. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-19-937625-4. Indians in North America, ... Indian Americans are the third largest Asian American ethnic group, following Chinese Americans and Filipino Americans.[37][38] ... Indian Americans are a subgroup of South Asian Americans, a group that also includes Bangladeshi Americans, Bhutanese Americans ...
American children should prepare to face a lot of competition from their peers in Asia. They will need not only to improve ... Argument: Chinese and Indian Entrepreneurs Are Eating Americas Lunch Chinese and Indian Entrepreneurs Are Eatin... ... Chinese and Indian Entrepreneurs Are Eating Americas Lunch. Watch out, Silicon Valley: China and India arent just graduating ... Earlier this month, Americans woke up to the bad news that their education system was just average in the developed world. ...
While Indian-American venture capitalist Vinod Khosla, who had made his presence in the list almost continuously, this time ... 4 Indian-Americans in Forbes richest list The list includes acoustics pioneer Amar Bose, Google founder director Kavitark ... Four Indian Americans -- acoustics pioneer Amar Bose, Google founder director Kavitark Shriram, venture capitalist Vinod Khosla ... list of richest Americans.. The 77-year-old Sultan of sound, Amar Bose, shares the 271st place in the list, released on Friday ...
A complaint from an Indian-American student who was near the top of his high school class but was rejected by both Harvard and ... Indian Americans lead all in income, education: Survey - Jun 20, 2012. *A million strong Indian-American voters gain political ... Indian Americans top in income and education - Jun 20, 2012. *Indian Americans at greater risk of suffering from coronary heart ... The unnamed Indian-American student in California complained that the two universities discriminate against Asian-Americans in ...
  • Indian Prime Minister Singh might try to finesse some of the commitments, for example, claiming for his parliament that India can test nuclear weapons anytime it wants while telling the Americans that he cannot foresee wanting to do so. (fas.org)
  • The Indians set as the condition for greater cooperation de facto recognition by the U.S. of India as a nuclear power. (fas.org)
  • So now that the U.S. has opened the gates for India, indignation will erase any sense of obligation on the part of the Indians and the world's leaders in reactor technology, the French and Japanese , and the Indian's old friend Russia, will get the reactor orders instead. (fas.org)
  • This article is about Americans with ancestry from India . (wikipedia.org)
  • Indian Americans or Indo-Americans are Americans whose ancestry belongs to any of the many ethnic groups of the Republic of India . (wikipedia.org)
  • The 54-year-old Desai, who was born in Kenya but moved to India at the age of 11, studied engineering at Indian Institute of Technology, took programming job in US at Tata Consultancy Services in 1976. (hindustantimes.com)
  • Aniruddh Chaturvedi, a senior software designer at LinkedIn, came to the US from India in 2011 and was immediately surprised by certain aspects of American culture. (businessinsider.com)
  • It is common knowledge in this part of India, and among anthropologists, that the Sentinelese tribe, an indigenous people living on the North Sentinel Island of India's Andaman Islands, want nothing to do with outsiders. (matadornetwork.com)
  • Much has been said about outsourcing of American business to India, but far less is known of the singular influx of Indian talent and wisdom that has enriched this country in a big way, says a new book. (rediff.com)
  • The book California Dreams - India Shining in the Land of Hollywood says that today there are more than 2.5 million Indians living and working in America - 2,00,000 in Southern California alone - the most creative and wealthiest minority in the United States. (rediff.com)
  • India and Indian-Americans still have a long way to go, as he citied some of the recent figures with regard to non- profits. (business-standard.com)
  • Whites for centuries have described and deplored the effects of drinking among Indians, without doing their part to change the situation. (jhu.edu)
  • But Bloomberg said there's plenty of research to suggest that Asian-American applicants must bring higher test scores and GPAs than whites, Hispanics or Blacks to gain entry. (thaindian.com)
  • The report cites a 2011 study of admissions at Duke: Asian-American enrolees scored 1457 on the reading and math sections of the SAT, compared to 1416 for whites, 1347 for Hispanics and 1275 for Blacks. (thaindian.com)
  • it looked as if Indians were moving closer to better treatment by whites. (nypost.com)
  • While Alaska and the Northern Plains states have had some of the lowest unemployment rates for whites since the start of the recession, these regions have had among the highest rates of joblessness for American Indians. (epi.org)
  • This Issue Brief documents these extreme regional employment disparities as well as the smaller but still significant ones between American Indians and whites from the first half of 2007 to the first half of 2010. (epi.org)
  • The employment situation is the worst for American Indians in some of the same regions where it is best for whites: Alaska and the Northern Plains. (epi.org)
  • It has been estimated that there were about 310,000 Indians living in California at the time. (nps.gov)
  • Spain's Indian policy at the time of the invasion of California was a mixture of economic, military, political, and religious motives. (nps.gov)
  • Heizer, 1978:100) "It was essential under 'missionization' that California Indians be 'reduced' into settled and stable communities where they would become good subjects of the King and children of God. (nps.gov)
  • From 1769 to 1800, the California coast was under Spanish control from as far north as San Francisco to San Diego in the south. (nps.gov)
  • Perhaps the most spectacular Indian rebellion in California during this era was the 1824 revolt at Missions La Purisima and Santa Barbara. (nps.gov)
  • Bill Wright, a Butwin Indian, left his reservation in California for the Stewart Indian School in Nevada when he was six. (npr.org)
  • The unnamed Indian-American student in California complained that the two universities discriminate against Asian-Americans in undergraduate admissions, according to a media Bloomberg report. (thaindian.com)
  • The idea for American Indian Heritage Day was started by former California Congressman Joe Baca through the introduction of the Native American Heritage Day Bill in 2007. (holidays.net)
  • It is in the land of Hollywood - Southern California that an Indian Dalip Singh Saund began the struggle for equal rights to Asians. (rediff.com)
  • Chairwoman Leslie Lohse of the California Tribal Business Alliance said at the iGaming North America conference that online gambling has cultural and economic implications that shouldn't be brushed off because others are in a hurry to start taking bets. (ktar.com)
  • California accounted for $6.8 billion in gambling revenue, more than one quarter of revenues from American Indian casinos in 2010. (ktar.com)
  • The American Heart Association (AHA) has implemented 2020 goals for promiting cardiovascular health in a campaign called Life's Simple 7. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • The overarching goals of the AHA's Life's Simple 7 are to improve the cardiovascular health profiles of all Americans and reduce deaths from CVD by 20% by 2020," explains Amanda M. Fretts, PhD, MPH. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Prior to 1965, Indian immigration to the U.S. was small and isolated, with fewer than fifty thousand Indian immigrants in the country. (wikipedia.org)
  • Indians believe they should have these lands and appeal to international human rights laws. (films.com)
  • East of the Mississippi, tribal lands had been so diminished that most of the 30,000 Indians in the Union did not live in powerful tribal units. (cowboysindians.com)
  • Many AI/AN live on reservation lands or in remote rural areas, and their primary health care is provided by a tribally operated health program or the Indian Health Service. (nativeamericannetroots.net)
  • The complaint alleges "discrimination against Asian-Americans on the basis of race/national origin with respect to the university's admissions process. (thaindian.com)
  • In 1956, the first person of Indian origin, Judge Dalip Singh Saund, was elected to US Congress and in 2004 the second Indian American, Bobby Jindal won his congressional election. (rediff.com)
  • Peter C. Mancall in this book has brought together disparate testimony from English colonial sources to construct a cogent picture of the Indian liquor traffic, its purposes, its intractability, and its dolorous consequences from first settlements to the American Revolution, with collateral attention to French Canada. (jhu.edu)
  • Mancall postulates two colonial motives for carrying on the Indian liquor trade: profits, and Indian acculturation to Western civilization through trade. (jhu.edu)
  • Throughout the colonial period in North America, wars between European powers forced Indian peoples to choose sides or find ways to stay neutral, and the American Revolution was no exception. (encyclopediaofalabama.org)
  • The author chronicles the formation of the Native American Journalists Association, perhaps the most important early Indian advocacy organization, which he helped found. (worldcat.org)
  • While anti-Asian racism was embedded in U.S. politics and culture in the early 20th century, Indians were also racialized for their anticolonialism, with U.S. officials, casting them as a "Hindu" menace, pushing for Western imperial expansion abroad. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the Indian Health Service, this is due in part because of the lack of resources to perform the routine tests that detect the early warning signs of the disease. (nativeamericannetroots.net)
  • Colorectal cancer is highly treatable if caught early enough, but for American Indians it is usually not detected early. (nativeamericannetroots.net)
  • A discussion of the efforts to preserve Native American culture, from the documentary Native Voice: Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian . (britannica.com)
  • Cook, 1962:92) However, over the next 80 years, this number was to change drastically, along with the lifestyle and culture of the Indians. (nps.gov)
  • This seems ironic given the devastating effect the mission system had on Indian population and culture, but it must be remembered that the Spanish saw the Indian neophytes (a neophyte is a new religious convert) as "little more than an energy source which cost nothing to acquire and nothing to maintain they were an expendable resource. (nps.gov)
  • Many Indians remember those boarding schools as places where they were abused and where their culture was desecrated. (npr.org)
  • Students at federal boarding schools were forbidden to express their culture - everything from wearing long hair to speaking even a single Indian word. (npr.org)
  • She says from the start, the government's objective to erase and replace Indian culture was part of a larger strategy to conquer Indians. (npr.org)
  • The purpose is to recognize all of the important contributions Native Americans have made to culture and society. (holidays.net)
  • In an email to Business Insider, Chaturvedi listed what he found to be the most surprising things about American culture. (businessinsider.com)
  • The introduction discusses the origins of North American Indians with brief descriptions of traditional culture of the various geographic areas. (si.edu)
  • The Indian minority was concerned less about the divisive issues of slavery and the preservation of the American Constitution than about their ongoing struggle to hold on to their remaining land and culture. (cowboysindians.com)
  • Heizer, 1978:103) The Indians who led the rebellion were punished. (nps.gov)
  • However, food remains at Paleo-Indian sites including Gault (Texas) and Jake Bluff (Oklahoma) indicate that these people used a wide variety of plants and animals. (britannica.com)
  • Missionization required a brutal lifestyle akin in several respects to the forced movement of black people from Africa to the American South. (nps.gov)
  • Professor TSIANINA LOMAWAIMA (American Indian Studies, University of Arizona): The intent of the school was to completely transform people, I mean, inside out - language, religion, family structure, economics, the way you make a living, the way you express emotion, everything. (npr.org)
  • Americans have a self-image of good guys, we are generous, and, most importantly, we expect other people to appreciate just what fine folks we are. (fas.org)
  • The Sentinelese tribe is extremely isolated from human contact and the Indian Navy enforces a buffer zone to keep people away, but Chau was determined to visit them and convert them to Christianity, The New York Times reports. (matadornetwork.com)
  • But the fishermen who took Chau to North Sentinel explained to the police that they had later seen his body being dragged on the beach by the Sentinelese people. (matadornetwork.com)
  • But if, in the interest of scoring political points, Republicans in the Senate refuse to exercise that responsibility, I must act in the interest of the American people and exercise my authority to fill these positions on an interim basis. (rediff.com)
  • When the American Revolution began, thousands of people rushed to join the fight-on both sides. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • When the IHS was established in 1955, more than 95 percent of Indian people lived on or near their home reservations. (peoplesworld.org)
  • Application rates of BIA schools were low in the first year of the program but by the second year, BIA application rates were higher than for other schools with similar levels of poverty, urban location, and American Indian enrollment. (urban.org)
  • The application rates vary from a high of over 80 percent for schools with 0-2 percent American Indian enrollment to a low around 60 percent for schools with 50-80 percent American Indians. (urban.org)
  • While application rates generally increase with the size of the school, the participation rates of non-BIA schools with over 80 percent American Indian enrollment were not as clearly related to school size. (urban.org)
  • According to reports in both the Indian and western press, the US-Indian nuclear deal is being denounced , mostly by the communist and allied parties, as an unacceptable constraint on Indian sovereignty. (fas.org)
  • Chronicling milestones in the relationship between Indians and the media, some of the chapters employ a historical perspective, and other focus on contemporary practices and new technologies. (worldcat.org)
  • Indian-American kids today maintained their complete dominance in the annual Scripps National Spelling Bee contest by winning the prestigious competition for the eighth year in a row. (ndtv.com)
  • Indians were regarded by the Spanish government as subjects of the Crown and human beings capable of receiving the sacraments of Christianity. (nps.gov)