Monoamine Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. It is a flavin-containing enzyme that is localized in mitochondrial membranes, whether in nerve terminals, the liver, or other organs. Monoamine oxidase is important in regulating the metabolic degradation of catecholamines and serotonin in neural or target tissues. Hepatic monoamine oxidase has a crucial defensive role in inactivating circulating monoamines or those, such as tyramine, that originate in the gut and are absorbed into the portal circulation. (From Goodman and Gilman's, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p415) EC 1.4.3.4.Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors: A chemically heterogeneous group of drugs that have in common the ability to block oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. (From Gilman, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p414)Vesicular Monoamine Transport Proteins: A family of vesicular amine transporter proteins that catalyze the transport and storage of CATECHOLAMINES and indolamines into SECRETORY VESICLES.Biogenic Monoamines: Biogenic amines having only one amine moiety. Included in this group are all natural monoamines formed by the enzymatic decarboxylation of natural amino acids.Vesicular Biogenic Amine Transport Proteins: Integral membrane proteins of the LIPID BILAYER of SECRETORY VESICLES that catalyze transport and storage of biogenic amine NEUROTRANSMITTERS such as ACETYLCHOLINE; SEROTONIN; MELATONIN; HISTAMINE; and CATECHOLAMINES. The transporters exchange vesicular protons for cytoplasmic neurotransmitters.Clorgyline: An antidepressive agent and monoamine oxidase inhibitor related to PARGYLINE.Selegiline: A selective, irreversible inhibitor of Type B monoamine oxidase. It is used in newly diagnosed patients with Parkinson's disease. It may slow progression of the clinical disease and delay the requirement for levodopa therapy. It also may be given with levodopa upon onset of disability. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p385) The compound without isomeric designation is Deprenyl.Pargyline: A monoamine oxidase inhibitor with antihypertensive properties.Tetrabenazine: A drug formerly used as an antipsychotic and treatment of various movement disorders. Tetrabenazine blocks neurotransmitter uptake into adrenergic storage vesicles and has been used as a high affinity label for the vesicle transport system.Tranylcypromine: A propylamine formed from the cyclization of the side chain of amphetamine. This monoamine oxidase inhibitor is effective in the treatment of major depression, dysthymic disorder, and atypical depression. It also is useful in panic and phobic disorders. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p311)Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Phenelzine: One of the MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS used to treat DEPRESSION; PHOBIC DISORDERS; and PANIC.Hydroxyindoleacetic AcidTyramine: An indirect sympathomimetic. Tyramine does not directly activate adrenergic receptors, but it can serve as a substrate for adrenergic uptake systems and monoamine oxidase so it prolongs the actions of adrenergic transmitters. It also provokes transmitter release from adrenergic terminals. Tyramine may be a neurotransmitter in some invertebrate nervous systems.Homovanillic AcidDopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Nialamide: An MAO inhibitor that is used as an antidepressive agent.Norepinephrine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of noradrenergic neurons. They remove NOREPINEPHRINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. It regulates signal amplitude and duration at noradrenergic synapses and is the target of ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS.Moclobemide: A reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase type A; (RIMA); (see MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS) that has antidepressive properties.Biogenic Amines: A group of naturally occurring amines derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of the natural amino acids. Many have powerful physiological effects (e.g., histamine, serotonin, epinephrine, tyramine). Those derived from aromatic amino acids, and also their synthetic analogs (e.g., amphetamine), are of use in pharmacology.Dopamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of dopaminergic neurons. They remove DOPAMINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS and are the target of DOPAMINE UPTAKE INHIBITORS.Lobeline: An alkaloid that has actions similar to NICOTINE on nicotinic cholinergic receptors but is less potent. It has been proposed for a variety of therapeutic uses including in respiratory disorders, peripheral vascular disorders, insomnia, and smoking cessation.3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic Acid: A deaminated metabolite of LEVODOPA.Iproniazid: An irreversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase types A and B that is used as an antidepressive agent. It has also been used as an antitubercular agent, but its use is limited by its toxicity.Neurotransmitter Uptake Inhibitors: Drugs that inhibit the transport of neurotransmitters into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. For many transmitters, uptake determines the time course of transmitter action so inhibiting uptake prolongs the activity of the transmitter. Blocking uptake may also deplete available transmitter stores. Many clinically important drugs are uptake inhibitors although the indirect reactions of the brain rather than the acute block of uptake itself is often responsible for the therapeutic effects.Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of serotonergic neurons. They are different than SEROTONIN RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to SEROTONIN. They remove SEROTONIN from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. Regulates signal amplitude and duration at serotonergic synapses and is the site of action of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS.Reserpine: An alkaloid found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina and R. vomitoria. Reserpine inhibits the uptake of norepinephrine into storage vesicles resulting in depletion of catecholamines and serotonin from central and peripheral axon terminals. It has been used as an antihypertensive and an antipsychotic as well as a research tool, but its adverse effects limit its clinical use.Methoxyhydroxyphenylglycol: Synthesized from endogenous epinephrine and norepinephrine in vivo. It is found in brain, blood, CSF, and urine, where its concentrations are used to measure catecholamine turnover.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Phenethylamines: A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta- aminoethylbenzene which is structurally and pharmacologically related to amphetamine. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Equilibrative Nucleoside Transport Proteins: A class of sodium-independent nucleoside transporters that mediate the facilitative transport of NUCLEOSIDES.PropylaminesBrain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors: Drugs that block the transport of adrenergic transmitters into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. The tricyclic antidepressants (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) and amphetamines are among the therapeutically important drugs that may act via inhibition of adrenergic transport. Many of these drugs also block transport of serotonin.Neurotransmitter Transport Proteins: Membrane transport proteins found predominately in NEURONS and neuroendocrine cells that facilitate neurotransmitter transport. They include two distinct families of proteins that transport NEUROTRANSMITTERS across the PLASMA MEMBRANE and that transport NEUROTRANSMITTERS into SECRETORY VESICLES.Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.Amines: A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Neurotransmitter Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.Methamphetamine: A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.KynuramineAntidepressive Agents: Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors: Drugs that block the transport of DOPAMINE into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. Most of the ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS also inhibit dopamine uptake.Tryptamines: Decarboxylated monoamine derivatives of TRYPTOPHAN.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine: A dopaminergic neurotoxic compound which produces irreversible clinical, chemical, and pathological alterations that mimic those found in Parkinson disease.Bufotenin: A hallucinogenic serotonin analog found in frog or toad skins, mushrooms, higher plants, and mammals, especially in the brains, plasma, and urine of schizophrenics. Bufotenin has been used as a tool in CNS studies and misused as a psychedelic.Desipramine: A tricyclic dibenzazepine compound that potentiates neurotransmission. Desipramine selectively blocks reuptake of norepinephrine from the neural synapse, and also appears to impair serotonin transport. This compound also possesses minor anticholinergic activity, through its affinity to muscarinic receptors.1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium: An active neurotoxic metabolite of 1-METHYL-4-PHENYL-1,2,3,6-TETRAHYDROPYRIDINE. The compound reduces dopamine levels, inhibits the biosynthesis of catecholamines, depletes cardiac norepinephrine and inactivates tyrosine hydroxylase. These and other toxic effects lead to cessation of oxidative phosphorylation, ATP depletion, and cell death. The compound, which is related to PARAQUAT, has also been used as an herbicide.Methyltyrosines: A group of compounds that are methyl derivatives of the amino acid TYROSINE.Imipramine: The prototypical tricyclic antidepressant. It has been used in major depression, dysthymia, bipolar depression, attention-deficit disorders, agoraphobia, and panic disorders. It has less sedative effect than some other members of this therapeutic group.Phenmetrazine: A sympathomimetic drug used primarily as an appetite depressant. Its actions and mechanisms are similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.Octopamine: An alpha-adrenergic sympathomimetic amine, biosynthesized from tyramine in the CNS and platelets and also in invertebrate nervous systems. It is used to treat hypotension and as a cardiotonic. The natural D(-) form is more potent than the L(+) form in producing cardiovascular adrenergic responses. It is also a neurotransmitter in some invertebrates.5-Hydroxytryptophan: The immediate precursor in the biosynthesis of SEROTONIN from tryptophan. It is used as an antiepileptic and antidepressant.Cocaine: An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.Benzylamines: Toluenes in which one hydrogen of the methyl group is substituted by an amino group. Permitted are any substituents on the benzene ring or the amino group.Catecholamines: A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.Organic Cation Transport Proteins: A family of proteins involved in the transport of organic cations. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics, and their metabolites from the body.Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Glycols: A generic grouping for dihydric alcohols with the hydroxy groups (-OH) located on different carbon atoms. They are viscous liquids with high boiling points for their molecular weights.Methoxydimethyltryptamines: Compounds that contain the biogenic monoamine tryptamine and are substituted with one methoxy group and two methyl groups. Members of this group include several potent serotonergic hallucinogens found in several unrelated plants, skins of certain toads, and in mammalian brains. They are possibly involved in the etiology of schizophrenia.Banisteriopsis: A plant genus of the family MALPIGHIACEAE which includes an Amazonian psychoactive plant that contains the beta-carboline harmine and N,N-dimethyltryptamine.Dopamine Agents: Any drugs that are used for their effects on dopamine receptors, on the life cycle of dopamine, or on the survival of dopaminergic neurons.Nomifensine: An isoquinoline derivative that prevents dopamine reuptake into synaptosomes. The maleate was formerly used in the treatment of depression. It was withdrawn worldwide in 1986 due to the risk of acute hemolytic anemia with intravascular hemolysis resulting from its use. In some cases, renal failure also developed. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p266)Catechol O-Methyltransferase: Enzyme that catalyzes the movement of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionone to a catechol or a catecholamine.Membrane Transport Modulators: Agents that affect ION PUMPS; ION CHANNELS; ABC TRANSPORTERS; and other MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Tryptophan Hydroxylase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of TRYPTOPHAN to 5-HYDROXYTRYPTOPHAN in the presence of NADPH and molecular oxygen. It is important in the biosynthesis of SEROTONIN.Synaptosomes: Pinched-off nerve endings and their contents of vesicles and cytoplasm together with the attached subsynaptic area of the membrane of the post-synaptic cell. They are largely artificial structures produced by fractionation after selective centrifugation of nervous tissue homogenates.Amine Oxidase (Copper-Containing): A group of enzymes including those oxidizing primary monoamines, diamines, and histamine. They are copper proteins, and, as their action depends on a carbonyl group, they are sensitive to inhibition by semicarbazide.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Levodopa: The naturally occurring form of DIHYDROXYPHENYLALANINE and the immediate precursor of DOPAMINE. Unlike dopamine itself, it can be taken orally and crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is rapidly taken up by dopaminergic neurons and converted to DOPAMINE. It is used for the treatment of PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS and is usually given with agents that inhibit its conversion to dopamine outside of the central nervous system.Amphetamine: A powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.p-Chloroamphetamine: Chlorinated analog of AMPHETAMINE. Potent neurotoxin that causes release and eventually depletion of serotonin in the CNS. It is used as a research tool.Dihydroxyphenylalanine: A beta-hydroxylated derivative of phenylalanine. The D-form of dihydroxyphenylalanine has less physiologic activity than the L-form and is commonly used experimentally to determine whether the pharmacological effects of LEVODOPA are stereospecific.Indans: Aryl CYCLOPENTANES that are a reduced (protonated) form of INDENES.SemicarbazidesSerotonin Uptake Inhibitors: Compounds that specifically inhibit the reuptake of serotonin in the brain.alpha-Methyltyrosine: An inhibitor of the enzyme TYROSINE 3-MONOOXYGENASE, and consequently of the synthesis of catecholamines. It is used to control the symptoms of excessive sympathetic stimulation in patients with PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed)Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Deamination: The removal of an amino group (NH2) from a chemical compound.Central Nervous System Stimulants: A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.Harmine: Alkaloid isolated from seeds of Peganum harmala L., Zygophyllaceae. It is identical to banisterine, or telepathine, from Banisteria caapi and is one of the active ingredients of hallucinogenic drinks made in the western Amazon region from related plants. It has no therapeutic use, but (as banisterine) was hailed as a cure for postencephalitic Parkinson disease in the 1920's.Fluoxetine: The first highly specific serotonin uptake inhibitor. It is used as an antidepressant and often has a more acceptable side-effects profile than traditional antidepressants.Phenylacetates: Derivatives of phenylacetic acid. Included under this heading are a variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the benzeneacetic acid structure. Note that this class of compounds should not be confused with derivatives of phenyl acetate, which contain the PHENOL ester of ACETIC ACID.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Plasma Membrane Neurotransmitter Transport Proteins: A family of neurotransmitter transporter proteins that facilitate NEUROTRANSMITTER reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. They may play a role in regulating the intensity and duration of neurotransmission.Nictitating Membrane: A fold of the mucous membrane of the CONJUNCTIVA in many animals. At rest, it is hidden in the medial canthus. It can extend to cover part or all of the cornea to help clean the CORNEA.Dextroamphetamine: The d-form of AMPHETAMINE. It is a central nervous system stimulant and a sympathomimetic. It has also been used in the treatment of narcolepsy and of attention deficit disorders and hyperactivity in children. Dextroamphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulating release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. It is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic.Vesicular Acetylcholine Transport Proteins: Vesicular amine transporter proteins that transport the neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE into small SECRETORY VESICLES. Proteins of this family contain 12 transmembrane domains and exchange vesicular PROTONS for cytoplasmic acetylcholine.ButylaminesAllylamine: Possesses an unusual and selective cytotoxicity for VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE cells in dogs and rats. Useful for experiments dealing with arterial injury, myocardial fibrosis or cardiac decompensation.Neostriatum: The phylogenetically newer part of the CORPUS STRIATUM consisting of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and PUTAMEN. It is often called simply the striatum.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Saguinus: A genus in the subfamily CALLITRICHINAE consisting of 12 species and found in Panama as well as South America. Species seen most frequently in the literature are S. oedipus (cotton-top marmoset), S. nigricollis, and S. fusicollis.Dopamine beta-HydroxylaseNortropanesImidazoline Receptors: Receptors of CLONIDINE and other IMIDAZOLINES. Activity of the ligands was earlier attributed to ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS. Endogenous ligands include AGMATINE, imidazoleacetic acid ribotide, and harman.Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC 1.14.16.2.Designer Drugs: Drugs designed and synthesized, often for illegal street use, by modification of existing drug structures (e.g., amphetamines). Of special interest are MPTP (a reverse ester of meperidine), MDA (3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine), and MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine). Many drugs act on the aminergic system, the physiologically active biogenic amines.Serotonin Agents: Drugs used for their effects on serotonergic systems. Among these are drugs that affect serotonin receptors, the life cycle of serotonin, and the survival of serotonergic neurons.N-Methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine: An N-substituted amphetamine analog. It is a widely abused drug classified as a hallucinogen and causes marked, long-lasting changes in brain serotonergic systems. It is commonly referred to as MDMA or ecstasy.Tropanes: N-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanes best known for the ones found in PLANTS.Fenfluramine: A centrally active drug that apparently both blocks serotonin uptake and provokes transport-mediated serotonin release.Idazoxan: A benzodioxane-linked imidazole that has alpha-2 adrenoceptor antagonist activity.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Synaptic Vesicles: Membrane-bound compartments which contain transmitter molecules. Synaptic vesicles are concentrated at presynaptic terminals. They actively sequester transmitter molecules from the cytoplasm. In at least some synapses, transmitter release occurs by fusion of these vesicles with the presynaptic membrane, followed by exocytosis of their contents.Receptors, Serotonin: Cell-surface proteins that bind SEROTONIN and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Several types of serotonin receptors have been recognized which differ in their pharmacology, molecular biology, and mode of action.Zimeldine: One of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS formerly used for depression but was withdrawn worldwide in September 1983 because of the risk of GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME associated with its use. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p385)Picolinic AcidsHydroxydopamines: Dopamines with a hydroxy group substituted in one or more positions.Oxazoles: Five-membered heterocyclic ring structures containing an oxygen in the 1-position and a nitrogen in the 3-position, in distinction from ISOXAZOLES where they are at the 1,2 positions.Clomipramine: A tricyclic antidepressant similar to IMIPRAMINE that selectively inhibits the uptake of serotonin in the brain. It is readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and demethylated in the liver to form its primary active metabolite, desmethylclomipramine.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic: Substances that contain a fused three-ring moiety and are used in the treatment of depression. These drugs block the uptake of norepinephrine and serotonin into axon terminals and may block some subtypes of serotonin, adrenergic, and histamine receptors. However the mechanism of their antidepressant effects is not clear because the therapeutic effects usually take weeks to develop and may reflect compensatory changes in the central nervous system.Harmaline: A beta-carboline alkaloid isolated from seeds of PEGANUM.Dibenzazepines: Compounds with two BENZENE rings fused to AZEPINES.Parkinson Disease: A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Microdialysis: A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.Citalopram: A furancarbonitrile that is one of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS used as an antidepressant. The drug is also effective in reducing ethanol uptake in alcoholics and is used in depressed patients who also suffer from tardive dyskinesia in preference to tricyclic antidepressants, which aggravate this condition.Serotonin Syndrome: An adverse drug interaction characterized by altered mental status, autonomic dysfunction, and neuromuscular abnormalities. It is most frequently caused by use of both serotonin reuptake inhibitors and monoamine oxidase inhibitors, leading to excess serotonin availability in the CNS at the serotonin 1A receptor.Aromatic-L-Amino-Acid Decarboxylases: An enzyme group with broad specificity. The enzymes decarboxylate a range of aromatic amino acids including dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA DECARBOXYLASE); TRYPTOPHAN; and HYDROXYTRYPTOPHAN.Benzyl CompoundsAmphetamines: Analogs or derivatives of AMPHETAMINE. Many are sympathomimetics and central nervous system stimulators causing excitation, vasopressin, bronchodilation, and to varying degrees, anorexia, analepsis, nasal decongestion, and some smooth muscle relaxation.Paroxetine: A serotonin uptake inhibitor that is effective in the treatment of depression.Metaraminol: A sympathomimetic agent that acts predominantly at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors. It has been used primarily as a vasoconstrictor in the treatment of HYPOTENSION.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)HydrazinesDrug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Sympathomimetics: Drugs that mimic the effects of stimulating postganglionic adrenergic sympathetic nerves. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate adrenergic receptors and drugs that act indirectly by provoking the release of adrenergic transmitters.Maprotiline: A bridged-ring tetracyclic antidepressant that is both mechanistically and functionally similar to the tricyclic antidepressants, including side effects associated with its use.Aporphines: Dibenzoquinolines derived in plants from (S)-reticuline (BENZYLISOQUINOLINES).Aggression: Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.Alkynes: Hydrocarbons with at least one triple bond in the linear portion, of the general formula Cn-H2n-2.Nerve Tissue ProteinsSubstrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.MPTP Poisoning: A condition caused by the neurotoxin MPTP which causes selective destruction of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Clinical features include irreversible parkinsonian signs including rigidity and bradykinesia (PARKINSON DISEASE, SECONDARY). MPTP toxicity is also used as an animal model for the study of PARKINSON DISEASE. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1072; Neurology 1986 Feb;36(2):250-8)Receptors, Dopamine: Cell-surface proteins that bind dopamine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Receptors, Dopamine D2: A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
Fuxe K, Agnati LF, Ungerstedt U (January 1976). "The effect of mepiprazole on central monoamine neurons. Evidence for increased ... effects on uptake and retention of monoamines in rat brain synaptosomes". Psychopharmacology. 48 (3): 295-301. doi:10.1007/ ...
Thus, reserpine increases metabolic rate of monoamine neurotransmitters; but also decreases magnitude of monoamine release. It ... "Radioligands of the vesicular monoamine transporter and their use as markers of monoamine storage vesicles". Biochemical ... Reserpine-mediated depletion of monoamine neurotransmitters in the synapses is often cited as evidence to the theory that ... The antihypertensive actions of reserpine are a result of its ability to deplete catecholamines (among other monoamine ...
It improves left ventricular function in diabetic patients with coronary heart disease. Recently, it has been shown to be ... It interacts with monoamine oxidase inhibitors. There is scarce information about trimetazidine's effect on mortality, ... Controlled studies in angina patients have shown that trimetazidine increases coronary flow reserve, thereby delaying the onset ... which improves myocardial glucose utilization through inhibition of fatty acid metabolism, also known as fatty acid oxidation ...
It increases norepinephrine, dopamine, and 5-HT and thus increases the action of the transmitters at their receptors. MAOIs ... Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are the oldest class of antidepressants. They inhibit monoamine oxidase, the enzyme that ... and heart rate is also increased. It also frequently induces increased hunger. Iversen (2000) categorized the subjective and ... This leads to increased levels of neurotransmitter in the cleft and transmission at the synapses. Based on in-vitro studies ...
Benserazide Carbidopa Selective monoamine oxidase B inhibitors. Prevent the metabolism of dopamine by MAOB and hence increase ... Most of these agents act by either increasing dopamine activity or reducing acetylcholine activity in the central nervous ... Directly increase the activity of the dopamine system. Apomorphine Bromocriptine Pramipexole Ropinirole Rotigotine ... Prevent the peripheral metabolism of levodopa by COMT and hence increase its brain levels. Entacapone Opicapone Tolcapone (also ...
Alcohol can increase the absorption rate. Monoamine oxidase (MAO) breaks down biogenic amines and prevents excessive resorption ... Some prominent examples of biogenic monoamines include: Monoamine neurotransmitters Histamine - a substance derived from the ... Monoamine neurotransmitter Trace amine Santos, M.H.Silla. "Biogenic amines: their importance in foods". International Journal ... Trace amines are metabolized in the mammalian body via monoamine oxidase (MAO; EC 1.4.3.4) (Berry, 2004) (Fig. 2) ... It ...
Yohimbine is more selective to α2 adrenoceptor; by blocking presynaptic α2-adrenoceptors, it increases the release of ... Some alkaloids affect the turnover of monoamines indirectly. So, harmine and harmaline are reversible selective inhibitors of ... monoamine oxidase-A. Reserpine reduces concentration of monoamines in presynaptic and synaptic neurons, thereby inducing ... 2003). "Human Pharmacology of Ayahuasca: Subjective and Cardiovascular Effects, Monoamine Metabolite Excretion, and ...
... and deprenyl inhibits monoamine oxidase (MAO)-B and thus increases dopamine levels. An agonist is a chemical capable of binding ... Even with increased neurotransmitter release, it is unclear whether this will result in a long-term increase in ... a type of monoamine transporter located on synaptic vesicles within monoamine neurons. An antagonist is a chemical that acts ... Serotonin is a monoamine neurotransmitter. Most is produced by and found in the intestine (approximately 90%), and the ...
... and deprenyl inhibits monoamine oxidase (MAO)-B and thus increases dopamine levels. The serotonin created by the brain ... symptoms may not begin to improve until several weeks after administration. Increased transmitter levels in the synapse alone ... Monoamine oxidase inhibitors allow reuptake of biogenic amine neurotransmitters from the synapse, but inhibit an enzyme which ... Neuromodulators are known to have modulatory effects on target areas such as decorrelation of spiking, increase of firing rate ...
Schallreuter, KU; Wood, JM; Pittelkow, MR; Buttner, G; Swanson, N; Korner, C; Ehrke, C (1996). "Increased monoamine oxidase A ... This increases the potency of the catecholamine response system, increasing the sympathetic output and making the stress ... An increase in stress hormones or nerve impulses due to stress can cause PNMT to convert more norepinephrine into epinephrine. ... SAM not only acts as a cofactor for PNMT, but also helps to stabilize the enzyme and increase the half life by making it more ...
Changes the monoamine level and increases the dopamine content in the brain.[medical citation needed] One study determined the ... increases the correlation prostacyclin/ thromboxane A2 and blocks the leukotriene formation Increases the content of polar ... that is provokes the reduction of membrane viscosity and the increase of its fluidity, increases lipid-protein ratio. Modulates ... Modulates the receptor complexes of the brain membranes, i.e. benzodiazepine, GABA, acetylcholine receptors by increasing their ...
This increase was correlated with an increased freezing behavior that was observed. The rats were then given an inhibitor for ... However, inhibition of monoamine oxidase A or B alone failed to do so. It has been shown that parts of the brain are involved ... October 2000). "Monoamine oxidase inhibitors reduce conditioned fear stress-induced freezing behavior in rats". European ... Rats were treated with specific inhibitors that target either monoamine oxidase A or B. The results showed that acute ...
... has major contraindications with monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). At least one study also found increased ... Drowsiness and dry mouth appear to intensify with increasing dose. Dysphagia, a life threatening side-effect, may rarely occur ... The potential harm is increased when central nervous system depressants and antidepressants are also used; deliberate overdose ... Meta-analysis studies have found significantly increased rates of drowsiness (38% of patients), dry mouth (24%), dizziness (10 ...
"Monoamine oxidase inhibition dramatically increases the motivation to self-administer nicotine in rats". The Journal of ... Smoking also increases blood pressure and weakens blood vessels. In addition to increasing the risk of kidney cancer, smoking ... partly due to also experiencing an increased risk of dying in a motor vehicle crash. Smoking increases the risk of symptoms ... which has tentatively been linked to increased HIV susceptibility. Smoking increases the risk of Kaposi's sarcoma in people ...
Many antidepressant drugs increase synaptic levels of the monoamine neurotransmitter, serotonin, but they may also enhance the ... An offshoot of the monoamine hypothesis suggests that monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A), an enzyme which metabolizes monoamines, may ... November 2006). "Elevated monoamine oxidase a levels in the brain: An explanation for the monoamine imbalance of major ... One method used to study the role of monoamines is monoamine depletion. Depletion of tryptophan(the precursor of serotonin), ...
MAO inhibitor drugs block an enzyme system resulting in increased stores of monoamine neurotransmitters. More common ... Benzodiazepine binding increases the binding of GABA and barbiturates maximize the time the pore is open. Both of these ... With increasing doses, amphetamines also cause the direct release of these neurotransmitters. Serotonergic psychedelics act ... When these drugs are taken together, especially with ethanol (drinking alcohol), there is a disproportionate increase in ...
A prominent feature that accompanies aging is an increase in monoamine oxidase (MAO) levels. This results in decreased ... These findings imply that increased brain MAO activity in aging can be modified by hydergine treatment in some brain regions. ... nasal congestion Increased risk of fibrosis and ergotism. As a result of the last-mentioned effects, the use of ergot ... imply that the major effect of hydergine may be the modulation of synaptic neurotransmission rather than solely increasing ...
This leads to an increase in extracellular concentrations of the neurotransmitter and an increase in neurotransmission. Various ... Nishimura M, Sato K, Okada T, Schloss P, Shimada S, Tohyama M (1998). "MK-801 blocks monoamine transporters expressed in HEK ... Chen F, Larsen MB, Sánchez C, Wiborg O (2005). "The S-enantiomer of R,S-citalopram, increases inhibitor binding to the human ... Nishimura M, Sato K, Okada T, Yoshiya I, Schloss P, Shimada S, Tohyama M (1998). "Ketamine inhibits monoamine transporters ...
Lastly, increased activity of monoamine oxidase, which degrades monoamines, has been associated with depression. However, this ... November 2006). "Elevated monoamine oxidase a levels in the brain: An explanation for the monoamine imbalance of major ... the fact that antidepressants instantly increase levels of monoamines but take weeks to work, and the existence of atypical ... resulting in a depressed state mediated by increased serotonin. Further countering the monoamine hypothesis is the fact that ...
Blockage of DAT increases the extracellular concentration of dopamine, therefore increasing the amount of dopamine receptor ... Cocaine is a monoamine transporter blocker and, thus, an indirect agonist of dopamine receptors. Cocaine binds the dopamine ... disrupting the compartmentalization of serotonin into vesicles and increasing the concentration of cytoplasmic serotonin ...
... s can be added to nonpolar solvents to increase their conductivity to allow electrostatic spray painting. ( ... The polyamines can be prepared by reacting epichlorohydrin with aliphatic monoamines. Antistatic device Robinson, K; Durkin, W ...
... an increase in serotonergic neurotransmission. It is a type of monoamine reuptake inhibitor (MRI); other types of MRIs include ... Note that only SRIs selective for the SERT over the other monoamine transporters (MATs) are listed below. For a list of SRIs ... Gillman PK (2005). "Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, opioid analgesics and serotonin toxicity". Br J Anaesth. 95 (4): 434-41. doi: ... Monoamine reuptake inhibitor Tatsumi M, Groshan K, Blakely RD, Richelson E (1997). "Pharmacological profile of antidepressants ...
A related type of theoretical interactions is with drugs that increase catecholamine concentrations, such as monoamine oxidase ... While increase of dopamine levels is a desired interaction, tolcapone can theoretically also increase the levels of other drugs ... Thus, tolcapone improves the bioavailability and reduces the clearance of levodopa and subsequently dopamine from the CNS. The ... Tolcapone is also contraindicated for people with liver diseases or increased liver enzymes. Tolcapone has demonstrated ...
Dopamine is a monoamine neurotransmitter which is involved in other diseases, such as Parkinson's disease. There is evidence ... The evidence for the neurodegenerative theory is a reduction in the volume of the cerebral cortex and an increase in the ... This comes from the discovery of increased L-DOPA decarboxylase levels in the brains of these patients. L-DOPA decarboxylase is ... Serotonin is a monoamine neurotransmitter which has been associated with schizophrenia. The psychedelic drug classes ...
This bruxism may be due to a drug-induced increase in monoamines. Other behaviors of long-term methamphetamine users that may ... Sialogogues, drugs that increase the amount of saliva in the mouth, can be used to treat dry mouth and protect against dental ... The condition is difficult to treat, and may involve fillings, fluoride to fight tooth decay and drugs that increase saliva for ... There is also an increased risk of serious side effects if opioid medications are used in the patient's treatment. Treatment of ...
... reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A (RIMA),[9] a type of monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI), and increases levels of ... extracellular levels also increase which results in increased monoamine receptor stimulation and suppression of REM sleep, down ... Moclobemide increases levels of extracellular monoamines and decreases levels of their metabolites in rat brains; tolerance to ... The specific problem is: redundant and contradictory information; structure needs to be improved Please help improve this ...
Other medicines or history of seizures may further increase seizure risk. In the CARM reports, three patients were taking a ... mirtazapine, monoamine oxidase inhibitors (including moclobemide), SSRIs, tricyclics, venlafaxine. Antiparkinson agents ... Two of these patients experienced seizures when the dose of tramadol was increased. One of these took tramadol daily but had ... Tramadol is contraindicated in patients who are taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors or who have taken them within the last 14 ...
Inform patients of the increased risk of serotonin syndrome and advise them not to take serotonergic drugs within 72 hours ... monoamine oxidase inhibitors). Some of the reported cases were fatal. Patients treated with ProvayBlue® should be monitored for ...
Novel Mechanisms of Action and Improved Side Effect Profile Will Drive Sales of New Drug Class in the Treatment of Major ... Medications frequently prescribed include tricyclic anti-depressants, high-potency benzodiazepines, monoamine oxidase ... increased the risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding, particularly when taken together with NSAIDs or antiplatelet drugs, ... during the first trimester of pregnancy may modestly increase the risk of developing autism spectrum disorder (ASD).. ...
Only amphetamine-sensitized rats showed increased latency to enter the center of the open-field, as well as increased plasma ... Only amphetamine-sensitized rats showed increased latency to enter the center of the open-field, as well as increased plasma ... Only amphetamine-sensitized rats showed increased latency to enter the center of the open-field, as well as increased plasma ... Only amphetamine-sensitized rats showed increased latency to enter the center of the open-field, as well as increased plasma ...
Balance of dopamine and DHPAA products enables improved THP biosynthesis via a symmetrical pathway in Escherichia coli. ... Previous studies have utilized monoamine oxidase (MAO) and L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine decarboxylase (DDC) for microbe-based ...
Possible increased side effects with nefopam; possible increased risk of convulsions with tramadol; possible increased sedation ... concurrent administration with monoamine oxidase inhibitors or within 3 weeks of start or cessation of therapy (see section 4.5 ... Increase in appetite and weight gain.. Headaches, dizziness, nausea, constipation, dry mouth, increased sweating, shaking hands ... Increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias - avoid concomitant use with pimozide. Antipsychotic agents may increase the plasma ...
... increased temperature, sweating, chills, tremor, agitation, or mental confusion, etc. ... Monoamine oxidase inhibitors = MAOIs) ...
Both low and high activities of platelet monoamine oxidase increase the probability of becoming a smoker.. Harro J1, Fischer K ... The odds of regular smoking at 18 years increased significantly with increasing absolute deviation of platelet MAO activity at ... Platelet monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity is a marker of personality and psychiatric vulnerability, but the direct inhibitory ...
The two monoamine oxidase (MAO) enzymes, monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) and monoamine oxidase B (MAOB), are important in the ... Increased monoamine oxidase messenger RNA expression levels in frontal cortex of Alzheimers disease patients. Emilsson, Lina ... AD and ageing have been shown to increase enzyme activity for both MAOA and MAOB. An increase (rather than decrease) of enzyme ... We found a significant increase in mRNA levels for both MAOA (P=0.001) and MAOB (P=0.002) in disease brain tissue. This ...
One pathway is the monoamine-dependent pathway, which increases monoamine by inhibiting reuptake of monoamine; the other ... Antidepressants are known to inhibit monoamine transporters or monoamine oxidase and to increase monoamine levels in the ... Because a monoamine, such as 5-HT, induces GDNF production, antidepressants might increase GDNF production additively through ... Antidepressants Increase Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Production through Monoamine-Independent Activation of ...
Phenelzine is a potent monoamine oxidase inhibitor that is used in patients with depression. It is also well known that nitric ... Phenelzine (Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor) Increases Production of Nitric Oxide and Proinflammatory Cytokines via the NF-κB ... Linden CH, Rumack BH, Strehlke C (1984) Monoamine oxidase inhibitor overdose. Ann Emerg Med 13:1137-1144PubMedCrossRefGoogle ... Phenelzine increased nuclear translocation of NF-κB by phosphorylation of IκB-α in LPS-activated microglia cells. These ...
Improved working memory but no effect on striatal vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 after omega-3 polyunsaturated Fatty ... Improved working memory but no effect on striatal vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 after omega-3 polyunsaturated Fatty ... RBC analysis showed a significant increase in both DHA and EPA post-supplementation. In contrast, no significant change in (11) ... This suggests that dietary supplementation with fish oil might increase VMAT2 availability, enhance dopamine storage and ...
Monoamine oxidase and uptake inhibitors increased the release magnitude, time-to-peak and decline-to-baseline. These results ... Monoamine oxidase and uptake inhibitors increased the release magnitude, time-to-peak and decline-to-baseline. These results ... Monoamine release was observed in dorsal horn (DH), intermediate zone/ventral horn (IZ/VH) and adjacent white matter (WM) ... Monoamine release was observed in dorsal horn (DH), intermediate zone/ventral horn (IZ/VH) and adjacent white matter (WM) ...
Certain depression drugs may increase the levels of carbidopa/levodopa in your body. This interaction increases your risk of ... How can we improve it?. ✐ Please select one of the following: * This article changed my life! ... Your doctor may increase your dose up to a maximum of 97.5 mg carbidopa/390 mg levodopa take 3 times per day. You may have to ... Your doctor may increase your dose up to a maximum of 97.5 mg carbidopa/390 mg levodopa take 3 times per day. You may have to ...
Increased pressure in your head (increased intracranial pressure). Avoid the use of Promethazine Hydrochloride and Codeine ... Concurrent use of monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) or use of MAOIs within 14 days [see Warnings and Precautions (5.16), ... Because opioid agonists may increase biliary tract pressure, with resultant increase in plasma amylase or lipase levels, ... There is a relationship between increasing codeine plasma concentration and increasing frequency of dose-related opioid adverse ...
MS: Paleo diet may reduce fatigue by improving cholesterol. New research finds that improving cholesterol levels by adopting a ... It inhibits the action of monoamine oxidase, a brain enzyme. Monoamine oxidase helps break down neurotransmitters, such as ... Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). This type of antidepressant was commonly prescribed before the introduction of SSRIs and ... Keeping in contact with the doctor and attending follow-up appointments helps improve the chances of the drug working. It may ...
SGPT increased, thirst, weight loss; r are: Alkaline phosphatase increased, bilirubinemia, BUN increased, creatinine ... Switching Patients to or From a Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor At least 14 days should elapse between discontinuation of an MAOI ... Although there was a dose-related increase in the number of tumors in mice, there was no drug-related increase in the number of ... Very Much Improved 7% 7% 20% 20% Subgroup analyses did not indicate that there were any differences in treatment outcomes as a ...
Monoamine oxidase activity decreased in cells lacking hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase activity. By XO Breakefield, CM ... Monoamine oxidase activity decreased in cells lacking hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase activity. By XO Breakefield, CM ... Monoamine oxidase activity decreased in cells lacking hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase activity Message Subject. (Your ... Monoamine oxidase, which degrades biogenic amines, has decreased activity in noradrenergic murine neuroblastoma cell lines ...
5.15 Increased Risk of Seizures in Patients with Seizure Disorders 5.16 Co-administration with Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors ( ... Increased pressure in your head (increased intracranial pressure). Avoid the use of Promethazine Hydrochloride and Codeine ... Because opioid agonists may increase biliary tract pressure, with resultant increase in plasma amylase or lipase levels, ... There is a relationship between increasing codeine plasma concentration and increasing frequency of dose-related opioid adverse ...
Noun 1. Marplan - a monoamine oxidase inhibitor that is used to treat clinical depression isocarboxazid MAOI,... ... Monoamine phenelzine (Nardil); Increase oxidase tranylcypromine (Parnate); norepinephrine, inhibitors isocarboxazid (Marplan) ... MAOI, monoamine oxidase inhibitor - any of a group of antidepressant drugs that inhibit the action of monoamine oxidase in the ... Marplan - a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (trade name Marplan) that is used to treat clinical depression. isocarboxazid ...
Reference: Samsonova M.L., Oksenkrug G.F., Inhibition by monoamine oxidase inhibitors of substrate induction of liver tryptophan pyrrolase and increase in brain serotonin, Voprosy meditsinskoi khimii, 1972, vol: 18(2), 198-202 ...
Opioid (narcotic) analgesics may result in increased risk of severe constipation.. Sulfonamides:. These drugs may precipitate ... Although the exact mechanism of this drug interaction is unknown, methylene blue inhibits the action of monoamine oxidase A- an ... Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors:. Concurrent use with hyoscyamine may intensify antimuscarinic side effects. ... Ketoconazole and hyoscyamine may cause increased gastrointestinal pH. Concurrent administration with hyoscyamine may result in ...
... an antidepressant that inhibits monoamine reuptake, is widely used in the treatment of depression and fibromyalgia. In this ... How Bacopa Can Help Improve Your Cognitive Function. Magnesium Reduces Diabetes and Helps Keep You Young. Lavender Aromatherapy ... Abstract: The monoamine reuptake inhibitor milnacipran does not affect nociception to acute visceral distension in rats. * ... Milnacipran, an antidepressant that inhibits monoamine reuptake, is widely used in the treatment of depression and fibromyalgia ...
Moreover, as observed for the monoamine-release enhancing effects of cocaine, the increase in impulsivity induced by a ... In this respect, we examined the effects of insulin on exocytotic monoamine release and the efficacy of the monoamine ... Therefore, we examined the role of insulin in cocaine-sensitive monoamine transporter function and monoamine release ... increase, F(1,46) = 5.00, p , 0.05), cocaine increased evoked release from 2.74% to 3.93% of total tissue tritium in the ...
Monoamine Oxidase-A Inhibitors. MAO-A inhibitors increase systemic exposure by 2-fold. Therefore, the use of ZEMBRACE SymTouch ... Increase in blood pressure [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. *Hypersensitivity reactions [see CONTRAINDICATIONS, WARNINGS AND ... Monoamine Oxidase-A Inhibitors: In a trial of 14 healthy females, pretreatment with an MAOA inhibitor decreased the clearance ... monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). Ask your healthcare provider or pharmacist for a list of these medicines if you are not ...
  • Previous studies have utilized monoamine oxidase (MAO) and L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine decarboxylase (DDC) for microbe-based production of tetrahydropapaveroline (THP), a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid (BIA) precursor to opioid analgesics. (vt.edu)
  • These findings suggest that anxiety behavior, plasma corticosterone and limbic monoamines concentrations are altered by repeated amphetamine (2.5 mg/kg) treatment, and that these neuroendocrine and behavioral changes are often associated with sensitization to the psychostimulant effects of amphetamine. (elsevier.com)
  • The initial dose should be 10 mg/day, which may be increased with caution under close supervision to an optimum level of 30-75 mg daily which should be reached after about 10 days and then maintained until the end of treatment. (tajgenerics.com)
  • It is suggested that treatment is commenced with 10 mg clomipramine daily and gradually increased until a satisfactory response occurs. (tajgenerics.com)
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