Continuous Positive Airway Pressure: A technique of respiratory therapy, in either spontaneously breathing or mechanically ventilated patients, in which airway pressure is maintained above atmospheric pressure throughout the respiratory cycle by pressurization of the ventilatory circuit. (On-Line Medical Dictionary [Internet]. Newcastle upon Tyne(UK): The University Dept. of Medical Oncology: The CancerWEB Project; c1997-2003 [cited 2003 Apr 17]. Available from: http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/omd/)Sleep Apnea, Obstructive: A disorder characterized by recurrent apneas during sleep despite persistent respiratory efforts. It is due to upper airway obstruction. The respiratory pauses may induce HYPERCAPNIA or HYPOXIA. Cardiac arrhythmias and elevation of systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures may occur. Frequent partial arousals occur throughout sleep, resulting in relative SLEEP DEPRIVATION and daytime tiredness. Associated conditions include OBESITY; ACROMEGALY; MYXEDEMA; micrognathia; MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY; adenotonsilar dystrophy; and NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395)Positive-Pressure Respiration: A method of mechanical ventilation in which pressure is maintained to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange.Polysomnography: Simultaneous and continuous monitoring of several parameters during sleep to study normal and abnormal sleep. The study includes monitoring of brain waves, to assess sleep stages, and other physiological variables such as breathing, eye movements, and blood oxygen levels which exhibit a disrupted pattern with sleep disturbances.Sleep Apnea Syndromes: Disorders characterized by multiple cessations of respirations during sleep that induce partial arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. Sleep apnea syndromes are divided into central (see SLEEP APNEA, CENTRAL), obstructive (see SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE), and mixed central-obstructive types.Masks: Devices that cover the nose and mouth to maintain aseptic conditions or to administer inhaled anesthetics or other gases. (UMDNS, 1999)Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn: A condition of the newborn marked by DYSPNEA with CYANOSIS, heralded by such prodromal signs as dilatation of the alae nasi, expiratory grunt, and retraction of the suprasternal notch or costal margins, mostly frequently occurring in premature infants, children of diabetic mothers, and infants delivered by cesarean section, and sometimes with no apparent predisposing cause.Ventilator Weaning: Techniques for effecting the transition of the respiratory-failure patient from mechanical ventilation to spontaneous ventilation, while meeting the criteria that tidal volume be above a given threshold (greater than 5 ml/kg), respiratory frequency be below a given count (less than 30 breaths/min), and oxygen partial pressure be above a given threshold (PaO2 greater than 50mm Hg). Weaning studies focus on finding methods to monitor and predict the outcome of mechanical ventilator weaning as well as finding ventilatory support techniques which will facilitate successful weaning. Present methods include intermittent mandatory ventilation, intermittent positive pressure ventilation, and mandatory minute volume ventilation.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Sleep Apnea, Central: A condition associated with multiple episodes of sleep apnea which are distinguished from obstructive sleep apnea (SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE) by the complete cessation of efforts to breathe. This disorder is associated with dysfunction of central nervous system centers that regulate respiration.Respiratory Insufficiency: Failure to adequately provide oxygen to cells of the body and to remove excess carbon dioxide from them. (Stedman, 25th ed)Nose: A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Humidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.Work of Breathing: RESPIRATORY MUSCLE contraction during INHALATION. The work is accomplished in three phases: LUNG COMPLIANCE work, that required to expand the LUNGS against its elastic forces; tissue resistance work, that required to overcome the viscosity of the lung and chest wall structures; and AIRWAY RESISTANCE work, that required to overcome airway resistance during the movement of air into the lungs. Work of breathing does not refer to expiration, which is entirely a passive process caused by elastic recoil of the lung and chest cage. (Guyton, Textbook of Medical Physiology, 8th ed, p406)Sleep Stages: Periods of sleep manifested by changes in EEG activity and certain behavioral correlates; includes Stage 1: sleep onset, drowsy sleep; Stage 2: light sleep; Stages 3 and 4: delta sleep, light sleep, deep sleep, telencephalic sleep.Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Oxygen Inhalation Therapy: Inhalation of oxygen aimed at restoring toward normal any pathophysiologic alterations of gas exchange in the cardiopulmonary system, as by the use of a respirator, nasal catheter, tent, chamber, or mask. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)Respiration, Artificial: Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).Intermittent Positive-Pressure Ventilation: Application of positive pressure to the inspiratory phase when the patient has an artificial airway in place and is connected to a ventilator.Mandibular Advancement: Moving a retruded mandible forward to a normal position. It is commonly performed for malocclusion and retrognathia. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Cheyne-Stokes Respiration: An abnormal pattern of breathing characterized by alternating periods of apnea and deep, rapid breathing. The cycle begins with slow, shallow breaths that gradually increase in depth and rate and is then followed by a period of apnea. The period of apnea can last 5 to 30 seconds, then the cycle repeats every 45 seconds to 3 minutes.Air Pressure: The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.Airway Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.Nasal Cavity: The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.Infant, Premature: A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.Airway Extubation: Removal of an endotracheal tube from the patient.Intubation, Intratracheal: A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Ventilators, Mechanical: Mechanical devices used to produce or assist pulmonary ventilation.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Aerophagy: Spasmodic swallowing of air.Pulmonary Ventilation: The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.Orthodontic Appliances, Removable: Dental devices such as RETAINERS, ORTHODONTIC used to improve gaps in teeth and structure of the jaws. These devices can be removed and reinserted at will.Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Snoring: Rough, noisy breathing during sleep, due to vibration of the uvula and soft palate.Tidal Volume: The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.Nasal Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the nose. The obstruction may be unilateral or bilateral, and may involve any part of the NASAL CAVITY.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Pharynx: A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).Sleep: A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.Pulmonary Edema: Excessive accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung, an indication of a serious underlying disease or disorder. Pulmonary edema prevents efficient PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE in the PULMONARY ALVEOLI, and can be life-threatening.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Pulmonary Gas Exchange: The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Helium: Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)Intermittent Positive-Pressure Breathing: Application of positive pressure to the inspiratory phase of spontaneous respiration.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: A chronic lung disease developed after OXYGEN INHALATION THERAPY or mechanical ventilation (VENTILATION, MECHANICAL) usually occurring in certain premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE) or newborn infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME, NEWBORN). Histologically, it is characterized by the unusual abnormalities of the bronchioles, such as METAPLASIA, decrease in alveolar number, and formation of CYSTS.Disorders of Excessive Somnolence: Disorders characterized by hypersomnolence during normal waking hours that may impair cognitive functioning. Subtypes include primary hypersomnia disorders (e.g., IDIOPATHIC HYPERSOMNOLENCE; NARCOLEPSY; and KLEINE-LEVIN SYNDROME) and secondary hypersomnia disorders where excessive somnolence can be attributed to a known cause (e.g., drug affect, MENTAL DISORDERS, and SLEEP APNEA SYNDROME). (From J Neurol Sci 1998 Jan 8;153(2):192-202; Thorpy, Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine, 2nd ed, p320)Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Wakefulness-Promoting Agents: A specific category of drugs that prevent sleepiness by specifically targeting sleep-mechanisms in the brain. They are used to treat DISORDERS OF EXCESSIVE SOMNOLENCE such as NARCOLEPSY. Note that this drug category does not include broadly-acting central nervous system stimulants such as AMPHETAMINES.Partial Pressure: The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Delivery Rooms: Hospital units equipped for childbirth.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Pharyngeal Muscles: The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.Pulmonary Atelectasis: Absence of air in the entire or part of a lung, such as an incompletely inflated neonate lung or a collapsed adult lung. Pulmonary atelectasis can be caused by airway obstruction, lung compression, fibrotic contraction, or other factors.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Flail Chest: A complication of multiple rib fractures, rib and sternum fractures, or thoracic surgery. A portion of the chest wall becomes isolated from the thoracic cage and exhibits paradoxical respiration.Lung Compliance: The capability of the LUNGS to distend under pressure as measured by pulmonary volume change per unit pressure change. While not a complete description of the pressure-volume properties of the lung, it is nevertheless useful in practice as a measure of the comparative stiffness of the lung. (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p562)Uvula: A fleshy extension at the back of the soft palate that hangs above the opening of the throat.Nose Deformities, Acquired: Abnormalities of the nose acquired after birth from injury or disease.Nurseries, Hospital: Hospital facilities which provide care for newborn infants.Intubation: Introduction of a tube into a hollow organ to restore or maintain patency if obstructed. It is differentiated from CATHETERIZATION in that the insertion of a catheter is usually performed for the introducing or withdrawing of fluids from the body.Intensive Care, Neonatal: Continuous care and monitoring of newborn infants with life-threatening conditions, in any setting.Intensive Care Units, Neonatal: Hospital units providing continuing surveillance and care to acutely ill newborn infants.Night Care: Institutional night care of patients.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Pulmonary Surfactants: Substances and drugs that lower the SURFACE TENSION of the mucoid layer lining the PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Bronchiolitis, Viral: An acute inflammatory disease of the lower RESPIRATORY TRACT, caused by paramyxoviruses, occurring primarily in infants and young children; the viruses most commonly implicated are PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS TYPE 3; RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS, HUMAN; and METAPNEUMOVIRUS.Blood Gas Monitoring, Transcutaneous: The noninvasive measurement or determination of the partial pressure (tension) of oxygen and/or carbon dioxide locally in the capillaries of a tissue by the application to the skin of a special set of electrodes. These electrodes contain photoelectric sensors capable of picking up the specific wavelengths of radiation emitted by oxygenated versus reduced hemoglobin.Wakefulness: A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.Respiratory Therapy: Care of patients with deficiencies and abnormalities associated with the cardiopulmonary system. It includes the therapeutic use of medical gases and their administrative apparatus, environmental control systems, humidification, aerosols, ventilatory support, bronchopulmonary drainage and exercise, respiratory rehabilitation, assistance with cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and maintenance of natural, artificial, and mechanical airways.Infant, Premature, DiseasesLung Volume Measurements: Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.Sleep, REM: A stage of sleep characterized by rapid movements of the eye and low voltage fast pattern EEG. It is usually associated with dreaming.Hypercapnia: A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.Long-Term Care: Care over an extended period, usually for a chronic condition or disability, requiring periodic, intermittent, or continuous care.Infant, Very Low Birth Weight: An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1500 grams (3.3 lbs), regardless of gestational age.Heating: The application of heat to raise the temperature of the environment, ambient or local, or the systems for accomplishing this effect. It is distinguished from HEAT, the physical property and principle of physics.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Arousal: Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.Orthodontic Appliances: Devices used for influencing tooth position. Orthodontic appliances may be classified as fixed or removable, active or retaining, and intraoral or extraoral. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p19)Oximetry: The determination of oxygen-hemoglobin saturation of blood either by withdrawing a sample and passing it through a classical photoelectric oximeter or by electrodes attached to some translucent part of the body like finger, earlobe, or skin fold. It includes non-invasive oxygen monitoring by pulse oximetry.High-Frequency Ventilation: Ventilatory support system using frequencies from 60-900 cycles/min or more. Three types of systems have been distinguished on the basis of rates, volumes, and the system used. They are high frequency positive-pressure ventilation (HFPPV); HIGH-FREQUENCY JET VENTILATION; (HFJV); and high-frequency oscillation (HFO).Respiratory Muscles: These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Nose Diseases: Disorders of the nose, general or unspecified.Equipment Failure: Failure of equipment to perform to standard. The failure may be due to defects or improper use.Inhalation: The act of BREATHING in.Nasal Septum: The partition separating the two NASAL CAVITIES in the midplane. It is formed by the SEPTAL NASAL CARTILAGE, parts of skull bones (ETHMOID BONE; VOMER), and membranous parts.Tracheostomy: Surgical formation of an opening into the trachea through the neck, or the opening so created.Positive-Pressure Respiration, Intrinsic: Non-therapeutic positive end-expiratory pressure occurring frequently in patients with severe airway obstruction. It can appear with or without the administration of external positive end-expiratory pressure (POSITIVE-PRESSURE RESPIRATION). It presents an important load on the inspiratory muscles which are operating at a mechanical disadvantage due to hyperinflation. Auto-PEEP may cause profound hypotension that should be treated by intravascular volume expansion, increasing the time for expiration, and/or changing from assist mode to intermittent mandatory ventilation mode. (From Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 12th ed, p1127)Dental Equipment: The nonexpendable items used by the dentist or dental staff in the performance of professional duties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p106)Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory: Method in which repeated blood pressure readings are made while the patient undergoes normal daily activities. It allows quantitative analysis of the high blood pressure load over time, can help distinguish between types of HYPERTENSION, and can assess the effectiveness of antihypertensive therapy.Transportation of Patients: Conveying ill or injured individuals from one place to another.Monitoring, Physiologic: The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.Lung Diseases, Obstructive: Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.Respiratory Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Larynx: A tubular organ of VOICE production. It is located in the anterior neck, superior to the TRACHEA and inferior to the tongue and HYOID BONE.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Papio: A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of five named species: PAPIO URSINUS (chacma baboon), PAPIO CYNOCEPHALUS (yellow baboon), PAPIO PAPIO (western baboon), PAPIO ANUBIS (or olive baboon), and PAPIO HAMADRYAS (hamadryas baboon). Members of the Papio genus inhabit open woodland, savannahs, grassland, and rocky hill country. Some authors consider MANDRILLUS a subgenus of Papio.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Pneumothorax: An accumulation of air or gas in the PLEURAL CAVITY, which may occur spontaneously or as a result of trauma or a pathological process. The gas may also be introduced deliberately during PNEUMOTHORAX, ARTIFICIAL.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult: A syndrome characterized by progressive life-threatening RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY in the absence of known LUNG DISEASES, usually following a systemic insult such as surgery or major TRAUMA.Apnea: A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Infant, Extremely Low Birth Weight: An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1000 grams (2.2 lbs), regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Home Care Services: Community health and NURSING SERVICES providing coordinated multiple services to the patient at the patient's homes. These home-care services are provided by a visiting nurse, home health agencies, HOSPITALS, or organized community groups using professional staff for care delivery. It differs from HOME NURSING which is provided by non-professionals.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Airway Remodeling: The structural changes in the number, mass, size and/or composition of the airway tissues.Spirometry: Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.Automobile Driving: The effect of environmental or physiological factors on the driver and driving ability. Included are driving fatigue, and the effect of drugs, disease, and physical disabilities on driving.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Probability: The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.Tongue: A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.Fatigue: The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.Sleep Disorders: Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)Cardiac Output: The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).Accidents, Traffic: Accidents on streets, roads, and highways involving drivers, passengers, pedestrians, or vehicles. Traffic accidents refer to AUTOMOBILES (passenger cars, buses, and trucks), BICYCLING, and MOTORCYCLES but not OFF-ROAD MOTOR VEHICLES; RAILROADS nor snowmobiles.Ductus Arteriosus, Patent: A congenital heart defect characterized by the persistent opening of fetal DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS that connects the PULMONARY ARTERY to the descending aorta (AORTA, DESCENDING) allowing unoxygenated blood to bypass the lung and flow to the PLACENTA. Normally, the ductus is closed shortly after birth.Affect: The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.Autonomic Nervous System: The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.Single-Blind Method: A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Clinical Protocols: Precise and detailed plans for the study of a medical or biomedical problem and/or plans for a regimen of therapy.Exhalation: The act of BREATHING out.Ventricular Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.Systole: Period of contraction of the HEART, especially of the HEART VENTRICLES.Vena Cava, Superior: The venous trunk which returns blood from the head, neck, upper extremities and chest.Noninvasive Ventilation: Techniques for administering artificial respiration without the need for INTRATRACHEAL INTUBATION.Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Gliosis: The production of a dense fibrous network of neuroglia; includes astrocytosis, which is a proliferation of astrocytes in the area of a degenerative lesion.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Stroke Volume: The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Functional Residual Capacity: The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the RESIDUAL VOLUME and the EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is FRC.Hydrostatic Pressure: The pressure due to the weight of fluid.Ventilators, Negative-Pressure: Body ventilators that assist ventilation by applying intermittent subatmospheric pressure around the thorax, abdomen, or airway and periodically expand the chest wall and inflate the lungs. They are relatively simple to operate and do not require tracheostomy. These devices include the tank ventilators ("iron lung"), Portalung, Pneumowrap, and chest cuirass ("tortoise shell").Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Epiglottis: A thin leaf-shaped cartilage that is covered with LARYNGEAL MUCOSA and situated posterior to the root of the tongue and HYOID BONE. During swallowing, the epiglottis folds back over the larynx inlet thus prevents foods from entering the airway.Weight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.Ventricular Function, Right: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the right HEART VENTRICLE.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
Morley, CJ; Lau, R; De Paoli, A; Davis, PG (July 2005). "Nasal continuous positive airway pressure: does bubbling improve gas ... It is one of the methods by which continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is delivered to a spontaneously breathing newborn ... "Treatment of the idiopathic respiratory-distress syndrome with continuous positive airway pressure". The New England Journal of ... The depth to which the tubing is immersed underwater determines the pressure generated in the airways of the infant. As the gas ...
Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) is used on newborns in respiratory distress and helps to improve child survival . HB ... HB believes that the best way to improve health care is to address the structural challenges that prevent it from operating ... HB has improved care delivery and health outcomes for multiple resource-limited communities. Many countries continue to ... HB has partnered with the Government of Rwanda and other local partners to improve Rwanda's public health system through hands- ...
Surgery, however, does not always address the sleep apnea and a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) machine may be ... They are typically used in combination to increase the detection rate. None can be definitive, thus if screening is positive, ... Keratoconus (a thin, cone-shaped cornea) and glaucoma (increased eye pressure) are also more common, as are refractive errors ... Increased fetal nuchal translucency (NT) indicates an increased risk of Down syndrome picking up 75-80% of cases and being ...
The management of obstructive sleep apnea was improved with the introduction of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), ... the most common treatment is the use of a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or automatic positive airway pressure ( ... "Randomized controlled trial of variable-pressure versus fixed-pressure continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment for ... continuous positive airway pressure improves insulin resistance in patients with sleep apnea without diabetes". Annals of the ...
Continuous positive airway pressure may be applied using a face mask; this has been shown to improve symptoms more quickly than ... Peter JV, Moran JL, Phillips-Hughes J, Graham P, Bersten AD (April 2006). "Effect of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation ... and non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV). Even if symptoms of heart failure are not present, medications can be ... The person may, in fact, have too little fluid in their blood vessels, but if the low blood pressure is due to cardiogenic ...
... but decreased after the administration of continuous positive airway pressure. In non-obese individuals, however, restful sleep ... Leptin level is decreased by increases in testosterone levels and increased by increases in estrogen levels. Leptin level is ... Increased levels of melatonin causes a downregulation of leptin, however, melatonin also appears to increase leptin levels in ... Leptin release is increased by dexamethasone. In obese patients with obstructive sleep apnea, leptin level is increased, ...
Treatment of OSA with CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure) significantly alleviated the effect of OSA on CRP and IL-6 ... Those with a high CRP due to genetic variation had no increased risk of cardiovascular disease compared to those with a normal ... It is an acute-phase protein of hepatic origin that increases following interleukin-6 secretion by macrophages and T cells. Its ... While there is an association between increased levels of C-reactive protein and risk of developing cancer, there is no ...
More serious cases are treated with continuous positive airway pressure. The 2019 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was ... By increasing the concentration of oxygen in the air, the effects of lower barometric pressure are countered and the level of ... The ambient pressure at 190 msw is sufficient to provide a partial pressure of about 0.4 bar, which is suitable for saturation ... Atmospheric pressure reduces with altitude and with it, the amount of oxygen. The reduction in the partial pressure of ...
... infant resuscitators and CPAP systems designed to improve infant respiratory function. Continuous positive airway pressure ( ... CPAP) therapy products which are used in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea to prevent temporary airway closure during ... Continuing product improvement innovation to improve patient care and development of a world-wide distribution network are two ...
CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure) is sometimes used for apnea when medications and supplemental oxygen are not ... Increasing the environmental oxygen level by placing the infant in a tent of hood with supplemental oxygen can diminish the ... Increased oxygen at low levels can also be delivered using a nasal cannula, which additionally may provide some stimulation due ... Infants who have had AOP are at increased risk of recurrence of apnea in response to exposure to anesthetic agents, at least ...
Bakke, SA; Botker, MT; Riddervold, IS; Kirkegaard, H; Christensen, EF (22 November 2014). "Continuous positive airway pressure ... The underlying causes include: Increased airways resistance (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, suffocation) ... continuous positive airway pressure can be useful when started before conveying to hospital. Ventilation/perfusion ratio ... and evidence of increased work of breathing. The normal partial pressure reference values are: oxygen PaO2 more than 80 mmHg ( ...
"Effectiveness of flow inflating device in providing Continuous Positive Airway Pressure for critically ill children in limited- ... Metronome improves compression and ventilation rates during CPR on a manikin in a randomized trial. Resuscitation 2010:81(2): ... Some devices have PEEP valve connectors, for better positive airway pressure maintenance. A covered port may be incorporated ... Massive air embolism in an adult following positive pressure ventilation. Chest 1988: 93:874-876. Deakin CD, Nolan JP, Soar J, ...
... or even continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or mechanical ventilation. Infant respiratory distress syndrome is the ... Doctors took an increasing role in childbirth from the eighteenth century onward. However, the care of newborn babies, sick or ... these can look after babies who need more advanced support such as parenteral nutrition and continuous positive airway pressure ... on the basis of their ability to provide assisted ventilation including continuous positive airway pressure. Level II units are ...
The additional pressure holds open the relaxed muscles. There are several variants: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) ... increased soft tissue around the airway (sometimes due to obesity), and structural features that give rise to a narrowed airway ... Automatic positive airway pressure, or automatic positive airway pressure, also known as "Auto CPAP", incorporates pressure ... "Practice parameters for the use of auto-titrating continuous positive airway pressure devices for titrating pressures and ...
The company introduced the first continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) machine for the treatment of sleep apnea in 1985. ... is a medical supply company that specializes in products that improve respiratory functions. It is based in the Pittsburgh ...
A spontaneous breathing trial using continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), T piece, or inspiratory pressure augmentation ... Septic shock is low blood pressure due to sepsis that does not improve after reasonable amounts of intravenous fluids are given ... High positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) is recommended for moderate to severe ARDS in sepsis as it opens more lung units ... The increase in average age of the population, more people with chronic diseases, on immunosuppressive drugs, and increase in ...
One method is continuous positive airway pressure, which delivers pressurized air or oxygen through a nose or face mask to help ... Smokers and the elderly are also at an increased risk. Outside of this context, atelectasis implies some blockage of a ... In right middle lobe syndrome, the middle lobe of the right lung contracts, usually because of pressure on the bronchus from ... It occurs when either local or generalized fibrotic changes in the lung or pleura hamper expansion and increase elastic recoil ...
CPAP therapy for sleep apnea: Those with sleep apnea on continuous positive airway pressure therapy had a 105% increased hazard ... However, the root cause of papilledema is the increased intracranial pressure (ICP). This is a dangerous sign, indicative of a ... Papilledema (or papilloedema) is optic disc swelling that is caused by increased intracranial pressure. The swelling is usually ... increased pressure is transmitted through to the optic nerve. The brain itself is relatively spared from pathological ...
Other ways to monitor the sleep schedule are actigraphy or use of a Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) machine that can ... The risk for the disorder increases with age, but only due to increased prevalence of co-morbid medical disorders. A sleep ... It will show if there are other sleep disorders that are causing or increasing the problems with ISWD. Treatment for irregular ...
The first actigraphy device was made in 1978 by Krupke, and continuous positive airway pressure therapy and ... and improving sleep hygiene. Improving sleep hygiene includes making the patient sleep regularly, discourage the patient from ... uvulopalatopharyngoplasty and uvulectomy while non-invasive procedures include continuous positive airway pressure, mandibular ... Pneumotachography measures the difference in pressure between inhalation and exhalation, nasal pressure can help determine the ...
One method is continuous positive airway pressure, which delivers pressurized air or oxygen through a nose or face mask to help ... Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. ( ... increased heart rate.. It is a common misconception that atelectasis causes fever. A study of 100 post-op patients followed ... Smokers and the elderly are also at an increased risk. Outside of this context, atelectasis implies some blockage of a ...
July 2010). "Helmet continuous positive airway pressure vs oxygen therapy to improve oxygenation in community-acquired ... variable/bilevel positive airway pressure) provides two levels of pressure: inspiratory positive airway pressure (IPAP) and a ... Breathing out against the positive pressure resistance (the expiratory positive airway pressure component, or EPAP) may also ... "Effectiveness of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) in obstructive sleep apnoea in adults" (PDF). National ...
... present on many devices and allows the user to reduce the pressure to lowest setting and gradually increase to the set pressure ... Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a form of positive airway pressure ventilator, which applies mild air pressure on ... PEEP Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is the pressure in the lungs (alveolar pressure) above atmospheric pressure (the ... Werman, Howard A.; Karren, K; Mistovich, Joseph (2014). "Continuous Positive Airway Pressure(CPAP)". In Werman A. Howard; ...
CPAP therapy for sleep apnea: Those with sleep apnea on continuous positive airway pressure therapy had a 105% increased hazard ... Papilledema or papilloedema is optic disc swelling that is caused by increased intracranial pressure due to any cause. The ... However, the root cause of papilledema is the increased intracranial pressure (ICP). This is a dangerous sign, indicative of a ... This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to ...
CPAP is continuous positive airway pressure and is delivered via a mask to the patient's nose or the patient's nose and mouth ... This is the same as a "PSG" but with the addition of the mask applied so the technician can increase the airway pressure inside ... This forces air in and out of the mouth while no air enters the airway and lungs. Thus, the pressure transducer and ... At this pressure his AHI was 4 events/hr. and the low SaO2 had increased to 89%. This final titration level occurred while he ...
Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is used in mechanically ventilated patients with ARDS to improve oxygenation. ... The airways and lungs receive continuous first-pass exposure to non-toxic and irritant or toxic gases via inhalation. Irritant ... to be used as a bronchodilator that lowered peak airway pressures and improved oxygenation. Other promising drugs in earlier ... Inexpensive positive-pressure devices that can be used easily in a mass casualty situation, and drugs to prevent inflammation ...
Treatment with continuous positive airway pressure ventilation may improve sleep disorders (3)and cardiac function (4), whereas ... 2000) Effects of continuous positive airway pressure on sleep apnea and ventricular irritability in patients with heart failure ... 2000) Effects of continuous positive airway pressure on cardiovascular outcomes in heart failure patients with and without ... In HF patients, increased LV filling pressures can lead to pulmonary congestion and activation of pulmonary vagal irritant ...
Cardiovascular consequences of sleep apnea: III-impact of continuous positive airway pressure treatment/Uyku apnesinin ... and neurohormones in the patients with HE and showed that one night ASV treatment improves CSR, partial pressure of oxygen in ... Continuous Synopsis Record (International Ship and Port Facility Security code). CSR. Code de la Sécurité Routière (French: ... Increased mortality associated with Cheyne-Stokes respiration in patients with congestive heart failure.. Central sleep apnoea ...
Evaluating Behavioral Treatments to Improve Adherence to Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) Therapy in People With ... The most common treatment for OSA is the use of a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) machine, but many people have ... Blood pressure [ Time Frame: Measured at Months 3, 6, and 12 ]. *Cytokines and inflammatory markers [ Time Frame: Measured at ... OSA is a common sleep disorder that is characterized by a brief collapse and blockage of the upper airway during sleep. This ...
We hypothesised that 1) increases in EELV induced by continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) would increase NRD in healthy ... S47 Neural respiratory drive responses to increases in continuous positive airway pressure in healthy subjects ... S47 Neural respiratory drive responses to increases in continuous positive airway pressure in healthy subjects ... Increasing levels of CPAP led to a reduction in IC (p , 0.0001, Table 1). Both EMGpara and EMGdi increased with progressive ...
Improving Use of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure for Obstructive Sleep Apnea. Ann Intern Med. 2009;151:I-38. doi: 10.7326/ ... Improving Use of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Free ... The mask is part of a device that uses air pressure to keep the air passages open (continuous positive airway pressure, or CPAP ... Effects of a Short Course of Eszopiclone on Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Adherence: A Randomized Trial ...
Review: In patients with obstructive sleep apnea, continuous positive airway pressure increases weight Shirin Shafazand, MD, MS ... Shafazand S. Review: In patients with obstructive sleep apnea, continuous positive airway pressure increases weight. Ann Intern ... In patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), what is the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on weight? ... Review: In obstructive sleep apnea, continuous positive airway pressure does not reduce cardiovascular outcomes Annals of ...
... comparison of underwater bubble continuous positive airway pressure with ventilator-derived continuous positive airway pressure ... A recording, at 100Hz and displayed at 1 cm/s, of the pressure recorded at the nasal continuous positive airway pressure device ... Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is an effective mode of respiratory support for neonates used in many ... Morley C, Davis P. Continuous positive airway pressure: current controversies. Curr Opin Pediatr2004;16:141-5. ...
Continuous positive airway pressure improves sleepiness but not calculated vascular risk in patients with minimally symptomatic ... Continuous positive airway pressure improves sleepiness but not calculated vascular risk in patients with minimally symptomatic ... Background Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for symptomatic obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) improves sleepiness and ... Higher scores indicate improved self-assessed health status. CPAP, continuous positive airway pressure. ...
The aim of this study is to assess the sense of smell before initiation of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and ... OSA is usually treated using a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) machine. This involves the patient wearing a face ... improvement of olfactory performance in sleep apnea patients after three months of nasal continuous positive airway pressure ... Group 2: Therapy pressure of the CPAP device is set to a sub therapeutic pressure of 4 centimeter of water for three weeks ( ...
... does long term continuous positive airway pressure therapy improve erections? ... Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and erectile dysfunction: does long term continuous positive airway pressure therapy improve ... and to evaluate the results of only continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy on ED in patients with OSAS.. Materials ... Mean value of IIEF-5 score was 16.63±5.91 before CPAP and were improved up to 20.92±6.79 (P=0.001).. Conclusion: It is not ...
Hoy CJ, Vennelle M, Kingshott RN, Engleman HM, Douglas NJ. Can intensive support improve continuous positive airway pressure ... Positive Airway Pressure Task Force; Standards of Practice Committee. Evaluation of positive airway pressure treatment for ... Haniffa M, Lasserson TJ, Smith I. Interventions to improve compliance with continuous positive airway pressure for obstructive ... Though continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the primary treatment modality and improves mortality and quality of life ...
Does continuous positive airway pressure therapy improve non-alcoholic fatty liver disease? ... Does continuous positive airway pressure therapy improve non-alcoholic fatty liver disease? ... Does continuous positive airway pressure therapy improve non-alcoholic fatty liver disease? ...
Objective: Our goal was to assess the association between the use of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) vs. ... Improved Growth and Development in Premature Infants Managed with Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure * Skorpionforum.com ... Objective: Our goal was to assess the association between the use of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) vs. ... increased length at all follow up visits, increased BINS scores at the 9-12 month and 15-18 month visits, and decreased the ...
Minimizing work of breathing with continuous positive airway pressure and intermittent mandatory ventilation: an improved ... Minimizing work of breathing with continuous positive airway pressure and intermittent mandatory ventilation: an improved ... Minimizing work of breathing with continuous positive airway pressure and intermittent mandatory ventilation : an improved ... Minimizing work of breathing with continuous positive airway pressure and intermittent mandatory ventilation: an improved ...
Treatment of obstructive sleep apnea with continuous positive airway pressure therapy improves functional and anatomical ... Treatment of obstructive sleep apnea with continuous positive airway pressure therapy improves functional and anatomical ... Treatment of obstructive sleep apnea with continuous positive airway pressure therapy improves functional and anatomical ... with and without treatment with continuous positive airway pressure therapy (CPAP).. Methods: Two groups of OSA patients were ...
... achieving universal health coverage it is also important to build capacity to develop regionally relevant evidence to improve ... Abbreviations: CPAP, continuous positive airway pressure; EHR, electronic health record; HIC, high-income country; ICT, ... continuous positive airway pressure [CPAP]) that best fit the context and problem and using optimal study designs including ... fostering implementation of evidence into routine clinical care to improve quality and outcomes, and (v) shared, continuous ...
... airway and lung infections, as well as any other respiratory diseases. ... We observed increases in mean oxygen saturation and reduction in daytime sleepiness, arterial blood pressure, airway ... Effect of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure on Airway Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Patients with Obstructive Sleep ... patients before and after continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. , , and pre- versus post-CPAP therapy. ...
... and targeted treatment strategies such as continuous positive airway pressure and AF ablation. ... AF is a costly public health problem increasing a patients risk of stroke, heart failure, and all-cause mortality. It remains ... a common sleep breathing disorder which is increasing in prevalence as the obesity epidemic surges, and atrial fibrillation (AF ... P. Haentjens, A. van Meerhaeghe, A. Moscariello et al., "The impact of continuous positive airway pressure on blood pressure in ...
Compared with placebo, CPAP improved symptom score (p , 0.01), subjective (Epworth; p , 0.01) but not objective (maintenance of ... Randomized placebo-controlled crossover trial of continuous positive airway pressure for mild sleep Apnea/Hypopnea syndrome.. ... although a pilot study of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy showed daytime improvements in patients with 5 to ... psychological well-being and quality of life were improved. These results confirm benefits for daytime function after CPAP ...
Continuous flow nasal CPAP is increased or decreased by varying the resistance to exhalation at the exhalation valve on an ... Lung Recruitment and Breathing Pattern During Variable Versus Continuous Flow Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure in ... Lung Recruitment and Breathing Pattern During Variable Versus Continuous Flow Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure in ... Lung Recruitment and Breathing Pattern During Variable Versus Continuous Flow Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure in ...
Adults with breathing problems may need continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Rarely, surgery is needed. A hollow tube ... The condition may improve without treatment. However, people with tracheomalacia must be monitored closely when they have ... When large blood vessels put pressure on the airway *As a complication after surgery to repair birth defects in the windpipe ... This procedure allows the otolaryngologist (ear, nose, and throat doctor, or ENT) to see the structure of the airway and ...
OSA is associated with an increased morbidity and mortality.. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the standard ... Investigation of Inflammation Induced by Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Effects of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP), ... dyslipidemia and increase the risk of development of type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. ...
Continuous positive airway pressure (C PA P) is a treatment modality for pulmonary oxygenation difficulties. C PA P impairs ... Haring HP, Hormann C, Schalow S, Benzer A (1994) Continuous positive airway pressure breathing increases cerebral blood flow ... Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a treatment modality for pulmonary oxygenation difficulties. CPAP impairs venous ... Bowie RA, OConnor PJ, Hardman JG, Mahajan RP (2001) The effect of continuous positive airway pressure on cerebral blood flow ...
Key benefitsConcise rapid reportingFocus on improved management of the aging processMaladaptive aging disordersIssues of ... Continuous positive airway pressure improves nocturnal polyuria in ischemic stroke patients with obstructive sleep apnea Yu CC ... Tongue-pressure resistance training improves tongue and suprahyoid muscle functions simultaneously Namiki C, Hara K, Tohara H, ... Improving health-promoting self-care in family carers of people with dementia: a review of interventions Oliveira D, Sousa L, ...
AdherenceTonsilsBilevel positiveRespiratoryObstructive sleep apThroatBlockage of the airwayHold the airway openRepetitive upper airway obstResistanceSize of the airwayObesityPeople With Obstructive SleepNCPAPObstructionUpper airway surgeryTitrationKeep your airwayEffect of continuous positiveBlock the airwayOpenInsulin sensitivityCollapsesBiPAPNoseMaskExpiratoryMusclesSplintPerson'sDecreasesPatients with Obstructive SleepNasal prongsDaytime sleepinessPatient'sSubstantially constantSurgeryHypopneaCardiovascularSignificantlySyndromeSystemicBlood pressure
- Further studies are needed to determine if APAP can increase acceptance or adherence with positive pressure treatment in patients with OSA. (biomedsearch.com)
- The primary objective of this study is to determine whether PAP adherence in patients who had a stroke with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) can be improved by a PAP training strategy during inhospital rehabilitation combined with a telemedicine monitoring system after discharge. (bmj.com)
- This is the first study using a telemedicine tool to increase positive airway pressure adherence in patients who had a stroke. (bmj.com)
- Effect of Telemedicine Education and Telemonitoring on Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Adherence. (amedeo.com)
- This is the most common type of apnea and is usually caused by a blockage of the airway due to enlarged tonsils and adenoidal tissue near the nasal passages. (nemours.org)
- Other upper airway surgeries may involve removing tonsils, removing some of the uvula and/or soft palate or tongue reduction surgery. (nationaljewish.org)
- While obesity increases the odds of OSA, enlarged tonsils and adenoids are the primary risk factor in kids. (wtop.com)
- Risk factors for OSA include being overweight , a family history of the condition, allergies , a small airway, and enlarged tonsils . (wikipedia.org)
- Some risk factors include obesity , abnormalities of the upper airway such as large tonsils, smoking, and diabetes . (healthcentral.com)
- But when you lie down at night, the tonsils can press down on your airway, narrowing it and causing sleep apnea. (cigna.com)
- Neural respiratory drive (NRD) directly reflects the load-capacity relationship of the respiratory system and is therefore expected to increase with DH. (bmj.com)
- Transdiaphragmatic pressure swings (ΔP di ), tidal volume (V T ) and respiratory rate (RR) were measured. (bmj.com)
- This study aimed to determine whether the pressure oscillations caused by bubbling affect transcutaneous carbon dioxide (Tc co 2 ), transcutaneous oxygen (TcP o 2 ), oxygen saturation (Sp o 2 ), heart rate, and respiratory rate. (bmj.com)
- Although a nasal cannula is able to recruit lung volume, it does so at the cost of increased respiratory effort and F io 2 . (aappublications.org)
- Patients with COPD may respond to increased respiratory loads with marked sleep disturbances or, alternatively, they may have minimal sleep disturbance but a highly abnormal breathing pattern with or without severe alterations in gas exchange. (emaxhealth.com)
- The most commonly used type of non-invasive respiratory support following extubation is nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP). (clinicaltrials.gov)
- In addition to NCPAP, nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) has become a popular choice as a post-extubation respiratory support mode. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Improved systems for respiratory support and reducing air-leaks. (sbir.gov)
- Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and erectile dysfunction: does long term continuous positive airway pressure therapy improve erections? (ajol.info)
- Currently, the number of people suffering from obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is increasing. (mdpi.com)
- Continuous positive airway pressure treatment rapidly improves insulin sensitivity in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. (semanticscholar.org)
- This procedure allows the otolaryngologist (ear, nose, and throat doctor, or ENT) to see the structure of the airway and determine how severe the problem is. (medlineplus.gov)
- Worn at night, they may widen the throat and increase the size of the airway. (nationaljewish.org)
- Normally, throat muscles hold the airway open, allowing you to breathe during sleep. (wtop.com)
- If you have OSA, the soft tissue in the back of your throat relaxes while you sleep and blocks your airway. (healthline.com)
- When you breathe out, the valve creates resistance on the back of your throat that keeps your airway open. (healthline.com)
- Additionally, it increases the air pressure in the throat to avoid airway from collapsing when breathing. (sbwire.com)
- This usually occurs when the soft tissue in the back of the throat collapses and closes during sleep, or the tongue relaxes and falls backward in the mouth blocking the top of the airway. (craighospital.org)
- On its way to the lungs, air passes through the nose, mouth, and throat (the upper airway). (umm.edu)
- The shape of your head and neck (bony structure) results in somewhat smaller airway size in the mouth and throat area. (cvsurgicalgroup.com)
- The mask blows air into your throat at a pressure level that is right for you. (monster.com)
- The increased airway pressure keeps the throat open while you sleep. (monster.com)
- Your throat muscles and tongue relax during sleep and partially or completely block the airways in your nose, mouth, or throat. (cigna.com)
- Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is characterized by repetitive upper airway obstruction and consequent oxyhemoglobin desaturation during the deeper stages of sleep. (medscape.com)
- Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a condition in which varying degrees of repetitive upper airway obstruction create disturbances in normal breathing patterns during sleep. (healthcentral.com)
- OSA causes insulin resistance and seems to aggravate obesity related comorbidities such as hypertension, dyslipidemia and increase the risk of development of type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Snoring is a good indicator of increased upper airway resistance. (medscape.com)
- These other therapies include: oral appliances, positional therapy, upper airway surgery, nasal expiratory resistance and oral negative pressure devices. (nationaljewish.org)
- Upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS) is a condition in which patients snore, wake frequently during the night, and have excessive daytime sleepiness. (umm.edu)
- These brief episodes of increased airway resistance (and breathing pauses) occur many times. (cvsurgicalgroup.com)
- In recent years, growing evidence suggests an association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a common sleep breathing disorder which is increasing in prevalence as the obesity epidemic surges, and atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common cardiac arrhythmia. (hindawi.com)
- The most important airway-unrelated comorbid conditions are obesity, obstructive sleep apnoea, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and anxiety and depression. (mja.com.au)
- Exclusion criteria were current continuous positive airway pressure therapy, use of drugs that act on the central nervous system (such as benzodiazepines), current or planned intervention for weight reduction, consumption of ≥ 14 alcoholic drinks a week or ≥ 2 a day, and obesity (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m 2 ). (bmj.com)
- The Americas hold the largest share of the global market owing to increasing incidence of obesity, unhealthy diet, and physical inactivity. (sbwire.com)
- Without treatment, sleep apnea may increase the risk of heart attack , stroke , diabetes , heart failure , irregular heartbeat , obesity , and motor vehicle collisions . (wikipedia.org)
- Conditions that increase the risk of sleep-disordered breathing, such as obesity, Down syndrome and achondroplasia. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- Managing babies with NCPAP therapy when compared with CV, significantly increased the weight at one month which was sustained at the 9-12 month and 15-18 month visits, increased length at all follow up visits, increased BINS scores at the 9-12 month and 15-18 month visits, and decreased the incidence of ROP and CLD. (skorpionforum.com)
- 1988, Die nasale 'Continuous positive airway pressure' (nCPAP)-Therapie-Praktische Erfahrungen bei 54 Patienten, Prax. (springer.com)
- A mask that covers your nose only-called nasal continuous positive airway pressure, or NCPAP (this type of mask is most common). (northshore.org)
- Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by transient obstruction of the upper airway during sleep. (hindawi.com)
- It has been hypothesized that airway and systemic inflammation is associated with the obstruction of the upper airway in OSA [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Since upper airway obstruction has been recognized as the crucial factor in the development of obstructive sleep apnea, tracheostomy - first reported as a therapeutical measure by Kuhlo et al. (springer.com)
- Reduction of tone in this musculature and loss of compensatory reflex dilator mechanisms during deep sleep result in the airway obstruction. (medscape.com)
- In obstructive sleep apnea , breathing slows or stops altogether because of a physical tissue obstruction to the upper airway. (healthline.com)
- In patients with a high probability of obstructive sleep apnea, an ambulatory algorithm for titration of continuous positive airway pressure at home was as effective as titration by overnight polysomnography in the sleep laboratory. (acpjc.org)
- Clinical guidelines for the manual titration of positive airway pressure in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. (semanticscholar.org)
- Future studies need to examine the effect of high pressures and pressure titration in the delivery room. (frontiersin.org)
- This involves the patient wearing a face mask during sleep which is connected to the machine which supplies a constant steam of air to help keep the airways open. (isrctn.com)
- The pump will force air through your airway to help keep it open. (medicalcityhospital.com)
- This air acts as a splint to keep the airway open during sleep, allowing breathing to become more regular. (nationaljewish.org)
- Oral appliances work by advancing the lower jaw forward, allowing your airway to stay open while you sleep. (nationaljewish.org)
- During an apnea episode the airway collapses, causing the diaphragm and chest wall muscles to work harder to open it. (wtop.com)
- Your airway will stay open all night, allowing air to reach your lungs. (rush.edu)
- You will snore less because your airway will stay open. (rush.edu)
- Because your airway remains open, it prevents pauses in breathing. (sleepassociation.org)
- The device works by pushing the jaw forward to keep the upper airway open. (sleepassociation.org)
- The blow causes a positive pressure to hold the upper airway open during sleep and thus helps in the treatment of snoring. (sbwire.com)
- The air is under higher pressure, which helps the airways and lungs stay open (inflate). (medlineplus.gov)
- Normally the central airways (the trachea and bronchi) remain open when you breathe. (bidmc.org)
- This therapy is delivered through a nasal or face mask through which continuous air pressure is delivered in order to keep the upper airway open. (healthcentral.com)
- It senses the breathing pattern and mildly stimulates the airway muscles to keep the airway open. (cigna.com)
- You might gasp for air, cough, or sit or stand up to try to open your airways. (healthline.com)
- Elwell CE, Owen-Reece H, Wyatt JS, Cope M, Reynolds EO, Delpy DT (1996) Influence of respiration and changes in expiratory pressure on cerebral haemoglobin concentration measured by near infrared spectroscopy. (springer.com)
- Positive end-expiratory pressure was increased from 5 to 7 mm Hg. (cmaj.ca)
- Therefore, the inspiratory time, expiratory time and peak inflation pressure are all controlled and determined by the patient, providing patient-ventilator synchrony. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The increase in EELV was associated with an increase in NRD to both the parasternal intercostal muscles and to the diaphragm. (bmj.com)
- This tissue bulk may direct the airway anteroposteriorly, as opposed to the normal lateral orientation, forcing the pharyngeal muscles to act at a disadvantage. (medscape.com)
- This might be due to training of the muscles of the upper airways, which control airway dilation and wall stiffening. (bmj.com)
- Your muscles may have to work harder for you to breathe and if your neck is large, there may be less space inside for your airway. (craighospital.org)
- A combination of relatively weaker muscles having much more work to do to move air, and less space to do it in, greatly increases your risk. (craighospital.org)
- It is caused by a problem in the central nervous system, most often a failure of the brain to signal the airway muscles to breathe. (umm.edu)
- 2,3 In infants with obstructive apnea, it may help splint the upper airway. (aappublications.org)
- The air pressure functions like a splint for the upper airway to prevent apneas from occurring and keep the airway from collapsing. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Randomized crossover trial of two treatments for sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome: continuous positive airway pressure and mandibular repositioning splint. (semanticscholar.org)
- One technique uses short binasal prongs-for example, Hudson prongs-where the pressure in the device is generated by a continuous flow of gas past the nasal prongs with the distal end placed a set depth under water. (bmj.com)
- 3. Patient interface: Nasal prongs are used as the nasal interface between the circuit and the infant's airway. (wikipedia.org)
- Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) leads to recurrent hypoxic episodes, repeated arousals, surges in blood pressure (BP) and, in some patients, excessive daytime sleepiness and raised diurnal BP. (bmj.com)
- Daytime sleepiness and quality of life improved to a similar extent in both groups (Table). (acpjc.org)
- 30). 5 For moderately affected patients (apnoea-hypopnoea index 15-30) who complain about snoring and daytime sleepiness, however, continuous positive airway pressure therapy may not be suitable and other effective interventions are needed. (bmj.com)
- 8 9 10 We tested the hypothesis that training of the upper airways by didgeridoo playing reduces daytime sleepiness in moderately affected patients. (bmj.com)
- AF is a costly public health problem increasing a patient's risk of stroke, heart failure, and all-cause mortality. (hindawi.com)
- Described is a method and system providing therapeutic positive airway pressure to a particular area of patient's airways. (google.com)
- The predetermined portion of the patient's airway includes a collapsible portion of an upper airway of the patient. (google.com)
- Leakage of air out the mouth has been shown to adversely affect sleep quality 3 - 5 , contribute to failure to fully correct nocturnal gas exchange 4 and possibly even increase the work of breathing 3 , all of which may affect the patient's tolerance and long-term response to therapy. (ersjournals.com)
- The processing arrangement continuously adjusts the supply pressure to maintain a pressure in a predetermined portion of the patent's airway substantially constant. (google.com)
- The valve provides substantially constant positive airway pressure to the patient at pressures above the threshold pressure level of the valve. (google.com)
- Surgery may potentially improve sleep apnea in very specific circumstances. (nationaljewish.org)
- Psychosocial functioning improves following adolescent bariatric surgery. (semanticscholar.org)
- The surgery called tracheostomy (which puts a permanent opening in your neck to your windpipe) almost always cures sleep apnea that is caused by blockage of the upper airway. (cigna.com)
- Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. (emaxhealth.com)
- Inadequate sleep whether caused by reduced sleep duration or obstructive an recurrent circadian disruption induced by might shift work adversely affect cardiovascular regulation and are associated with an increased risk of incident cardiovascular disease and death. (emaxhealth.com)
- Cardiovascular effects of continuous positive airway pressure in patients with heart failure and obstructive sleep apnea. (semanticscholar.org)
- Data involving natriuretic peptides provides the primary evidence that fluid retention in the form of increased intravascular volume is a cardiovascular risk factor. (jabfm.org)
- If left untreated, OSA can lead to heart disease, high blood pressure, and stroke. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Affected patients typically exhibit increases in body mass index (BMI) (about 75% of patients), blood pressure, and neck circumference and waist-hip ratio. (medscape.com)
- When breathing stops during sleep, involuntary reflexes cause you to startle awake, accelerating heart rate and increasing blood pressure. (wtop.com)
- Along with making you sleepy the next day, OSA can increase your risk of high blood pressure, heart attack, stroke, and depression. (healthline.com)
- The resulting data showed significant reductions in daytime systolic and diastolic blood pressure compared to baseline with no significant reductions in heart rate. (emaxhealth.com)
- If left untreated, obstructive sleep apnea can lead to more serious medical conditions, including high blood pressure , heart attack , stroke and arrhythmias (irregular heartbeats) . (rush.edu)
- This overnight study measures your brain activity, heart rate, eye movement, blood pressure and other data while you sleep. (rush.edu)
- The autonomous nervous system that is affected by disturbances during REM sleep controls blood pressure as well as heart rate. (medindia.net)
- After controlling for age, sex, smoking, race, high blood pressure and diabetes, the researchers studied the effect of sleep disturbances and increased risk of atrial fibrillation. (medindia.net)
- Do you have or are you being treated for high blood Pressure? (uwhealth.org)
- If OSA is not treated it can have life-threatening results such as heart attack, stroke, high blood pressure, and other conditions. (uwhealth.org)
- These can be used for small medical devices like blood-pressure monitors and low-power continuous positive airway pressure machines. (yahoo.com)
- During each apnea, the stress on the body leads to an increase or irregularity of the heart rate and increased blood pressure which can lead to chronic heart disease and high blood pressure disease. (craighospital.org)
- Background Raised blood pressure (and heart rate (HR)) due to anxiety in a clinical situation is well described and is called the white coat effect (WCE). (ebscohost.com)
- Short-Term Effects of a Single Exercise Bout at Moderate Altitude on Blood Pressure. (ebscohost.com)
- The effects of SA on blood pressure (BP) and stroke outcome in the acute stroke phase are essentially unknown. (breathing.com)
- Optimal breathing development lowers blood pressure and reduces or eliminates waking up not breathing. (breathing.com)
- Untreated sleep apnea can increase the chance of having high blood pressure and even a heart attack or stroke. (cvsurgicalgroup.com)
- Ambulatory blood pressure after therapeutic and subtherapeutic nasal continuous positive airway pressure for obstructive sleep apnoea: a randomised parallel trial. (semanticscholar.org)
- He wrote for HealthCentral as a health professional for Heart Disease, High Blood Pressure, and High Cholesterol. (healthcentral.com)
- Impairment of arterial baroreflex sensitivity for heart rate and blood pressure has adverse prognostic significance in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) 1 - 5 and in a variety of experimental models of CHF. (ahajournals.org)
- It's important to treat obstructive sleep apnea, because sleep apnea makes you more likely to have high blood pressure, depression, irregular heart rhythms, heart failure, coronary artery disease, and stroke. (cigna.com)