Income: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.Income Tax: Tax on the net income of an individual, organization, or business.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.United StatesCross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Censuses: Enumerations of populations usually recording identities of all persons in every place of residence with age or date of birth, sex, occupation, national origin, language, marital status, income, relation to head of household, information on the dwelling place, education, literacy, health-related data (e.g., permanent disability), etc. The census or "numbering of the people" is mentioned several times in the Old Testament. Among the Romans, censuses were intimately connected with the enumeration of troops before and after battle and probably a military necessity. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed; Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed, p66, p119)Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Family Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Developed Countries: Countries that have reached a level of economic achievement through an increase of production, per capita income and consumption, and utilization of natural and human resources.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Financing, Personal: Payment by individuals or their family for health care services which are not covered by a third-party payer, either insurance or medical assistance.Employment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Economics: The science of utilization, distribution, and consumption of services and materials.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Poverty Areas: City, urban, rural, or suburban areas which are characterized by severe economic deprivation and by accompanying physical and social decay.BrazilAfrican Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Economics, Medical: Economic aspects of the field of medicine, the medical profession, and health care. It includes the economic and financial impact of disease in general on the patient, the physician, society, or government.Public Assistance: Financial assistance to impoverished persons for the essentials of living through federal, state or local government programs.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Health Status Indicators: The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Social Security: Government sponsored social insurance programs.Salaries and Fringe Benefits: The remuneration paid or benefits granted to an employee.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Medically Uninsured: Individuals or groups with no or inadequate health insurance coverage. Those falling into this category usually comprise three primary groups: the medically indigent (MEDICAL INDIGENCY); those whose clinical condition makes them medically uninsurable; and the working uninsured.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Marital Status: A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Social Welfare: Organized institutions which provide services to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community.Housing: Living facilities for humans.Insurance Coverage: Generally refers to the amount of protection available and the kind of loss which would be paid for under an insurance contract with an insurer. (Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed)Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Gross Domestic Product: Value of all final goods and services produced in a country in one year.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Occupations: Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Continental Population Groups: Groups of individuals whose putative ancestry is from native continental populations based on similarities in physical appearance.Unemployment: The state of not being engaged in a gainful occupation.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Eligibility Determination: Criteria to determine eligibility of patients for medical care programs and services.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Medical Assistance: Financing of medical care provided to public assistance recipients.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Inflation, Economic: An increase in the volume of money and credit relative to available goods resulting in a substantial and continuing rise in the general price level.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Life Expectancy: Based on known statistical data, the number of years which any person of a given age may reasonably expected to live.CaliforniaChina: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Vulnerable Populations: Groups of persons whose range of options is severely limited, who are frequently subjected to COERCION in their DECISION MAKING, or who may be compromised in their ability to give INFORMED CONSENT.Models, Econometric: The application of mathematical formulas and statistical techniques to the testing and quantifying of economic theories and the solution of economic problems.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Insurance, Disability: Insurance designed to compensate persons who lose wages because of illness or injury; insurance providing periodic payments that partially replace lost wages, salary, or other income when the insured is unable to work because of illness, injury, or disease. Individual and group disability insurance are two types of such coverage. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p207)Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Social Conditions: The state of society as it exists or in flux. While it usually refers to society as a whole in a specified geographical or political region, it is applicable also to restricted strata of a society.Sociology, Medical: The study of the social determinants and social effects of health and disease, and of the social structure of medical institutions or professions.Nutrition Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.Fees and Charges: Amounts charged to the patient as payer for health care services.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Taxes: Governmental levies on property, inheritance, gifts, etc.Child Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.Public Sector: The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.Disabled Persons: Persons with physical or mental disabilities that affect or limit their activities of daily living and that may require special accommodations.Small-Area Analysis: A method of analyzing the variation in utilization of health care in small geographic or demographic areas. It often studies, for example, the usage rates for a given service or procedure in several small areas, documenting the variation among the areas. By comparing high- and low-use areas, the analysis attempts to determine whether there is a pattern to such use and to identify variables that are associated with and contribute to the variation.Economic Development: Mobilization of human, financial, capital, physical and or natural resources to generate goods and services.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Economic Recession: Significant decline in economic activity spread across the economy, lasting more than a few months, normally visible in real gross domestic product, real income, employment, industrial production, and wholesale-retail sales. (National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, www.nber.org/cycles.html, accessed 4/23/2009)Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Universal Coverage: Health insurance coverage for all persons in a state or country, rather than for some subset of the population. It may extend to the unemployed as well as to the employed; to aliens as well as to citizens; for pre-existing conditions as well as for current illnesses; for mental as well as for physical conditions.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Medicaid: Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XIX, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, administered by the states, that provides health care benefits to indigent and medically indigent persons.IndiaAttitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.African Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Dental Care: The total of dental diagnostic, preventive, and restorative services provided to meet the needs of a patient (from Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982).Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Marriage: The social institution involving legal and/or religious sanction whereby individuals are joined together.Fees, Medical: Amounts charged to the patient as payer for medical services.Psychosocial Deprivation: The absence of appropriate stimuli in the physical or social environment which are necessary for the emotional, social, and intellectual development of the individual.Retirement: The state of being retired from one's position or occupation.Financial Support: The provision of monetary resources including money or capital and credit; obtaining or furnishing money or capital for a purchase or enterprise and the funds so obtained. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed.)Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Pensions: Fixed sums paid regularly to individuals.Cost Sharing: Provisions of an insurance policy that require the insured to pay some portion of covered expenses. Several forms of sharing are in use, e.g., deductibles, coinsurance, and copayments. Cost sharing does not refer to or include amounts paid in premiums for the coverage. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Happiness: Highly pleasant emotion characterized by outward manifestations of gratification; joy.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Specialization: An occupation limited in scope to a subsection of a broader field.Ontario: A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Practice Management, Medical: The organization and operation of the business aspects of a physician's practice.Sampling Studies: Studies in which a number of subjects are selected from all subjects in a defined population. Conclusions based on sample results may be attributed only to the population sampled.

Do housing tenure and car access predict health because they are simply markers of income or self esteem? A Scottish study. (1/2784)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate relations between health (using a range of measures) and housing tenure or car access; and to test the hypothesis that observed relations between these asset based measures and health are simply because they are markers for income or self esteem. DESIGN: Analysis of data from second wave of data collection of West of Scotland Twenty-07 study, collected in 1991 by face to face interviews conducted by nurse interviewers. SETTING: The Central Clydeside Conurbation, in the West of Scotland. SUBJECTS: 785 people (354 men, 431 women) in their late 30s, and 718 people (358 men, 359 women) in their late 50s, participants in a longitudinal study. MEASURES: General Health Questionnaire scores, respiratory function, waist/hip ratio, number of longstanding illnesses, number of symptoms in the last month, and systolic blood pressure; household income adjusted for household size and composition; Rosenberg self esteem score; housing tenure and care access. RESULTS: On bivariate analysis, all the health measures were significantly associated with housing tenure, and all except waist/hip ratio with car access; all except waist/hip ratio were related to income, and all except systolic blood pressure were related to self esteem. In models controlling for age, sex, and their interaction, neither waist/hip ratio nor systolic blood pressure remained significantly associated with tenure or care access. Significant relations with all the remaining health measures persisted after further controlling for income or self esteem. CONCLUSIONS: Housing tenure and car access may not only be related to health because they are markers for income or psychological traits; they may also have some directly health promoting or damaging effects. More research is needed to establish mechanisms by which they may influence health, and to determine the policy implications of their association with health.  (+info)

Impact of market value on human mate choice decisions. (2/2784)

Mate choice strategies are a process of negotiation in which individuals make bids that are constrained by their status in the market place. Humans provide an unusual perspective on this because we can measure their explicitly expressed preferences before they are forced to make any choices. We use advertisements placed in newspaper personal columns to examine, first, the extent to which evolutionary considerations affect the level of competition (or market value) during the reproductively active period of people's lives and, second, the extent to which market value influences individual's willingness to make strong demands of prospective mates. We show that female market value is determined principally by women's fecundity (and, to a lesser extent, reproductive value), while male market value is determined by men's earning potential and the risk of future pairbond termination (the conjoint probability that the male will either die or divorce his partner during the next 20 years). We then show that these selection preferences strongly influence the levels of demands that men and women make of prospective partners (although older males tend to overestimate their market value).  (+info)

Views of managed care--a survey of students, residents, faculty, and deans at medical schools in the United States. (3/2784)

BACKGROUND AND METHODS: Views of managed care among academic physicians and medical students in the United States are not well known. In 1997, we conducted a telephone survey of a national sample of medical students (506 respondents), residents (494), faculty members (728), department chairs (186), directors of residency training in internal medicine and pediatrics (143), and deans (105) at U.S. medical schools to determine their experiences in and perspectives on managed care. The overall rate of response was 80.1 percent. RESULTS: Respondents rated their attitudes toward managed care on a 0-to-10 scale, with 0 defined as "as negative as possible" and 10 as "as positive as possible." The expressed attitudes toward managed care were negative, ranging from a low mean (+/-SD) score of 3.9+/-1.7 for residents to a high of 5.0+/-1.3 for deans. When asked about specific aspects of care, fee-for-service medicine was rated better than managed care in terms of access (by 80.2 percent of respondents), minimizing ethical conflicts (74.8 percent), and the quality of the doctor-patient relationship (70.6 percent). With respect to the continuity of care, 52.0 percent of respondents preferred fee-for-service medicine, and 29.3 percent preferred managed care. For care at the end of life, 49.1 percent preferred fee-for-service medicine, and 20.5 percent preferred managed care. With respect to care for patients with chronic illness, 41.8 percent preferred fee-for-service care, and 30.8 percent preferred managed care. Faculty members, residency-training directors, and department chairs responded that managed care had reduced the time they had available for research (63.1 percent agreed) and teaching (58.9 percent) and had reduced their income (55.8 percent). Overall, 46.6 percent of faculty members, 26.7 percent of residency-training directors, and 42.7 percent of department chairs reported that the message they delivered to students about managed care was negative. CONCLUSIONS: Negative views of managed care are widespread among medical students, residents, faculty members, and medical school deans.  (+info)

Explaining the decline in health insurance coverage, 1979-1995. (4/2784)

The decline in health insurance coverage among workers from 1979 to 1995 can be accounted for almost entirely by the fact that per capita health care spending rose much more rapidly than personal income during this time period. We simulate health insurance coverage levels for 1996-2005 under alternative assumptions concerning the rate of growth of spending. We conclude that reduction in spending growth creates measurable increases in health insurance coverage for low-income workers and that the rapid increase in health care spending over the past fifteen years has created a large pool of low-income workers for whom health insurance is unaffordable.  (+info)

Cost of tax-exempt health benefits in 1998. (5/2784)

The tax expenditure for health benefits is the amount of revenues that the federal government forgoes by exempting the following from the federal income and Social Security taxes: (1) employer health benefits contribution, (2) health spending under flexible spending plans, and (3) the tax deduction for health expenses. The health tax expenditure was $111.2 billion in 1998. This figure varied from $2,357 per family among those with annual incomes of $100,000 or more to $71 per family among those with annual incomes of less than $15,000. Families with incomes of $100,000 or more (10 percent of the population) accounted for 23.6 percent of all tax expenditures.  (+info)

Is health insurance in Greece in need of reform? (6/2784)

This paper aims to assess the relationship between insurance contributions and health benefits in Greece by using information from sickness funds' accounts. The paper argues that the fragmentation of social health insurance, and the particular ways in which sickness funds' financial services are organized, are a major source of inequity and are grossly inefficient. The survival of these systems in the 1990s cannot be explained except on grounds of inertia and corporate resistance.  (+info)

User charges for health care: a review of recent experience. (7/2784)

This paper reviews recent experiences with increases in user charges and their effect on the utilization of health care. Evidence from several countries of differences in utilization between rich and poor is presented, and recent accounts of sharp, and often sustained, drops in utilization following fee increases, are presented and discussed. Fee income, appropriately used, represents a small but significant additional resource for health care. Recent national experiences appear to have concentrated on achieving cost recovery objectives, rather than on improving service quality and health outcomes. Appraisal of financing changes must be linked to probable health outcomes. Successful large-scale experience in linking these two is in short supply.  (+info)

The potential of health sector non-governmental organizations: policy options. (8/2784)

Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have increasingly been promoted as alternative health care providers to the state, furthering the same goals but less hampered by government inefficiencies and resource constraints. However, the reality of NGO health care provision is more complex. Not only is the distinction between government and NGO providers sometimes difficult to determine because of their operational integration, but NGOs may also suffer from resource constraionts and management inefficiencies similar to those of government providers. Some registered NGOs operate as for-profit providers in practice. Policy development must reflect the strengths and weaknesses of NGOs in particular settings and should be built on NGO advantages over government in terms of resource mobilization, efficiency and/or quality. Policy development will always require a strong government presence in co-ordinating and regulating health care provision, and an NGO sector responsive to the policy goals of government.  (+info)

  • For the half year, net income was EUR 484, up 27% on the first half of 1999. (akzonobel.com)
  • For the first half of the year, excluding Acordis, sales and operating income grew a solid 16% and 25% respectively, further confirmation of the Company's less volatile and more growth-oriented business mix" said Fritz Fröhlich, Akzo Nobel's Chief Financial Officer. (akzonobel.com)
  • The figures underscore that even after the recession the country remains in a new Gilded Age, with income as concentrated as it was in the years that preceded the Depression of the 1930s, if not more so. (calaborfed.org)
  • The top 1 percent took more than one-fifth of the income earned by Americans, one of the highest levels on record since 1913, when the government instituted an income tax. (calaborfed.org)
  • CENTURY Properties Group, Inc. (CPG) expects to see double-digit growth in net income this year, banking on its diversification into the affordable and leisure segments. (bworldonline.com)
  • Net income, at EUR265 million, improved considerably-up 24%-with earnings growth and margin improvements continuing in all three Groups, dominated by growth at Pharma. (akzonobel.com)
  • We are obviously pleased to report the outstanding first quarter sales growth, and a percentage increase in operating income that exceeded our percentage increase in revenues. (neogen.com)
  • The local licensee of the chain of 7-Eleven convenience stores saw its net income jump by 18.9% in the second quarter of 2018, driven. (bworldonline.com)
  • HARTSVILLE, S.C. (AP) -- Packaging maker Sonoco Products Co. said Wednesday that fourth-quarter net income jumped 45 percent, helped by better profitability at its paper and industrial converted products business. (yahoo.com)
  • Manila Electric Co. (Meralco) reported a core net income of P5.93 billion in the second quarter, higher by 7.4% compared with the P5.52-billion profit. (bworldonline.com)
  • NASDAQ: AKZOY) the multinational pharmaceuticals, coatings and chemicals company, delivered solid second quarter results with net income at EUR265 million, up 24% on the corresponding period of the previous year. (akzonobel.com)
  • Net income - solid upward trend continuing quarter net income climbed 24% to EUR 265 million. (akzonobel.com)
  • Second-quarter operating income 1 rose 22% to EUR 460 million. (akzonobel.com)
  • EOG Resources (NYSE: EOG) reported second quarter 2007 net income of $306.1 million, or $1.24 per share. (rigzone.com)
  • This compares to second quarter 2006 net income of $329.6 million, or $1.34 per share. (rigzone.com)
  • Consistent with some analysts' practice of matching realizations to settlement months, adjusted non-GAAP net income available to common for the quarter was $289.7 million, or $1.17 per share. (rigzone.com)
  • Adjusted non-GAAP net income available to common for the second quarter 2006 was $285.3 million, or $1.16 per share. (rigzone.com)
  • The first quarter revenues and net income represent quarterly records for the 28-year-old company. (neogen.com)
  • Although we are able to report exceptional first quarter net income, our performance this quarter was adversely affected by an unfavorable translation from European and British currencies to U.S. dollars. (neogen.com)
  • Sy-led BDO Unibank, Inc. reported a P13.1-billion net income as of end-June, down from a year ago amid lower non-interest gains and bigger operating. (bworldonline.com)
  • Government Service Insurance System (GSIS) recorded higher net profit last year on the back of income from financial assets. (bworldonline.com)
  • Net income in the first half year rose 27%, aggregating EUR 484 million. (akzonobel.com)
  • The top 10 percent of earners took more than half of the country's total income in 2012, the highest level recorded since the government began collecting the relevant data a century ago, according to an updated study by the prominent economists Emmanuel Saez and Thomas Piketty. (calaborfed.org)
  • For example, if doctors' health depends on the income of other doctors, and economists' health on the income of other economists, then the health-to-income relationship in the pooled data will flatten if the average incomes of the two groups pulls apart. (nber.org)
  • The income ratio between urban and rural residents was 3.33:1, which meant city dwellers' average incomes were 3.33 times greater than the average for farmers. (chinadaily.com.cn)
  • In comparison, the income ratio was 2.56:1 in 1978 when city dwellers' average incomes stood at 343 yuan while that of farmers was 134 yuan. (chinadaily.com.cn)
  • As a result, the income ratio was reduced to its narrowest at 1.82:1 in 1983, when urban residents' average incomes were 564 yuan, 254 yuan more than those for farmers. (chinadaily.com.cn)
  • 100,000+ My Income. (digitalpoint.com)
  • A person with amount of $100,000 income does not looks never such a little man! (digitalpoint.com)
  • Elites" are identified in the Science piece and in our new analysis as individuals age 40 and younger who are employed, with annual household incomes over $100,000 and graduate degrees. (rand.org)
  • Non-elites are identified as individuals 40 or younger who are employed, with household incomes under $100,000 and without a graduate degree. (rand.org)
  • Taxing everything over $100,000 in pension income would raise just $70 million, said Sue Hofer, spokeswoman for the Illinois Department of Revenue. (chicagotribune.com)
  • For example, a 65-year-old man who invests $100,000 in a deferred-income annuity could receive $1,673 per month starting at age 80 ($20,076 per year), says Ariel Stern, chief operating officer of ImmediateAnnuities.com. (aarp.org)
  • The Economic Policy Institute released a 2018 report showing a general trend toward increasing incomes of the top earners following the 2008 Recession. (investopedia.com)
  • The share of total income going to the top 1 percent of earners, which stood at 8.9 percent in 1976, rose to 23.5 percent by 2007, but during the same period, the average inflation-adjusted hourly wage declined by more than 7 percent. (nytimes.com)
  • The top 10% of all income earners in the U.S. are still doing very well , but most U.S. consumers are either flat broke or are drowning in debt. (theeconomiccollapseblog.com)
  • Speaking at an event held by business group Ibec, Mr Kenny said the Government had agreed to lessen the tax burden on the incomes of low and middle income earners. (rte.ie)
  • According to calculations from the National Longitudinal Mortality Survey which tracks the mortality of people originally interviewed in the CPS and other surveys, people whose family income in 1980 was greater than $50,000, putting them in the top 5 percent of incomes, had a life-expectancy at all ages that was about 25 percent longer than those in the bottom 5 percent, whose family income was less than $5,000. (nber.org)
  • This works well for those who want lifetime income protection and who live to or beyond their life expectancy, but those who do not may receive less money from the annuity than they put in. (aarp.org)
  • The monthly payouts for deferred-income annuities are much higher than they are for immediate annuities, and you'll come out further ahead the longer you live beyond average life expectancy. (aarp.org)
  • Fiscal policy is seen as an instrument of public health , an argument that is reinforced by ideas, particularly associated with Richard Wilkinson, that income inequality, like air pollution or toxic radiation, is itself a health hazard. (nber.org)
  • Fiscal policy is the primary tool for governments to affect income distribution. (imf.org)
  • The net income of fast-food operator Nathan's Famous Inc. slid 43 percent in its fiscal first quarter primarily because of higher costs in the Jericho-based company's international franchising program. (newsday.com)
  • The company said it expects to post fiscal fourth-quarter net income of between $1.95 and $2.10 per share, while analysts expect a profit of $2.08 per share. (yahoo.com)
  • If you are willing to search for the options to make some income then you should try to be patient. (issuu.com)
  • Offering lifetime income can help you close gaps in your company's retirement plan and provide your employees with the peace of mind that they'll never outlive their retirement savings. (metlife.com)
  • After-tax operating income from the company's insurance operations fell 11 percent to $2.65 billion, while the combined ratio worsened to 101.2 from 97.3 in the same quarter of 2013. (reuters.com)
  • Because the company's first film, "A Bronx Tale," will not be released until October, revenue was comprised solely of interest income, and expenses were comprised of overhead and interest on outstanding indebtedness. (variety.com)
  • The missing data on family income and personal earnings in the 1999 NHIS were imputed using multiple-imputation methodology. (cdc.gov)
  • For analyses involving other variables in addition to family income or personal earnings, each set of imputed values can be merged with other data from the 1999 NHIS to create a single completed data set. (cdc.gov)
  • Income Protection Insurance helps support you financially if you have time off work and suffer a loss of earnings because of injury or illness. (abi.org.uk)
  • Since 1967, Americans right in the middle of the income curve have seen their earnings rise 19%, while those in the top 5% have seen a 67% gain. (cnn.com)
  • The Income Tax (Earnings and Pensions) Act 2003, gave MPs a special exemption from tax liabilities relating to their allowances. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Reuters) - American International Group Inc ( AIG.N ) posted a 27 percent fall in quarterly income, hurt by a drop in earnings from premiums and higher disaster losses in its core property and casualty insurance business. (reuters.com)
  • Since 1980, the percentage of children living in families with medium income has fallen from 41% to 34% in 1996, while the percentage of children living in families with high income and the percentage of children in extreme poverty have risen, from 17% to 24% and from 7% to 8%, respectively. (infoplease.com)
  • The study shows that the gap between ''haves'' and ''haves not'' widened between 1980 and 1986, with the difference in weekly incomes in north and south doubling from $:40, to $:80 ($145). (nytimes.com)
  • Tax imposed on individuals or entities (taxpayers) that varies with respective income or profits (taxable income). (wikipedia.org)
  • Taxable income of taxpayers resident in the jurisdiction is generally total income less income producing expenses and other deductions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The IRS Volunteer Income Tax Assistance (VITA) and the Tax Counseling for the Elderly (TCE) programs offer free tax help for taxpayers who qualify. (in.gov)
  • The Notre Dame Tax Clinic is a federally funded Low Income Taxpayer Clinic (LITC) that represents clients in controversies with the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) and educates individuals about their rights and responsibilities as taxpayers. (in.gov)
  • you'll also notice that the 35 percent income bracket is tiny for single taxpayers. (bankrate.com)
  • Effective Jan. 1, 2013, individual taxpayers are liable for a 3.8 percent Net Investment Income Tax on the lesser of their net investment income, or the amount by which their modified adjusted gross income exceeds the statutory threshold amount based on their filing status. (irs.gov)
  • Data releases by the IRS attract much attention as pundits dig through to find out which types of taxpayers paid more or less income tax. (cato.org)
  • In 2008, Illinois taxpayers received $37.3 billion in retirement income, including pensions, retirement annuities and Social Security, according to the nonpartisan Commission on Government Forecasting and Accountability. (chicagotribune.com)
  • The government will put more effort into increasing farmers' incomes, focusing on the two parts," said Ma. (chinadaily.com.cn)
  • Personal income for farmers fell by the most in three years in the first quarter, as losses to U.S. agriculture mount from President Donald Trump's trade wars. (japantimes.co.jp)
  • At Heifer International, we invest in farmers and business owners around the world, because we know that having a secure source of income can be truly transformational for families and their communities. (heifer.org)
  • We work with communities in 21 countries around the world as they strengthen local economies and build secure livelihoods that guarantee a living income to local farmers. (heifer.org)
  • When we start working with a community, together, we set a living income benchmark using data gathered by the farmers themselves. (heifer.org)
  • We work with farmers and their communities to identify opportunities within value chains that deliver living incomes. (heifer.org)
  • In fact, the income of farmers in Guizhou is less than 10 percent of the average salary of a Shanghai resident. (chinadaily.com.cn)
  • Additionally, net investment income does not include any gain on the sale of a personal residence that is excluded from gross income for regular income tax purposes. (irs.gov)
  • Members can access an online marketplace of annuities that offer a guaranteed return or income from highly-rated insurers. (aarp.org)
  • Tax-deferred fixed annuities, at time of withdrawal, are taxed as ordinary income and not as capital gains. (aarp.org)
  • MetLife commissioned research to understand consumers' attitudes and decision-making with regard to lump sums and income annuity payments from several sources, including a defined benefit (DB) pension plan or a defined contribution (DC) retirement savings plan. (metlife.com)
  • Insurance products made available on the AARP® Annuity Marketplace powered by Blueprint Income are sold and serviced by Blueprint Income, a licensed insurance agency. (aarp.org)
  • A fixed annuity provides a predictable guaranteed income stream for life. (aarp.org)
  • An income annuity can guarantee that you'll receive a check every month for the rest of your life. (aarp.org)
  • If you follow this strategy, an immediate annuity that starts paying lifetime income right away could be a solution. (aarp.org)
  • The amount of income you'll get from an immediate annuity will vary depending on economic conditions at the time you make a purchase, which payout options the annuity has and which company issued the policy. (aarp.org)
  • If the individual in the example's circumstances changed, he couldn't change his mind and get his money back after he invested in the income annuity. (aarp.org)
  • An alternative to buying an immediate annuity is to depend on a combination of Social Security, pension benefits (if you have them) and your savings for retirement income. (aarp.org)
  • Another type of income annuity can help reduce this risk. (aarp.org)
  • A deferred-income annuity, also called longevity insurance, provides lifetime income starting several years in the future, such as in your 70s or 80s. (aarp.org)
  • In addition to eliminating the fear of running out of money, a deferred-income annuity also gives a firm time limit on how long you'll need to depend on your savings. (aarp.org)
  • Deductions typically include all income producing or business expenses including an allowance for recovery of costs of business assets. (wikipedia.org)
  • Program income expenses carry the same allowability restrictions as the rest of the budgeted expenses. (uidaho.edu)
  • Section 292 of the Act states that no income tax liability arises from allowances paid to MPs for "additional expenses necessarily incurred by the Member in staying overnight away from the Member's only or main residence, for the purpose of performing parliamentary duties. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Most experts recommend that you have enough guaranteed income to cover your necessary expenses such as housing, transportation, food, etc. (aarp.org)
  • Yet many economists are reluctant to confront rising income inequality directly, saying that whether this trend is good or bad requires a value judgment that is best left to philosophers. (nytimes.com)
  • This long-term decline in income is troubling to economists, especially as the middle and lower classes have fared considerably worse than the rich. (cnn.com)
  • A survey last month of 50 leading Chinese economists showed the excessively wide income gap was the major problem that could affect healthy development of China's economy. (chinadaily.com.cn)
  • The main reasons to establish multiple income streams are to stabilize your revenue and generate passive income. (forbes.com)
  • Passive income is revenue that's not as dependent on, or completely independent of, the hours you work. (forbes.com)
  • This passive income fulfills the common definition of entrepreneurship, which involves building a business bigger than yourself or your hours worked. (forbes.com)
  • If you create an online training program, it can generate passive income from enrollments due to auto-delivery of the program. (forbes.com)
  • If you write a book about your work experience, you can generate passive income from sales. (forbes.com)
  • Recordings of speeches and presentations can generate passive income online through downloads or training packages. (forbes.com)
  • Here are some suggestions on how you too can generate passive income. (wikihow.com)
  • Income tax generally is computed as the product of a tax rate times taxable income. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tax rate may increase as taxable income increases (referred to as graduated or progressive rates). (wikipedia.org)
  • The MTA Income investment strategy is designed to complement existing equity investments and carries a 1% annual management fee with a minimum account size of $50,000. (prweb.com)
  • For example, imposing the tax on everything over $50,000 in pension income would generate an additional $276 million. (chicagotribune.com)
  • As of the fourth quarter of 2019, the Federal Reserve showed the following distributions of income across the U.S. (investopedia.com)
  • In accordance with SEA 565, DOR may provide customers or their legal representatives a statement of income tax withholding upon request, effective July 1, 2019. (in.gov)
  • We develop methods for describing distributions of income growth across individuals and for comparing changes in growth distributions over time. (repec.org)
  • The next questions are about {your/your combined family} income. (cdc.gov)
  • Family income is generally considered a primary measure of a nation's financial prosperity. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the United States, political parties perennially disagree over which economic policies are more likely to increase family income. (wikipedia.org)
  • The party in power often takes the credit (or blame) for any significant changes in family income. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tithe demanded that each layperson in England and Wales be taxed one tenth of their personal income and moveable property. (wikipedia.org)
  • It covers the aspects of both, social mobility between parents and children and of personal income mobility over the life course, and their drivers. (oecd.org)
  • Equifax Personal Income Model ™ predicts personal income levels with an easy-to-interpret, three-digit score to strengthen targeting, validate application data and improve segmenting. (equifax.com)
  • Personal Income Model helps any industry by providing in-depth income insights to identify the best places to deploy key resources. (equifax.com)
  • Personal Income Model delivers an expanded consumer view into personal income to strengthen decisioning, improve account management efficiency and open new routes to build greater revenue. (equifax.com)
  • So, which countries have no personal income tax? (cnbc.com)
  • Personal contributions for social insurance are subtracted from personal income. (cmegroup.com)
  • You have accessed an archive of Regional Accounts tables for State Quarterly Personal Income that were initially published on March 23rd, 2011. (bea.gov)
  • Our empirical application shows that the pattern of income growth in Britain over the period 1992-1996 was less pro-poor than that for 1998-2002 and not significantly different from the pattern for 2001-2005. (repec.org)
  • In September the Census Bureau issued its annual figures on income and poverty, and to nobody's surprise poverty rose and U.S. median income went down in 2002. (factcheck.org)
  • The Setting Every Community Up for Retirement Enhancement (SECURE) Act, which was recently signed into law, removes regulatory obstacles and expands access to savings and lifetime income. (metlife.com)
  • Your online resource for the latest insights on pension risk, stable value, lifetime income and other benefit funding and financing solutions. (metlife.com)
  • It's easier to calculate how much you can afford to spend in the early years of retirement when you know you'll receive lifetime income later on. (aarp.org)
  • It is equivalent to some change in income with all prices remaining constant. (everything2.com)
  • We expect that over the course of a typical year MTA Income will pay out 40-50 dividend payments equivalent to a yield of 5% to 6% based on current valuations and interest rates," adds Beauvais. (prweb.com)
  • The household income of the household to which the young adult belonged before moving from the Caribbean Netherlands to the European Netherlands. (cbs.nl)
  • A head-of-household sees $12,750 of his income taxed at this lowest rate. (bankrate.com)
  • After China introduced the household contract responsibility system to countryside in 1978, rural residents at first saw their incomes grow faster. (chinadaily.com.cn)
  • Full income" refers to the accumulation of both the monetary and the non-monetary consumption-ability of any given entity, such as a person or a household. (wikipedia.org)
  • Your debt-to-income ratio (DTI) compares the total amount you owe every month to the total amount you earn. (experian.com)
  • Lenders may consider your debt-to-income ratio in tandem with credit reports and credit scores when weighing credit applications. (experian.com)
  • What's a Good Debt-to-Income Ratio? (experian.com)
  • When you're applying for a mortgage, improving your debt-to-income ratio can make a difference in how lenders view you. (experian.com)
  • Determine a customer's overall creditworthiness by accessing a debt-to-income ratio based on the outstanding debt obligations from their credit report as compared to their estimated income. (experian.com)
  • Knowing a customer's debt-to-income ratio is critical to your ability to make profitable decisions. (experian.com)
  • There are great benefits of pursuing one or both of these efforts to prevent pain points of income gaps and ever-changing markets. (forbes.com)
  • If your federal student loan payments are high compared to your income, you may want to repay your loans under an income-driven repayment plan. (ed.gov)
  • The high-income threshold is 16 thousand US dollars for Bonaire and 18 thousand US dollars for St Eustatius. (cbs.nl)
  • Even real estate investment trusts, a favored high-income vehicle to park in retirement accounts, pay out only 3.5%, after the enormous run-up in REIT stock prices over the past seven years. (kiplinger.com)
  • He also manages money for clients in need of high annual investment income. (kiplinger.com)
  • There were similar percentages of children living with low income and with high income, 23% and 24%, respectively. (infoplease.com)
  • If you take a look at income statistics, the tippy top is occupied almost entirely by corporate executives, Wall Street financiers, and a motley collection of doctors, lawyers, and other high-paid professionals. (motherjones.com)
  • To learn more about internet income making opportunities [http://www.highincomeonline.com/internet-income-making-opportunities] visit High Income Online for current articles and discussions. (issuu.com)
  • The MTA Income strategy invests in a variety of income-producing asset classes which may include investment-grade U.S. corporate bonds, high yield U.S. corporate bonds, U.S. treasuries, mortgage-backed bonds, sovereign debt bonds including emerging market bonds, real estate investment trusts and oil and gas limited partnerships. (prweb.com)
  • We found that our clients were seeking high yields but they did not want to be locked into income investments that matured in five, 10, or 20 years nor did they want to be heavily invested in junk bonds given the enormous run up that occurred over the last year. (prweb.com)
  • Now, with the introduction of MTA Income, we are able to provide them with the high yields, capital protection, low volatility and liquidity they are looking for. (prweb.com)
  • The Fund seeks to provide high current income, with a secondary objective of long-term capital appreciation. (marketwatch.com)
  • The cost of the guaranteed income can seem high. (aarp.org)
  • The phrase "social dividend" was commonly used as a synonym for basic income in the English-speaking world before 1986, after which the phrase "basic income" gained widespread currency. (wikipedia.org)
  • The child poverty rate provides important information about the percentage of U.S. children whose current life circumstances are hard and whose futures are potentially limited as a result of their family's low income. (infoplease.com)
  • Even if your regular income doesn't qualify you to take the EIC, time spent in a tax-exempt combat zone can move a family's income into EIC eligibility. (military.com)
  • According to what the economist Nicholas Barr describes as the "classical definition of income" (the 1938 Haig-Simons definition): "income may be defined as the. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Fund invests at least 80% of its net assets plus the amount of any borrowings in fixed-income securities. (marketwatch.com)
  • For example, the same person can gain more productive skills or acquire more productive income-earning assets to earn a higher income. (wikipedia.org)