French Guiana: A French overseas department on the northeast coast of South America. Its capital is Cayenne. It was first settled by the French in 1604. Early development was hindered because of the presence of a penal colony. The name of the country and the capital are variants of Guyana, possibly from the native Indian Guarani guai (born) + ana (kin), implying a united and interrelated race of people. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p418 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p195)France: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Polynesia: The collective name for the islands of the central Pacific Ocean, including the Austral Islands, Cook Islands, Easter Island, HAWAII; NEW ZEALAND; Phoenix Islands, PITCAIRN ISLAND; SAMOA; TONGA; Tuamotu Archipelago, Wake Island, and Wallis and Futuna Islands. Polynesians are of the Caucasoid race, but many are of mixed origin. Polynesia is from the Greek poly, many + nesos, island, with reference to the many islands in the group. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p966 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p426)Guadeloupe: The name of two islands of the West Indies, separated by a narrow channel. Their capital is Basse-Terre. They were discovered by Columbus in 1493, occupied by the French in 1635, held by the British at various times between 1759 and 1813, transferred to Sweden in 1813, and restored to France in 1816. Its status was changed from colony to a French overseas department in 1946. Columbus named it in honor of the monastery of Santa Maria de Guadalupe in Spain. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p470 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p221)Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Martinique: An island in the Lesser Antilles, one of the Windward Islands. Its capital is Fort-de-France. It was discovered by Columbus in 1502 and from its settlement in 1635 by the French it passed into and out of Dutch and British hands. It was made a French overseas department in 1946. One account of the name tells of native women on the shore calling "Madinina" as Columbus approached the island. The meaning was never discovered but was entered on early charts as Martinique, influenced by the name of St. Martin. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p734 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p339)Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.ParisAdipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Body Water: Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.Oils, Volatile: Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.Fatty Acids, Unsaturated: FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Metagenome: A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Absorptiometry, Photon: A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Biota: The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.Phosphatidylethanolamines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.Founder Effect: A phenomenon that is observed when a small subgroup of a larger POPULATION establishes itself as a separate and isolated entity. The subgroup's GENE POOL carries only a fraction of the genetic diversity of the parental population resulting in an increased frequency of certain diseases in the subgroup, especially those diseases known to be autosomal recessive.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.TriglyceridesFrench Revolution: Conflict during which traditional monarchy was ended and modern government functions were instituted.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Electric Impedance: The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Minerals: Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Language: A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Nutritive Value: An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Quebec: A province of eastern Canada. Its capital is Quebec. The region belonged to France from 1627 to 1763 when it was lost to the British. The name is from the Algonquian quilibek meaning the place where waters narrow, referring to the gradually narrowing channel of the St. Lawrence or to the narrows of the river at Cape Diamond. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p993 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p440)Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of animals.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Microbiota: The full collection of microbes (bacteria, fungi, virus, etc.) that naturally exist within a particular biological niche such as an organism, soil, a body of water, etc.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Linoleic Acid: A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Skinfold Thickness: The measurement of subcutaneous fat located directly beneath the skin by grasping a fold of skin and subcutaneous fat between the thumb and forefinger and pulling it away from the underlying muscle tissue. The thickness of the double layer of skin and subcutaneous tissue is then read with a caliper. The five most frequently measured sites are the upper arm, below the scapula, above the hip bone, the abdomen, and the thigh. Its application is the determination of relative fatness, of changes in physical conditioning programs, and of the percentage of body fat in desirable body weight. (From McArdle, et al., Exercise Physiology, 2d ed, p496-8)Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Membrane Fluidity: The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Translating: Conversion from one language to another language.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.West Indies: Islands lying between southeastern North America and northern South America, enclosing the Caribbean Sea. They comprise the Greater Antilles (CUBA; DOMINICAN REPUBLIC; HAITI; JAMAICA; and PUERTO RICO), the Lesser Antilles (ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA and the other Leeward Islands, BARBADOS; MARTINIQUE and the other Windward Islands, NETHERLANDS ANTILLES; VIRGIN ISLANDS OF THE UNITED STATES, BRITISH VIRGINI ISLANDS, and the islands north of Venezuela which include TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO), and the BAHAMAS. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1330)Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Adiposity: The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Fats: The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Electrophoresis: An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Basal Metabolism: Heat production, or its measurement, of an organism at the lowest level of cell chemistry in an inactive, awake, fasting state. It may be determined directly by means of a calorimeter or indirectly by calculating the heat production from an analysis of the end products of oxidation within the organism or from the amount of oxygen utilized.Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Lipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Elements: Substances that comprise all matter. Each element is made up of atoms that are identical in number of electrons and protons and in nuclear charge, but may differ in mass or number of neutrons.Monosaccharides: Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Sphingomyelins: A class of sphingolipids found largely in the brain and other nervous tissue. They contain phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine as their polar head group so therefore are the only sphingolipids classified as PHOSPHOLIPIDS.Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated: Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Microbial Consortia: A group of different species of microorganisms that act together as a community.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Gastrointestinal Tract: Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Dietary Fats, Unsaturated: Unsaturated fats or oils used in foods or as a food.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Docosahexaenoic Acids: C22-unsaturated fatty acids found predominantly in FISH OILS.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Phosphatidylglycerols: A nitrogen-free class of lipids present in animal and particularly plant tissues and composed of one mole of glycerol and 1 or 2 moles of phosphatidic acid. Members of this group differ from one another in the nature of the fatty acids released on hydrolysis.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Densitometry: The measurement of the density of a material by measuring the amount of light or radiation passing through (or absorbed by) the material.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Body Fluid Compartments: The two types of spaces between which water and other body fluids are distributed: extracellular and intracellular.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Cerebrosides: Neutral glycosphingolipids that contain a monosaccharide, normally glucose or galactose, in 1-ortho-beta-glycosidic linkage with the primary alcohol of an N-acyl sphingoid (ceramide). In plants the monosaccharide is normally glucose and the sphingoid usually phytosphingosine. In animals, the monosaccharide is usually galactose, though this may vary with the tissue and the sphingoid is usually sphingosine or dihydrosphingosine. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1st ed)Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Multilingualism: The ability to speak, read, or write several languages or many languages with some facility. Bilingualism is the most common form. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Milk, HumanFood Analysis: Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Waxes: A plastic substance deposited by insects or obtained from plants. Waxes are esters of various fatty acids with higher, usually monohydric alcohols. The wax of pharmacy is principally yellow wax (beeswax), the material of which honeycomb is made. It consists chiefly of cerotic acid and myricin and is used in making ointments, cerates, etc. (Dorland, 27th ed)Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Fatty Acids, Omega-3: A group of fatty acids, often of marine origin, which have the first unsaturated bond in the third position from the omega carbon. These fatty acids are believed to reduce serum triglycerides, prevent insulin resistance, improve lipid profile, prolong bleeding times, reduce platelet counts, and decrease platelet adhesiveness.Cardiolipins: Acidic phospholipids composed of two molecules of phosphatidic acid covalently linked to a molecule of glycerol. They occur primarily in mitochondrial inner membranes and in bacterial plasma membranes. They are the main antigenic components of the Wassermann-type antigen that is used in nontreponemal SYPHILIS SERODIAGNOSIS.EuropeMicroscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Glycolipids: Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Diet Records: Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.
... during the 18th century because colonial control of the island frequently changed hands between the French and English who ... Some of the poem's major characters include the island fishermen Achille and Hector, the retired English officer Major Plunkett ... Lucia, where Walcott was born and raised, Walcott also includes scenes from Brookline, Massachusetts (where Walcott was living ... and teaching at the time of the poem's composition) and the character Achille imagines a voyage from Africa onto a slave ship ...
During her long career she worked in a variety of media, including paint, pottery, and mosaic, and explored a variety of ... Some of the more celebrated 20th-century Cuban artists include Amelia Peláez (1896-1968), best known for a series of mural ... A San Alejandro graduate highly skilled in drawing and composition, Manuel chose to apply primitivist simplicity to his Cuban ... For all its colorful energy, however, French critic Francis de Miomandre sensed in her work "a closed, completely enigmatic ...
The French 'Colonial Party': Its Composition, Aims and Influence, 1885-1914. The Historical Journal, Vol. 14, No. 1 (Mar., 1971 ... A few of its most prominent members include the first French Colonial President Emile Mercet and the Secretary General, for ... and in the case of French colonial IndoChina, as noted by historian Marie Paule Ha, among the benefits of including women as ... The French Colonial Union (French: Union coloniale française) was a group of French merchants established for the purpose of ...
Other instances of napalm's use include by France during the First Indochina War (1946-1954), the Algerian War (1954-1962), the ... Alternative compositions exist for different uses, e.g. triethylaluminium, a pyrophoric compound that aids ignition. Use of ... including vehicle tires, tank tracks, gaskets, hoses, medical supplies and rain clothing. A team of chemists led by Louis ... Portuguese Colonial War (1961-1974), the Six-Day War by Israel (1967), in Nigeria (1969), India and Pakistan (1965 and 1971), ...
... styles derived from simplified French colonial architecture of the Baroque era. During the 1930s, a number of inter-war ... The distinguishing characteristics include double or triple Tudor gothic arches and projecting surround at the front entrance, ... The decorative elements including Stringcourses, Copings, window trims, concentric Tudor entrance arches, and carved plaques. ... Associates featuring a simple and unadorned composition, and a standard layout. http://dictionaryofarchitectsincanada.org/ ...
During the same period, violent anti-colonial struggles reached significant levels in many other French colonies: including the ... Although he did not sign it at the time of its composition, Léopold Sédar Senghor from Senegal openly endorsed the contents of ... In a meeting on 18 July 1958, the PRA and RDA agreed that the eventual arrangement must include the right to self-determination ... With the establishment of the French Union (French: Union française) in 1946 all of the colonies of French Africa (except for ...
In Louisiana's French and Spanish colonial era of the 18th century, enslaved Africans were commonly allowed Sundays off from ... He was inspired by an 1896 essay of the same name by George W. Cable which included extracts of the music to be heard in the ... Along with these gatherings, other celebrations and events that are held in Congo Square every year include Martin Luther King ... Creole composer Louis Moreau Gottschalk incorporated rhythms and tunes he heard in Congo Square into some of his compositions, ...
The act renamed the northeasterly portion of the former French province of New France as Province of Quebec, roughly ... An Imperial Conference in 1926 that included the leaders of all Dominions and representatives from India (which then included ... The composition of the Constitution of Canada is defined in subsection 52(2) of the Constitution Act, 1982 as consisting of the ... They include the existence of a prime minister and Cabinet, the fact that the governor general in most circumstances is ...
The French commander Lartigue comments on this move as being carried out successfully with credible precision and speed. French ... The 'gun war' - defeat of colonial forces. The Basotho continued to use their horse-gun system under the new colonial regime to ... Some of these include: Relatively low population densities that reduced forces for combat Poor soils (particularly in tropical ... This was put to good use against a variety of other enemies, including the Mahdi's dervish forces from the Sudan, and in ...
These compositions have a comedic tone and are often offered from one friend to another during Day of the Dead. Maraṇasati, a ... Paul of France (1620-1633), also known as the Brothers of Death. It is sometimes claimed that the Trappists use this salutation ... Colonial American art saw a large number of memento mori images due to Puritan influence. The Puritan community in 17th-century ... Much memento mori art is associated with the Mexican festival Day of the Dead, including skull-shaped candies and bread loaves ...
The first translation of the Bhagavata into French was made by a Jesuite educated Indian Maridas Poullé in 1769. Another French ... The date of composition is probably between the eighth and the tenth century CE, but may be as early as the 6th century CE. ... Book Ten includes the most enduring images and stories of Krishna: the mischievous child who steals butter; the God as a child ... These bhagavata include Prahlad, Gajendra, Dhruva, Bali, Uddhava, Vidura, Maitreya, Parikshit, Priyavrata, Akrura, Ajamila and ...
Some of the most well-known from this time might include the compositions of Friedrich Kuhlau (quartet in E minor) and Anton ... 85), the 20th century was also somewhat lacking in compositions of this type. Works from the 21st century have included the Air ... 60 - 1939), and Colonial Sketches (1940) by Sol B. Cohen. The late 20th Century saw a new revival for the flute quartet, ... This type of arrangement, with its specific, light tone color, especially appealed to the French wind tradition. Examples of ...
During the colonial period, the Portuguese prohibited any influx of other Europeans to Brazil. In consequence, the Portuguese ... When it became clear that this policy would result in the land being taken by other European powers - namely the French and the ... Other significant groups include Koreans, Chinese, Paraguayans, and Bolivians. Brazil has seen greater racial equality over ... 5 In the 1950 census, the category "pardo" was included on its own. Amerindians were counted as "pardos". ^6 The 1960 census ...
... the timber industry dates back to French colonial rule. Haiti has seen a dramatic reduction of forests due to the excessive and ... Ethnic compositionEdit. See also: People of the Dominican Republic The ethnic composition of the Dominican population is 73% ... The depression is home to a chain of salt lakes, including Lake Azuei in Haiti and Lake Enriquillo in the Dominican Republic.[ ... ecoregion in the south central region of the island surrounds a chain of lakes and lagoons in which the most notable include ...
Cuban literature includes some of the most well-known names of the islands, such as writer and independence hero José Martí in ... Despite its multi-ethnic composition, the culture held in common by most Cubans is referred to as mainstream Cuban culture, a ... Other groups include the Greek Orthodox Church, the Russian Orthodox Church, Jehovah's Witnesses, Muslims, Buddhists, Jews, ... The populations in the Spanish colonial era of Cuba (1774 -1898), U.S occupation (1899) were: The population of Cuba was ...
It is popular throughout the French-speaking world, including France and Quebec. Early forms of Afro-Caribbean music in Jamaica ... This popular musical composition mentioned racial injustice events that triggered the Black Lives Matter Movement (e.g. police ... Subsequent styles include reggae, rocksteady and raggamuffin. (Mical 1995) As is the case throughout the Caribbean, Lesser ... Steel bands were banned by the British colonial authorities. Nevertheless, steel drums spread across the Caribbean, and are now ...
The location of this cathedral defined the composition and development of the city from then on. At the end of the colonial ... which is considered to be the finest work produced in Michoacán during the colonial period. Other important works include the ... contains a collection of items from the colonial and early independence periods of Mexico's history, including articles that ... French troops imposing imperial rule entered the city in 1863, with the republican forces moving capital of Michoacán to ...
In 1906 the French colonial administration arranged for the present Great Mosque to be built on the site of an earlier mosque. ... The commune includes ten of the surrounding villages and in 2009 had a population of 32,944. The history of Djenné is closely ... Other attractions include the tomb of Tapama Djenepo, who in legend was sacrificed on the founding of the city, and the remains ... the inappropriateness of houses with regards to comfortable living areas and family composition, the desire of the population ...
During the colonial period, troops were sent out to the Americas by the Spanish Crown in order to protect distant colonies. ... Today, ethnic and racial self-identities are highly fluid and can differ between persons of the same family, including siblings ... About 5% of the Chilean population has some French ancestry. 600,000 to 800,000 are Italians. Other European groups are found ... Other historically significant immigrant groups include: Croatians, whose numbers today are estimated at 380,000 persons, about ...
... created an almost endless cycle of wars between the colonial powers: the French religious wars, the Thirty Years' War (1618 and ... Many church interiors including the one of the Great Synagogue of Vilna were reconstructed by Glaubitz as well as the Town Hall ... Examples include the interior of Saint John's Co-Cathedral, which was completely redesigned by Mattia Preti in the 1660s, and ... Bernini's rival, the architect Francesco Borromini, produced designs that deviated dramatically from the regular compositions ...
French colonial policies varied little from their German predecessors. Lamidos were left in nominal power, though they were ... Other major languages include Bitare, Dii, Gbaya, Mambila, and Tikar. Most educated inhabitants also speak French. Islam reigns ... These included the Semi-Bantu tribes, such as the Bamileke, Bamun, Kom, Nso, Tikar, Widikum, and Wimbam. The Bantu came as well ... The soil of the Lom valley is a lightly evolved composition of raw materials, as is that directly northwest of the Mbakaou ...
... the timber industry dates back to French colonial rule. Haiti has seen a dramatic reduction of forests due to the excessive and ... The ethnic composition of Haiti is estimated to be 95% black, 5% white and mixed. The island has the largest economy in the ... The depression is home to a chain of salt lakes, including Lake Azuei in Haiti and Lake Enriquillo in the Dominican Republic. ... ecoregion in the south central region of the island surrounds a chain of lakes and lagoons in which the most notable include ...
... including Russian, Ukrainian, Polish, Czech, Bulgarian, Slovene, Macedonian and Croat), French (including Basque), Irish, ... Ethnic Europeans include the Argentine descendants of colonists from Spain during the colonial period prior to 1810, and mainly ... meant to be a representation of the diversity of Argentine DNA rather than a demonstration of the average ethnic composition of ... This includes a dialect called Patagonian Welsh, which has developed since the start of the Welsh settlement in Argentina in ...
These include the Mongo, Kongo and Luba peoples. Central Africa also includes many Nilo-Saharan and Niger-Congo Ubangian ... post-colonial states.On 5 August 1890 the British and French concluded an agreement to clarify the boundary between French West ... French Equatorial Africa Mittelafrika Centrafrique "Composition of macro geographical (continental) regions, geographical sub- ... Over the next twenty years a large part of the Chad Basin was incorporated by treaty or by force into French West Africa. On 2 ...
Dutch and French settlers during the colonial period in the Northeast). The pardo category in Brazil also includes 800 thousand ... Composition of Brazil, genetic studies[edit]. Genetic studies have shown the Brazilian population as a whole to have Caucasoid ... Jews in Brazil are a small but sizable population,[26][27] and they include mostly Ashkenazi Jews (who also arrived with the ... part of the white population is of colonial Portuguese, Dutch, Spanish and French settler stock, especially in the Northeast. ...
... including English tea, French thé, Spanish té, and German Tee.[20] This pronunciation is also the most common form worldwide.[ ... Pests of tea include mosquito bugs of the genus Helopeltis (which are true bugs that must not be confused with the dipteran) ... Chemical composition. See also: Phenolic content in tea and Health effects of tea ... Hong Kong-style milk tea is based on British colonial habits. Tibetans and other Himalayan peoples traditionally drink tea with ...
During the colonial period the European population consisted mainly of Portuguese but also included some Lebanese, Italian, ... Gradually their monopoly gave way to incursions by French, Dutch, English, and other European powers. The French pressured both ... Guinea-Bissau: Ethnic composition. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.. Among the African languages spoken in Guinea-Bissau, some 20 ... These include the intact African languages with their associated folklore, sayings, dances, and music. Cape Verdean music-such ...
During the colonial period the European population consisted mainly of Portuguese but also included some Lebanese, Italian, ... Gradually their monopoly gave way to incursions by French, Dutch, English, and other European powers. The French pressured both ... Guinea-Bissau: Ethnic composition. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.. Among the African languages spoken in Guinea-Bissau, some 20 ... About one-sixth of the population practices traditional beliefs, which include ancestor worship, possession, and animism and ...
... during the 18th century because colonial control of the island frequently changed hands between the French and English who ... Some of the poems major characters include the island fishermen Achille and Hector, the retired English officer Major Plunkett ... Lucia, where Walcott was born and raised, Walcott also includes scenes from Brookline, Massachusetts (where Walcott was living ... and teaching at the time of the poems composition) and the character Achille imagines a voyage from Africa onto a slave ship ...
His fields of study include interdisciplinary approaches to French literary studies, post-colonial studies, and Francophone ... Gradys scholarly work includes Composition and Pedagogy and Film and Television Studies. She is the Director of the ... His fields of study include interdisciplinary approaches to French literary studies, Post-colonial studies, and Francophone ... Director of Composition and the University Writing Center. 113 , Center for the Humanities of Bixler Hall. 419.289.5670. ...
... including grammar and composition (marks not exceeding 5% of the total obtainable in this section may be assigned to candidates ... which must include French and German, together with physics, chemistry and biology. This tendency is in accordance with the ... Certificates are accepted from all the universities of Great Britain and Ireland, from the leading Indian and colonial ... No one can practise medicine in France who does not possess the diploma of Doctor of Medicine of a French university. The ...
Factorial analysis in the ecology of rocky subtidal areas near Brest (west Brittany, France). Journal of the Marine Biological ... Return to a previous species composition would occur from new settlement from larval sources although some gastropods have no ... Marine sponges often harbour dense and diverse microbial communities, which can include bacteria, archaea and single-celled ... Anemones, including Corynactis viridis, crustose sponges and colonial ascidians on very exposed or wave surged vertical ...
... or extra-colonial culture of consumption-including of healthcare-which emerged outside the colonial "modernising" influence; ... 2006), I acknowledge as important, and seek to include, an analysis of the trajectory of individual drugs and therapeutic ... ANVN (Archives Nationales du Viêt nam), centre n 1 (Hanoi), RST 48339, "Composition de la commission dinspection des ... From Colonial Medicines to Global Pharmaceuticals? The Introduction of Sulfa Drugs in French Vietnam Laurence Monnais Laurence ...
The works of the French novelist and essayist Anatole France (1844-1924) ,combine classical purity of style with penetrating ... He is a ,major figure in the tradition of liberal humanism in French literature [1]. ... However, during the composition of the third novel in the series, The Amethyst Ring, France became for the first time in his ... Frances famous contemporaries include:. Robert Peary (1856-1920): Peary was an American explorer. In a series of expeditions ...
These include the Burj Khalifa in the United Arab Emirates, the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel in Saudi Arabia, Teipai 101 in ... England and France, for example, had total fertility rates closer to 5. As also recognized by Franklin, U.S. fertility rates ... Each chapter includes historical background, as well as a discussion of how patterns and trends in the United States compare to ... The size and composition of a countrys population are determined by the interplay of three forces: fertility, mortality, and ...
Celebrated authorJohn Iceland covers various topics, including Americas historical demographic growth; the American family ... These include the Burj Khalifa in the United Arab Emirates, the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel in Saudi Arabia, Teipai 101 in ... England and France, for example, had total fertility rates closer to 5. As also recognized by Franklin, U.S. fertility rates ... Each chapter includes historical background, as well as a discussion of how patterns and trends in the United States compare to ...
Although French is a language spoken by people all over the world, the colonial history that is responsible for its dispersal ... Like Portrait of Mickalena, the abstract additions give the composition a surreal and otherworldly quality. The women appear ... Some of the artworks titles include the names of the models, among them painter and assemblage artist Shinique Smith, ... Thomas presents herself as various characters, with titles including phrases like "negress or afro goddess," through various ...
This confessional system was set up under French colonial tutelage between 1920 and 1943, and cemented in the agreement that ... The proposal also included reopening the Burj Hammoud dumpsite. Shuhayyib said that responsibility for waste management would ... In the view of many activists, new elections would produce nothing but a parliament of similar composition, except with the ... The Council quickly expanded the contract to include the collection, transport, treatment and dumping of waste in all of Beirut ...
... the timber industry dates back to French colonial rule. Haiti has seen a dramatic reduction of forests due to the excessive and ... Ethnic compositionEdit. See also: People of the Dominican Republic The ethnic composition of the Dominican population is 73% ... The depression is home to a chain of salt lakes, including Lake Azuei in Haiti and Lake Enriquillo in the Dominican Republic.[ ... ecoregion in the south central region of the island surrounds a chain of lakes and lagoons in which the most notable include ...
The Benard de la Harpe method on French Colonial Louisiana. Louisiana Studies, 13(1): 9-67. The harmonic and robust air of the ... 5 waves and include for then more than 2 batteries. You have to write In. nt, I are processing to enable a charcoal about ... In, I calculate including to open a radiation about my electron. d like to Review that the Study of my Penetration is Kemerovo ... Send for the defoes or scientist in the composition of Proceedings. You may be to study to access it. visual equation on the ...
... including French law, the Napoleonic Code, Roman law, Roman-Dutch law, and Spanish law); common law (including United State law ... Arabic (official), French (lingua franca), Berber or Tamazight (official); dialects include Kabyle Berber (Taqbaylit), Shawiya ... note: adopted 1962; ZAKARIAH wrote "Kassaman" as a poem while imprisoned in Algiers by French colonial forces ... GDP - composition, by sector of origin: This entry shows where production takes place in an economy. The distribution gives the ...
Their compositions match those of local surface rocks, soils, or minerals. No tektite compositions are found.. ... Contains about %5 borax; trade names include Pyrex® and Vicor®; resistant to shock and sudden changes in temperature; used in ... Glassmaking in Colonial America. The first glass factory in America was built in 1608, and glass was carried in the first cargo ... Later developments have included solar-reflective and tinted glass for large expanses (as in Norman Fosters work), while ...
Indeed, in some colonial countries this is still the case. In France, the child enters school at this age and tackles the ... Substances of relatively simple chemical composition seem to perform the decisive roles of stimulating and regulating the ... Until comparatively recently, productive labor, including factory work, began at this age. ... demands of formal education-which include self-discipline.. SOME ASPECTS OF IMITATION. Two contradictory elements are basic to ...
1800 download diabolism in colonial peru 1560 1750 religious cultures in the early modern world beaker Texte in audiovisueller ... including a riveting research and minute for a opening work. It is important to merit that our knowledge as files will see at ... include where and when you are to send. meet at download Encyclopedia of African American Business Two Volumes (v. 1 & 2) 2006 ... key predictions, reactors, and download diabolism have just the composition of a Perhaps free diameter account, but always an ...
Surrounding territories were generally under French colonial rule. The major ethnic group of the Western Sahara are the ... Several buildings, including a TV station, were also set on fire. Moroccan officials said five security personnel had been ... The European Union fishing agreements with Morocco include Western Sahara. In May 2006, the remaining company Kerr-McGee also ... The precise size and composition of the population is subject to political controversy. ...
Dutch and French settlers during the colonial period in the Northeast). The pardo category in Brazil also includes 800 thousand ... Composition of Brazil, genetic studies[edit]. Genetic studies have shown the Brazilian population as a whole to have Caucasoid ... Jews in Brazil are a small but sizable population,[26][27] and they include mostly Ashkenazi Jews (who also arrived with the ... part of the white population is of colonial Portuguese, Dutch, Spanish and French settler stock, especially in the Northeast. ...
Other emigration destinations include French Guiana and the United States. Surinames immigration rules are flexible, and the ... Of the less than 1% of Beninese emigrants who settle in Europe, the vast majority live in France, Benins former colonial ruler ... How to contact you, including your home address and phone number. We cannot guarantee a response to every message. We reply ... Moroccan immigration has altered the composition and dramatically increased the size of Western Saharas population. Morocco ...
This online source gives a price list for many different colonial coins, such as the British and French New World issued coins ... This book has the retail prices for all coin denominations minted in the U.S., including colonial coins, gold coins, double ... The book and its online version provide images, design information and material composition of each coin listed. ... Is there a list of all Catholic saints that include living saints of today?. ...
Topics examined include parish apprenticeship, colonial indentured servitude, military impressment, and prisoner of war ... It was orchestrated to mobilize popular support against French colonial rule, to gain control over the population, and to ... Despite the growing demand for surrogates, only a few sites have become global hubs for surrogacy tourism, including the state ... They instead used musical composition and performance to craft a brand of Frenchness that was founded on secular Republican ...
French and German art from the 18th century, including paintings by Jean Siméon Chardin and Fragonard and Rococo decorative art ... In the next room, displays of Colonial American portraiture and decorative art include canvases by John Singleton Copley, ... The dynamic composition is a unique combination of Persian and Indian stylistic elements shaped by the emperors personal taste ... including manuscripts, the unique early 14th-century French Table Fountain, and Three Mourners from the tomb of the Burgundian ...
The mixture varies in species composition from place to place and probably from year to year and includes species of Panicum, ... Again, the colonials, both French and English, spoke of them in contemptuous terms ("scarcity foods," "céréales de disette") ... Indigenous African crops that have made an impact on the world scene include: coffee (Coffea arabica), sorghum (Sorghum spp.), ... Fonio or acha, Digitaria exilis (Kipp.) Stapf, has been given the misnomer "hungry rice" by English colonials. It is not grown ...
  • Thousands of Algerian peasants - mainly Berber men from the Kabylia region - faced with land dispossession and economic hardship under French rule migrated temporarily to France to work in manufacturing and mining during the first half of the 20th century. (cia.gov)
  • The collection's greatest strengths lie in its holdings of key works by Italian artists of the 16th century, French artists of the 18th and 19th centuries, and European and American drawings of the early 20th century. (clevelandart.org)
  • Therefore, most Argentines are of European descent, and are either descendants of colonial-era settlers and/or of the 19th and 20th century immigrants from Europe , with about 86% of the population being of ethnic European descent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ethnic Europeans include the Argentine descendants of colonists from Spain during the colonial period prior to 1810, and mainly of immigrants from Europe in the great immigratory wave from the mid 19th century to the mid 20th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • The French pressured both the northern and southern borders of what is now Guinea-Bissau and placed the Casamance region of southern Senegal fully under French rule after the late 19th century. (britannica.com)
  • To the left from your place in the atrium is the east wing, with modern and contemporary art and works from Europe and America since the 19th century, including photography, on level two. (clevelandart.org)
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  • HUMAN ZOOS, The invention of the savage unveils the history of women, men and children brought from Africa, Asia, Oceania and America to be exhibited in the Western world in circus numbers, theatre or cabaret performances, fairs, zoos, parades, reconstructed villages or international and colonial fairs. (blogspot.com)
  • After that the camp was used from 1987 to 2007 to house illegal immigrants who had fled from Algeria and elsewhere in post-colonial North Africa . (overgrownpath.com)
  • Central Africa includes the world's second largest rainforest block. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • While Early Iron Age sites (prior to 1400 BP) and recent pre-colonial sites (two to eight centuries BP) are abundant, the period between 1600 and 1000 BP is characterized by a sharp decrease in human settlements, with a population crash between 1300 and 1000 BP over a large part of Central Africa. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Scott served as director of bands at Knox College for 13 years, overseeing a program that included a concert band, a big band, six combos and a Latin Jazz Conjunto. (ashland.edu)
  • Recent decades immigration includes mainly Paraguayans , Bolivians and Peruvians , among other Latin Americans , Eastern Europeans, Africans and Asians. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the first colonial outpost of the early-modern European world, Latin America has long witnessed complex processes of cultural cross-pollination, suppression, and adaptation. (hssonline.org)
  • Latin Americans have been able to create rich and complex national scientific traditions in conditions of adversity that include shortages of funds for salaries and equipment, small libraries, inadequate supplies, and political instability disrupting the continuity of scientific work. (hssonline.org)
  • The history of science in colonial Latin America also deserves greater study. (hssonline.org)
  • I grew up listening to music, in recordings as well as seeing family members, including my father, playing a combination of Latin percussion instruments at family gatherings, church and community. (lawrence.edu)
  • Introduction to corrective phonetics and emphasis on understanding contemporary French through a study of such authentic documents as radio and television interviews, advertisements, and spontaneous oral productions. (nyu.edu)
  • The island of Saint Lucia was historically known as "the Helen of the West Indies" during the 18th century because colonial control of the island frequently changed hands between the French and English who fought over the island due to its strategic location vis-a-vis North America. (wikipedia.org)
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  • Given the rich colonial and post-colonial history of the area, this chapter also explores the history of transference, adaptation, and hybridization of knowledge. (hssonline.org)
  • and the arrival and creative assimilation of Western knowledge and institutions in colonial (1492-1820s) and post-colonial (1820s-1990s) societies. (hssonline.org)
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  • In the years following independence, low-skilled Algerian workers and Algerians who had supported the French (known as Harkis) emigrated en masse to France. (cia.gov)
  • But the terrible history of Rivesaltes did not end there, it was used between 1954 and 1962 as a rest camp for the harkis , the Algerian volunteers who fought alongside the French to protect French interests in the Algerian War of Independence . (overgrownpath.com)
  • Limitations of connectionoriented transport protocols connection - oriented creativities have been questions regarding current approaches must be judged, with the easier, closed questions early on with it, as the physical server running eight virtualized prime which is discussed in the nineteenth century french art and music alone comprised only percent of the american educational research process has to play with whatever was within their communitys history. (mvhm.org)
  • A secular-liberal reading of the colonial past widely accepted during the early nineteenth-century still influences many scholars. (hssonline.org)
  • This module has been designed in order to enable post 'A' level students to develop written communicative skills in French by extending linguistic competence acquired at 'A' level. (bangor.ac.uk)
  • Introduces students to the linguistic, historical, and cultural contexts of French-speaking Louisiana with an emphasis on the history and sociological reality of Louisiana (Cajun) French. (nyu.edu)
  • Bartlett proposed that people have the capability to be the biggest criticism of lectures and in the selection of participants, including preparation pedagogical, intercultural, linguistic, monitoring and recognition by treating recognition as central to the library books or books that are required to solve problems or items have been the case of e. (mvhm.org)
  • Jacques Anatole François Thibault, who was to take the literary name of Anatole France, was born in Paris on April 16, 1844, the son of a self-educated bookseller. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Deng's youthful commitment to the Communist Party was cemented in Paris in the early 1920s, among a group of Chinese student-workers that also included Zhou Enlai. (asianartnewspaper.com)
  • Certificates are accepted from all the universities of Great Britain and Ireland, from the leading Indian and colonial universities, from government examination boards, and from certain chartered bodies. (wikisource.org)
  • The German Abiturienten Examen of the gymnasia and real -gymnasia, the French diplomas of Bachelier ès Lettres and Bachelier ès Sciences, and corresponding entrance examinations to other continental universities are also accepted. (wikisource.org)
  • According to this view, even though Spain instituted vigorous colonial cultural policies that included the early creation of universities (which opened some one hundred years earlier than North America's Harvard), Spain's commitment to religious intolerance (Inquisition) and to an old-fashioned scholastic mentality stifled scientific institutions and methods. (hssonline.org)
  • These passages describe the Battle of the Saintes which took place off the coast of St. Lucia in 1782 and ended with the British fleet, under the command of Admiral George Rodney (who appears in the poem), defeating the French. (wikipedia.org)
  • This online source gives a price list for many different colonial coins, such as the British and French New World issued coins. (reference.com)
  • This development occurred within a political landscape that included the dissolution of the Ottoman empire, the rise of Zionism, WWI, British military and colonial occupation, and the growth of Arab nationalism prior to the declaration of the state of Israel in 1948. (acls.org)
  • There are also Germanic , Slavic , British and French populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Iberian, French, British, German and USA scientific traditions and institutions have left indelible marks. (hssonline.org)
  • The summer found him back in France, sketching at Pontaubert with British painter Frederick Brown. (biographi.ca)
  • Tighter French immigration rules and Algiers' decision to cease managing labor migration to France in the 1970s limited legal emigration largely to family reunification. (cia.gov)
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  • Entering the galleries by turning left after coming in from the atrium, visitors first encounter art from Asia Minor and the Fertile Crescent, including small, portable objects that exemplify the art of early cultures, such as the 3000 bc Stargazer, perhaps from Anatolia. (clevelandart.org)
  • For the Edited criticism of the New York Society for maxillary Culture, he had that the risk of Jewish Culture joked his complex pension of what has most French and social in Early EUR. (baylieforbrains.com)
  • This course traces the cultural, philosophical, literary and sociological works and movements that move France from the early period of Lascaux to the French revolution 1789. (macalester.edu)
  • ending the CAPTCHA hits you are a large and is you early French kiss to the pursuit place. (bullan.de)
  • In the early 1800's the French brought it into California where it has become a serious pest. (wikibooks.org)
  • Although Bissau is the country's present capital and largest city, the towns of Bolama and Cacheu were important during the slave trade and in the colonial era. (britannica.com)
  • When you travel to Ghana, places to visit should include the castles, and the forts used during the slave trade. (wn.com)
  • Select at least 12 credits within one theme (the courses must be from at least two different disciplines, and may include appropriate special topics courses and/or internships as approved by the PJS coordinator and appropriate program faculty). (nebrwesleyan.edu)
  • At the end of this course students should have attained a more sophisticated level of communication in French, the ability to use their skills in French for a variety of purposes including research in other disciplines, and a full appreciation of the intellectual challenge of learning a foreign language and its cultures. (macalester.edu)
  • This region of France has a rich Gypsy tradition and many Tsigane s (Gypsies) - the forgotten Holocaust victims - were also imprisoned in the camp, see memorial below. (overgrownpath.com)
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  • AlbanianBasqueBulgarianCatalanCroatianCzechDanishDutchEnglishEsperantoEstonianFinnishFrenchGermanGreekHindiHungarianIcelandicIndonesianIrishItalianLatinLatvianLithuanianNorwegianPiraticalPolishPortuguese( Brazil)Portuguese( Portugal)RomanianSlovakSpanishSwedishTagalogTurkishWelshI AgreeThis aristocracy has Students to be our services, select download, for compositions, and( if only indicated in) for j. (hweiteh.com)
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  • The participants now included formal groupings of feminists, queer activists, leftists and environmentalists, as well as residents of neighborhoods that have borne the brunt of the state's withdrawal of services and its routine repression. (feedreader.com)
  • At the end of this course students should be able to read appropriate authentic materials, write short papers in French and communicate with a native speaker. (macalester.edu)
  • The love trials is colonials of the Federal Republic of Germany with geo confronted movements, areas, event views and political sure members, wrong experts, plan items, server directions, people, active libraries and andgastric withnegative processes. (cdaccess.com)
  • Though "pure" science has not attracted large numbers of devotees and patrons in the region, rich traditions have emerged in "applied" fields of natural history, medicine (including public health and technology). (hssonline.org)
  • Paris's most talked-about exhibition of the winter opened on Tuesday with shock and soul-searching over the history of colonial subjects used in human zoos, circuses and stage shows, which flourished until as late as 1958. (blogspot.com)
  • These mark the succession - do not do as you have always done - of humanitarian atrocities perpetrated by the French who have only recently started to come to terms with this black period in their recent history . (overgrownpath.com)
  • The mixture varies in species composition from place to place and probably from year to year and includes species of Panicum , Eragrostis , Dactyloctenium , Brachiaria , and others. (purdue.edu)
  • colonies for Economic Development by J. Optimizing Lads for the user by A. Education and Search care in the marker of ecosystem industry and including by P. Global Education Futures percentage in California randomized created in teacher with Global Technology Symposium. (redskywinery.com)
  • According to some sources, the French imported brown garden snails to California in the 1850s, raising them as the delicacy escargot. (wikibooks.org)
  • But his journalistic articles had begun to include social as well as literary criticism, and when the Dreyfus case came to a head in 1897, he felt obliged to take sides with the Jewish officer, whom he considered to have been wrongly condemned. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Examining an important therapeutic innovation at the level of day-to-day practise, this paper intends to participate to a much-needed historicisation of the pharmaceuticalisation of the developing world and of Southeast Asia, a historicisation that will insist on the colonial dimensions of the practise of science, the versatility of the biography of pharmaceuticals and the historical roots of therapeutic choices currently made in Vietnam. (dukeupress.edu)
  • For the rest of his life France was to abandon the political skepticism of his earlier years, while the irony in his books turned sharply critical of the contemporary world. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Indigenous African crops that have made an impact on the world scene include: coffee ( Coffea arabica ), sorghum ( Sorghum spp. (purdue.edu)
  • If you remember on a parliamentary French kiss, like at dog, you can be an revelation web on your school to account secular it has So needed with WORLD. (bullan.de)
  • Brymner embraced French academic tenets of good draftsmanship, formal harmony, and technical excellence, but reacted against the artificiality of much studio-produced academic painting on grand themes. (biographi.ca)
  • Their traditional vast migratory ranges, based on following unpredictable rainfall, did not coincide with colonial and later international borders. (economy.com)
  • Course content will include CLA main stage productions, as well as other ensemble productions that perform or develop theatre performances covering a range of genres, periods and cultures. (rit.edu)
  • Set during the French Revolution , the book portrays the gradual development of a young artist, Évariste Gamelin, from his initial idealism and good nature to a point at which, through membership in a Revolutionary tribunal, his virtues have been transformed into a bloodthirsty and merciless fanaticism. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The government in 2011 introduced some political reforms in response to the Arab Spring, including lifting the 19-year-old state of emergency restrictions and increasing women's quotas for elected assemblies, while also increasing subsidies to the populace. (flagcounter.com)
  • I first consider the possible influence on the Vietnamese reception of sulfa drugs of alliances between the French pharmaceutical industry, the Pastorian network, the colonial government and its network of public hospitals and, more broadly, of the emergence, in the Interwar period, of new channels for the mass distribution of pharmaceuticals. (dukeupress.edu)
  • It was one of the notorious camps built by the French government in 1939 to house Spanish Republican refugees fleeing from Franco's fascist forces. (overgrownpath.com)
  • Rivesaltes achieved particular notoriety as the camp was used by the Vichy government to hold Jews and other so-called "undesirables" after the French surrendered to the Nazis in 1940. (overgrownpath.com)
  • The French of this Explore participated to be the lower author jurisprudence nation explanations of three leadership Mice( such, other, and the hands-on). (bullan.de)
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  • The oldest known specimens of glass are from Egypt (c.2000 B.C.), where the industry was well established c.1500 B.C. Many varieties of glass were known during Roman times, including cameo glass, such as the Portland vase Portland vase, a Roman glass vase, known also as the Barberini vase. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The main geographical feature of Sudan is the Nile River, which with its tributaries (including the Atbara, Blue Nile, and White Nile rivers) traverses the country from south to north. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • EMP Fact #1: Many countries, including the US have EMP weapons that have nothing to do with a nuclear bomb and are quite small. (garyascott.com)
  • Class sessions are supplemented by weekly small group meetings with a French graduate assistant. (macalester.edu)
  • Helix aspersa Muller is also known as the French "petit gris," "small grey snail," the "escargot chagrine," or "La Zigrinata. (wikibooks.org)
  • Gather and create news content for all storytelling platforms including print, broadcast, and digital in Ashland University's immersive Digital Media Journalism program. (ashland.edu)