Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.H-Reflex: A monosynaptic reflex elicited by stimulating a nerve, particularly the tibial nerve, with an electric shock.Reflex, Monosynaptic: A reflex in which the AFFERENT NEURONS synapse directly on the EFFERENT NEURONS, without any INTERCALATED NEURONS. (Lockard, Desk Reference for Neuroscience, 2nd ed.)Reflex, Stretch: Reflex contraction of a muscle in response to stretching, which stimulates muscle proprioceptors.Reflex, Abnormal: An abnormal response to a stimulus applied to the sensory components of the nervous system. This may take the form of increased, decreased, or absent reflexes.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Peroneal Nerve: The lateral of the two terminal branches of the sciatic nerve. The peroneal (or fibular) nerve provides motor and sensory innervation to parts of the leg and foot.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Tibial Nerve: The medial terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve fibers originate in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (L4 to S2). They supply motor and sensory innervation to parts of the calf and foot.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Foot: The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.Femoral Nerve: A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.Decerebrate State: A condition characterized by abnormal posturing of the limbs that is associated with injury to the brainstem. This may occur as a clinical manifestation or induced experimentally in animals. The extensor reflexes are exaggerated leading to rigid extension of the limbs accompanied by hyperreflexia and opisthotonus. This condition is usually caused by lesions which occur in the region of the brainstem that lies between the red nuclei and the vestibular nuclei. In contrast, decorticate rigidity is characterized by flexion of the elbows and wrists with extension of the legs and feet. The causative lesion for this condition is located above the red nuclei and usually consists of diffuse cerebral damage. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p358)Volition: Voluntary activity without external compulsion.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Radial Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans the fibers of the radial nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C5 to T1), travel via the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, and supply motor innervation to extensor muscles of the arm and cutaneous sensory fibers to extensor regions of the arm and hand.Reflex, Acoustic: Intra-aural contraction of tensor tympani and stapedius in response to sound.Neural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Reflex, Vestibulo-Ocular: A reflex wherein impulses are conveyed from the cupulas of the SEMICIRCULAR CANALS and from the OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE of the SACCULE AND UTRICLE via the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM and the median longitudinal fasciculus to the OCULOMOTOR NERVE nuclei. It functions to maintain a stable retinal image during head rotation by generating appropriate compensatory EYE MOVEMENTS.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Reflex, Pupillary: Constriction of the pupil in response to light stimulation of the retina. It refers also to any reflex involving the iris, with resultant alteration of the diameter of the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Leg: The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Wrist: The region of the upper limb between the metacarpus and the FOREARM.Median Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the median nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C6 to T1), travel via the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the forearm and hand.Ankle: The region of the lower limb between the FOOT and the LEG.Muscle Spindles: Skeletal muscle structures that function as the MECHANORECEPTORS responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag 1 fibers, nuclear bag 2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by SENSORY NEURONS.Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Magnetics: The study of MAGNETIC PHENOMENA.Muscle Spasticity: A form of muscle hypertonia associated with upper MOTOR NEURON DISEASE. Resistance to passive stretch of a spastic muscle results in minimal initial resistance (a "free interval") followed by an incremental increase in muscle tone. Tone increases in proportion to the velocity of stretch. Spasticity is usually accompanied by HYPERREFLEXIA and variable degrees of MUSCLE WEAKNESS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p54)Recruitment, Neurophysiological: The spread of response if stimulation is prolonged. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 8th ed.)Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Isometric Contraction: Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.Evoked Potentials, Motor: The electrical response evoked in a muscle or motor nerve by electrical or magnetic stimulation. Common methods of stimulation are by transcranial electrical and TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION. It is often used for monitoring during neurosurgery.Physical Stimulation: Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.Ulnar Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.Conditioning (Psychology): A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.Scalp: The outer covering of the calvaria. It is composed of several layers: SKIN; subcutaneous connective tissue; the occipitofrontal muscle which includes the tendinous galea aponeurotica; loose connective tissue; and the pericranium (the PERIOSTEUM of the SKULL).Spinal Nerves: The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.Achilles Tendon: A fibrous cord that connects the muscles in the back of the calf to the HEEL BONE.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Skin Physiological Phenomena: The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Vibration: A continuing periodic change in displacement with respect to a fixed reference. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Reflex, Righting: The instinctive tendency (or ability) to assume a normal position of the body in space when it has been displaced.Neural Conduction: The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.Reflex, Oculocardiac: Change of heartbeat induced by pressure on the eyeball, manipulation of extraocular muscles, or pressure upon the tissue remaining in the orbital apex after enucleation.Pressoreceptors: Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.Reflex, Babinski: A reflex found in normal infants consisting of dorsiflexion of the HALLUX and abduction of the other TOES in response to cutaneous stimulation of the plantar surface of the FOOT. In adults, it is used as a diagnostic criterion, and if present is a NEUROLOGIC MANIFESTATION of dysfunction in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Blinking: Brief closing of the eyelids by involuntary normal periodic closing, as a protective measure, or by voluntary action.Arm: The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Reflex, Abdominal: Contractions of the abdominal muscles upon stimulation of the skin (superficial abdominal reflex) or tapping neighboring bony structures (deep abdominal reflex). The superficial reflex may be weak or absent, for example, after a stroke, a sign of upper (suprasegmental) motor neuron lesions. (Stedman, 25th ed & Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p1073)Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Motor Cortex: Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Paralysis: A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)Gagging: Contraction of the muscle of the PHARYNX caused by stimulation of sensory receptors on the SOFT PALATE, by psychic stimuli, or systemically by drugs.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Epilepsy, Reflex: A subtype of epilepsy characterized by seizures that are consistently provoked by a certain specific stimulus. Auditory, visual, and somatosensory stimuli as well as the acts of writing, reading, eating, and decision making are examples of events or activities that may induce seizure activity in affected individuals. (From Neurol Clin 1994 Feb;12(1):57-8)Vagus Nerve: The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).Sensory Thresholds: The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.Forearm: Part of the arm in humans and primates extending from the ELBOW to the WRIST.Running: An activity in which the body is propelled by moving the legs rapidly. Running is performed at a moderate to rapid pace and should be differentiated from JOGGING, which is performed at a much slower pace.Mechanoreceptors: Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy: A syndrome characterized by severe burning pain in an extremity accompanied by sudomotor, vasomotor, and trophic changes in bone without an associated specific nerve injury. This condition is most often precipitated by trauma to soft tissue or nerve complexes. The skin over the affected region is usually erythematous and demonstrates hypersensitivity to tactile stimuli and erythema. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1360; Pain 1995 Oct;63(1):127-33)Walking: An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.Baroreflex: A response by the BARORECEPTORS to increased BLOOD PRESSURE. Increased pressure stretches BLOOD VESSELS which activates the baroreceptors in the vessel walls. The net response of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM is a reduction of central sympathetic outflow. This reduces blood pressure both by decreasing peripheral VASCULAR RESISTANCE and by lowering CARDIAC OUTPUT. Because the baroreceptors are tonically active, the baroreflex can compensate rapidly for both increases and decreases in blood pressure.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Neurons, Efferent: Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Carotid Sinus: The dilated portion of the common carotid artery at its bifurcation into external and internal carotids. It contains baroreceptors which, when stimulated, cause slowing of the heart, vasodilatation, and a fall in blood pressure.Trigeminal Nerve: The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.Urination: Discharge of URINE, liquid waste processed by the KIDNEY, from the body.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Vagotomy: The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.Vestibule, Labyrinth: An oval, bony chamber of the inner ear, part of the bony labyrinth. It is continuous with bony COCHLEA anteriorly, and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS posteriorly. The vestibule contains two communicating sacs (utricle and saccule) of the balancing apparatus. The oval window on its lateral wall is occupied by the base of the STAPES of the MIDDLE EAR.Chemoreceptor Cells: Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.Tibia: The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.Laryngeal Nerves: Branches of the VAGUS NERVE. The superior laryngeal nerves originate near the nodose ganglion and separate into external branches, which supply motor fibers to the cricothyroid muscles, and internal branches, which carry sensory fibers. The RECURRENT LARYNGEAL NERVE originates more caudally and carries efferents to all muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid. The laryngeal nerves and their various branches also carry sensory and autonomic fibers to the laryngeal, pharyngeal, tracheal, and cardiac regions.Capsaicin: An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.BiguanidesSural Nerve: A branch of the tibial nerve which supplies sensory innervation to parts of the lower leg and foot.Startle Reaction: A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.Cough: A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Denervation: The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)Peristalsis: A movement, caused by sequential muscle contraction, that pushes the contents of the intestines or other tubular organs in one direction.Muscle Rigidity: Continuous involuntary sustained muscle contraction which is often a manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES. When an affected muscle is passively stretched, the degree of resistance remains constant regardless of the rate at which the muscle is stretched. This feature helps to distinguish rigidity from MUSCLE SPASTICITY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p73)Bradycardia: Cardiac arrhythmias that are characterized by excessively slow HEART RATE, usually below 50 beats per minute in human adults. They can be classified broadly into SINOATRIAL NODE dysfunction and ATRIOVENTRICULAR BLOCK.Cordotomy: Any operation on the spinal cord. (Stedman, 26th ed)Otolithic Membrane: A gelatinous membrane overlying the acoustic maculae of SACCULE AND UTRICLE. It contains minute crystalline particles (otoliths) of CALCIUM CARBONATE and protein on its outer surface. In response to head movement, the otoliths shift causing distortion of the vestibular hair cells which transduce nerve signals to the BRAIN for interpretation of equilibrium.Solitary Nucleus: GRAY MATTER located in the dorsomedial part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA associated with the solitary tract. The solitary nucleus receives inputs from most organ systems including the terminations of the facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves. It is a major coordinator of AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM regulation of cardiovascular, respiratory, gustatory, gastrointestinal, and chemoreceptive aspects of HOMEOSTASIS. The solitary nucleus is also notable for the large number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS which are found therein.Head Movements: Voluntary or involuntary motion of head that may be relative to or independent of body; includes animals and humans.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Efferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site. Such impulses are conducted via efferent neurons (NEURONS, EFFERENT), such as MOTOR NEURONS, autonomic neurons, and hypophyseal neurons.Rotation: Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Eye Movements: Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.Nystagmus, Physiologic: Involuntary rhythmical movements of the eyes in the normal person. These can be naturally occurring as in end-position (end-point, end-stage, or deviational) nystagmus or induced by the optokinetic drum (NYSTAGMUS, OPTOKINETIC), caloric test, or a rotating chair.Proprioception: Sensory functions that transduce stimuli received by proprioceptive receptors in joints, tendons, muscles, and the INNER EAR into neural impulses to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Proprioception provides sense of stationary positions and movements of one's body parts, and is important in maintaining KINESTHESIA and POSTURAL BALANCE.Medulla Oblongata: The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.Urinary Bladder: A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.Deglutition: The act of taking solids and liquids into the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT through the mouth and throat.Pulmonary Stretch Receptors: Stretch receptors found in the bronchi and bronchioles. Pulmonary stretch receptors are sensors for a reflex which stops inspiration. In humans, the reflex is protective and is probably not activated during normal respiration.Nociceptors: Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Masseter Muscle: A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws.Vestibular Nerve: The vestibular part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The vestibular nerve fibers arise from neurons of Scarpa's ganglion and project peripherally to vestibular hair cells and centrally to the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM. These fibers mediate the sense of balance and head position.Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Spasm: An involuntary contraction of a muscle or group of muscles. Spasms may involve SKELETAL MUSCLE or SMOOTH MUSCLE.Anal Canal: The terminal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, beginning from the ampulla of the RECTUM and ending at the anus.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Semicircular Canals: Three long canals (anterior, posterior, and lateral) of the bony labyrinth. They are set at right angles to each other and are situated posterosuperior to the vestibule of the bony labyrinth (VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH). The semicircular canals have five openings into the vestibule with one shared by the anterior and the posterior canals. Within the canals are the SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Habituation, Psychophysiologic: The disappearance of responsiveness to a repeated stimulation. It does not include drug habituation.Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Eyelids: Each of the upper and lower folds of SKIN which cover the EYE when closed.Muscle Relaxants, Central: A heterogeneous group of drugs used to produce muscle relaxation, excepting the neuromuscular blocking agents. They have their primary clinical and therapeutic uses in the treatment of muscle spasm and immobility associated with strains, sprains, and injuries of the back and, to a lesser degree, injuries to the neck. They have been used also for the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions that have in common only the presence of skeletal muscle hyperactivity, for example, the muscle spasms that can occur in MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p358)Urethra: A tube that transports URINE from the URINARY BLADDER to the outside of the body in both the sexes. It also has a reproductive function in the male by providing a passage for SPERM.Chloralose: A derivative of CHLORAL HYDRATE that was used as a sedative but has been replaced by safer and more effective drugs. Its most common use is as a general anesthetic in animal experiments.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Atropine: An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.Larynx: A tubular organ of VOICE production. It is located in the anterior neck, superior to the TRACHEA and inferior to the tongue and HYOID BONE.Masticatory Muscles: Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Milk Ejection: Expulsion of milk from the mammary alveolar lumen, which is surrounded by a layer of milk-secreting EPITHELIAL CELLS and a network of myoepithelial cells. Contraction of the myoepithelial cells is regulated by neuroendocrine signals.Cardiovascular System: The HEART and the BLOOD VESSELS by which BLOOD is pumped and circulated through the body.Pupil: The aperture in the iris through which light passes.Jaw: Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.Vestibular Nuclei: The four cellular masses in the floor of the fourth ventricle giving rise to a widely dispersed special sensory system. Included is the superior, medial, inferior, and LATERAL VESTIBULAR NUCLEUS. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Autonomic Nervous System: The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Respiratory Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Vasomotor System: The neural systems which act on VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE to control blood vessel diameter. The major neural control is through the sympathetic nervous system.Ankle Joint: The joint that is formed by the inferior articular and malleolar articular surfaces of the TIBIA; the malleolar articular surface of the FIBULA; and the medial malleolar, lateral malleolar, and superior surfaces of the TALUS.Autonomic Pathways: Nerves and plexuses of the autonomic nervous system. The central nervous system structures which regulate the autonomic nervous system are not included.Reflex, Trigeminocardiac: Sudden occurrence of BRADYCARDIA or HEART ARREST induced by manipulations of the MAXILLARY NERVE AND MANDIBULAR NERVE during a craniomaxillofacial or oral surgery. It is the maxillary and mandibular variants of OCULOCARDIAC REFLEX.Pharyngeal Muscles: The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.
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It is sometimes claimed this response is an involuntary reflex (e.g. see Aplysia gill and siphon withdrawal reflex), however, ... Other examples include: Social transmission of information during the waggle dance of honeybees. Idiothetic orientation by ... reflex behaviour. In studies on learning and the Aplysia gill and siphon withdrawal reflex, Aplysia received an electric shock ... Withdrawal reflex Animal cognition Animal consciousness Animal ethics Cruelty to animals Emotion in animals Pain in animals ...
The reflexes that function to alleviate airway obstructions are also dampened (e.g. gag and cough). Compounded with a reduction ... Such drugs include haloperidol and droperidol. See also: Theories of general anaesthetic action Aside from the clinically ... Such drugs include morphine, fentanyl, hydromorphone, and remifentanil. Administration of the alpha2 adrenergic receptor ... The K2P channel family comprises six subfamilies, which includes 15 unique members. 13 of these channels (excluding TWIK-1 and ...
... autonomic reflexes; situational factors such as prolonged bed rest; and autoimmunity. Cardiac causes include acute or chronic ... Pathological causes include sinus bradycardia, sinus arrest, sinus exit block, or AV block. A ventricular bradycardia, also ... Bradycardia is also part of the mammalian diving reflex. A diagnosis of bradycardia in adults is based on a heart rate less ... The word "bradycardia" is from the Greek βραδύς, bradys "slow", and καρδία, kardia, "heart". Bezold-Jarisch reflex "Types of ...
These may include drowsiness, coma or hyperreflexia. When the condition is defined in this way, a number of other features are ... and absent reflexes. Like some other autoimmune diseases, the condition usually follows a minor infection, such as a ...
Other past uses include treatments for dysentery and unspecified ocular maladies. Pulicaria dysenterica at Plants for a Future ... When setting seed the flower heads reflex. Fleabane's common name comes from its former use as an incense to drive away insects ...
Freestanding reflex bags (freestanding speed bags) also exist. Uppercut bags began to appear towards the beginning of the 21st ... Similar apparatus in Asian martial arts include the Okinawan makiwara and the Chinese mook jong, which may have padded striking ... Other variations on the standard heavy bag include horizontal suspension from both ends to practice uppercut punches, and non- ... including the front, back and sides. In this method the user may perform many diverse punching combinations that create ...
The sucking reflex can be incessant and uncoordinated. Babies of mothers who use other addictive drugs (e.g. nicotine, ... These may include: Birth defects Low birth weight Premature birth Small head circumference Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) ... Seizures, increased Moro reflex, tremors, irritability, and disturbed sleep patterns can be observed. Respiratory symptoms of ... More severe findings may include acting irritable or jittery, feeding problems, and diarrhea. Symptoms vary depending on which ...
C-start is escape reflex employed by fish. The fish move upward by curving their slender body as a letter C. Most of the fish ... They utilize jet propulsion to jump out of water as they do underwater, including Japanese flying squid.., Humboldt squid, Neon ... The ray-finned fish includes needlefish, flyingfish, halfbeak, and sauries. Salmon jump out waterfalls during upstream spawning ...
This family includes two genera, Barbourula and Bombina, both of which have flattened bodies. Bombina species are warty, ... They often display the unken reflex when disturbed; the animal will arch its back and limbs to expose the bright belly, and may ...
Other artists that sent entries for consideration included Smash!!, Anastasia Stotskaya, Dima Bilan, Reflex and Avraam Russo. ... The jury panel that selected the Russian entry included Konstantin Ernst (general manager of C1R), Aleksandr Fifeman (general ...
As it is a natural protective reflex, suppressing the cough reflex might have damaging effects, especially if the cough is ... Symptoms may include a tightness in the chest, and a tickle in the throat. This cough may often persist for weeks after an ... A cough is a protective reflex in healthy individuals which is influenced by psychological factors. The cough reflex is ... Further workup may include labs, x-rays, and spirometry. The treatment of a cough in children is based on the underlying cause ...
The human genome includes approximately 20,000 protein coding genes: 80% of these genes are expressed in adult testes. The ... This phenomenon is known as the cremasteric reflex. The testicles can also be lifted voluntarily using the pubococcygeus muscle ... The testicle or testis is the male reproductive gland in all animals, including humans. It is homologous to the female ovary. ... The ampullae are otherwise essentially identical to the seminiferous tubules in higher vertebrates, including the same range of ...
Examples include some Fujifilm X-series cameras. Digital photography Zoom-lens reflex camera Darren Rowse. "Should I use the ... Cope with high zoom-ratio lenses, without needing a bulky reflex mirror. Show approximately how the scene will look under the ... These include, but are not limited to, the Olympus E-330, E-410, E-510 and E-3, the Panasonic Lumix DMC-L1 and DMC-L10, the ... chosen exposure, including white balance, saturation, effects etc. Show a low-light scene brighter than it would appear with a ...
Later the leaves become reflexed. Scapes are smooth and round in cross-section, 80-100 cm tall. The scape carries a dense ... It has become naturalized in some regions, including parts of the United States (especially Washington and Oregon). Allium ...
This list includes other eponymous entities of diagnostic significance; i.e. tests, reflexes, etc. Numerous additional signs ...
Thought and reflexes are slower. Other signs may include thickened skin, enlarged tongue, or a protruding abdomen. Dwarfism may ...
Human reflexes can't compete with computer circuits in this regard."[26][32][43] Stephen Baker, a journalist who recorded ... Human players, including former Jeopardy! contestants, also participated in mock games against Watson with Todd Alan Crain of ... The system was written in various languages, including Java, C++, and Prolog, and runs on the SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11 ... Specifically, DBPedia, WordNet and Yago were used.[21] The IBM team provided Watson with millions of documents, including ...
There must be no compulsion, in other words, and it must not be a reflex action. (The person engaging in the conduct must also ... Delictual conduct includes positive acts and omissions and statements. One of the reasons why the law distinguishes between ... This includes insult (iniuria in the narrow sense), adultery, loss of consortium, alienation of affection, breach of promise ( ... Fault refers to blameworthiness or culpability, while culpa is fault in a broad sense, in that it includes dolus and culpa in ...
Medications which may be effective include: CNS stimulants[17] fludrocortisone, midodrine, SSRIs[18] such as paroxetine or ... Reflex syncope is a brief loss of consciousness due to a neurologically induced drop in blood pressure.[2] Before the person ... Reflex syncope occurs in response to a trigger due to dysfunction of the heart rate and blood pressure regulating mechanism. ... Reflex syncope is divided into three types: vasovagal, situational, and carotid sinus.[2] Vasovagal syncope is typically ...
... and disappearance of the reflexes. Causes of neuritis include: Physical injury Infection Diphtheria Herpes zoster (shingles) ... Gain of function (positive) symptoms include tingling, pain, itching, crawling, and pins-and-needles. Motor symptoms include ... symptoms commonly include loss of function ("negative") symptoms, including numbness, tremor, impairment of balance, and gait ... strokes including prolonged occlusion of blood flow, electric discharge, including lightning strikes Effect of chemotherapy - ...
Kandel and his colleagues first habituated the reflex, weakening the response by repeatedly touching the animal's siphon. They ... Several examples of neural sensitization include: *Electrical or chemical stimulation of the rat hippocampus causes ... conducting experiments in the 1960s and 1970s on the gill withdrawal reflex of the seaslug Aplysia. ... has been implied as a causal or maintaining mechanism in a wide range of apparently unrelated pathologies including addiction, ...
Other treatments include:. * Sympathetic nerve blocks: These blocks, which are done in a variety of ways, can provide ... Even in cases involving an injury only to a finger or toe, pain can spread to include the entire arm or leg. In some cases, ... Therapies used include psychotherapy, physical therapy, and drug treatment, such as topical analgesics, narcotics, ... Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), also called reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome, is a chronic pain condition in which ...
Other cardiac features of this reflex include hypotension, dysrhythmias, atrioventricular block. These cardiovascular ... Autonomic Nervous System Activity and Oculocardiac Reflex.. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... The aim of this study is to verify whether it is possible to predict oculocardiac reflex with the use of HRV analysis for ANS ... Prediction of Oculocardiac Reflex in Relationship to Autonomic Nervous System Activity, Mesured With the Use of ECG HRV ...
Reflex sympathetic dystrophy is a chronic nerve disorder affecting an area of the body that sustained an injury. Learn more and ... Common symptoms include (but are not limited to):. *Muscle spasms. *Intense burning pain ... Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy Syndrome (RSD) Lawsuit. Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy Syndrome is most commonly found in the arms ... Home » Personal Injury & Accidents » Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy Syndrome (RSD) Lawsuit. Free Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy ...
What is acoustic reflex threshold? Meaning of acoustic reflex threshold as a finance term. What does acoustic reflex threshold ... Definition of acoustic reflex threshold in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... All content on this website, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and other reference data is for ... redirected from acoustic reflex threshold). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia. Threshold. 1. See: ...
... - Brick NJ, Freehold NJ, Forked River NJ, and Manahawkin NJ - Orthopedic Care - Brielle ... include "header.inc";?> ... What causes Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy?. Normally, when an ... Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy wpengine 2017-02-17T18:24:04+00:00 Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy, aka Complex Regional Pain ... What is Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy?. Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy, also known as Complex Regional Pain Syndrome, is a ...
Treatment for CRPS includes medications, rehabilitation therapy, injections and surgery. There is no true cure for CRPS, but ... Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) - Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy (RSD) Introduction , Anatomy , Causes , Symptoms , ... CRPS was formerly called reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) and shoulder-hand syndrome. CRPS causes severe burning pain and ... The iHealthSpot patient education library was written collaboratively by the iHealthSpot editorial team which includes Senior ...
Treatment for CRPS includes medications, rehabilitation therapy, injections and surgery. There is no true cure for CRPS, but ... Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) - Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy (RSD) Introduction , Anatomy , Causes , Symptoms , ... CRPS was formerly called reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) and shoulder-hand syndrome. CRPS causes severe burning pain and ... The iHealthSpot patient education library was written collaboratively by the iHealthSpot editorial team which includes Senior ...
Organizations and Support Groups for Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy - The Guidebook also includes a directory of organizations ... What is Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy?. Reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD), also known as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) ... This valuable directory of organizations and support groups includes complete contact information, including phone numbers and ... Get the Medifocus Guidebook on Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy.... at a Special 20% Discount. Updated: June 23, 2017. 157 Pages ...
We can help you understand if you qualify for Social Security Disability benefits for reflex sympathetic dystrophy in ... They should include documentation of how the doctor reached your diagnosis, including any laboratory tests and imaging scans ... Getting Social Security Disability for Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy in Pittsburgh. Reflex sympathetic dystrophy, also known as ... If you are unable to work for a living because of your symptoms, you may qualify to draw disability benefits, including Social ...
Includes Free Percentage),ARUP Laboratories is a national reference laboratory and a worldwide leader in innovative laboratory ... Prostate Specific Antigen, Total with Reflex to Free PSA (Includes Free Percentage). ... Prostate Specific Antigen, Total with Reflex to Free PSA (Includes Free Percentage). ... Accurate, ... Analyzer can be used with a variety ... programs, according to the needs of the ... technique, including a foot ...
On 2007-18 Wrangler JK (Including Rubicon) Reflex Adjustable Front Track Bar ... The offset forged ends are equipped with the patent-pending Reflex bushings to create the most advanced combination of off-road ...
On 2007-18 Wrangler JK (Including Rubicon) Reflex Adjustable Rear Track Bar ... Superlifts Reflex Track Bars for the Jeep are the only bars on the market to feature dual offset forged ends. The offset ... The Reflex bushing is constructed of a dual durometer, synthetic elastomer that delivers superior dampening, ride and handling ... The Reflex track bars work with Jeep Wrangler JKs equipped with 2 to 6" of lift. ...
Limited forms of disease including isolated optic neuritis, brainstem encephalitis and longitudinal extensive transverse ... Includes. If the MOG Antibody screen is positive, then a semi-quantitative titer will be performed at an additional charge (CPT ... Limited forms of disease including isolated optic neuritis, brainstem encephalitis and longitudinal extensive transverse ...
Clinical manifestations include genital tract infections, neonatal herpes, meningoencephalitis, keratoconjunctivitis, and ... Includes. If Herpes Simplex Virus 2 (IgG) is ,1.09, then HSV-2 Inhibition Study will be performed at an additional charge (CPT ... Clinical manifestations include genital tract infections, neonatal herpes, meningoencephalitis, keratoconjunctivitis, and ... Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and 2 (IgG), with Reflex to HSV-2 Inhibition ...
Additional information regarding LOINC® codes can be found at LOINC.org, including the LOINC Manual, which can be downloaded at ... An AChR-binding antibody result ,0.25 will reflex to the AChR-modulating antibody (at an additional charge). ... Acetylcholine Receptor (AChR)-binding Antibodies With Reflex to AChR-modulating Antibody. *Acetylcholine Receptor (AChR)- ... AChR-binding assay: radioimmunoassay (RIA); antimuscle (striational antibody): indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA); reflex ...
Test Includes. Hemoglobin (Hb) solubility and automatic reflex to hemoglobin (Hb) fractionation blood (at additional charge), ... Reflex 1. 120880. Hemoglobin Frac.w/o Solubility. 321840. Hemoglobin Fractionation. N/A. ... Reflex 1. 120880. Hemoglobin Frac.w/o Solubility. 121702. Hgb A. %. 4546-8. ... Reflex 1. 120880. Hemoglobin Frac.w/o Solubility. 121703. Hgb S. %. 4625-0. ...
Buy Trijicon RM05 Dual-Illuminated RMR Reflex Sight (9 MOA Amber Reticle, Sniper Gray) featuring Dual Fiber Optic / Tritium ... Includes Free Value: $30.95 * Klean Kanteen Vacuum 12- to 24-Hour Insulated Classic Water Bottle (20 fl oz, Shale Black w/ B&H ... Trijicon RM05 Dual-Illuminated RMR Reflex Sight (9 MOA Amber Reticle, Sniper Gray) B&H # TRTRS9AS MFR # RM05-C-700187 ... The sniper gray RM05 Dual-Illuminated RMR Reflex Sight from Trijicon is an unmagnified targeting device that features a 9 MOA ...
... *Company ProfileOVICTOR TECHNICAL GLASS CO.,LTD ... 1) Reflex gauge glass, also called reflexion gauge glass, reflexion gauge glasses. 2) Transparent gauge glass, also called ... 1) Reflex gauge glass and transavailable size:. Type A. NoLengthWidthThicknessRoman NoSizePart No. 0953017-95X30X17OVRA00. ... Reflex gauge glass, also called reflexion g... ...
Medications which may be effective include: CNS stimulants[15] fludrocortisone, midodrine, SSRIs[16] such as paroxetine or ... Reflex syncope is a brief loss of consciousness due to a neurologically induced drop in blood pressure.[2] Before the person ... Reflex syncope occurs in response to a trigger due to dysfunction of the heart rate and blood pressure regulating mechanism. ... Reflex syncope is divided into three types: vasovagal, situational, and carotid sinus.[2] Vasovagal syncope is typically ...
Acid reflex Vector Image. Man with flame going out of his mouth, he is holding on his stomach, a pizza lying on the ground. ... https://cdn4.vectorstock.com/i/1000x1000/15/83/acid-reflex-vector-1481583.jpg ...
A reflex is a muscle reaction that happens automatically in response to stimulation. Certain sensations or movements produce ... Other infant reflexes include:. TONIC NECK REFLEX. This reflex occurs when the head of a child who is relaxed and lying face up ... Reflexes in infants; Tonic neck reflex; Galant reflex; Truncal incurvation; Rooting reflex; Parachute reflex; Grasp reflex ... GRASP REFLEX. This reflex occurs if you place a finger on the infants open palm. The hand will close around the finger. Trying ...
Helping you find trustworthy answers on Corneal Reflex , Latest evidence made easy ... Find all the evidence you need on Corneal Reflex via the Trip Database. ... The newborn examination and 6- to 8-week review [ ] This should include: The red reflex: use an ophthalmoscope about 30 cm from ... The red reflex may be absent with a dense cataract. [ ] Corneal light reflex to detect squint. Hold a penlight at arms length ...
These reflexes include the:. *sucking reflex, which triggers an infant to forcibly suck on any object put in the mouth ... grasp reflex, which causes a newborn to tightly close the fingers when pressure is applied to the inside of the infants hand ... Moro reflex, or startle response, which causes an infant to suddenly throw the arms out to the sides and then quickly bring ... Primitive Reflexes. Infants are born with a number of instinctual responses to stimuli, such as light or touch, known as ...
However, there are times when this reflex doesnt work as it should. ... Eliminating stool from the body requires the work of the defecation reflex. ... Several different medical conditions exist that can impair the defecation reflexes. These include: *Gastrointestinal irritation ... What are the symptoms of the defecation reflex?. When the intestines trigger the defecation reflex, you may feel pressure in ...
User interfaces that includes one or more composite images that are perceived by an observer to be suspended in space relative ... Reflex light reflector. US2500511. Dec 7, 1945. Mar 14, 1950. Reliephographie Soc Pour L Exp. Relief photograph having ... the user interface 150 includes sheeting 152. The sheeting 152 includes a plurality of floating images 154, which make up a ... illustrates one embodiment of a user interface 150 that includes a sheeting 152. The sheeting includes a plurality of various ...
  • The aim of this study is to verify whether it is possible to predict oculocardiac reflex with the use of HRV analysis for ANS activity assessment, measured prior to the ophthalmic surgery. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Next the immittance test battery comprising of tympanogram and acoustic reflex threshold were obtained in each ear separately for each patient. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Getting Social Security Disability (SSD) for reflex sympathetic dystrophy in Pittsburgh sometimes requires a complex process of documenting your condition and its effects, applying for disability , and working with the Social Security Administration (SSA) to ensure they have all the information they need to approve your claim. (bergerandgreen.com)
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