Incisor: Any of the eight frontal teeth (four maxillary and four mandibular) having a sharp incisal edge for cutting food and a single root, which occurs in man both as a deciduous and a permanent tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p820)Tooth: One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.Odontogenesis: The process of TOOTH formation. It is divided into several stages including: the dental lamina stage, the bud stage, the cap stage, and the bell stage. Odontogenesis includes the production of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS), dentin (DENTINOGENESIS), and dental cementum (CEMENTOGENESIS).Maxilla: One of a pair of irregularly shaped bones that form the upper jaw. A maxillary bone provides tooth sockets for the superior teeth, forms part of the ORBIT, and contains the MAXILLARY SINUS.Ameloblasts: Cylindrical epithelial cells in the innermost layer of the ENAMEL ORGAN. Their functions include contribution to the development of the dentinoenamel junction by the deposition of a layer of the matrix, thus producing the foundation for the prisms (the structural units of the DENTAL ENAMEL), and production of the matrix for the enamel prisms and interprismatic substance. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)OdontoblastsDental Pulp: A richly vascularized and innervated connective tissue of mesodermal origin, contained in the central cavity of a tooth and delimited by the dentin, and having formative, nutritive, sensory, and protective functions. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Dental Enamel: A hard thin translucent layer of calcified substance which envelops and protects the dentin of the crown of the tooth. It is the hardest substance in the body and is almost entirely composed of calcium salts. Under the microscope, it is composed of thin rods (enamel prisms) held together by cementing substance, and surrounded by an enamel sheath. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)Mandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.Molar: The most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw, totaling eight in the deciduous dentition (2 on each side, upper and lower), and usually 12 in the permanent dentition (three on each side, upper and lower). They are grinding teeth, having large crowns and broad chewing surfaces. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p821)Dentin: The hard portion of the tooth surrounding the pulp, covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root, which is harder and denser than bone but softer than enamel, and is thus readily abraded when left unprotected. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Tooth Crown: The upper part of the tooth, which joins the lower part of the tooth (TOOTH ROOT) at the cervix (TOOTH CERVIX) at a line called the cementoenamel junction. The entire surface of the crown is covered with enamel which is thicker at the extremity and becomes progressively thinner toward the cervix. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p216)Tooth Eruption: The emergence of a tooth from within its follicle in the ALVEOLAR PROCESS of the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE into the ORAL CAVITY. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Tooth Root: The part of a tooth from the neck to the apex, embedded in the alveolar process and covered with cementum. A root may be single or divided into several branches, usually identified by their relative position, e.g., lingual root or buccal root. Single-rooted teeth include mandibular first and second premolars and the maxillary second premolar teeth. The maxillary first premolar has two roots in most cases. Maxillary molars have three roots. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p690)Tooth, Deciduous: The teeth of the first dentition, which are shed and replaced by the permanent teeth.Tooth Germ: The collective tissues from which an entire tooth is formed, including the DENTAL SAC; ENAMEL ORGAN; and DENTAL PAPILLA. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Tooth Loss: The failure to retain teeth as a result of disease or injury.Tooth Abnormalities: Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the teeth.Tooth, Supernumerary: An extra tooth, erupted or unerupted, resembling or unlike the other teeth in the group to which it belongs. Its presence may cause malposition of adjacent teeth or prevent their eruption.Cuspid: The third tooth to the left and to the right of the midline of either jaw, situated between the second INCISOR and the premolar teeth (BICUSPID). (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p817)Tooth Extraction: The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)Tooth, Unerupted: A normal developing tooth which has not yet perforated the oral mucosa or one that fails to erupt in the normal sequence or time interval expected for the type of tooth in a given gender, age, or population group.Tooth Avulsion: Partial or complete displacement of a tooth from its alveolar support. It is commonly the result of trauma. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p312)Tooth, Impacted: A tooth that is prevented from erupting by a physical barrier, usually other teeth. Impaction may also result from orientation of the tooth in an other than vertical position in the periodontal structures.Tooth, Nonvital: A tooth from which the dental pulp has been removed or is necrotic. (Boucher, Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Tooth Wear: Loss of the tooth substance by chemical or mechanical processesOdontometry: Measurement of tooth characteristics.Bicuspid: One of the eight permanent teeth, two on either side in each jaw, between the canines (CUSPID) and the molars (MOLAR), serving for grinding and crushing food. The upper have two cusps (bicuspid) but the lower have one to three. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p822)Tooth Cervix: The constricted part of the tooth at the junction of the crown and root or roots. It is often referred to as the cementoenamel junction (CEJ), the line at which the cementum covering the root of a tooth and the enamel of the tooth meet. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p530, p433)Anodontia: Congenital absence of the teeth; it may involve all (total anodontia) or only some of the teeth (partial anodontia, hypodontia), and both the deciduous and the permanent dentition, or only teeth of the permanent dentition. (Dorland, 27th ed)Root Canal Therapy: A treatment modality in endodontics concerned with the therapy of diseases of the dental pulp. For preparatory procedures, ROOT CANAL PREPARATION is available.Fused Teeth: Two teeth united during development by the union of their tooth germs; the teeth may be joined by the enamel of their crowns, by their root dentin, or by both.Dental Models: Presentation devices used for patient education and technique training in dentistry.Tooth Replantation: Reinsertion of a tooth into the alveolus from which it was removed or otherwise lost.Tooth Movement: Orthodontic techniques used to correct the malposition of a single tooth.Tooth Calcification: The process whereby calcium salts are deposited in the dental enamel. The process is normal in the development of bones and teeth. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p43)Tooth Discoloration: Any change in the hue, color, or translucency of a tooth due to any cause. Restorative filling materials, drugs (both topical and systemic), pulpal necrosis, or hemorrhage may be responsible. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p253)Dentition, Permanent: The 32 teeth of adulthood that either replace or are added to the complement of deciduous teeth. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Tooth Exfoliation: Physiologic loss of the primary dentition. (Zwemer, Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Malocclusion: Such malposition and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth as to interfere with the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)Tooth DiseasesTooth Socket: A hollow part of the alveolar process of the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE where each tooth fits and is attached via the periodontal ligament.Dental Arch: The curve formed by the row of TEETH in their normal position in the JAW. The inferior dental arch is formed by the mandibular teeth, and the superior dental arch by the maxillary teeth.Dental Pulp Necrosis: Death of pulp tissue with or without bacterial invasion. When the necrosis is due to ischemia with superimposed bacterial infection, it is referred to as pulp gangrene. When the necrosis is non-bacterial in origin, it is called pulp mummification.Cephalometry: The measurement of the dimensions of the HEAD.Tooth Ankylosis: Solid fixation of a tooth resulting from fusion of the cementum and alveolar bone, with obliteration of the periodontal ligament. It is uncommon in the deciduous dentition and very rare in permanent teeth. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Alveolar Process: The thickest and spongiest part of the maxilla and mandible hollowed out into deep cavities for the teeth.Periodontal Ligament: The fibrous CONNECTIVE TISSUE surrounding the TOOTH ROOT, separating it from and attaching it to the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS).Orthodontics, Corrective: The phase of orthodontics concerned with the correction of malocclusion with proper appliances and prevention of its sequelae (Jablonski's Illus. Dictionary of Dentistry).Dental Pulp Cavity: The space in a tooth bounded by the dentin and containing the dental pulp. The portion of the cavity within the crown of the tooth is the pulp chamber; the portion within the root is the pulp canal or root canal.Tooth Apex: The tip or terminal end of the root of a tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p62)Tooth Erosion: Progressive loss of the hard substance of a tooth by chemical processes that do not involve bacterial action. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p296)Dentition: The teeth collectively in the dental arch. Dentition ordinarily refers to the natural teeth in position in their alveoli. Dentition referring to the deciduous teeth is DENTITION, PRIMARY; to the permanent teeth, DENTITION, PERMANENT. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Photography, Dental: Photographic techniques used in ORTHODONTICS; DENTAL ESTHETICS; and patient education.Root Resorption: Resorption in which cementum or dentin is lost from the root of a tooth owing to cementoclastic or osteoclastic activity in conditions such as trauma of occlusion or neoplasms. (Dorland, 27th ed)Orthodontic Appliance Design: The planning, calculation, and creation of an apparatus for the purpose of correcting the placement or straightening of teeth.Tooth Fractures: Break or rupture of a tooth or tooth root.Dental Restoration, Permanent: A restoration designed to remain in service for not less than 20 to 30 years, usually made of gold casting, cohesive gold, or amalgam. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Dental Occlusion: The relationship of all the components of the masticatory system in normal function. It has special reference to the position and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth for the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p556, p472)Radiography, Panoramic: Extraoral body-section radiography depicting an entire maxilla, or both maxilla and mandible, on a single film.Orthodontic Wires: Wires of various dimensions and grades made of stainless steel or precious metal. They are used in orthodontic treatment.Dental Stress Analysis: The description and measurement of the various factors that produce physical stress upon dental restorations, prostheses, or appliances, materials associated with them, or the natural oral structures.Post and Core Technique: Use of a metal casting, usually with a post in the pulp or root canal, designed to support and retain an artificial crown.Enamel Organ: Epithelial cells surrounding the dental papilla and differentiated into three layers: the inner enamel epithelium, consisting of ameloblasts which eventually form the enamel, and the enamel pulp and external enamel epithelium, both of which atrophy and disappear before and upon eruption of the tooth, respectively.Tooth Demineralization: A tooth's loss of minerals, such as calcium in hydroxyapatite from the tooth matrix, caused by acidic exposure. An example of the occurrence of demineralization is in the formation of dental caries.Dental Enamel Hypoplasia: An acquired or hereditary condition due to deficiency in the formation of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS). It is usually characterized by defective, thin, or malformed DENTAL ENAMEL. Risk factors for enamel hypoplasia include gene mutations, nutritional deficiencies, diseases, and environmental factors.Dental Caries: Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.Malocclusion, Angle Class II: Malocclusion in which the mandible is posterior to the maxilla as reflected by the relationship of the first permanent molar (distoclusion).Orthodontic Extrusion: Orthodontic movement in the coronal direction achieved by outward tension on the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT. It does not include the operative procedure that CROWN LENGTHENING involves.Tooth Preparation, Prosthodontic: The selected form given to a natural tooth when it is reduced by instrumentation to receive a prosthesis (e.g., artificial crown or a retainer for a fixed or removable prosthesis). The selection of the form is guided by clinical circumstances and physical properties of the materials that make up the prosthesis. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p239)Tooth Resorption: Resorption of calcified dental tissue, involving demineralization due to reversal of the cation exchange and lacunar resorption by osteoclasts. There are two types: external (as a result of tooth pathology) and internal (apparently initiated by a peculiar inflammatory hyperplasia of the pulp). (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p676)Dental Enamel Proteins: The proteins that are part of the dental enamel matrix.Esthetics, Dental: Skills, techniques, standards, and principles used to improve the art and symmetry of the teeth and face to improve the appearance as well as the function of the teeth, mouth, and face. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p108)Amelogenesis: The elaboration of dental enamel by ameloblasts, beginning with its participation in the formation of the dentino-enamel junction to the production of the matrix for the enamel prisms and interprismatic substance. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992).Orthodontic Brackets: Small metal or ceramic attachments used to fasten an arch wire. These attachments are soldered or welded to an orthodontic band or cemented directly onto the teeth. Bowles brackets, edgewise brackets, multiphase brackets, ribbon arch brackets, twin-wire brackets, and universal brackets are all types of orthodontic brackets.Dental Cementum: The bonelike rigid connective tissue covering the root of a tooth from the cementoenamel junction to the apex and lining the apex of the root canal, also assisting in tooth support by serving as attachment structures for the periodontal ligament. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Dental Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of dental prostheses in general or a specific dental prosthesis. It does not include DENTURE DESIGN. The framework usually consists of metal.Root Canal Filling Materials: Materials placed inside a root canal for the purpose of obturating or sealing it. The materials may be gutta-percha, silver cones, paste mixtures, or other substances. (Dorland, 28th ed, p631 & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p187)Composite Resins: Synthetic resins, containing an inert filler, that are widely used in dentistry.Dental Bonding: An adhesion procedure for orthodontic attachments, such as plastic DENTAL CROWNS. This process usually includes the application of an adhesive material (DENTAL CEMENTS) and letting it harden in-place by light or chemical curing.Resin Cements: Dental cements composed either of polymethyl methacrylate or dimethacrylate, produced by mixing an acrylic monomer liquid with acrylic polymers and mineral fillers. The cement is insoluble in water and is thus resistant to fluids in the mouth, but is also irritating to the dental pulp. It is used chiefly as a luting agent for fabricated and temporary restorations. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p159)Malocclusion, Angle Class I: Malocclusion in which the mandible and maxilla are anteroposteriorly normal as reflected by the relationship of the first permanent molar (i.e., in neutroclusion), but in which individual teeth are abnormally related to each other.Dental Materials: Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.Dentition, Mixed: The complement of teeth in the jaws after the eruption of some of the permanent teeth but before all the deciduous teeth are absent. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Dental Restoration Failure: Inability or inadequacy of a dental restoration or prosthesis to perform as expected.Dens in Dente: Anomaly of the tooth, found chiefly in upper lateral incisors. It is characterized by invagination of the enamel at the incisal edge.Tooth Injuries: Traumatic or other damage to teeth including fractures (TOOTH FRACTURES) or displacements (TOOTH LUXATION).Pulpotomy: Dental procedure in which part of the pulp chamber is removed from the crown of a tooth.Tooth Eruption, Ectopic: An abnormality in the direction of a TOOTH ERUPTION.Root Canal Obturation: Phase of endodontic treatment in which a root canal system that has been cleaned is filled through use of special materials and techniques in order to prevent reinfection.Root Canal Preparation: Preparatory activities in ROOT CANAL THERAPY by partial or complete extirpation of diseased pulp, cleaning and sterilization of the empty canal, enlarging and shaping the canal to receive the sealing material. The cavity may be prepared by mechanical, sonic, chemical, or other means. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1700)Orthodontic Appliances: Devices used for influencing tooth position. Orthodontic appliances may be classified as fixed or removable, active or retaining, and intraoral or extraoral. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p19)Age Determination by Teeth: A means of identifying the age of an animal or human through tooth examination.Vertical Dimension: The length of the face determined by the distance of separation of jaws. Occlusal vertical dimension (OVD or VDO) or contact vertical dimension is the lower face height with the teeth in centric occlusion. Rest vertical dimension (VDR) is the lower face height measured from a chin point to a point just below the nose, with the mandible in rest position. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p250)Dental Fistula: An abnormal passage in the oral cavity on the gingiva.Dental Pulp Exposure: The result of pathological changes in the hard tissue of a tooth caused by carious lesions, mechanical factors, or trauma, which render the pulp susceptible to bacterial invasion from the external environment.Denture Design: The plan, delineation, and location of actual structural elements of dentures. The design can relate to retainers, stress-breakers, occlusal rests, flanges, framework, lingual or palatal bars, reciprocal arms, etc.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Orthodontic Space Closure: Therapeutic closure of spaces caused by the extraction of teeth, the congenital absence of teeth, or the excessive space between teeth.Amelogenin: A major dental enamel-forming protein found in mammals. In humans the protein is encoded by GENES found on both the X CHROMOSOME and the Y CHROMOSOME.Jaw Relation Record: A registration of any positional relationship of the mandible in reference to the maxillae. These records may be any of the many vertical, horizontal, or orientation relations. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry)Periapical Periodontitis: Inflammation of the PERIAPICAL TISSUE. It includes general, unspecified, or acute nonsuppurative inflammation. Chronic nonsuppurative inflammation is PERIAPICAL GRANULOMA. Suppurative inflammation is PERIAPICAL ABSCESS.Dental Cements: Substances used to bond COMPOSITE RESINS to DENTAL ENAMEL and DENTIN. These bonding or luting agents are used in restorative dentistry, ROOT CANAL THERAPY; PROSTHODONTICS; and ORTHODONTICS.Dentinogenesis: The formation of dentin. Dentin first appears in the layer between the ameloblasts and odontoblasts and becomes calcified immediately. Formation progresses from the tip of the papilla over its slope to form a calcified cap becoming thicker by the apposition of new layers pulpward. A layer of uncalcified dentin intervenes between the calcified tissue and the odontoblast and its processes. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Periodontal Splints: Fixed or removable devices that join teeth together. They are used to repair teeth that are mobile as a result of PERIODONTITIS.Periodontium: The structures surrounding and supporting the tooth. Periodontium includes the gum (GINGIVA), the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS), the DENTAL CEMENTUM, and the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT.Lip: Either of the two fleshy, full-blooded margins of the mouth.Apexification: Endodontic procedure performed to induce TOOTH APEX barrier development. ROOT CANAL FILLING MATERIALS are used to repair open apex or DENTAL PULP NECROSIS in an immature tooth. CALCIUM HYDROXIDE and mineral trioxide aggregate are commonly used as the filling materials.Paleodontology: The study of the teeth of early forms of life through fossil remains.Dental Alloys: A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions for use in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.Periapical Diseases: Diseases of the PERIAPICAL TISSUE surrounding the root of the tooth, which is distinguished from DENTAL PULP DISEASES inside the TOOTH ROOT.Orthodontic Anchorage Procedures: Attachment of orthodontic devices and materials to the MOUTH area for support and to provide a counterforce to orthodontic forces.Orthodontic Retainers: Orthodontic appliances, fixed or removable, used to maintain teeth in corrected positions during the period of functional adaptation following corrective treatment. These appliances are also used to maintain the positions of the teeth and jaws gained by orthodontic procedures. (From Zwemer, Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p263)Stainless Steel: Stainless steel. A steel containing Ni, Cr, or both. It does not tarnish on exposure and is used in corrosive environments. (Grant & Hack's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Crowns: A prosthetic restoration that reproduces the entire surface anatomy of the visible natural crown of a tooth. It may be partial (covering three or more surfaces of a tooth) or complete (covering all surfaces). It is made of gold or other metal, porcelain, or resin.Radiography, Dental: Radiographic techniques used in dentistry.Calcium Hydroxide: A white powder prepared from lime that has many medical and industrial uses. It is in many dental formulations, especially for root canal filling.Tooth Mobility: Horizontal and, to a lesser degree, axial movement of a tooth in response to normal forces, as in occlusion. It refers also to the movability of a tooth resulting from loss of all or a portion of its attachment and supportive apparatus, as seen in periodontitis, occlusal trauma, and periodontosis. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p507 & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p313)Orthodontic Appliances, Removable: Dental devices such as RETAINERS, ORTHODONTIC used to improve gaps in teeth and structure of the jaws. These devices can be removed and reinserted at will.Overbite: A malocclusion in which maxillary incisor and canine teeth project over the mandiblar teeth excessively. The overlap is measured perpendicular to the occlusal plane and is also called vertical overlap. When the overlap is measured parallel to the occlusal plane it is referred to as overjet.Maxillofacial Development: The process of growth and differentiation of the jaws and face.Chin: The anatomical frontal portion of the mandible, also known as the mentum, that contains the line of fusion of the two separate halves of the mandible (symphysis menti). This line of fusion divides inferiorly to enclose a triangular area called the mental protuberance. On each side, inferior to the second premolar tooth, is the mental foramen for the passage of blood vessels and a nerve.Dental Implants, Single-Tooth: Devices, usually alloplastic, surgically inserted into or onto the jawbone, which support a single prosthetic tooth and serve either as abutments or as cosmetic replacements for missing teeth.Dental Cavity Preparation: An operation in which carious material is removed from teeth and biomechanically correct forms are established in the teeth to receive and retain restorations. A constant requirement is provision for prevention of failure of the restoration through recurrence of decay or inadequate resistance to applied stresses. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p239-40)Molar, Third: The aftermost permanent tooth on each side in the maxilla and mandible.Dental Papilla: Mesodermal tissue enclosed in the invaginated portion of the epithelial enamel organ and giving rise to the dentin and pulp.Dental Leakage: The seepage of fluids, debris, and micro-organisms between the walls of a prepared dental cavity and the restoration.Acid Etching, Dental: Preparation of TOOTH surfaces and DENTAL MATERIALS with etching agents, usually phosphoric acid, to roughen the surface to increase adhesion or osteointegration.Denture, Partial, Fixed, Resin-Bonded: A commonly used prosthesis that results in a strong, permanent restoration. It consists of an electrolytically etched cast-metal retainer that is cemented (bonded), using resins, to adjacent teeth whose enamel was previously acid-treated (acid-etched). This type of bridgework is sometimes referred to as a Maryland bridge.Dental Prosthesis: An artificial replacement for one or more natural teeth or part of a tooth, or associated structures, ranging from a portion of a tooth to a complete denture. The dental prosthesis is used for cosmetic or functional reasons, or both. DENTURES and specific types of dentures are also available. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p244 & Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p643)Jaw: Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.Jaw, Edentulous, Partially: Absence of teeth from a portion of the mandible and/or maxilla.Pulpectomy: Dental procedure in which the entire pulp chamber is removed from the crown and roots of a tooth.Serial Extraction: The selective extraction of deciduous teeth during the stage of mixed dentition in accordance with the shedding and eruption of the teeth. It is done over an extended period to allow autonomous adjustment to relieve crowding of the dental arches during the eruption of the lateral incisors, canines, and premolars, eventually involving the extraction of the first premolar teeth. (Dorland, 28th ed)Extraoral Traction Appliances: Extraoral devices for applying force to the dentition in order to avoid some of the problems in anchorage control met with in intermaxillary traction and to apply force in directions not otherwise possible.Facial Bones: The facial skeleton, consisting of bones situated between the cranial base and the mandibular region. While some consider the facial bones to comprise the hyoid (HYOID BONE), palatine (HARD PALATE), and zygomatic (ZYGOMA) bones, MANDIBLE, and MAXILLA, others include also the lacrimal and nasal bones, inferior nasal concha, and vomer but exclude the hyoid bone. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p113)Radiography, Bitewing: Technique involving the passage of X-rays through oral structures to create a film record while a central tab or wing of dental X-ray film is being held between upper and lower teeth.Tooth, Artificial: A fabricated tooth substituting for a natural tooth in a prosthesis. It is usually made of porcelain or plastic.Bite Force: The force applied by the masticatory muscles in dental occlusion.PAX9 Transcription Factor: A paired box transcription factor that is involved in ODONTOGENESIS.Denture, Partial, Fixed: A partial denture attached to prepared natural teeth, roots, or implants by cementation.Palate: The structure that forms the roof of the mouth. It consists of the anterior hard palate (PALATE, HARD) and the posterior soft palate (PALATE, SOFT).Denture, Partial, Removable: A partial denture designed and constructed to be removed readily from the mouth.Smiling: A facial expression which may denote feelings of pleasure, affection, amusement, etc.MSX1 Transcription Factor: A homeodomain protein that interacts with TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN. It represses GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of target GENES and plays a critical role in ODONTOGENESIS.Dentin-Bonding Agents: Cements that act through infiltration and polymerization within the dentinal matrix and are used for dental restoration. They can be adhesive resins themselves, adhesion-promoting monomers, or polymerization initiators that act in concert with other agents to form a dentin-bonding system.Alveolar Bone Loss: Resorption or wasting of the tooth-supporting bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS) in the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE.Mouth, Edentulous: Total lack of teeth through disease or extraction.Mastication: The act and process of chewing and grinding food in the mouth.Open Bite: A condition in which certain opposing teeth fail to establish occlusal contact when the jaws are closed.Fluorosis, Dental: A chronic endemic form of hypoplasia of the dental enamel caused by drinking water with a high fluorine content during the time of tooth formation, and characterized by defective calcification that gives a white chalky appearance to the enamel, which gradually undergoes brown discoloration. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)Dental Prosthesis Retention: Holding a DENTAL PROSTHESIS in place by its design, or by the use of additional devices or adhesives.Tooth Remineralization: Therapeutic technique for replacement of minerals in partially decalcified teeth.Tooth Migration: The movement of teeth into altered positions in relationship to the basal bone of the ALVEOLAR PROCESS and to adjoining and opposing teeth as a result of loss of approximating or opposing teeth, occlusal interferences, habits, inflammatory and dystrophic disease of the attaching and supporting structures of the teeth. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Acrylic ResinsRadiography, Dental, Digital: A rapid, low-dose, digital imaging system using a small intraoral sensor instead of radiographic film, an intensifying screen, and a charge-coupled device. It presents the possibility of reduced patient exposure and minimal distortion, although resolution and latitude are inferior to standard dental radiography. A receiver is placed in the mouth, routing signals to a computer which images the signals on a screen or in print. It includes digitizing from x-ray film or any other detector. (From MEDLINE abstracts; personal communication from Dr. Charles Berthold, NIDR)Enamel Microabrasion: Mechanical removal of a small amount of tooth structure (not more than a few tenths of a millimeter in depth) to eliminate superficial enamel discoloration defects not successfully removed by bleaching techniques. A common abrasive is a mixture of pumice and hydrochloric acid.Dental Pulp Test: Investigations conducted on the physical health of teeth involving use of a tool that transmits hot or cold electric currents on a tooth's surface that can determine problems with that tooth based on reactions to the currents.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Silicates: The generic term for salts derived from silica or the silicic acids. They contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals, and may contain hydrogen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th Ed)Shear Strength: The internal resistance of a material to moving some parts of it parallel to a fixed plane, in contrast to stretching (TENSILE STRENGTH) or compression (COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH). Ionic crystals are brittle because, when subjected to shear, ions of the same charge are brought next to each other, which causes repulsion.Gutta-Percha: Coagulated exudate isolated from several species of the tropical tree Palaquium (Sapotaceae). It is the trans-isomer of natural rubber and is used as a filling and impression material in dentistry and orthopedics and as an insulator in electronics. It has also been used as a rubber substitute.Epoxy Resins: Polymeric resins derived from OXIRANES and characterized by strength and thermosetting properties. Epoxy resins are often used as dental materials.Periodontal Index: A numerical rating scale for classifying the periodontal status of a person or population with a single figure which takes into consideration prevalence as well as severity of the condition. It is based upon probe measurement of periodontal pockets and on gingival tissue status.Dental Plaque: A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Calcium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain calcium as an integral part of the molecule.Tooth Attrition: The wearing away of a tooth as a result of tooth-to-tooth contact, as in mastication, occurring only on the occlusal, incisal, and proximal surfaces. It is chiefly associated with aging. It is differentiated from TOOTH ABRASION (the pathologic wearing away of the tooth substance by friction, as brushing, bruxism, clenching, and other mechanical causes) and from TOOTH EROSION (the loss of substance caused by chemical action without bacterial action). (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p86)Gingivitis: Inflammation of gum tissue (GINGIVA) without loss of connective tissue.Pulpitis: Inflammation of the DENTAL PULP, usually due to bacterial infection in dental caries, tooth fracture, or other conditions causing exposure of the pulp to bacterial invasion. Chemical irritants, thermal factors, hyperemic changes, and other factors may also cause pulpitis.DMF Index: "Decayed, missing and filled teeth," a routinely used statistical concept in dentistry.Sella Turcica: A bony prominence situated on the upper surface of the body of the sphenoid bone. It houses the PITUITARY GLAND.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Orthodontic Appliances, Functional: Loose, usually removable intra-oral devices which alter the muscle forces against the teeth and craniofacial skeleton. These are dynamic appliances which depend on altered neuromuscular action to effect bony growth and occlusal development. They are usually used in mixed dentition to treat pediatric malocclusions. (ADA, 1992)Orthodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the prevention and correction of dental and oral anomalies (malocclusion).Phosphoric Acids: Inorganic derivatives of phosphoric acid (H3PO4). Note that organic derivatives of phosphoric acids are listed under ORGANOPHOSPHATES.Glass Ionomer Cements: A polymer obtained by reacting polyacrylic acid with a special anion-leachable glass (alumino-silicate). The resulting cement is more durable and tougher than others in that the materials comprising the polymer backbone do not leach out.Dental Instruments: Hand-held tools or implements especially used by dental professionals for the performance of clinical tasks.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Dental Porcelain: A type of porcelain used in dental restorations, either jacket crowns or inlays, artificial teeth, or metal-ceramic crowns. It is essentially a mixture of particles of feldspar and quartz, the feldspar melting first and providing a glass matrix for the quartz. Dental porcelain is produced by mixing ceramic powder (a mixture of quartz, kaolin, pigments, opacifiers, a suitable flux, and other substances) with distilled water. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Space MaintenanceSodium Hypochlorite: It is used as an oxidizing and bleaching agent and as a disinfectant. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Orthodontics, Interceptive: Recognition and elimination of potential irregularities and malpositions in the developing dentofacial complex.
... there are no premolars in deciduous teeth. Within each class, teeth may be classified into different traits. Incisors are ... Teeth can belong to one of two sets of teeth: primary ("baby") teeth or permanent teeth. Often, "deciduous" may be used in ... This is true only in permanent teeth. In deciduous teeth, the maxillary second molar is the last tooth in the mouth and does ... This is true only in permanent teeth. In deciduous teeth, the mandibular second molar is the last tooth in the mouth and does ...
The teeth of Euryzygomatomyines are characterized by several features: elongate lower and upper incisor roots ; five lophids on ... the lower deciduous premolars 4 ; either four lophids in Trinomys, or three lophids in Clyomys and Euryzygomatomys, on the ... Candela, Adriana M.; Rasia, Luciano L. (2012-02-01). "Tooth morphology of Echimyidae (Rodentia, Caviomorpha): homology ... lower molars 1 ; well-connected lophs on the cheek teeth ; three molar roots anchoring the upper molars. Their zygomatic arch ...
Molar teeth by definition are permanent teeth distal to the canines, preceded by deciduous premolars. In primitive placental ... Dentistry portal Incisor Roger Warwick & Peter L. Williams, eds. (1973), Gray's Anatomy (35th ed.), London: Longman, pp. 1218- ... The premolar teeth, or bicuspids, are transitional teeth located between the canine and molar teeth. In humans, there are two ... Premolars can be considered as 'transitional teeth' during chewing, or mastication. They have properties of both the anterior ...
These are called deciduous teeth, primary teeth, baby teeth or milk teeth. Animals that have two sets of teeth, one followed by ... These are the incisor (cutting), the canine, the premolar, and the molar (grinding). The incisors occupy the front of the tooth ... d' denotes deciduous teeth (i.e. milk or baby teeth); lower case also indicates temporary teeth. Another annotation is 2.1.0.22 ... Teeth that were lost were replaced by teeth below the roots in each tooth socket. Occlusion refers to the closing of the ...
... there are no premolars in deciduous teeth. Within each class, teeth may be classified into different traits. Incisors are ... Teeth can belong to one of two sets of teeth: primary ("baby") teeth or permanent teeth. Often, "deciduous" may be used in ... Distinguishing characteristics of teethEdit. IncisorEdit. 8 incisors are anterior teeth, 4 in the upper arch and 4 in the lower ... Maxillary lateral incisorEdit. Main article: Maxillary lateral incisor. The maxillary lateral incisor is the tooth located ...
The fish's teeth are small, conical, and incisor-like. Spines of the Japanese butterfish's dorsal fin are short and not ... The scales on the body of the butterfish are small, cycloid, and very deciduous (meaning that they are shed off easily). This ...
They are vary rare in (deciduous) baby teeth. In most cases the involved teeth are the permanent maxillary lateral incisors (55 ... The digital images would show a tooth with talon cusp as if it were "double teeth". When looking at a radiograph some features ... Generally talon cusps on lower teeth require no treatment, but talon cusps on upper teeth may interfere with the bite mechanics ... This occurs during the morphological differentiation stage of tooth development. During the developmental stages of tooth ...
... the deciduous teeth (baby teeth) are often lost fore the age of 5. Frequently, the incisors are lost first; occasionally all of ... Adult hypophosphatasia can be associated with rickets, premature loss of deciduous teeth, or early loss of adult dentation ... Hypophosphatasia is often discovered because of an early loss of deciduous (baby or primary) teeth with the root intact. ... Dental problems: Children particularly benefit from skilled dental care, as early tooth loss can cause malnutrition and inhibit ...
These are called deciduous teeth, primary teeth, baby teeth or milk teeth.[7][8] Animals that have two sets of teeth, one ... These are the incisor (cutting), the canine, the premolar, and the molar (grinding). The incisors occupy the front of the tooth ... Human (deciduous teeth). di2.dc1.dp2di2.dc1.dp2. Human (permanent teeth). 2.1.2.2-32.1.2.2-3. Wisdom teeth are congenitally ... d' denotes deciduous teeth (i.e. milk or baby teeth); lower case also indicates temporary teeth. Another annotation is 2.1.0.2 ...
Deciduous teeth are unlikely to have talon cusps. Also, the permanent maxillary incisors are the most likely teeth to have a ... The pulp is the location of the nerve and blood supply of a tooth. In the deciduous maxillary central incisor, endodontic ... Deciduous dentition[edit]. The overall length of the deciduous maxillary central incisor is 16 mm on average, with the crown ... The maxillary central incisor is a human tooth in the front upper jaw, or maxilla, and is usually the most visible of all teeth ...
In 1996, Ankel-Simons demonstrated that the shape and arrangement of the aye-aye's diminutive deciduous incisors indicate that ... over its rodent-like teeth, Owen demonstrated its affinity with other primates. ... The sportive lemurs and the extinct koala lemurs (Megaladapidae) both lack upper incisors in the permanent dentition, and in ... Historically, lemurs ranged across the entire island inhabiting a wide variety of habitats, including dry deciduous forests, ...
The upper incisors are small and have spaces between them, as well. The deciduous teeth are serrated until they are lost and ... The dental formula of Philippine flying lemur is 2/3, 1/1, 2/2, 3/3, with a total of 34 teeth. The first two lower procumbant ... incisors are pectinate with up to 15 tines which are thought to be used for grooming and grating food. ... then they are replaced with blade-like teeth, that have evolved to shear along with the molars that also have long shearing ...
... tooth, deciduous MeSH A14.549.167.860.700.500 --- natal teeth MeSH A14.549.167.860.715 --- tooth, unerupted MeSH A14.549. ... tooth MeSH A14.549.167.860.150 --- bicuspid MeSH A14.549.167.860.200 --- cuspid MeSH A14.549.167.860.425 --- incisor MeSH ... tooth cervix MeSH A14.549.167.900.710 --- tooth crown MeSH A14.549.167.900.720 --- tooth germ MeSH A14.549.167.900.720.250 --- ... tooth root MeSH A14.549.167.900.750.700 --- tooth apex MeSH A14.549.336 --- lip MeSH A14.549.336.505 --- labial frenum MeSH ...
... but it can occur because of uneven wear or if the deciduous cap or baby tooth is retained too long preventing normal tooth ... It can prevent the horse from freely chewing and cause the improper wear of the molars and incisors. A solution is to reduce ... They occur when the upper from the premolar deciduous cap or baby tooth is kept resulting in the abnormal growth of the ... They are caused when a hard spot on one tooth digs into and wears out a soft spot on another tooth. They interfere with normal ...
... teeth-spacing between incisors and molars) than macrocephala but shorter than vera Caniniform upper first premolar Absent ... robust limbs Large skeletal size Presence of a deciduous upper second premolar Fully molariform deciduous second premolar (its ... Relatively low-crowned teeth (part of visible teeth ends close to gums) Large caniniform (canine-like) upper first premolar ... with incisors in a vertical fashion Despite being the earliest recognized species, general distinguishing characteristics for H ...
... with deciduous (baby) teeth indicated by a letter A to E. Hence the left and right maxillary central incisor would have the ... Adult teeth were numbered 1 to 8, and the child primary dentition (also called deciduous, milk or baby teeth) were depicted ... Blinkhorn A, Choi C, Paget H (1998). "An investigation into the use of the FDI tooth notation system by dental schools in the ... Corydon Palmer) is a system used by dentists to associate information to a specific tooth. Also known as the Military System. ...
A root for the deciduous second premolar (dp2) is preserved on both the left and right sides, but the tooth itself is not and ... with the canine root above the incisor roots, suggesting that these teeth shared some function. The mental foramen, an opening ... The tooth has two roots. The p4, represented by YGSP 24338, is an elongate, two-rooted tooth with a distinct trigonid at the ... A weak cingulum is present on the labial side of the tooth between the protoconid and hypoconid. Another tooth, YGSP 32151, is ...
Humans usually have 20 primary (deciduous, "baby" or "milk") teeth and 32 permanent (adult) teeth. Teeth are classified as ... The maxillary teeth are the maxillary central incisor, maxillary lateral incisor, maxillary canine, maxillary first premolar, ... Bottom teeth of a seven-year-old, showing primary teeth (left), a lost primary tooth (middle), and a permanent tooth (right) ... Primary teeth[edit]. Among deciduous (primary) teeth, ten are found in the maxilla (upper jaw) and ten in the mandible (lower ...
Adults have 32 permanent teeth, and children have 20 deciduous teeth. There are various tooth shapes for different jobs. For ... The names of these teeth are: (1) Incisors, there are eight incisors located in the front of the mouth (four on the top and ... or deciduous teeth, and secondary dentition, or permanent teeth. A tooth is the toughest known substance in the body exceeding ... Tooth enamel lends great strength to the tooth structure. The formation of a developing tooth includes the process of dentin ...
In humans, a set of twenty deciduous teeth, or "milk teeth", are replaced by a completely new set of thirty-two adult teeth. In ... In the hare the anterior incisors are not replaced but the posterior smaller incisors are replaced. Not much is known about the ... Milk teeth and the replacement of teeth. The Animal Diversity Web. Early mammal teeth - pag 13 Otevřít soubor. - Masarykova ... A diphyodont is any animal with two successive sets of teeth, initially the "deciduous" set and consecutively the "permanent" ...
ശൈശവാവസ്ഥയിലെ താത്കാലിക ദന്തങ്ങളെ പാൽപ്പല്ലുകൾ (milk teeth or deciduous teeth)[11] എന്നാണ് പറയുന്നത്. ജനിച്ച് ആറുമാസം മുതൽ പാൽ ... നടുവിലെ ഉളിപ്പല്ല് (central incisor) - 2,. *വശത്തെ ഉളിപ്പല്ല് (lateral incisor)-2,. *കോമ്പല്ല് (canine)-2, ...
Supernumerary teeth in deciduous (baby) teeth are less common than in permanent teeth.[citation needed] The presence of a ... peg-like tooth that occurs between the maxillary central incisors. Fourth and fifth molars that form behind the third molars ... It is suggested that supernumerary teeth develop from a third tooth bud arising from the dental lamina near the regular tooth ... Hyperdontia is the condition of having supernumerary teeth, or teeth that appear in addition to the regular number of teeth. ...
In this type of appliance, the acrylic is trimmed behind lower teeth by 1mm to allow lingual tipping of lower incisors. This ... proposed different types of anchorage based on deciduous teeth. Dental Arches are originally well aligned Mandible is in ... Labial Bow - This wire was placed 1mm away from front incisors and it runs from canine to canine anteriorly. Posteriorly, it ... Balters introduced the following terms when it comes to trimming Articular Plane Loading Area Tooth Bed Nose Ledge Ascher in ...
... is the process by which an infant's first teeth (the deciduous teeth, often called "baby teeth" or "milk teeth") ... The infant teeth tend to emerge in pairs - first one lower incisor emerges then the other lower incisor emerges before the next ... Tooth eruption Deciduous teeth Permanent teeth Dentition Lunt Roger C., Law David B. (October 1974). "A review of the ... The mandibular central incisors are the first primary teeth to erupt, usually between 6 and 10 months of age. It can take ...
... is the planned extraction of certain deciduous teeth and specific permanent teeth in an orderly sequence and ... Uprighting of incisors and early loss of posterior teeth may result in deep bite. A simple palatal bite plate may correct this ... However based on the usual eruption sequence of teeth, deciduous canines are extracted at the age of 8-9 years to create space ... Judicious reproximation disking of primary teeth with no tooth extraction is an occasional option. This decision depends on the ...
Traumatic dental injuries are more common in permanent teeth compared to deciduous teeth and usually involve the front teeth of ... Image shows a grey discoloured upper right front incisor, usually indicating that the tooth is non-vital ... If a tooth is avulsed, make sure it is a permanent tooth (primary teeth should not be replanted, and instead the injury site ... Damage to the successor teeth[edit]. Dental trauma to the primary teeth might cause damage to the permanent teeth. Damage to ...
How many teeth do puppies have, Heres all information you need to know about those cute (and sharp!) little puppy teeth. ... These teeth, sometimes known as "milk teeth" and referred to as "deciduous teeth" by vets, eventually give way to permanent " ... The incisors often come in first, followed by the canine teeth and the premolars, although there can certainly be some normal ... "If the tooth remains in place while the adult tooth is coming in, this causes a disruption in the location of the adult tooth, ...
Dont float deciduous teeth heavily, especially incisors.. Caldwell said veterinarians can remove sharp points from young ... which nourish the developing tooth. The deciduous teeth offer some protection to the secondary teeth as they develop. ... Know the horses tooth eruption and exfoliation schedule.. Several deciduous teeth are present at or shortly after birth, while ... Deciduous teeth that are ready to shed are called "caps," and they should exfoliate once the secondary tooth is visible ...
2. Development and Eruption of the Teeth. 3. The Primary (Deciduous) Teeth. 4. Forensics, Comparative Anatomy, Geometries, and ... 6. The Permanent Maxillary Incisors. 7. The Permanent Mandibular Incisors. 8. The Permanent Canines, Maxillary and Mandibular. ... and Tooth Traits of the Permanent Dentition with tables for each tooth providing detailed information such as tooth notation, ... Practical appendices include Review of Tooth Morphology with a concise review of tooth development from in utero to adolescence ...
Deciduous teeth are unlikely to have talon cusps. Also, the permanent maxillary incisors are the most likely teeth to have a ... The pulp is the location of the nerve and blood supply of a tooth. In the deciduous maxillary central incisor, endodontic ... Deciduous dentition[edit]. The overall length of the deciduous maxillary central incisor is 16 mm on average, with the crown ... The maxillary central incisor is a human tooth in the front upper jaw, or maxilla, and is usually the most visible of all teeth ...
... there are no premolars in deciduous teeth. Within each class, teeth may be classified into different traits. Incisors are ... Teeth can belong to one of two sets of teeth: primary ("baby") teeth or permanent teeth. Often, "deciduous" may be used in ... This is true only in permanent teeth. In deciduous teeth, the maxillary second molar is the last tooth in the mouth and does ... This is true only in permanent teeth. In deciduous teeth, the mandibular second molar is the last tooth in the mouth and does ...
Type of tooth. Number. Deciduous. Permanent Incisor. First (central). birth to 8 days. 2.5 yrs ... there are up to five shapes of tooth in a horses mouth), and have two successive sets of teeth, the deciduous ("baby teeth") ... also known as cheek teeth or jaw teeth.[1] These teeth chew food bitten off by incisors, prior to swallowing. ... In addition to the incisors, premolars and molars, some, but not all, horses may also have canine teeth and wolf teeth. A horse ...
Tooth Identification 11. Root Morphology 12. Incisors 13. Canines 14. Premolars 15. Molars 16. Deciduous Dentition ... Removable flashcards feature an image of a tooth on one side and that tooths identifying/important information on the other ... UNIT II: DENTAL ANATOMY 2. The Tooth Functions 3. Fundamental and Preventative Curvatures 4. Dentition 5. Development, Form, ... Eruption and Shedding of Teeth 23. Oral Mucous Membrane 24. The Tongue 25. Histology of the Salivary Glands ...
... full-color figures that showcase anatomical details of the mouth and teeth. ... 3. The Tooth and Its Surrounding Structures. 4. Numbering Systems. Part II: PERMANENT ANTERIOR TEETH. 5. Maxillary Incisors. 6 ... Deciduous Dentition. 14. Tooth Development. 15. Occlusion. 16. Form and Function. Part V: HEAD AND NECK ANATOMY. 17. Osteology ... Mandibular Incisors. 7. Canines. Part III: PERMANENT POSTERIOR TEETH. 8. Maxillary Premolars. 9. Mandibular Premolars. 10. ...
The Universal Tooth Numbering system is illustrated and explained. ... Eight quizzes covering the topic of Tooth Numbering and Tooth Identification. ... We use our incisor teeth to bite food into pieces. There are eight deciduous incisor teeth. (Gold arrows). Canines - Canine ... The anterior deciduous teeth are the incisors and the canines. (Gold and green arrows). Posterior teeth [back teeth] - ...
Rostral profiling of the first cheek teeth. *Reducing incisors. *Extracting loose, deciduous teeth ... Removing erupted, non-displaced wolf teeth. HB 414 has no impact on other procedures that are performed by non-veterinarians, ... Extracting loose, mobile or diseased teeth or dental fragments with minimal periodontal attachments by hand and without the use ...
9. Temilola OD , Folayan MO , Oyedele T . The prevalence and pattern of deciduous molar hypomineralization and molar-incisor ... followed by tooth 36 (7.5%), tooth 16 (6.5%), and tooth 26 (5.7%). In incisors, MIH prevalence was higher in tooth 11 (4%), ... for tooth 85, 3.8% for tooth 75, 4.2% for tooth 55, and 2.2% for tooth 65), followed by canines, which were the most severely ... 12 This could result in enamel defects not only in permanent first molars and incisors, but also in primary teeth, due to the ...
When deciduous teeth fall out 62 Describe the shedding of incisors and canines ... T/F Occlusion is the main functional requirement for teeth, as most normal tooth movements are aimed at maintaining the teeth ... By applying gentle constant forces on a tooth, tooth socket and PDL remodeling occurs, moving the tooth into a new relative ... What is the channel that develops between the alveolar bone around the primary tooth and the permanent tooth as it erupts? ...
This edition expands its focus on clinical applications and includes dozens of online 360-degree and 3-D tooth animations. ... 2. Development and Eruption of the Teeth. 3. The Primary (Deciduous) Teeth. 4. Forensics, Comparative Anatomy, Geometries, and ... 6. The Permanent Maxillary Incisors. 7. The Permanent Mandibular Incisors. 8. The Permanent Canines, Maxillary and Mandibular. ... and Tooth Traits of the Permanent Dentition with tables for each tooth providing detailed information such as tooth notation, ...
... exfoliation are the technical terms for the process by which primary teeth emerge and are shed to make room for permanent teeth ... The four canine teeth in dogs are the most common sites of deciduous tooth retention in companion animal medicine. The incisors ... Retained (Persistent) Deciduous (Primary) Teeth. by Dr. Patty Khuly, VMD, MBA Summary. Tooth eruption and exfoliation are the ... The clinical signs of retained teeth are obvious: Any deciduous teeth retained after six months of age are deemed abnormally ...
How many teeth do dogs have? Do they have them at birth? Check out our guide and find out more about your furry best friends ... Transitioning from Puppy Teeth to Adult Dog Teeth. Underneath the deciduous teeth, the adult permanent teeth are already ... Adjacent to the lateral incisor is the canine tooth. We also know this as the "fang". There are four of these. These teeth are ... This is the number of teeth that adult dogs have. As puppies, however, their baby teeth or deciduous teeth number only 28. This ...
Teeth - The baby (deciduous) incisors erupt. These are the small teeth at the front of the mouth. ... Teeth - Kittens are born without teeth.. *Weight - Newborn kittens weigh between 90-100 grams (3 ounces) by the end of the ... They should have almost all of their baby teeth by now.. Vaccinations/parasites. *Kittens receive their first vaccinations at 6 ... Week 4 - Canine teeth (fangs) have erupted. Hearing is well developed.. *Week 5 - Eyesight is now fully developed. Kittens ...
Baby (Deciduous) Teeth (20 Total). Lower front teeth (lower central incisors). 2 ...
Types of teeth: Deciduous or "Milk" teeth and permanent. According to the functions, teeth are divided into 4 types: - Incisors ... During 6 12 yrs, the milk teeth are gradually replaced with permanent teeth. Number of milk teeth: 20. Teeth structure: Three ... Of them, 8 are incisors, 4 canines, 8 premolars and 12 large molars. For infants, "Deciduous" of "milk" set of teeth normally ... How does a tooth get required nutrients? It is found that an open "Root channel" is connected to the tooth and nerves, arteries ...
The teeth of Euryzygomatomyines are characterized by several features: elongate lower and upper incisor roots ; five lophids on ... the lower deciduous premolars 4 ; either four lophids in Trinomys, or three lophids in Clyomys and Euryzygomatomys, on the ... Candela, Adriana M.; Rasia, Luciano L. (2012-02-01). "Tooth morphology of Echimyidae (Rodentia, Caviomorpha): homology ... lower molars 1 ; well-connected lophs on the cheek teeth ; three molar roots anchoring the upper molars. Their zygomatic arch ...
... there are no premolars in deciduous teeth. Within each class, teeth may be classified into different traits. Incisors are ... Teeth can belong to one of two sets of teeth: primary ("baby") teeth or permanent teeth. Often, "deciduous" may be used in ... Distinguishing characteristics of teethEdit. IncisorEdit. 8 incisors are anterior teeth, 4 in the upper arch and 4 in the lower ... Maxillary lateral incisorEdit. Main article: Maxillary lateral incisor. The maxillary lateral incisor is the tooth located ...
Hovorakova M, Lesot H, Peterkova R, Peterka M (2006) Origin of the deciduous upper lateral incisor and its clinical aspects. J ... incisor), control of tooth number, and the role of stem cells in tooth development. Although the exact tooth germ morphology ... fusion of tooth germs, creation of new tooth germs, and the generation of additional teeth from existing tooth germs. The ... Increasing tooth number. In the wild-type mouse mandible, one incisor forms from each incisor placode, with three molars (M1, ...
An isolated human deciduous incisor (labelled IS42) was discovered in 2014 within the archaeological level 3 coll (overlying ... Thus, the tooth is currently the oldest human fossil specimen in Italy; it is an important addition to the scanty European ... IS42 is a deciduous incisor and, most probably (see also below), a deciduous maxillary left lateral incisor (di2), although it ... We identified the new fossil tooth from Isernia La Pineta as a human deciduous incisor because of the single root, partly ...
The Deciduous and Permanent Teeth. The deciduous and permanent teeth, shown as they are placed in the jaw with portions of bone ... The Adult Teeth. The adult teeth. Labels: 1, 2, The cutting teeth (incisors). 3, Eyetooth (cuspid). 4,5, Small grinders… ... Median Incisor Teeth. Median incisor teeth of left side labial (A) and lateral (B) aspects. ... Temporary Incisor. Temporary incisor teeth of left side. A, median; B, lateral incisors. ...
Or that the mouth and teeth are essential for speech? Learn about the many roles your mouth and teeth play. ... Each jaw has four incisors, two canines, and four molars.. The deciduous teeth help the permanent teeth erupt in their normal ... most of the permanent teeth form just beneath the roots of the deciduous teeth above them. When a deciduous tooth is preparing ... All About Teeth. The types of teeth are:. *Incisors are the squarish, sharp-edged teeth at the front and middle of the mouth. ...
These are the long and pointed teeth that grow next to the deciduous incisors. ... The first teeth to pop through will likely be the incisors. If you dont see the teeth visually, you may be able to feel them ... If teeth are present, you can still estimate the age based on the number and characteristics of the teeth. *The first deciduous ... Check for adult teeth. If you find larger, adult teeth in a kitten, it is likely four months or older. The timing of the teeth ...
  • That dental follicle contains the secondary tooth with its developing dentin and enamel along with blood vessels, which nourish the developing tooth. (thehorse.com)
  • Rupture of the immature dental follicle will stop development of the enamel, prevent proper formation of the gingival attachment, and may result in the loss of the tooth completely," Caldwell said. (thehorse.com)
  • For human teeth to have a healthy oral environment, enamel, dentin, cementum, and the periodontium must all develop during appropriate stages of fetal development. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tooth bud (sometimes called the tooth germ) is an aggregation of cells that eventually forms a tooth and is organized into three parts: the enamel organ, the dental papilla and the dental follicle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, the junction between the dental papilla and inner enamel epithelium determines the crown shape of a tooth. (wikipedia.org)
  • This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) and its relationship with the number of primary teeth with developmental defects of enamel (DDE). (scielo.br)
  • As in all cases of tooth development, the first hard tissue to begin forming is dentin , with enamel appearing immediately afterwards. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each tooth is made of four types of tissue: pulp, dentin, enamel, and cementum. (kidshealth.org)
  • The development of mineralized tissue will then be detailed, looking at how the asymmetrical deposition of enamel is controlled in the mouse incisor. (wiley.com)
  • Since enamel in permanent teeth are more transparent than that of deciduous teeth, the colour of dentine shows through more easily in permanent teeth. (mitbbs.com)
  • This study investigated possible prenatal and neonatal variables that may influence the prevalence of tooth enamel hypoplasia in preterm and low birth weight children (LBW) and a matched control group of term children with normal birth weight (NBW). (scielo.br)
  • Since dental enamel does not remodel, the defects that occur during its formation will be permanently recorded on tooth surface 1 . (scielo.br)
  • The anatomic crown of a tooth is the area covered in enamel above the cementoenamel junction (CEJ) or "neck" of the tooth. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the edges of teeth where there is no dentin underlying the enamel, the color sometimes has a slightly blue tone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since enamel is semitranslucent, the color of dentin and any restorative dental material underneath the enamel strongly affects the appearance of a tooth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human teeth are made up of four different types of tissue: pulp, dentin, enamel, and cementum. (kidshealth.org)
  • They contain calcium which will help to repair tooth enamel. (cyh.com)
  • Livestock also exhibit individual tooth structure-pulp, dentine, enamel, and cement-very much like our own. (motherearthnews.com)
  • The differing width of the jaws and the chewing motion of the horse leads to formation of sharp enamel points along the buccal edge of the upper cheek teeth and the lingual edge of the lower cheek teeth,' Griffin explained. (bloodhorse.com)
  • Most nonmammalian vertebrates do not have the outer layer of enamel on their teeth, but instead have a substance known as vitrodentine, similar to dentine, though much harder. (factmonster.com)
  • A widely accepted explanation of the process of tooth decay is that salivary bacteria convert carbohydrate particles in the mouth into lactic acid, which attacks the enamel, dentin, and, if left untreated, the pulp of the teeth. (factmonster.com)
  • Here we present the first rigorous analysis of the largest sample of cremated human skeletal remains (348 burial urns, N = 540 individuals) from the Carthaginian Tophet based on tooth formation, enamel histology, cranial and postcranial metrics, and the potential effects of heat-induced bone shrinkage. (plos.org)
  • This approach, allowed us to carry out a virtual histological analysis of the precious fossil teeth, revealing the finest structures of the dental enamel in a non-destructive way. (lightsources.org)
  • Painful teeth may have enamel defects , may be fractured (with dentin or pulp exposure), severely affected by periodontal disease , have pulpitis (inflammed pulp), pulp infection, root abscess, or be associated with a jaw fracture . (mypetsdentist.com)
  • If teeth are malpositioned, they can rub against other teeth, wearing away the enamel and weakening the tooth. (vcahospitals.com)
  • The main bulk of the tooth is composed of dentin, covered by enamel on the crown area and, in mammals, by cementum on the neck and root. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Each tooth is an organ consisting of three layers: the pulp, dentin, and enamel. (innerbody.com)
  • These hypsodont teeth have regular serrations that expose sharp enamel edges for shredding and crushing cellulose material. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • At the same time, the brittle nature of the enamel of the tooth is protected by the surrounding dentin and peripheral cementum. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Teeth develop due to interactions between the oral ectodermal epithelial cells and MSCs, first forming the enamel organ and the second forming papilla and the dental follicle. (hindawi.com)
  • The function of teeth as they contact one another falls elsewhere, under dental occlusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • The market leader, this text is used as a reference in creating examination questions for the dental anatomy and occlusion section of the NBDE Part I. This edition expands its focus on clinical applications and includes dozens of online 360-degree and 3-D tooth animations. (elsevier.com)
  • The development, appearance, and classification of teeth fall within its field of study, though dental occlusion, or contact between teeth, does not. (wikipedia.org)
  • With orthodontic therapy, teeth can be saved and the occlusion can be transformed for improved comfort and function. (mypetsdentist.com)
  • Removing caps before this time can damage the underlying dental follicle and/or permanent tooth. (thehorse.com)
  • HEAD, NECK and DENTAL ANATOMY is brimming with new, full-color figures that showcase anatomical details of the mouth and teeth. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • Our next four tests drill on the subject of tooth identification, both by shape and the position in the dental arch. (animated-teeth.com)
  • Dental anatomy is a field of anatomy dedicated to the study of human tooth structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dental anatomy is also a taxonomical science: it is concerned with the naming of teeth and the structures of which they are made, this information serving a practical purpose in dental treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are several different dental notation systems for associating information to a specific tooth. (wikipedia.org)
  • 360-degree virtual reality animations on the Evolve companion website demonstrate 26 tooth views from multiple directions, while 27 3-D animations demonstrate dental structure and mandibular movement, helping you refine your skills in tooth identification and examination. (elsevier.com)
  • Dental x-rays under anesthesia are recommended to assess the length of the root, the degree of resorption of the root (if any), and the relationship to and integrity of the adjacent permanent teeth. (embracepetinsurance.com)
  • Dental professionals are working on creating metal-free dental implants which would eliminate the risk of developing allergies to metal among patients who need teeth restorations. (freakingnews.com)
  • A cleft palate or other developmental disturbances disrupt the dental lamina and often result in palatal supernumerary teeth. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • See also dental , tooth . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Dental anatomy is also a taxonomic science as it is concerned with the naming of teeth and their structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is one of the four major tissues which make up the tooth, along with dentin, cementum, and dental pulp. (wikipedia.org)
  • Supernumerary teeth are those that are additional to the normal series and can be found in almost any region of the dental arch. (dentalnews.com)
  • If occlusal trauma is present, extraction of the abnormally placed deciduous teeth should be performed as soon as possible to alleviate the trauma and pain and to remove the adverse dental interlock and allow unimpeded jaw movement. (constantcontact.com)
  • It is imperative that the client understands that, typically, treatment of a malocclusion by selective extraction of deciduous teeth is only the first step, unless the malocclusion is solely the result of adverse dental interlock. (constantcontact.com)
  • Dental floss cleans between your teeth but should only be used if you have been shown how to floss at the dentist. (cyh.com)
  • This is of vital importance because not only does poor dental hygiene have an effect on the teeth, but it has also been proven that it can affect other organs of the body also. (cat-world.com.au)
  • This article will guide you through all aspects of feline teeth from teething in kittens to dental care and diseases of the teeth. (cat-world.com.au)
  • Some says that these are there because of the abnormal division of the tooth bud but another theory says that it is because of the hyperactivity of the dental lamina. (identalhub.com)
  • Dental lamina is the dental tissue which forms the tooth buds to form the teeth. (identalhub.com)
  • If the dental lamina shows hyperactivity then extra teeth are formed which are known as the supernumerary teeth . (identalhub.com)
  • This continuous tooth growth is needed to counteract dental wear resulting from 'long hours of consuming tough, fibrous feedstuffs,' he said. (bloodhorse.com)
  • Proper diet is necessary for the development and maintenance of sound teeth, especially sufficient calcium, phosphorus, and vitamins D and C. The most common disorder that affects the teeth is dental caries (tooth decay). (factmonster.com)
  • Dental attrition is critical to the oral health of rabbits since their teeth continuously grow. (mypetsdentist.com)
  • ABSTRACT Mesiodistal and buccolingual crown diameters were measured from dental casts representing the deciduous dentitions of 197 Aboriginal children from the Northern Territory of Australia. (docme.ru)
  • The development of teeth in a young dog is a process and there are a number of stages where things may progress normally or may go wrong and result in abnormal dental development. (pethealthnetwork.com)
  • In normal dental eruption, the deciduous teeth are essentially pushed out by the incoming adult teeth. (pethealthnetwork.com)
  • Pulling teeth" or dental extraction? (mypetsdentist.com)
  • Dr. Kressin never uses the phrase "pulling teeth" with reference to dental or oral surgical procedures. (mypetsdentist.com)
  • Tooth extraction is a common dental procedure performed in most veterinary practices. (mypetsdentist.com)
  • Dental radiographs are tremendously important for the evaluation of teeth before, during, and after extraction to avoid patient injury. (mypetsdentist.com)
  • Selective tooth extraction, or full mouth dental extraction has been very rewarding for these dogs. (mypetsdentist.com)
  • 2) Preventive dental procedures including, but not limited to, the removal of calculus, soft deposits, plaque, stains or the smoothing, filing or polishing of tooth surfaces. (tx.us)
  • c) Nothing in this regulation shall prohibit any person from utilizing cotton swabs, gauze, dental floss, dentifrice, or toothbrushes to clean an animal's teeth. (tx.us)
  • One commonly used measure of dental maturity is the number of permanent teeth erupted at a given age . (prolekare.cz)
  • To search for sequence variants associated with number of permanent teeth erupted, we carried out a GWAS in more than 5,100 women from the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) , who had records in the nationwide dental registry for children (SCOR) and replicated the findings in more than 3,700 individuals from Denmark and the US (see Table S1 for description of study groups). (prolekare.cz)
  • Occasionally, a retained deciduous tooth can cause a dental interlock which may interfere with the normal growth and development of the jaw bones. (vcahospitals.com)
  • Regular cleansing and semiannual dental examinations (see dentistry dentistry, treatment and care of the teeth and associated oral structures. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The deciduous and permanent dental formula of cows, sheep, and goats are similar. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • All ruminants lack upper incisor teeth, with the mandibular brachydont (short-crowned) incisors meeting with a maxillary cornified dental pad. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Dental crown wear has been matched by the development of hypsodont (long-crowned) teeth with the continuous eruption of the reserve crown. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Dental transposition is a positional anomaly of the teeth which is described as the positional interchange of two adjacent teeth, or the development or eruption of a tooth in a position normally occupied by a non-adjacent tooth [ 1 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • If performed early, before any root resorption or damage to adjacent teeth occurs, simple closed extraction can be relatively inexpensive, typically less than $100 per tooth. (embracepetinsurance.com)
  • Current literature recommends closed extractions in cases with significant root resorption and a surgical approach when the tooth appears intact radiographically. (constantcontact.com)
  • Root resorption in all root surfaces of the maxillary incisors was evaluated with color-coded maps using the ITK-SNAP and the 3D Slicer software to indicate loss of the root surface (in red) or gain of the surface (in blue) and was quantified in millimeters by the superimposition method. (springer.com)
  • Root resorption of the maxillary incisors has been evaluated mainly on radiographs and using scoring systems. (springer.com)
  • This method allows the determination of changes to the structures surrounding the impacted canine, including the resorption produced in the incisor root. (springer.com)
  • The physiologic tooth resorption occurs as a natural and programmed phenomenon and results in the shedding of deciduous teeth. (usp.br)
  • These animals were two months old and showed different stages of tooth resorption. (usp.br)
  • We analysed the participation of apoptosis by TUNEL staining in physiologic tooth resorption because of it programmed pattern. (usp.br)
  • These results imply that programmed cell death could trigger the physiological tooth resorption and the expression of molecule Bmp-4 mediates apoptosis by autocrine and paracrine control. (usp.br)
  • The same expression of gelatinase B by clasts associated with bone and tooth resorption indicate similarity between these cells. (usp.br)
  • These results were analysed in microscope with bright and dark field and the images were digitalized.These findings contribute to further understand tooth resorption mechanism, to develop specific terapies to control inflammatory tooth resorption and to accelerate or paralyse the physiological tooth resorption in special clinical situations. (usp.br)
  • Consequently, and in sequence, it would lead to malocclusion, maxillary atresia, transposition, prolonged retention of the deciduous canine and resorption in the neighboring teeth. (figshare.com)
  • Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) was described in Sweden in 1970, and the term was standardized by the European Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (EAPD) in 2003. (scielo.br)
  • Risk factors evaluated were: caries experience in the mother, educational level of the mother, frequent drug use, systemic diseases, eating habits, brushing frequency, presence of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) in PT, and caries in deciduous teeth (DT). (springer.com)
  • As the name implies they have more than one cusp or tubercle and are mostly present palatally to the central upper incisors. (identalhub.com)
  • The upper incisors are paired teeth on the left and right sides. (mypetsdentist.com)
  • View of upper incisors from below. (mypetsdentist.com)
  • The aims of the study were 1) to evaluate the supporting bone tissue thickness around 68 upper incisors and its relationship with their inclination, and 2) to investigate the impact of gender on these two variables. (ebscohost.com)
  • Ideally, for most breeds, the upper incisors fit snugly just in front of the lower ones, and the lower canine is just in front of the upper one. (vetstreet.com)
  • Doing so, especially during the eruptive and exfoliative phase, can place too much occlusal pressure on the newly erupted permanent teeth," she explained. (thehorse.com)
  • They are typically big teeth used for grinding and with ridges on their occlusal surfaces (lophodont) in horses, worn rounded cusps (bunodont) in pigs, or including crescents (selenodont) in cattle, and either cutting edges or flattened areas in carnivores. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • continuing process of adaptation of the tooth to changing incisal and occlusal relationships after active eruption has ended. (studystack.com)
  • In the normal course of masticating forage, the rate of tooth eruption is matched by the rate of occlusal crown wear. (merckvetmanual.com)