The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
A cancer registry mandated under the National Cancer Act of 1971 to operate and maintain a population-based cancer reporting system, reporting periodically estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program is a continuing project of the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health. Among its goals, in addition to assembling and reporting cancer statistics, are the monitoring of annual cancer incident trends and the promoting of studies designed to identify factors amenable to cancer control interventions. (From National Cancer Institute, NIH Publication No. 91-3074, October 1990)
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.
Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
The confinement of a patient in a hospital.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)
NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).
Tests to experimentally measure the tumor-producing/cancer cell-producing potency of an agent by administering the agent (e.g., benzanthracenes) and observing the quantity of tumors or the cell transformation developed over a given period of time. The carcinogenicity value is usually measured as milligrams of agent administered per tumor developed. Though this test differs from the DNA-repair and bacterial microsome MUTAGENICITY TESTS, researchers often attempt to correlate the finding of carcinogenicity values and mutagenicity values.
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The proportion of patients with a particular disease during a given year per given unit of population.
Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesized causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES; COHORT STUDIES; and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.
Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.
Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.
Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.
The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
All deaths reported in a given population.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.
The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.
The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.
Infection occurring at the site of a surgical incision.
Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.
Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in HEART RATE, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.
Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
Any of a group of malignant tumors of lymphoid tissue that differ from HODGKIN DISEASE, being more heterogeneous with respect to malignant cell lineage, clinical course, prognosis, and therapy. The only common feature among these tumors is the absence of giant REED-STERNBERG CELLS, a characteristic of Hodgkin's disease.
The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.
Emesis and queasiness occurring after anesthesia.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
Persons including soldiers involved with the armed forces.
Obstruction of a blood vessel (embolism) by a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the blood stream.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.
A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)
The combination of two or more different factors in the production of cancer.
A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.
Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms that can cause pathological conditions or diseases.
Abnormal cardiac rhythm that is characterized by rapid, uncoordinated firing of electrical impulses in the upper chambers of the heart (HEART ATRIA). In such case, blood cannot be effectively pumped into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES). It is caused by abnormal impulse generation.
Former kingdom, located on Korea Peninsula between Sea of Japan and Yellow Sea on east coast of Asia. In 1948, the kingdom ceased and two independent countries were formed, divided by the 38th parallel.
Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.
Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.
A statistically significant excess of cases of a disease, occurring within a limited space-time continuum.
The formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) within a vein.
The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.
A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.
Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.
Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
Groups of individuals whose putative ancestry is from native continental populations based on similarities in physical appearance.
Agents that prevent clotting.
The capital is Seoul. The country, established September 9, 1948, is located on the southern part of the Korean Peninsula. Its northern border is shared with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.
Notification or reporting by a physician or other health care provider of the occurrence of specified contagious diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV infections to designated public health agencies. The United States system of reporting notifiable diseases evolved from the Quarantine Act of 1878, which authorized the US Public Health Service to collect morbidity data on cholera, smallpox, and yellow fever; each state in the US has its own list of notifiable diseases and depends largely on reporting by the individual health care provider. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
The status of health in rural populations.
Breaks in bones.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
Fractures of the FEMUR HEAD; the FEMUR NECK; (FEMORAL NECK FRACTURES); the trochanters; or the inter- or subtrochanteric region. Excludes fractures of the acetabulum and fractures of the femoral shaft below the subtrochanteric region (FEMORAL FRACTURES).
The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.
Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
A group of islands in the southwest Pacific. Its capital is Wellington. It was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1642 and circumnavigated by Cook in 1769. Colonized in 1840 by the New Zealand Company, it became a British crown colony in 1840 until 1907 when colonial status was terminated. New Zealand is a partly anglicized form of the original Dutch name Nieuw Zeeland, new sea land, possibly with reference to the Dutch province of Zeeland. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p842 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p378)
An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.
An acute infectious, usually self-limited, disease believed to represent activation of latent varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN) in those who have been rendered partially immune after a previous attack of CHICKENPOX. It involves the SENSORY GANGLIA and their areas of innervation and is characterized by severe neuralgic pain along the distribution of the affected nerve and crops of clustered vesicles over the area. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
That part of the STOMACH close to the opening from ESOPHAGUS into the stomach (cardiac orifice), the ESOPHAGOGASTRIC JUNCTION. The cardia is so named because of its closeness to the HEART. Cardia is characterized by the lack of acid-forming cells (GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS).
Blocking of the PULMONARY ARTERY or one of its branches by an EMBOLUS.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.
Individual members of North American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia.
The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.
A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
Leukemia produced by exposure to IONIZING RADIATION or NON-IONIZING RADIATION.
The status of health in urban populations.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.

Incidence and occupational pattern of leukaemias, lymphomas, and testicular tumours in western Ireland over an 11 year period. (1/32716)

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine incidence of the following malignancies, testicular tumours, all leukaemias and all lymphomas in the West of Ireland in an 11 year period. Secondly, to examine the relation between disease patterns and available occupational data in male subjects of working age. DESIGN: A census survey of all cases occurring in the three counties in the Western Health Board (WHB) area, Galway, Mayo and Roscommon, for the 11 year period 1980 to 1990 inclusive. Average annual age standardised incidence rates for the period were calculated using the 1986 census data. Rates for the area are compared with rates from the southern region of Ireland, which had a tumour registry. Trends over the time period are evaluated. All male subjects for whom occupational data were available were categorised using the Irish socioeconomic group classification and incidence rates by occupation were compared using the standardised incidence ratio method. In one of the counties, Galway, a detailed occupational history of selected cases and an age matched control group was also elicited through patients' general practitioners. SETTING: All available case records in the West of Ireland. RESULTS: There are no national incidence records for the period. Compared with data from the Southern Tumour Registry, the number of cases of women with myeloid leukaemias was significantly lower. Male leukaemia rates were significantly lower as a group (SIR 84 (95% CI 74, 95) but not when considered as individual categories. Regression analysis revealed an increasing trend in the number of new cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma among both men (r = 0.47, p = 0.02) and women (r = 0.90, p = 0.0001) and of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia in men (r = 0.77, p = 0.005) and women (r = 0.68 p = 0.02) in the WHB region over the last decade. Four hundred and fifty six male cases over the age of 15 years were identified and adequate occupational information was available for 74% of these. Standardised incidence ratios of testicular tumours 100, 938) and agriworkers other than farmers (SIR 377, 95% CI 103, 967). There were also significantly increased incidence ratios for both non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (SIR 169, 95% CI 124, 266) and three categories of leukaemias among farmers. Hodgkin's disease and acute myeloid leukaemias were significantly increased among semi-skilled people. Interview data with 90 cases and 54 controls of both sexes revealed that among farmers, cases (n = 31) were significantly less likely than controls (n = 20) to use tractor mounted spraying techniques (OR = 0.19 (95% CI 0.04, 0.80)) and less likely to wear protective masks (OR 0.22 (95% CI 0.05, 0.84)). CONCLUSIONS: Trends of increase in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and some leukaemias are consistent with studies elsewhere. The study provides further evidence of the relation between agricultural work and certain lymphoproliferative cancers. The possible carcinogenic role of chemicals used in agricultural industries must be considered as an explanation.  (+info)

Use of wood stoves and risk of cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract: a case-control study. (2/32716)

BACKGROUND: Incidence rates for cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract in Southern Brazil are among the highest in the world. A case-control study was designed to identify the main risk factors for carcinomas of mouth, pharynx, and larynx in the region. We tested the hypothesis of whether use of wood stoves is associated with these cancers. METHODS: Information on known and potential risk factors was obtained from interviews with 784 cases and 1568 non-cancer controls. We estimated the effect of use of wood stove by conditional logistic regression, with adjustment for smoking, alcohol consumption and for other sociodemographic and dietary variables chosen as empirical confounders based on a change-in-estimate criterion. RESULTS: After extensive adjustment for all the empirical confounders the odds ratio (OR) for all upper aero-digestive tract cancers was 2.68 (95% confidence interval [CI] : 2.2-3.3). Increased risks were also seen in site-specific analyses for mouth (OR = 2.73; 95% CI: 1.8-4.2), pharyngeal (OR = 3.82; 95% CI: 2.0-7.4), and laryngeal carcinomas (OR = 2.34; 95% CI: 1.2-4.7). Significant risk elevations remained for each of the three anatomic sites and for all sites combined even after we purposefully biased the analyses towards the null hypothesis by adjusting the effect of wood stove use only for positive empirical confounders. CONCLUSIONS: The association of use of wood stoves with cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract is genuine and unlikely to result from insufficient control of confounding. Due to its high prevalence, use of wood stoves may be linked to as many as 30% of all cancers occurring in the region.  (+info)

Constitutional, biochemical and lifestyle correlates of fibrinogen and factor VII activity in Polish urban and rural populations. (3/32716)

BACKGROUND: Fibrinogen and factor VII activity are known to be related to atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease, but population differences in clotting factors and modifiable characteristics that influence their levels have not been widely explored. METHODS: This paper examines correlates of plasma fibrinogen concentration and factor VII activity in 2443 men and women aged 35-64 in random samples selected from the residents in two districts in urban Warsaw (618 men and 651 women) and from rural Tarnobrzeg Province (556 men and 618 women) screened in 1987-1988, and assesses which characteristics might explain urban-rural differences. Fibrinogen and factor VII activity were determined using coagulation methods. RESULTS: Fibrinogen was 12.9 mg/dl higher in men and 14.1 mg/dl higher in women in Tarnobrzeg compared to Warsaw. Factor VII activity was higher in Warsaw (9.2% in men and 15.3% in women). After adjustment for selected characteristics, fibrinogen was higher in smokers compared to non-smokers by 28 mg/dl in men and 22 mg/dl in women. In women, a 15 mg/dl increase in HDL-cholesterol was associated with a 10 mg/dl decrease in fibrinogen (P < 0.01). After adjustment for other variables, a higher factor VII activity in Warsaw remained significant (a difference of 9.4% in men and 14.8% in women). Lower fibrinogen in Warsaw remained significant only in women (15.4 mg/dl difference). CONCLUSIONS: The study confirmed that sex, age, BMI, smoking and blood lipids are related to clotting factors. However, with the exception of gender differences and smoking, associations between clotting factors and other variables were small and of questionable practical importance.  (+info)

Short stature and cardiovascular disease among men and women from two southeastern New England communities. (4/32716)

BACKGROUND: Short stature has been associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), although the reason for the association remains unclear. Data on the relation between stature and stroke is more limited. We examined the association between stature and CHD as well as between stature and stroke in men and women from two communities in southeastern New England. METHODS: Coronary heart disease and stroke events were abstracted from medical records between January 1980 and December 1991. An epidemiological diagnostic algorithm developed to measure CHD was used in the present analysis. Unadjusted relative risks (RR) and RR adjusted for age, smoking status, obesity, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol <0.91 mmol/l, total cholesterol >6.21 mmol/l, hypertension, diabetes, education, and being foreign born were computed by gender-specific height categories separately for men (n = 2826) and women (n = 3741). RESULTS: A graded inverse association between stature and risk of CHD was observed among men which persisted after adjustment for confounders. Men >69.75 inches had an 83% lower risk of CHD compared with men < or = 65 inches. In addition, the tallest men had a 67% decreased risk of stroke compared with the shortest men. No significant relation between stature and CHD or stroke was observed among women. CONCLUSIONS: These data support the hypothesis that stature is inversely related to both risk of CHD and stroke at least among men. Factors which might explain this association remain to be determined.  (+info)

Screening for congenital heart malformation in child health centres. (5/32716)

BACKGROUND: Although screening for congenital heart malformations is part of the child health care programme in several countries, there are very few published evaluations of these activities. This report is concerned with the evaluation of this screening at the Dutch Child Health Centres (CHC). METHODS: All consecutive patients, aged between 32 days and 4 years, presented at the Sophia Children's Hospital Rotterdam throughout a period of 2 years, with a congenital heart malformation were included in this study. Paediatric cardiologists established whether or not these patients were diagnosed after haemodynamic complications had already developed (diagnosed 'too late'). Parents and CHC-physicians were interviewed in order to establish the screening and detection history. Test properties were established for all patients with a congenital heart malformation (n = 290), intended effects of screening were established in patients with clinically significant malformations (n = 82). RESULTS: The sensitivity of the actual screening programme was 0.57 (95% CI : 0.51-0.62), the specificity 0.985 (95% CI : 0.981-0.990) and the predictive value of a positive test result 0.13 (95% CI: 0.10-0.19). Sensitivity in a subpopulation of patients adequately screened was 0.89 (95% CI: 0.74-0.96). Adequately screened patients were less likely to be diagnosed 'too late' than inadequately screened patients (odds ratio [OR] = 0.20, 95% CI: 0.04-1.05). The actual risk of being diagnosed 'too late' in the study-population (48%) was only slightly less than the estimated risk for patients not exposed to CHC-screening (58%, 95% CI: 43%-72%). Adequately screened patients however were at considerably less risk (17%, 95% CI: 4%-48%). CONCLUSION: Screening for congenital heart malformations in CHC contributes to the timely detection of these disorders. The actual yield, however, is far from optimal, and the screening programme should be improved.  (+info)

Exposure to nitrogen dioxide and the occurrence of bronchial obstruction in children below 2 years. (6/32716)

BACKGROUND: The objective of the investigation was to test the hypothesis that exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) has a causal influence on the occurrence of bronchial obstruction in children below 2 years of age. METHODS: A nested case-control study with 153 one-to-one matched pairs was conducted within a cohort of 3754 children born in Oslo in 1992/93. Cases were children who developed > or = 2 episodes of bronchial obstruction or one episode lasting >4 weeks. Controls were matched for date of birth. Exposure measurements were performed in the same 14-day period within matched pairs. The NO2 exposure was measured with personal samplers carried close to each child and by stationary samplers outdoors and indoors. RESULTS: Few children (4.6%) were exposed to levels of NO2 > or = 30 microg/m3 (average concentration during a 14-day period). In the 153 matched pairs, the mean level of NO2 was 15.65 microg/m3 (+/-0.60, SE) among cases and 15.37 (+/-0.54) among controls (paired t = 0.38, P = 0.71). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that NO2 exposure at levels observed in this study has no detectable effect on the risk of developing bronchial obstruction in children below 2 years of age.  (+info)

Socioeconomic inequalities and disability pension in middle-aged men. (7/32716)

BACKGROUND: The issue of inequalities in health has generated much discussion and socioeconomic status is considered an important variable in studies of health. It is frequently used in epidemiological studies, either as a possible risk factor or a confounder and the aim of this study was to analyse the relation between socioeconomic status and risk of disability pension. METHODS: Five complete birth year cohorts of middle-aged male residents in Malmo were invited to a health survey and 5782 with complete data constituted the cohort in this prospective study. Each subject was followed for approximately 11 years and nationwide Swedish data registers were used for surveillance. RESULTS: Among the 715 men (12%), granted disability pension during follow-up, three groups were distinguished. The cumulative incidence of disability pension among blue collar workers was 17% and among lower and higher level white collar workers, 11% and 6% respectively. With simultaneous adjustment for biological risk factors and job conditions, the relative risk for being granted a disability pension (using higher level white collar workers as reference) was 2.5 among blue collar workers and 1.6 among lower level white collar workers. CONCLUSIONS: Socioeconomic status, as defined by occupation, is a risk factor for being granted disability pension even after adjusting for work conditions and other risk factors for disease.  (+info)

Demographic, clinical and social factors associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection and other sexually transmitted diseases in a cohort of women from the United Kingdom and Ireland. MRC Collaborative Study of women with HIV. (8/32716)

BACKGROUND: Clinical experience suggests many women with HIV infection have experienced no other sexually transmitted diseases (STD). Our objective was to test the hypothesis that a substantial proportion of women with HIV infection in the United Kingdom and Ireland have experienced no other diagnosed STD and to describe the demographic, clinical and social factors associated with the occurrence of other STD in a cohort of HIV infected women. METHOD: Analysis of cross-sectional baseline data from a prospective study of 505 women with diagnosed HIV infection. The setting was 15 HIV treatment centres in the United Kingdom and Ireland. The main outcome measures were occurrence of other STD diagnosed for the first time before and after HIV diagnosis. Data were obtained from interview with women and clinic notes. We particularly focused on occurrence of gonorrhoea, chlamydia and trichomoniasis after HIV diagnosis, as these are the STD most likely to reflect recent unprotected sexual intercourse. RESULTS: The women were mainly infected via heterosexual sex (n = 304), and injection drug use (n = 174). 151 were black Africans. A total of 250 (49.5%) women reported never having been diagnosed with an STD apart from HIV, 255 (50.5%) women had ever experienced an STD besides HIV, including 109 (21.6%) who had their first other STD diagnosed after HIV. Twenty-five (5%) women reported having had chlamydia, gonorrhoea or trichomoniasis diagnosed for the first time after HIV diagnosis, possibly reflecting unprotected sexual intercourse since HIV diagnosis. In all 301 (60%) women reported having had sex with a man in the 6 months prior to entry to the study. Of these, 168 (58%) reported using condoms 'always', 66(23%) 'sometimes' and 56 (19%) 'never'. CONCLUSIONS: Half the women in this study reported having never experienced any other diagnosed STD besides HIV. However, after HIV diagnosis most women remain sexually active and at least 5% had an STD diagnosed which reflect unprotected sexual intercourse.  (+info)

Colon cancers are thought to be an inevitable result of aging, while testicular cancers are thought to develop in only a small fraction of men, beginning in utero. These models of carcinogenesis are, in part, based upon age-specific incidence data. The specific incidence for colon cancer appears to monotonically increase with age, while that of testicular cancer increases to a maximum value at about 35 years of age, then declines to nearly zero by the age of 80. We hypothesized that the age-specific incidence for these two cancers is similar; the apparent difference is caused by a longer development time for colon cancer and the lack of age-specific incidence data for people over 84 years of age. Here we show that a single distribution can describe the age-specific incidence of both colon carcinoma and testicular cancer. Furthermore, this distribution predicts that the specific incidence of colon cancer should reach a maximum at about age 90 and then decrease. Data on the incidence of colon carcinoma
Small bowel tumours occurred rarely, with an average annual incidence rate of 9.9 per million people. Carcinoid tumours and adenocarcinomas were the most common histological subtypes, with average annual incidence rates of 3.8 and 3.7 per million people respectively, followed by lymphomas (1.1 per million people) and sarcomas (1.3 per million people). For all histological subtypes, men had higher rates than women. Most tumours occurred in older adults; over 90% of cases occurred in people over the age of 40. During the 18-year study period, the incidence of small bowel tumours has risen slowly. In white men, black men and black women, rises in the incidence of adenocarcinomas, malignant carcinoids and lymphomas contributed to this trend. In white women, the incidence of adenocarcinomas, was stable while malignant carcinoids and lymphomas rose. The incidence of sarcomas was steady for all groups except black women, for which it fell. The histological types were distributed by anatomical subsite: ...
Manoharan, N., Tyagi, B. B., & Raina, V. (2010). Cancer incidences in rural Delhi--2004-05. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 11(1), 73-77. Abstract There are no data available on cancer incidence pattern in rural Delhi. This is the first report on cancer incidence among Delhi Rural population during 2004-05 which gives the first hand information on cancer incidence. The data for this report has been collected by Delhi Population based cancer registry. The sources for cancer registration are more than 162 Government Hospitals/centers and 250 private hospitals and nursing homes. A total of 594 cancer cases with 317 males and 277 females were registered during the period 1st January 2004 to 31st December 2005. The age adjusted (world population) incidence rates for all sites were 55.2 per 100,000 for... Show More ...
Metro/Nonmetro: USDA Economic Research Service. Tier: NC Department of Commerce. Population: US Census - Population Estimates Program. Child Population: US Census - Population Estimates Program. Elderly Population: US Census - Population Estimates Program. White: US Census - Population Estimates Program. Hispanic/Latinx: US Census - Population Estimates Program. African American: US Census - Population Estimates Program. Asian: US Census - Population Estimates Program. Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander: US Census - Population Estimates Program. American Indian: US Census - Population Estimates Program. Two or More Races: US Census - Population Estimates Program. High School Graduation: NC Department of Instruction. Reading Proficiency: NC Department of Instruction. College Graduation: U.S. Census - American Community Survey. Uninsured Adults: US Census - Small Area Health Insurance Estimates. Uninsured Children: US Census - Small Area Health Insurance Estimates. Medicaid & CHIP Enrollees: NC ...
Metro/Nonmetro: USDA Economic Research Service. Tier: NC Department of Commerce. Population: US Census - Population Estimates Program. Child Population: US Census - Population Estimates Program. Elderly Population: US Census - Population Estimates Program. White: US Census - Population Estimates Program. Hispanic/Latinx: US Census - Population Estimates Program. African American: US Census - Population Estimates Program. Asian: US Census - Population Estimates Program. Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander: US Census - Population Estimates Program. American Indian: US Census - Population Estimates Program. Two or More Races: US Census - Population Estimates Program. High School Graduation: NC Department of Instruction. Reading Proficiency: NC Department of Instruction. College Graduation: U.S. Census - American Community Survey. Uninsured Adults: US Census - Small Area Health Insurance Estimates. Uninsured Children: US Census - Small Area Health Insurance Estimates. Medicaid & CHIP Enrollees: NC ...
Objectives To examine trends in prostate cancer incidence and mortality in England and Wales between 1971 and 1998, using a newly developed and validated national cancer database and the national mortality database.. Methods Age-standardized incidence and death rates were calculated directly and trends in relative survival rates among men with prostate cancer registered during 1971-1990 were examined.. Results The annual number of new cases of prostate cancer registered in England and Wales increased by 179% between 1971 and 1993, from 6174 to 17 210. Directly age-standardized incidence rates increased by 104% between 1971 and 1993, from 29 to 59 per 100 000. The number of deaths from prostate cancer increased by 113% between 1971 and 1998, from 4027 to 8570. Directly age-standardized death rates increased by 49% between 1971 and 1995 and then decreased by 8% between 1995 and 1998, an overall increase of 38% (20 to 27 per 100 000) between 1971 and 1998. The relative survival rate for prostate ...
Background: The advent of PSA testing in the late 1980s substantially increased prostate cancer incidence rates. Concerns about overscreening and overdiagnosis subsequently led professional guidelines (circa 2000 and later) to recommend against routine PSA testing. We evaluated trends in prostate cancer incidence, including late-stage diagnoses, from 1995 through 2012. Methods: We used joinpoint regression analyses to evaluate all-, localized/regional-, and distant-stage prostate cancer incidence trends based on Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) data. We stratified analyses by age (50-69, 70+). We reported incidence trends as annual percent change (APC). Results: Overall age-adjusted incidence rates for localized/regional stage PCa have been declining since 2001, sharply from 2010 to 2012 (APC -13.1, 95% CI -23.5 to -1.3). Distant-stage incidence rates have declined since 1995, with greater declines from 1995 to 1997 (APC - 8.4, 95% CI -2.3 to -14.1) than from 2003 to 2012 (APC ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been shown to predict occurrence of cardiovascular events in the general population. The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of NLR to predict major cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in HIV-infected subjects. We performed a retrospective cohort study of HIV-infected patients residing in the Local Health Authority (LHA) of Brescia, northern Italy, from 2000 to 2012. The incidence of CVD events in HIV-positive patients was compared with that expected in the general population living in the same area, computing standardized incidence ratios (SIRs). To evaluate the predictive role of NLR, univariate and multivariate Cox regression models were applied, computing hazard ratios (HRs). A total of 3766 HIV-infected patients (mean age 38.1 years, 71.3% males) were included (person-years 28768.6). A total of 134 CVD events occurred in 119 HIV-infected patients. A 2-fold increased risk (SIR 2.02) of CVD was found in HIV-infected patients compared to the ...
Background: Secular trends in incidence and prognosis of molecular breast cancer subtypes are poorly described. We studied long-term trends in a population of Norwegian women born 1886-1977.. Methods: A total of 52,949 women were followed for breast cancer incidence, and 1,423 tumors were reclassified into molecular subtypes using IHC and in situ hybridization. We compared incidence rates among women born 1886-1928 and 1929-1977, estimated age-specific incidence rate ratios (IRR), and performed multiple imputations to account for unknown subtype. Prognosis was compared for women diagnosed before 1995 and in 1995 or later, estimating cumulative risk of death and HRs.. Results: Between 50 and 69 years of age, incidence rates of Luminal A and Luminal B (HER2−) were higher among women born in 1929 or later, compared with before 1929 [IRRs 50-54 years; after imputations: 3.5; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.8-6.9 and 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2-5.2, respectively], with no clear differences for other subtypes. ...
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a multi-factorial disease in which diet is believed to play a role. Little is known about the health effects of specific regional diets. The Nordic diet is high in fat and sugar but also includes a range of traditional products with anticipated health-promoting effects. The aim of this cohort study was to determine whether a healthy Nordic food index consisting of fish, cabbage, rye bread, oatmeal, apples, pears and root vegetables was related to CRC incidence. Data were obtained from a prospective cohort study of 57,053 Danish men and women aged 50-64 years, of whom 1025 developed CRC (13 years follow-up). Incidence rate ratios (IRR) with 95 % CI were calculated from Cox proportional hazard models. Women who strongly adhered to a healthy Nordic food index had a 35 % lower incidence of CRC than women with poor adherence (adjusted IRR, 0·65; 95 % CI 0·46, 0·94); a similar tendency was found for men. Women had a 9 % lower incidence of CRC per point adherence to the ...
Data analysis. The average annual incidence of cancer in Gipuzkoa for the period 1998-2002 is presented for all sites together, and also for specific sites, and expressed in rates per 100,000 persons at risk per year. Crude, agespecific and age-standardized incidence rates were calculated by gender, using the direct method and adjusted with European and World population data3. Furthermore, cumulative incidence rates were calculated for each site and gender, from birth to 65 and 75 years of age.. The cancer incidence trend for the period 1986-2002 was studied for all tumours and the most frequent sites. The general trend was quantified by applying the Poisson regression12, after adjusting for age, with separate models for men and women. In this model, a linear trend was assumed for the logarithm of the rates. Goodness of fit was assessed by devianceand its degrees of freedom. The significance level was set at 0.05. In the case of prostate cancer, the Poisson model did not fit correlated as a ...
Exposed incidence rate = 0.000552. Non-exposed incidence rate = 0.001166. Incidence rate difference = -0.000613. Approximate 95% confidence interval = -0.000965 to -0.000261. Chi-square = 11.678635 P = .0006. Incidence rate ratio = 0.473934. Exact 95% confidence interval = 0.295128 to 0.746416. Conditional maximum likelihood estimate of rate ratio = 0.473934. Exact Fisher 95% confidence interval = 0.295128 to 0.746416. Exact Fisher one sided P = 0.0004, two sided P = 0.0007. Exact mid-P 95% confidence interval = 0.302362 to 0.730939. Exact mid-P one sided P = 0.0003, two sided P = 0.0006. Here we may conclude with 95% confidence that the true population value for the difference between the two incidence rates lies somewhere between -0.001 and 0.0003. We may also conclude with 95% confidence that the incidence rate for those who used postmenopausal hormones in the circumstances of the study was between 0.30 and 0.75 of that for those who did not take post- menopausal hormones.. P values ...
Breast cancer accounts for one-third of cancer diagnoses and 15% of cancer deaths in U.S. women. Its 192,000 cases and 40,000 deaths in 2001 make it the most common incident cancer (excluding superficial skin cancers) and second leading cause of cancer death. Over one-half of the 300,000 breast cancer deaths worldwide in 1990 (the latest year with such data) occurred in developed countries, but annual mortality rates ranged from 27/100,000 women in northern Europe to 4/100,000 women in Asia. Incidence data are less complete, although 1988-1992 rates varied threefold: low in Asia, intermediate in South America and Eastern Europe, and high in North America and Western Europe. Migrant studies suggest that lifestyle factors largely explain these international differences. U.S. incidence rates are generally 20%−40% higher in white women than in non-white women, but are higher in young (under age 40) black women than in young white women. Incidence rates rose in the 1970s, leveled off in the 1990s, ...
Objective : To facilitate the quantitative comparison of AIDS incidence statistics between countries and with other diseases using statistics based on age-standardized incidence rates instead of absolute number of cases. Design : AIDS incidence rates for 19 countries belonging to the World Health Organization WHO European region, and for...
Incidence density of serious infection, opportunistic infection, and tuberculosis associated with biologic treatment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis – a systematic evaluation of the literature Trung N Tran,1 Herve Caspard,1 Fabio Magrini21Clinical Development, MedImmune, Gaithersburg, MD, USA; 2Eli Lilly, San Diego, CA, USAAbstract: Summary data on the incidence density (ie, incidence per person-year [PY]) of serious infection, opportunistic infection, and tuberculosis associated with each of the nine biologic therapies currently indicated in rheumatoid arthritis patients are not available. To summarize these data, a systematic review was conducted with searches on PubMed and Embase of literature ranging from January 1998 to November 2011. Incidence density was extracted and reported using the definitions from the respective publications. If the incidence density was not reported, estimation was made using available information. A total of 72 published studies met the inclusion criteria and
From 1980 to 2010, the crude incidence of diagnosed diabetes increased 161% from 3.3 to 8.6 per 1,000 population. Similarly, the age-adjusted incidence increased 140% from 3.5 to 8.4 per 1,000 population, suggesting that the majority of the change was not due to the aging of the population. However, from 1980 to 2010, incidence did not increase at a constant rate. Both crude and age-adjusted incidence remained unchanged in the 1980s, and then increased in the 1990s through 2010. From 2008 through 2010, both crude and age-adjusted incidence has shown little change.
The National Incidence Study (NIS) is a congressionally mandated, periodic research effort to assess the incidence of child abuse and neglect in the United States. Information is provided in the following categories:
Brown, L., Hoover, R., Silverman, D., Baris, D., Hayes, R., Swanson, G., ... Fraumeni, J. (2001). Excess Incidence of Squamous Cell Esophageal Cancer among US Black Men: Role of Social Class and Other Risk Factors. American Journal of Epidemiology, 153, 114 - 122. ...
Background: Randomized controlled trials have shown the importance of tight glucose control in type 1 diabetes (T1DM), but few recent studies have evaluated the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality among adults with T1DM. We evaluated these risks in adults with T1DM compared with the non-diabetic population in a nationwide study from Scotland and examined control of CVD risk factors in those with T1DM. Methods and Findings: The Scottish Care Information-Diabetes Collaboration database was used to identify all people registered with T1DM and aged ≥20 years in 2005-2007 and to provide risk factor data. Major CVD events and deaths were obtained from the national hospital admissions database and death register. The age-adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) for CVD and mortality in T1DM (n = 21,789) versus the non-diabetic population (3.96 million) was estimated using Poisson regression. The age-adjusted IRR for first CVD event associated with T1DM versus the non-diabetic ...
Background: The prevalence of asthma has been rising all over the world. The causes of this epidemic are still not completely known. In this study we aim to estimate the separate effects of age, period and birth cohort on the trends of asthma incidence in Italy.. Methods: Individual information on the history of asthma was collected on 35,375 adults aged 20-64 and born from 1940 to 1989, who were randomly sampled from the general Italian population in 1990/93, 1998/2000 and 2007/10. Overall 3,295 subjects reported asthma from 1,293,801 person-years at risk. Age-specific incidence rates were estimated for both sexes using 5-year age classes in different cohorts and period. Poisson regression models were used to estimate the incidence rates by age, birth cohort and period in males and females.. Results: Age, period and cohort showed significant independent effects (p<0.001) on incidence rates of asthma, which was greater in younger subjects and dramatically increased in recent generations. ...
56 Cancers originate due to the accumulation of multiple mutations. The mechanism causing this, particularly in the case of epithelial cancers, or carcinomas, has not been clearly determined. Epidemiological studies indicate that environmental and lifestyle factors can account for most carcinomas, but do not point to a specific mechanism. Some models for human carcinogenesis suggest that the accumulation of four to six somatic mutations drives the neoplastic transformation. The number of mutations, four to six, is based almost exclusively on the analysis of age-specific incidence data. Several anomalies exist with the age-specific incidence data. For instance, breast carcinoma incidence data does not follow this model. (This has been explained by suggesting that breast tissue ages at a different rate than calendar time.) Prostate carcinoma incidence increases more rapidly with age than most others, implying that 15 to 20 mutations are required. Hence, one approach to better understand epithelial ...
Aims/hypothesis This study is an analysis of the relationship between ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiance, the primary source of circulating vitamin D in humans, and age-standardised incidence rates of...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Impact of the Angle of Incidence on Negative Muon-Induced SEU Cross Sections of 65-nm Bulk and FDSOI SRAMs. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Estimates of global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and mortality of HIV, 1980-2015. T2 - the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. AU - AIDS. & TB Unit. AU - GBD 2015 HIV Collaborators. AU - Wang, H.. AU - Wolock, T. M.. AU - Carter, A.. AU - Nguyen, G.. AU - Kyu, H. H.. AU - Gakidou, E.. AU - Hay, S. I.. AU - Msemburi, W.. AU - Coates, M. M.. AU - Mooney, M. D.. AU - Fraser, M. S.. AU - Sligar, A.. AU - Larson, H. J.. AU - Friedman, J.. AU - Brown, A.. AU - Dandona, L.. AU - Fullman, N.. AU - Haagsma, J.. AU - Khalil, I.. AU - Lim, S. S.. AU - Mikesell, J.. AU - Mokdad, A. H.. AU - Moradi-Lakeh, M.. AU - Pearson, K.. AU - Silpakit, BS. AU - Sorensen, MPH J.D.. AU - Temesgen, A. M.. AU - Vollset, S. E.. AU - Zoeckler, L.. AU - Murray, C. J.L.. AU - Alfonso-Cristancho, R.. AU - Harun, K. M.. AU - Prokop, D. M.. AU - Mills, E. J.. AU - Trickey, A.. AU - Ajala, O. N.. AU - Bärnighausen, T.. AU - Ding, E. L.. AU - Farvid, M. S.. AU - Thorne-Lyman, A. L.. AU - Won, ...
BACKGROUND: Timely assessment of the burden of HIV/AIDS is essential for policy setting and programme evaluation. In this report from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015 (GBD 2015), we provide national estimates of levels and trends of HIV/AIDS incidence, prevalence, coverage of antiretroviral therapy (ART), and mortality for 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2015.. METHODS: For countries without high-quality vital registration data, we estimated prevalence and incidence with data from antenatal care clinics and population-based seroprevalence surveys, and with assumptions by age and sex on initial CD4 distribution at infection, CD4 progression rates (probability of progression from higher to lower CD4 cell-count category), on and off antiretroviral therapy (ART) mortality, and mortality from all other causes. Our estimation strategy links the GBD 2015 assessment of all-cause mortality and estimation of incidence and prevalence so that for each draw from the uncertainty distribution ...
OBJECTIVE A prospective study was conducted to assess the evolution of the incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (insulin-dependent) in Málaga among children less than 14 years of age between 1982 and 1993. PATIENTS AND METHODS The capture-recapture method was chosen for estimating the probability of ascertainment and two sources were used: The hospital registry and Málaga Diabetes Association members. RESULTS We detected 437 children and the ascertainment achieved was 98.8%. The average annual incidence was 14.3/10(5) and the prevalence at the end of the period was 0.78 patients/10(3). During the last 6 years of the observation period, the incidence rose by 42%. The highest incidence was found among children between 10 and 13 years of age in both sexes. The age of onset and female/male ratio increased during the study period. There was an inverse relationship with monthly temperature. CONCLUSIONS In comparison with other European epidemiological studies, we found a higher incidence and
Anal fissure (AF) is regarded as a common problem, but there are no published epidemiologic data, nor information on current treatment. The purpose of this study was to examine the incidence, associated comorbidities, and treatment of AF in a population-based cohort. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all persons who were enrolled in one large regional managed care system and treated for AF during calendar years 2005-2011. All persons aged 6 years or older who had a clinic, hospitalization, or surgical procedure associated with AF were identified from utilization data. To identify comorbidities associated with AF, each case was matched by age and gender to 3 controls. There were 1,243 AF cases, including 721 (58%) females and 522 (42%) males; 150 (12%) of the cases occurred in children aged 6-17 years. The overall annual incidence was 0.11% (1.1 cases per 1000 person-years), but ranged widely by age [0.05% in patients 6-17 years to 0.18% in patients 25-34 years]. The incidence also varied by sex,
Official descriptive data from France showed a strong increase in breast-cancer incidence between 1980 to 2005 without a corresponding change in breast-cancer mortality. This study quantifies the part of incidence increase due to secular changes in risk factor exposure and in overdiagnosis due to organised or opportunistic screening. Overdiagnosis was defined as non progressive tumours diagnosed as cancer at histology or progressive cancer that would remain asymptomatic until time of death for another cause. Comparison between age-matched cohorts from 1980 to 2005. All women residing in France and born 1911-1915, 1926-1930 and 1941-1945 are included. Sources are official data sets and published French reports on screening by mammography, age and time specific breast-cancer incidence and mortality, hormone replacement therapy, alcohol and obesity. Outcome measures include breast-cancer incidence differences adjusted for changes in risk factor distributions between pairs of age-matched cohorts who had
The moving average rates for the animated map were calculated by summing the number of cases from the current year, the two previous years and the next two years. The same process was used for state and individual county populations. The case sum was divided by the population sum and then multiplied by 100,000 to yield a five-year average incidence rate per 100,000 population. For more information about rates and their calculation please refer to the glossary. The results of these calculations are shown in the accompanying table. These rates are also depicted as part of the dynamic legend in the animated map. All rates for the maximum county column are based on twenty or more cases.. The rate classification scheme shown in the time series maps is based on equal numbers of counties in each of the four rate classes at the initial time period, labeled 1982. The values that demarcate the boundary between any two of the classes are held constant throughout the progression of maps. Over time, one can ...
While the use of older protease inhibitors (PIs) including indinavir (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.47/5 years) and lopinavir boosted with ritonavir (/r) (IRR 1.54/5 years) has been associated with excess risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) it is unknown whether this also applies to contemporarily used PIs.. D:A:D study participants under follow-up (FU) after 01.01.2009 were followed to the earliest of CVD, last visit plus 6 months or 01.02.2016. CVD was defined as centrally validated myocardial infarction, stroke, sudden cardiac death or invasive cardiovascular procedures (coronary bypass, coronary angioplasty and carotid endarterectomy). Poisson regression models assessed associations between CVD and use of two contemporarily and frequently used PIs atazanavir (ATV/r) and darunavir (DRV/r).. Of 35,711 included persons, 1,157 developed CVD (IR 5.3/1000 PYFU [95%CI 5.0-5.6]) during 7.0 (IQR 6.3-7.1) years median FU. The crude CVD IR increased gradually from 4.91/1000 PYFU [4.59-5.23] in those ...
The Millennium Declaration in 2000 brought special global attention to HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria through the formulation of Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 6. The Global Burden of Disease 2013 study provides a consistent and comprehensive approach to disease estimation for between 1990 and 2013, and an opportunity to assess whether accelerated progress has occured since the Millennium Declaration.To estimate incidence and mortality for HIV, we used the UNAIDS Spectrum model appropriately modified based on a systematic review of available studies of mortality with and without antiretroviral therapy (ART). For concentrated epidemics, we calibrated Spectrum models to fit vital registration data corrected for misclassification of HIV deaths. In generalised epidemics, we minimised a loss function to select epidemic curves most consistent with prevalence data and demographic data for all-cause mortality. We analysed counterfactual scenarios for HIV to assess years of life saved through prevention of
Patients eligible for inclusion numbered 1480; of these, 11% died during ART treatment, 11% were lost to follow-up, and 6% transferred out. Median follow-up was 2.1 years (range, 1.0-4.5 years). There were a total of 203 incident TB infections (7.3 cases/per 100 person years [p100py]), of which 64% were microbiologically confirmed. At baseline, 448 (30%) persons were considered to have prevalent TB. The number of new TB cases was the highest during the first 4 months of ART at 18.8 cases p100py (95% confidence interval [CI]: 15.2-23.3). In multivariate analysis, the incidence rate during the early ART period remained significantly higher than in the late ART period (adjusted incident rate ratio [IRR]=1.7; 95% CI: 1.1-2.6; P=0.03), even adjusting for a history of TB, baseline CD4 cell count, and updated viral load. During long-term ART, TB incidence was highest during person-time accrued within the CD4 cell stratum of ,100 cells/mL (16.7 cases p100py; 95% CI: 12.8-21.6). At CD4 counts of 200-500 ...
Up-to-date evidence about levels and trends in disease and injury incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) is an essential input into global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013), we estimated these quantities for acute and chronic diseases and injuries for 188 countries between 1990 and 2013.Estimates were calculated for disease and injury incidence, prevalence, and YLDs using GBD 2010 methods with some important refinements. Results for incidence of acute disorders and prevalence of chronic disorders are new additions to the analysis. Key improvements include expansion to the cause and sequelae list, updated systematic reviews, use of detailed injury codes, improvements to the Bayesian meta-regression method (DisMod-MR), and use of severity splits for various causes. An index of data representativeness, showing data availability, was calculated for each cause and impairment during three periods globally and at the country
Even as the cure rate continues to improve, the incidence of childhood cancer has been steadily increasing over the last few decades.
BACKGROUND: Up-to-date evidence about levels and trends in disease and injury incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) is an essential input into global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013), we estimated these quantities for acute and chronic diseases and injuries for 188 countries between 1990 and 2013. METHODS: Estimates were calculated for disease and injury incidence, prevalence, and YLDs using GBD 2010 methods with some important refinements. Results for incidence of acute disorders and prevalence of chronic disorders are new additions to the analysis. Key improvements include expansion to the cause and sequelae list, updated systematic reviews, use of detailed injury codes, improvements to the Bayesian meta-regression method (DisMod-MR), and use of severity splits for various causes. An index of data representativeness, showing data availability, was calculated for each cause and impairment during three periods globally
In the U.S., breast cancer is the second most common cancer in women after skin cancer. It can occur in both men and women, but it is rare in men. Each year there are about 100 times more new cases of breast cancer in women than in men.. ...
We analysed 32 national cross-sectional datasets. Exposure of women in their first or second pregnancy to full malaria prevention with IPTp or ITNs was significantly associated with decreased risk of neonatal mortality (protective efficacy [PE] 18%, 95% CI 4-30; incidence rate ratio [IRR] 0•820, 95% CI 0•698-0•962), compared with newborn babies of mothers with no protection, after exact matching and controlling for potential confounding factors. Compared with women with no protection, exposure of pregnant women during their first two pregnancies to full malaria prevention in pregnancy through IPTp or ITNs was significantly associated with reduced odds of low birthweight (PE 21%, 14-27; IRR 0•792, 0•732-0•857), as measured by a combination of weight and birth size perceived by the mother, after exact matching and controlling for potential confounding factors. ...
When ε = 0, our baseline BED incidence was an impossibly high 9.5% and, against reasonable expectation, was a nondecreasing function of age, independent of the assumed value of Ω (Fig. 1b). Conversely, the Hargrove adjustment, with ε = 0.052, gave plausible incidence estimates, decreasing with age as expected [2].. Thus, insisting that ε = 0 implies unrealistically long estimates of the mean window period and an inappropriate age-specific incidence function. The problem can be resolved by considering the results for 918 HIV positive women whose baseline CD4 level (,350 cells/μl) suggested that the majority had already been HIV positive for more than 2 years. One year later, when most had then been positive for more than 3 years, 35 tested recent by BED. This implies at least one of the following scenarios: There are window periods more than 3 years, contrary to Brookmeyers assumption but consistent with other evidence (Fig. 1a); in some cases ODn had declined secondarily, as noted ...
Over the years, the age-adjusted incidence rate due to invasive cancer has continued to decline for NJ males but has remained fairly steady for NJ females. In the total NJ population and among each racial/ethnic group, males have higher incidence rates compared to females. The age-adjusted incidence rate of total invasive cancer among NJ Black males, which has historically ranked highest for decades, is now trending below White males in recent years. For recent years, county incidence rates range from a low of 389 per 100,000 population in Hudson County to a high of 544 per 100,000 population in Gloucester County ...
Results Among men without T2DM, age-standardised incidence of lung cancer (per 100,000 of population) in the least deprived and most deprived quintiles was, respectively, 165.2 (95% CI 155.7, 174.8) and 551.0 (533.4, 568.7). Corresponding rates in men with T2DM were 208.1 (172.4, 243.8) and 363.3 (322.7, 403.8). Relative risk of lung cancer (T2DM vs. no diabetes) ranged from 1.22 (0.98, 1.53) in the least deprived quintile to 0.67 (0.59, 0.76) in the most deprived quintile, decreasing monotonically in intermediate quintiles. Across all SES quintiles combined RR of lung cancer in men with T2DM was 0.81 (0.73, 0.89). The interaction of SES with T2DM was highly significant (p , 0.001).. ...
To enhance understanding of etiology, we examined international population-based cancer incidence data for lymphoid leukemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma and myeloid leukemia among children aged 0-19. Based on temporal trends during 1978-2007 in 24 populations, lymphoid leukemia and myeloid leukemia incidence rates generally have not changed greatly and differences
Epidemiological data show an inverse relationship between vitamin D levels and breast cancer incidence. This study investigates the relationship of modeled and measured serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels with age-standardized incidence rates of breast cancer in 107 countries. The hypothesis …
while the remaining periods span four years.. The results of the Poisson regression model show an annual relative increase of 3.7% (95% CI: 2.9-4.5%) in the incidence rate (p , 0.001). Compared to the group under 5 years, the incidence rate in children aged 5-9 is 1.53 (95% CI: 1.18-1.99), and that of children aged 10-14 is 2.50 (95% CI: 1.98-3.18). The rate ratio for boys versus girls is 1.16 (95% CI: 0.97-1.39). We did not find the time trend to be different between age groups (interaction term p-value = 0.912) or sex (interaction term p-value = 0.745).. Discussion. The incidence of T1D in children in Navarre increased over time, from 1975 to 2012, in the three age groups studied. The age group with the highest incidence was 10-14 years among all the study period, with an incidence rate over these years of more than twice that of children under five.. The strength of this study lies in its incidence data record of 38 years, a longer period than can be found in most published papers. In ...
Data & statistics on Indiana Lung Cancer Average Incidence and Mortality Rates ALL RACES: Indiana Lung Cancer Average Incidence and Mortality Rates, 1996-2000, Average Indiana Cancer Incidence and Mortality, 1996-2000, Average Indiana Cancer Incidence and Mortality, 1996-2000...
Data & statistics on age-sex distribution and age-specific incidence rate of reported hepatitis e in singapore: Age-sex distribution and age-specific incidence rate of reported hepatitis E in Singapore, 1993 - 2001, Age-sex distribution, age-specific incidence rates, and case-fatality rates of reported legionellosis in Singapore, 1998-2002, Age-specific incidence rates of reported indigenous cases of dengue, Singapore, 2005 and 2007...
The incidence and prevalence of diabetes mellitus in residents of Rochester, Minnesota, for 25 years (1945 to 1970) were determined from available medical records. The over-all incidence rate for diabetes is 133 new cases per 100,000 population per year (age-adjusted to 1970 U.S. white population). The rate increased with age for both men and women and was higher among men over 30 years of age. The average annual incidence rates per five-year period for juvenile-onset diabetes mellitus were low and variable and showed little change. Polyuria, polydipsia, glycosuria, lean habitus, loss of weight, and high levels of fasting hyperglycemia at initial diagnosis occurred more frequently in younger than in older patients.. The peak incidence in 1960 through 1964 and the decrease in the following five years may be a reflection of the introduction of the AutoAnalyzer method for blood glucose in 1958. The average annual incidence rates for 1955 through 1959 and 1965 through 1969 were essentially the same. ...
Background. A seven-county, predominantly black, rural-poor population in Alabama is targeted for a program aimed at improving access to state-of- the-art cancer care. This paper presents combined age-adjusted cancer incidence rates for predominantly black, rural counties in North Carolina and Georgia similar to the Alabama counties and compares these rates with Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) incidence rates. Methods. Cancer incidence data from 1990 to 1993 were obtained from the Georgia Center for Cancer Statistics for 10 rural counties with predominantly black populations. Likewise, cancer incidence data from 1990 to 1993 were obtained for seven rural-poor counties in North Carolina from the North Carolina Central Cancer Registry. SEER incidence rates from 1990 to 1992 were obtained for nine SEER sites. Results. The overall cancer incidence rare from North Carolina and Georgia is lower by 22% than the SEER rate. Cancer incidence rates for cancers of the breast, ...
The chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) incidence rate in Minnesota has decreased since 2005, with an annual change of 1.6%. As with national data, incidence rates are about two times higher in males than in females. Minnesota incidence rates are among the highest in the nation in recent years, about 60% higher than national rates. Since CLL is often an accidental finding of other medical tests, higher rates in Minnesota may be explained in part by good access to medical care. Many CLL patients are never seen in a hospital. The higher than average incidence of CLL in Minnesota may be explained in part by the fact that the Minnesota Cancer Reporting System (MCRS) is laboratory-based and has more complete case ascertainment than central cancer registries that are primarily hospital-based. From 2015 to 2017, an average of 272 cases of CLL in males and 137 cases of CLL in females were diagnosed in Minnesota residents each year.. ...
The incidence of malignant melanoma has increased markedly among white populations in the recent decades. This may suggest that the incidence of melanoma in situ (MIS), the precursor of malignant melanoma, has also increased; however, few studies have assessed the incidence of MIS drawing on large population-based data sets. The present study aimed to assess MIS incidence trends in Denmark from 1997 to 2011. Data on MIS overall and on the histological subtypes superficial spreading MIS (SSM) and lentigo maligna (LM) were obtained from the Danish Nationwide Registry of Pathology. We calculated overall and age-specific incidence rates for both sexes, age-adjusted according to the world standard population. The average annual percentage change (AAPC) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using log-linear Poisson models. Among both sexes, a high continued increase in MIS incidence rates overall and in that of the histological subtypes SSM and LM were observed during the period from 1997 to ...
BACKGROUND: Contemporary population-based data on age-specific incidence and outcome from acute abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) events are needed to understand the impact of risk factor modification and demographic change, and to inform AAA screening policy. METHODS: In a prospective population-based study (Oxfordshire, UK, 2002-2014), event rates, incidence, early case fatality and long-term outcome from all acute AAA events were determined, both overall and in relation to the four main risk factors: smoking, hypertension, male sex and age. RESULTS: Over the 12-year interval, 103 incident acute AAA events occurred in the study population of 92,728 (men 72·8 per cent; 59·2 per cent 30-day case fatality rate). The incidence per 100,000 population per year was 55 in men aged 65-74 years, but increased to 112 at age 75-84 years and to 298 at age 85 years or above. Some 66·0 per cent of all events occurred in those aged 75 years or more. The incidence at 65-74 years was highest in male smokers (274 per
BACKGROUND: Contemporary population-based data on age-specific incidence and outcome from acute abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) events are needed to understand the impact of risk factor modification and demographic change, and to inform AAA screening policy. METHODS: In a prospective population-based study (Oxfordshire, UK, 2002-2014), event rates, incidence, early case fatality and long-term outcome from all acute AAA events were determined, both overall and in relation to the four main risk factors: smoking, hypertension, male sex and age. RESULTS: Over the 12-year interval, 103 incident acute AAA events occurred in the study population of 92,728 (men 72·8 per cent; 59·2 per cent 30-day case fatality rate). The incidence per 100,000 population per year was 55 in men aged 65-74 years, but increased to 112 at age 75-84 years and to 298 at age 85 years or above. Some 66·0 per cent of all events occurred in those aged 75 years or more. The incidence at 65-74 years was highest in male smokers (274 per
Studies of the population of Rochester, Minnesota, have provided the only data on temporal trends for the incidence of stroke in North America. Among the residents of Rochester, the average annual incidence rate of stroke declined by 46%, from 213 to 115 per 100,000 population, between 1950-1954 and 1975-1979. The decline occurred in all age and sex groups, but it occurred earlier in women than in men. The rates stabilized in the 1970s, and did so earlier in women. For 1980-1984, the incidence rate of stroke was 17% higher than that for 1975-1979. The onset of the decline in incidence rates coincided with the introduction of effective antihypertensive therapy, but stabilized and increased rates were associated with continuing improvement in the control of hypertension. The increase in the incidence rates of stroke coincided with the introduction of computed tomography, which appeared to increase the detection of less severe strokes. ...
Of 47,000 women followed since 1968, those who had used oral contraceptives (ever-users) had a significantly higher incidence rate of cervical cancer than never-users. After standardisation of rates by age, parity, smoking, social class, number of previously normal cervical smears, and history of sexually transmitted disease, the excess was 41 per 100,000 woman-years for carcinoma-in-situ and 8 per 100,000 woman-years for invasive cervical cancer. Incidence increased with increasing duration of use: the standardised incidence rate for cervical cancer in women who had taken the pill for more than 10 years was four times than in never-users. Ever-users had a lower incidence of other uterine cancers (deficit 5 per 100,000 woman-years); a lower incidence of ovarian cancer was also found (deficit 4 per 100,000), but was not statistically significant. Overall, ever-users had an excess incidence for genital tract cancers 37 per 100,000 woman-years. This excess was mainly from carcinoma-in-situ of the cervix;
The National Cancer Institutes Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program The SEER program, a continuing project of the National Cancer Institute, collects cancer data on a routine basis from designated population-based cancer registries in various areas of the country. Trends in cancer incidence, mortality and patient survival in the United States, as well as many other studies, are derived from this data bank.. Goals of the SEER program are:. , Assembling and reporting, on a periodic basis, estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. , Monitoring annual cancer incidence trends to identify unusual changes in specific forms of cancer occurring in population subgroups defined by geographic, demographic, and social characteristics. , Providing continuing information on changes over time in the extent of disease at diagnosis, trends in therapy, and associated changes in patient survival. , Promoting studies designed to identify factors amenable to cancer ...
Thyroid cancer has the fastest growing incidence in the US. However, the underlying causes are still under debate. We analyzed thyroid cancer incidence in the SEER-9 registry from 1973-2010 using multistage carcinogenesis and age-period-cohort models. Multistage models were used to investigate differences in initiation, promotion and malignant conversion rates of thyroid tumors by sex, race, stage, and histology. Models were adjusted for period and cohort trends to investigate the contributions of each factor, and determine whether birth- or diagnosis-year better correlate with observed incidence patterns. Significant increases in thyroid cancer incidence by period or calendar-year were found for all sex, race, stage and histology combinations, particularly for localized cases (a 3- and 4-fold increase from 1973-2010 for females and males, respectively). Multistage analyses suggest that the 3-fold higher incidence in women could be explained by 1.5-fold higher initiation and promotion rates. Analyses by
The National Cancer Institutes Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program The SEER program, a continuing project of the National Cancer Institute, collects cancer data on a routine basis from designated population-based cancer registries in various areas of the country. Trends in cancer incidence, mortality and patient survival in the United States, as well as many other studies, are derived from this data bank.. Goals of the SEER program are:. , Assembling and reporting, on a periodic basis, estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. , Monitoring annual cancer incidence trends to identify unusual changes in specific forms of cancer occurring in population subgroups defined by geographic, demographic, and social characteristics. , Providing continuing information on changes over time in the extent of disease at diagnosis, trends in therapy, and associated changes in patient survival. , Promoting studies designed to identify factors amenable to cancer ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Re. T2 - The Spillover Influence of Partners Education on Myocardial Infarction Incidence and Survival Respond. AU - Kilpi, Fanny. AU - Martikainen, Pekka. AU - Konttinen, Hanna. AU - Silventoinen, Karri. AU - Torssander, Jenny. AU - Kawachi, Ichiro. PY - 2018/7. Y1 - 2018/7. KW - DISEASE. KW - 3142 Public health care science, environmental and occupational health. U2 - 10.1097/EDE.0000000000000831. DO - 10.1097/EDE.0000000000000831. M3 - Letter. VL - 29. SP - E37-E37. JO - Epidemiology. JF - Epidemiology. SN - 1044-3983. IS - 4. ER - ...
The highest risk of imported malaria in Illinois is associated with travel to countries of origin by immigrants to visit family and friends. We used Join point regression to analyze Malaria crude incidence rate (mCIR) trend from 1990 through 2013. We found join point regression a useful way to summarize mCIR trends because it connected the linear line segments over a fixed time interval (annual) and allowed characterization of the trends using the Annual Percent Change.
Cancer incidence data collected by the Guam Cancer Registry for the period 1998 through 2002 were analyzed by cancer site, age, and ethnicity. Ethnicity and site specific age-adjusted cancer incidence rates for Guam residents were calculated utilizing Guam 2000 census data and the U.S. 2000 standard population and were compared to U.S. 2000 data. Age-adjusted total cancer incidence rates per 100,000 population for the major ethnic groups represented on Guam were generally lower than U.S. averages (the exception was the Caucasian group which was higher). Some highlights include: 1). Chamorros (the indigenous people of the Mariana Islands) living on Guam had a slightly lower total cancer incidence rate than the total U.S. population (406.8/100,000 vs. 478.6 U.S.). Chamorros had high age-adjusted incidence rates for cancers of the mouth and pharynx (24.4 vs. U.S. 10.7), nasopharynx (13.9 vs. 0.6 U.S.), liver (13.2 vs. 5.2 U.S.), and cervix (16.2 vs. 9.6 U.S.). Rates for prostate cancer ( 103.9 vs. ...
Results There were a total of 160 male patients (48%) and 173 female patients (52%). The median age at diagnosis was 66 years (range 31-95) for male subjects and 67 years (35-99) for female subjects. The average annual age-standardised incidence rate of all eyelid cancers over the 13 years was 5.0 per million. A significant decrease in rates from 6.6 per million in the 1996-1998 period to 3.9 per million in the 2005-2008 period with an annual percentage change of 3.6% (95% CI −6.5 to 0.7%; p=0.02) was noted for women. The most common cancer was basal cell carcinoma (82%), followed by sebaceous gland carcinoma (11%) and squamous cell carcinoma (4%).. ...
The aim was to investigate the incidence rate of dementia for community residents aged 85 years and over. It was a two wave community study of 224 subjects (community residents including those residing in a nursing home) older than 85 years, restudied 4.1 years after a community prevalence study. A two stage method was used, comprising the mini mental state examination followed in a stratified sample by the geriatric mental state schedule (A3)/AGECAT. Incidence rates were based on person-years at risk. The overall incidence of dementia was 6.9 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 4.8-9.1) per 100 person-years at risk. The incidence was significantly higher for women than for men; respectively 8.9 (95% CI 5.9-11.9) v 2.7 (95% CI 0.5-4.9) per 100 person-years at risk. In the fastest growing age group seven out of 100 persons develop dementia each year. Women, who constitute two thirds of the oldest old, seem to have a higher risk. Further research is needed into the risk factors for dementia in this ...
Background: Stomach cancer is the fourth most common cancer in the world, but the second most frequent cause of cancer deaths. In Oman, stomach cancer is the most common cancer among males and existing data suggest that the age-standardised incidence rate of stomach cancer in Oman for both sexes is higher than the rates in many neighbouring Arab and Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. Possible reasons for this have not been explored. Population-based cancer research has only recently become possible in Oman, with the introduction of mandatory cancer registration and the establishment of a national death registration system (The Directorate General of Civil Status, DGCS). Aims: The main aims of the research described in this thesis were: - To describe the incidence of stomach cancer in Oman and to compare it to the incidence in surrounding GCC countries. - To compare the prevalences of known risk factors for stomach cancer in Oman and other GCC countries. - To provide population-based ...
The aim of this prospective study was to determine the incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus in 15-34-year-aged Lithuanian males and females during 1991 - 2008 A contact system with general practitioners covering 100% of the 15-34-year-aged Lithuanian population was the primary data source. Reports from regional endocrinologists and statistical note-marks of State patient insurance fund served as secondary sources for case ascertainment. The average age-standardized incidence rate was 8.30 per 100,000 persons per year (95% Poisson distribution confidence interval [CI] 7.90-8.71) during 1991 - 2008 and was statistically significantly higher among males (10.44 per 100,000 persons per year, 95% CI 9.82-11.10) in comparison with females (6.10 per 100,000, 95% CI 5.62-6.62). Male/female rate ratio was 1.71 (95% CI 1.63-1.80). Results of the linear 1991 - 2008 regression model showed that the incidence of Type 1 diabetes in 15-34-year-aged males and females decreased slightly over the time (r = -0.215, p | 0
Editorial Note: According to current estimates, 130,000 women in the United States will be diagnosed with invasive breast cancer and 41,000 women will die from the disease in 1987 (6). Breast cancer accounts for 27% of all newly diagnosed female cancers and 18% of female cancer deaths and was only recently surpassed by lung cancer as the leading cause of cancer mortality among females (6). An examination of incidence rates between 1975 and 1984 reveals a small but gradual increase of about 1% per year. Overall, age-adjusted incidence rates are higher for white women than for black women, but this difference appears to be declining over time (3). The age-adjusted mortality rate from breast cancer for all females has not changed significantly in the past 10 years. Mortality rates for black women and white women are similar, although 5-year relative survival is measurably poorer among black women than among white women for the period 1975-1984. The difference is substantially reduced when the ...
Results-We identified 580 and 544 first-ever strokes in the 2 studies. World age-standardized incidence rates decreased by 30.6% in overall (111 [95% confidence interval, 102-120] versus 77 [95% confidence interval, 70-84]). Rate decline was greater in women than in men (34% versus 26%) particularly in women aged 65 to 74 years (−69%) and 75 to 84 years (−43%). Frequencies of hypertension and diabetes mellitus were unchanged, whereas dyslipidemia, smoking, and atrial fibrillation significantly increased. Only ischemic stroke types showed significant rate reduction in overall and in women, incidence rate ratio (95% confidence intervals) of 0.69 (0.50-0.97) and 0.61 (0.42-0.88), respectively. The overall 30-day case-fatality ratio remained stable (19.3%/17.6%), whereas a better 30-day outcome was found (modified Rankin Score, ≤2 in 47%/37.6%; P=0.03).. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Decrease in Incidence of Colorectal Cancer Among Individuals 50 Years or Older After Recommendations for Population-based Screening. AU - Murphy, Caitlin C.. AU - Sandler, Robert S.. AU - Sanoff, Hanna K.. AU - Yang, Y. Claire. AU - Lund, Jennifer L.. AU - Baron, John A.. PY - 2017/6/1. Y1 - 2017/6/1. N2 - Background & Aims The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in the United States is increasing among adults younger than 50 years, but incidence has decreased among older populations after population-based screening was recommended in the late 1980s. Blacks have higher incidence than whites. These patterns have prompted suggestions to lower the screening age for average-risk populations or in blacks. At the same time, there has been controversy over whether reductions in CRC incidence can be attributed to screening. We examined age-related and race-related differences in CRC incidence during a 40-year time period. Methods We determined the age-standardized incidence of CRC from ...
The Oman National Cancer Registry was established in 1985 as a hospital based registry. This is the 14th annual report of cancer incidence in Oman and covers incidence and mortality for the year 2009. All cancer cases are reported to the National Cancer Registry and are coded using ICDO-3. The report includes a section on cancer trends from 1997-2009 and provides tables on frequency of cancers by cancer site during those years for males and females, separately. Additional tables provide incidence data broken down by 5-year age group, sex, and cancer site for the year 2009. Maps display cancer incidence by cancer site and region for 10 governorates in Oman.. Other sections in the report include childhood cancers, cancers among non-citizens in Oman, and hospital-based deaths due to cancer.. The full report is available for download from the Ministry of Health website.. ...
The epidemiology of child abuse was investigated with data from the second national incidence and prevalence study of child abuse and neglect. A statistical comparison of incidence income, and ethnicity were risk factors for both sexual abuse and physical abuse, but county metrostatus was not. Gender was a risk factor for sexual abuse but not...
In India, similar to other lower- and middle-income countries, HIV incidence has declined over the past decade following scale-up of HIV prevention and treatment services for heterosexual populations. While prevalence data among people who inject drugs (PWID) and men who have sex with men (MSM) suggest increasing burden, HIV incidence data among these groups are sparse.. As part of a cluster-randomized trial among PWID and MSM in India, integrated care centers (ICCs) were established in 11 cities (6 PWID and 5 MSM) and have been running for nearly two years. ICCs provide core and PWID- or MSM-focused HIV prevention and treatment services, including HIV counseling and testing, in a single venue. HIV negative clients are actively tracked to promote annual HIV testing. HIV incidence rates were calculated for clients with ≥2 HIV tests and negative on the first test. Multi-level Poisson regression models were used to explore correlates of HIV incidence.. 5,012 ICC clients (3,430 PWID and 1,582 MSM) ...
HIV infection incidence estimates are important, not only for determining specific populations where community HIV education sessions can have the most benefit or where changes in infection patterns are occurring, but also to target these populations for therapeutic interventions and measure their effect in the community. It is estimated that half of all new HIV infections in the United States occur in persons under the age of 25 each year, translating to approximately 20,000 new HIV-infected young people annually.. Incidence can be estimated by testing a cohort of individuals for antibody at two different time periods and observing the number of new infections, or by demonstrating the presence of HIV p24 or viral RNA in antibody-negative persons. Since these strategies are logistically difficult, expensive, and/or require significant laboratory infrastructure, new laboratory-based strategies were devised that can classify individuals as recently infected or with established infection. These ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Impact of intracellular delay, immune activation delay and nonlinear incidence on viral dynamics. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
This study used the largest and most geographically diverse US population sample to estimate current and future AF incidence and prevalence. Assuming the 2000 US Census population projections and that relative survival in AF patients remains the same over time, a logarithmic growth model projected that there will be 12.1 million diagnosed cases of AF in 2030, with an annual growth rate of 4.3% for AF prevalence and 4.6% for AF incidence over the period of 2010-2030. The analysis indicates that the public health burden of AF may reach concerning levels by 2030 and additional research is needed to investigate what factors may be contributing to this increasing trend in AF incidence and prevalence, and possible means to mitigate them.. ...
The incidence and incidence trends of breast cancer according to molecular subtype are unknown at a population level in France. The registry data enables this study and may give this information, that is crucial to describe and understand breast cancer epidemiology. We estimated the incidence rates of breast cancer for each molecular subtype using data from three cancer registries in France for the period from 2007 to 2012. Molecular subtypes were defined with immunohistochemical data. Poisson models were estimated to modelize the course of breast cancer incidence and to test the trends. The study included 12,040 patients diagnosed between 2007 and 2012 in the three administrative areas covered by the registries. There was no significant trends in the proportion of each molecular subtype year by year. The age distribution of incident cases was different depending on the molecular subtypes (p | 0.001). The course of incidence between 2007 and 2012 was also different depending on molecular subtype
Panhandle Health District I - This indicator shows the age and sex-adjusted incidence rate for cervical cancer in cases per 100,000 population. Panhandle Health District I, Idaho
The National Cancer Registry of Ireland has released its 22nd annual statistical report. This report summarises cancer incidence, mortality and survival in Ireland for the period 1994-2015, and provides projected estimates for incidence for the most recent three-year period: 2015-2017. The cumulative lifetime risk (to age 75 years) of an invasive cancer diagnosis was approximately 1 in 3 for men and 1 in 4 for women. The absolute risk difference between the most and least deprived 20% of the population was highest for pancreatic (+14%), lung (+9%), colon (+8%), oesophageal (+8%), and ovarian cancers (+7%). Age-standardized rates of all invasive cancers (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC)) were 26% higher in men than in women. Overall, taking the first recorded invasive cancer (exc. NMSC) for each patient, the proportion of cases presenting as an emergency was 15% (of all cases whose admission type was known). The cancers with the highest proportion of emergency presentation were: pancreas ...
BACKGROUND: Oral carcinomas (OCs) make up a significant proportion of head and neck carcinomas (HNCs) and are an important cause of morbidity and mortality globally. The purpose of this population-based study was to determine trends in incidence and survival in OC in the Danish population from 1980 to 2014.. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study covered all patients registered in the nationwide Danish cancer registry (DCR) in the period 1980-2014. Age-adjusted incidence rate (AAIR) per 100,000 and annual percentage change (APC) were evaluated. Also, 5-year overall survival (OS) was calculated with Cox regression analysis in relation to location, gender, age, and calendar year at diagnosis.. RESULTS: Altogether, 8299 patients with oral cancer were identified, 5062 (61%) of whom were males and 3237 (39%) were females. The median age at diagnosis was 63 years. The AAIR of patients with OC increased from 1.9 per 100,000 in 1980 to 3.5 per 100,000 in 2014, and we observed a significant increase in 5-year ...
Ethylene oxide (ETO) is a sterilant gas considered to be a human carcinogen, due primarily to excess hematopoietic cancer in exposed cohorts. ETO causes mammary tumors in mice, and has been associated with breast cancer incidence in one small epidemiologic study. We have studied breast cancer incidence in a cohort of 7576 women employed for at least one year and exposed for an average 10.7 years w
Cancer is the third leading cause of death in Iran following coronary heart disease and accidents. According to the estimate report from GLOBOCAN 2012, the age-standardized incidence rate (ASR) of cancers was 134 and 120 per 100,000 among males and females, respectively. The estimated mortality rate for cancer was 90.4 and 72.2 per 100,000 for males and females, respectively that shows an increase of 25.4 and 31.1 percent compared to the latest report from National Death Registry (NDR) in 2004. The most common cancer among men and women was stomach cancer (20.6%) and breast cancer (28.1%), respectively and the most common childhood cancer was leukemia.. Up-to-date and accurate cancer registry data could be one of the major determinants to control, classify, diagnose and even in the treatment of cancer cases. However, since 2009 no up-to-date formal reports from the National Cancer Registry (NCR) of Iran have been announced.. Information from the cancer registries regarding different regions of ...
Colorectal cancer incidence and mortality rates have dropped significantly in adults over the age of 50, but researchers have noticed a sharp increase in young and middle-aged adults. According to recent findings, people born in 1990 are twice as likely to be diagnosed with colon cancer and four times as likely to be diagnosed with rectal cancer as adults born in the 1950s. Researchers remain unsure as to why young adults are at increased risk, but poor lifestyle choices such as smoking, unhealthy diet, alcohol use, and sedentary lifestyle are possible explanations ...
Colorectal cancer incidence and mortality rates have dropped significantly in adults over the age of 50, but researchers have noticed a sharp increase in young and middle-aged adults. According to recent findings, people born in 1990 are twice as likely to be diagnosed with colon cancer and four times as likely to be diagnosed with rectal cancer as adults born in the 1950s. Researchers remain unsure as to why young adults are at increased risk, but poor lifestyle choices such as smoking, unhealthy diet, alcohol use, and sedentary lifestyle are possible explanations ...
Bhargava, Sameer; Tsuruda, Kaitlyn; Moen, Kåre; Bukholm, Ida Rashida Khan & Hofvind, Solveig (2017). Lower attendance rates in immigrant versus non-immigrant women in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Programme. Journal of Medical Screening. ISSN 0969-1413. . doi: 10.1177/0969141317733771 Show summary Objective The Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Programme invites women aged 50-69 to biennial mammographic screening. Although 84% of invited women have attended at least once, attendance rates vary across the country. We investigated attendance rates among various immigrant groups compared with non-immigrants in the programme. Methods There were 4,053,691 invitations sent to 885,979 women between 1996 and 2015. Using individual level population-based data from the Cancer Registry and Statistics Norway, we examined percent attendance and calculated incidence rate ratios, comparing immigrants with non-immigrants, using Poisson regression, following womens first invitation to the programme and ...
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
The epidemiology, mortality, and use of hospital services of insulin-treated diabetes mellitus have been studied in Fyn County, Denmark (450,000 inhabitants). The overall prevalence rate was 3.6 and 3.3 per 1000 for men and women, respectively, and overall annual incidence rates have been estimated to be 15 and 11 per 100,000, respectively. Based on a mortality analysis, it is estimated that the overall mortality rate in this patient population is 4-5% per year. During follow-up, hospital admission rates were estimated to be 0.47 and 0.53 per patient person-yr for men and women, respectively; corresponding values for estimated number of hospital bed days used by the patients were 7.2 and 9.6 per person-yr. Only 26% of the patients (74% in the age class 0-9 yr) attended a diabetes outpatient clinic at the prevalence date (1 July 1973); the remaining patients were supervised by their general practitioner. Based on these figures, an epidemiologic model for insulin-treated diabetes has been ...
Il controllo delle patologie neoplastiche rappresenta una componente fondamentale della lotta ai tumori, perseguita in tutto il mondo e resa possibile grazie allopera dei Registri Tumori (RT) presenti in tutte le nazioni avanzate e riuniti nella International Association of Cancer Registries (IARC) a livello mondiale. I Registri tumori sono strutture impegnate nella raccolta di informazioni multidisciplinari sui pazienti oncologici e sulle neoplasie presenti in un determinato territorio. LUmbria è stata la prima regione ad attivare il Registro Tumori nel nostro Paese: istituito nel 1993 presso lOsservatorio epidemiologico della Regione dellUmbria e dato in gestione al Dipartimento di Igiene, dellUniversità degli studi di Perugia. Accreditato nel 1998 da una specifica commissione dellAssociazione italiana dei registri tumori (AIRTUM), oggi ha sede presso lUniversità degli studi di Perugia, Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale, sezione di sanità pubblica. Il Registro Tumori Umbro di
Incidence[edit]. The number of people with PNES ranges from 2 to 33 per 100,000.[3] PNES are most common in young adults and ...
Incidence[edit]. Quadricuspid aortic valves are very rare cardiac valvular anomalies with a prevalence of 0.013% to 0.043% of ... Some research has shown increased incidences of atrial fibrillation to be associated but this relationship is not yet clearly ...
incidence matrix A. =. (. a. i. j. ). {\displaystyle A=(a_{ij})}. where a. i. j. =. {. 1. i. f. v. i. ∈. e. j. 0. o. t. h. e. r ... Incidence matrix[edit]. Let V. =. {. v. 1. ,. v. 2. ,. …. ,. v. n. }. {\displaystyle V=\{v_{1},v_{2},~\ldots ,~v_{n}\}}. and E ... of the incidence matrix defines a hypergraph H. ∗. =. (. V. ∗. ,. E. ∗. ). {\displaystyle H^{*}=(V^{*},\ E^{*})}. called the ... Thus, for the above example, the incidence matrix is simply [. 0. 1. 1. 0. ]. .. {\displaystyle \left[{\begin{matrix}0&1\\1&0\ ...
Incidence[edit]. Military and civilian fatalities[edit]. According to WHO World health report 2004, deaths from intentional ...
Incidence[edit]. While not precisely known, it is estimated that the general rate of incidence, according to Bergsma,[10] for ... Its frequency is much higher in Finland, where the incidence is as high as 1.1 per 10,000 births. It is estimated that Meckel ... According to another study done six years later, the incidence rate could vary from 0.07 to 0.7 per 10,000 births.[11] ... The Leicestershire Perinatal Mortality Survey for the years 1976 to 1982 had found high incidences of Meckel syndrome in ...
Incidence and clinical presentation[edit]. The actual incidence of gossypiboma is difficult to determine, possibly due to a ... The incidence of retained foreign bodies following surgery has a reported rate of 0.01% to 0.001%, of which gossypibomas make ...
Incidence of monetary sovereignty[edit]. Currently, nations such as the USA and Japan, which have autonomous central banks are ...
Incidence and prevention of flooding[edit]. Flooding historically relates here to the name of the county, Somerset, which ...
Incidence and prevalence[edit]. This condition affects about 1 in 60,000 births.[7][not in citation given] ...
Incidence[edit]. The global rate of unintended pregnancy was 55 per 1,000 women aged 15-44 in 2008, of which 26 per 1,000 ended ... "Abortion Incidence and Access to Services in the United States".., retrieved 20 March 2012 ... Jones, Rachel K.; Kooistra, Kathryn (March 2011). "Abortion Incidence and Access to Services in the United States". ...
Historical incidence of homosexual clergy[edit]. Further information: Homosexuality and Roman Catholicism ... several studies suggest that the incidence of homosexuality in the Roman Catholic priesthood is much higher than in the general ...
As a consistency check, if the empirical estimator happens to equal the incidence rate, i.e. μ. i. =. x. i. N. {\displaystyle \ ... should be replaced by the known incidence rate of the control population μ. i. {\displaystyle \textstyle {\mu _{i}}}. to ... and also equals the incidence rate. Applications[edit]. Classification[edit]. Additive smoothing is commonly a component of ... Generalized to the case of known incidence rates[edit]. Often you are testing the bias of an unknown trial population against a ...
Incidence[edit]. See also: List of countries by intentional homicide rate. International murder rate per 100,000 inhabitants, ...
Incidence[edit]. A 2003 World Health Organization (WHO) report concluded that about 30% of reported food poisoning outbreaks in ... These systems are designed to ensure food is safe to consume and halt the increasing incidence of food poisoning, and they ...
Incidence of blond hair in Melanesia[edit]. Blond hair is rare in native populations outside of Europe, Central Asia and North ... As with blond hair that arose in Europe and parts of Asia, incidence of blondness is more common in children than in adults, ...
Incidence[edit]. Though TTS is rare, its cause can be determined in 70% of reported cases. In the workplace TTS is considered a ...
Incidence[edit]. In Britain, some 3,000 streets called "High Street" and about 2,300 streets with variations on the name (such ...
Overview and incidence[edit]. The condition was officially recognized in 1994 in the DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual ... given that thousands of years ago humans who meticulously avoided stab wounds and other incidences of pierced flesh would have ...
Poverty incidence and subsistence[edit]. Given the poverty thresholds mentioned above, poverty and subsistence incidences are ... incidence. Luzon has the least number of provinces with higher than 30% incidence. This may be attributed to their relative ... "Poverty incidence drops to 21.6%". Philippine Daily Inquirer. October 28, 2016. Archived from the original on 2018-01-20.. ... Poverty incidence is the proportion of the population with per capita income less than the per capita poverty threshold.[21] ...
Incidence[edit]. A rotator cuff tear can be caused by the weakening of the rotator cuff tendons. This weakening can be caused ... Generally, the incidence of rotator cuff tears or injuries increases by age [8][9] while corticosteroid injection for pain ... Jerosch J, Müller T, Castro W (1991). "The incidence of rotator cuff rupture. An anatomic study". Acta Orthop Belg. 57 (2): 124 ... However, no research has proven a link between early therapy and the incidence of re-tears. In some studies, patients who ...
Incidence[edit]. The incidence of 21-hydroxylase deficient CAH detectable in childhood is about 1 in 15,000 births. The severe ... The salt-wasting form of CAH has an incidence of 1 in 15,000 births and is potentially fatal within a month if untreated. ... The incidence of simple virilizing CAH is about 1 in 60,000 children. ...
2006) reported an incidence of 0.55 percent.[10] Yegane et al. (2006) reported an incidence of 0.9 percent.[11] Van Howe (2006 ... 2010) reported an incidence of 0.55 percent. [12] According to Emedicine (2016), the incidence of meatal stenosis runs from 9 ... Among circumcised males, reported incidence of meatal stricture varies. Griffiths et al. (1985) reported an incidence of 2.8 ... Incidence[edit]. Numerous studies over a long period of time clearly indicate that male circumcision contributes to the ...
Incidence[edit]. While teacher bullying is recognized as serious and harmful, there are no statistics on either teachers ... "Teachers as targets of bullying by their pupils : a study to investigate incidence". British Journal of Educational Psychology ...
Normal incidence[edit]. For the case of normal incidence, θ. i. =. θ. t. =. 0. {\displaystyle \theta _{\mathrm {i} }=\theta _{\ ... For the case of normal incidence these reduce to: r. s0. =. n. 1. −. n. 2. n. 1. +. n. 2. {\displaystyle r_{\text{s0}}={\frac { ... Let the plane of incidence be the xy plane (the plane of the page), with the angle of incidence θi measured from j towards i. ... At grazing incidence‍ (θi → 90°), we again have cos θi → 0‍, hence rp → −1 and tp → 0. ...
Incidence[edit]. The redback spider has been historically responsible for more envenomations requiring antivenom than any other ... there is some evidence there is a higher incidence of sweating, and local and radiating pain with the redback, while black ...
incidence. An incidence in a graph is a vertex-edge pair such that the vertex is an endpoint of the edge.. incidence matrix. ... The incidence matrix of a graph is a matrix whose rows are indexed by vertices of the graph, and whose columns are indexed by ... A graph isomorphism is a one-to-one incidence preserving correspondence of the vertices and edges of one graph to the vertices ...
Following the outbreak of the Somali Civil War in 1991, a home-grown constitutional conference was held in Garoowe in 1998 over a period of three months. Attended by the area's political elite, traditional elders (Issims), members of the business community, intellectuals and other civil society representatives, the autonomous Puntland State of Somalia was established to deliver services to the population, offer security, facilitate trade, and interact with domestic and international partners.[14] Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed served as the fledgling state's founding president.[15] As stipulated in Article 1 of the Transitional Federal Charter of the Somali Republic, Puntland is a part of the Federal State of Somalia. As such, the region seeks the unity of Somalis and adheres to a federal system of government.[16] Unlike the secessionist self-declared entity of Somaliland to its west, Puntland is not trying to obtain international recognition as a separate nation.[17] However, both regions have one thing ...
The only outcome to be affected by treatment timing was the incidence of new incisal trauma, which was significantly reduced by ... early orthodontic treatment for children with prominent upper front teeth is more effective in reducing the incidence of ... providing early orthodontic treatment for children with prominent upper front teeth is more effective in reducing the incidence ...
Poverty incidence. 23.01 (2012)[5]. Native languages. Rinconada Bikol. Central Bikol. Mount Iriga Agta language. Tagalog. ...
Poverty incidence. 39.12% (2015)[4]. • Revenue. ₱102,486,325.51 (2016). Time zone. UTC+8 (PST). ...
The incidence of laboratory-confirmed Salmonella infections was lower in 2013 than 2010-2012, whereas the incidence of Vibrio ... For most infections, incidence was well above national Healthy People 2020 incidence targets and highest among children aged ,5 ... the 2013 incidence was significantly higher for Campylobacter and Vibrio (Figure 2). The overall incidence of infection with ... incidence was highest among children aged ,5 years. In 2013, compared with 2010-2012, the estimated incidence of infection was ...
This study suggests that vitamin D(3) supplementation during the winter may reduce the incidence of influenza A, especially in ... The primary outcome was the incidence of influenza A, diagnosed with influenza antigen testing with a nasopharyngeal swab ... We investigated the effect of vitamin D supplements on the incidence of seasonal influenza A in schoolchildren. ...
Learn about the latest STI prevalence, incidence, and cost estimates, published in the Journal, Sexually Transmitted Diseases. ... CDC released updated STI prevalence, incidence, and cost estimates as part of a special issue in the journal Sexually ... Sexually Transmitted Infections Prevalence, Incidence, and Cost Estimates in the United States. Sexually transmitted infections ... Media Fact Sheet: Incidence, Prevalence, and Cost of Sexually Transmitted Infections in the United States ...
Incidence matrix[edit]. Main article: Incidence matrix. The incidence matrix of a (finite) incidence structure is a (0,1) ... If an incidence structure C has an incidence matrix M, then the dual structure C∗ has the transpose matrix MT as its incidence ... An incidence matrix for this structure is: (. 0. 0. 0. 1. 1. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 1. 1. 1. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 1. 0. 0. 0. 1. 0. 0. ... the incidence structure is called a linear space.[4][5] Nets[edit]. A more specialized example is a k-net. This is an incidence ...
HIV Incidence Survey for Incidence Specimens. An essential element of the development and evaluation process for the ... Meeting Report of the WHO Working Group on HIV Incidence Assays, 20-26 February 2016, Boston, MA, USA. pdf, 663kb ... Meeting report WHO Technical Working Group on HIV Incidence Assays, 16-17 July 2009, Cape Town, South Africa. pdf, 409kb ... Proceedings of the meeting on the development assays to estimate HIV incidence, 13-14 May 2009, Chapel Hill, North Carolina pdf ...
Look up angle of incidence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.. Angle of incidence is a measure of deviation of something from ... This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Angle of incidence. If an internal link led you here, you may ... Angle of incidence (aerodynamics), angle between a wing chord and the longitudinal axis, as distinct from angle of attack, ... Angle of incidence (optics), describing the approach of a ray to a surface ...
Incidence of Intussusception. Br Med J 1959; 2 doi: (Published 03 October 1959) Cite ...
The initial incidence (also called statutory incidence) of a tax is the initial distribution among ... Tax incidence, the distribution of a particular taxs economic burden among the affected parties. It measures the true cost of ... taxation: Shifting and incidence. The incidence of a tax rests on the person(s) whose real net income is reduced by the tax. It ... The final incidence (also called economic incidence) of a tax is the final burden of that particular tax on the distribution of ...
Learn about the incidence of brain cancer and survival rates during a period encompassing the introduction of CT and MR imaging ... We have used a population-based approach to calculate incidence trend, and we report that the incidence of malignant brain ... An annual incidence of 14.1 cases per 100,000 person-years (based on the 2000 population standard) for all primary CNS tumors ... If anything, the incidence of brain cancer declined during the period of cellular phone use. Of particular interest is the ...
Incidence is therefore customarily expressed as a rate. Source for information on Incidence and Prevalence: Encyclopedia of ... incidence and prevalence have precise yet different meanings. Incidence means the number of new episodes of an illness, ... INCIDENCE AND PREVALENCE. The words "incidence" and "prevalence" have precise yet different meanings. Incidence means the ... Incidence is therefore customarily expressed as a rate. If the notification of new cases of malignant melanoma to cancer ...
... Under the generic name of grazing incidence diffraction, several techniques are comprised: Grazing ... By modifying the incidence angle, the penetration depth of the X-ray beam in the sample can be controlled, and thus, at very ... In grazing incidence techniques, the X-ray beam impinges on the surface at a very small angle with respect to the surface plane ... GID is usually, but not exclusively, done in grazing incidence and exit geometry. GID is employed to determine the lattice ...
The true incidence of anaphylaxis is unknown. Some clinicians reserve the term for the full-blown syndrome, whereas others use ... What is the incidence of anaphylaxis?. Updated: May 16, 2018 * Author: S Shahzad Mustafa, MD; Chief Editor: Michael A Kaliner, ... The true incidence of anaphylaxis is unknown. Some clinicians reserve the term for the full-blown syndrome, whereas others use ... The incidence and management of infusion reactions to infliximab: a large center experience. Am J Gastroenterol. 2003 Jun. 98(6 ...
... these are called variable incidence wings. Variable geometry (swing) wings can vary the sweep (i.e., the angle of a wing with ... Other articles where Variable incidence wing is discussed: airplane: Wing types: …the fuselage; ... the fuselage; these are called variable incidence wings. Variable geometry (swing) wings can vary the sweep (i.e., the angle of ...
Incidence and Prevalence. It is estimated that approximately 40% of the population in the United States will experience some ... The true incidence and prevalence of balance system disorders in adults and children are unknown. This may be due, in part, to ... The reported incidence of dizziness varies in relation to the research methods utilized for accumulating data and the clinic ... and an incidence to be 1.4% (Neuhauser, 2007). Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), the most commonly reported ...
RACIAL INCIDENCE IN DISEASE. Br Med J 1929; 2 doi: (Published 14 September 1929) Cite ...
This paper considers the incidence of such transfers. First, we examine the net tax payments and program expenditures for ... "The Incidence of Mandated Maternity Benefits," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(3), pages 622- ... "The incidence of Medicare," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 90(1-2), pages 257-276, January. ... "The Incidence of Medicare," NBER Working Papers 6013, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc. ...
Figure 2: Air-Dielectric-Air model for plane wave incidence. Waveguide ports (red) are used to mimic plane waves. The ... This example of simulating a normal incidence plane wave contains a short description of the theory, detailed information on ...
... the incidence in this population is higher. Some research has indicated a significantly higher incidence when considering at ... The incidence of toxic shock syndrome rose significantly in the following decade until it reached a peak in the 1980s and ... Current Incidence. Toxic shock syndrome can affect anyone in the population, including women, men and children, although it is ... This public health initiative is largely to account for the decrease in incidence of toxic shock syndrome since the 1980s and ...
Cumulative Incidence (Syn: incidence proportion) Source:. A Dictionary of Epidemiology. Author(s):. Miquel Porta. ...
an incidence geometry on A. is called a plane incidence geometry. In a plane incidence geometry, Axioms 1 through 3, 5 and ... incidence geometry. Incidence geometry is essentially geometry. based on the first postulate. in Euclids The Elements. ... an incidence geometry on A. is called a solid incidence geometry. Axioms 1 through 3, 5, and the first part of Axiom 4 here ... of the incidence geometry: P. -. 1. :=. {. ∅. }. and P. ′. =. P. -. 1. ∪. P. . If we next define a binary relation I. ′. on P. ...
Cervical cancer incidence stabilized in women ,50 years during 2008-2012. Comparing trends and incidence of cervical cancer ... Results: Cervical cancer incidence among young women 15-24 years of age was stable during 2000-2006 from 9.5 in 2000 to 9.1 in ... Methods: We examined trends in the incidence of invasive cervical cancer by race and histology among young women (15-24 years ... A significance decrease was observed in the incidence of non-squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) rather than SCC among young females ...
... Written by Petra Rattue. on September 19, 2011 ... other factors including medical interventions appear to be more important in determining the incidence of malaria.. Written by ... whether or not climate changes affected East Africa and if there was a possible association with the rise in malaria incidences ...
... the high incidence of heart disease in men over 40. See more. ... Incidence definition, the rate or range of occurrence or ... incidence. *. The differences in overall victimization are driven mainly by the incidences of completed rape. ... WORDS THAT MAY BE CONFUSED WITH incidence. incidence , incidents, incidental. Unabridged Based on the Random ... incidence. prevalence, proportion, rate, frequency, extent, percentage, degree, trend, drift, number, measure, scope, tendency ...
A fuzzy version of the incidence-predicate is a binary fuzzy relation between Cartesian point sets. :. measures the relative ... Definition 9. For an extended point P and an extended line L we define the incidence relation by. where the subset relation ... Predicates that are used in the theory of incidence geometry may be denoted by ("a is a point"), ("a is a line"), and ("a and b ... 3. Fuzzification of Incidence Geometry. 3.1. Proposed Fuzzy Logic. Let, and continuous function , which defines a distance ...
Methods. gfoldl :: (forall d b. Data d =, c (d -, b) -, d -, c b) -, (forall g. g -, c g) -, Interval a -, c (Interval a) #. gunfold :: (forall b r. Data b =, c (b -, r) -, c r) -, (forall r. r -, c r) -, Constr -, c (Interval a) #. toConstr :: Interval a -, Constr #. dataTypeOf :: Interval a -, DataType #. dataCast1 :: Typeable (* -, *) t =, (forall d. Data d =, c (t d)) -, Maybe (c (Interval a)) #. dataCast2 :: Typeable (* -, * -, *) t =, (forall d e. (Data d, Data e) =, c (t d e)) -, Maybe (c (Interval a)) #. gmapT :: (forall b. Data b =, b -, b) -, Interval a -, Interval a #. gmapQl :: (r -, r -, r) -, r -, (forall d. Data d =, d -, r) -, Interval a -, r #. gmapQr :: (r -, r -, r) -, r -, (forall d. Data d =, d -, r) -, Interval a -, r #. gmapQ :: (forall d. Data d =, d -, u) -, Interval a -, [u] #. gmapQi :: Int -, (forall d. Data d =, d -, u) -, Interval a -, u #. gmapM :: Monad m =, (forall d. Data d =, d -, m d) -, Interval a -, m (Interval a) #. gmapMp :: MonadPlus m =, (forall d. ...
Corona incidence in Berlin down to 75.7. The incidence of corona in Berlin has fallen again and is currently at 75.7. The value ... Corona incidence drops to 78.0. The corona incidence in Berlin was 78.0 on Monday. The value indicates how many people per ... Corona incidence in Berlin at 69.1. In the past seven days, 69.1 out of 100,000 people in the capital contracted the virus, the ... Corona incidence in Berlin again at 69.1. In Berlin, 69.1 out of 100,000 people have been infected with the coronavirus in the ...
This is a mockup of a grazing incidence X-ray spectrometer typical of those flown by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) on ...
The incidence of urea cycle disorders.. Summar ML1, Koelker S, Freedenberg D, Le Mons C, Haberle J, Lee HS, Kirmse B; European ... The incidence for the United States is predicted to be 1 urea cycle disorder patient for every 35,000 births presenting about ... A key question for urea cycle disorders is their incidence. In the United States two UCDs, argininosuccinic synthetase and ...
Each pie chart represents an organ (matched for color) and is sized according to the incidence of cancer of that organ. The ... The chart has now been resized to accurately reflect lung cancers incidence. ...
"Study: Minimum ADHD Incidence Is 7.5 Percent,". March 27, 2002.). The CDC study also looked at the incidence of learning ... A version of this article appeared in the May 29, 2002 edition of Education Week as National Survey Puts ADHD Incidence Near 7 ... National Survey Puts ADHD Incidence Near 7 Percent. By Darcia Harris Bowman - May 29, 2002 2 min read ...
  • the high incidence of heart disease in men over 40. (
  • The Master of Education in Special Education-High incidence emphasis at Wichita State University prepares educators for teaching students with mild and moderate disabilities. (
  • The Special Education-High incidence emphasis prepares professional practitioners who can facilitate learning for students with high incidence needs for curricular and instructional modifications so that they will be successful learners and actualize their potential. (
  • Autoimmune thyroiditis is widely distributed disease with relatively high incidence. (
  • This rate rises even up to 35.8 per 1000 by adding the cases of probable neonatal infections 2 , an extremely high incidence, 40 times higher than that observed in the United States. (
  • a high incidence of malaria in the tropics. (
  • Although a high incidence of thrombotic accidents in Fabry's disease has been postulated, few investigations have been performed. (
  • GID is usually, but not exclusively, done in grazing incidence and exit geometry. (
  • In the paper we discuss the fuzzy logic (Aliev and Tserkovny, 2011) as a reasoning system for geometry of extended objects, as well as a basis for fuzzification of the axioms of incidence geometry. (
  • But in contrast with [ 1 - 4 ], where the Lukasiewicz logic was only proposed as the basis for "fuzzification" of axioms and no proofs were presented for both fuzzy predicates and fuzzy axiomatization of incidence geometry, we use fuzzy logic from [ 5 ] for all necessary mathematical purposes to fill up above-mentioned "gap. (
  • The axioms of incidence geometry form a proper subset of the axioms of Euclidean geometry. (
  • Incidence geometry allows for defining the notion of parallelism of two lines as a derived concept but does not permit expressing betweenness or congruency relations, which are assumed primitives in Hilbert's system [ 9 ]. (
  • The complete axiom set of Euclidean geometry provides a greater number of construction operators than incidence geometry. (
  • Incidence geometry has very limited expressive power when compared with the full axiom system. (
  • In geometry , an incidence relation is a heterogeneous relation that captures the idea being expressed when phrases such as "a point lies on a line" or "a line is contained in a plane" are used. (
  • Historically, projective geometry was developed in order to make the propositions of incidence true without exceptions, such as those caused by the existence of parallels. (
  • An example of this kind is the most basic of the incidence axioms of planar geometry. (
  • The easiest example of this is the other basic incidence relation of planar geometry. (
  • You are currently browsing the tag archive for the 'incidence geometry' tag. (
  • Since 2006-2008, the overall incidence has not changed significantly. (
  • Change in the overall incidence of infection with six key foodborne pathogens was estimated ( 3 ). (
  • Using the US population in the year 2000 as a reference for standardization, we report an overall incidence rate of 6.1 cases per 100,000 person-years. (
  • Determining the overall incidence of anterior cruciate ligament injury in the general population is difficult given the limited availability of accurate data. (
  • They found the overall incidence of psychotic disorders to be 21.4 per 100,000 person-years, but discovered wide variations between different areas, from a low of 6.0 per 100,000 person-years in the rural area around Santiago (Spain), to a high of over 45 in inner-city Paris and Southeast London. (
  • Alfrey et al reported an increase in the overall incidence of PTLD from 0.7% from 1965-1988 to 1.9% from 1988-1990. (
  • CDC released updated STI prevalence, incidence, and cost estimates as part of a special issue in the journal Sexually Transmitted Diseases external icon . (
  • The words "incidence" and "prevalence" have precise yet different meanings. (
  • The true incidence and prevalence of balance system disorders in adults and children are unknown. (
  • An additional study reported a 12-month prevalence of vestibular vertigo in adults to be roughly 5% and an incidence to be 1.4% (Neuhauser, 2007). (
  • And a review of previously published studies by Kenneth Langa, MD, PhD , of the University of Michigan, found five showing significant declines in age-specific prevalence or incidence of dementia in the U.S., the Netherlands, Sweden, and Great Britain. (
  • Studies conducted in China suggest a still-growing incidence of dementia, while others examining data from Colombia, Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa found that prevalence rates have been severely underestimated. (
  • A 5-year Edinburgh birth registry study by Rogala et al found the prevalence of babies born with any limb anomalies to be 30 cases per 10,000 live births and the incidence of upper limb anomalies to be 22.5 cases per 10,000 live births. (
  • In mathematics , an abstract system consisting of two types of objects and a single relationship between these types of objects is called an incidence structure . (
  • An annual incidence of 14.1 cases per 100,000 person-years (based on the 2000 population standard) for all primary CNS tumors was noted in the CBTRUS statistical report for 2004. (
  • While the American Cancer Society estimates more than 2 million new skin cancers will be diagnosed this year, our research shows that the annual incidence in 2008 could actually have been 3.7 million," said Dr. Coldiron. (
  • The aim of this study was to assess the annual incidence in a nationwide cohort of patients with presumed CD in Sweden.Patients registered with a diagnostic code for Cushing's syndrome (CS) or CD, between 1987 and 2013 were identified in the Swedish National Patient Registry. (
  • The mean (95% confidence interval) annual incidence between 1987 and 2013 of confirmed CD was 1.6 (1.4-1.8) cases per million. (
  • 1987-1995, 1996-2004, and 2005-2013, the mean annual incidence was 1.5 (1.1-1.8), 1.4 (1.0-1.7) and 2.0 (1.7-2.3) cases per million, respectively. (
  • Look up angle of incidence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. (
  • Angle of incidence (aerodynamics) , angle between a wing chord and the longitudinal axis, as distinct from angle of attack , which is relative to the airflow. (
  • This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Angle of incidence . (
  • Grazing Small and Wide Angle Scattering (GISAXS & GIWAXS), Grazing Incidence Diffraction (GID) and Surface X-ray diffraction ( SXRD ), althought this nomenclature is not universal. (
  • In grazing incidence techniques, the X-ray beam impinges on the surface at a very small angle with respect to the surface plane. (
  • By modifying the incidence angle, the penetration depth of the X-ray beam in the sample can be controlled, and thus, at very shallow angles (typically below 1°), the signal coming from the surface area is maximised. (
  • The angle of incidence is the angle that a ray of sun makes with a line perpendicular to the surface. (
  • The Angle of Incidence…Equals, the angle of refraction. (
  • specifically, an incidence relation ) and then briefly discuss how this definition is related to the axioms of incidence that we know from high school and college. (
  • I. The postnatally acquired cases of spastic hemiplegia showed a significantly greater incidence of convulsions than the congenital group. (
  • The researchers say their findings can be used to help plan mental health services, by identifying which regions could expect greater incidence of psychosis. (
  • They reported that women who had the highest trans fat intake (6.1 grams per day) had a 39% greater incidence of stroke compared to those who consumed less (2.2 grams per day). (
  • An incidence structure is a triple ( P , L , I ) where P is a set whose elements are called points , L is a distinct set whose elements are called lines and I ⊆ P × L is the incidence relation . (
  • The reported incidence of dizziness varies in relation to the research methods utilized for accumulating data and the clinic where the patients were evaluated. (
  • Instead, a new way of interpreting geometric primitives must be found, such that the interpretation of the incidence relation respects the uniqueness property ( I 2). (
  • a plane is a set of points) then an incidence relation may be viewed as containment . (
  • The corona incidence in Berlin was 78.0 on Monday. (
  • Of all population groups, the incidence per 100,000 people was 0.52. (
  • Of the total, 1,383 (or 53%) were reported as neuroinvasive disease, for a national incidence of 0.44 cases per 100,000 people. (
  • The 2013 rate was more in line with levels seen in 2004 through 2007, where the median incidence was 0.43 per 100,000 people, but was higher than the median rate -- 0.18 per 100,000 -- observed in 2008 through 2011. (
  • North and South Dakota had the highest incidence rates, at 8.9 and 6.8 per 100,000 people respectively. (
  • MADRID - Spain's coronavirus incidence slipped below 250 cases per 100,000 people - a threshold the Health Ministry considers as "extreme risk" of contagion - for the first time in two months on Tuesday. (
  • Since the incidence value remained below 100 for five working days in a row, there will now be first relaxations from Wednesday after months of lockdown. (
  • Similarly, the incidence of many infectious diseases strongly increases with age. (
  • Here, combining data from immunology and epidemiology, we show that many of these dramatic age-related increases in incidence can be modeled based on immune system decline, rather than mutation accumulation. (
  • It is clear from epidemiological data that incidence of infectious disease and cancer increases dramatically with age, and, specifically, that many cancer incidence curves follow an apparent power law ( 6 , 7 ). (
  • For uterine cancer, like most cancer types, incidence increases with age. (
  • Trends in Brain Cancer Incidence and Survival in the United States: Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program, 1973 to 2001. (
  • The etiology and incidence of anaphylaxis in Rochester, Minnesota: a report from the Rochester Epidemiology Project. (
  • Deadliest cancer chart shows mortality and incidence rates. (
  • Cancer incidence and mortality patterns were assessed for the periods 1958-89 and 1952-89 respectively, in a cohort of 2,026 subjects who had been employed for at least one year between 1900 and 1989 in three Swedish leather tanneries. (
  • Cause-specific standardized incidence and mortality ratios (SIRs and SMRs) were calculated. (
  • The increased incidence of soft tissue sarcomas adds support to previous findings of an excess mortality in this diagnosis among leather tanners. (
  • Keinan-Boker L, Silverman BG, Walsh PM, Gavin AT, Hayes C. Time Trends in the Incidence and Mortality of Ovarian Cancer in Ireland, Northern Ireland, and Israel, 1994-2013 . (
  • However, it's worth noting that these declining mortality rates are not due to decreases in incidence. (
  • A trend toward declining dementia incidence was seen throughout the study period. (
  • His group has previously shown that as well as dementia incidence falling in Denmark, people without any such diagnosis are staying sharper into old age . (
  • Uterine cancer incidence is related to age, with the highest incidence rates being in older women. (
  • To evaluate progress toward prevention, the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network* (FoodNet) monitors the incidence of laboratory-confirmed infections caused by nine pathogens transmitted commonly through food in 10 U.S. sites, covering approximately 15% of the U.S. population. (
  • Incidence was calculated by dividing the number of laboratory-confirmed infections in 2013 by U.S. Census estimates of the surveillance area population for 2012. (
  • We have used a population-based approach to calculate incidence trend, and we report that the incidence of malignant brain tumor is decreasing in the US. (
  • Incidence means the number of new episodes of an illness, injury, or other health-related event that commence during a specified period of time in a specified population. (
  • Some particular population groups, such as women aged between 13 and 25 years, were more likely to be affected by the syndrome, with an incidence of 1.41 per 100,000. (
  • Women who are menstruating and use tampons are at a greater risk of suffering from toxic shock syndrome and, for this reason, the incidence in this population is higher. (
  • Incidence rates (per 1,000,000) were age-adjusted to the 2010 US standard population by the direct method, using SEER*Stat software. (
  • The best epidemiologic studies of the incidence of congenital anomalies are total population studies. (
  • Similarly, an 11-year total population study of the Stockholm region of Sweden found a recorded incidence of congenital anomalies of the upper limb of 21.5 cases per 10,000 live births. (
  • E. The incidence of postnatally acquired cases was approximately ⅓ of the spastic hemiplegic series as compared to 1/10 of the total cerebral palsied population. (
  • F. The incidence of convulsions in this series was significantly higher than that reported for the general population, for all types of brain injury, for mixed spastic groups, and for most other series of spastic hemiplegics. (
  • To gain perspective on the extent of this problem, we will review what is known in regard to injury incidence in the general population, within sports, between sexes, and across age groups. (
  • In a survey of a student population in Sweden, an estimated case incidence of 2 to 3 percent was discovered. (
  • The incidence of injuries, therefore, depends on the population being studied. (
  • The observed cancer incidence was compared with the expected cancer incidence based on population cancer rates. (
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of lactic acidosis in a geographically defined population of metformin users. (
  • This incidence rate was derived from a population with complete ascertainment of hospitalizations and deaths associated with lactic acidosis in metformin users. (
  • METHODS: We used sentinel surveillance to determine incidence and transmission patterns for acute hepatitis C in the United States using data from 25 years of population-based surveillance in the general community. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of acute HCV declined substantially over the 25 years of population-based surveillance. (
  • If the notification of new cases of malignant melanoma to cancer registries in an area is complete, all diagnoses are accurate, and the number and age of people at risk of getting malignant melanoma is known, then the incidence rate can be calculated, fluctuations from year to year can be discerned, and the groups or localities where the incidence is unusually high can be identified. (
  • Rising melanoma incidence with less sun exposure? (
  • However, the incidence of stage one (less than 1 mm in size without spreading) malignant melanoma has tripled over the past forty years in spite of the fact that more and more people now avoid the sun and use sunblock. (
  • The study found that melanoma incidences among all Latinos increased by an average of 1.8% per year over the study period. (
  • The intraoperative incidence of cerebral desaturation is influenced by the definition of desaturation and surgical procedure. (
  • This study suggests that vitamin D(3) supplementation during the winter may reduce the incidence of influenza A, especially in specific subgroups of schoolchildren. (
  • it is typical to study incidence structures that satisfy some additional axioms. (
  • Economists formally study tax incidence by using the tools of supply and demand analysis. (
  • "Study: Minimum ADHD Incidence Is 7.5 Percent," March 27, 2002. (
  • The CDC study also looked at the incidence of learning disorders among children in the elementary-age group and found that 7.7 percent, or about 1.8 million, had at least one learning disability. (
  • What is the purpose of the cancer incidence study? (
  • For the U.S., the Framingham Heart Study data provided the most direct evidence for a decline in incidence. (
  • 2 , 3 However, no study has been undertaken to investigate the incidence of asystole during traction on extraocular muscles. (
  • 6 The present study was undertaken to investigate the incidence of asystole in patients undergoing strabismus surgery under general anaesthesia. (
  • The association between incidence of cancer and specific chemical exposure should be elucidated in a cohort-based case-referent study. (
  • The study, published today in JAMA Psychiatry , was the biggest international comparison of incidence of psychotic disorders, and the first major study of its kind in more than 25 years. (
  • The researchers say that more research is needed to identify causal mechanisms, investigate other risk factors, and study psychosis incidence in other environments such as lower-income countries. (
  • [ 3 ] Data from the North American Pediatric Renal Transplant Cooperative Study (NAPRTCS), which has been enrolling patients since 1987, showed a significant doubling of incidence density from 320 cases per 100,000 years of patient follow-up from 1987-1992 to 630 cases per 100,000 years of patient follow-up from 1992-1997. (
  • Objective: To study stroke incidence among women over 32 years of age with a focus on subdividing by stroke type, to consolidate end points and associations with risk factors. (
  • The incidence of Cushing's disease: a nationwide Swedish study. (
  • We will refine our estimate of the incidence of neonatal infections and study the acquisition of multidrug-resistant bacteria in neonates, whether from the mother or the environment. (
  • OBJECTIVE -To study the incidence of diabetes among women with previous diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the light of the general increasing incidence of overweight and diabetes and to identify risk factors for the development of diabetes. (
  • The aims of the present study were 1 ) to determine the long-term incidence of diabetes among Danish women with previous diet-treated GDM, 2 ) to describe potential changes in the incidence of diabetes and overweight during the last decades among women with previous GDM, and 3 ) to identify risk factors for the development of diabetes. (
  • To clarify the incidence of thrombosis in Fabry's disease, we undertook a systematic study on thrombosis in patients with Fabry's disease including hemizygous males and heterozygous females. (
  • This study will report the incidence of atrial fibrillation after elective colorectal cancer resection in the over 65 age group. (
  • By using regression analysis, we found that the incidence rate increased until 1987, and has been declining, albeit modestly, since then. (
  • A higher incidence between 2005 and 2013 compared to 1987-2004 was noticed. (
  • Schobeiri M.T. (2019) Incidence and Deviation. (
  • The second annual Blockchain Litigation Year in Review Report quantifies the incidence of litigation in the blockchain sector in 2019 for the U.S. marketplace. (
  • Incidence is therefore customarily expressed as a rate. (
  • The trend in age-standardized incidence rate increased from 0.08 per 100,000 in 1979 to 0.66 per 100,000 in 2011, an overall increase of 725% over 32 years," they add. (
  • In Iraq, the continuous rise in the incidence rate is associated with an obvious trend to affect premenopausal women," said Nada A.S. Alwan, M.D., Ph.D., director of the National Breast Cancer Research Unit at Baghdad University Medical College and the executive director of the newly established Iraqi National Cancer Research Program. (
  • Dementia: Shifting Incidence Rate? (
  • COPENHAGEN -- The incidence rate for dementia may have flattened or even declined in the U.S. and other developed nations, studies presented here suggested. (
  • Age-standardised incidence rate per 100 000 person-years was 448. (
  • However, primary record review revealed only two cases with laboratory findings of elevated blood lactate levels, for an incidence rate of 9 cases per 100,000 person-years of metformin exposure. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: From 1980 through 1995, the incidence rate of lactic acidosis was 9 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI 0-21) in patients dispensed metformin in Saskatchewan, Canada. (
  • However, incidence is often confused with the similar-sounding words incident and instance, which refer not to a rate but to a discrete event and are pluralized as incidents (which sounds exactly like incidence ) and instances (which has an ending similar to incidences ). (
  • Enter the number of beds at your hospital and the current VTE prophylaxis rate in the specified cells, and the tool will automatically calculate the incidence rate. (
  • The true incidence of anaphylaxis is unknown. (
  • Stroke incidence rates in different age strata. (
  • In humans, the thymus atrophies from infancy, resulting in an exponential decline in T cell production with a half-life of ∼16 years, which we use as the basis for a minimal mathematical model of disease incidence. (
  • With the recent successes of T cell-based immunotherapies ( 5 ), it is timely to assess how thymic involution may affect cancer and infectious disease incidence. (
  • BACKGROUND: Monitoring disease incidence and transmission patterns is important to characterize groups at risk for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. (
  • The incidence of toxic shock syndrome rose significantly in the following decade until it reached a peak in the 1980s and declined from that point until today and is now seen as a relatively rare condition. (
  • Some research has indicated a significantly higher incidence when considering at risk populations of women that use tampons regularly. (
  • Results: Cervical cancer incidence among young women 15-24 years of age was stable during 2000-2006 from 9.5 in 2000 to 9.1 in 2006, but decreased from 6.9 in 2007 to 5.3 in 2013 (annual percentage decrease [APD] 5.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-10.2, significantly different from the APD during 2000-2006). (
  • Given the high inflation in the second half of 2018, the impact on poverty incidence was severe on poor. (
  • In this light, the poverty incidence would have barely moved between 2015 and 2018. (
  • This public health initiative is largely to account for the decrease in incidence of toxic shock syndrome since the 1980s and its relative rarity today. (
  • This entity was rarely reported until the mid 1980s, when the incidence began suddenly rising. (
  • Incidence and frequency of reported risk factors were the main outcome measures. (
  • Previous research has suggested that increased incidence of cardiovascular disease - one of the risk factors for stroke - is associated with trans fat consumption. (
  • The average number of IDU-related cases declined paralleling the decline in incidence, but the proportion of IDU-related cases rose from 31.8% (402 of 1266) during 1982 to 1989 to 45.6% (103 of 226) during 1994 to 2006. (
  • US Cancer Death Rates on the Decline, But Cancer Incidence is Still Rising. (
  • Although they generally concur that the incidence of primary malignant brain tumor has been rising, some are based on a relatively small number of cases, and others have used statistical sampling methods to arrive at this conclusion. (
  • The incidence of PCIS in England rose from 19 new cases reported in 1979 to 193 new cases in 2011, the year for which the most recent data are available. (
  • The incidence of neuroinvasive cases, which are associated with substantial morbidity, is thought to be the most accurate indicator of disease activity. (
  • [2] However, it could equally well be argued that in some cases the incidence of the tax falls on the employer. (
  • The incidence of multidrug-resistant bacterial infections has been estimated at 7.7 cases per 1000 live births. (
  • Dear Statalisters, In the Stata News of october/december last year, I read that it is possible to creacte stacked cumulative incidence curves in stata after using stcrreg. (
  • Compared with 2010-2012, the estimated incidence of infection in 2013 was lower for Salmonella , higher for Vibrio , and unchanged overall. (
  • Higher incidence for those in older age groups suggests a possible role for bioaccumulation from environmental toxic exposure in the cause of malignant brain tumor. (
  • Our results also confirm previous observations of a higher incidence of brain cancer in men compared with women. (
  • When the association between tampons with higher absorbency and toxic shock syndrome became clear, public health interventions were initiated to decrease the incidence of the condition. (
  • For Canada's provinces, 1992-2003, incidence is on average some five times higher for sellers than for buyers. (
  • Our most novel emprical finding is that higher world market prices of exported, as well as imported, commodities are strong and significant predictors of higher within-country incidence of civil war. (
  • Incidence rates are higher for males than for females aged between 35-39 to 75-79 and this gap is widest at the age of 45-49, when the male: female incidence ratio of age-specific rates (to account for the different proportions of males to females in each age group) is around 19:10. (
  • In line with previous research, higher incidence of psychosis was also associated with younger age (although the authors also identified a secondary peak in middle age among women), males, and ethnic minorities. (
  • Notably, the incidence of PTLD was higher than control groups in studies of recent biologic agents such a belatacept and tofacitinib. (
  • [ 8 ] An expert multidisciplinary panel felt that the incidence might rise also with higher-risk patients increasingly receiving transplants and needing intense immunosuppression, such as those with preformed high-level antibodies. (
  • It is most frequent among big cities inhabitants (10 ) and the incidence is higher in industrial countries as opposite to developing countries. (
  • During the last time period the incidence was higher than during the first and second time periods (P (
  • Meningiomas, pituitary tumors, and nerve sheath tumors accounted for approximately 24, 8, and 6.5%, respectively, of all CNS tumors, thus largely explaining the differences in incidence rates produced by the two registries. (
  • Differences in access to medical care may also be a reason for this discrepancy between urban and rural incidence rates. (
  • The age-standardized incidence rates increased by 21%, from 1.10 to 1.33 per 100,000. (
  • The 21% increase in penile cancer incidence in England since the 1970s may be explained by changes in sexual practice, greater exposure to sexually transmitted oncogenic human papilloma viruses, and decreasing rates of childhood circumcision," those authors wrote, adding: "There is a need for public health education and potential preventative strategies to address the increasing incidence. (
  • P values and absolute incidence rates were not reported at the briefing. (
  • This paper accepts for the sake of argument the hypothesis that much of the time series correlation between tax and profit rates is spurious, and shows how nonetheless time series for profit rates, tax rates, and consumption can be organized, compared and interpreted using Fisher's (1930) theory of consumption in order to understand the incidence of capital taxes. (
  • Age-specific incidence rates rise steeply from around age 45-49 before dropping in the oldest age groups - a slighly different pattern from most cancers. (
  • incidence rates for females increased by 56% in the UK between 1993-1995 and 2013-2015. (
  • Hodgkin lymphoma incidence shows a clear bimodal age distribution, with the first peak in incidence rates in young adults, and the second peak in older males and females. (
  • Age-specific incidence rates rise sharply during childhood and peak first in young adults aged 20-24. (
  • Reliable measures of the incidence of induced abortion are needed to evaluate the impact of family planning efforts and contraceptive failure rates in a given setting. (
  • However, many sources point to the increase in cancers linked to human papillomavirus (HPV), leading them to focus on the low uptake of the HPV vaccine, 2 , 3 while ignoring the real root of our still-rising cancer incidence rates, namely diet, exercise, and weight control. (
  • Children's death rates from cancer are also declining at a pace of 1.8 percent per year, although incidence is still rising by about 0.5 percent annually. (
  • In this sense, it is used in the plural only in relatively rare situations when several rates are being discussed (for example, incidences of heart disease, cancer, and stroke ). (
  • What is left is the incidence structure of the Euclidean plane. (
  • 7 And the lack of data on the incidence of induced abortion and the magnitude of the public health burden of treating postabortion complications makes it difficult to describe the problem, to focus public attention on it, and to design postabortion care and contraceptive services to address it. (
  • In countries such as Ghana, where the law restricts elective induced abortion, data to quantify the incidence of abortion are scarce. (
  • Although few Ghanaians would deny the widespread use of induced abortion in their country, the clandestine nature of the practice severely hampers attempts to estimate the incidence of abortion at the national level. (
  • Comparing trends and incidence of cervical cancer before and during the vaccine era among vaccine-eligible young women (15-34 years) may provide valuable insight about potential vaccine impact. (
  • Methods: We examined trends in the incidence of invasive cervical cancer by race and histology among young women (15-24 years and 25-34 years) during the prevaccine era (2000-2006) and the vaccine era (2007-2013). (
  • The Changing Incidence of Geography ," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 698, Boston College Department of Economics. (
  • In economics , tax incidence or tax burden is the effect of a particular tax on the distribution of economic welfare . (
  • In economics, benefit incidence refers to the availability of a benefit. (
  • CONCLUSIONS -The incidence of diabetes among Danish women with previous diet-treated GDM was very high and had more than doubled over a 10-year period. (
  • Cette nouvelle édition propose de hiérarchiser les incidences en fonction de leur contexte d'utilisation (incidences fondamentales, complémentaires, spécifiques et rares). (
  • This paper considers the incidence of such transfers. (
  • A model case occurs when one considers incidences between points and axis-parallel rectangles in the plane. (
  • Stern said that there has been considerable controversy on whether or not climate changes affected East Africa and if there was a possible association with the rise in malaria incidences. (
  • This research suggests that, while climate change is expected to have many serious impacts, other factors including medical interventions appear to be more important in determining the incidence of malaria. (
  • Incidence structures use a geometric terminology, but in graph theoretic terms they are called hypergraphs and in design theoretic terms they are called block designs . (
  • Fracture is a common incidence in both children and adults. (
  • Researchers from the Himalayan Institute of Medical Sciences, Jolly Grant, Uttarakhand, and McGill International TB Centre, McGill University, Montreal, used data on undernutrition in India from the National Family Health Survey 3 to assess the impact of undernutrition in Indian adolescents and adults on the incidence of TB. (
  • The majority of the affected women showed signs of Staphylococcus aureus infection and the incidence of the syndrome continued to rise until it reached epidemic status. (
  • Incidence of urinary tract infection [‎UTI]‎ during pregnancy among Pakistani women was examined. (
  • If we do not include a stratification variable the '(Gray's)tests' results will be different to those when a stratification variable is included and they test (i) if there are significant differences between those with fair hair and those with dark hair as regards cumulative incidence of relapse (ii) if there are significant differences between those with fair hair and those with dark hair as regards cumulative incidence of TRM. (
  • The incidence is now 61.5, as the Robert Koch Institute (RKI) announced on 19 May 2021. (
  • The first results show an incidence of confirmed neonatal infections of 17.7 per 1000 live births. (
  • However, early in 1980, epidemiological studies reported toxic shock syndrome occurring with increasing incidence in menstruating women. (
  • Incidence of culture-confirmed bacterial infections and laboratory-confirmed parasitic infections (e.g., identified by enzyme immunoassay) are reported. (
  • Neglected properties of the structural gravity model offer a theoretically consistent method to calculate the incidence of estimated trade costs, disaggregated by commodity and region, and re-aggregated into forms useful for economic geography. (
  • A negative binomial model with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) was used to estimate changes in incidence from 2010-2012 to 2013 and from 2006-2008 to 2013 ( 2 ). (
  • LONDON - A dramatic increase in the incidence of penile carcinoma in situ (PCIS), a premalignant disease that can transform into penile cancer years later, has been found in England and other European countries. (
  • A 2013 paper reviewing the incidence of penile cancer in England found 9690 men diagnosed between 1979 and 2009. (