The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.
The relative amount by which the average fitness of a POPULATION is lowered, due to the presence of GENES that decrease survival, compared to the GENOTYPE with maximum or optimal fitness. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.
The magnitude of INBREEDING in humans.
The fusion of a male gamete with a female gamete from the same individual animal or plant.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
The transfer of POLLEN grains (male gametes) to the plant ovule (female gamete).
The adaptive superiority of the heterozygous GENOTYPE with respect to one or more characters in comparison with the corresponding HOMOZYGOTE.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
Sexual activities of animals.
The capability of an organism to survive and reproduce. The phenotypic expression of the genotype in a particular environment determines how genetically fit an organism will be.
Any of various ruminant mammals of the order Bovidae. They include numerous species in Africa and the American pronghorn.
An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
The selection or choice of sexual partner in animals. Often this reproductive preference is based on traits in the potential mate, such as coloration, size, or behavioral boldness. If the chosen ones are genetically different from the rejected ones, then NATURAL SELECTION is occurring.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain SOLANACEOUS ALKALOIDS. Some species in this genus are called deadly nightshade which is also a common name for ATROPA BELLADONNA.
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
A plant genus of the family Phrymaceae. Members contain 6-geranylflavanones and mimulone.
The milkweed plant family of the order Gentianales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. It includes many tropical herbs and shrubby climbers; most with milky juice. Flowers have five united petals. Fruits are podlike, usually with tufted seeds.
A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.
The number of males per 100 females.
A plant family of the order Dipsacales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. It is sometimes called the teasel family.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
'Zoo animals' are various species of captive wild animals, housed and displayed in a facility for the purpose of public education, conservation, research, and recreation.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that contains linarin (acaciin) and LECTINS.
The fluctuation of the ALLELE FREQUENCY from one generation to the next.
A plant genus of the family CARYOPHYLLACEAE. The common name of campion is also used with LYCHNIS. The common name of 'pink' can be confused with other plants.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.
A phenomenon that is observed when a small subgroup of a larger POPULATION establishes itself as a separate and isolated entity. The subgroup's GENE POOL carries only a fraction of the genetic diversity of the parental population resulting in an increased frequency of certain diseases in the subgroup, especially those diseases known to be autosomal recessive.
A constellation of responses that occur when an organism is exposed to excessive cold. In humans, a fall in skin temperature triggers gasping, hypertension, and hyperventilation.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.
The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.
Animals and plants which have, as their normal mode of reproduction, both male and female sex organs in the same individual.
A plant genus of the family CARYOPHYLLACEAE. The common name "Campion" is also used with SILENE.
The reproductive organs of plants.
The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
A plant family of the order Campanulales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. The gums and tanning agents obtained from Acacia are called GUM ARABIC. The common name of catechu is more often used for Areca catechu (ARECA).
Mechanisms that prevent different populations from exchanging genes (GENE FLOW), resulting in or maintaining GENETIC SPECIATION. It can either prevent mating to take place or ensure that any offspring produced is either inviable or sterile, thereby preventing further REPRODUCTION.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
A family of terrestrial carnivores with long snouts and non-retractable claws. Members include COYOTES; DOGS; FOXES; JACKALS; RACCOON DOGS; and WOLVES.
The Borage plant family is in the class Magnoliopsida, subclass Asteridae, order Lamiales. It is characterized by hairy foliage, usually alternate and simple; flowers are funnel-shaped or tubular. Some of the species contain PYRROLIZIDINE ALKALOIDS.
The rose plant family in the order ROSALES and class Magnoliopsida. They are generally woody plants. A number of the species of this family contain cyanogenic compounds.

Inbreeding of bottlenecked butterfly populations. Estimation using the likelihood of changes in marker allele frequencies. (1/1397)

Polymorphic enzyme and minisatellite loci were used to estimate the degree of inbreeding in experimentally bottlenecked populations of the butterfly, Bicyclus anynana (Satyridae), three generations after founding events of 2, 6, 20, or 300 individuals, each bottleneck size being replicated at least four times. Heterozygosity fell more than expected, though not significantly so, but this traditional measure of the degree of inbreeding did not make full use of the information from genetic markers. It proved more informative to estimate directly the probability distribution of a measure of inbreeding, sigma2, the variance in the number of descendants left per gene. In all bottlenecked lines, sigma2 was significantly larger than in control lines (300 founders). We demonstrate that this excess inbreeding was brought about both by an increase in the variance of reproductive success of individuals, but also by another process. We argue that in bottlenecked lines linkage disequilibrium generated by the small number of haplotypes passing through the bottleneck resulted in hitchhiking of particular marker alleles with those haplotypes favored by selection. In control lines, linkage disequilibrium was minimal. Our result, indicating more inbreeding than expected from demographic parameters, contrasts with the findings of previous (Drosophila) experiments in which the decline in observed heterozygosity was slower than expected and attributed to associative overdominance. The different outcomes may both be explained as a consequence of linkage disequilibrium under different regimes of inbreeding. The likelihood-based method to estimate inbreeding should be of wide applicability. It was, for example, able to resolve small differences in sigma2 among replicate lines within bottleneck-size treatments, which could be related to the observed variation in reproductive viability.  (+info)

Improving the efficiency of artificial selection: more selection pressure with less inbreeding. (2/1397)

The use of population genetic variability in present-day selection schemes can be improved to reduce inbreeding rate and inbreeding depression without impairing genetic progress. We performed an experiment with Drosophila melanogaster to test mate selection, an optimizing method that uses linear programming to maximize the selection differential applied while at the same time respecting a restriction on the increase in inbreeding expected in the next generation. Previous studies about mate selection used computer simulation on simple additive genetic models, and no experiment with a real character in a real population had been carried out. After six selection generations, the optimized lines showed an increase in cumulated phenotypic selection differential of 10.76%, and at the same time, a reduction of 19.91 and 60.47% in inbreeding coefficient mean and variance, respectively. The increased selection pressure would bring greater selection response, and in fact, the observed change in the selected trait was on average 31.03% greater in the optimized lines. These improvements in the selection scheme were not made at the expense of the long-term expectations of genetic variability in the population, as these expectations were very similar for both mate selection and conventionally selected lines in our experiment.  (+info)

Microsatellite loci in wild-type and inbred Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. (3/1397)

Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, a major research model in developmental molecular biology, has been inbred through six generations of sibling matings. Though viability initially decreased, as described earlier, the inbred line now consists of healthy, fertile animals. These are intended to serve as a genomic resource in which the level of polymorphism is decreased with respect to wild S. purpuratus. To genotype the inbred animals eight simple sequence genomic repeats were isolated, in context, and PCR primers were generated against the flanking single-copy sequences. Distribution and polymorphism of these regions of the genome were studied in the genomes of 27 wild individuals and in a sample of the inbred animals at F2 and F3 generations. All eight regions were polymorphic, though to different extents, and their homozygosity was increased by inbreeding as expected. The eight markers suffice to identify unambiguously the cellular DNA of any wild or F3 S. purpuratus individual.  (+info)

The changes in genetic and environmental variance with inbreeding in Drosophila melanogaster. (4/1397)

We performed a large-scale experiment on the effects of inbreeding and population bottlenecks on the additive genetic and environmental variance for morphological traits in Drosophila melanogaster. Fifty-two inbred lines were created from the progeny of single pairs, and 90 parent-offspring families on average were measured in each of these lines for six wing size and shape traits, as well as 1945 families from the outbred population from which the lines were derived. The amount of additive genetic variance has been observed to increase after such population bottlenecks in other studies; in contrast here the mean change in additive genetic variance was in very good agreement with classical additive theory, decreasing proportionally to the inbreeding coefficient of the lines. The residual, probably environmental, variance increased on average after inbreeding. Both components of variance were highly variable among inbred lines, with increases and decreases recorded for both. The variance among lines in the residual variance provides some evidence for a genetic basis of developmental stability. Changes in the phenotypic variance of these traits are largely due to changes in the genetic variance.  (+info)

Scavenger receptor activity is increased in macrophages from rabbits with low atherosclerotic response: studies in normocholesterolemic high and low atherosclerotic response rabbits. (5/1397)

We have previously described 2 strains of New Zealand White rabbits with a high (HAR) or low (LAR) atherosclerotic response to hypercholesterolemia. In the present study, we focused on class A scavenger receptor (SR-A) activity and ApoE expression in macrophages from both rabbit strains. These parameters play a crucial role in maintaining cholesterol homeostasis in the arterial wall and may be involved in the development of atherosclerosis. SR activity, as measured by uptake of DiI-labeled acetylated LDL, was significantly higher in macrophages from LAR rabbits (2177+/-253 ng/mg cell protein) than in macrophages from HAR rabbits (1153+/-200 ng/mg cell protein). The higher SR activity was caused by a greater number of SRs (apparent Vmax, 4100 ng/mg in LAR and 1980 ng/mg in HAR rabbits). The high SR activity in macrophages from LAR rabbits was associated with a significantly higher expression of SR-A mRNA compared with macrophages from HAR rabbits. However, the latter finding could not be explained by differences in the activity of transcription factor-activating protein 1 (AP-1), which was comparable in macrophages from both strains of rabbits. Because under certain circumstances SR-A mRNA expression is regulated in parallel with ApoE expression, we also evaluated this parameter. Although ApoE mRNA was 74% higher in macrophages from LAR rabbits, the difference did not reach statistical significance. In conclusion, the increased expression of SR-A in macrophages in the presence of adequate amounts of ApoE may play a role in attenuating atherosclerosis in LAR rabbits.  (+info)

Paternal kin discrimination in wild baboons. (6/1397)

Mammals commonly avoid mating with maternal kin, probably as a result of selection for inbreeding avoidance. Mating with paternal kin should be selected against for the same reason. However, identifying paternal kin may be more difficult than identifying maternal kin in species where the mother mates with more than one male. Selection should nonetheless favour a mechanism of paternal kin recognition that allows the same level of discrimination among paternal as among maternal kin, but the hypothesis that paternal kin avoid each other as mates is largely untested in large mammals such as primates. Here I report that among wild baboons, Papio cynocephalus, paternal siblings exhibited lower levels of affiliative and sexual behaviour during sexual consortships than non-kin, although paternal siblings were not significantly less likely to consort than non-kin. I also examined age proximity as a possible social cue of paternal relatedness, because age cohorts are likely to be paternal sibships. Pairs born within two years of each other were less likely to engage in sexual consortships than pairs born at greater intervals, and were less affiliative and sexual when they did consort. Age proximity may thus be an important social cue for paternal relatedness, and phenotype matching based on shared paternal traits may play a role as well.  (+info)

A new mouse model of spontaneous diabetes derived from ddY strain. (7/1397)

By the selective breeding of obese male mice of the ddY strain and using indices of the heavy body weight and appearance of urinary glucose, we established two inbred strains in 1992: one with obesity and urinary glucose (Tsumura, Suzuki, Obese Diabetes: TSOD) and the other without them (Tsumura, Suzuki, Non Obesity: TSNO). The male TSOD mice constantly showed signs of obesity and urinary glucose with increases in food and water intake, body weight and some fat weight. The body mass index (BMI) clearly showed moderate obesity. Increases in the levels of diabetic blood parameters (glucose, insulin and lipids) were also found in males, in which the levels of blood glucose and insulin were high to the ages past the growth peak. In the histological studies, pancreatic islets of the TSOD males were found hypertrophic without any signs of insulitis or fibrous formation. Among these diabetic characteristics, some of which were similar to the reported models of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), the stable appearances of the hyperglycemia, the hyperinsulinemia and the hypertrophy of pancreatic islets to the ages past the growth peak were the prominent features. In these respect the TSOD mouse may be a useful model for researching the mechanisms of human diabetes and its complications.  (+info)

Genetic regulation of long-term nonprogression in E-55+ murine leukemia virus infection in mice. (8/1397)

Certain inbred mouse strains display progression to lymphoma development after infection with E-55+ murine leukemia virus (E-55+ MuLV), while others demonstrate long-term nonprogression. This difference in disease progression occurs despite the fact that E-55+ MuLV causes persistent infection in both immunocompetent BALB/c-H-2(k) (BALB.K) progressor (P) and C57BL/10-H-2(k) (B10.BR) long-term nonprogressor (LTNP) mice. In contrast to immunocompetent mice, immunosuppressed mice from both P and LTNP strains develop lymphomas about 2 months after infection, indicating that the LTNP phenotype is determined by the immune response of the infected mouse. In this study, we used bone marrow chimeras to demonstrate that the LTNP phenotype is associated with the genotype of donor bone marrow and not the recipient microenvironment. In addition, we have mapped a genetic locus that may be responsible for the LTNP trait. Microsatellite-based linkage analysis demonstrated that a non-major histocompatibility complex gene on chromosome 15 regulates long-term survival and is located in the same region as the Rfv3 gene. Rfv3 is involved in recovery from Friend virus-induced leukemia and has been demonstrated to regulate neutralizing virus antibody titers. In our studies, however, both P and LTNP strains produce similar titers of neutralizing and cytotoxic anti-E-55+ MuLV. Therefore, while it is possible that Rfv3 influences the course of E-55+ MuLV infection, it is more likely that the LTNP phenotype in E-55+ MuLV-infected mice is regulated by a different, closely linked gene.  (+info)

Inbreeding, in a medical context, refers to the practice of mating closely related individuals within a given family or breeding population. This leads to an increased proportion of homozygous genes, meaning that the same alleles (versions of a gene) are inherited from both parents. As a result, recessive traits and disorders become more likely to be expressed because the necessary dominant allele may be absent.

In human medicine, consanguinity is the term often used instead of inbreeding, and it refers to relationships between individuals who share a common ancestor. Consanguinity increases the risk of certain genetic disorders due to the increased likelihood of sharing harmful recessive genes. The closer the relationship, the higher the risk.

In animal breeding, inbreeding can lead to reduced fertility, lower birth weights, higher infant mortality, and a decreased lifespan. It is crucial to maintain genetic diversity within populations to ensure their overall health and vigor.

Genetic load is a term used in population genetics that refers to the reduction in average fitness (or reproductive success) of a population due to the presence of deleterious or harmful alleles (versions of genes). These alleles can negatively impact an individual's survival, reproduction, or both. Genetic load can be caused by various factors such as mutations, genetic drift, and selection.

There are several types of genetic load, including:

1. Mutation load: The decrease in fitness due to the accumulation of new deleterious mutations in a population over time.
2. Segregation load: The reduction in average fitness caused by the presence of recessive deleterious alleles that are hidden in heterozygotes (individuals with one normal and one deleterious allele).
3. Inbreeding load: The decrease in fitness due to an increase in homozygosity (the presence of identical alleles on both chromosomes) resulting from inbreeding, which exposes recessive deleterious alleles.
4. Genetic drift load: The reduction in fitness caused by the random loss of beneficial or neutral alleles due to genetic drift, leading to a decrease in genetic diversity and an increase in the frequency of deleterious alleles.
5. Coevolutionary load: The decline in fitness resulting from the disruption of coadapted gene complexes (combinations of interacting genes) when populations are separated or experience environmental changes.

Overall, genetic load represents the cost of maintaining genetic variation within a population and can impact its long-term evolutionary potential and adaptability to changing environments.

Population Genetics is a subfield of genetics that deals with the genetic composition of populations and how this composition changes over time. It involves the study of the frequency and distribution of genes and genetic variations in populations, as well as the evolutionary forces that contribute to these patterns, such as mutation, gene flow, genetic drift, and natural selection.

Population genetics can provide insights into a wide range of topics, including the history and relationships between populations, the genetic basis of diseases and other traits, and the potential impacts of environmental changes on genetic diversity. This field is important for understanding evolutionary processes at the population level and has applications in areas such as conservation biology, medical genetics, and forensic science.

Consanguinity is a medical and genetic term that refers to the degree of genetic relationship between two individuals who share common ancestors. Consanguineous relationships exist when people are related by blood, through a common ancestor or siblings who have children together. The closer the relationship between the two individuals, the higher the degree of consanguinity.

The degree of consanguinity is typically expressed as a percentage or fraction, with higher values indicating a closer genetic relationship. For example, first-degree relatives, such as parents and children or full siblings, share approximately 50% of their genes and have a consanguinity coefficient of 0.25 (or 25%).

Consanguinity can increase the risk of certain genetic disorders and birth defects in offspring due to the increased likelihood of sharing harmful recessive genes. The risks depend on the degree of consanguinity, with closer relationships carrying higher risks. It is important for individuals who are planning to have children and have a history of consanguinity to consider genetic counseling and testing to assess their risk of passing on genetic disorders.

Self-fertilization is not a term typically used in human or animal medicine, but it is a concept in botany. It refers to the fertilization of an ovule (a structure in plants that develops into a seed after fertilization) with pollen from the same plant. This can occur in hermaphroditic flowers, which have both male and female reproductive organs. Self-fertilization can increase genetic similarity within a population of plants, which can have implications for their evolution and survival.

Reproduction, in the context of biology and medicine, refers to the process by which organisms produce offspring. It is a complex process that involves the creation, development, and growth of new individuals from parent organisms. In sexual reproduction, this process typically involves the combination of genetic material from two parents through the fusion of gametes (sex cells) such as sperm and egg cells. This results in the formation of a zygote, which then develops into a new individual with a unique genetic makeup.

In contrast, asexual reproduction does not involve the fusion of gametes and can occur through various mechanisms such as budding, fragmentation, or parthenogenesis. Asexual reproduction results in offspring that are genetically identical to the parent organism.

Reproduction is a fundamental process that ensures the survival and continuation of species over time. It is also an area of active research in fields such as reproductive medicine, where scientists and clinicians work to understand and address issues related to human fertility, contraception, and genetic disorders.

Genetic variation refers to the differences in DNA sequences among individuals and populations. These variations can result from mutations, genetic recombination, or gene flow between populations. Genetic variation is essential for evolution by providing the raw material upon which natural selection acts. It can occur within a single gene, between different genes, or at larger scales, such as differences in the number of chromosomes or entire sets of chromosomes. The study of genetic variation is crucial in understanding the genetic basis of diseases and traits, as well as the evolutionary history and relationships among species.

Genetic models are theoretical frameworks used in genetics to describe and explain the inheritance patterns and genetic architecture of traits, diseases, or phenomena. These models are based on mathematical equations and statistical methods that incorporate information about gene frequencies, modes of inheritance, and the effects of environmental factors. They can be used to predict the probability of certain genetic outcomes, to understand the genetic basis of complex traits, and to inform medical management and treatment decisions.

There are several types of genetic models, including:

1. Mendelian models: These models describe the inheritance patterns of simple genetic traits that follow Mendel's laws of segregation and independent assortment. Examples include autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, and X-linked inheritance.
2. Complex trait models: These models describe the inheritance patterns of complex traits that are influenced by multiple genes and environmental factors. Examples include heart disease, diabetes, and cancer.
3. Population genetics models: These models describe the distribution and frequency of genetic variants within populations over time. They can be used to study evolutionary processes, such as natural selection and genetic drift.
4. Quantitative genetics models: These models describe the relationship between genetic variation and phenotypic variation in continuous traits, such as height or IQ. They can be used to estimate heritability and to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that contribute to trait variation.
5. Statistical genetics models: These models use statistical methods to analyze genetic data and infer the presence of genetic associations or linkage. They can be used to identify genetic risk factors for diseases or traits.

Overall, genetic models are essential tools in genetics research and medical genetics, as they allow researchers to make predictions about genetic outcomes, test hypotheses about the genetic basis of traits and diseases, and develop strategies for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment.

In medical terms, "breeding" is not a term that is commonly used. It is more frequently used in the context of animal husbandry to refer to the process of mating animals in order to produce offspring with specific desired traits or characteristics. In human medicine, the term is not typically applied to people and instead, related concepts such as reproduction, conception, or pregnancy are used.

"Genetic crosses" refer to the breeding of individuals with different genetic characteristics to produce offspring with specific combinations of traits. This process is commonly used in genetics research to study the inheritance patterns and function of specific genes.

There are several types of genetic crosses, including:

1. Monohybrid cross: A cross between two individuals that differ in the expression of a single gene or trait.
2. Dihybrid cross: A cross between two individuals that differ in the expression of two genes or traits.
3. Backcross: A cross between an individual from a hybrid population and one of its parental lines.
4. Testcross: A cross between an individual with unknown genotype and a homozygous recessive individual.
5. Reciprocal cross: A cross in which the male and female parents are reversed to determine if there is any effect of sex on the expression of the trait.

These genetic crosses help researchers to understand the mode of inheritance, linkage, recombination, and other genetic phenomena.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "pollination" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Pollination is a process in biology, specifically in botany, that refers to the transfer of pollen from the male reproductive organ (anther) of a flower to the female reproductive organ (stigma) of the same or another flower, leading to fertilization and the production of fruits and seeds.

If you have any medical terms or concepts in mind, please provide them so I can offer an accurate definition or explanation.

Hybrid vigor, also known as heterosis or heterozygote advantage, is a phenomenon in genetics where the offspring of genetically diverse parents exhibit certain favorable traits that are not present in either parent. This results in increased growth, fertility, disease resistance, and overall hardiness in the offspring compared to the purebred parents.

In medical terms, hybrid vigor is often discussed in the context of breeding programs for livestock or plants used for agricultural purposes. By crossing two distinct lines or breeds with different genetic backgrounds, breeders can create offspring that have improved health and productivity traits, which can lead to better outcomes in farming and agriculture.

It's worth noting that while hybrid vigor is a well-established concept in genetics, its application in human medicine is limited. However, understanding the principles of hybrid vigor can still be useful for researchers studying genetic diversity and disease susceptibility in humans.

Genetic selection, also known as natural selection, is a fundamental mechanism of evolution. It refers to the process by which certain heritable traits become more or less common in a population over successive generations due to differential reproduction of organisms with those traits.

In genetic selection, traits that increase an individual's fitness (its ability to survive and reproduce) are more likely to be passed on to the next generation, while traits that decrease fitness are less likely to be passed on. This results in a gradual change in the distribution of traits within a population over time, leading to adaptation to the environment and potentially speciation.

Genetic selection can occur through various mechanisms, including viability selection (differential survival), fecundity selection (differences in reproductive success), and sexual selection (choices made by individuals during mating). The process of genetic selection is driven by environmental pressures, such as predation, competition for resources, and changes in the availability of food or habitat.

Microsatellite repeats, also known as short tandem repeats (STRs), are repetitive DNA sequences made up of units of 1-6 base pairs that are repeated in a head-to-tail manner. These repeats are spread throughout the human genome and are highly polymorphic, meaning they can have different numbers of repeat units in different individuals.

Microsatellites are useful as genetic markers because of their high degree of variability. They are commonly used in forensic science to identify individuals, in genealogy to trace ancestry, and in medical research to study genetic diseases and disorders. Mutations in microsatellite repeats have been associated with various neurological conditions, including Huntington's disease and fragile X syndrome.

Sexual behavior in animals refers to a variety of behaviors related to reproduction and mating that occur between members of the same species. These behaviors can include courtship displays, mating rituals, and various physical acts. The specific forms of sexual behavior displayed by a given species are influenced by a combination of genetic, hormonal, and environmental factors.

In some animals, sexual behavior is closely tied to reproductive cycles and may only occur during certain times of the year or under specific conditions. In other species, sexual behavior may be more frequent and less closely tied to reproduction, serving instead as a means of social bonding or communication.

It's important to note that while humans are animals, the term "sexual behavior" is often used in a more specific sense to refer to sexual activities between human beings. The study of sexual behavior in animals is an important area of research within the field of animal behavior and can provide insights into the evolutionary origins of human sexual behavior as well as the underlying mechanisms that drive it.

Genetic fitness is a term used in the field of genetics and evolutionary biology to describe the ability of an individual organism to survive and reproduce, passing its genes on to the next generation. An organism that is highly genetically fit has a greater likelihood of producing offspring that will also survive and reproduce, thereby ensuring the survival of its genetic traits in the population.

In the context of human genetics, genetic fitness may refer to the ability of an individual to pass on their genes to future generations due to certain genetic traits or characteristics that enhance their chances of survival and reproduction. However, it is important to note that the concept of "fitness" in this context does not necessarily imply superiority or inferiority, but rather a measure of reproductive success.

It's also worth noting that genetic fitness can be influenced by various factors such as environmental conditions, cultural practices, and social structures, which can all interact with an individual's genetic traits to affect their overall fitness.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "antelopes" is a common name that refers to a group of hoofed mammals in the family Bovidae. They are not a medical term or concept. Antelopes are known for their speed and agility, and they are found primarily in Africa, with a few species in Asia.

If you have any questions related to biology, veterinary medicine, or any other scientific field, I would be happy to help answer them to the best of my ability!

An endangered species is a species of animal, plant, or other organism that is at risk of becoming extinct because its population is declining or threatened by changing environmental or demographic factors. This term is defined and used in the context of conservation biology and wildlife management to identify species that need protection and preservation efforts.

The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) maintains a "Red List" of species, categorizing them based on their extinction risk. The categories include "Critically Endangered," "Endangered," "Vulnerable," and "Near Threatened." A species is considered endangered if it meets certain criteria indicating that it faces a very high risk of extinction in the wild.

The primary causes for species to become endangered include habitat loss, fragmentation, degradation, pollution, climate change, overexploitation, and introduction of invasive species. Conservation efforts often focus on protecting habitats, managing threats, and implementing recovery programs to help endangered species recover their populations and reduce the risk of extinction.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "population density" is actually a term used in population geography and epidemiology, rather than medical terminology. It refers to the number of people living in a specific area or region, usually measured as the number of people per square mile or square kilometer.

However, understanding population density can be important in public health and medicine because it can influence various factors related to health outcomes and healthcare delivery, such as:

1. Disease transmission rates: Higher population densities can facilitate the spread of infectious diseases, particularly those that are transmitted through close contact between individuals.
2. Access to healthcare services: Areas with lower population density might have fewer healthcare resources and providers available, making it more challenging for residents to access necessary medical care.
3. Health disparities: Population density can contribute to health inequities, as urban areas often have better access to healthcare, education, and economic opportunities than rural areas, leading to differences in health outcomes between these populations.
4. Environmental factors: Higher population densities might lead to increased pollution, noise, and other environmental hazards that can negatively impact health.

Therefore, while "population density" is not a medical definition per se, it remains an essential concept for understanding various public health and healthcare issues.

Mating preference in animals refers to the selection of specific individuals as mates based on certain characteristics or traits. These preferences can be influenced by various factors such as genetic compatibility, physical attributes (e.g., size, color, health), behavioral traits (e.g., dominance, aggression), and environmental conditions.

Mating preferences play a crucial role in the process of sexual selection, which is one of the main mechanisms driving evolutionary change. They can lead to assortative mating, where similar individuals are more likely to mate with each other, or disassortative mating, where dissimilar individuals are more likely to mate.

Mating preferences can also contribute to reproductive isolation between different populations or species, ultimately leading to speciation. In some cases, these preferences may be hard-wired into an animal's behavior, while in others, they might be more flexible and influenced by learning and experience.

A heterozygote is an individual who has inherited two different alleles (versions) of a particular gene, one from each parent. This means that the individual's genotype for that gene contains both a dominant and a recessive allele. The dominant allele will be expressed phenotypically (outwardly visible), while the recessive allele may or may not have any effect on the individual's observable traits, depending on the specific gene and its function. Heterozygotes are often represented as 'Aa', where 'A' is the dominant allele and 'a' is the recessive allele.

I must clarify that the term "pedigree" is not typically used in medical definitions. Instead, it is often employed in genetics and breeding, where it refers to the recorded ancestry of an individual or a family, tracing the inheritance of specific traits or diseases. In human genetics, a pedigree can help illustrate the pattern of genetic inheritance in families over multiple generations. However, it is not a medical term with a specific clinical definition.

"Solanum" is a genus of flowering plants that includes many species, some of which are economically important as food crops and others which are toxic. The term "Solanum" itself does not have a specific medical definition, but several species within this genus are relevant to medicine and human health. Here are some examples:

1. Solanum lycopersicum (tomato): While tomatoes are primarily known as a food crop, they also contain various compounds with potential medicinal properties. For instance, they are rich in antioxidants like lycopene, which has been studied for its potential benefits in preventing cancer and cardiovascular diseases.
2. Solanum tuberosum (potato): Potatoes are a staple food crop, but their leaves and green parts contain solanine, a toxic alkaloid that can cause gastrointestinal disturbances, neurological symptoms, and even death in severe cases.
3. Solanum melongena (eggplant): Eggplants have been studied for their potential health benefits due to their high antioxidant content, including nasunin, which has been shown to protect against lipid peroxidation and DNA damage.
4. Solanum nigrum (black nightshade): This species contains solanine and other toxic alkaloids, but some parts of the plant have been used in traditional medicine for their anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic properties. However, its use as a medicinal herb is not well-established, and it can be toxic if improperly prepared or consumed in large quantities.
5. Solanum dulcamara (bittersweet nightshade): This species has been used in traditional medicine for various purposes, including treating skin conditions, respiratory ailments, and gastrointestinal complaints. However, its use as a medicinal herb is not well-supported by scientific evidence, and it can be toxic if ingested in large quantities.

In summary, "Solanum" refers to a genus of flowering plants that includes several species with relevance to medicine and human health. While some species are important food crops, others contain toxic compounds that can cause harm if improperly consumed or prepared. Additionally, the medicinal use of some Solanum species is not well-established and may carry risks.

Pollen, in a medical context, refers to the fine powder-like substance produced by the male reproductive organ of seed plants. It contains microscopic grains known as pollen grains, which are transported by various means such as wind, water, or insects to the female reproductive organ of the same or another plant species for fertilization.

Pollen can cause allergic reactions in some individuals, particularly during the spring and summer months when plants release large amounts of pollen into the air. These allergies, also known as hay fever or seasonal allergic rhinitis, can result in symptoms such as sneezing, runny nose, congestion, itchy eyes, and coughing.

It is important to note that while all pollen has the potential to cause allergic reactions, certain types of plants, such as ragweed, grasses, and trees, are more likely to trigger symptoms in sensitive individuals.

Population dynamics, in the context of public health and epidemiology, refers to the study of the changes in size and structure of a population over time, as well as the factors that contribute to those changes. This can include birth rates, death rates, migration patterns, aging, and other demographic characteristics. Understanding population dynamics is crucial for planning and implementing public health interventions, such as vaccination programs or disease prevention strategies, as they allow researchers and policymakers to identify vulnerable populations, predict future health trends, and evaluate the impact of public health initiatives.

"Mimulus" is a term used in the context of botany, rather than medicine. It refers to a genus of plants commonly known as "monkey flowers," which belong to the Phrymaceae family. These plants are native to North and South America and are known for their vibrant, tubular flowers that attract pollinators such as hummingbirds and bees.

While "Mimulus" is not a medical term, some species of this plant have been used in traditional medicine by indigenous peoples. For example, Mimulus guttatus (the common monkey flower) has been used in Native American medicine for treating respiratory issues, skin irritations, and gastrointestinal problems. However, it's important to note that the use of these plants as medicinal remedies should not be considered a substitute for seeking advice from a licensed healthcare professional or following evidence-based medical treatments.

Asclepiadaceae is a former family of flowering plants that is now considered to be part of the larger family Apocynaceae. It was named after Asclepius, the Greek god of medicine and healing, due to the medicinal properties of some of its members. The plants in this family are primarily tropical or subtropical vines, shrubs, and trees that have milky sap and opposite leaves. They are known for their unique flower structure, which includes a corona of fleshy, modified stamens surrounding the central reproductive structures. Some examples of plants that were once classified in Asclepiadaceae include milkweeds (Asclepias spp.), periwinkles (Catharanthus roseus), and mandevillas (Mandevilla spp.).

A quantitative trait is a phenotypic characteristic that can be measured and displays continuous variation, meaning it can take on any value within a range. Examples include height, blood pressure, or biochemical measurements like cholesterol levels. These traits are usually influenced by the combined effects of multiple genes (polygenic inheritance) as well as environmental factors.

Heritability, in the context of genetics, refers to the proportion of variation in a trait that can be attributed to genetic differences among individuals in a population. It is estimated using statistical methods and ranges from 0 to 1, with higher values indicating a greater contribution of genetics to the observed phenotypic variance.

Therefore, a heritable quantitative trait would be a phenotype that shows continuous variation, influenced by multiple genes and environmental factors, and for which a significant portion of the observed variation can be attributed to genetic differences among individuals in a population.

Fertility is the natural ability to conceive or to cause conception of offspring. In humans, it is the capacity of a woman and a man to reproduce through sexual reproduction. For women, fertility usually takes place during their reproductive years, which is from adolescence until menopause. A woman's fertility depends on various factors including her age, overall health, and the health of her reproductive system.

For men, fertility can be affected by a variety of factors such as age, genetics, general health, sexual function, and environmental factors that may affect sperm production or quality. Factors that can negatively impact male fertility include exposure to certain chemicals, radiation, smoking, alcohol consumption, drug use, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

Infertility is a common medical condition affecting about 10-15% of couples trying to conceive. Infertility can be primary or secondary. Primary infertility refers to the inability to conceive after one year of unprotected sexual intercourse, while secondary infertility refers to the inability to conceive following a previous pregnancy.

Infertility can be treated with various medical and surgical interventions depending on the underlying cause. These may include medications to stimulate ovulation, intrauterine insemination (IUI), in vitro fertilization (IVF), or surgery to correct anatomical abnormalities.

Biological evolution is the change in the genetic composition of populations of organisms over time, from one generation to the next. It is a process that results in descendants differing genetically from their ancestors. Biological evolution can be driven by several mechanisms, including natural selection, genetic drift, gene flow, and mutation. These processes can lead to changes in the frequency of alleles (variants of a gene) within populations, resulting in the development of new species and the extinction of others over long periods of time. Biological evolution provides a unifying explanation for the diversity of life on Earth and is supported by extensive evidence from many different fields of science, including genetics, paleontology, comparative anatomy, and biogeography.

Gene flow, also known as genetic migration or gene admixture, refers to the transfer of genetic variation from one population to another. It occurs when individuals reproduce and exchange genes with members of other populations through processes such as migration and interbreeding. This can result in an alteration of the genetic composition of both populations, increasing genetic diversity and reducing the differences between them. Gene flow is an important mechanism in evolutionary biology and population genetics, contributing to the distribution and frequency of alleles (versions of a gene) within and across populations.

The sex ratio is not a medical term per se, but it is a term used in demography and population health. The sex ratio is the ratio of males to females in a given population. It is typically expressed as the number of males for every 100 females. A sex ratio of 100 would indicate an equal number of males and females.

In the context of human populations, the sex ratio at birth is usually around 103-107 males per 100 females, reflecting a slightly higher likelihood of male births. However, due to biological factors such as higher male mortality rates in infancy and childhood, as well as social and behavioral factors, the sex ratio tends to equalize over time and can even shift in favor of women in older age groups.

It's worth noting that significant deviations from the expected sex ratio at birth or in a population can indicate underlying health issues or societal problems. For example, skewed sex ratios may be associated with gender discrimination, selective abortion of female fetuses, or exposure to environmental toxins that affect male reproductive health.

Dipsacaceae is a family of plants commonly known as the teasel or teazle family. It includes annual, biennial, and perennial herbs, as well as some shrubs and small trees. The plants in this family are characterized by their opposite leaves that often clasp the stem, and their distinctive flower heads that contain both disk and ray flowers.

The family Dipsacaceae has been merged with several other plant families in recent classifications, including Caprifoliaceae (honeysuckle family) and Valerianaceae (valerian family). Therefore, some modern sources may not recognize Dipsacaceae as a separate family. Instead, the plants that were once classified in Dipsacaceae are now often included in the expanded family Caprifoliaceae.

An allele is a variant form of a gene that is located at a specific position on a specific chromosome. Alleles are alternative forms of the same gene that arise by mutation and are found at the same locus or position on homologous chromosomes.

Each person typically inherits two copies of each gene, one from each parent. If the two alleles are identical, a person is said to be homozygous for that trait. If the alleles are different, the person is heterozygous.

For example, the ABO blood group system has three alleles, A, B, and O, which determine a person's blood type. If a person inherits two A alleles, they will have type A blood; if they inherit one A and one B allele, they will have type AB blood; if they inherit two B alleles, they will have type B blood; and if they inherit two O alleles, they will have type O blood.

Alleles can also influence traits such as eye color, hair color, height, and other physical characteristics. Some alleles are dominant, meaning that only one copy of the allele is needed to express the trait, while others are recessive, meaning that two copies of the allele are needed to express the trait.

"Animals, Zoo" is not a medical term. However, it generally refers to a collection of various species of wild animals kept in enclosures or exhibits for the public to view and learn about. These animals are usually obtained from different parts of the world and live in environments that attempt to simulate their natural habitats. Zoos play an essential role in conservation efforts, education, and research. They provide a unique opportunity for people to connect with wildlife and understand the importance of preserving and protecting endangered species and their ecosystems.

"Robinia" is not a medical term. It refers to a genus of flowering plants in the legume family, also known as black locust trees. The wood of these trees can be used in various applications, but it does not have direct relevance to medical definitions or healthcare. If you have any questions related to a specific medical topic, I would be happy to help clarify further!

Genetic drift is a mechanism of evolution that causes changes in the frequency of alleles (versions of a gene) in a population due to random sampling. It occurs when the sample size is small, and therefore the genetic variation may not reflect the population's genetic diversity as a whole. This can lead to the loss of certain alleles and an increase in others, even if those alleles are not necessarily advantageous or disadvantageous. Genetic drift can be a significant factor in shaping the genetic composition of small, isolated populations and can result in the fixation (complete loss or gain) of particular alleles over time.

"Silene" is a genus of flowering plants in the family Caryophyllaceae. It includes over 700 species that are found worldwide, particularly in temperate regions. These plants are commonly known as catchflies or campions. They are usually herbaceous and can vary in size from small annuals to large perennials. The flowers of Silene species are typically radial symmetrical with five distinct petals, often with notched or lobed ends. Some species have inflated calyxes that enclose the flower buds, giving them a bladder-like appearance.

However, it's important to note that "Silene" is not a medical term and does not have a direct application in human health or medicine.

A homozygote is an individual who has inherited the same allele (version of a gene) from both parents and therefore possesses two identical copies of that allele at a specific genetic locus. This can result in either having two dominant alleles (homozygous dominant) or two recessive alleles (homozygous recessive). In contrast, a heterozygote has inherited different alleles from each parent for a particular gene.

The term "homozygote" is used in genetics to describe the genetic makeup of an individual at a specific locus on their chromosomes. Homozygosity can play a significant role in determining an individual's phenotype (observable traits), as having two identical alleles can strengthen the expression of certain characteristics compared to having just one dominant and one recessive allele.

The term "environment" in a medical context generally refers to the external conditions and surroundings that can have an impact on living organisms, including humans. This includes both physical factors such as air quality, water supply, soil composition, temperature, and radiation, as well as biological factors such as the presence of microorganisms, plants, and animals.

In public health and epidemiology, the term "environmental exposure" is often used to describe the contact between an individual and a potentially harmful environmental agent, such as air pollution or contaminated water. These exposures can have significant impacts on human health, contributing to a range of diseases and disorders, including respiratory illnesses, cancer, neurological disorders, and reproductive problems.

Efforts to protect and improve the environment are therefore critical for promoting human health and preventing disease. This includes measures to reduce pollution, conserve natural resources, promote sustainable development, and mitigate the impacts of climate change.

The conservation of natural resources refers to the responsible use and management of natural resources, such as water, soil, minerals, forests, and wildlife, in a way that preserves their availability for future generations. This may involve measures such as reducing waste and pollution, promoting sustainable practices, protecting habitats and ecosystems, and engaging in careful planning and decision-making to ensure the long-term sustainability of these resources. The goal of conservation is to balance the needs of the present with the needs of the future, so that current and future generations can continue to benefit from the many goods and services that natural resources provide.

In medical terms, "seeds" are often referred to as a small amount of a substance, such as a radioactive material or drug, that is inserted into a tissue or placed inside a capsule for the purpose of treating a medical condition. This can include procedures like brachytherapy, where seeds containing radioactive materials are used in the treatment of cancer to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. Similarly, in some forms of drug delivery, seeds containing medication can be used to gradually release the drug into the body over an extended period of time.

It's important to note that "seeds" have different meanings and applications depending on the medical context. In other cases, "seeds" may simply refer to small particles or structures found in the body, such as those present in the eye's retina.

I believe there might be a bit of confusion in your question. A "history" in medical terms usually refers to the detailed account of a patient's symptoms, illnesses, and treatments over time. It is a crucial part of the medical record and helps healthcare professionals understand the patient's health status and inform their care plans.

On the other hand, "16th century" refers to a specific period in history, spanning from 1501 to 1600 AD.

There isn't a direct medical definition for 'History, 16th Century.' However, if you are interested in learning about the medical advancements and practices during that time, I would be happy to provide some information. The 16th century was marked by significant developments in anatomy, surgery, and pharmacology, thanks to pioneers like Andreas Vesalius, Ambroise Paré, and William Shakespeare, who incorporated medical themes into his plays.

The Founder Effect is a concept in population genetics that refers to the loss of genetic variation that occurs when a new colony is established by a small number of individuals from a larger population. This decrease in genetic diversity can lead to an increase in homozygosity, which can in turn result in a higher frequency of certain genetic disorders or traits within the founding population and its descendants. The Founder Effect is named after the "founding" members of the new colony who carry and pass on their particular set of genes to the next generations. It is one of the mechanisms that can lead to the formation of distinct populations or even new species over time.

The cold-shock response is a series of physiological reactions that occur in the human body when it is suddenly exposed to cold water or frigid temperatures. This response is primarily mediated by the autonomic nervous system and is characterized by an initial gasp for air, increased heart rate and blood pressure, and hyperventilation.

The cold-shock response is a reflexive reaction that occurs automatically in response to cold stress. It is distinct from the more prolonged physiological adaptations that occur during cold acclimatization, which involve changes in metabolism, hormone levels, and other bodily functions.

The initial gasp for air that occurs during the cold-shock response can be particularly dangerous, as it can lead to the involuntary inhalation of water and an increased risk of drowning. For this reason, it is important for individuals who are entering cold water to take precautions such as wearing a flotation device and gradually acclimating to the cold temperature to avoid triggering the cold-shock response.

Genotype, in genetics, refers to the complete heritable genetic makeup of an individual organism, including all of its genes. It is the set of instructions contained in an organism's DNA for the development and function of that organism. The genotype is the basis for an individual's inherited traits, and it can be contrasted with an individual's phenotype, which refers to the observable physical or biochemical characteristics of an organism that result from the expression of its genes in combination with environmental influences.

It is important to note that an individual's genotype is not necessarily identical to their genetic sequence. Some genes have multiple forms called alleles, and an individual may inherit different alleles for a given gene from each parent. The combination of alleles that an individual inherits for a particular gene is known as their genotype for that gene.

Understanding an individual's genotype can provide important information about their susceptibility to certain diseases, their response to drugs and other treatments, and their risk of passing on inherited genetic disorders to their offspring.

Domestic animals, also known as domestic animals or pets, are species that have been tamed and kept by humans for various purposes. These purposes can include companionship, work, protection, or food production. Some common examples of domestic animals include dogs, cats, cows, sheep, goats, pigs, horses, and chickens.

Domestic animals are distinguished from wild animals in that they are dependent on humans for their survival and are able to live in close proximity to people. They have often been selectively bred over generations to possess certain traits or characteristics that make them more suitable for their intended uses. For example, dogs may be bred for their size, strength, agility, or temperament, while cats may be bred for their coat patterns or behaviors.

It is important to note that the term "domestic animal" does not necessarily mean that an animal is tame or safe to handle. Some domestic animals, such as certain breeds of dogs, can be aggressive or dangerous if not properly trained and managed. It is always important to approach and handle any animal, domestic or wild, with caution and respect.

Gene frequency, also known as allele frequency, is a measure in population genetics that reflects the proportion of a particular gene or allele (variant of a gene) in a given population. It is calculated as the number of copies of a specific allele divided by the total number of all alleles at that genetic locus in the population.

For example, if we consider a gene with two possible alleles, A and a, the gene frequency of allele A (denoted as p) can be calculated as follows:

p = (number of copies of allele A) / (total number of all alleles at that locus)

Similarly, the gene frequency of allele a (denoted as q) would be:

q = (number of copies of allele a) / (total number of all alleles at that locus)

Since there are only two possible alleles for this gene in this example, p + q = 1. These frequencies can help researchers understand genetic diversity and evolutionary processes within populations.

A hermaphroditic organism is one that has both male and female reproductive structures in the same individual. This means that the organism has both ovaries and testes, or their equivalents, and can produce both sperm and eggs. Hermaphroditism is most commonly found in plants, but it also occurs in some animals, including certain species of snails, slugs, worms, and fish.

It's important to note that true hermaphroditism is different from intersex conditions, which refer to individuals who may have physical or genetic features that do not fit typical binary notions of male or female bodies. Intersex people may have physical characteristics that are not typically associated with male or female anatomy, or they may have chromosomal variations that do not fit the typical pattern of XX (female) or XY (male).

In medical terminology, hermaphroditism is sometimes referred to as "true hermaphroditism" to distinguish it from intersex conditions. However, the term "hermaphrodite" has fallen out of favor in modern medical and social contexts because it is often considered stigmatizing and misleading. Instead, many professionals prefer to use terms like "intersex" or "disorders of sex development" (DSD) to describe individuals with atypical sexual anatomy or chromosomal patterns.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Lychnis" is not a term commonly used in modern medical terminology. It is actually a genus of flowering plants in the family Caryophyllaceae, also known as catchfly or campion. If you have any questions about a medical condition or term, I'd be happy to help clarify!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "flowers" is not a term that has a medical definition. The term "flowers" is commonly used to refer to the reproductive structures of flowering plants (angiosperms), which are characterized by having both male and female reproductive organs or separate male and female flowers.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health conditions, I would be happy to try to help answer those for you!

Litter size is a term used in veterinary medicine, particularly in relation to breeding of animals. It refers to the number of offspring that are born to an animal during one pregnancy. For example, in the case of dogs or cats, it would be the number of kittens or puppies born in a single litter. The size of the litter can vary widely depending on the species, breed, age, and health status of the parent animals.

Wild animals are those species of animals that are not domesticated or tamed by humans and live in their natural habitats without regular human intervention. They can include a wide variety of species, ranging from mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, to insects and other invertebrates.

Wild animals are adapted to survive in specific environments and have behaviors, physical traits, and social structures that enable them to find food, shelter, and mates. They can be found in various habitats such as forests, grasslands, deserts, oceans, rivers, and mountains. Some wild animals may come into contact with human populations, particularly in urban areas where their natural habitats have been destroyed or fragmented.

It is important to note that the term "wild" does not necessarily mean that an animal is aggressive or dangerous. While some wild animals can be potentially harmful to humans if provoked or threatened, many are generally peaceful and prefer to avoid contact with people. However, it is essential to respect their natural behaviors and habitats and maintain a safe distance from them to prevent any potential conflicts or harm to either party.

Angiosperms, also known as flowering plants, are a group of plants that produce seeds enclosed within an ovary. The term "angiosperm" comes from the Greek words "angeion," meaning "case" or "capsule," and "sperma," meaning "seed." This group includes the majority of plant species, with over 300,000 known species.

Angiosperms are characterized by their reproductive structures, which consist of flowers. The flower contains male and female reproductive organs, including stamens (which produce pollen) and carpels (which contain the ovules). After fertilization, the ovule develops into a seed, while the ovary matures into a fruit, which provides protection and nutrition for the developing embryo.

Angiosperms are further divided into two main groups: monocots and eudicots. Monocots have one cotyledon or embryonic leaf, while eudicots have two. Examples of monocots include grasses, lilies, and orchids, while examples of eudicots include roses, sunflowers, and legumes.

Angiosperms are ecologically and economically important, providing food, shelter, and other resources for many organisms, including humans. They have evolved a wide range of adaptations to different environments, from the desert to the ocean floor, making them one of the most diverse and successful groups of plants on Earth.

Genetic markers are specific segments of DNA that are used in genetic mapping and genotyping to identify specific genetic locations, diseases, or traits. They can be composed of short tandem repeats (STRs), single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), or variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs). These markers are useful in various fields such as genetic research, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and breeding programs. They can help to track inheritance patterns, identify genetic predispositions to diseases, and solve crimes by linking biological evidence to suspects or victims.

Campanulaceae is a family of flowering plants, also known as the bellflower family. It includes a wide variety of herbaceous plants, shrubs, and small trees, with over 2000 species distributed worldwide. The family is characterized by bilaterally symmetrical flowers, typically with fused petals forming a bell or funnel shape, hence the common name "bellflower."

The individual flowers of Campanulaceae often have distinct nectar guides and are arranged in various inflorescences such as racemes, panicles, or cymes. The leaves are typically simple and alternate, with entire or lobed margins.

Some notable genera within Campanulaceae include:

* Campanula (bellflowers)
* Lobelia (lobelias)
* Platycodon (balloon flowers)
* Trachelium (throatworts)

The family is of significant horticultural importance, with many species and cultivars widely used as ornamental plants in gardens and landscapes. Additionally, some members of Campanulaceae have medicinal uses, such as Lobelia inflata, which has been used historically to treat respiratory ailments.

"Acacia" is a scientific name for a genus of shrubs and trees that belong to the pea family, Fabaceae. It includes over 1,350 species found primarily in Australia and Africa, but also in Asia, America, and Europe. Some acacia species are known for their hardwood, others for their phyllodes (flattened leaf stalks) or compound leaves, and yet others for their flowers, which are typically small and yellow or cream-colored.

It is important to note that "Acacia" is not a medical term or concept, but rather a botanical one. While some acacia species have medicinal uses, the name itself does not have a specific medical definition.

Reproductive isolation is a concept in reproductive biology and evolutionary biology that refers to the mechanisms that prevent interbreeding between two populations of organisms, leading to their genetic separation and potential speciation. These mechanisms can be prezygotic (preventing the formation of a viable zygote) or postzygotic (preventing the successful development of offspring). Prezygotic isolation includes temporal isolation (different mating times), behavioral isolation (different courtship behaviors), mechanical isolation (physical incompatibility between gametes), and gametic isolation (inviable or non-functional gametes when crossed). Postzygotic isolation includes hybrid inviability (hybrid offspring die early) and hybrid sterility (hybrid offspring are unable to reproduce). Reproductive isolation is crucial for the formation of new species and the maintenance of biodiversity.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "geography" is not a term that has a medical definition. Geography is a field of study that deals with the location and distribution of physical and cultural features on Earth's surface, as well as how humans interact with and affect those features. It is not a concept that is typically used in a medical context. If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you!

Canidae is a biological family that includes dogs, wolves, foxes, and other members of the canine group. Canids are characterized by their long legs, narrow snouts, and sharp teeth adapted for hunting. They are generally social animals, often living in packs with complex hierarchies. Many species are known for their endurance and speed, as well as their strong sense of smell and hearing. Some members of this family are domesticated, such as dogs, while others remain wild and are sometimes kept as pets or used for hunting.

Boraginaceae is a family of flowering plants that includes approximately 150 genera and around 2,700 species. This family is characterized by having flowers with five united sepals and five distinct petals, often forming a bell or tube shape. The stamens are usually fused to the corolla (the collective term for the petals).

Plants in this family can be found worldwide, but they are particularly diverse in Mediterranean regions and tropical mountainous areas. They include both herbaceous plants and woody shrubs. Some familiar examples of Boraginaceae include forget-me-nots (Myosotis spp.), borage (Borago officinalis), and heliotrope (Heliotropium spp.).

It's important to note that while I strive to provide accurate information, medical definitions typically apply to terms related to medicine, clinical practice, or human health. Boraginaceae is a taxonomic category in botany, not a term with direct medical relevance. However, some plants within this family do have medicinal uses, and it's crucial to consult reliable sources or healthcare professionals for information on their safe use.

Rosaceae is not a medical term but a taxonomic category in biology, specifically an family of flowering plants. However, many physicians and dermatologists are familiar with some members of this family because they cause several common skin conditions.

Rosaceae refers to a family of plants that include roses, strawberries, blackberries, and many other ornamental and edible plants. Some genera within this family contain species known to cause various dermatologic conditions in humans, particularly affecting the face.

The most well-known skin disorders associated with Rosaceae are:

1. Acne rosacea (or rosacea): A chronic inflammatory skin condition primarily affecting the central face, characterized by flushing, persistent erythema (redness), telangiectasia (dilated blood vessels), papules, pustules, and sometimes rhinophyma (enlarged, bulbous nose).
2. Erythematotelangiectatic rosacea: A subtype of rosacea characterized by persistent central facial erythema, flushing, and telangiectasia without papules or pustules.
3. Phymatous rosacea: A subtype of rosacea characterized by thickening skin, irregular surface nodularities, and enlargement, particularly of the nose (rhinophyma).
4. Ocular rosacea: Inflammation of the eyes and eyelids associated with rosacea, causing symptoms like dryness, grittiness, foreign body sensation, burning, stinging, itching, watering, redness, and occasional blurry vision.

While not a medical term itself, Rosaceae is an essential concept in dermatology due to the skin conditions it encompasses.

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... or academic inbreeding is the practice in academia of a university hiring its own graduates to be ... Intellectual inbreeding is thought to hinder the introduction of ideas from outside sources, just as genetic inbreeding hinders ... The Making of an Economist - Intellectual Inbreeding (CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown, Academic terminology). ... Horta, Hugo; Yudkevich, Maria (Dec 2016). "The role of academic inbreeding in developing higher education systems: Challenges ...
... inbreeding depression), and as a result species have evolved mechanisms to avoid inbreeding. Numerous inbreeding avoidance ... Inbreeding in fish is the mating of closely related individuals, leading to an increase in homozygosity. Repeated inbreeding ... Fish with low inbreeding showed almost twice the aggressive pursuit in defending territory than fish with medium inbreeding, ... Embryo viability was significantly reduced in inbred exposed fish and there was a tendency for inbred males to sire fewer ...
If an individual is inbred, the coefficient of inbreeding is calculated by summing all the probabilities that an individual ... If the parents of an individual are not inbred themselves, the coefficient of inbreeding of the individual is one-half the ... An individual is said to be inbred if there is a loop in its pedigree chart. A loop is defined as a path that runs from an ... The coefficient of inbreeding of an individual is the probability that two alleles at any locus in an individual are identical ...
"Inbred review". Total Film. 18 September 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012. Freer, Sloan. "Inbred". Radio Times. Retrieved 18 ... Barton, Steve (6 August 2013). "Make a Date with the Inbred". Dread Central. Retrieved 29 December 2013. "Inbred". Rotten ... o self respecting gorehound should miss INBRED." Diabolique magazine wrote that Inbred "offers viewers a genuinely weird and ... Inbred is a 2011 British horror comedy splatter film directed by Alex Chandon and co-written with Paul Shrimpton and produced ...
Inbred at Discogs (list of releases) Inbred at MusicBrainz (list of releases) (Use mdy dates from February 2023, Use list- ... Inbred is the third extended play by American singer-songwriter Ethel Cain, released on April 23, 2021 through Daughters of ... Gordon, Arielle (April 28, 2021). "Ethel Cain: Inbred EP". Pitchfork Media. Retrieved February 1, 2023. ... "Inbred" - 4:50 "Two-Headed Mother" - 6:14 Bonus tracks on CD release "Crying During Sex" - 5:28 "Earnhardt" - 4:24 "Age of ...
Inbred means produced by inbreeding. It may also refer to: Inbred, an insult The Inbreds, a rock band Inbred (film), a horror ... film Inbred Mountain, an album by Buckethead This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Inbred. If an ...
... s (also called inbred lines, or rarely for animals linear animals) are individuals of a particular species which ... "History of inbred strains". Retrieved 2017-11-30. Dixon LK (1993). "Use of recombinant inbred strains to map ... A decrease in these areas is known as inbreeding depression. A hybrid between two inbred strains can be used to cancel out ... "History of inbred strains". Retrieved 2013-12-19. "History of inbred strains". Retrieved 2017-11-30. Kirchmaier ...
... emerged in the alternative music club The Underground Railroad and its all-ages annex The Dry House. Th' Inbred ... Th' Inbred was a hardcore punk band from Morgantown, West Virginia. It released two albums, A Family Affair and Kissing Cousins ... The Inbred material (with a few unreleased cuts) was reissued by Alternative Tentacles in 2009. Their political message was ... "Th' Inbred". Trouser Press. Retrieved 2008-07-02. "Th'Inbred from Artcore #7, 1990". Kasey, Pam (2016). "Missing Marsha". ...
... pairs of the F2 progeny are then mated to establish inbred strains through long-term inbreeding. Families of recombinant inbred ... Recombinant inbred strains or lines were first developed using inbred strains of mice but are now used to study a wide range of ... A recombinant inbred strain or recombinant inbred line (RIL) is an organism with chromosomes that incorporate an essentially ... The origins and history of recombinant inbred strains are described by Crow. While the potential utility of recombinant inbred ...
Rednex - Artist, Vocals "Rednex - Inbred with Rednex (1995, CD)". Discogs. "Inbred With Rednex", YouTube, February 9, 2011. ( ... The Inbred with Rednex extended play contains seven songs, three of them, "Cotton Eye Joe", "Old Pop in an Oak" and "Wish You ... Inbred with Rednex, sometimes misread as "In Bred with Rednex", is the first EP by Swedish dance group Rednex. The album was ... Notes The interactive multimedia part "Inbred with Rednex" can only be played in CD-Rom players. ...
"Inbreeding". Archived from the original on 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2020-06-26. Arab wedding Customs, Muhammad ...
"Inbreeding". 14 January 2002. Archived from the original on 27 November 2011. Retrieved 15 September 2011. ...
"Inbreeding". State of Florida. Archived from the original on September 7, 2005. Retrieved July 19, 2007. "1980". State of ...
An archetype of inbreeding is self-pollination. When a plant has both anthers and a stigma, the process of inbreeding can occur ... Homogamy is used in biology in four separate senses: Inbreeding can be referred to as homogamy. Homogamy refers to the ... As opposed to outcrossing or outbreeding, inbreeding is the process by which organisms with common descent come together to ... "Inbreeding , genetics". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2018-04-16. "TNAU Agritech Portal Crop Improvement :: Mode of ...
"DG inbreeding". tankaddict. Retrieved 14 January 2022. v t e v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches ... It is the result of severe inbreeding. Despite being unable to develop the disease, other gourami become prone to infection if ...
denotes inbreeding. "Tennessee Walking horse - I Am Jose #20806071 home page by Walkers West". "Shelbyville Times-Gazette: ...
Lineages are typically considered inbred after at least 20 generations of inbreeding (e.g. by self-fertilization or sib mating ... inbreeding Sexual reproduction between breeds or individuals that are closely related genetically. Inbreeding results in ... inbred line Any lineage of a particular species in which individuals are nearly or completely genetically identical to each ... The reproductive event and the resulting progeny may both be referred to as an incross, and the progeny is said to be inbred. ...
If such a disease was due to inbreeding, it would also be present in other isolated island bird populations, but it is not. The ... It has also been claimed that the carpal knobs were instead formed due to a hereditary disease caused by inbreeding. This was ... Amadon, D. (1951). "Inbreeding and Disease". Evolution. 5 (4): 417. doi:10.2307/2405692. JSTOR 2405692. Cheke, A. S.; Hume, J. ...
Inbreeding depression is the loss of fitness due to loss of genetic diversity. Inbred strains tend to be homozygous for ... But overdominance implies that yields on an inbred strain should decrease as inbred strains are selected for the performance of ... East EM (1908). "Inbreeding in corn". Reports of the Connecticut Agricultural Experiments Station for 1907: 419-428. Shull GH ( ... Inbreeding depression occurs when related parents have children with traits that negatively influence their fitness largely due ...
"Studies on inbreeding. I. The effects in inbreeding on the growth and variability in the body weight of the albino rat." ... Through inbreeding, her rats were almost homozygous to each other, which facilitated research. In later years, she moved her ... King's scientific research largely focused on studies of inbred rats, and she was particularly interested in human issues while ... Ogilvie, Marilyn Bailey (1 September 2007). "Inbreeding, eugenics, and Helen Dean King (1869-1955)". Journal of the History of ...
"INCEST AND INBREEDING". Encyclopaedia. Retrieved July 1, 2020. "ESTONIAN FOLKTALES I : 1. FAIRY TALES. SUMMARY" (PDF). Folklore ...
Inbreeding and others. Also see articles about individual dog breeds for more on the health, breeding, and use issues of ...
Amadon, D. (1951). "Inbreeding and Disease". Evolution. 5 (4): 417. doi:10.2307/2405692. JSTOR 2405692. Angst, D.; Buffetaut, E ...
This can result in inbreeding and can cause genetic defects. After Ruby's escape, a press conference was held by Arizona ... "Polygamist Sects: How They Avoid Inbreeding Problems". Huffington Post. April 30, 2008. Retrieved August 5, 2013. Johnson, Kirk ... Khan, Razib (August 31, 2006). "Inbreeding among Mormons". Discover. Retrieved August 5, 2013. " ...
Inbred animals are likely conduits for certain specific characteristics coming from their inbred ancestor. Too much inbreeding ... Continued inbreeding over a series of generations also has a negative impact referred to as "inbreeding depression." The lines ... less vigorous individuals than animals that are not as inbred. In the thoroughbred industry, inbreeding is used to focus ... Inbreeding is the mating of two closely related individuals. It is known as one of the quickest ways to "fix" desired ...
"Incest and Inbreeding". Encyclopaedia Iranica. Van Gelder, Geert Jan (2005). Close Relationships: Incest and Inbreeding in ...
United States Endogamy Genetic distance Genetic diversity Genetic sexual attraction Inbreeding Inbreeding avoidance Inbreeding ... The following is a Chinese poem by Po Chu-yi (A.D. 772-846), in which he described an inbreeding village. In Ku-feng hsien, in ... Arthur P. Wolf, Inbreeding, Incest, and the Incest Taboo: The State of Knowledge at the Turn of the Century, Stanford ... In the latter case, it would appear that inbreeding mainly leads to greater variance in IQ levels, due in part to the ...
2006). "Selection and Inbreeding Depression: Effects of Inbreeding Rate and Inbreeding Environment". Evolution. 60 (5): 1014- ... Inbreeding also helps to ascertain the type of gene action affecting a trait. Inbreeding is also used to reveal deleterious ... The coefficient of inbreeding, or the degree of inbreeding in an individual, is an estimate of the percent of homozygous ... Inbreeding is a technique used in selective breeding. For example, in livestock breeding, breeders may use inbreeding when ...
The FLDS sect appears to be free from the major signs of inbreeding -- but why? ... Polygamists Avoiding Inbreeding Problems?. The FLDS sect appears to be free from the major signs of inbreeding -- but why? ... I wouldnt be surprised if there were [inbreeding], Bradley says. Its such a small pool of members, and it has been since ... some wonder why the more obvious physical defects associated with inbreeding, such as cleft palate and encephalopathy, have not ...
the difference is the point that hybridization is the combination of two different species or verities, and inbreeding is ... Could are hybridization and inbreeding considered opposite processes?. Updated: 9/26/2023 ... How are selective breeding techniques of hybridization and inbreeding opposite?. ...
This article examines the inbreeding of the Spanish Hapsburg dynasty (page 2). ... Charles IIs inbreeding coefficient was so high that it was greater than the offspring from a brother-sister mating.. • The ... He had significant physical and mental issues due to the excessive inbreeding within the royal family. ... The study is entitled The Role of Inbreeding in the Extinction of a European Royal Dynasty. As is evident from the family tree ...
Weve gotten our first, exciting glimpse of a Neanderthal community - and they were pretty inbred. Got to admit, it caught us ... An analysis of remains unearthed in southern Siberia shows that Neanderthals were heavily inbred, most likely due to their ...
Characteristics of random amplified polymorphic DNA markers discriminating Helianthus annuus inbred lines. B. Teulat, YX Zhang ... Abstract - Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to discriminate between inbred lines of the sunflower ... After selection of primers giving reproducible signals, 14 RAPD markers allowing the characterization of inbred lines of ...
... and post-natal time points in three common inbred strains of laboratory mice (C57BL/6J, A/J, and C3H/HeJ). Using Principal ... As the A/J strain has an extra day of gestation relative to the other inbred strains used in this study, embryos were collected ... Because the sample scores for PC1-3 were significantly correlated among the three inbred strains of mouse (P , 0.0001) (Table 1 ... Genetics of airway responsiveness in the inbred mouse.. Research in Immunology 148:73-79 ...
Wild-derived Inbred. Genetics Research. Reproductive Biology Research. RBRC00657. HMI/Ms. Wild-derived Inbred. Cancer Research ... Wild-derived Inbred. Cancer Research. Genetics Research. RBRC00213. PWK. Wild-derived Inbred. Cell Biology Research. ... Wild-derived Inbred. Genetics Research. RBRC00209. MSM/Ms. ... Wild-derived Inbred. RBRC00427. Mol-KOR1/Stm. Wild-derived ...
G.Daughter of BLACKPOOL KITTEL, INBRED KITTEL and GOLDEN BEST KITTEL in Independent Auctions ... "INBRED KITTEL" B16-6245057. She was a HUGE purchase from Les Greens sale on PIPA.. Recent G.Dam of 1st Yearling Derby 2,500 ... Direct daughter of "GOLDEN BEST KITTEL" x "INBRED KITTEL". "GOLDEN BEST KITTEL" B19-4130293. Super breeder - sold for 14,200 ... G.Daughter of BLACKPOOL KITTEL, INBRED KITTEL and GOLDEN BEST KITTEL. GBP 175.00 ...
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Sign up for a CuriosityStream subscription and also get a free Nebula subscription where you can watch a longer version of this video here: Please subscribe for more animal videos 🐻​​​​​. Select videos courtesy of Getty Images. Written by Madeleine ...
Negative Results of Inbreeding. Inbreeding is a dangerous occurrence in any species. It causes a fall in the genetic diversity ... 2. Inbreeding Depression. Inbreeding depression is a big threat to small populations of organisms. When a population does not ... Additionally, inbreeding in honeybees has an impact on grooming behavior, as well as foraging behavior. Honeybees in an inbred ... Home/Blog/Genetic Diversity in Honeybees - Avoiding Inbreeding. Genetic Diversity in Honeybees - Avoiding Inbreeding. Michael ...
We also offer highly worked and high quality stabilized and inbred hybrids, which are true breeding for many desirable traits. ... The best selection of landrace strains and inbred lines/stabilized hybrids. Unique genetics from all around the world by ACE ... The best selection of landrace strains and inbred lines/stabilized hybrids.. Unique genetics from all around the world by ACE ... We also offer highly worked and high quality stabilized and inbred hybrids, which are true breeding for many desirable traits. ...
Mice, Inbred Strains [B01.050.150.900.649.865.635.505.500.400]. *Mice, Inbred CFTR [B01.050.150.900.649.865.635.505.500.400.445 ... "Mice, Inbred CFTR" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Mice, Inbred CFTR" by people in UAMS Profiles by year, and ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Mice, Inbred CFTR" by people in Profiles over the past ten years. ...
Rats, Inbred Strains [B01.050.150.900.649.313.992.635.505.700.400]. *Rats, Inbred BB [B01.050.150.900.649.313.992.635.505.700. ... "Rats, Inbred BB" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Rats, Inbred BB" by people in this website by year, and ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Rats, Inbred BB" by people in Profiles. ...
Inbreeding coefficient. Coefficient of Inbreeding (CoI) Inbreeding coefficient for CARSUZI ANDRADITE SIREN is 12.7% 36 ... The degree of inbreeding can be measured using a calculation called the coefficient of inbreeding (CoI), or inbreeding ... The lower the degree of inbreeding, the lower the inbreeding coefficient.. What do these results mean?. Our inbreeding ... Where can I find out more about inbreeding, inbreeding calculators or breeding advice?. Read more about inbreeding. ...
Inbreeding coefficients were then calculated for all animals. The average inbreeding across the 277,973 animals was 0.4% with ... Inbreeding Summary. As mentioned, in previous calculations of inbreeding, the Huacaya and Suri populations were considered ... Originally, coefficients of inbreeding were calculated within each of the Huacaya and Suri populations for animals involved in ... New to this years analysis is that an inbreeding coefficient was also calculated for all animals in the registry at 277,973 ...
title = "Kin encounter rate and inbreeding avoidance in canids",. abstract = "Mating with close kin can lead to inbreeding ... Kin encounter rate and inbreeding avoidance in canids. / Geffen, Eli; Kam, Michael; Hefner, Reuven et al. In: Molecular ecology ... Kin encounter rate and inbreeding avoidance in canids. Molecular ecology. 2011 Dec;20(24):5348-5358. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-294X. ... Mate selection may be affected by kin encounter rate, and inbreeding avoidance may not be uniform but associated with age and ...
inbreed: To mate together closely related cats, for example brother and sister, or father and daughter. ...
Southern white rhinos are threatened by inbreeding. Share * * * [Findings] Veterinarians developed an ultrasound schedule for ...
Scary Rednecks & Other Inbred Horrors * By: Weston Ochse, David Whitman * Narrated by: Arnie Mazer ...
at 1080 × 720 in facialabuse-milfs-cervix-gets-dilated-and-sucks-in-breeding-batter-013. ← Previous Next → ... facialabuse-milfs-cervix-gets-dilated-and-sucks-in-breeding-batter-013. Published August 16, 2023. ...
Home Tag Is Blue Eyes A Sign Of Inbreeding For Animals And Humans? ... Is Blue Eyes A Sign Of Inbreeding For Animals And Humans? Blue eyes are an inherited trait that can be ... ... Is Blue Eyes A Sign Of Inbreeding For Animals And Humans? by Dexam ... Tag: Is Blue Eyes A Sign Of Inbreeding For Animals And Humans?. ...
In addition, if the living populations are declining in numbers and develop problems due to inbreeding, these problems can be ... 75.Re: Molecular markers - Populations the same? - Inbreeding. 76.Re: DNA banks - forest genetic resources. 77.Simpler ... 71.Molecular markers - Populations the same? - Inbreeding. 72.Markers - Characterisation - Biopiracy. 73.Diversity and ... 81.Re: Molecular markers - Populations the same? - Inbreeding. 82.Animal genetic resources - Documentation, evaluation, ...
Genetic rescue of small inbred populations by outcrossing ... Saving inbred plant and animal populations from extinction. * ... Outcrossing of inbred populations resulted in beneficial effects in 93% of 156 cases. The average increase in combined ... These populations are likely to suffer inbreeding problems and/or reduced ability to evolve to cope with environmental change. ... Genetic rescue of small inbred populations: meta-analysis reveals large and consistent benefits of gene flow. AM Publication ...
Integrated, best-in-breed technology. Our OTC technology offers a proven and fully engineered solution built on best-in-class ...
The percentage of inbred Sable goats is steadily increasing, with 70% of animals born in 2013 having a non-zero inbreeding ... Figure 1 shows the inbreeding trend for Sable goats. Current inbreeding levels are 5.7% (2013), and have been fairly steady for ... As is expected with a young breed, overall inbreeding is relatively low. This is reflected in the current population (animals ... Figure 3. Percent of Sables with an inbreeding coefficient greater than zero by birth year. ...
Top breeder!! 2049 is daughter of DAN164-14-572 Pure Inbred. Check Brøbech. Top breeder 2049 is nest-sister to DAN073-15-2050 # ... Irakeren# Pure Inbred. Check Brøbech (Old check family) 2049 is granddaughter of DAN073-06-848 Stamhan. Søn af 362+572 og ... DAN073-15-2049 "Black & White" Pure Inbred. Brøbech-Marathon. Top breeder!!. 2049 is daughter of DAN164-14-572 Pure Inbred. ... Forside » Avlshunner » DAN073-15-2049 "Black & White" Pure Inbred. Brøbech-Marathon. Top breeder ...
Here shown is the Graduation of a FARMER FIELD SCHOOL( #FFS )PRODUCTION OF HIGH-QUALITY INBRED RICE, and SEED CERTIFICATION, ... Under the Rice Tariffication Law (#RTL) that established the RCEF that aside from machineries, inbred rice seeds distribution, ... Graduation of Farmer Field School Production of High-Quality Inbred Rice, Seeds & Farm Mechanization. ...
  • From their inbred genetics to their controversial behavior, read on to learn more about this infamous family. (
  • The genetics of inbreeding depression. (
  • Mice used in lab experiments are often inbred, as the similar genetic structures enable experiments to be repeated. (
  • The inbred CBA/CaJ (CB) and hybrid CBB6F1 strains of mice exhibited only temporary threshold shift with rapid recovery after exposure to 110 decibels for 1 or 2 hours, and they exhibited no evidence of any AHL. (
  • The inbred C57BL/6J-mice (B6) and hybrid B6D2F1-mice demonstrated extensive permanent threshold shift and subsequent onset of AHL. (
  • The findings demonstrated the advantages of using inbred and F1 hybrid strains of mice which are genetically well defined, numerous and readily available. (
  • Strains of laboratory mice that are inbred for higher metabolic rates show stronger immune responses to immune challenge with stronger antigen-specific IgM production than strains bred for lower metabolic rates. (
  • The two largest populations of koalas in Australia could cease to exist by just one disease, due to them being so so heavily inbred, scientists have warned. (
  • An analysis of remains unearthed in southern Siberia shows that Neanderthals were heavily inbred, most likely due to their living in small, scattered communities. (
  • Neanderthals found here were heavily inbred. (
  • In extreme cases, this usually leads to at least temporarily decreased biological fitness of a population (called inbreeding depression), which is its ability to survive and reproduce. (
  • Inbreeding can significantly influence gene expression which can prevent inbreeding depression. (
  • When deleterious recessive alleles are unmasked due to the increased homozygosity generated by inbreeding, this can cause inbreeding depression. (
  • Within these islands, isolated wildlife populations can experience genetic drift and subsequently suffer from inbreeding depression and reduced adaptive potential. (
  • Managing small, isolated populations requires conservation practitioners to weigh up the risks of inbreeding depression and outbreeding depression when assessing alternative management actions aimed at preventing species extinction. (
  • Inbreeding results in homozygosity, which can increase the chances of offspring being affected by recessive traits. (
  • An individual who inherits such deleterious traits is colloquially referred to as inbred. (
  • They are particularly useful when inbred lines are available, because once these lines have been genotyped they can be phenotyped multiple times, making it possible (as well as extremely cost effective) to study many different traits in many different environments, while replicating the phenotypic measurements to reduce environmental noise. (
  • Historically, inbreeding didn't just keep traits within a bloodline, it also kept power. (
  • Inbreeding alongside genetic selection enables producers to identify the best traits in their herd and choose pairings that elevate those characteristics while breeding out the worst traits. (
  • Generally, the idea of selective inbreeding is to reproduce purebred strains of a species by preserving hereditary characteristics that are desirable, and getting rid of undesirable traits. (
  • however, because the increased proportion of deleterious homozygotes exposes the allele to natural selection, in the long run its frequency decreases more rapidly in inbred populations. (
  • The researchers found that human development has left tiger snakes isolated in small populations that are more likely to inbreed . (
  • Tiger snake populations north of the Perth rivers at Herdsman Lake, Lake Joondalup and Yanchep National Park were found to lack genetic diversity while wetlands south of the Swan/Canning River system were home to the most genetically diverse populations of snakes, meaning they were less prone to inbreeding," explained study lead author and PhD candidate Damian Lettoof. (
  • The implication is that ostensibly successful connectivity restoration projects may fail to alleviate genomic inbreeding of fragmented mammal populations. (
  • We put forward that defragmentation projects should allow for (i) monitoring of levels of differentiation, migration and genomic inbreeding, (ii) anticipation of the inbreeding status of the meta-population, and, if inbreeding levels are high and/or haplotypes have become fixed, (iii) consideration of enhancing migration and gene flow among meta-populations, possibly through translocation. (
  • Three SNPs tightly linked on chromosome 2 remained in linkage disequilibrium with genotypes at Ms among randomly selected plants from three open-pollinated populations of onion as well as among a collection of inbred lines. (
  • The avoidance of expression of such deleterious recessive alleles caused by inbreeding, via inbreeding avoidance mechanisms, is the main selective reason for outcrossing. (
  • Inbreeding is also used to reveal deleterious recessive alleles, which can then be eliminated through assortative breeding or through culling. (
  • While not all of these can be blamed on inbreeding (pituitary hormone deficiency and distal renal tubular acidosis could explain several of these conditions) both are caused by recessive alleles. (
  • This means looking at the net impact of genetic progress or genomic selection on inbreeding and on genetic progress overall. (
  • Here, we provided a genomic inbreeding perspective on the potential effectiveness of mammal population defragmentation measures. (
  • Simulation output indicated that whereas one or few migrants per generation could undo genetic differentiation and boost effective population sizes rapidly, genomic inbreeding was only marginally reduced. (
  • In dairy cattle, inbreeding that causes genetic defects and lethal recessives are usually the result of unselected animals, where very little is known about the genetic code. (
  • For example, within first cousins, there is a 50% chance that children will have genetic defects due to inbreeding. (
  • Charles II's inbreeding coefficient was so high that it was greater than the offspring from a brother-sister mating. (
  • Susceptibility of inbred and F1 hybrid strains to noise-induced hearing loss. (
  • Plants possessing normal (N) cytoplasm are always male-fertile regardless of their genotype at Ms . Male-sterile inbred lines are seed-propagated by crossing male-sterile plants (S msms ) with maintainer plants that possess N cytoplasm and the homozygous-recessive genotype at Ms ( Jones and Davis, 1944 ). (
  • Inbreeding is a technique used in selective breeding. (
  • For example, in livestock breeding, breeders may use inbreeding when trying to establish a new and desirable trait in the stock and for producing distinct families within a breed, but will need to watch for undesirable characteristics in offspring, which can then be eliminated through further selective breeding or culling. (
  • The advantages of inbreeding may be the result of a tendency to preserve the structures of alleles interacting at different loci that have been adapted together by a common selective history. (
  • Also by selective inbreeding, a species' hidden genetic characteristics will appear in the offspring. (
  • The body size of a fish is a characteristic that breeders often try to inbreed into a strain of fish. (
  • Controlling outcomes is also the motivation for inbreeding in the farming industry, with cows being bred to increase milk yields and sheep are careful selected to produce more wool. (
  • But what if inbreeding actually presents the opportunity for dairy producers to gain the generational improvement to make better cows, faster? (
  • Because the rise of inbred Holstein cows has come through generational improvement in genes. (
  • Rather than prevent and limit levels of inbreeding, our aim should be to manage inbreeding in line with our goals for genetic improvement, in order to make better cows, faster. (
  • An example of a color mutation that was unnaturally bred into a strain through inbreeding is the pink convict cichlid. (
  • Inbreeding can result in purging of deleterious alleles from a population through purifying selection. (
  • Could are hybridization and inbreeding considered opposite processes? (
  • Inbreeding is the mating of organisms closely related by ancestry. (
  • Inbreeding, Native American ancestry and child mortality: linking human selection and paediatric medicine. (
  • Inbreeding in plants also occurs naturally in the form of self-pollination. (
  • The high amount of inbreeding resulted in a high mortality rate. (
  • As inbreeding comes with such a high cost, the logic of engaging it might seem baffling. (
  • They are inbred, meaning they have a high degree of genetic similarity between themselves. (
  • The study is entitled The Role of Inbreeding in the Extinction of a European Royal Dynasty . (
  • Although host genetic structure did not explain variation in microbial composition and community structure, we found that fine-scale spatial structure, inbreeding, degree of relatedness and possibly ontogeny shaped patterns of diversity in faecal microbiomes of gopher tortoises. (
  • and why the members of this sect appear to have largely sidestepped the archetypical deformities that come part and parcel with close inbreeding. (
  • Martha Bradley is a sociologist at the University of Utah in Salt Lake City and author of the book 'Kidnapped From That Land,' which documents the government's 1953 raid on a polygamous fundamentalist community in Short Creek, Ariz. She is also an expert on the FLDS, having studied the group in the early 1990s, and she believes it is likely that some degree of inbreeding has already occurred within the sect. (
  • The effects of inbreeding can vary depending on the degree of consanguinity. (
  • Humanity hasn't just used inbreeding to retain regal status, it is also deployed in breeding animals. (
  • There is evidence that suggests inbreeding certain animals can have more of a negative impact than a positive one. (
  • When comparing two animals with 500 Net Merit, if one has 0 inbreeding, and one is 10% inbred, the profitability of the inbred animal is predicted to be lower by about $25 per point of inbreeding. (
  • But that comparison isn't an accurate one, because there are unlikely to be any animals with 500 Net Merit within the Holstein breed with 0% inbreeding. (
  • In plant breeding, inbred lines are used as stocks for the creation of hybrid lines to make use of the effects of heterosis. (
  • Offspring of biologically related persons are subject to the possible effects of inbreeding, such as congenital birth defects. (
  • What are the effects of inbreeding? (
  • We combined a 20K genotyping assessment of genetic status and migration rate with a simulation that examined the potential for alleviation of isolation and inbreeding. (
  • Red squirrel expert Dr Craig Shuttleworth said: "This is very exciting news for Anglesey's red squirrels, from a situation where there was one site with an inbred squirrel population to six bloodlines and the most diverse colonies in Wales. (
  • Pervasive inbreeding is a major genetic threat of population fragmentation and can undermine the efficacy of population connectivity measures. (
  • Mating through selection is superior, and so outweighs the negative impact of inbreeding. (
  • He had significant physical and mental issues due to the excessive inbreeding within the royal family. (
  • In hereditary systems of rule, such as the pharaohs of Ancient Egypt, inbreeding prevented another family marrying in and lining up to take the throne. (
  • The Whitakers Family: What Is the Story Behind the Wierd Inbred Family? (
  • Home Series The Whitakers Family: What Is the Story Behind the Wierd Inbred Family? (
  • One of the reasons inbreeding has been spurned is because a genetic defect in both sire and dam could create a lethal recessive. (
  • To me it depends upon the application in which line breeding, a form of inbreeding, is being applied and the reasons for inbreeding the species. (
  • The FLDS sect appears to be free from the major signs of inbreeding -- but why? (
  • The present results suggest that short gestation , low birth weight and intracranial non-traumatic haemorrhage mediate the negative effect of inbreeding on human selection. (
  • The fact we've reached 9% inbreeding within dairy cattle is less of a concern when taken in line with the genetic progress increases being made, where we're seeing improvements on a much faster scale. (
  • Inbreeding also helps to ascertain the type of gene action affecting a trait. (
  • The reproductive patterns of Pyemotes boylei, a type of mite, are built around inbreeding. (
  • The closer the relationship, the greater the chance of inbreeding. (
  • As we make faster genetic progress, the percentage of inbreeding is rising. (
  • As inbreeding in dairy cattle rises, so too has concern amongst producers that it will cause a long-term problem. (
  • All subpopulations, including the two connected subpopulations, experienced substantial inbreeding, as evidenced through the occurrence of many long homozygous segments. (