The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.
The relative amount by which the average fitness of a POPULATION is lowered, due to the presence of GENES that decrease survival, compared to the GENOTYPE with maximum or optimal fitness. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.
The magnitude of INBREEDING in humans.
The fusion of a male gamete with a female gamete from the same individual animal or plant.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
The transfer of POLLEN grains (male gametes) to the plant ovule (female gamete).
The adaptive superiority of the heterozygous GENOTYPE with respect to one or more characters in comparison with the corresponding HOMOZYGOTE.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
Sexual activities of animals.
The capability of an organism to survive and reproduce. The phenotypic expression of the genotype in a particular environment determines how genetically fit an organism will be.
Any of various ruminant mammals of the order Bovidae. They include numerous species in Africa and the American pronghorn.
An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
The selection or choice of sexual partner in animals. Often this reproductive preference is based on traits in the potential mate, such as coloration, size, or behavioral boldness. If the chosen ones are genetically different from the rejected ones, then NATURAL SELECTION is occurring.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain SOLANACEOUS ALKALOIDS. Some species in this genus are called deadly nightshade which is also a common name for ATROPA BELLADONNA.
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
A plant genus of the family Phrymaceae. Members contain 6-geranylflavanones and mimulone.
The milkweed plant family of the order Gentianales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. It includes many tropical herbs and shrubby climbers; most with milky juice. Flowers have five united petals. Fruits are podlike, usually with tufted seeds.
A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.
The number of males per 100 females.
A plant family of the order Dipsacales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. It is sometimes called the teasel family.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that contains linarin (acaciin) and LECTINS.
The fluctuation of the ALLELE FREQUENCY from one generation to the next.
A plant genus of the family CARYOPHYLLACEAE. The common name of campion is also used with LYCHNIS. The common name of 'pink' can be confused with other plants.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.
A phenomenon that is observed when a small subgroup of a larger POPULATION establishes itself as a separate and isolated entity. The subgroup's GENE POOL carries only a fraction of the genetic diversity of the parental population resulting in an increased frequency of certain diseases in the subgroup, especially those diseases known to be autosomal recessive.
A constellation of responses that occur when an organism is exposed to excessive cold. In humans, a fall in skin temperature triggers gasping, hypertension, and hyperventilation.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.
The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.
Animals and plants which have, as their normal mode of reproduction, both male and female sex organs in the same individual.
A plant genus of the family CARYOPHYLLACEAE. The common name "Campion" is also used with SILENE.
The reproductive organs of plants.
The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
A plant family of the order Campanulales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. The gums and tanning agents obtained from Acacia are called GUM ARABIC. The common name of catechu is more often used for Areca catechu (ARECA).
Mechanisms that prevent different populations from exchanging genes (GENE FLOW), resulting in or maintaining GENETIC SPECIATION. It can either prevent mating to take place or ensure that any offspring produced is either inviable or sterile, thereby preventing further REPRODUCTION.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
A family of terrestrial carnivores with long snouts and non-retractable claws. Members include COYOTES; DOGS; FOXES; JACKALS; RACCOON DOGS; and WOLVES.
The Borage plant family is in the class Magnoliopsida, subclass Asteridae, order Lamiales. It is characterized by hairy foliage, usually alternate and simple; flowers are funnel-shaped or tubular. Some of the species contain PYRROLIZIDINE ALKALOIDS.
The rose plant family in the order ROSALES and class Magnoliopsida. They are generally woody plants. A number of the species of this family contain cyanogenic compounds.

Inbreeding of bottlenecked butterfly populations. Estimation using the likelihood of changes in marker allele frequencies. (1/1397)

Polymorphic enzyme and minisatellite loci were used to estimate the degree of inbreeding in experimentally bottlenecked populations of the butterfly, Bicyclus anynana (Satyridae), three generations after founding events of 2, 6, 20, or 300 individuals, each bottleneck size being replicated at least four times. Heterozygosity fell more than expected, though not significantly so, but this traditional measure of the degree of inbreeding did not make full use of the information from genetic markers. It proved more informative to estimate directly the probability distribution of a measure of inbreeding, sigma2, the variance in the number of descendants left per gene. In all bottlenecked lines, sigma2 was significantly larger than in control lines (300 founders). We demonstrate that this excess inbreeding was brought about both by an increase in the variance of reproductive success of individuals, but also by another process. We argue that in bottlenecked lines linkage disequilibrium generated by the small number of haplotypes passing through the bottleneck resulted in hitchhiking of particular marker alleles with those haplotypes favored by selection. In control lines, linkage disequilibrium was minimal. Our result, indicating more inbreeding than expected from demographic parameters, contrasts with the findings of previous (Drosophila) experiments in which the decline in observed heterozygosity was slower than expected and attributed to associative overdominance. The different outcomes may both be explained as a consequence of linkage disequilibrium under different regimes of inbreeding. The likelihood-based method to estimate inbreeding should be of wide applicability. It was, for example, able to resolve small differences in sigma2 among replicate lines within bottleneck-size treatments, which could be related to the observed variation in reproductive viability.  (+info)

Improving the efficiency of artificial selection: more selection pressure with less inbreeding. (2/1397)

The use of population genetic variability in present-day selection schemes can be improved to reduce inbreeding rate and inbreeding depression without impairing genetic progress. We performed an experiment with Drosophila melanogaster to test mate selection, an optimizing method that uses linear programming to maximize the selection differential applied while at the same time respecting a restriction on the increase in inbreeding expected in the next generation. Previous studies about mate selection used computer simulation on simple additive genetic models, and no experiment with a real character in a real population had been carried out. After six selection generations, the optimized lines showed an increase in cumulated phenotypic selection differential of 10.76%, and at the same time, a reduction of 19.91 and 60.47% in inbreeding coefficient mean and variance, respectively. The increased selection pressure would bring greater selection response, and in fact, the observed change in the selected trait was on average 31.03% greater in the optimized lines. These improvements in the selection scheme were not made at the expense of the long-term expectations of genetic variability in the population, as these expectations were very similar for both mate selection and conventionally selected lines in our experiment.  (+info)

Microsatellite loci in wild-type and inbred Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. (3/1397)

Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, a major research model in developmental molecular biology, has been inbred through six generations of sibling matings. Though viability initially decreased, as described earlier, the inbred line now consists of healthy, fertile animals. These are intended to serve as a genomic resource in which the level of polymorphism is decreased with respect to wild S. purpuratus. To genotype the inbred animals eight simple sequence genomic repeats were isolated, in context, and PCR primers were generated against the flanking single-copy sequences. Distribution and polymorphism of these regions of the genome were studied in the genomes of 27 wild individuals and in a sample of the inbred animals at F2 and F3 generations. All eight regions were polymorphic, though to different extents, and their homozygosity was increased by inbreeding as expected. The eight markers suffice to identify unambiguously the cellular DNA of any wild or F3 S. purpuratus individual.  (+info)

The changes in genetic and environmental variance with inbreeding in Drosophila melanogaster. (4/1397)

We performed a large-scale experiment on the effects of inbreeding and population bottlenecks on the additive genetic and environmental variance for morphological traits in Drosophila melanogaster. Fifty-two inbred lines were created from the progeny of single pairs, and 90 parent-offspring families on average were measured in each of these lines for six wing size and shape traits, as well as 1945 families from the outbred population from which the lines were derived. The amount of additive genetic variance has been observed to increase after such population bottlenecks in other studies; in contrast here the mean change in additive genetic variance was in very good agreement with classical additive theory, decreasing proportionally to the inbreeding coefficient of the lines. The residual, probably environmental, variance increased on average after inbreeding. Both components of variance were highly variable among inbred lines, with increases and decreases recorded for both. The variance among lines in the residual variance provides some evidence for a genetic basis of developmental stability. Changes in the phenotypic variance of these traits are largely due to changes in the genetic variance.  (+info)

Scavenger receptor activity is increased in macrophages from rabbits with low atherosclerotic response: studies in normocholesterolemic high and low atherosclerotic response rabbits. (5/1397)

We have previously described 2 strains of New Zealand White rabbits with a high (HAR) or low (LAR) atherosclerotic response to hypercholesterolemia. In the present study, we focused on class A scavenger receptor (SR-A) activity and ApoE expression in macrophages from both rabbit strains. These parameters play a crucial role in maintaining cholesterol homeostasis in the arterial wall and may be involved in the development of atherosclerosis. SR activity, as measured by uptake of DiI-labeled acetylated LDL, was significantly higher in macrophages from LAR rabbits (2177+/-253 ng/mg cell protein) than in macrophages from HAR rabbits (1153+/-200 ng/mg cell protein). The higher SR activity was caused by a greater number of SRs (apparent Vmax, 4100 ng/mg in LAR and 1980 ng/mg in HAR rabbits). The high SR activity in macrophages from LAR rabbits was associated with a significantly higher expression of SR-A mRNA compared with macrophages from HAR rabbits. However, the latter finding could not be explained by differences in the activity of transcription factor-activating protein 1 (AP-1), which was comparable in macrophages from both strains of rabbits. Because under certain circumstances SR-A mRNA expression is regulated in parallel with ApoE expression, we also evaluated this parameter. Although ApoE mRNA was 74% higher in macrophages from LAR rabbits, the difference did not reach statistical significance. In conclusion, the increased expression of SR-A in macrophages in the presence of adequate amounts of ApoE may play a role in attenuating atherosclerosis in LAR rabbits.  (+info)

Paternal kin discrimination in wild baboons. (6/1397)

Mammals commonly avoid mating with maternal kin, probably as a result of selection for inbreeding avoidance. Mating with paternal kin should be selected against for the same reason. However, identifying paternal kin may be more difficult than identifying maternal kin in species where the mother mates with more than one male. Selection should nonetheless favour a mechanism of paternal kin recognition that allows the same level of discrimination among paternal as among maternal kin, but the hypothesis that paternal kin avoid each other as mates is largely untested in large mammals such as primates. Here I report that among wild baboons, Papio cynocephalus, paternal siblings exhibited lower levels of affiliative and sexual behaviour during sexual consortships than non-kin, although paternal siblings were not significantly less likely to consort than non-kin. I also examined age proximity as a possible social cue of paternal relatedness, because age cohorts are likely to be paternal sibships. Pairs born within two years of each other were less likely to engage in sexual consortships than pairs born at greater intervals, and were less affiliative and sexual when they did consort. Age proximity may thus be an important social cue for paternal relatedness, and phenotype matching based on shared paternal traits may play a role as well.  (+info)

A new mouse model of spontaneous diabetes derived from ddY strain. (7/1397)

By the selective breeding of obese male mice of the ddY strain and using indices of the heavy body weight and appearance of urinary glucose, we established two inbred strains in 1992: one with obesity and urinary glucose (Tsumura, Suzuki, Obese Diabetes: TSOD) and the other without them (Tsumura, Suzuki, Non Obesity: TSNO). The male TSOD mice constantly showed signs of obesity and urinary glucose with increases in food and water intake, body weight and some fat weight. The body mass index (BMI) clearly showed moderate obesity. Increases in the levels of diabetic blood parameters (glucose, insulin and lipids) were also found in males, in which the levels of blood glucose and insulin were high to the ages past the growth peak. In the histological studies, pancreatic islets of the TSOD males were found hypertrophic without any signs of insulitis or fibrous formation. Among these diabetic characteristics, some of which were similar to the reported models of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), the stable appearances of the hyperglycemia, the hyperinsulinemia and the hypertrophy of pancreatic islets to the ages past the growth peak were the prominent features. In these respect the TSOD mouse may be a useful model for researching the mechanisms of human diabetes and its complications.  (+info)

Genetic regulation of long-term nonprogression in E-55+ murine leukemia virus infection in mice. (8/1397)

Certain inbred mouse strains display progression to lymphoma development after infection with E-55+ murine leukemia virus (E-55+ MuLV), while others demonstrate long-term nonprogression. This difference in disease progression occurs despite the fact that E-55+ MuLV causes persistent infection in both immunocompetent BALB/c-H-2(k) (BALB.K) progressor (P) and C57BL/10-H-2(k) (B10.BR) long-term nonprogressor (LTNP) mice. In contrast to immunocompetent mice, immunosuppressed mice from both P and LTNP strains develop lymphomas about 2 months after infection, indicating that the LTNP phenotype is determined by the immune response of the infected mouse. In this study, we used bone marrow chimeras to demonstrate that the LTNP phenotype is associated with the genotype of donor bone marrow and not the recipient microenvironment. In addition, we have mapped a genetic locus that may be responsible for the LTNP trait. Microsatellite-based linkage analysis demonstrated that a non-major histocompatibility complex gene on chromosome 15 regulates long-term survival and is located in the same region as the Rfv3 gene. Rfv3 is involved in recovery from Friend virus-induced leukemia and has been demonstrated to regulate neutralizing virus antibody titers. In our studies, however, both P and LTNP strains produce similar titers of neutralizing and cytotoxic anti-E-55+ MuLV. Therefore, while it is possible that Rfv3 influences the course of E-55+ MuLV infection, it is more likely that the LTNP phenotype in E-55+ MuLV-infected mice is regulated by a different, closely linked gene.  (+info)

Inbreeding depression is the reduced biological fitness in a given population as a result of inbreeding, or breeding of related individuals. Population biological fitness refers to an organisms ability to survive and perpetuate its genetic material. Inbreeding depression is often the result of a population bottleneck. In general, the higher the genetic variation or gene pool within a breeding population, the less likely it is to suffer from inbreeding depression. Inbreeding depression seems to be present in most groups of organisms, but varies across mating systems. Hermaphroditic species often exhibit lower degrees of inbreeding depression than outcrossing species, as repeated generations of selfing is thought to purge deleterious alleles from populations. For example, the outcrossing nematode (roundworm) Caenorhabditis remanei has been demonstrated to suffer severely from inbreeding depression, unlike its hermaphroditic relative C. elegans, which experiences outbreeding depression. Inbreeding ...
Saha, N.,Hamad, R.E.,Mohammed, S. (1990). Inbreeding effects on reproductive outcome in a Sudanese population. Human Heredity 40 (4) : 208-212. [email protected] Repository ...
8. Inbreeding is expensive. For cows that survive to freshen the first time, each 1% increase in inbreeding reduces lifetime net income by $22 to $24.. 9. There is no magic level of inbreeding that is acceptable. Effects of inbreeding on performance of commercial dairy cattle are almost entirely negative.. 10. Inbreeding decreases performance. Inbreeding decreases cow survival, single lactation production and reproductive performance.. 11. Inbreeding increases negative factors. Inbreeding increases calf mortality, increases age at puberty through retarded growth, and increases rate of disposal or loss of replacement heifers prior to first calving.. 12. Inbreeding should be managed in herd breeding programs rather than avoided.. 13. Inbreeding in offspring differs for each sire-dam combination, making mate assignments important if inbreeding is to be managed properly.. 14. Blanket recommendations of a bull as an outcross to groups of cows may not be effective in reducing the impact of ...
MAIWASHE, A.; NEPHAWE, K.A. and THERON, H.E.. Estimates of genetic parameters and effect of inbreeding on milk yield and composition in South African Jersey cows. S. Afr. j. anim. sci. [online]. 2008, vol.38, n.2, pp.119-125. ISSN 2221-4062.. The effect of inbreeding on the 305-d yields of milk, fat and protein, and the percentages of fat and protein in the first three lactations was estimated using records on the South African Jersey cows that participated in the National Dairy Animal Improvement Scheme. Inbreeding coefficients were estimated using the entire pedigree records of the Jersey breed and ranged from 0 to 42%. Data were analyzed using a repeatability animal model. The statistical model included the fixed effects of herd-year-season, age of the cow at calving, calving interval, inbreeding as a discrete or continuous variable and random effects of direct additive genetic, permanent environment of the cow and the residual effects. The multitrait derivative-free REML algorithm was used ...
Inbreeding depression is assumed to be a central factor contributing to the stability of plant mating systems. Predicting the fitness consequence of inbreeding in natural populations is complicated, however, because it may be affected by the mating histories of populations generating variation in the amount of purging of deleterious alleles. Furthermore, the level of inbreeding depression may depend on environmental conditions and the intensity of pollen competition. In a greenhouse experiment comparing four populations of the neotropical vine Dalechampia scandens (Euphorbiaceae), we tested whether inbreeding depression for early-life fitness depended on the inferred mating history of each population, as indicated by genetically determined differences in herkogamy and autofertility rates. We also tested whether the intensity of pollen competition and the level of stress encountered by the seeds and seedlings affected the amount of inbreeding depression observed. Herkogamy was a good predictor of ...
Inbreeding is caused by mating between related individuals and its most common consequence is inbreeding depression. Several studies have detected heterogeneity in inbreeding depression among founder individuals, and recently a procedure for predicting hidden inbreeding depression loads associated with founders and the Mendelian sampling of non-founders has been developed. The objectives of our study were to expand this model to predict the inbreeding loads for all individuals in the pedigree and to estimate the covariance between the inbreeding loads and the additive genetic effects for the trait of interest. We tested the proposed approach with simulated data and with two datasets of records on weaning weight from the Spanish Pirenaica and Rubia Gallega beef cattle breeds. The posterior estimates of the variance components with the simulated datasets did not differ significantly from the simulation parameters. In addition, the correlation between the predicted and simulated inbreeding loads were
Inbreeding: refers to (preferential) mating between biological relatives. As relatives (i.e., ancestors of the first individuals are shared with those of the second individual), they carry genes which are identical by descent; extreme inbreeding: mating between sibs, half-sibs, parent-offspring Outbreeding: (preferential) mating between non-relatives Positive assortative mating: mating among individuals who share particular genes or phenotypes Negative assortative mating: mating among individuals who do not share particular genes or phenotypes Inbreeding Coefficients: Individual inbreeding coefficient (i.e., Pedigree inbreeding): F represents the probability that the offspring is homozygous due to identity by descent (ibd) at a randomly chosen autosomal locus, ranges in value from 0 (no locus ibd) to 1 (all loci ibd). Significant factors for pedigfree inbreeding are Factors which determine the probability that various kinds of individuals will come into contact, e.g., population demography ...
Inbreeding: refers to (preferential) mating between biological relatives. As relatives (i.e., ancestors of the first individuals are shared with those of the second individual), they carry genes which are identical by descent; extreme inbreeding: mating between sibs, half-sibs, parent-offspring Outbreeding: (preferential) mating between non-relatives Positive assortative mating: mating among individuals who share particular genes or phenotypes Negative assortative mating: mating among individuals who do not share particular genes or phenotypes Inbreeding Coefficients: Individual inbreeding coefficient (i.e., Pedigree inbreeding): F represents the probability that the offspring is homozygous due to identity by descent (ibd) at a randomly chosen autosomal locus, ranges in value from 0 (no locus ibd) to 1 (all loci ibd). Significant factors for pedigfree inbreeding are Factors which determine the probability that various kinds of individuals will come into contact, e.g., population demography ...
Inbreeding depression, the reduced fitness of offspring of closely related parents, is commonplace in both captive and wild populations and has important consequences for conservation and mating system evolution. However, because of the difficulty of collecting pedigree and life-history data from wild populations, relatively few studies have been able to compare inbreeding depression for traits at different points in the life cycle. Moreover, pedigrees give the expected proportion of the genome that is identical by descent (IBDg) whereas in theory with enough molecular markers realized IBDg can be quantified directly. We therefore investigated inbreeding depression for multiple life-history traits in a wild population of banded mongooses using pedigree-based inbreeding coefficients (f(ped)) and standardized multilocus heterozygosity (sMLH) measured at 35-43 microsatellites. Within an information theoretic framework, we evaluated support for either f(ped) or sMLH as inbreeding terms and used ...
Our 3-year field study (2006-2009) using captive populations of D. melanogaster is the first field study to investigate the relationship between inbreeding depression and seasonal fluctuations in stress level. We found that stress levels were on average fourfold higher in the winter compared with the summer, and that this higher stress level increased the inbreeding depression affecting population productivity from 32 per cent in the summer to 65 per cent in the winter. Moreover, this covariation of stress level and inbreeding depression conformed to the same linear relationship seen in experimental Drosophila laboratory studies of stress and inbreeding (figure 2). The observation that inbreeding depression based on population productivity in the field follows the same relationship as inbreeding depression based on larval survival in the laboratory suggests that even in complex environments stress and inbreeding interact in the same predictable manner. This same general relationship has been ...
Estimating inbreeding coefficients from NGS data: impact on genotype calling and allele frequency estimation [METHOD]: . Most methods for Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) data analyses incorporate information regarding allele frequencies using the assumption of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) as a prior. However, many organisms including domesticated, partially selfing or with asexual life cycles show strong deviations from HWE. For such species, and specially for low coverage data, it is necessary to obtain estimates of inbreeding coefficients (F) for each individual beforecalling genotypes. Here, we present two methods for estimating inbreeding coefficients from NGS data based on an Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm. We assess the impact of taking inbreeding into account when calling genotypes or estimating the Site Frequency Spectrum (SFS), and demonstrate a marked increase in accuracy on low coverage highly inbred samples. We demonstrate the applicability and efficacy of these ...
The effect of inbreeding on egg to adult viability was determined for Drosophila virilis over a wide range of inbreeding levels (0 , F ,.734). The quantity -loge (Viability) was found to be a curvilinear function of F, indicating synergistic interaction among loci. The curvature was not evident, however, below F =.500. The values of A and B (Morton et al. 1956) were calculated to be.06 and.77-.86, respectively. This extremely small value of A yielded a very large value for the B/A ratio i.e., 12.51-14.99.. ...
In terms of sexual intercourse, the very last people we think about are our kin. Imagining inbreeding intercourse, whether it involves our closest kin or not, induces aversion in most people who invoke inbreeding depression problems or cultural considerations. Research has focused on the disgust felt when facing inbreeding intercourse between close kin but little is known about other responses. In this study, we considered the influence of fitness costs on aversive reactions by including disgust and emotional reaction as well as moral judgment and attitudes towards inbreeding: higher costs should induce a stronger aversive reaction. The fitness costs were manipulated by two factors: (i) the degree of the participants involvement in the story (themselves, a sib or an unknown individual), and (ii) the degree of relatedness between the two inbreeding people (brother/sister, uncle-aunt/niece-nephew, cousin). To test this hypothesis, 140 women read and assessed different inbreeding stories varying in the
A mating system to reduce the inbreeding of commercial females in the lower level was examined theoretically, assuming a hierarchical breed structure, in which favorable genes are accumulated in the upper level by artificial selection and the achieved genetic progress is transferred to the lower level through migration of males. The mating system examined was rotational mating with several closed sire lines in the upper level. Using the group coancestry theory, we derived recurrence equations for the inbreeding coefficient of the commercial females. The asymptotic inbreeding coefficient was also derived. Numerical computations showed that the critical factor for determining the inbreeding is the number of sire lines, and that the size of each sire line has a marginal effect. If four or five sire lines were available, rotational mating was found to be quite an effective system to reduce the short- and long-term inbreeding of the commercial females, irrespective of the effective size of each sire ...
Supplement Inbreeding is a mode of breeding involving two individuals or organisms that are closely or genetically related. The mating of genetically-related parents would produce progenies with traits of higher predictability. In humans, while inbreeding is acceptable in few certain cultures it is frowned upon largely by others and regarded as taboo. Medically, inbreeding in a consanguineous relationship is discouraged. It is because it increases the tendency of producing offspring with genetic anomalies and congenital birth defects. Inbreeding increases the chances of acquiring deleterious traits. And over time, there would be more individuals with recessive alleles or alleles in homozygous condition. An individual that acquires deleterious traits from inbreeding is referred to as an inbred. In other animals, inbreeding is a common mode of breeding. For instance, the common fruit fly females prefer to mate with their brothers than those who are not their brothers.1 A large gene pool is ...
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The kings of the Spanish Habsburg dynasty (1516-1700) frequently married close relatives in such a way that uncle-niece, first cousins and other consanguineous unions were prevalent in that dynasty. In the historical literature, it has been suggested that inbreeding was a major cause responsible for the extinction of the dynasty when the king Charles II, physically and mentally disabled, died in 1700 and no children were born from his two marriages, but this hypothesis has not been examined from a genetic perspective. In this article, this hypothesis is checked by computing the inbreeding coefficient (F) of the Spanish Habsburg kings from an extended pedigree up to 16 generations in depth and involving more than 3,000 individuals. The inbreeding coefficient of the Spanish Habsburg kings increased strongly along generations from 0.025 for king Philip I, the founder of the dynasty, to 0.254 for Charles II and several members of the dynasty had inbreeding coefficients higher than 0.20. In addition to
no common ancestral pathway to the individual, A (i.e., all parents are different). However, in Figure (b) inbreeding exists because B and C have common parents (D and E), that is, they are full sibs. To calculate the amount of inbreeding, the standard pedigree is converted to an arrow diagram, as shown in (c). Each individual contributes 1/2 of its genotype to its offspring. The coefficient of inbreeding (F) is calculated by summing up all the pathways between two individuals through a common ancestor as: , where s is the number of steps (arrows) from B to the common ancestor and back to C. For example, B and C probably inherited of their genes in common through ancestor D. Similarly, B and C probably inherited 1/4 of their genes in common through ancestor E. (Notice that individual whose inbreeding coefficient is being calculated does not constitute the loop and is hence ignored.) Given the proportion of common genes, F can be calculated by squaring the proportion -- i.e. . Here we sum twice ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - EFFECTS OF RAPID INBREEDING AND OF CROSSING OF INBRED LINES ON CONCEPTION RATE, PROLIFICACY AND EWE SURVIVAL IN SHEEP. AU - Wiener, G.. AU - Lee, G.J.. AU - Woolliams, John. N1 - WOS:A1992JH85100014 Times Cited: 19 Wiener, g lee, gj woolliams, ja Part 1. PY - 1992. Y1 - 1992. N2 - The effects of four generations of inbreeding, to achieve inbreeding coefficients (F) of 0.25, 0.375, 0.50 and 0.59, on conception rate, prolificacy, litter weight at birth and survival of breeding females, have been studied in sheep. Crosses of inbred lines were also examined. Three breeds, Scottish Black-face, Cheviot and Welsh Mountain, and the crosses among these breeds, were involved. Analyses were carried out both for the data overall and within inbred lines. Conception rate at the first oestrus at which the ewe was mated (in each year) declined almost linearly from 0.71 (F2 generation - inbreeding F = 0.0) to 0.44 (F = 0.59) with line crosses showing 0.78 conception rate. The corresponding ...
We describe a multilocus, marker-based regression method for inferring interactions between genes controlling inbreeding depression in self-fertile organisms. It is based upon selfing a parent heterozygous for several unlinked codominant markers, then analyzing the fitness of progeny marker genotypes. If loci causing inbreeding depression are linked to marker loci, then viability selection is manifested by distorted segregation of markers, and fecundity selection by dependence of the fecundity character upon the marker genotype. To characterize this selection, fitness is regressed on the proportion of loci homozygous for markers linked to deleterious alleles, and epistasis is detected by nonlinearity of the regression. Alternatively, fitness can be regressed on the proportion of heterozygous loci. Other modes of selection can be incorporated with a bivariate regression involving both homozygote and heterozygote marker genotypes. The advantage of this marker-based approach is that purging is ...
Why is self-fertilization in hermaphrodites relatively rare? One hypothesis is that inbreeding load must be low to enable the evolution of selfing (Maynard Smith 1978; Lande and Schemske 1985). Once selfing has evolved, inbreeding load is exposed to purging and should further decline. This is especially true for load caused by recessive mutations with large deleterious effects because of an increase in overall homozygosity levels (Lande and Schemske 1985). These two ideas together predict that selfing populations should have reduced inbreeding load, well below 0.5 (Lande and Schemske 1985). My results for A. lyrata do not support this prediction. Although the inbreeding load was indeed below 0.5 in selfing populations, it was equally low in outcrossing populations.. This finding of low inbreeding load in both selfing and outcrossing populations leads to three important conclusions. First, purging must have been an important force in this system in the past, leading to generally low inbreeding ...
This study of the relative effects of inbreeding and outbreeding on reproduction in the domestic fowl is based on two years observations of triallel matings of hens having an inbred, outbred, and crossbred origin. (P. 529.) Among the many relations established by these observations and reported in the following pages, the data with respect to inbreeding and outbreeding show that: Fertility was influenced indirectly but not directly by the breeding system. Hens of an inbred origin were definitely less fertile than those of an outbred origin, irrespective of the kind of male to which they were mated. (P. 535.) Hatchability decreased with inbreeding of outbred females (F = 0 to F = .25) but did not decrease with further inbreeding of inbred females. Inbred females showed lower hatchability than outbred females whatever the system of mating, but the difference was not statistically significant. (P.
Archiv Tierzucht 54 (2011) 4, 327-337, ISSN 0003-9438 © Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology, Dummerstorf, Germany Genetic variability of traits recorded during 100-day stationary performance test and inbreeding level in Polish warmblood stallions Alicja Borowska1, Anna Wolc1,2 and Tomasz Szwaczkowski1 Department of Genetics and Animal Breeding, Poznan University of Life Sciences, Poznań, Poland, 2Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, USA Abstract The objectives of
... Bizarre insect inbreeding signals an end to males ...A bizarre form of inbreeding could spell the end of males in one insec...Andy Gardner and Laura Ross The Evolution of Hermaphroditism by an I... ...,Bizarre,insect,inbreeding,signals,an,end,to,males:,News,tips,from,the,American,Naturalist,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
The answer is indeed different for different animals so hard to answer this in any quantitative way. However, in basic terms inbreeding (mating among relatives) is more likely to occur as populations become smaller and more fragmented (with reduced dispersal among sub-populations). Often, but not always, inbreeding results in inbreeding depression which is a loss of evolutionary fitness (i.e. higher mortality risk and/or lower reproductive output). This happens because recessive deleterious alleles are more likely to come together in the homozygous state (so that the deleterious effecs are felt) in the offspring of related parents. The amount of inbreedfing depression in a population is therefore dependent on 1) the amount of inbreeding and 2) the load of deleterious mutations in the population. Both of these factors vary a lot among different animal populations.. ...
The answer is indeed different for different animals so hard to answer this in any quantitative way. However, in basic terms inbreeding (mating among relatives) is more likely to occur as populations become smaller and more fragmented (with reduced dispersal among sub-populations). Often, but not always, inbreeding results in inbreeding depression which is a loss of evolutionary fitness (i.e. higher mortality risk and/or lower reproductive output). This happens because recessive deleterious alleles are more likely to come together in the homozygous state (so that the deleterious effecs are felt) in the offspring of related parents. The amount of inbreedfing depression in a population is therefore dependent on 1) the amount of inbreeding and 2) the load of deleterious mutations in the population. Both of these factors vary a lot among different animal populations.. ...
Get information, facts, and pictures about inbreeding at Encyclopedia.com. Make research projects and school reports about inbreeding easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and dictionary.
Yes. Scientists have observed inbreeding in animal species in the wild. This has been observed in mammal, insect and bird species. The effects of inbreeding are quite negative for the animals that engage in it (poor health of newborns, low survival rates) so it is not often observed (and thus it has been difficult to demonstrate the negative effects) in the wild, but it has been done. ...
Case study of Leavenworthia suggests that loss of complex traits may be reversed. Many flowering plants are able to recognize and reject their own pollen, thereby preventing inbreeding despite the plants hermaphroditic nature. This mechanism is a complex trait that involves the interaction of a gene that tags the pollen with an identifier molecule, and a gene that produces a molecule capable of detecting pollen produced by the same plant. Evolutionary biologists have often argued that once complex traits are lost, they are seldom regained. But a new study, led by biologists at McGill University and published in the journal PLOS Biology, suggests that this may not be the case for self-pollen recognition. In the evolutionary lineage leading to the genus Leavenworthia (a plant group related to canola and cole crops such as broccoli and cabbage), the ancestral genes that code for self-pollen recognition were lost. But the self-pollen recognition function in Leavenworthia appears to have been taken up by
Estimates of inbreeding and relatedness are commonly calculated using molecular markers, although the accuracy of such estimates has been questioned. As a further complication, in many situations, such estimates are required in populations with reduced genetic diversity, which is likely to affect their accuracy. We investigated the correlation between microsatellite- and pedigree-based coefficients of inbreeding and relatedness in laboratory populations of Drosophila melanogaster that had passed through bottlenecks to manipulate their genetic diversity. We also used simulations to predict expected correlations between marker- and pedigree-based estimates and to investigate the influence of linkage between loci and null alleles. Our empirical data showed lower correlations between marker- and pedigree-based estimates in our control (nonbottleneck) population than were predicted by our simulations or those found in similar studies. Correlations were weaker in bottleneck populations, confirming ...
When two individuals mate, genetic material from both parents is passed on to the progeny. So even if one parent carries a harmful recessive trait, the other parent is likely to have a healthier version, which will manifest itself in the offspring. If both parents, however, carry a recessive allele-which is more likely to happen if they share much of their genetic material, as close relatives do-then they raise the chances that their child will have only the bad genes ...
When a previously stable population undergoes inbreeding, if nothing else changes, natural selection should consist mainly of purging. The joint consequences of inbreeding and purging on fitness vary depending on many factors: the previous history of the population, the rate of increase of inbreeding, the harshness of the environment or of the competitive conditions, etc. The effects of purging were first noted by Darwin[10] in plants, and have been detected in laboratory experiments and in vertebrate populations undergoing inbreeding in zoos or in the wild, as well as in humans.[11] The detection of purging is often obscured by many factors, but there is consistent evidence that, in agreement with the predictions explained above, slow inbreeding results in more efficient purging, so that a given inbreeding F leads to less threat to population viability if it has been produced more slowly.[12] Nevertheless, in practical situations, the genetic change in fitness also depends on many other ...
In line-breeding the idea is to always keep the amount that any one animal contributes to the DNA of any descendent at or below 50%. With inbreeding you regularly will find a higher degree of influence. For instance, a sire/daughter mating will result in an offspring which carries 75% of its DNA from the sire and only 25% from the maternal dam. Interestingly, before the advent of genetic testing for recessive traits the only way to statistically ensure genetic purity of a bull/ram/buck etc. was to breed that bull to 35 of his own daughters concurrently. If no genetic defects show up in any of the offspring, the bull is 99.7% likely to be genetic defect free.. In any case, mating two full siblings together does not qualify as inbreeding because the level of influence any one of the grandparents exercises is still only 50% on the individual resultant calf from that full-sib mating.. In conversation with Dr. tatiana Stanton (yes, she spells her given name entirely in lower case) from Cornell ...
ANSWER: Inbreeding is the production of offspring from the mating or breeding of individuals or organisms that are closely related genetically. Inbreeding results in homozygosity, which can increase the chances of offspring being affected by deleterious or recessive traits.
Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping tools, which can analyse thousands of SNPs covering the whole genome, have opened new opportunities to estimate the inbreeding level of animals directly using genome information. One of the most commonly used genomic inbreeding measures considers the proportion of the autosomal genome covered by runs of homozygosity (ROH), which are defined as continuous and uninterrupted chromosome portions showing homozygosity at all loci. In this study, we analysed the distribution of ROH in three commercial pig breeds (Italian Large White, n = 1968; Italian Duroc, n = 573; and Italian Landrace, n = 46) and four autochthonous breeds (Apulo-Calabrese, n = 90; Casertana, n = 90; Cinta Senese, n = 38; and Nero Siciliano, n = 48) raised in Italy, using SNP data generated from Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip. We calculated ROH-based inbreeding coefficients (FROH) using ROH of different minimum length (1, 2, 4, 8, 16 Mbp) and compared them with several other genomic ...
In Focus: Trask, A.E., Bignal, E.M., McCracken, D.I., Monaghan, P., Piertney, S.B. & Reid, J.M. (2016) Evidence of the phenotypic expression of a lethal recessive allele under inbreeding in a wild population of conservation concern. Journal of Animal Ecology, 85, 879-891. In this issue of Journal of Animal Ecology, Trask etal. () report on a strange, lethal, blindness that regularly affects chicks of an endangered bird population. The authors show that the inheritance mode of this blindness disease precisely matches the expectations of a recessive deleterious mutation. Intriguingly, there is also an indication that the disease-causing variant might be maintained in the population by balancing selection, due to a selective advantage for heterozygotes. Could this finding have consequences for conservation actions implemented for the population?. ...
The Hucul horses, native breed of Carpathians, are valued for their strongly consolidated features, like high fertility, fecundity and foaling rate. The relation between the inbred and the reproduction results of Hucul mares was analyzed using two-way ANOVA and one-way ANOVA with regression. The inbreeding level is negatively correlated with fertility and fecundity. Increase of inbred level of 1% causes loss of 0.98% fertility and loss of 1.03% fecundity.
Rare inherited genetic disorders worsened by repeated inbreeding may have brought down the powerful Spanish Habsburg dynasty, Spanish researchers said.
The body weight (BW) and shank length (SL) varied significantly (p≤0.01) among the generations, hatches and sexes. The least squares mean of SL at six weeks, the primary trait was 77.44±0.05 mm. All the production traits, viz., BWs, age at sexual maturity, egg production (EP) and egg weight were significantly influenced by generation. Model four with additive, maternal permanent environmental and residual effects was the best model for juvenile growth traits, except for zero-day BW. The heritability estimates for BW and SL at six weeks (SL6) were 0.20±0.03 and 0.17±0.03, respectively. The BV of SL6 in the population increased linearly from 0.03 to 3.62 mm due to selection. Genetic trend was significant (p≤0.05) for SL6, BW6, and production traits. The average genetic gain of EP40 for each generation was significant (p≤0.05) with an average increase of 0.38 eggs per generation. The average inbreeding coefficient was 0.02 in PD-1 line ...
Breeding systems have a dramatic impact on the effectiveness of recombination within plant and animal populations. Parametric estimates of recombination rate in the self-fertilizing species Hordeum vulgare (barley) suggest that a history of inbreeding in the species has not dramatically reduced the amount of recombination or extent of linkage disequilibrium in the species relative to that observed in many outcrossing plant species. The limited impact of inbreeding may result from a relatively recent transition to self-fertilization in barley. By comparing resequencing data in Hordeum bulbosum, a self-incompatible species that is the closest living relative of barley, these researchers hope to determine the likely ancestral levels of recombinational diversity within the lineage. Using resequencing data to estimate both a potential ancestral recombination rate and the divergence time between H. bulbosum and H. vulgare, it will be possible to estimate the transition time of transition to ...
The purebred Shorthorn beef cattle breeding project was continued during 1963 without modification. Inbreeding was continued in the two separate lines, which have remained closed to outside breeding since the study was ...
De Braekeleer, M. (1995). Inbreeding, kinship and surnames in hereditary disorders The experience in Sague-nay-Lac-Saint-Jean (Quebec). Collegium Antropologicum, 19, 289-304.
A genetic change that affects the coded protein (most changes are pretty neutral) is more likely to harm its effectiveness than enhance it. Such changed alleles are recessive, covered up when paired with codes that still produce good working proteins, and random, but passing down a family line. Inbreeding can put together 2 bad recessives - thats why its bad ...
It has long been known that inbreeding is bad for you. A new paper in Nature (Directional dominance on stature and cognition in diverse human populations) finally gives us a good quantitative estimate of just how bad it is. They find that the offspring of first cousins suffer an average reduction of 1.2 cm in…
Wow Michael, what a question! In order to answer this, we will have to first look at your underlying assuption that inbreeding causes deformation. What you are talking about when you say deformation is really a physical defect that results from a genetic defect. This occurs when a person has inherited two defective copies of a particular gene, one from each of the parents, and as a result that gene does not do what it is supposed to do. In extreme cases, babies can be born with obvious physical deformities, but in many cases, the resulting defects are subtle. Remember, in most cases, genetic defects only result in physical defects when a person has inherited two copies of the defective gene. Because the effect of a single defective copy can remain hidden, these are called recessive genes, and people who have a single defective copy are often called carriers of the disease. So, if the actual cause of a physical defect is often the inheritance of two defective copies of a gene, what does ...
Talk about blue in the face... Extraordinary story of Appalachias Blue Family whose bodies were discoloured after generations of inbreeding (Daily Mail) And just when was this phenomenon first noticed by the world beyond the familys isolated area? medical explanations, with pictures, at link above
Some animals (such as wolves, lions & elephants) prevent the chance of inbreeding by chasing off the young males as they near maturity, though this may not p...
In his letter of May 26, writer Mel Wolf questions why marriage between same-sex couples should be allowed while marriage between two siblings is not. The answer is, in a word, inbreeding. When two
The negative fitness consequences of close inbreeding are widely recognized, but predicting the long-term effects of inbreeding and genetic drift due to limited population size is not straightforward. As the frequency and homozygosity of recessive deleterious alleles increase, selection can remove (purge) them from a population, reducing the genetic load. At the same time, small population size relaxes selection against mildly harmful mutations, which may lead to accumulation of genetic load. The efficiency of purging and the accumulation of mutations both depend on the rate of inbreeding (i.e., population size) and on the nature of mutations. We studied how increasing levels of inbreeding affect offspring production and extinction in experimental Drosophila littoralis populations replicated in two sizes, N = 10 and N = 40. Offspring production and extinction were measured over 25 generations concurrently with a large control population. In the N = 10 populations, offspring production decreased ...
Looking for online definition of coefficient of inbreeding in the Medical Dictionary? coefficient of inbreeding explanation free. What is coefficient of inbreeding? Meaning of coefficient of inbreeding medical term. What does coefficient of inbreeding mean?
Y-STR profiling is gaining interest in forensic investigations. However, differentiation resulting from genetic stratification by genetic relatedness could be very pronou..
This study investigates the effects of seed dispersal through the European nutcracker (Nucifraga caryocatactes) on the genetic structure of Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra). The corvid bird deposits several thousands of stone pine seeds annually in the soil as a future food resource. Since not all caches are recovered, this bird behaviour often leads to the establishment of Swiss stone pine seedlings. The combination of wind pollination with this bird-mediated seed dispersal can be expected to greatly shape the spatial distribution of genotypes and the genetic diversity within and among Swiss stone pine populations. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate gene flow patterns, together with their effects on spatial genetic structure (SGS) and, thus, inbreeding probabilities in an exemplary P. cembra population. Furthermore, potential effects of inbreeding on offspring fitness were analysed, hypothesizing that rates of inbreeding and subsequent cumulative inbreeding depression are higher in ...
1. Introduction. A high degree of inbreeding increases the probability of homozygosity of recessive genes, and enhances the risk of hereditary diseases coming to expression. Inbreeding decreases the genetic diversity, and the degree of inbreeding will increase from one generation to the next if genetic diversity is low. However, information is lacking as to the degree of inbreeding that is still safe for healthy breeding.. Canine hip dysplasia (CHD) is related to single nucleotide polymorphisms in a relatively large number of quantitative trait loci [1] . This genetic trait may cause degenerative join disease through multifactorial mechanisms, including inflammation, oxidative overload and, probably, epigenetic changes [2] . It would be expected that the prevalence of CHD by breed should increase if genetic diversity is low, and the degree of inbreeding is high. However, this assumption was challenged by generation studies in Golden retrievers [3] [4] and by [5] reporting the prevalence of CHD ...
Inbreeding butterflies - a problem for butterfly enthusiasts? It is totally safe to breed sibling butterflies together for a couple of generations. The genetic diversity is great. Although continuing to breed siblings for quite a few generations in a row could lead to serious problems, a couple of generations is fine. If you want to know more of the details of why it is fine, read on!. Quite often enthusiasts gather eggs that are laid by one female (or assumed to be laid by one female). The question is often asked whether breeding the offspring together (siblings) is dangerous for the offspring. Will there be inbreeding problems? Inbreeding often causes unusual traits to occur when both the male and female parent passes a recessive gene to their offspring. Some recessive genes are delightful and do not cause damage or weakness to the offspring. Other recessive genes are deadly, causing death. {Although this paragraph doesnt answer the question, we do want to point out that in the wild, eggs ...
Five randomly selected plants from each of 14 OP onion populations and two plants from A. vavilovii, and pooled DNA from seedlings of DH CU066619 were genotyped for 1692 SNPs. For the OP populations, a sample size of five plants should reveal alleles with frequencies greater than 0.25 at the 95% confidence level (Mansur et al., 1990). Two SNPs were heterozygous in DH CU066619 and were eliminated from analyses because they cannot be allelic. Of the remaining 1690 SNPs, 378 were discarded because of frequently missing genotypes and 86 discarded because they were monomorphic across all DNAs. The remaining 1226 SNPs provided genotypes across all populations (Supplemental Table 2). Overall heterozygosity averaged across the 14 OP populations was relatively low at 23.5% (Table 1). Onion shows significant inbreeding depression (Jones and Davis, 1944) and populations are generally considered to be highly heterozygous. McCallum et al. (2008) genotyped simple sequence repeats (SSRs) using bulked DNA from ...
Associations between heterozygosity and fitness traits have typically been investigated in populations characterized by low levels of inbreeding. We investigated the associations between standardized multilocus heterozygosity (stMLH) in mother trees (obtained from12 nuclear microsatellite markers) and five fitness traits measured in progenies from an inbred Scots pine population. The traits studied were proportion of sound seed, mean seed weight, germination rate, mean family height of one-year old seedlings under greenhouse conditions (GH) and mean family height of three-year old seedlings under field conditions (FH). The relatively high average inbreeding coefficient (F) in the population under study corresponds to a mixture of trees with different levels of co-ancestry, potentially resulting from a recent bottleneck. We used both frequentist and Bayesian methods of polynomial regression to investigate the presence of linear and non-linear relations between stMLH and each of the fitness ...
Effective mating between laboratory-reared males and wild females is paramount to the success of vector control strategies aiming to decrease disease transmission via the release of sterile or genetically modified male mosquitoes. However mosquito colonization and laboratory maintenance have the potential to negatively affect male genotypic and phenotypic quality through inbreeding and selection, which in turn can decrease male mating competitiveness in the field. To date, very little is known about the impact of those evolutionary forces on the reproductive biology of mosquito colonies and how they ultimately affect male reproductive fitness. Here several male reproductive physiological traits likely to be affected by inbreeding and selection following colonization and laboratory rearing were examined. Sperm length, and accessory gland and testes size were compared in male progeny from field-collected females and laboratory strains of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto colonized from one to over 25 years
CULTURAL INBREEDING, the DEATH of SOCIETYS and NATIONS Incest/Inbreeding Taboos International Encyclopedia of Marriage and Family is quoted in this article The CULTural
Drosophila, melanogaster, commonly known as the fruit or vinegar fly, has been used in various biological experiments since 1905 when Carpenter studied its reactions to light, to gravity, and to agitation. In 1906 Castle, Carpenter, Clark, Mast and Burrows published the results of their investigations on the effect of inbreeding. Their work showed that there is no decrease in the fertility of an individual as a result of close inbreeding. In 1907 Lutz reported that the result of some observations on the inheritance of a wing-vein modification. In 1910-11 a paper by Delcourt and Guyenet appeared which dealt with the effect of food conditions on Drosophila. The question of the effect of inbreeding on fertility was also studied by Moenkhaus. He also made observations on the variations of the sex-ratio in relation to selection. This work was published in 1911. The work then, up to this time, had practically all been of a non-genetical nature for the value of D. melanogaster for genetic work had not ...
2016 The Author(s). Evolution published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Society for the Study of Evolution. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 ...
The offspring resulting from inbreeding tend to have health problems and lower reproductive success. This is known as inbreeding depression. Inbreeding depression occurs because of a quirk of natural selection and genetics. As natural selection acts on a population, it weeds out genes that have disadvantageous effects, but it can only weed out these genes if they are actually expressed in an individual. For dominant gene versions, thats no problem. Individuals carrying dominant genes with a detrimental effect will be selected against, and eventually, these genes will be purged from the population. For recessive gene versions, however, the story is a bit different. Recessive genes are only expressed when an individual carries two copies of them. Once natural selection has removed most of the detrimental recessive genes from a population, these seldom wind up paired with an identical copy and are effectively hidden from the effects of natural selection. This means that most populations carry many ...
Our results show that within a representative UK population sample there was a weak nominally significant association between burden of autosomal runs of homozygosity and higher non-verbal cognitive ability. This nominal association with increased cognitive ability is counterintuitive when compared with the results from more extreme inbreeding based on pedigree information.1, 2, 3 A potential explanation for this direction of effect is that individuals with higher cognitive ability might show greater positive assortative mating, which would lead to increased homozygosity at loci for higher cognitive ability in their offspring. However, in a separate sample we showed that greater positive assortative mating was not associated with higher cognitive ability. While these findings seem to provide clear evidence against this hypothesis, it is possible that the genome-wide genetic findings reflect historical mating habits that no longer exist today. It should also be noted that there was a reduction in ...
The powerful Habsburg dynasty ruled Spain and its empire from 1516 to 1700 but when King Charles II died in 1700 without any children from his two marriages, the male line died out and the French Bourbon dynasty came to power in Spain. Reporting in the open-access, peer-reviewed journal PLoS ONE, April 15, Gonzalo Alvarez and colleagues at the University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain, provide genetic evidence to support the historical evidence that the high frequency of inbreeding (mating between closely related individuals) within the dynasty was a major cause for the extinction of its male line.
I have found out I am actually from West Virginia. Ok, I am just joking.. I knew that my family had a history of marriages among relatives. After all I have only 10 great-great-grandparents instead of the usual 16. With my genome in hand, I set about to quantify the inbreeding.. First, I used David Pikes Homozygosity tool. It analyzes your genome to find significant runs where the same haplotype is inherited from both parents. Large portions of the human genome are like that. The length of these homozygous regions, however, varies depending on the relation of your parents. If your parents are closely related (first cousins in my case), then you will have longer runs. If your parents are distantly related, then over the generations those genes have had a chance to recombine and so you will have shorter runs that are homozygous.. Overall, the percentage of my autosomal (i.e. on chromosomes 1-22) SNPs that are homozygous is 71.767 and I have 41 runs of homozygosity (ROH) of length at least 200. ...
Mountain gorillas are currently suffering from a serious inbreeding problem, and while scientists everywhere worry that this will lead them down the path to extinction, one new genetic study says that it might in fact be their salvation.
Neanderthal genome shows high levels of inbreeding | I ****ing Love Science ...Grandparent and grandchild? Do I even want to know?! Ewwwwwwww...
Researchers studying banded mongooses in Uganda have discovered that these small mammals are able to discriminate between relatives and non-relatives to avoid inbreeding even when mating within their own closely related social group.
Unintentionally hijacked another thread when I mentioned inbreeding so thought I had better start my own. Had two opposite opinions on whether or not...
(CNN) -- An online petition to save a healthy young giraffe from death has failed, despite thousands of signatures.Copenhagen Zoo said it was putting down the male, named Marius, on Sunday because of a duty to avoid inbreeding.
Inbreeding Rabbits Its Just Darn Bad Luck... My bun of love, Slurpee passed away from sudden bloat. It was a horrible 20 hours in the animal hospital.
Quality Traditional and Parti Yorkshire Terriers - Dark Side of Inbreeding - Parti Yorkies and Traditional Color Champion bred yorkies For Sale
On the other hand single alleles would have spread randomly beyond the region of inbreeding. And the mutation may not even have originated in that region to start with. So, if the inbred population with the advantageous double allele were able to form hybrids with another population containing members with the single allele then the alleles expansion could become rapid. Especially considering that those with the double recessive allele would now have restored hybrid vigour. The population with restored hybrid vigour that carried the advantageous allele would be the one that expanded. Not the original inbred population. Presumably this method of allele expansion is a reasonably common pheneomenon. It certainly seems to explain our evolution right back to, and even beyond, Australopithecus. So hybrid vigour is just as important as inbreeding. ...
Inbreeding, and more importantly its consequences, has long been a concern of breeders as it reduces production, lowers fertility, results in more stillbirths and leads to fewer days in the herd. When genomics was first introduced, the theory was that it could help limit the amount of inbreeding in Holsteins. In reality it has done the exact opposite. Research indicates that relationships within respective breeds could be accelerating even faster since genomics introduction five years ago and there is also evidence that genetic diversity, another factor of inbreeding, is shrinking.. When you look at the sires of the top 100 genomic young sires lists, you notice a decent variety of sires with 30 bulls siring the top 100 sires. However, a pedigree analysis on only the paternal side reveals that 90 percent of the bulls either have Oman, Planet or Shottle represented as the sire or grandsire. The remaining 10 bulls represent genetic diversity. However, the list needs further refining because 3 of ...
One advantage, I will say, that goes along with breeding for a dominant phenotype is there is little to no inbreeding required to get the gene to be fairly consistent. In contrast, the easiest way to get a recessive gene to be consistently produced is very heavy inbreeding. For example, if there is a single dog that appears with a recessively inherited color that a breeder is interested in, and they are the only one of their kind, inbreeding is the only way to guarantee the reappearance of the gene. Lets say a female puppy is born who is an unusual color. As an experiment, shes bred to a male and all of the puppies dont look like her. This means the trait is recessive, and all of the puppies are guaranteed to be carriers. Breeding two of them together would lead to a litter that would likely contain 25% homozygous recessive puppies. If two of those recessive phenotype puppies happen to be opposite genders, then breeding them together would produce an entire litter of recessives! Or, if only a ...
Interpretive Summary: Technical Abstract: The goat is adapted to most of the environmental conditions found around the world. The species has evolved to be tolerant to diseases, productive in tropical or arid regions, and culturally and economically important in developing countries. Characterization of these genetic adaptations and development of SNP-based tools for genetic improvement in indigenous goats requires a high quality reference genome sequence. Male goats from breeds or populations expected to have a high level of inbreeding were screened with the Illumina GoatSNP50. Fifteen male goats from four breeds (San Clemente, Boer, Myotonic, Kiko) were evaluated for genomic coefficients of inbreeding (FROH) using runs of homozygosity. This analysis identified Papadom, a San Clemente buck, as the most inbred male goat for deep sequencing (FROH=0.46). Paired end reads from long (5 and 20 kb) and short (300 and 500 bp) insert libraries and single end shotgun reads are being sequenced using ...
The Habsburgs learned about inbreeding the hard way. Centuries of marriages between close relatives in this Austrian-Spanish royal family led to mental illness, infertility, and the eventual extinction of the entire bloodline. For more than a hundred years, scientists have chalked up such problems to rare genetic mutations, which come to the fore only when related individuals breed. But a new study in plants indicates that its not just genes that lead to this so-called inbreeding depression; its also how these genes are switched on and off ...
Cost of selfing; Genetic drift; Heterosis; Inbreeding load; Plant mating; System evolution; Sexual reproduction; Sporophytic self-incompatibility ...
For those not in the know, conservation biologists use something called the 50/500 Rule when assessing endangered species for extinction risk. At an effective population size of 500, there is concern that the species will not be able to maintain genetic diversity over a long period of time. At an effective population size of 50, the species is at immediate risk for extinction. Theyre circling the drain. Domestic animals have the advantage of veterinary care, but no owner in their right mind would prefer to have a sick pet. While the 50/500 Rule definitely doesnt bode well for the health of the aforementioned collie, the Labrador isnt in much better shape. When nearly one hundred thousand dogs have genetic variation equal to little more than one hundred individuals, there is a serious problem. For one thing, it makes it that much harder to avoid mating a certain dog to another that doesnt share a significant percentage of its genotype ...
Systems and methods are used to analyze a sample using variable mass selection window widths. A tandem mass spectrometer is instructed to perform at least two fragmentation scans of a sample with diff
The breed structure and genetic history of the New Zealand pedigree Angus breed were analysed by Robertson and Askers (1951) modification of the Wright-McPhee (1925) pedigree sampling method. The pattern of the breed structure obtained is generally similar to that found in other studies, but it is both diffuse and dynamic owing to the present rapid expansion of the breed. There are changes taking place in the herd composition of the major breeders herds and many new herds have yet to find their level in the structure. Considerable emphasis has been placed on the use of imported animals in the development of the breed. Of all herds registering in Volume 61 of the herd book, 20.5% used imported sires, and the percentage of genes in the breed in 1966/67 derived from animals imported since 1863 was 85.4. The most important herd in 1969 has a genetic contribution to the breed of 21.9 per cent:, while the contributions of the four next most important herds were 8.72, 8.7, 4.7 and 3.7 per cent. In ...
Background Domestication, breed formation and intensive selection have resulted in divergent cattle breeds that likely exhibit their own genomic signatures. In this study, we used genotypes from...
BREEDING: IN AND OUT IT GOES by Robert Frenz 25 November 2000 The process of reproduction requires hardly a shred of talent or intelligence. First there is the brainless erection followed by the search for an available orifice - usually by trial and error. This is why so many end up engaging sheep, llama, heifers, and even orifices not equipped for reproduction. If finding an orifice was an intellectual feat, then there wouldnt be so many perversions of such a simple act. Once the orifice is stuffed, a transient burst of whoopee follows and it isnt long before Mr. Sperm finds someplace to bury his head. Junior is on his way. Inbreeding is the breeding of that which is biologically similar. The paramount example of inbreeding would be between a lifeform and itself. As far as mammals are concerned, the closet biological combinations are brothers and sisters. I shall refrain from any discussion of incest, or forbidden marriages, as they are rooted in tradition and religious taboos. Also, I have ...
Group Serama Negeri @ GSN breed high quality Serama birds in Malaysia. GSN is a club promoting the breeding and characteristics of Malaysian Serama. We can be reached at mobile +60129020416 (Ram) +60123600881 (Zan) (Dinend) + ...
China will tag all of its 163 captive pandas in an effort to better monitor the population and prevent inbreeding, Xinhua news agency has announced. According to an unnamed state forestry administration official, information about pedigree, age and other basic data will be permanently incorporated into the giant pandas by ways of molecular labeling or hypodermic implantation of sensing chips.. No further details are forthcoming, but we think that the RFID panda is a sound plan. Pandas are legendarily energetic and difficult to monitor - capable of bursts of speed of 0.001mph for up to three seconds. They will also, as we all know, take any opportunity to indulge in a quick bit of inbreeding.. The programme offers the additional benefit that should Wal-Mart decide to add pandas to its product roster, they are already tagged for stock control purposes. ®. ...
self-sterility genes). Genes that prevent self-fertilization by controlling the growth of the pollen tube, thus causing male sterility and preventing inbreeding depression in monoecious plants. Gametophytic tissue containing the same sterility allele as the sporophyte is discriminated against. ...
http://www.iflscience.com/sites/www.iflscience.com/files/styles/ifls_large/public/blog/%5Bnid%5D/mc76zgg5-1458217423.jpg?itok=7gbjkYYz http://www.scienceofwonder.org/how-serious-is-inbreeding-in-show-dogs/ A German shepherd with a sloping back that was awarded best of breed brought the dog show Crufts in for this years annual bout of criticism. Viewers took to social media to accuse the owner of animal cruelty by suggesting that its unusual shape meant the dog must suffer health problems brought on…
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(2002) Manning et al. Mammalian Genome. We measured telomere lengths of blood leukocytes in several inbred and outbred mammalian species, using a telomere-specific fluorescent probe and flow cytometry. Humans, non-human primates, and thr...
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 - 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great , was a Greek king of Macedon ...
The concept of identity by descent (IBD), which is used to indicate when alleles at a given locus in two individuals are inherited from a common ancestor, has played a fundamental role in many genetic studies. Analyses of IBD are commonly used in pedigree data for linkage mapping [1]. IBD also has many uses in population-based studies, including mapping disease genes [2, 3], estimating haplotypic phase [4] and inferring evolutionary history (e.g., natural selection and inbreeding depression) [5, 6]. More recently, IBD has been applied to analyzing gene expression in related or unrelated individuals [7]. Incorporating such information about shared genetic material between individuals in linkage/association analyses has been shown to improve statistical power for mapping disease genes in some studies [8-10].. The length of an IBD segment will depend on the number of generations between the individuals under study and their common ancestor, as IBD tracts are broken down by recombination events over ...
Bulk breeding the growing of genetically diverse populations of self-pollinated crops in a bulk plot with or without mass selection, generally followed by a single-plant selection it is a procedure for inbreeding a segregating population until the desired level of homozygosity is achieved the seeds to grow each generation is a sample of that harvested from plants of the previous generation it is usually used for the development of self-pollinated crops it is an easy way to maintain populations.... ...
There are close to 28 million nurses around the world who comprise a global workforce that delivers about 90 percent of primary healthcare, including frontline response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Ensuring their optimal contribution and continued well-being amid the myriad consequences of COVID-19 will increase the potential for measurable and improved health outcomes.. ...
Inbreeding[edit]. During sexual reproduction, mating with a close relative (inbreeding) often leads to inbreeding depression. ... Inbreeding avoidance[edit]. As a result of the negative fitness consequences of inbreeding, vertebrate species have evolved ... Outcrossing as a way of avoiding inbreeding depression has been especially well studied in birds. For instance, inbreeding ... Inbreeding depression is considered to be largely due to expression of deleterious recessive mutations.[45] The effects of ...
Inbreeding depression[edit]. Factors influencing the litter size of puppies and the proportion of stillborn puppies per litter ... Gresky C, Hamann H, Distl O (2005). "[Influence of inbreeding on litter size and the proportion of stillborn puppies in ... It was found that as the inbreeding coefficient increased, litter size decreased and the percentage of stillborn puppies ... increased, thus indicating inbreeding depression. It was also found that young and older dams had smaller litter sizes and more ...
Inbreeding avoidance[edit]. The MHC genes (known as HLA in humans) are a group of genes present in many animals and important ... Since inbreeding is detrimental, it tends to be avoided. In the house mouse, the major urinary protein (MUP) gene cluster ... "Possible olfaction-based mechanisms in human kin recognition and inbreeding avoidance". Journal of Experimental Child ... "The genetic basis of inbreeding avoidance in house mice". Current Biology. 17 (23): 2061-2066. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2007.10.041 ...
Inbreeding coefficient[edit]. The inbreeding coefficient, F (see also F-statistics), is one minus the observed frequency of ... The inbreeding coefficient is unstable as the expected value approaches zero, and thus not useful for rare and very common ... For two alleles, the chi-squared goodness of fit test for Hardy-Weinberg proportions is equivalent to the test for inbreeding, ... A common cause of non-random mating is inbreeding, which causes an increase in homozygosity for all genes. ...
Avoidance of inbreeding[edit]. See also: inbreeding avoidance. Mice can distinguish close relatives from more distantly related ... showed that inbred mice had significantly reduced survival when they were reintroduced into a natural habitat.[37] In addition ... Jiménez JA, Hughes KA, Alaks G, Graham L, Lacy RC (1994). "An experimental study of inbreeding depression in a natural habitat ... Foster, Robert L. (1992). "Nestmate Recognition as an Inbreeding Avoidance Mechanism in Bumble Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae)". ...
Inbreeding leads to low levels of genetic diversity and has a negative effect on survivorship; inbred offspring have a lower ... consequently leading to inbreeding depression and a population decline.[44] In the case of inbreeding, the problem lies in the ... Increase in inbreeding[edit]. Additionally, this deforestation and fragmentation also leads to demographic instabilities, and ... Consequently, inbreeding depression is observed in these populations.[45] With delay breeding, the decrease and shortage of ...
"Inbreeding". Pedigreepost.net. 14 January 2002. Archived from the original on 27 November 2011. Retrieved 15 September 2011. ...
"Inbreeding". State of Florida. Archived from the original on 2005-09-07. Retrieved 2007-07-19. "1980". State of Florida. ...
An archetype of inbreeding is self-pollination. When a plant has both anthers and a stigma, the process of inbreeding can occur ... Homogamy is used in biology in four separate senses: Inbreeding can be referred to as homogamy. Homogamy refers to the ... As opposed to outcrossing or outbreeding, inbreeding is the process by which organisms with common descent come together to ... "Inbreeding , genetics". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2018-04-16. "TNAU Agritech Portal Crop Improvement :: Mode of ...
Effects of inbreeding in wild populations[edit]. Keller and Waller[5] reviewed the effects of inbreeding in wild-populations. ... Inbreeding depression is considered to be largely due to the expression of recessive deleterious alleles.[6] ... Charlesworth D, Willis JH (2009). "The genetics of inbreeding depression". Nat. Rev. Genet. 10 (11): 783-96. doi:10.1038/ ... Inbreeding effects in wild populations. (2002) Trends in Ecology & Evolution. May 17(5):230-41. doi:10.1016/S0169-5347(02)02489 ...
"Inbreeding". www.as.wvu.edu. Retrieved 2020-06-26. Arab wedding Customs, Muhammad Dhul Salaim, pg 74 "Arabic Mehndi Designs for ...
denotes inbreeding. "Tennessee Walking horse - I Am Jose #20806071 home page by Walkers West". http://www.t-g.com/story/1999423 ...
Contrast inbreeding. overexpression An abnormally high level of gene expression which results in an excessive number of copies ... Inbreeding results in homozygosity, which can increase both the probability of offspring being affected by deleterious ... in situ hybridization inbreeding Sexual reproduction between breeds or individuals that are closely related genetically. ...
If such a disease was due to inbreeding, it would also be present in other isolated island bird populations, but it is not. The ... It has also been claimed that the carpal knobs were instead formed due to a hereditary disease caused by inbreeding. This was ... Amadon, D. (1951). "Inbreeding and Disease". Evolution. 5 (4): 417. doi:10.2307/2405692. JSTOR 2405692. Cheke, A. S.; Hume, J. ...
Inbreeding depression is the loss of fitness due to loss of genetic diversity. Inbred strains tend to be homozygous for ... But overdominance implies that yields on an inbred strain should decrease as inbred strains are selected for the performance of ... East EM (1908). "Inbreeding in corn". Reports of the Connecticut Agricultural Experiments Station for 1907: 419-428. Shull GH ( ... Inbreeding depression occurs when related parents have children with traits that negatively influence their fitness largely due ...
Inbreeding and others. Also see articles about individual dog breeds for more on the health, breeding, and use issues of ...
Amadon, D. (1951). "Inbreeding and Disease". Evolution. 5 (4): 417. doi:10.2307/2405692. JSTOR 2405692. Angst, D.; Buffetaut, E ...
This can result in inbreeding and can cause genetic defects. After Ruby's escape, a press conference was held by Arizona ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Polygamist Sects: How They Avoid Inbreeding Problems". Huffington Post. April 30, 2008 ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Khan, Razib (August 31, 2006). "Inbreeding among Mormons". Discover. Retrieved August 5 ...
Inbred animals are likely conduits for certain specific characteristics coming from their inbred ancestor. Too much inbreeding ... Continued inbreeding over a series of generations also has a negative impact referred to as "inbreeding depression." The lines ... less vigorous individuals than animals that are not as inbred. In the thoroughbred industry, inbreeding is used to focus ... Inbreeding is the mating of two closely related individuals. It is known as one of the quickest ways to "fix" desired ...
United States Endogamy Genetic distance Genetic diversity Genetic sexual attraction Inbreeding Inbreeding avoidance Inbreeding ... Arthur P. Wolf, Inbreeding, Incest, and the Incest Taboo The State of Knowledge at the Turn of the Century, Stanford University ... In the latter case, it would appear that inbreeding mainly leads to greater variance in IQ levels, due in part to the ... Retrieved 19 January 2010., citing Bittles, A.H.; Neel, J.V. (1994). "The costs of human inbreeding and their implications for ...
Inbreeding increases homozygosity. In the short run, an increase in inbreeding increases the probability with which offspring ... Barrett, S. C. H.; Charlesworth, D. (1991). "Effects of a change in the level of inbreeding on the genetic load". Nature. 352 ( ... Saccheri, I. J.; Lloyd, H. D.; Helyar, S. J.; Brakefield, P. M. (2005). "Inbreeding uncovers fundamental differences in the ... In a species that habitually inbreeds, e.g. through self-fertilization, recessive deleterious alleles are purged. Combinations ...
Inbreeding depletes heterozygosity of the genome, meaning there is a greater chance of identical alleles at a locus. When these ... The term is generally used to mean the chance or ability of a population to avoid the problems of inbreeding. Less commonly ... In a small population, the risk of inbreeding will increase drastically which could lead to a decrease in genetic viability. If ... Higher genetic diversity and a larger population size will decrease the negative effects of genetic drift and inbreeding in a ...
Cockerham, C. C.; Weir, B. S. (1983). "Variance of actual inbreeding". Theoretical Population Biology. 23 (1): 85-109. doi: ... "Estimation of the Inbreeding Coefficient through Use of Genomic Data". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 73 (3): 516-523 ...
"Effects of inbreeding on the honeybee". dave-cushman.net. The Scottish Beekeepers' Association. Retrieved 1 May 2019. Abrahams ... "Selective breeding without inbreeding; where's the happy medium?". bibba.com. BIBBA. Retrieved 4 September 2019. Harbo, J.; ... Kaspar Bienefeld, F. Reinhardt, F. Pirchner (1989). "Inbreeding effects of queen and workers on colony traits in the honey bee ... prone to inbreeding due to habit of Apiary Vicinity Mating, resulting in increased aggression susceptibility to acarine mites ...
Inbreeding avoidance or tolerance? Comparison of mating behavior between mass-reared and wild strains of the sweet potato ... Recently, another species, Cylas formicarius has been observed with an increased amount of inbreeding supression than is normal ...
indicates inbreeding "Dortmund pedigree". Equineline.com. Retrieved 2015-04-06. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) http:// ...
... "significant inbreeding depression because the benefits of local adaptation are greater than the cost of inbreeding." However, ... Dorsten LE, Hotchkiss L, King TM (May 1999). "The effect of inbreeding on early childhood mortality: twelve generations of an ... In one Old Order Amish society, inbreeding increases the risk of "neonatal and postneonatal mortality." In French populations, ... Tchen P, Bois E, Feingold J, Feingold N, Kaplan J (September 1977). "Inbreeding in recessive diseases". Human Genetics. 38 (2 ...
By generation six, the incidence rose to approximately 4.9%, due to the founder effect and inbreeding, with all achromats on ... Since achromatopsia is an autosomal recessive disorder, inbreeding between the descendants of Doahkaesa Mwanenised would result ... Cabe, Paul R. (2004). "Inbreeding and Assortive Mating". Encyclopedia of genetics. 2ed. "The Achromatopsia Group". Retrieved ...
Theory of Inbreeding. Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd. 1949. Contributions to mathematical statistics. New York: Wiley. 1950. ... Fisher, Ronald A (1954). "A Fuller Theory of "Junctions" in Inbreeding". Heredity. 8 (2): 187-197. doi:10.1038/hdy.1954.17. " ... "An Algebraically Exact Examination of Junction Formation and Transmission in Parent-offspring Inbreeding". Heredity. 13 (2): ...
Williams, Rod N; Bos, David H; Gopurenko, David; DeWoody, J Andrew (2008). "Amphibian malformations and inbreeding". Biology ...
3. Inbred Strains and Hybrids. 3.1 Definition 3.2 Nomenclature of Inbred Strains. 3.3 Indication of Inbreeding 3.4 Substrains. ... 4.3 Mixed Inbred Strains. Incipient inbred stocks or inbred strains that are derived from up to three parental strains (one of ... 5.4 Segregating Inbred Strains. Segregating inbred strains are inbred stains in which a particular allele or mutation is ... 4. Strains Made from Multiple Inbred Strains. 4.1 Recombinant Inbred Strains. 4.2 Collaborative Cross Strains. 4.3 Mixed Inbred ...
2006). "Selection and Inbreeding Depression: Effects of Inbreeding Rate and Inbreeding Environment". Evolution. 60 (5): 1014- ... Inbreeding also helps to ascertain the type of gene action affecting a trait. Inbreeding is also used to reveal deleterious ... The coefficient of inbreeding, or the degree of inbreeding in an individual, is an estimate of the percent of homozygous ... Inbreeding is a technique used in selective breeding. For example, in livestock breeding, breeders may use inbreeding when ...
... is this depressing story about wee dogs being inbred to the point of jellification by amoral puppy farmers in Japan: There have ... Inbred Cute. Continuing on our tiny animal theme (with a finger, even) is this depressing story about wee dogs being inbred to ... Continuing on our tiny animal theme (with a finger, even) is this depressing story about wee dogs being inbred to the point of ... Japan, Home of the Cute and Inbred Dog [NY Times, thanks Frodo] ...
Saying it needed to prevent inbreeding, the Copenhagen Zoo killed a 2-year-old giraffe and fed its remains to lions as visitors ... an action the zoo said was in line with anti-inbreeding rules meant to ensure a healthy giraffe population. The giraffe, named ...
Three mountain lion kittens born last month in the Santa Monica Mountains were inbred, a wildlife expert said, marking a ... "That makes this inbreeding more likely than it might otherwise be because the young animals cant get elsewhere," he said. ... DNA tests indicate that mountain lions in the Santa Monica Mountains are inbreeding, another sign of the challenges facing the ... LOS ANGELES (AP) - Three mountain lion kittens born last month in the Santa Monica Mountains were inbred, a wildlife expert ...
Inbreeding depression is the reduced biological fitness in a given population as a result of inbreeding, or breeding of related ... the less likely it is to suffer from inbreeding depression. Inbreeding depression seems to be present in most groups of ... Inbreeding depression has also been found to occur more gradually than predicted in some wild populations, such as in the ... Inbreeding depression is often the result of a population bottleneck. In general, the higher the genetic variation or gene pool ...
yeah we are all so inbred here in good ole ky,well be walking across the yard and fall over dead.It;s all in the genetics i ... Come on down! How stupid could someone be?Why would there be any more inbred people in Ky than any place else? Get a life. ... If one wishes to further investigate these materials they can look up anatomy dna strands and inbreeding or incest that should ...
According to Vucetich, inbreeding is just one of many reasons the wolves will always be living on the edge, one disaster away ... Researchers had long looked for signs of potential problems from inbreeding, such as poor survival rates for pups. However, the ... Normally, such abnormalities are found in just 1 percent of non-inbred observed populations.. Peterson, along with biologist ... Peterson said that spinal malformation due to inbreeding poses no immediate threat of extinction. However, the most significant ...
Theres inbreeding in that community.". Greenbergs remarks prompted an angry reaction in the Orthodox Jewish community, the ... "inbreeding" in the close-knit Hasidic community. ... Inbreeding claim angers Jewish community. Dec. 22, 2011 at 1: ... inbreeding in the close-knit Hasidic community. ...
Inbreeding in cystinosis and cystic fibrosis was also studied by computing the distance between parental birth places. This ... Araújo, A. M. de, Salzano, F. M.: Marital distances and inbreeding in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Soc. Biol. 21, 249-255 (1974)Google ...
Researchers in Canada have found evidence in the yellow-banded bumblebees genome that inbreeding and disease are the likely ... Inbreeding and disease behind the bumblebees decline. Posted Researchers in Canada have found evidence in the yellow-banded ... bumblebees genome that inbreeding and disease are the likely reason for the decline of the species. ...
... In general terms, inbreeding is where the sire and dam have ancestors in common. The level of inbreeding is simply ... Understanding the Inbreeding Numbers. Inbreeding Coefficient: is expressed as a percentage value. A low inbreeding coefficient ... Typical Inbreeding Coefficients. Typical inbreeding coefficients for various relationships are given in Table 1. The inbreeding ... However, inbreeding depression is likely to be more apparent once inbreeding levels get to above 10%. As a very rough guide, ...
The genetic basis of inbreeding depression.. Charlesworth B1, Charlesworth D.. Author information. 1. Institute of Cell, Animal ... Data on the effects of inbreeding on fitness components are reviewed in the light of population genetic models of the possible ... Deleterious mutations probably play a major role in causing inbreeding depression. Putting together the different kinds of ... thus seem to be the most important source of inbreeding depression. Possible experimental approaches to resolving outstanding ...
Inbreeding not to blame for Colorados bighorn sheep population decline Peer-Reviewed Publication University of Colorado at ... Inbreeding not to blame for Colorados bighorn sheep population decline. University of Colorado at Boulder ... Previous research has shown that inbreeding can weaken a populations immunity to disease across subsequent generations. ... but a new study led by researchers at the University of Colorado Boulder has found that inbreeding--a common hypothesis for a ...
According to the research of Sennels, almost half the worlds Muslim population are inbred. In Pakistan, inbreeding approaches ... Dysgenic Islamic Inbreeding. By Sidney Secular,2021-05-04T02:07:03-04:00May 4th, 2021, ... It turns out that their poor retention rates and diminished capacity to learn is a consequence of 1,400 years of inbreeding! A ... Inbreeding resulting from first-cousin marriages in Islam has worked profound changes on their gene pool, affecting ...
2006). "Selection and Inbreeding Depression: Effects of Inbreeding Rate and Inbreeding Environment". Evolution. 60 (5): 1014- ... "Inbred" redirects here. For the 2011 British film, see Inbred (film).. For reproduction by which offspring arise from a single ... Inbreeding is a technique used in selective breeding. For example, in livestock breeding, breeders may use inbreeding when ... Inbreeding also helps to ascertain the type of gene action affecting a trait. Inbreeding is also used to reveal deleterious ...
Inbreeding appears to be regular in the banded mongoose. Detailed analysis reveals 8.5% of cases with close inbreeding and a ... It would be useful for conservation if the famed Malagasy fossa were to be investigated to see just how sociable or inbred its ... Prairie dogs and meerkats have similar patterns of inbreeding but these few species stand out in the mass of less sociable. ... Why does this mongoose inbreed. It could be the extremely high mortality rate within the new groups studied here. They suffered ...
Inbreeding leaves a characteristic signature in the genome: long tracts of autozygosity, meaning regions in which an individual ... Actually one might realize that inbreeding may be the cause of the high age of some of the studied individuals. Homozygoty can ... That dataset allowed the authors to directly measure the levels of autozygosity and estimate changes in the level of inbreeding ... The graph shows a steady decline in estimated inbreeding levels across the studied time span, consistent with an increased ...
Make research projects and school reports about inbreeding easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and ... Inbreeding Genetics Copyright Genetics Society of America. Inbreeding. Inbreeding is defined as mating between related ... Inbreeding can be measured by the inbreeding coefficient (often denoted F). This is the probability that two genes at any locus ... Continued inbreeding among a normally outbreeding population leads to inbreeding depression (the opposite of hybrid vigour) and ...
Now a new study says that this facial dysmorphism was due to inbreeding. The study was published in the Annals of Human Biology ... The degree to which inbreeding was present was clear from this tree. This was then studied to decide if it was the cause of the ... 2019, December 02). Inbreeding between royalty led to facial defects. News-Medical. Retrieved on September 23, 2020 from https ... Maxillary deficiency is also linked to the degree of inbreeding, but the connection was significant in only 2/7 of the ...
To quantify the inbreeding caused by mating within such a small pool of animals, Aylwyn Scally, a geneticist at the University ... High levels of inbreeding increase the odds that an individual will get copies of a harmful mutation from both parents, and ... The gorillas were even more inbred than they expected, roughly the equivalent of the result of a mating between great-uncle and ... "Its more inbreeding than weve seen so far in any other great ape," says Scally. ...
Lyrics to Dead Time by Inbred: Time is all weve got and we help them tie the / Knot around our necks everytime we give our / ...
Early humans who lived around 34,000 years ago recognised the dangers of inbreeding and developed social and mating networks to ... Early humans who lived around 34,000 years ago recognised the dangers of inbreeding and developed social and mating networks to ... understood the importance of avoiding inbreeding, said Eske Willerslev from the University of Copenhagen. The data suggests ...
... automatically do avoid inbreeding. The study is published in the scientific journal Nature Ecology & Evolution. ... The widespread general assumption is that inbreeding is bad for genetic reasons and something that should be avoided under all ... Animals rarely avoid inbreeding. Published on. May 4, 2021 The widespread general assumption is that inbreeding is bad for ... There are several possible explanations why animals consider inbreeding not a bad idea. Inbreeding might be the best option in ...
... yoo at skyfox.usask.ca yoo at skyfox.usask.ca Wed Apr 12 09:57:02 EST 1995 *Previous message: Primer Tm for ... Does anybody know if there is Inbred, Syngenic Hamsters available?? Any helps would be appreciated. Dongwan Yoo Veterinary ...
Inbreeding depression is the reduced biological fitness in a given population as a result of inbreeding, or breeding of related ... Factors reducing inbreeding depressionEdit. Whilst inbreeding depression has been found to occur in almost all sufficiently ... Inbreeding depression in Delphinium nelsonii. A. Overall fitness of progeny cohorts and the B. progeny lifespan were all lower ... "Inbreeding May Have Caused Darwin Family Ills, Study Suggests". Science Daily.. *^ Clark, R.W. (1984) "The Survival of Charles ...
Many flowering plants are able to recognize and reject their own pollen, thereby preventing inbreeding despite the plants ... How plants avoid inbreeding, and the related topic of S locus evolution have been important research subjects for plant ... Many flowering plants are able to recognize and reject their own pollen, thereby preventing inbreeding despite the plants ... "Self-incompatibility," the pollen-recognition system that enables plants to avoid the inbreeding caused by self-pollination, ...
Reed DH, Lowe EH, Briscoe DA, Frankham R (2003) Inbreeding and extinction: effects of rate of inbreeding. Conserv Genet 4:405- ... Inbreeding Genetic structure Microsatellites Salamander Ambystoma tigrinum This is a preview of subscription content, log in to ... which are likely due to inbreeding. In addition, evidence of recent bottlenecks was suggested by shifted allele frequency ...
Yuko Hayashi "Close Inbreeding in Blakistons Fish-Owl (Ketupa blakistoni)," Journal of Raptor Research, 43(2), 145-148, (1 ... Differing Patterns of Genetic Diversity and Inbreeding in Two Rare... Biology and Conservation of Blakistons Fish Owls (Ketupa ... Yuko Hayashi "Close Inbreeding in Blakistons Fish-Owl (Ketupa blakistoni)," Journal of Raptor Research 43(2), 145-148, (1 June ...
... calculations suggest that Charles Darwins marriage to a first cousin resulted in a mild degree of inbreeding in their children ... The degree of inbreeding among Darwins children, while not excessive, was enough to increase the risk of recessive diseases - ... Possible consequences of inbreeding can be seen in the childrens illnesses and degree of infertility, three researchers report ... Darwin, after discovering the lack of vigor in inbred plants, worried that first-cousin marriages like his own might have ...
  • Animals with a shallow pedigree may have a low inbreeding coefficient simply because their related ancestors are not on the database. (edu.au)
  • A low inbreeding coefficient means a low level of inbreeding (eg 3% as in the example above). (edu.au)
  • In most beef cattle breed societies, the vast majority of animals have an inbreeding coefficient of less than 10%, inbreeding coefficients over 30% are unusual, and over 40% are rare. (edu.au)
  • Generations - Adjacent to the inbreeding coefficient, there are two numbers indicating the minimum number of generations in the animal s pedigree and, in brackets, the average number of generations in the animal's pedigree - as currently available on the database. (edu.au)
  • Deeper pedigrees will result in a more accurate calculation of the inbreeding coefficient, particularly where the inbreeding coefficient is small. (edu.au)
  • The coefficient of inbreeding (as proposed by Sewell Wright in 1922) is the probability that two alleles at a randomly chosen locus are identical by descent . (edu.au)
  • Note that alleles may be identical for other reasons, but the inbreeding coefficient is just looking at the mathematical probability that the alleles have come from a common ancestor. (edu.au)
  • Inbreeding can be measured by the inbreeding coefficient (often denoted F). This is the probability that two genes at any locus in one individual are identical by descent (have been inherited from a common ancestor). (encyclopedia.com)
  • For example, the coefficient of inbreeding for an offspring of two siblings is one-fourth (0.25), for an offspring of two half-siblings it is one-eighth (0.125), and for an offspring of two first cousins it is one-sixteenth (0.0625). (encyclopedia.com)
  • The average inbreeding coefficient is 0.03 for the Dunker population in Pennsylvania and 0.04 for islanders on Tristan da Cunha. (encyclopedia.com)
  • For example, polar Eskimos have an average inbreeding coefficient that is less than 0.003. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In fact, geneticists estimate that the inbreeding coefficient, or the likelihood that an individual will have two identical copies of the same gene because of related parents, for Charles II was almost the same as for a child born of incest. (news-medical.net)
  • Host Guy Raz speaks with Tim Berra, professor of evolution at Ohio State University, about the "inbreeding coefficient" theory that Darwin proved through his work and his own life. (npr.org)
  • When dealing with different people groups, geneticists often calculate a number called the 'inbreeding coefficient' and talk about 'identity by descent' because every person has inherited multiple identical sections of DNA from both sides of their family. (creation.com)
  • extreme inbreeding: mating between sibs, half-sibs, parent-offspring Outbreeding: (preferential) mating between non-relatives Positive assortative mating: mating among individuals who share particular genes or phenotypes Negative assortative mating: mating among individuals who do not share particular genes or phenotypes Inbreeding Coefficients: Individual inbreeding coefficient (i.e. (wikibooks.org)
  • Behavioral preferences influence the acceptance or rejection of different types of individuals as mating partners Population inbreeding coefficient: f measured by deviations from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (a2+2aA+A2), examine for an over-representation of homozygotes. (wikibooks.org)
  • Wright developed what is called the inbreeding coefficient. (mcf.com)
  • A cold outcross (in dogs, probably a first-generation cross between two purebreds of different, unrelated breeds would be the best approximation) would have an inbreeding coefficient of 0. (mcf.com)
  • Further, the chances are that our dogs with inbreeding coefficient = 0 would still be homozygous for some genes shared by all dogs. (mcf.com)
  • The inbreeding coefficient thus specifically refers to those genes that are variable (more than one possible form) in the species and even the breed being considered. (mcf.com)
  • An inbreeding coefficient of 1 (rare in mammals) would result if the only matings practiced over many generations were between full brother and full sister. (mcf.com)
  • The degree of inbreeding can be measured using a calculation called the coefficient of inbreeding (CoI), or inbreeding coefficient. (thekennelclub.org.uk)
  • The lower the degree of inbreeding, the lower the inbreeding coefficient. (thekennelclub.org.uk)
  • When choosing a potential mate, we recommend you use our Inbreeding Coefficient calculators as part of your decision. (thekennelclub.org.uk)
  • Where possible, you should produce puppies with an inbreeding coefficient which is at, or below, the breed average and ideally as low as possible. (thekennelclub.org.uk)
  • No you dont want birds with a huge inbreeding coefficient but the birds that exist today are all the product of line breeding to some extent since we have an essentially closed loop with customs not allowing new genetics into the country. (backyardchickens.com)
  • In most countries it is now illegal to breed a brother with his sister, a father with his daugther, and a mother with her son (25% inbreeding coefficient). (pedigreedatabase.com)
  • Keep in mind that your English Bulldog might have more health problems than your Dutch Shepherd whatever the inbreeding coefficient of the dog. (pedigreedatabase.com)
  • however, because the increased proportion of deleterious homozygotes exposes the allele to natural selection, in the long run its frequency decreases more rapidly in inbred populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hermaphroditic species often exhibit lower degrees of inbreeding depression than outcrossing species, as repeated generations of selfing is thought to purge deleterious alleles from populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Normally, such abnormalities are found in just 1 percent of non-inbred observed populations. (redorbit.com)
  • Not surprisingly, smaller populations tend to have proportionally more animals with higher inbreeding coefficients than larger populations - simply because there are fewer candidate animals to select from (Figure 1). (edu.au)
  • Explanation of inbreeding in animal populations relies on a few basic genetic principles. (edu.au)
  • The human efforts at incest are thankfully rare nowadays, but at least 3 social species mange to produce viable populations with very close inbreeding systems. (earthtimes.org)
  • In general, inbreeding in human populations is rare. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Inbreeding occurs in both those populations. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Some isolated populations actively avoid inbreeding and have maintained low average inbreeding coefficients even though they are small. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Inbred populations can offer a rich resource for genetic studies. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Most populations showed significant departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, which are likely due to inbreeding. (springer.com)
  • Overall, these genetic data support the endangered status of the Sonora tiger salamander and suggest the subspecies exists in small, inbred populations. (springer.com)
  • A biologist at the University of York is part of an international team which has shown that advanced DNA sequencing technologies can be used to accurately measure the levels of inbreeding in wild animal populations. (phys.org)
  • Newswise - Small populations, inbreeding, and random demographic fluctuations could have been enough to cause Neanderthal extinction, according to a study published November 27, 2019 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Krist Vaesen from Eindhoven University of Technology, the Netherlands, and colleagues. (newswise.com)
  • They then simulated for their model populations the effects of inbreeding, Allee effects (where reduced population size negatively impacts individuals' fitness), and annual random demographic fluctuations in births, deaths, and the sex ratio, to see if these factors could bring about an extinction event over a 10,000-year period. (newswise.com)
  • It's also possible that modern humans could have impacted Neanderthal populations in ways which reinforced inbreeding and Allee effects, but are not reflected in the models. (newswise.com)
  • Populations of a bumblebee species living on remote Scottish islands have a lack of genetic diversity because of many generations of inbreeding, a situation that could put the region's bumblebees at risk of extinction, according to a new study by scientists from the University of Stirling in Scotland. (scientificamerican.com)
  • This is probably due to poor sperm quality (new window) that has come about as a result of inbreeding, which in turn is due to an initial small population compounded by fragmented "island" populations. (pictures-of-cats.org)
  • Among the breeds with the smallest populations in Canada, Canadienne continues to have the highest average inbreeding, now at 9.16% for females born in 2019, but the average rate of increase since 2010 has been the lowest at +.03% per year. (cdn.ca)
  • BONN, Germany -- Although breeding between close kin is thought to be generally unfavorable from an evolutionary standpoint, in part because harmful mutations are more easily propagated through populations in this way, theory predicts that under some circumstances, the benefits of inbreeding may outweigh the costs. (underwatertimes.com)
  • Researchers found isolated populations produced abnormal stripping as a result of inbreeding, which is due to habitat fragmentation from humans taking over the land. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • Is inbreeding rarer in other crow populations? (allaboutbirds.org)
  • This usually leads to at least temporarily decreased biological fitness of a population (called inbreeding depression), which is its ability to survive and reproduce. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inbreeding can significantly influence gene expression which can prevent inbreeding depression. (wikipedia.org)
  • When deleterious recessive alleles are unmasked due to the increased homozygosity generated by inbreeding, this can cause inbreeding depression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inbreeding depression is the reduced biological fitness in a given population as a result of inbreeding, or breeding of related individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inbreeding depression is often the result of a population bottleneck. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, the higher the genetic variation or gene pool within a breeding population, the less likely it is to suffer from inbreeding depression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inbreeding depression seems to be present in most groups of organisms, but varies across mating systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the outcrossing nematode (roundworm) Caenorhabditis remanei has been demonstrated to suffer severely from inbreeding depression, unlike its hermaphroditic relative C. elegans, which experiences outbreeding depression. (wikipedia.org)
  • An example of inbreeding depression is shown to the right. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another mechanism responsible for inbreeding depression is the fitness advantage of heterozygosity, which is known as overdominance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Introducing alleles from a different population can reverse inbreeding depression. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genetic basis of inbreeding depression. (nih.gov)
  • Data on the effects of inbreeding on fitness components are reviewed in the light of population genetic models of the possible genetic causes of inbreeding depression. (nih.gov)
  • Deleterious mutations probably play a major role in causing inbreeding depression. (nih.gov)
  • Recessive or partially recessive deleterious effects of alleles, some maintained by mutation pressure and some by balancing selection, thus seem to be the most important source of inbreeding depression. (nih.gov)
  • The genetic disadvantage of inbreeding depression in the banded mongoose is countered by survival gains in remaining with the social group. (earthtimes.org)
  • Inbreeding depression in Delphinium nelsonii . (wikipedia.org)
  • A concomitant increase in homozygousity of recessive traits can, over time, result in inbreeding depression. (bionity.com)
  • In theory, the heterosis observed on crossing is expected to be equal to the depression upon inbreeding, considering a large number of crosses between lines derived from a single base population. (speakerdeck.com)
  • Plants including onions, sunflower, cucurbits, and rye are more tolerant of inbreeding with minimal consequences of inbreeding depression. (speakerdeck.com)
  • This generally leads to a decreased fitness of a population, which is called inbreeding depression. (phys.org)
  • Deleterious alleles causing inbreeding depression can subsequently be removed through culling. (phys.org)
  • Imagining inbreeding intercourse, whether it involves our closest kin or not, induces aversion in most people who invoke inbreeding depression problems or cultural considerations. (frontiersin.org)
  • A reduced biological fitness of a population caused by inbreeding is referred to as inbreeding depression . (biology-online.org)
  • The team of researchers found that this species may be able to tolerate this high level of inbreeding because the adults in the group provide pups with a lot of one-to-one care that reduces the effects of inbreeding depression. (swansea.ac.uk)
  • However, in an interesting twist, inbreeding depression eventually catches up with them. (swansea.ac.uk)
  • Production of inbred strains means that these backgrounds can be defined and thus require nomenclature conventions. (jax.org)
  • Strains can be termed inbred if they have been mated brother x sister for 20 or more consecutive generations, and individuals of the strain can be traced to a single ancestral pair at the 20th or subsequent generation. (jax.org)
  • Inbred strains must be continuously mated brother x sister (or equivalent) thereafter. (jax.org)
  • Inbred strains that have a common origin, but are separated before F20 are related inbred strains, and symbols should reflect this relationship. (jax.org)
  • Moreover, the two inbred laboratory mouse strains display significantly different telomere lengths, suggesting the existence of strain-specific genetic determinants. (mendeley.com)
  • Telomeres of all three inbred lines are significantly lengthened relative to outbred P. leucopus, and the three lines display strain-specific significantly different telomere lengths, much like the C57BL/6J and DBA/2J strains of M. musculus. (mendeley.com)
  • Inbred strains of species are important in genetic research. (rationalwiki.org)
  • they have produced strains of mice, rats, and other animals that are so inbred as to be genetically identical. (pawpeds.com)
  • Genetic markers of the FVB/N strain have been analyzed for 44 loci that cover 15 chromosomes and were compared with those of commonly used inbred strains. (pnas.org)
  • Several strains of inbred black mice, originally derived by W.L. Russell of The Jackson Laboratory in 1921, were designated as C57 Black (C57BL) after approximately the thirty-second generation of inbreeding. (jax.org)
  • Screening wheel-running behavior in inbred mouse strains highlighted differences among strains, showing that even very limited genetic differences deeply affect mouse behavior. (hindawi.com)
  • But virtually no one disputes that the isolated population of 430 wolves in Scandinavia is highly inbred, descended from a handful of animals that arrived in the region in the 1980s and 1990s, writes ScienceNordic . (thelocal.se)
  • We knew from the beginning, by looking at family trees, that there are many highly inbred wolves in Scandinavia. (thelocal.se)
  • In the past 17 years since the immigrant's arrival, only two ice bridges have occurred, so the Old Gray Guy's descendants soon became highly inbred as well. (redorbit.com)
  • Both calves are highly inbred (for an excellent explanation of the calf's lineage, please read this article by Elizabeth Batt ). (seattlepi.com)
  • In the 1930s it was proposed that for mammals to evolve complex cooperative societies similar to those seen In bees and wasps, they would have to become highly inbred so that all colony members were genetically related. (swansea.ac.uk)
  • The avoidance of expression of such deleterious recessive alleles caused by inbreeding, via inbreeding avoidance mechanisms, is the main selective reason for outcrossing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inbreeding can result in purging of deleterious alleles from a population through purifying selection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inbreeding is also used to reveal deleterious recessive alleles, which can then be eliminated through assortative breeding or through culling. (wikipedia.org)
  • The advantages of inbreeding may be the result of a tendency to preserve the structures of alleles interacting at different loci that have been adapted together by a common selective history. (wikipedia.org)
  • As inbreeding increases, the frequency of alleles being homozygous at a particular locus also increases. (edu.au)
  • Line breeding attempts to maximise desirable homozygous alleles (ie fix these desirable genes in the population) using selection and planned breeding programs a sort of controlled inbreeding. (edu.au)
  • With inbreeding, there is an increased chance that, in an affected individual, the two alleles at the disease locus will have descended from a common ancestor. (encyclopedia.com)
  • As my previous posts should have made clear the biggest short term problem caused by inbreeding is that deleterious alleles will be "unmasked" in their homozygous state. (gnxp.com)
  • Since each line has been inbred, the two lines' genes will have different alleles. (cannabisculture.com)
  • The selective advantage of complementation may largely account for the general avoidance of inbreeding (see kin recognition). (wikipedia.org)
  • We address the 'elephant in the room' of inbreeding avoidance studies by overturning the widespread assumption that animals will avoid inbreeding whenever possible', says Assistant Professor Alexander Kotrschal of Wageningen University & Research, one of the senior authors of the study. (wur.nl)
  • How does inbreeding avoidance evolve in plants? (mcgill.ca)
  • To calculate the amount of inbreeding, the standard pedigree is converted to an arrow diagram, as shown in (c). (speakerdeck.com)
  • Pedigree inbreeding): F represents the probability that the offspring is homozygous due to identity by descent (ibd) at a randomly chosen autosomal locus, ranges in value from 0 (no locus ibd) to 1 (all loci ibd). (wikibooks.org)
  • Even small amounts of pedigree inbreeding in a random mating population greatly increase the incidence of some types of genetic disease. (wikibooks.org)
  • Since all pure breeds of animal trace back to a relatively limited number of foundation dogs, all pure breeding is by this definition inbreeding, although the term is not generally used to refer to matings where a common ancestor does not occur behind sire and dam in a four or five generation pedigree. (mcf.com)
  • That pedigree enabled them to monitor the rate of inbreeding among the wolves. (redorbit.com)
  • Each year, based on official animal registration and pedigree information within its database, Lactanet Canada computes current statistics related to the level of inbreeding within the Canadian cow population of each dairy breed. (cdn.ca)
  • For Milking Shorthorn, heifers born in 2019 average 2.94% inbreeding based on available pedigree data for the breed and the rate of increase has been moderate at +.09% per year for heifers born since 2010. (cdn.ca)
  • This nominal association with increased cognitive ability is counterintuitive when compared with the results from more extreme inbreeding based on pedigree information. (blogspot.com)
  • DNA tests indicate that mountain lions in the Santa Monica Mountains are inbreeding, another sign of the challenges facing the species struggling to survive in the midst of one of the nation's most densely populated urban regions. (yahoo.com)
  • Researchers in Canada have found evidence in the yellow-banded bumblebee's genome that inbreeding and disease are the likely reason for the decline of the species. (reuters.com)
  • Generations of inbreeding decrease genetic diversity, and this can be problematic for a species. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Some endangered species, which have had their mating groups reduced to very small numbers, are losing important diversity as a result of inbreeding. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Charles Darwin famously wrote about how the most robust plants are the product of crossbreeding and that plant inbreeding, or self-fertilization, often carries a risk of producing a diseased species. (npr.org)
  • Island species are often very inbred, as their isolation from the larger group on a mainland allows for natural selection to work upon their population. (bionity.com)
  • The reduced genetic diversity that results from inbreeding may mean a species may not be able to adapt to changes in environmental conditions. (bionity.com)
  • When two inbred lines of outbred species are crossed. (speakerdeck.com)
  • Researchers from Uppsala University and others have for the first time determined the full genetic consequences of intense inbreeding in a threatened species. (eurekalert.org)
  • We measured telomere lengths of blood leukocytes in several inbred and outbred mammalian species, using a telomere-specific fluorescent probe and flow cytometry. (mendeley.com)
  • We concluded that inbreeding, through unknown mechanisms, results in the elongation of telomeres, and that telomere length for a given species and/or sub-strain is genetically determined by multiple segregating loci. (mendeley.com)
  • Inbreeding may lead to a highly specialised genome, such as in the case of the cheetah - a species of cat that is heavily inbred, claimed to have been caused by a catastrophic drop in population that occurred thousands of years ago . (rationalwiki.org)
  • The difference between line-breeding and inbreeding may be defined differently for different species of animals and even for different breeds within the same species. (messybeast.com)
  • Exactly what the difference is between linebreeding and inbreeding tends to be defined differently for each species and often for each breed within the species. (mcf.com)
  • Phys.org) -Mating with relatives, or inbreeding, can be costly to both sexes, and in many species males and females avoid mating with siblings. (phys.org)
  • One section of mitochondrial DNA seems to be identical in all members of the largest known population - a sign of inbreeding that can leave a species vulnerable to extinction. (newscientist.com)
  • Together, the findings suggest that, somewhat unusually, active inbreeding is advantageous in this fish species. (underwatertimes.com)
  • Scientists have observed inbreeding in animal species in the wild. (greenanswers.com)
  • Inbreeding results in homozygosity, which can increase the chances of offspring being affected by deleterious or recessive traits. (wikipedia.org)
  • A method that has been used successfully to identify several recessive mutations in inbred groups is homozygosity mapping. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Inbreeding increases homozygosity by "fixing" a particular trait. (messybeast.com)
  • For example, in livestock breeding, breeders may use inbreeding when trying to establish a new and desirable trait in the stock and for producing distinct families within a breed, but will need to watch for undesirable characteristics in offspring, which can then be eliminated through further selective breeding or culling. (wikipedia.org)
  • Livestock breeders often practice inbreeding to "fix" desirable characteristics within a population. (bionity.com)
  • Breeders of purebred livestock have introduced a term, linebreeding, to cover the milder forms of inbreeding. (mcf.com)
  • All cat breeders know something about the dangers of inbreeding. (pawpeds.com)
  • To restore vigor to inbred lines, breeders develop two lines with similar characteristics. (cannabisculture.com)
  • Inbreeding is used by breeders of domestic animals to fix desirable genetic traits within a population or to attempt to remove deleterious traits by allowing them to manifest phenotypically from the genotypes. (greenanswers.com)
  • Other breeding schemes are acceptable provided that the inbreeding is equivalent to 20 successive generations of sib mating ( Green 1981 ). (jax.org)
  • Previous research has shown that inbreeding can weaken a population's immunity to disease across subsequent generations. (eurekalert.org)
  • A calculation based on first-cousin marriages over four generations of the two dynasties suggests that Darwin's children had a mild degree of inbreeding, measured by the chance of inheriting the same version of a gene from both parents. (nytimes.com)
  • Over time, sometimes only one or two generations, those characteristics will become homozygous (genetically uniform) and all offspring of the inbred animal will inherit the genes for those characteristics (breed true). (messybeast.com)
  • If you bought the eggs 'mother' and 'father' hatched from, you can't tell (unless they had completely different colors or similar) whether they were full siblings, possibly inbred for generations already. (backyardchickens.com)
  • The overabundance of first-generation birds suggests that the damaging genetic effects of inbreeding are strongly affecting hatching, survival and possibly reproduction of the subsequent generations," she said. (odt.co.nz)
  • I'm not really sure, but to increase the chances of having a decent bloodline, you may want to consider multiple farms for your eggs or chicks and don't be afraid to ask the 'farmer' if his/her birds have been introduced to new birds or if they have just been inbred within their flock over the generations. (backyardchickens.com)
  • In particular, a large portion of the Old Gray Guy's descendants were the result of two consecutive generations of close inbreeding. (redorbit.com)
  • If you consider the fact that you are dealing with 1024 dogs in the first 9 generations, when the same dog shows up over 100 times (like 'Sword') some caution should be used if continued inbreeding is planned! (shilohshepherds.info)
  • yeah we are all so inbred here in good ole ky,well be walking across the yard and fall over dead.It;s all in the genetics i guess. (topix.com)
  • The study, published in the latest issue of PLoS Genetics , used genome-wide patterns of genetic variation in 809 unrelated American males to explore changes in the degree of inbreeding in the North American population over the last century. (scienceblogs.com)
  • In the pre-genetics age, Bakewell used inbreeding to change the face (and husbandry) of British livestock and make the livestock more profitable. (messybeast.com)
  • Dr Helen Taylor, an expert in kiwi genetics and inbreeding, analysed a population of the little spotted kiwi on Long Island, and found poor hatching success compared to a Wellington population. (odt.co.nz)
  • Self-incompatibility," the pollen-recognition system that enables plants to avoid the inbreeding caused by self-pollination, involves a pair of tightly linked genes known as the S locus. (mcgill.ca)
  • Inbreeding may result in a far higher phenotypic expression of deleterious recessive genes within a population than would normally be expected. (bionity.com)
  • This type of isolation may result in the formation of race or even speciation, as the inbreeding first removes many deleterious genes, and allows expression of genes that allow a population to adapt to an ecosystem. (bionity.com)
  • The limited gene-pool caused by continued inbreeding means that deleterious genes become widespread and the breed loses vigour. (messybeast.com)
  • Inbreeding can thus bring these undesirable recessive genes to the surface, where they can be removed from the breeding pool. (mcf.com)
  • But remember inbreeding tends to make all genes more homozygous. (mcf.com)
  • It is easier and faster to lose genes (sometimes very desirable genes) from the breeding pool when inbreeding is practiced than when a more open breeding system is used. (mcf.com)
  • Basically, the problem with inbreeding is that it increases the risk that both male and female have the same unfavorable genes and this again increases the risk that the chicks will display these genes. (backyardchickens.com)
  • In many of the inbred wolves, researchers found many identical genes from both the parents. (thelocal.se)
  • One limitation on calculating inbreeding coefficients is the depth of pedigrees available. (edu.au)
  • Typical inbreeding coefficients for various relationships are given in Table 1. (edu.au)
  • Comparison of Inbreeding Coefficients for large and small population size. (edu.au)
  • What are the highest inbreeding coefficients I should consider? (pedigreedatabase.com)
  • If one wishes to further investigate these materials they can look up anatomy dna strands and inbreeding or incest that should pull up data. (topix.com)
  • In the case of humans, inbreeding is most commonly associated with incest . (rationalwiki.org)
  • On this definition, inbreeding at its most restrictive applies to what would be considered unquestioned incest in human beings - parent to offspring or a mating between full siblings. (mcf.com)
  • Do not just think "I am disgusted because Alan and Brenda are an inbreeding couple, and that is the way I am supposed to feel because most people are averse to incest. (frontiersin.org)
  • Researchers had long looked for signs of potential problems from inbreeding, such as poor survival rates for pups. (redorbit.com)
  • We may inbreed and rigorously remove pups with PRA or even their parents and littermates from the breeding pool. (mcf.com)
  • Researchers found that 44 per cent of meerkats showed some evidence of inbreeding, and pups that were inbred were smaller, lighter and less likely to survive than their outbred counterparts. (scotsman.com)
  • Inbred pups that get a lot of care in their first three months of life have the same survival chances as outbred pups, while inbred pups that don't receive much care usually die young. (swansea.ac.uk)
  • The inbred pups that survive because they get a lot of care become bad carers when they are older. (swansea.ac.uk)
  • The Copenhagen Zoo went ahead with a plan to shoot and dismember a healthy giraffe on Sunday and feed the 18-month-old animal's carcass to lions - an action the zoo said was in line with anti-inbreeding rules meant to ensure a healthy giraffe population. (yahoo.com)
  • LOS ANGELES (AP) - Three mountain lion kittens born last month in the Santa Monica Mountains were inbred, a wildlife expert said, marking a troubling sign for a population penned in by the urban sprawl of metropolitan Los Angeles. (yahoo.com)
  • Second, in a population where inbreeding occurs frequently, most offspring will have some deleterious traits, so few will be more fit for survival than the others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inbreeding reduces the amount of genetic diversity in a population. (edu.au)
  • The health of Colorado's bighorn sheep population remains as precarious as the steep alpine terrain the animals inhabit, but a new study led by researchers at the University of Colorado Boulder has found that inbreeding--a common hypothesis for a recent decline--likely isn't to blame. (eurekalert.org)
  • According to the research of Sennels, almost half the world's Muslim population are inbred. (newswithviews.com)
  • A new study indicates that increases in mobility, urbanisation, and cross-population mating over the last century have substantially reduced inbreeding, and left a distinctive trace in the genome of modern Americans. (scienceblogs.com)
  • This prolonged small population may have allowed evolution to purge the gorillas' genomes of the most harmful mutations tens of thousands of years ago, thus reducing the present-day genetic cost of inbreeding. (newscientist.com)
  • This has subsequently led to intense inbreeding, which is considered a long-term threat to the population. (eurekalert.org)
  • Moreover, wolves were generally more inbred than expected from recent mating between relatives in the contemporary population. (eurekalert.org)
  • Inbreeding may occur if few people have a disproportionate number of children in a community, as is common in polygamous societies and those isolated from the wider population. (rationalwiki.org)
  • Please note these researchers are British, and and Britain has a serious problem with inbreeding and their Muslim population. (gnxp.com)
  • Significant factors for pedigfree inbreeding are Factors which determine the probability that various kinds of individuals will come into contact, e.g., population demography (sex ratio, birth or death rates), individual and population dispersal patterns, spatial distributions Behavioral preferences for or against certain classes of individuals as potential mates. (wikibooks.org)
  • Comparing the CoIs of a litter you may be planning to the current breeding population is a more effective way of reducing inbreeding than by comparing it to an average of both living and historic dogs. (thekennelclub.org.uk)
  • Everyone knew that the tiny population of wolves in Norway and Sweden was inbred. (thelocal.se)
  • Inbreeding does not seem to have hurt the Scandinavian population so far, but Flagstad says there have been some effects. (thelocal.se)
  • A population of kiwi once thought to be thriving in Marlborough is being threatened by inbreeding. (odt.co.nz)
  • This panther is suffering from mange and ringworm as a result of inbreeding within the small population. (joelsartore.com)
  • The population models show that inbreeding alone was unlikely to have led to extinction (this only occurred in the smallest model population). (newswise.com)
  • In conjunction with demographic fluctuations, Allee effects plus inbreeding could have caused extinction across all population sizes modelled within the 10,000 years allotted. (newswise.com)
  • We know that the Florida panther is inbred and that the population is under 100. (pictures-of-cats.org)
  • Recently, we and others have demonstrated the use of an existing set of diverse inbred mice (referred to here as the mouse diversity panel, MDP) as a QTL mapping population. (nih.gov)
  • Below is a graph showing the inbreeding trend for the four largest dairy breeds based on registered females born in Canada since 1970 as well as a specific graph for the Holstein population alone. (cdn.ca)
  • Molecular genetic techniques now allow us to test the relationship between increased ancestral inbreeding and cognitive ability in a population of traditionally unrelated individuals. (blogspot.com)
  • Scientists studying a population of the animals in the wild - which live in groups of up to 50 individuals, where subordinate adults help parents care for their offspring - found that almost half showed some evidence of inbreeding. (scotsman.com)
  • our research shows that inbred offspring have a lower probability of survival and are more likely to die with signs of disease. (allaboutbirds.org)
  • Other adverse negative consequences of inbreeding include a 100% increase in the risk of stillbirths and a 50% increase in the possibility that a child will die during the birth process. (newswithviews.com)
  • Possible consequences of inbreeding can be seen in the children's illnesses and degree of infertility, three researchers report in the current issue of BioScience . (nytimes.com)
  • To reveal the genetic consequences of inbreeding, the whole genome of some 100 Scandinavian wolves has now been analysed. (eurekalert.org)
  • We have seen some individual consequences of inbreeding, such as dental defects, skeletal defects and sterility in some males. (thelocal.se)
  • Other consequences of inbreeding on the Hebridean islands include an increased number of infertile males. (scientificamerican.com)
  • An individual who inherits such deleterious traits is colloquially referred to as inbred. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inbreeding (i.e., breeding between closely related individuals) results in more recessive traits manifesting themselves, as the genomes of pair-mates are more similar. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inbreeding can be used as a method of artificial selection to selectively breed plants and animals with desirable traits. (rationalwiki.org)
  • Similarly, a controlled amount of inbreeding can be used to fix desirable traits in farm livestock e.g. milk yield, lean/fat ratios, rate of growth etc. (messybeast.com)
  • Inbreeding increases the chances of acquiring deleterious traits. (biology-online.org)
  • An individual that acquires deleterious traits from inbreeding is referred to as an inbred . (biology-online.org)
  • Overall, these results highlight the importance of understanding mating habits, such as inbreeding and assortative mating, when investigating the genetic architecture of complex traits such as cognitive ability. (blogspot.com)
  • As announced at Beef 2012, MateSel gives any breeder who uses BREEDPLAN the ability to aim for the maximum genetic gain in selected traits, but avoid the costly mistake of inbreeding. (farmonline.com.au)
  • Offspring of biologically related persons are subject to the possible effects of inbreeding, such as congenital birth defects. (wikipedia.org)
  • The investigator must recognize that the described ophthalmic abnormalities represent a background feature of inbred black mice in order to avoid incorrect interpretation of experiments that involve the eyes in these mice. (jax.org)
  • The presence of corneal and opacities and anterior polar cataracts in inbred C57 black mice has been known for many years (Koch and Gowen, 1939) and is easily identified with slit lamp biomicroscopy. (jax.org)
  • The cataracts found in inbred C57 black mice with microphthalmia may be characterized by minor cortical degeneration, by major involvement of the cortex and nucleus, or by extrusion of lens cortex through a dehiscence in the lens capsule. (jax.org)
  • We extended this observation to substrains of the same inbred mouse strain, that is, BALB/c mice. (hindawi.com)
  • Birth defects caused by inbreeding were rampant in royal families from Russia to Portugal and even in ancient Egypt, where the practice of sibling marriage was considered godly behavior. (ranker.com)
  • We know that the true story behind the glamorous white tigers in Chinese zoos is that they are heavily inbred causing horrible genetic defects which are kept away from the public. (pictures-of-cats.org)
  • Although some plants successfully self-fertilize (the most extreme case of inbreeding), biological mechanisms are in place in many organisms, from fungi to humans, to encourage cross-fertilization. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Early humans who lived around 34,000 years ago recognised the dangers of inbreeding and developed social and mating networks to avoid it, new research has found. (sooperarticles.com)
  • RAZ: Now, I understand that Darwin's work with plants made him suspicious about the effects of inbreeding in humans, is that right? (npr.org)
  • Re: I know that inbreeding causes deformation, but with humans. (madsci.org)
  • In humans, while inbreeding is acceptable in few certain cultures it is frowned upon largely by others and regarded as taboo. (biology-online.org)
  • Inbreeding has been found in humans and animals in captivity, which also results in deformities and disease. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • Nearly thirty gray wolves living on an island chain in northwestern Lake Superior have backbone malformations as a result of genetic inbreeding, presenting yet another hurdle for the wolves' long-term survival, wildlife experts say. (redorbit.com)
  • MEERKATS do not live a simple life, a study suggests, as many of the furry desert animals are inbred, which affects their chances of survival. (scotsman.com)
  • The effects of inbreeding are quite negative for the animals that engage in it (poor health of newborns, low survival rates) so it is not often observed (and thus it has been difficult to demonstrate the negative effects) in the wild, but it has been done. (greenanswers.com)
  • Inbreeding in plants also occurs naturally in the form of self-pollination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inbreeding creates a less varied genome, reducing the chances that a genetic variation among test subjects could skew their results. (rationalwiki.org)
  • What are the chances of inbreeding? (thenakedscientists.com)
  • A: Inbreeding is unethical because of the high chances of birth defects. (biology-online.org)
  • According to Vucetich, inbreeding is just one of many reasons the wolves will always be living on the edge, one disaster away from extinction. (redorbit.com)
  • A surprising discovery was that also some immigrant wolves were partly inbred, and related. (eurekalert.org)
  • However, for stochastic reasons, some wolves were found to be a bit more, and others a bit less, inbred than estimated from pedigrees. (eurekalert.org)
  • Swedish, Norwegian and American researchers have now joined forces to conduct a detailed genetic study to see exactly how inbred the Scandinavian wolves are. (thelocal.se)
  • Some animals (such as wolves, lions & elephants) prevent the chance of inbreeding by chasing off the young males as they near maturity, though this may not prevent the chance of the father breeding with the daughter. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • The poor condition of wolf predation on Isle Royale appears to be caused by inbreeding," said John Vucetich , director of Michigan Tech's study of the wolves and moose of Isle Royale . (redorbit.com)
  • This represents a very high standard of evidence that Isle Royale wolves had been suffering from inbreeding prior to the immigrant's arrival," says Vucetich. (redorbit.com)
  • The level of inbreeding is simply how closely related these relatives are across the sire and dam lines. (edu.au)
  • Inbreeding is breeding between close relatives, whether plant or animal. (bionity.com)
  • Explicit expressions, with linkage, were developed for all relatives of self-fertilization, for selfed and outbred relatives and for full and half sibs from unrelated inbred parents. (genetics.org)
  • The relative effect of linkage on the two-locus coancestry decreases rapidly as inbreeding and relatedness of the relatives increase. (genetics.org)
  • Inbreeding: refers to (preferential) mating between biological relatives. (wikibooks.org)
  • Inbreeding occurs when puppies are produced from two related dogs, i.e. dogs with relatives in common. (thekennelclub.org.uk)
  • The 33-year-old actress recently learned that her great-great grandparents on her father's side were first cousins - and that several more of her dad's relatives practiced inbreeding! (bossip.com)
  • Peterson said that spinal malformation due to inbreeding poses no immediate threat of extinction. (redorbit.com)
  • After reading a recent article about inbreeding in the Hapsburgs, the European royal family that nearly bred itself into extinction, Dr. Berra wondered if Darwin had good reason to be concerned. (nytimes.com)
  • Vaesen K, Scherjon F, Hemerik L, Verpoorte A (2019) Inbreeding, Allee effects and stochasticity might be sufficient to account for Neanderthal extinction. (newswise.com)
  • However, in Figure (b) inbreeding exists because B and C have common parents (D and E), that is, they are full sibs. (speakerdeck.com)
  • Inbreeding leaves a characteristic signature in the genome: long tracts of autozygosity, meaning regions in which an individual has inherited the same sets of genetic variants from both parents. (scienceblogs.com)
  • The degree of inbreeding determined at high precision with genome analysis agreed rather well with inbreeding estimated from established pedigrees', says Hans Ellegren. (eurekalert.org)
  • Other mammals avoid this inbreeding by dispersing the females at adolescence or mating beyond the group. (earthtimes.org)
  • However, this kind of society seems to be very rare in nature, and most cooperative mammals go to some effort to avoiding inbreeding. (swansea.ac.uk)
  • Such animals are so inbred as to be genetically identical (clones! (messybeast.com)
  • I would gladly pay 100 € or more for that extended versatility (pretty sure I'm not alone), and such Inbred would still be the best deal out there for steel 29er frame. (mtbr.com)
  • C57BL/6J is a widely-used inbred strain of mouse. (jax.org)
  • This may result in inbred individuals exhibiting reduced health and fitness and lower levels of fertility. (bionity.com)
  • Inbreeding can also have an impact on the breed as a whole, e.g. reducing litter sizes and fertility. (thekennelclub.org.uk)
  • Putting together the different kinds of quantitative genetic data, it is difficult to account for the very large effects of inbreeding on fitness in Drosophila and outcrossing plants without a significant contribution from variability maintained by selection. (nih.gov)
  • Many flowering plants are able to recognize and reject their own pollen, thereby preventing inbreeding despite the plants' hermaphroditic nature. (mcgill.ca)
  • How plants avoid inbreeding, and the related topic of S locus evolution have been important research subjects for plant biologists. (mcgill.ca)
  • New research suggests Charles Darwin may have been a human example of this own theory about plants: that inbreeding has negative effects on the health of offspring. (npr.org)
  • Darwin, after discovering the lack of vigor in inbred plants, worried that first-cousin marriages like his own might have adverse genetic effects, and that his own children might be affected. (nytimes.com)
  • Plants such as alfalfa and carrot are highly intolerant of inbreeding. (speakerdeck.com)
  • The invention relates to the seeds of inbred corn line KW7U203, to the plants and plant parts of inbred corn line KW7U203 and to methods for producing a corn plant, either inbred or hybrid, by crossing the inbred line KW7U203 with itself or another corn line. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The invention further relates to methods for producing a corn plant containing in its genetic material one or more transgenes and to the transgenic plants produced by that method and to methods for producing other inbred corn lines derived from the inbred KW7U203. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The gorillas were even more inbred than they expected, roughly the equivalent of the result of a mating between great-uncle and great-niece, they found. (newscientist.com)
  • Anyway, the skull deformities were horrid and we googled it to find that it was usually the result of inbreeding, so decided we wouldn't be doing that again and hence the purchase of some new blood lines. (backyardchickens.com)
  • This result is interpreted in light of cultural feedback theory, whereby it is suggested that consanguinity could subtly influence IQ at larger scales as a result of small IQ handicaps bought about through inbreeding being amplified into much larger differences through their effect on factors that maximize IQ such as access to education and adequate nutrition. (blogspot.com)
  • One counselor even said that Aron's insanity could be the result of inbreeding. (brooklynpaper.com)
  • Accused child killer Levi Aron might be insane as a result of possible inbreeding, the lawyer of the Kensington man charged with murdering and dismembering 8-year-old Leiby Kletzky claimed this week. (brooklynpaper.com)
  • Inbreeding - the result of mating between two genetically related parents - has long been linked to genetic defects, but recent studies show that its effect might be overblown. (brooklynpaper.com)
  • Basically an Inbred 29er CroMo steel frame 18', Salsa CroMoto rigid fork, 1x9 drivetrain. (flickr.com)
  • That makes this inbreeding more likely than it might otherwise be because the young animals can't get elsewhere," he said. (yahoo.com)
  • To quantify the inbreeding caused by mating within such a small pool of animals, Aylwyn Scally , a geneticist at the University of Cambridge, and his colleagues sequenced the complete genomes of seven mountain gorillas and six of the closely related - and also endangered - eastern lowland gorillas . (newscientist.com)
  • A new meta-study performed by researchers at Stockholm University and Wageningen University & Research shows that there is little support for the view that animals should and if possible, automatically do avoid inbreeding. (wur.nl)
  • The findings settle the longstanding debate between theoretical and empirical expectations about if and when animals should avoid inbreeding. (wur.nl)
  • There are several possible explanations why animals consider inbreeding not a bad idea. (wur.nl)
  • All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation. (nih.gov)
  • Natural breedings include inbreeding by necessity, and most animals only migrate when necessary. (bionity.com)
  • Inbreeding is the mating of two organisms (often animals) that are closely related to each other, and often refers to the continued practice of this, producing inbred animals. (rationalwiki.org)
  • In genetic terminology, inbreeding is the breeding of two animals who are related to each other. (mcf.com)
  • Inbred animals have fewer surviving offspring compared with others, a study of red deer in the wild has found. (phys.org)
  • If a group of animals are missing the same gene segments, as happens in inbred lines, suddenly whole catteries or whole bloodlines can be lost to infections that would normally have little effect on a normal cat. (pawpeds.com)
  • In other other animals (such as wilderbeast) which form large herds, there may always be a chance of inbreeding. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • In other animals, inbreeding is a common mode of breeding. (biology-online.org)
  • In this way, the average level of inbreeding for animals born in the most recent complete calendar year as well as trends in the level of inbreeding over time can easily be monitored. (cdn.ca)
  • BREEDPLAN information about these two sets of animals is dumped into MateSel, and the breeder dials in how much they want to push genetic gain without running into inbreeding issues. (farmonline.com.au)
  • Guernsey heifers born in 2019 average 7.24% inbreeding and the average change since 2010 has also been slow at +.06% per year. (cdn.ca)
  • Pieces of DNA that predict lifespan are shorter in birds that are inbred - according to new research from the University of East Anglia (UEA). (phys.org)
  • Detailed analysis reveals 8.5% of cases with close inbreeding and a further 16.7 % of moderate inbreeding in the pedigrees. (earthtimes.org)
  • This is counter to the often-made assumption of unrelated and non-inbred founders when inbreeding is estimated from pedigrees. (eurekalert.org)
  • Inbreeding is the mating together of closely related cats, for example mother/son, father/daughter, sibling/sibling matings and half-sibling/half-sibling. (messybeast.com)
  • Uncle-niece, aunt-nephew, half sibling matings, and first cousin matings are called inbreeding by some people and linebreeding by others. (mcf.com)
  • The album's lyrical concept revolves around the legend of Sawney Bean, his inbred, cave-dwelling family, and their grisly practice of attacking travelers on local roads for food and profit. (metal-archives.com)
  • Examining this tree closely, you can see that there is no real relationship between the inbreeding that has gone on in this family and the incidence of the disease. (madsci.org)
  • Medically, inbreeding in a consanguineous relationship is discouraged. (biology-online.org)
  • Regarding the revelation that King Tut's mother and father were brother and sister, Pusch said, 'Inbreeding is not an advantage for biological or genetic fitness. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • But when every animal has common male and female ancestors, it means that the actual inbreeding in the genetic material can be quite a bit greater than might be expected from the family tree itself," Kardos wrote in an email. (thelocal.se)
  • In plant breeding, inbred lines are used as stocks for the creation of hybrid lines to make use of the effects of heterosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over the years, researchers have found seven mountain lions that were the products of inbreeding, Riley said. (yahoo.com)
  • I did more research into dogs inbred on Sword, and found that they too produced this! (shilohshepherds.info)
  • Inbreed is the production of offspring from the mating or breeding of individuals or organisms that are closely related genetically. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inbreeding is the production of offspring from the mating or breeding of individuals or organisms that are closely related genetically . (wikipedia.org)
  • The fitness costs were manipulated by two factors: (i) the degree of the participants' involvement in the story (themselves, a sib or an unknown individual), and (ii) the degree of relatedness between the two inbreeding people (brother/sister, uncle-aunt/niece-nephew, cousin). (frontiersin.org)
  • High levels of inbreeding can affect the health of these puppies, although it is difficult to know the exact impact it can have. (thekennelclub.org.uk)
  • In general, we do know that the higher the degree of inbreeding, the higher the risk is of the puppies developing both known and unknown inherited disorders. (thekennelclub.org.uk)
  • My records showed that the problem only came up in puppies that were inbred on him, or descended from him along with a heavy concentration of the sword bloodlines. (shilohshepherds.info)
  • Are all of their puppies-from Lucky to Patch-severely inbred? (slate.com)
  • Rare inherited genetic disorders worsened by repeated inbreeding may have brought down the powerful Spanish Habsburg dynasty, Spanish researchers said. (hindustantimes.com)
  • Inbreeding can reduce cooperation in banded mongooses according to a recent study by researchers. (swansea.ac.uk)
  • These researchers have previously identified an inbred mouse line that displays both repetitive behaviors (jumping, flipping, and weaving) and restricted behaviors (reduced exploration of the environment). (autismspeaks.org)
  • It turns out that their poor retention rates and diminished capacity to learn is a consequence of 1,400 years of inbreeding! (newswithviews.com)
  • But we see the consequence of inbreeding most clearly in the size of the family groups," Flagstad said. (thelocal.se)
  • The consequence of reduced cognitive ability from inbreeding has long been investigated, mainly restricted to cousin-cousin marriages. (blogspot.com)