Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A family of the order Rodentia containing 250 genera including the two genera Mus (MICE) and Rattus (RATS), from which the laboratory inbred strains are developed. The fifteen subfamilies are SIGMODONTINAE (New World mice and rats), CRICETINAE, Spalacinae, Myospalacinae, Lophiomyinae, ARVICOLINAE, Platacanthomyinae, Nesomyinae, Otomyinae, Rhizomyinae, GERBILLINAE, Dendromurinae, Cricetomyinae, MURINAE (Old World mice and rats), and Hydromyinae.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
The experimental study of the relationship between the genotype of an organism and its behavior. The scope includes the effects of genes on simple sensory processes to complex organization of the nervous system.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Animals that are generated from breeding two genetically dissimilar strains of the same species.
Mouse strains constructed to possess identical genotypes except for a difference at a single gene locus.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
A convulsant primarily used in experimental animals. It was formerly used to induce convulsions as a alternative to electroshock therapy.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS, containing many well-defined strains, producing leukemia in mice. Disease is commonly induced by injecting filtrates of propagable tumors into newborn mice.
Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic basis of the immune response (IMMUNITY).
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
Animals that are produced through selective breeding to eliminate genetic background differences except for a single or few specific loci. They are used to investigate the contribution of genetic background differences to PHENOTYPE.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Exocrine glands in animals which secrete scents which either repel or attract other animals, e.g. perianal glands of skunks, anal glands of weasels, musk glands of foxes, ventral glands of wood rats, and dorsal glands of peccaries.
An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Animals produced by the mating of progeny over multiple generations. The resultant strain of animals is virtually identical genotypically. Highly inbred animal lines allow the study of certain traits in a relatively pure form. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Antineoplastic agent that is also used as a veterinary anesthetic. It has also been used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. Urethane is suspected to be a carcinogen.
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.
The branch of science concerned with the means and consequences of transmission and generation of the components of biological inheritance. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
A neoplasm composed entirely of GRANULOSA CELLS, occurring mostly in the OVARY. In the adult form, it may contain some THECA CELLS. This tumor often produces ESTRADIOL and INHIBIN. The excess estrogen exposure can lead to other malignancies in women and PRECOCIOUS PUBERTY in girls. In rare cases, granulosa cell tumors have been identified in the TESTES.
Color of hair or fur.
Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
Flavoring agent and non-nutritive sweetener.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.
The only genus in the family Oryziinae, order BELONIFORMES. Oryzias are egg-layers; other fish of the same order are livebearers. Oryzias are used extensively in testing carcinogens.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The different ways GENES and their ALLELES interact during the transmission of genetic traits that effect the outcome of GENE EXPRESSION.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
A carcinogen that is often used in experimental cancer studies.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
The selection of one food over another.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The minimum concentration at which taste sensitivity to a particular substance or food can be perceived.
A collective term for muscle and ligament injuries without dislocation or fracture. A sprain is a joint injury in which some of the fibers of a supporting ligament are ruptured but the continuity of the ligament remains intact. A strain is an overstretching or overexertion of some part of the musculature.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Electrical waves in the CEREBRAL CORTEX generated by BRAIN STEM structures in response to auditory click stimuli. These are found to be abnormal in many patients with CEREBELLOPONTINE ANGLE lesions, MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, or other DEMYELINATING DISEASES.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A nitrosourea compound with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
A diet that contributes to the development and acceleration of ATHEROGENESIS.
The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."
An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.
The degree of antigenic similarity between the tissues of different individuals, which determines the acceptance or rejection of allografts.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) isolated from spontaneous leukemia in AKR strain mice.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Mice which carry mutant genes for neurologic defects or abnormalities.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Leukemia induced experimentally in animals by exposure to leukemogenic agents, such as VIRUSES; RADIATION; or by TRANSPLANTATION of leukemic tissues.
The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.
Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
Duplex DNA sequences in eukaryotic chromosomes, corresponding to the genome of a virus, that are transmitted from one cell generation to the next without causing lysis of the host. Proviruses are often associated with neoplastic cell transformation and are key features of retrovirus biology.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
Impairment of the ability to perform smoothly coordinated voluntary movements. This condition may affect the limbs, trunk, eyes, pharynx, larynx, and other structures. Ataxia may result from impaired sensory or motor function. Sensory ataxia may result from posterior column injury or PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES. Motor ataxia may be associated with CEREBELLAR DISEASES; CEREBRAL CORTEX diseases; THALAMIC DISEASES; BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; injury to the RED NUCLEUS; and other conditions.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The type species of BETARETROVIRUS commonly latent in mice. It causes mammary adenocarcinoma in a genetically susceptible strain of mice when the appropriate hormonal influences operate.
"Newly Established Low Seizure Susceptible and Seizure-Prone Inbred Strains of Mongolian Gerbil". Experimental Animals. 52 (2): ... Eleven of these animals were subsequently sent to Tumblebrook Farm in the USA, with additional animals later sent to Charles ... "Animal Health Center Vets in Valdosta, GA". Animal Health Center Vets in Valdosta, GA. Retrieved 3 June 2018. "Gerbil FAQ". ... The animal is used in science and kept as a small house pet. Their use in science dates back to the latter half of the 19th ...
Effects of Aspiculuris tetraptera and Syphacia obvelata on exploratory behaviour of an inbred mouse strain. Laboratory Animal ... Kilner, R. M., & Davies, N. B. (1999). How selfish is a cuckoo chick? Animal Behaviour 58:797-808. Sledge, M.F., Dani, F.R., ... Obligate parasitism is exhibited in a range of organisms, with examples in viruses, bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals. They ... Poulin, R. (1995) "Adaptive" changes in the behaviour of parasitized animals: A critical review. International Journal for ...
FVB is an albino, inbred laboratory mouse strain that is named after its susceptibility to Friend leukemia virus B. This strain ... Some sudden deaths are observed in younger animals, but most die at 15 months or older. Two years is a common life expectancy ... A derivative strain called sighted FVB was developed from this strain via backcrossing. The full name of this strain is FVB. ... 1991). FVB/N: an inbred mouse strain preferable for transgenic analyses. Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences, 88(6 ...
Therefore, the strains that were isolated from animals a few decades ago and went through multiple passages in eggs are less ... Parker JC, Whiteman MD, Richter CB (January 1978). "Susceptibility of inbred and outbred mouse strains to Sendai virus and ... All Sendai virus strains belong to the same serotype. The origin of many strains of SeV was described in 1978. Some strains ... Another strain is Tianjin strain, isolated in China in 2008. One of these strains was used for creation of replication ...
Several inbred strains of hamsters have been developed as animal models for human forms of dilated cardiomyopathy. The gene ... In 2014 in the United States, animal research used about 120,000 hamsters, which was 14.6% of the total research animal use ( ... of the total animal research participants in the United States covered by the Animal Welfare Act. Since 1972 the use of ... which is of interest in the study of animal behavior. Scientific studies of animal welfare concerning captive golden hamsters ...
Hyde LA, Hoplight BJ, Denenberg VH (March 1998). "Water version of the radial-arm maze: learning in three inbred strains of ... A water maze is a device used to test an animal's memory in which the alleys are filled with water, providing a motivation to ...
Digit ratio (2D:4D) and behavioral differences between inbred mouse strains. Genes, Brain & Behavior 4: 318-323. Hurd PL, ... Animal Behaviour 56: 749--753. Hurd, PL; Enquist, M. 2001. Threat display in birds. Canadian Journal of Zoology 79: 931-942. ... Animal Behaviour 70: 1155-1170. Hurd PL. 2006. Resource holding potential, subjective resource value, and game theoretical ... Many studies on both human, and non-human, animals suggest that inter-individual variation in adult aggressiveness is largely ...
... animals of a single inbred strain; isograft or syngraft). Allogeneic: The donor and recipient are of the same species (human→ ... Two layers of skin created from animal sources has been found to be useful in venous leg ulcers. Grafts can be classified by ... "Healing Animals With Fish Skins". UC Davis. September 17, 2018. Barret-Nerin, Juan; Herndon, David N. (2004). Principles and ... When grafts are taken from other animals, they are known as heterografts or xenografts. By definition, they are temporary ...
He has written books cataloguing laboratory animals, including International Index of Laboratory Animals and Inbred Strains in ... He is one of 19 members of the UK's Animal Procedures Committee, which advises the Home Secretary on matters related to animal ... Nonetheless, Festing has been criticized by the animal rights movement for his investment in companies that engage in animal ... the use of animals in medical experiments in the UK. Festing is the author of over 200 scientific papers on laboratory animal ...
... is the tendency of outbred strains to exceed both inbred parents in fitness. Selective breeding of plants and animals, ... But overdominance implies that yields on an inbred strain should decrease as inbred strains are selected for the performance of ... Inbreeding depression is the loss of fitness due to loss of genetic diversity. Inbred strains tend to be homozygous for ... It attributes the poor performance of inbred strains to loss of genetic diversity, with the strains becoming purely homozygous ...
Other factors that make the species a desirable test subject are the existence of inbred strains, ease of handling, and ... This is an upgrade over the previous animal models of other small rodents and rabbits. Cotton rats combine the best traits of ... The degree of infection may be increased by altering the co-receptors on the animal's cells, which would improve the ... Ahi, Alwynelle S. (1982). "Evidence of use of vibrissae in swimming in Sigmodon fulviventer". Animal Behaviour. 30 (4): 1203- ...
Laboratory mice typically belong to standardized inbred strains selected for the stability or clarity of specific harmful ... Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science / American Association for Laboratory Animal Science. 44 (4): 46-8. PMID ... resulting in more genetically diverse offspring and a reduction of inbreeding depression. Inbreeding depression increases ... However, animals living in the wild do not reproduce in the colder months, even though they do not hibernate.) The pups are ...
In 1999, they showed that different inbred strains of mice displayed very different pain sensitivity. Chief among these ... "Lab Animals Stressed Out by Men, Study Finds". April 29, 2014. Ohikuare, Judith (2014-04-30). "Male Scientists' Threat to the ... Responses of 11 inbred mouse strains on 12 measures of nociception". Pain. 80 (1): 67-82. doi:10.1016/s0304-3959(98)00197-3. ... "Genetic sensitivity to hot-plate nociception in DBA/2J and C57BL/6J inbred mouse strains: possible sex-specific mediation by δ2 ...
The availability of inbred and mutant mouse strains can be advantageous when examining the genetic basis of murine ... Animal models of N. brasiliensis infections can lead to a better understanding of the basic biology of the immune response and ... This worm is a widely studied parasite due to its simple lifecycle and its ability to be used in animal models. Its lifecycle ... Animal model of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis and Heligmosmoides polygyrus. Current Protocols in Immunology Chapter 19. Lisa M. ...
Like the NOD mice, BB rats are used as an animal model for Type 1 diabetes. The strain re-capitulates many of the features of ... One in Worcester, Massachusetts, has been inbred and known as BBDP/Wor and another one in Ottawa, Canada, an outbred strain ... Biobreeding rat also known as the BB or BBDP rat is an inbred laboratory rat strain that spontaneously develops autoimmune Type ...
The first inbred strain, DBA (dilute brown agouti), was developed in 1909. Among the earliest references to the use of inbred ... of the animals having mammary gland carcinomas. MMHCdb provides search tools and displays to show the tumor frequencies of ... Inbred mouse strains are the result of at least 20 generations of successive brother/sister matings which lead to a population ... Inbred strains of mice allow researchers to investigate the role that genetics plays in cancer susceptibility and treatment ...
... reproduces predominantly by self-fertilization, leading to inbred genetic strains, but the presence of ... Few individuals were found above ground over the dry summer months, but otherwise immature animals of a wide range of sizes ... In late summer and autumn many immature animals were already of adult mass. The life cycle was predominantly annual, but some ... However, in other regions of Europe where these slugs more often outcross there was evidence of hybridization between strains, ...
BALB/c mice are distributed globally and are among the most widely used inbred strains used in animal experimentation. BALB/c ... Laboratory rat Animal testing Animal testing on rodents Animal model Animal Identification Mouse models of colorectal and ... inbred mouse strain and initiated the systematic generation of inbred strains. The mouse has since been used extensively as a ... There are hundreds of established inbred, outbred, and transgenic strains. A strain, in reference to rodents, is a group in ...
Familiar albino animals include in-bred strains of laboratory animals (rats, mice and rabbits), but populations of naturally ... This means some animals may die from UV radiation due to a lack of protection. Many animals with albinism lack their protective ... Examples of pet mammals artificially selected for albinism Intentionally bred albinistic strains of some animal species are ... Animals that show iridescence include mother of pearl seashells, fish, and peacocks. These are just a few examples of animals ...
... and worms are inbred through many generations to create strains with defined characteristics. These provide animals of a known ... Animal testing, also known as animal experimentation, animal research and in vivo testing, is the use of non-human animals in ... Animals and Animal Products. Code of Federal Regulations. Vol. 1 (1 January 2008). "Animal Testing and the Law - Animal Legal ... 2004). What Animals Want: Expertise and Advocacy in Laboratory Animal Welfare Policy. "EU statistics show decline in animal ...
Inbred strains are also available, but are not as commonly used as inbred mice. Much of the genome of Rattus norvegicus has ... Like NOD mice, biobreeding rats are used as an animal model for Type 1 diabetes. The strain re-capitulates many of the features ... The biobreeding rat (a.k.a. the biobreeding diabetes-prone rat or BBDP rat) is an inbred strain that spontaneously develops ... "Rat Genome", Nature Rat Genome Database, Medical College of Wisconsin Index of Inbred Rat Strains database, Jacskson Laboratory ...
Abbie E. C. Lathrop (1868 - 1918) was a rodent fancier who bred fancy mice and inbred strains for animal models, particularly ... Lathrop began developing inbred strains around 1910. Loeb and Lathrop performed experiments at her farm and the pair authored ... his own DBA strain was probably derived from her partially inbred silver fawn mice. Karin Knorr Cetina wrote in 2009 that at ... Black 6 became the most frequently used strain of laboratory mouse. While Little patronizingly called Lathrop a "talented pet- ...
... a fully inbred strain of rats, with 100% of animals displaying the EEG and behavioral characteristics of absence seizures, ... The development of two inbred strains from the same initial colony has appeared as a very powerful tool to study the possible ... a strain of non epileptic control animals selected from the same initial breeding colony of Wistar rats and called the NEC. ... These seizures were recorded on both sides of the brain, lasted about 20 sec and occurred when the animals were quiet. ...
NCLAS also came into the limelight due to the WNIN/Ob obese rat strain which is the heaviest inbred rat model available. It has ... The National Centre for Laboratory Animal Science (to be integrated into the National Animal Resource Facility for Biomedical ... Management and Experimentation using laboratory animals in biomedical research. It started as a unit called Laboratory Animal ... Genome Valley National Animal Resource Facility for Biomedical Research Central Drugs Standard Control Organization Bhargava, ...
... human genetic data might suggest that the effect may be indirect Uteroglobin knockout mice on the inbred 129 strain appear to ... Putative functions are: Immunomodulation Progesterone binding: weak in some animals, especially weak in humans. (Note: UGB is ... The uteroglobulin knockout mice on the inbred C57Bl6 strain develop Goodpasture's syndrome like glomerulopathy due to ... However contrary to the animal model claims, ...
... animals, congenic MeSH B01. - mice, congenic MeSH B01.050.199.520 - animals, inbred strains MeSH B01.050.199.520 ... inbred strains MeSH B01.050.157.520.300 - mice, inbred a MeSH B01.050.157.520.318 - mice, inbred akr MeSH B01.050.157.520.338 ... inbred strains MeSH B01.050.157.760.080 - rats, inbred aci MeSH B01.050.157.760.090 - rats, inbred bb MeSH B01.050.157.760.110 ... inbred strains MeSH B01.050.199.520.520.300 - mice, inbred a MeSH B01.050.199.520.520.318 - mice, inbred akr MeSH B01.050. ...
... a geological term Inbred line, either of: Inbred strain or linear organisms, model organisms that are nearly genetically ... identical and are used in laboratories Products of line breeding, a technique in animal and plant agriculture and horticulture ...
Its main activity is the reproduction and maintenance of mice stocks either of inbred strains or genetically engineered mice, ... Fleming's Animal house (certified with ISO 9001) provides husbandry of animals and services to the biomedical research ... The Animal House has a capacity to house more than 20,000 mice and is currently the largest Mouse Unit in Greece in terms of ... Fleming operates its own Animal House, which can house up to 20,000 mice and has its own complete mouse histopathology unit. ...
In addition, inbred mouse strains are used in the overwhelming majority of studies, while the human population is heterogeneous ... Animal Testing Animal model BALB/c C57BL/6 Mouse models of colorectal and intestinal cancer Preclinical imaging Rat Park ... What Animals Want: Expertise and Advocacy in Laboratory Animal Welfare Policy. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195161960. ... Huntington's Disease Outreach Project for Education at Stanford Animal Model of Disease from Animal Research Organization. ...
Animals.. Male mice of parental (SM/J, A/J) strains, (SM/J × A/J)F1 mice, and 19 SMXA RI strains were obtained from The ... Recombinant inbred (RI) strains are derived by inbreeding different sets of F2 progeny from a cross between two inbred strains ... Festing MF: Origins and characteristics of inbred strains of mice. In Genetic Variants and Strains of the Laboratory Mouse. ... Belknap JK: Effect of within-strain sample size on QTL detection and mapping using recombinant inbred mouse strains. Behav ...
... and in most cases underwent extensive domestication before inbreeding. Thus, the behavioral repertoire of the … ... Many aspects of mouse behavior have been studied by using only a relatively small sample of available laboratory strains. These ... Multi-phenotype behavioral characterization of inbred strains derived from wild stocks of Mus musculus Mamm Genome. 2000 Aug;11 ... The results show great diversity of behavioral patterns between strains in contrast to less within-strain variability. We also ...
Animals * Autistic Disorder / physiopathology * Autistic Disorder / psychology* * Disease Models, Animal * Exploratory Behavior ... Five inbred strains of mice were tested, C57BL/6J, DBA/2J, FVB/NJ, A/J and B6129PF2/J hybrids. Four strains showed significant ... Sociability and preference for social novelty in five inbred strains: an approach to assess autistic-like behavior in mice ... The exception was A/J, a strain that demonstrated a preference for the central chamber. Results are discussed in terms of ...
N = 16-18 animals per sex/strain. The lowest density is given a value of 1.0 and all other densities are relative to that. Mean ... Effects of housing density in five inbred strains of mice.. Morgan JL1, Svenson KL1, Lake JP1, Zhang W1, Stearns TM1, Marion MA ... N = 16-18 animals per sex/strain. The lowest density is given a value of 1.0 and all other densities are relative to that. Mean ... N = 16-18 animals per sex/strain. The lowest density is given a value of 1.0 and all other densities are relative to that. Mean ...
T2 - Genetic variation in theophylline-inducible colonic chloride currents among inbred strains of mice ... Genetic variation in theophylline-inducible colonic chloride currents among inbred strains of mice. ... from various inbred strains of mice. We found lower theophylline-induced Cl- secretion in the DBA 2J than in the C57BL 6J ... from various inbred strains of mice. We found lower theophylline-induced Cl- secretion in the DBA 2J than in the C57BL 6J ...
This diallel had no inbred animals. Posterior distributions for parameters relating to inbreeding (collected in the rightmost ... "inbreed.overall"; B) and strain-specific effects of additive genetics ("additive"; a), inbreeding ("inbreed"; b), and parent-of ... implies that the inbred penalty is constant across strains. Modeling heterosis, either as an inbred or a dominance effect, ... If we considered mother strain j and father strain k to be independent draws from a pool of J strains, and gender of the ...
Inbred strains (also called inbred lines, or rarely for animals linear animals) are individuals of a particular species which ... Such strains are useful in the analysis of variance within an inbred strain or between inbred strains because any differences ... Thus outbred strains of most laboratory animals are also available, where an outbred strain is a strain of an organism that is ... "History of inbred strains". Retrieved 2017-11-30. Dixon LK (1993). "Use of recombinant inbred strains to map ...
Chemical clues to the earliest animal fossils. *. Working Life. Afraid to fail? Reach out ... Hemoglobin Solubility and α-Chain Structure in Crosses between Two Inbred Mouse Strains ... Hemoglobin Solubility and α-Chain Structure in Crosses between Two Inbred Mouse Strains ... Hemoglobin Solubility and α-Chain Structure in Crosses between Two Inbred Mouse Strains ...
All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation. ... Inbred Strains" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Mice, Inbred Strains" was a major or minor topic ... "Mice, Inbred Strains" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Mice, Inbred Strains" by people in Profiles. ...
After anesthesia with ketamine/xylazine, a suspension of 2 × 103 focus forming units of the mouse-adapted IAV strain A/Puerto ... Hematological parameters have not received much attention in small animal models of infection, particularly at very early time ... Interestingly, it appears that even in the C57BL/6J strain, using approx. 10-12 animals per time point might suffice to study ... This is consistent with previous knowledge that hematological parameters may differ among inbred mouse strains [12] and lends ...
Siegmund, A. & Wotjak, C.T. (2006) Toward an animal model of posttraumatic stress disorder. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1071, 324-334.. ... Strain differences in behavioral inhibition in a Go/No-go task demonstrated using 15 inbred mouse strains. Alcohol Clin Exp Res ... Schimanski, L.A., Ali, D.W., Baker, G.B. & Nguyen, P.V. (2007) Impaired hippocampal LTP in inbred mouse strains can be rescued ... Milner, L.C. & Crabbe, J.C. (2008) Three murine anxiety models: results from multiple inbred strain comparisons. Genes Brain ...
... laboratory animal veterinarians, students, and others interested in these species. The standard reference on the pathogenesis ... Common Inbred Strains, 3. Genomic Considerations for the Pathologist, 4. Anatomic Features, 5 ... He has over 20 years of experience in laboratory animal pathology.. Dean H. Percy, DVM, MSc, PhD, Dipl. ACVP, is Professor ... He has over 40 years of experience in laboratory animal pathology.. Stephen M. Griffey, DVM, PhD, is Clinical Professor of ...
In the past 15 yr, different kinds of MPP have been established in plants and animals, such as nested association mapping ... Joint Analysis of Strain and Parent-of-Origin Effects for Recombinant Inbred Intercrosses Generated from Multiparent ... Joint Analysis of Strain and Parent-of-Origin Effects for Recombinant Inbred Intercrosses Generated from Multiparent ... Joint Analysis of Strain and Parent-of-Origin Effects for Recombinant Inbred Intercrosses Generated from Multiparent ...
Inbred Strains of Mice: SWV. SWV Inbr (Bc) 73. Albino: A,c, plus unknown dilution gene. Origin: Outbred animals from Defense ... INBRED STRAINS OF MICE. Updated 9 Apr. 1998. Michael FW Festing. MRC Toxicology Unit, Hodgkin Building,. University of ... Animal Depot, Univ. Brit. Columbia. Inbreeding started in 1959. Develops nephrogenic diabetes insipidus with a progressive and ... Hackman R. M. and Hurley L. S. (1983) Interaction of dietary zinc, genetic strain, and acetazolamide in teratogenesis in mice. ...
Traditionally, recombinant inbred (RI) strains are formed by crossing animals of two inbred strains, followed by 20 or more ... 4. Strains Made from Multiple Inbred Strains. 4.1 Recombinant Inbred Strains. 4.2 Collaborative Cross Strains. 4.3 Mixed Inbred ... 4.3 Mixed Inbred Strains. Incipient inbred stocks or inbred strains that are derived from up to three parental strains (one of ... 3. Inbred Strains and Hybrids. 3.1 Definition 3.2 Nomenclature of Inbred Strains. 3.3 Indication of Inbreeding 3.4 Substrains. ...
Animals. Seven-week-old male inbred mice were received from the Jackson Laboratory (Bar Harbor, ME, USA) (A/J, C3H/HeJ, C57BL/ ... because the genealogy and DNA-level variation across different strains are well known. We investigated whether inbred strains ... Relationships of inbred mouse strains. (a) A phylogenetic tree based on the fraction of allelic differences across 12,473 loci ... Atchley WR, Fitch W: Genetic affinities of inbred mouse strains of uncertain origin. Mol Biol Evol. 1993, 10: 1150-1169.PubMed ...
An inbred strain of mice (e.g., BALB/C mice) or rabbits is immunized with the protein using a standard adjuvant, such as ... cancer-free animals. A control sample can also be obtained from normal tissue from the animal that has cancer or is suspected ... without removal from the animal. Typically, a "biological sample" will contain cells from the animal, but the term can also ... methods of enhancing the ability of an animals immune system to destroy cancer cells within the animal. Numerous such methods ...
Animal Models. *. Inbred and Recombinant Inbred Strains of MICE. *. Congenic Strains. *. Other Species ... ASBMR (2008) Chapter 9. Animal Models: Allelic Determinants for BMD, in Primer on the Metabolic Bone Diseases and Disorders of ...
... the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals has b... ... Genetic Monitoring of Inbred Strains of Rats. New York: Gustav ... Animal Environment, Housing, and Management: A respected resource for decades, ... Rules for the nomenclature of inbred strains. Pp.368-372 in Genetic Variants and Strains of the Laboratory Mouse, M. C. Green. ... Noise produced by animals and animal care activities is inherent in the operation of an animal facility (Pfaff and Stecker 1976 ...
Mice repository offers the greatest variety of inbred, hybrid and mutant mice in the industry, a high percentage of which are ... Active strain donation program imports hundreds of new strains annually. Unsurpassed animal health. All JAX® Mice colonies are ... The Jackson Laboratory offers the greatest variety of inbred, hybrid and mutant mice in the industry. ... Moreover, among our selected 50 most popular strains, 38 (~ 75%) are available from opportunistic pathogen-free rooms. No other ...
Germline murine immunoglobulin IGHV genes in wild-derived and classical inbred strains: a comparison. View ORCID ProfileCorey T ... Germline murine immunoglobulin IGHV genes in wild-derived and classical inbred strains: a comparison ... Germline murine immunoglobulin IGHV genes in wild-derived and classical inbred strains: a comparison ... Germline murine immunoglobulin IGHV genes in wild-derived and classical inbred strains: a comparison ...
Inbred strains Is the Subject Area "Inbred strains" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ... Animal signaling and communication Is the Subject Area "Animal signaling and communication" applicable to this article? Yes. No ... Domestic animals Is the Subject Area "Domestic animals" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ... Animal behavior Is the Subject Area "Animal behavior" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
LaboratoryAnimals, Inbred StrainsMice, Inbred StrainsMice, HairlessMice, Inbred AMice, Inbred AKRMice, Inbred BALB CMice, ... Inbred mdxMice, Inbred CBAMice, Inbred CFTRMice, Inbred DBAMice, Inbred ICRMice, Inbred MRL lprMice, Inbred NODMice, Inbred NZB ... Inbred mdxMice, Inbred CBAMice, Inbred CFTRMice, Inbred DBAMice, Inbred ICRMice, Inbred MRL lprMice, Inbred NODMice, Inbred NZB ... Inbred StrainsCollaborative Cross MiceMice, 129 StrainMice, HairlessMice, Inbred AMice, Inbred AKRMice, Inbred BALB CMice, ...
animals (inbred strains of , mice). Selecting one sex was simply one more method for removing , confounding variables, and male ...
Learn how the set of hypertensive and hypotensive strains was created and their main characteristics. ... Animal Behavior 20:10-12.. Militzer, K. And E. Wecker. 1986. Behavior associated alopecia areata in mice. Laboratory Animals 20 ... Hypertensive and hypotensive inbred strains. By G. Schlager, Professor, Genetics Program, University of Kansas and Carol C. ... Laboratory Animals 15:309-312.. Thornburg, L. P., H. D. Stowe and J. R. Pick. 1973. The pathogenesis of the alopecia due to ...
... potential applications in quantitative genomics and animal breeding". Mammalian Genome. 17 (6): 548-564. doi:10.1007/s00335-005 ... Recombinant inbred strains or lines were first developed using inbred strains of mice but are now used to study a wide range of ... In the case of a typical mouse recombinant inbred strain made by crossing maternal strain BALB/cBy (C) with paternal strain ... pairs of the F2 progeny are then mated to establish inbred strains through long-term inbreeding. Families of recombinant inbred ...
Administration, Oral; Adsorption; Animals; Calcium; Cesium Radioisotopes; Lanthanum; Male; Mice; Mice, Inbred Strains; Phytic ...
Rats, Inbred Strains. Rest. Venous Pressure*. Grant Support. ID/Acronym/Agency: //Wellcome Trust ... Animals. Animals, Newborn. Cerebrospinal Fluid / metabolism. Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure*. Dura Mater / blood supply*. Rats. ... 16484409 - Recording csf pressure with a transducer-tipped wire in an animal model of chiari i.. 239519 - Ventricular fluid ... It is concluded that drainage of CSF into the sinuses is greatly restricted in young animals.. ...
Pregnancy, Animal*. Pressoreceptors / drug effects*. Prostaglandins / metabolism. Rats. Rats, Inbred Strains. Receptors, ... Animals. Arginine Vasopressin / pharmacology. Blood Pressure / drug effects*. Captopril / pharmacology. Female. Meclofenamic ... The blunted vascular response in pregnancy was not specific for angiotensin since pregnant animals showed a similar decrease in ... prostaglandin synthesis with meclofenamate increased the pressor response to angiotensin II toward normal in pregnant animals. ...
... rat strain · Aging · Animal · Biometry · Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation · Male · Muscles · Rats · Rats, Inbred Strains ... X ray · Animal · Cell Survival · Comparative Study · Rats · Rats, Inbred Strains · Rhabdomyosarcoma · Sarcoma, Experimental · ... Animal · Antiplasmin · Comparative Study · Hydrogen-Ion Concentration · Plasmin · Rats · Rats, Inbred Strains · Support, Non-U. ... Inbred Strains · Species Specificity · Animals · Cavia · Cavia porcellus · Sus scrofa The present study was designed to compare ...
  • We found lower theophylline-induced Cl - secretion in the DBA 2J than in the C57BL 6J strain. (
  • Their F 1 showed significantly higher levels of Cl - secretion than did the C57BL 6J parental strain while colonic segments from five recombinant inbred B × D lines ranged between the C57BL 6J and F 1 values. (
  • and two laboratory strains, C57BL/6 and DBA/1. (
  • Five inbred strains of mice were tested, C57BL/6J, DBA/2J, FVB/NJ, A/J and B6129PF2/J hybrids. (
  • Percent fat increased slightly in strains 129S1/SvImJ, A/J, and DBA/2J, but did not increase in strains BALB/cByJ, and C57BL/6J. (
  • For instance, DBA/2J mice have been shown to be highly susceptible to the mouse-adapted IAV strain PR8 (A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 [H1N1]), whereas C57BL/6J mice are relatively resistant, as evidenced by less weight loss, less severe lung pathology, and a lower viral load. (
  • We find that significant changes in hematological parameters are first detected 18 h post infection (hpi) in DBA/2J and by 24 hpi in C57BL/6J mice, and are fully manifest in both strains by 48 hpi. (
  • Changes are consistently more pronounced in the more susceptible DBA/2J strain, whereas a procedure-related (mock treatment) effect, albeit mild, is observed in the C57BL/6J strain only. (
  • The first set of eight strains, the CXB family, were generated by Donald Bailey at the Jackson Laboratory from an intercross between a female BALB/cBy mouse (abbreviated C) and a male C57BL/6By mouse in the 1960s. (
  • MMP-9 and TNF levels measured in this mouse strain were notably lower than those recorded in C57BL/6 mice and did not vary among treatment groups. (
  • Previously, besides the considered Swiss Webster mice, only two inbred strains (C57Bl/6, DBA/2) were investigated for the presence of helminths in Brazil (Pinto et al. (
  • The group B was represented by the strains C57Bl/6, CBA, BALB/c and C3H/He, with 25 mice each. (
  • In the study regarding the prevalence of species, the strains C57Bl/6, C57Bl/10 and C3H/He showed high percentages (88-96%) for A. tetraptera , whereas BALB/c, DBA/2 and C3H/He presented higher prevalence (80-100%) for S . obvelata , while the prevalence of V. nana was higher (92%) in the C3H/He strain. (
  • Thus, targeted disruption of the IFN- g gene in C57BL/6 mice causes these animals, which are otherwise resistant to infection with L. major , to become highly susceptible to these organisms (15,16). (
  • FVB/N zygotes survived well after injection, and transgenic animals were obtained with efficiencies similar to the F1 zygotes and much better than the C57BL/6J zygotes. (
  • Background- Inbred mouse strains C57BL/6J (B6) and C3H/HeJ (C3H) exhibit marked differences in atherosclerosis susceptibility. (
  • A strain of mice arising from a spontaneous MUTATION (mdx) in inbred C57BL mice. (
  • I. 240 Male mice from the aggressive C57BL/I05 strain and non-aggressive A/J strain were subjected to temperatures of I8.3°C, 2I.I°C, 26.7°C, 32.2°C or 35°C for 24 hours. (
  • the offspring of pregnant strain-A females fed galactoflavin only rarely have cleft palate, whereas offspring of treated DBA- and C57BL-females have moderately low to moderately high incidences of this anomaly. (
  • For these studies, the transgene was transferred by repeated backcrossing to the atherosclerosis-susceptible C57BL/6J inbred strain. (
  • The genetic analysis of a multifactorial disease in experimental animals such as mice and rats is much more revealing than that of a similar disease in human subjects. (
  • Doses were chosen that reduced blood pressure and cardiac hypertrophy in TG(m REN 2)27 rats to values comparable to those measured in control animals. (
  • Between 1992 and 2000, 21papers 1-21 were published that used rats from inbred colonies in Melbourne and Tokyo thatwere believed to be of the Donryu (DRY) strain. (
  • These rats were thought tohave been the same strain as DRY used by Dr Tanase in early breedingexperiments in relation to blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats(SHR). (
  • Recently, Dr Tanaseindicated that the animals supplied to Melbourne and Tokyo that had beenlabeled as DRY were instead likely to be F344 rats. (
  • Rodents are members of the order Rodentia, a large group of biologically similar animals that includes rats, mice, and beavers. (
  • Two of these species, rats and mice, are the most commonly used animal models for aging research. (
  • The range of animal models used in aging research is very wide and includes very small nematode worms ( Caenorhabditis elegans ), fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster), rats, mice, dogs, monkeys, and chimpanzees. (
  • Genetic crosses involving multiple inbred lines are hugely powerful for genetic experiments, but true inbred strains of mammals are rare outside of "model" rodents such as mice and rats. (
  • Genetic (inbred) models of this disorder in rats have been used to examine mechanisms, comorbidities, and antiabsence drugs. (
  • To test this hypothesis, we used operant conditioning in male rats to determine whether outbred strains, Sprague Dawley and Long-Evans, and/or the inbred WAG/Rij strain (a rat model of heritable human absence epilepsy) could exercise voluntary control over these epileptiform events. (
  • We discovered that both inbred and outbred rats could shorten the duration of SWDs to obtain a reward. (
  • SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Our evidence that inbred and outbred rats learn to control the duration of spike-wave discharges (SWDs) suggests a voluntary behavior with maintenance of consciousness. (
  • To investigate histological similarities and differences in PV cardiomyocyte localization and distribution, we performed comparative light and electron microscopic studies on humans, rats and mice, and generated a transgenic mouse strain. (
  • In all but the most restrictive use of the term (genus Mus ), the main distinction between mice and rats is a matter of size, with relatively smaller animals, perhaps 12 centimeters (5 inches) or less, considered as mice and similarly looking animals that are larger designated as rats. (
  • they have produced strains of mice, rats, and other animals that are so inbred as to be genetically identical. (
  • Substrains should be identified by Laboratory codes, as should congenic and other strains where several different forms exist that are not otherwise distinguishable. (
  • In addition to the albino FVB/N strain, pigmented congenic strains of FVB/N are being constructed. (
  • We have mapped three loci involved in outcome to this infection and have generated mice reciprocally congenic for these loci on several strains of mouse. (
  • These congenic animals have phenotypes different from their wildtype parents. (
  • Parasitaemias are more informative than clinical outcome in differentiating between the congenic animals. (
  • In one case, a congenic animal carrying a locus predicted to encode susceptibility was much more resistant than even the "resistant" animal. (
  • Mice congenic for the lmr2 locus demonstrate a curious effect where the origin of the animal receiving the red cells modulates the effect of the red cells. (
  • Another congenic, for the char3 region on chromosome 17 displays a more resistant phenotype, despite the donor region coming from a susceptible animal. (
  • Genetic models we use include selectively bred mouse lines, panels of inbred strains, transgenic mice, knockout mice, recombinant inbred strains, and congenic strains. (
  • Because of the importance and potential power of eQTL studies in identifying regulatory networks, we analyzed gene expression patterns in different brain regions from multiple inbred mouse strains and investigated the implications for the design and analysis of eQTL studies. (
  • Learn how the original BALB/c strain separated into two major substrains (BALB/cJ and BALB/cByJ) and how to decide which one. (
  • In addition, targeted disruption of the IL-4 gene in BALB/c mice causes these animals, which are otherwise susceptible to infection with L. major , to become highly resistant to these organisms (19). (
  • However (and surprisingly), genetic disruption of the IL-4 gene of BALB/c mice can also generate animals that are as susceptible to infection with L. major as are wild-type conventional BALB/c mice (20). (
  • The reasons for this discrepancy depend on some circumstances such as infection with particular L. major sub-strains, due to the fact that IL-4 and/or IL-4 receptor signaling is not required to promote Th2 cell development and susceptibility in BALB/c mice (21). (
  • Three inbred strains with different origins were used, these were CPBs (Balb), CBA and C 57 Black. (
  • Recombinant inbred strains are now widely used in systems genetics and to study gene-environment interactions. (
  • What is the advatange of using inbred strains to study behavioral genetics? (
  • The use of two different inbred strains in the same environment can also help determine the role of genetics in a given behavior. (
  • Monozygotic and dizygotic twins are used to study human behavioral genetics rather than individual and pairs of inbred strains, respectively. (
  • In addition, the availability of major histocompatibility (MHC)-defined X . laevis animal inbred strains, gynogenetic clones, and cell lines, coupled with a powerful and continuously improving reverse genetics approach provide the basic tools for addressing fundamental questions about the ontogeny and phylogeny of the immune system [ 6 ]. (
  • Since then, studies in humans and animals have used complementary approaches to understand the genetics of alcohol use and dependence. (
  • Many aspects of mouse behavior have been studied by using only a relatively small sample of available laboratory strains. (
  • Another inherent problem in analyzing mouse behavior is that genetic diversity is limited among currently available strains. (
  • Is the Subject Area "Animal behavior" applicable to this article? (
  • Here we argue that most animal behavior is not the result of clever learning algorithms-supervised or unsupervised-but is encoded in the genome. (
  • The large size and complex behavior of nonhuman primates makes these animals especially expensive to maintain and study. (
  • Most importantly, sleep induced by PGD 2 is indistinguishable from physiological sleep as judged by electroencephalogram (EEG), electromyogram (EMG), brain temperature, locomotor activities, heart rate, and general behavior of animals ( 4 , 5 ). (
  • A hybrid between two inbred strains can be used to cancel out deleterious recessive genes resulting in an increase in the mentioned areas. (
  • Few genes exhibited a significant strain-specific expression pattern, whereas a large number of genes exhibited brain region-specific patterns. (
  • The trees based on the expression of strain-specific genes were constant across brain regions and mirrored DNA-level variation. (
  • However, the trees based on region-specific genes exhibited a different set of strain relationships, depending on the brain region. (
  • An eQTL analysis showed enrichment of cis -acting regulators among strain-specific genes, whereas brain region-specific genes appear to be mainly regulated by trans -acting elements. (
  • In addition, we were interested in localizing regulatory elements of genes with either strain- or brain region-specific expression patterns by eQTL analyses. (
  • Mice were infected with a wild-type strain of S. typhimurium, SMB500, which constitutively expresses the genes necessary for bioluminescent light production (41). (
  • This strain is as virulent as wild-type SL1344 in the mouse model and retains the bioluminescent genes in the mouse infection model (unpublished data). (
  • These animals carry no lethal genes and are extremely healthy in every way except one. (
  • This means that there are probably millions of genes, each coded for a specific antibody or cell surface receptor, in every adult animal. (
  • If both chromosomes of a cat or other animal have identical immune system gene segments, that animal has lost half of its potential antibody genes. (
  • Hyaline Arteriolosclerosis in 30 Strains of Aged Inbred Mice. (
  • In this respect, the use of strains that are derived from a variety of wild mice should provide a means to identifying novel behavioral phenotypes. (
  • The diallel originated in animal and plant breeding as an extension of the idea that, from a breeding perspective, you should judge the value of an individual by the phenotypes of its offspring ( Christie and Shattuck 1992 and references therein). (
  • Breeding of inbred strains is often towards specific phenotypes of interest such as behavioural traits like alcohol preference or physical traits like aging, or they can be selected for traits that make them easier to use in experiments like being easy to use in transgenic experiments. (
  • One of the key strengths of using inbred strains as a model is that strains are readily available for whatever study one is performing and that there are resources such as the Jackson Laboratory, and Flybase, where one can look up strains with specific phenotypes or genotypes from among inbred lines, recombinant lines, and coisogenic strains. (
  • As genotyping became progressively less expensive and more accurate the main advantage of using recombinant inbred strains and other genetic reference panels shifted to the ability to assemble massive and coherent databases on phenotypes (e.g., the GeneNetwork web service), and to use these coherent open-source data sets for large-scale collaborative research projects in predictive medicine and plant and animal research. (
  • All else being equal, the larger the family of recombinant inbred strains, the greater the power and resolution with which phenotypes can be mapped to chromosomal locations. (
  • We recently utilized the services of the OHSU transgenic core to replace a mutated gene with the common form of the same and demonstrated reversal of several methamphetamine-related phenotypes in animals with this single gene change. (
  • Inbred strains (also called inbred lines, or rarely for animals linear animals) are individuals of a particular species which are nearly identical to each other in genotype due to long inbreeding. (
  • Now in its fourth edition, Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits has become a standard text for veterinary pathologists, laboratory animal veterinarians, students, and others interested in these species. (
  • Animals should be housed with a goal of maximizing species-specific behaviors and minimizing stress-induced behaviors. (
  • The environment in which animals are maintained should be appropriate to the species, its life history, and its intended use. (
  • Expert advice might be sought for special requirements associated with the experiment or animal subject (for example, hazardous-agent use, behavioral studies, and immunocompromised animals, farm animals, and nontraditional laboratory species). (
  • Therefore, they should not be referred to by species name, but rather as laboratory mice or by use of a specific strain or stock name. (
  • In addition, some recently developed laboratory mouse strains are derived wholly from other Mus species or other subspecies, such as M. spretus ). (
  • Laboratory rat strains derive from the Rattus norvegicus species. (
  • Another species, Rattus rattus , also is used as an experimental model, but has not contributed to the common laboratory rat strains. (
  • Recent genome sequencing efforts have catalogued DNA-level variation between different species, strains, and individuals. (
  • L -gulonolactone oxidase activity differs among rodent species, among rat strains, and between sexes within rat strains (Jenness et al. (
  • As a result, for most nutrients, it is not currently possible to establish separate requirements for various stages of life for individual laboratory animal species. (
  • There are large differences in life span between some species of animals. (
  • This notion has been supported by classical experiments which established that T cell-deficient mice rapidly succumb after inoculation with any one of several species of Leishmania , and that transfer of normal T cells confers resistance to the animals (1-3). (
  • However, the order Rodentia (phylum Chordata ) contains over 2,000 species and about 30 families (Myers 2000), many of which contain some animals that may be referred to as mice. (
  • Several preference tests with different animal species show that animals often have a preference for organically grown food. (
  • A strain is inbred when it has undergone at least 20 generations of brother x sister or offspring x parent mating, at which point at least 98.6% of the loci in an individual of the strain will be homozygous, and each individual can be treated effectively as clones. (
  • Families of recombinant inbred strains numbering from 25 to 5000 are often used to map the locations of DNA sequence differences (quantitative trait loci) that contributed to differences in phenotype in model organisms. (
  • While the potential utility of recombinant inbred strains in mapping analysis of complex polygenic traits was obvious from the outset, the small number of strains only made it feasible to map quantitative traits with very large effects (quasi-Mendelian loci). (
  • Somewhat larger families of recombinant inbred strains were generated concurrently by Benjamin Taylor to map Mendelian and other major effect loci. (
  • Of the 43 markers tested, thecomparisons were informative for 17 loci, for which the cross (derived fromauthentic DRY) and the purported DRY animals were identical at 7 andnonidentical at 10. (
  • The LXS panel has a genetic structure consistent with random segregation and subsequent fixation of alleles, the expected 3-4 × map expansion, a low level of nonsyntenic association among loci, and complete independence among all 77 strains. (
  • It attributes the poor performance of inbred strains to loss of genetic diversity, with the strains becoming purely homozygous at many loci. (
  • Genetic markers of the FVB/N strain have been analyzed for 44 loci that cover 15 chromosomes and were compared with those of commonly used inbred strains. (
  • Inbred mice strains are differentially susceptible to malaria. (
  • The parental strains, SM/J and A/J, were nondiabetic, and the differences of the mean values of diabetes-related traits were small. (
  • In contrast, an impaired glucose tolerance was observed in (SM × A)F1 mice, and marked differences in diabetes-related traits were observed in 19 SMXA RI strains. (
  • Such strains are useful in the analysis of variance within an inbred strain or between inbred strains because any differences would be due to the single genetic change, or to a difference in environmental conditions between two individuals of the same strain, One of the more specific uses of Drosophila inbred strains are the use of Gal4/UAS lines in research. (
  • Hematological differences between the strains were apparent even in untreated mice. (
  • It should be borne in mind that genetic drift means that there may still be unknown genetic differences between individuals within strains. (
  • Therefore, based on the availableevidence that the purported DRY showed only minor differences from F344 andsignificant differences from authentic DRY, we conclude that the animalsdescribed as DRY in the listedpublications 1-21 were in fact inbred F344. (
  • Differences in susceptibility to infection with Fasciola hepatica between mouse strains. (
  • Heterosis is often discussed as the opposite of inbreeding depression although differences in these two concepts can be seen in evolutionary considerations such as the role of genetic variation or the effects of genetic drift in small populations on these concepts. (
  • The biological significance, the origin and the genetical causation of differences in behaviour between inbred strains of mice have been studied. (
  • A comparison of the behaviour of these strains showed the presence of differences in all aspects of the behaviour studied. (
  • Among inbred mouse strains, varying susceptibility to STZ-induced diabetes has been reported. (
  • The availability of numerous mouse strains that differ in susceptibility to atherosclerosis provides an experimental method for identifying the role of various cellular components in atherogenesis. (
  • Reference to former rules for rat strain nomenclature can be found in Committee on Rat Nomenclature (1992). (
  • Production of inbred strains means that these backgrounds can be defined and thus require nomenclature conventions. (
  • A key feature of mouse and rat nomenclature is the Laboratory Registration Code or Laboratory code, which is a code of usually three to four letters (first letter uppercase, followed by all lowercase) that identifies a particular institute, laboratory, or investigator that produced, and may hold stocks of, a mouse or rat strain. (
  • Learn the highlights of mouse strain nomenclature with this poster. (
  • Helpful hints for understanding hybrid strain nomenclature. (
  • The results show great diversity of behavioral patterns between strains in contrast to less within-strain variability. (
  • Such a test will help to establish which animal behavioral traits are most relevant to human alcoholism. (
  • 2003 ) provided evidence, by irradiation of the hippocampus, that hippocampal neurogenesis is required to achieve the behavioral effects of antidepressants in animal models. (
  • Two hundred and fifty Mus musculus (Linnaeus, 1758) inbred mice from two animal houses in the State of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil, were divided in two groups (A, B) according to their source. (
  • A recombinant inbred strain (or recombinant inbred line) is an organism with chromosomes that incorporate an essentially permanent set of recombination events between chromosomes inherited from two or more inbred strains. (
  • Chromosomes of recombinant inbred strains typically consist of alternating haplotypes of highly variable length that are inherited intact from the parental strains. (
  • In the above example, an animal with two entirely different chromosomes can make two million different antibodies, each specific for one kind of infection. (
  • An animal that has identical (homozygous) immune system chromosomes can make one million different antibodies. (
  • Although the parental inbred strains-Inbred Long-Sleep (ILS) and Inbred Short-Sleep (ISS)-were derived originally by selection from an 8-way heterogeneous stock selected for differential sensitivity to sedative effects of ethanol, the LXS panel is also segregating for many other traits. (
  • When the parents are diploid, sexed, and inbred, the diallel can characterize aggregate effects of genetic background on a phenotype, revealing effects of strain dosage, heterosis, parent of origin, epistasis, and sex-specific versions thereof. (
  • It is possible to accumulate extensive genetic and phenotype data for each member of a family of recombinant inbred strains under several different conditions (e.g., baseline environment versus stressful environment). (
  • Due to its similarity of skin anatomy and physiology, the pig appears to be a well-suited animal model for preclinical studies of skin analog transplantations. (
  • Inbred strains tend to be homozygous for recessive alleles that are mildly harmful (or produce a trait that is undesirable from the standpoint of the breeder). (
  • This mutation is X chromosome-linked and produces viable homozygous animals that lack the muscle protein DYSTROPHIN, have high serum levels of muscle ENZYMES, and possess histological lesions similar to human MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY. (
  • Moreover, there are many well-characterized inbred and knockout mouse strains available ( 18 ). (
  • Multiparent populations (MPP) have become popular resources for complex trait mapping because of their wider allelic diversity and larger population size compared with traditional two-way recombinant inbred (RI) strains. (
  • With the need for more powerful resources, multiparent populations (MPP) ( de Koning and McIntyre 2017 ), a set of inbred lines using multiple lines as founders, can overcome the limitations of traditional RI lines and have become an innovative tool for fine quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. (
  • The inheritance of longevity in animal populations such as fruit flies and mice is determined by comparing the life tables of numerous inbred populations and some of their hybrids. (
  • The longevity of sample populations has been measured for more than 40 inbred strains of mice. (
  • Autoimmunity induced by metallic ions was previously described in experimental animals and humans suffering from chronic intoxication by heavy metals. (
  • However, in stark contrast to young animals (including humans), training such networks requires enormous numbers of labeled examples, leading to the belief that animals must rely instead mainly on unsupervised learning. (
  • In situations where the research requires a living organism, and humans are not suitable, investigators must search for a suitable animal model. (
  • The total lifetime energy output per gram of tissue is about 1,200,000 calories for humans and 400,000 calories for domestic animals such as cats and dogs . (
  • Versions of all five tasks have been used in laboratory rodents and humans, but the 5-CSRT literatures consist predominantly of animal studies ( Winstanley, 2011 ). (
  • Thus, the present findings ratify those reported for these strains, as well as complement the evaluation of worm burden in the other commonly referred inbred mice. (
  • In this paper, the most commonly used animal models to study female genital tract infections with C. trachomatis will be reviewed, namely, the mouse, guinea pig, and nonhuman primate models. (
  • Mice are the most commonly used animals to study genital chlamydial infections. (
  • For minimizing the variation of glucose tolerance in each strain, all mice were fed the high-carbohydrate diet and subjected to phenotypic and genetic analyses. (
  • We present a general Bayesian model for analyzing diallel data on dioecious diploid inbred strains that cleanly decomposes the observed patterns of variation into biologically intuitive components, simultaneously models and accommodates outliers, and provides shrinkage estimates of effects that automatically incorporate uncertainty due to imbalance, missing data, and small sample size. (
  • The eight founder strains were predicted to represent ∼90% of the genetic variation presented in laboratory mice ( Threadgill and Churchill 2012 ). (
  • We believe that inbred mouse strains offer an excellent model to study the relationship between DNA-level variation and variation in gene expression patterns, because the genealogy and DNA-level variation across different strains are well known. (
  • We considered how global DNA-level variation correlates with gene expression pattern variation across five brain regions in six inbred mouse strains. (
  • This project investigates the large phenotypic variation that exists between two mouse strains derived from common ancestors. (
  • Body weight variation for the majority of animals was within +/- 20% of the sex mean. (
  • so inbred models with no genetic variation may preclude a complete understanding of the underlying genetic architecture. (
  • Variation in anti- Trichinella responsiveness in inbred strains. (
  • In genetic crosses between mouse strains with low and high solubilities of hemoglobin, solubility segregated as a Mendelian unit and appeared to be determined by the alleles controlling α-chain structure. (
  • Transgenic animals [TG(m REN 2)27] were bred, housed, and treated in the animal laboratory of Bayer AG (Wuppertal, Germany). (
  • FVB/N: an inbred mouse strain preferable for transgenic analyses. (
  • These features make the FVB/N strain advantageous to use for research with transgenic mice. (
  • The sPLA 2 transgenic mice were produced by microinjection of a 6.2-kb Hin dIII restriction fragment containing the human secretory PLA 2 gene into (B6×SJL)F2 hybrid embryos, which were transferred to strain ICR recipients and developed to term according to standard protocols. (
  • Nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, an inbred strain of type 1 diabetes [ 4 ], are extremely susceptible to β -cell destruction by STZ [ 5 ]. (
  • Two inbred rat strains have been selected: the BN/hsdCpb which is characterised by a relatively low fertility and the GK/mol, a model susceptible for the development of non-insulin dependant diabetes (diabetes type II). (
  • Some inbred strains have been bred for over 150 generations, leaving individuals in the population to be isogenic in nature. (
  • Strains can be termed inbred if they have been mated brother x sister for 20 or more consecutive generations, and individuals of the strain can be traced to a single ancestral pair at the 20th or subsequent generation. (
  • Other breeding schemes are acceptable provided that the inbreeding is equivalent to 20 successive generations of sib mating ( Green 1981 ). (
  • Thesubsequent generations of these animals were used predominantly incross-breeding studies of blood pressure, cardiac size, and intracellularcalcium. (
  • All of these new strains were inbred for at least 14 generations. (
  • Thus, we reasoned that two-way artificial selection on the magnitude of change in running capacity (ΔDIST) as a result of training across several generations would yield a contrasting animal model system and serve as unique substrate to uncover genetic features responsible for low and high responsiveness to exercise training. (
  • Inbred strains of animals are frequently used in laboratories for experiments where for the reproducibility of conclusions all the test animals should be as similar as possible. (
  • In sum, awareness of the genetic diversity of an animal colony is paramount as it allows researchers to properly replicate experiments and also to capitalize on other genetically distinct individuals to explore the genetic basis of a trait. (
  • Require authors to state whether the samples were randomized and specify method of randomization, at a minimum for all animal experiments. (
  • Require authors to state whether experimenters were blind to group assignment and outcome assessment, at a minimum for all animal experiments. (
  • However, animal experiments to verify this conclusion have not been done so far. (
  • The Jackson Laboratory offers the greatest variety of inbred, hybrid and mutant mice in the industry. (
  • The Jackson Laboratory is committed to setting quality standards in animal care and ensuring that these standards are maintained throughout all of our mouse colonies. (
  • Nagoya-Shibata-Yasuda (NSY) mice [ 9 ], an inbred strain of type 2 diabetes with moderate obesity and fatty liver, were established by selective breeding for glucose intolerance from an outbred colony, Jcl:ICR mice, from which NOD mice were also derived [ 10 ]. (
  • Selective breeding of plants and animals, including hybridization, began long before there was an understanding of underlying scientific principles. (
  • Certain combinations of alleles that can be obtained by crossing two inbred strains are advantageous in the heterozygote . (
  • Certain plants including the genetic model organism Arabidopsis thaliana naturally self-pollinate, which makes it quite easy to create inbred strains in the laboratory (other plants, including important genetic models such as maize require transfer of pollen from one flower to another). (
  • Hematological parameters have not received much attention in small animal models of infection, particularly at very early time points. (
  • The use of animal models for research is controversial. (
  • As a result, the use of appropriate animal models is essential. (
  • The quest for seizure mechanisms can provide insights into overall brain functions and consciousness, and animal models of epilepsy will continue to promote the progress of both epilepsy and neurophysiology research. (
  • In the present review, we summarize some of the most frequently used rodent animal models of TLE and other epileptic disorders, highlighting induction methods and manifestations as well as major uses and limitations. (
  • 2 , 4 , 5 Unfortunately, animal models of chronic epilepsy are not widely used because of time constraints and costs. (
  • Despite the urgency to develop and implement novel approaches capable of preventing HIV transmission, this process has been hindered by the lack of adequate small animal models for preclinical efficacy and safety testing. (
  • Animal models of spontaneous diabetes and epidemiological data in the human challenge the obligatory role of environmental factors in triggering diabetes development. (
  • Animal models also indicate that pathological modifications of the islets are required for full-blown diabetes to develop. (
  • This approach intends to add new data on the helminth parasites of laboratory mice, since these investigations have arised a great interest and also, taking into account that these hosts as experimental animal models, are widely utilized in the evaluation of several biological parameters. (
  • Animal models are indispensable for the study of C. trachomatis infections and the development and evaluation of candidate vaccines. (
  • Animal models enable to test tissue-engineered skin as w. (
  • The transient and paroxysmal appearance of SWDs with associated immobility and rhythmic facial movements has led to the belief that SWDs represent a hallmark of seizures in both inbred genetic (i.e., absence) and acquired (post-traumatic) models of epilepsy. (
  • We outline recent criticisms of animal-based research, namely that animal models are failing to predict human responses. (
  • We then examine the assumption that animal models can predict human outcomes to perturbations such as disease or drugs, even under the best of circumstances. (
  • We examine the use of animal models in light of empirical evidence comparing human outcomes to those from animal models, complexity theory, and evolutionary biology. (
  • We conclude that even if legitimate criticisms of animal models were addressed, through standardization of protocols and systematic reviews, the animal model would still fail as a predictive modality for human response to drugs and disease. (
  • Fortunately, the availability of inbred strains of mice has allowed for some testing of this hypothesis via animal models of simulated space flight. (
  • Genetic Background Categories In terms of their genetic background, Dr. Perez divided animal models into four basic categories. (
  • Animal models developed from heterogeneous stock and enriched via selection, as presented here, often generate extreme values for traits of interest and may prove more useful than current models for uncovering genetic underpinnings. (
  • Our research utilizes genetic animal models to study simple and complex addiction-related traits. (
  • The hematological response to infection may differ significantly among inbred mouse strains. (
  • This allows researchers to determine how much of a trait is genetically determined (remains the same across members of the strain) and how much is learned or environmentally influenced (can differ between members of the strain). (
  • Inbred strains have identical or nearly identical genetic information across individuals. (
  • Each animal in one of these strains is the identical twin (aside from sex) of every other animal of that strain. (
  • One of the initial motivations to use recombinant inbred strains is that expensive genotype data can be accumulated and reused - greatly simplifying mapping studies. (
  • Each strain has a single fixed genome and it is also possible to resample a given genotype multiple times in multiple environments to obtain highly accurate estimates of genetic and environmental effects and their interactions. (
  • If a group of animals are missing the same gene segments, as happens in inbred lines, suddenly whole catteries or whole bloodlines can be lost to infections that would normally have little effect on a normal cat. (
  • Mouse strain names should be registered through the Mouse Genome Database (MGD) at . (
  • Rat strain names should be registered through the Rat Genome Database (RGD) at . (
  • The only exception is that the Y chromosome and the mitochondrial genome, both of which are inherited intact from the paternal and maternal strain, respectively. (
  • Reproductive characteristics for most inbred strains of laboratory mice. (
  • The inbred FVB/N strain is characterized by vigorous reproductive performance and consistently large litters. (
  • The origins and history of recombinant inbred strains are described by Crow. (
  • Learn what is in the name of genetically engineered and mutant mouse strains. (
  • To evaluate the effect of increased mouse density in a cage, mice were housed at the density recommended by the 1996 Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals and at densities that were approximately 2, 2.6, and 3 times greater. (
  • A nutritionally balanced diet is important both for the welfare of laboratory animals and to ensure that experimental results are not biased by unintended nutritional factors. (
  • Laboratory animals require about 50 nutrients in appropriate dietary concentrations. (
  • Tables detailing the estimated minimum nutrient requirements of laboratory animals are presented in this report. (
  • Further understanding of the causes of mouse aggression could have a significant impact on a large number of laboratory animals. (
  • Increasing understanding of aggression in group-housed male mice and how to prevent it could have a large welfare impact on a significant number of laboratory animals. (
  • Inbred strains are genetically homogeneous, and the genetic and environmental components can be strictly controlled in the experimental setting. (
  • The impact of Dr. Snell's work laid the foundation for understanding how transplantation could be successful both in experimental animals. (
  • making experimental design and the choice of inbred strain paramount ( Little and Colegrave 2016 ). (
  • Streptozotocin (STZ) has been widely used to induce diabetes through pancreatic islet destruction in experimental animals [ 1 - 3 ]. (
  • Animal care and all experimental procedures were performed in strict accordance to the German and National Institutes of Health animal legislation guidelines and were approved by the local animal care committees. (
  • The fact that such a condition can be produced at will in large numbers of experimental animals is of importance, as understanding such a situation is facilitated by ability to create it and to observe its ontogenetic steps. (
  • Sperm Morphology in Two House Mouse Subspecies: Do Wild-Derived Strains and Wild Mice Tell the Same Story? (
  • Cohen, H. , Geva, A.B. , Matar, M.A. , Zohar, J. & Kaplan, Z. ( 2008 ) Post-traumatic stress behavioural responses in inbred mouse strains: can genetic predisposition explain phenotypic vulnerability? (
  • The underlying genetic factors in several polygenic model animals with type 2 diabetes have been studied by QTL mapping analysis. (
  • QTL mapping analyses in these model animals identified several QTLs that influenced glucose tolerance, blood glucose concentration, serum insulin concentration, and parameters that define glucose homeostasis. (
  • Histological examination of skin tissue in the porcine animal model after simultaneous and consecutive application of monopolar radiofrequency and targeted pressure energy. (
  • The histological features, linkage, and map position of mdx make these mice a worthy animal model of DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY. (
  • The global obesity epidemic has pushed associated liver diseases to the forefront of research, yet no existing animal model of NASH or NAFLD fully recapitulates its clinical presentation. (
  • This presents a challenge for effective study design: how do you select the most appropriate and translatable animal model for studying the pathophysiology of NASH? (
  • We initiated a large-scale bidirectional selection experiment in a genetically heterogeneous rat population (N/NIH stock, n = 152) to develop lines of low response trainers (LRT) and high response trainers (HRT) as a contrasting animal model system. (
  • In 2001, we began the development of a second animal model system for the adaptive response to aerobic exercise training. (
  • All JAX ® Mice colonies are routinely monitored to ensure their health via our JAX® Mice Animal Health Program . (
  • The Animal Health Program at JAX ensures the health of our mouse colonies by preventing the entry of pathogens and minimizing opportunities. (
  • so they may be highly inbred or show substantial genetic divergence from other colonies, even those derived from the same source. (
  • Disregard for the levels of genetic diversity in an animal colony may result in a failure to replicate results if a different colony is used to repeat an experiment, as different colonies may have fixed alternative variants. (
  • To ensure that MLNs were taken from mice still infected with wild-type S. typhimurium, we monitored the course of infection in 129sv mice using a noninvasive method that detects bacterial signal in live animals in a semi-quantitative manner, IVIS (31). (