An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.
Splitting the DNA into shorter pieces by endonucleolytic DNA CLEAVAGE at multiple sites. It includes the internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, which along with chromatin condensation, are considered to be the hallmarks of APOPTOSIS.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.
A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.
A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A member of the Bcl-2 protein family and homologous partner of C-BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN. It regulates the release of CYTOCHROME C and APOPTOSIS INDUCING FACTOR from the MITOCHONDRIA. Several isoforms of BCL2-associated X protein occur due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the mRNA for this protein.
A protein of the annexin family isolated from human PLACENTA and other tissues. It inhibits cytosolic PHOSPHOLIPASE A2, and displays anticoagulant activity.
A technique that labels specific sequences in whole chromosomes by in situ DNA chain elongation or PCR (polymerase chain reaction).
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Interruptions in one of the strands of the sugar-phosphate backbone of double-stranded DNA.
Poly(deoxyribonucleotide):poly(deoxyribonucleotide)ligases. Enzymes that catalyze the joining of preformed deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes during repair of a single-stranded break in duplex DNA. The class includes both EC (ATP) and EC (NAD).
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Endogenous and exogenous compounds and that either inhibit CASPASES or prevent their activation.
Quaternary ammonium analog of ethidium; an intercalating dye with a specific affinity to certain forms of DNA and, used as diiodide, to separate them in density gradients; also forms fluorescent complexes with cholinesterase which it inhibits.
A non-template-directed DNA polymerase normally found in vertebrate thymus and bone marrow. It catalyzes the elongation of oligo- or polydeoxynucleotide chains and is widely used as a tool in the differential diagnosis of acute leukemias in man. EC
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that was originally discovered on cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage, including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. It plays an important role in immune homeostasis and cell-mediated toxicity by binding to the FAS RECEPTOR and triggering APOPTOSIS.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of multiple ADP-RIBOSE groups from nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) onto protein targets, thus building up a linear or branched homopolymer of repeating ADP-ribose units i.e., POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A nucleoside that substitutes for thymidine in DNA and thus acts as an antimetabolite. It causes breaks in chromosomes and has been proposed as an antiviral and antineoplastic agent. It has been given orphan drug status for use in the treatment of primary brain tumors.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
A long pro-domain caspase that contains a caspase recruitment domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 9 is activated during cell stress by mitochondria-derived proapoptotic factors and by CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as APOPTOTIC PROTEASE-ACTIVATING FACTOR 1. It activates APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
A long pro-domain caspase that contains a death effector domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 8 plays a role in APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES. Activation of this enzyme can occur via the interaction of its N-terminal death effector domain with DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.
Glycosidic antibiotic from Streptomyces griseus used as a fluorescent stain of DNA and as an antineoplastic agent.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
A group of enzymes catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. They include members of EC 3.1.21.-, EC 3.1.22.-, EC 3.1.23.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), EC 3.1.24.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), and EC 3.1.25.-.
Transplantation between animals of different species.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.
A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.
Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Inhibitors of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES and sulfhydryl group-containing enzymes. They act as alkylating agents and are known to interfere in the translation process.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the internal bonds and thereby the formation of polynucleotides or oligonucleotides from ribo- or deoxyribonucleotide chains. EC 3.1.-.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.
A member of the bcl-2 protein family that plays a role in the regulation of APOPTOSIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the BCL2L1 mRNA and are referred to as Bcl-XS and Bcl-XL.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
Cytochromes of the c type that are found in eukaryotic MITOCHONDRIA. They serve as redox intermediates that accept electrons from MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III and transfer them to MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV.
A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
The inability of the male to effect FERTILIZATION of an OVUM after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Male sterility is permanent infertility.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The steps that generate the 3' ends of mature RNA molecules. For most mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), 3' end processing referred to as POLYADENYLATION includes the addition of POLY A.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.
Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
The B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 genes, responsible for blocking apoptosis in normal cells, and associated with follicular lymphoma when overexpressed. Overexpression results from the t(14;18) translocation. The human c-bcl-2 gene is located at 18q24 on the long arm of chromosome 18.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A surgical procedure to correct MYOPIA by CORNEAL STROMA subtraction. It involves the use of a microkeratome to make a lamellar dissection of the CORNEA creating a flap with intact CORNEAL EPITHELIUM. After the flap is lifted, the underlying midstroma is reshaped with an EXCIMER LASER and the flap is returned to its original position.
Exogenous and endogenous compounds which inhibit CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.
A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that mediates TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53-dependent CELL CYCLE arrest. p21 interacts with a range of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and associates with PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN and CASPASE 3.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
Damage to the MYOCARDIUM resulting from MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION (restoration of blood flow to ischemic areas of the HEART.) Reperfusion takes place when there is spontaneous thrombolysis, THROMBOLYTIC THERAPY, collateral flow from other coronary vascular beds, or reversal of vasospasm.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.
Specialized PHOTOTRANSDUCTION neurons in the vertebrates, such as the RETINAL ROD CELLS and the RETINAL CONE CELLS. Non-visual photoreceptor neurons have been reported in the deep brain, the PINEAL GLAND and organs of the circadian system.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
The process by which chemical compounds provide protection to cells against harmful agents.
A long pro-domain caspase that has specificity for the precursor form of INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. It plays a role in INFLAMMATION by catalytically converting the inactive forms of CYTOKINES such as interleukin-1beta to their active, secreted form. Caspase 1 is referred as interleukin-1beta converting enzyme and is frequently abbreviated ICE.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A multi-domain mitochondrial membrane protein and member of the bcl-2 Protein family. Bak protein interacts with TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53 and promotes APOPTOSIS.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
Quaternary salts derived from tetrazoles. They are used in tests to distinguish between reducing sugars and simple aldehydes, for detection of dehydrogenase in tissues, cells, and bacteria, for determination of corticosteroids, and in color photography. (From Mall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed, p455)
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
Products derived from the nonenzymatic reaction of GLUCOSE and PROTEINS in vivo that exhibit a yellow-brown pigmentation and an ability to participate in protein-protein cross-linking. These substances are involved in biological processes relating to protein turnover and it is believed that their excessive accumulation contributes to the chronic complications of DIABETES MELLITUS.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.
Circular duplex DNA isolated from viruses, bacteria and mitochondria in supercoiled or supertwisted form. This superhelical DNA is endowed with free energy. During transcription, the magnitude of RNA initiation is proportional to the DNA superhelicity.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A retrogressive pathological change in the retina, focal or generalized, caused by genetic defects, inflammation, trauma, vascular disease, or aging. Degeneration affecting predominantly the macula lutea of the retina is MACULAR DEGENERATION. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p304)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
An inducibly-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes and INFLAMMATION. It is the target of COX2 INHIBITORS.
Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
RNA, usually prepared by transcription from cloned DNA, which complements a specific mRNA or DNA and is generally used for studies of virus genes, distribution of specific RNA in tissues and cells, integration of viral DNA into genomes, transcription, etc. Whereas DNA PROBES are preferred for use at a more macroscopic level for detection of the presence of DNA/RNA from specific species or subspecies, RNA probes are preferred for genetic studies. Conventional labels for the RNA probe include radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. RNA probes may be further divided by category into plus-sense RNA probes, minus-sense RNA probes, and antisense RNA probes.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
DNA TOPOISOMERASES that catalyze ATP-independent breakage of one of the two strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strand through the break, and rejoining of the broken strand. DNA Topoisomerases, Type I enzymes reduce the topological stress in the DNA structure by relaxing the superhelical turns and knotted rings in the DNA helix.

Fas and Fas ligand interaction induces apoptosis in inflammatory myopathies: CD4+ T cells cause muscle cell injury directly in polymyositis. (1/5854)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the involvement of the Fas/Fas ligand (Fas/FasL) system in the inflammatory myopathies. METHODS: Frozen muscle sections obtained from 7 patients with polymyositis (PM), 4 patients with dermatomyositis (DM), and 3 controls were studied by immunochemistry. Apoptosis was detected by DNA electrophoresis and in situ labeling using the TUNEL method. RESULTS: Fas was detected on muscle fibers and infiltrating mononuclear cells (MNC) in 6 PM patients and 2 DM patients. FasL was expressed mainly on CD4+ T cells and some CD8+ T cells, and on macrophages surrounding Fas-positive muscles in 4 PM patients and 1 DM patient. In 3 of the 5 patients with FasL-positive MNC, the TUNEL method showed that both invaded myonuclei and MNC underwent apoptosis. Chromosomal DNA from the muscle tissue of these patients showed ladder formation. CONCLUSION: Fas/FasL is involved in muscle cell apoptosis in at least 2 of the inflammatory myopathies, PM and DM. Although CD8+-mediated cytotoxicity is thought to be the main mechanism of muscle injury in PM, our data suggest that CD4+ T cells also directly cause muscle cell damage.  (+info)

Insulin-like growth factor-1 induces Mdm2 and down-regulates p53, attenuating the myocyte renin-angiotensin system and stretch-mediated apoptosis. (2/5854)

Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 inhibits apoptosis, but its mechanism is unknown. Myocyte stretching activates p53 and p53-dependent genes, leading to the formation of angiotensin II (Ang II) and apoptosis. Therefore, this in vitro system was used to determine whether IGF-1 interfered with p53 function and the local renin-angiotensin system (RAS), decreasing stretch-induced cell death. A single dose of 200 ng/ml IGF-1 at the time of stretching decreased myocyte apoptosis 43% and 61% at 6 and 20 hours. Ang II concentration was reduced 52% at 20 hours. Additionally, p53 DNA binding to angiotensinogen (Aogen), AT1 receptor, and Bax was markedly down-regulated by IGF-1 via the induction of Mdm2 and the formation of Mdm2-p53 complexes. Concurrently, the quantity of p53, Aogen, renin, AT1 receptor, and Bax was reduced in stretched myocytes exposed to IGF-1. Conversely, Bcl-2 and the Bcl-2-to-Bax protein ratio increased. The effects of IGF-1 on cell death, Ang II synthesis, and Bax protein were the consequence of Mdm2-induced down-regulation of p53 function. In conclusion, the anti-apoptotic impact of IGF-1 on stretched myocytes was mediated by its capacity to depress p53 transcriptional activity, which limited Ang II formation and attenuated the susceptibility of myocytes to trigger their endogenous cell death pathway.  (+info)

p53- and ATM-dependent apoptosis induced by telomeres lacking TRF2. (3/5854)

Although broken chromosomes can induce apoptosis, natural chromosome ends (telomeres) do not trigger this response. It is shown that this suppression of apoptosis involves the telomeric-repeat binding factor 2 (TRF2). Inhibition of TRF2 resulted in apoptosis in a subset of mammalian cell types. The response was mediated by p53 and the ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) kinase, consistent with activation of a DNA damage checkpoint. Apoptosis was not due to rupture of dicentric chromosomes formed by end-to-end fusion, indicating that telomeres lacking TRF2 directly signal apoptosis, possibly because they resemble damaged DNA. Thus, in some cells, telomere shortening may signal cell death rather than senescence.  (+info)

2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin alters cardiovascular and craniofacial development and function in sac fry of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). (4/5854)

Hallmark signs of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) toxicity in rainbow trout sac fry, are yolk sac edema, hemorrhage, craniofacial malformation, and growth retardation culminating in mortality. Our objective was to determine the role of cardiovascular dysfunction in the development of this toxicity. An embryotoxic TCDD dose (385 pg/g egg) caused a progressive reduction in blood flow in rainbow trout sac fry manifested first and most dramatically in the 1st and 2nd branchial arches and vessels perfusing the lower jaw. Blood flow was reduced later in the infraorbital artery and occipital vein of the head as well as segmental vessels and caudal vein of the trunk. Reduced perfusion occurred last in gill branchial arteries involved with oxygen uptake and the subintestinal vein and vitelline vein involved with nutrient uptake. Although heart rate throughout sac fry development was not affected, heart size at 50 days post-fertilization (dpf) was reduced far more than body weight or length, suggesting that the progressive circulatory failure caused by TCDD is associated with reduced cardiac output. Craniofacial development was arrested near hatch, giving rise to craniofacial malformations in which the jaws and anterior nasal structures were underdeveloped. Unlike the medaka embryo, in which TCDD causes apoptosis in the medial yolk vein, endothelial cell death was not observed in rainbow trout sac fry. These findings suggest a primary role for arrested heart development and reduced perfusion of tissues with blood in the early-life stage toxicity of TCDD in trout.  (+info)

Disrupted retinal development in the embryonic belly spot and tail mutant mouse. (5/5854)

The Belly spot and tail (Bst) semidominant mutation, mapped to mouse Chromosome 16, leads to developmental defects of the eye, skeleton, and coat pigmentation. In the eye, the mutant phenotype is characterized by the presence of retinal colobomas, a paucity of retinal ganglion cells, and axon misrouting. The severity of defects in the Bst/+ retina is variable among individuals and is often asymmetric. In order to determine the role of the Bst locus during retinal morphogenesis, we searched for the earliest observable defects in the developing eye. We examined the retinas of Bst/+ and +/+ littermates from embryonic day 9.5 (E9.5) through E13.5 and measured retinal size, cell density, cell death, mitotic index, and cell birth index. We have found that development of the Bst/+ retina is notably dilatory by as early as E10.5. The affected retinas are smaller than their wildtype counterparts, and optic fissure fusion is delayed. In the mutant, there is a marked lag in the exit of retinal cells from the mitotic cycle, even though there are no observable differences in the rate of cellular proliferation or cell death between the two groups. We hypothesize that Bst regulates retinal cell differentiation and that variability of structural defects in the mutant, such as those affecting optic fissure fusion, is a reflection of the extent of developmental delay brought about by the Bst mutation.  (+info)

Pulsatile shear stress leads to DNA fragmentation in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line. (6/5854)

1. Using an in vitro model of shear stress-induced cell injury we demonstrate that application of shear to differentiated human SH-SY5Y cells leads to cell death characterized by DNA fragmentation. Controlled shear stress was applied to cells via a modified cone and plate viscometer. 2. We show that pulsatile shear stress leads to DNA fragmentation, as determined via flow cytometry of fluorescein-12-dUTP nick-end labelled cells, in 45 +/- 4 % of cells. No lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release was observed immediately after injury; however, 24 h after injury significant LDH release was observed. 3. Nitric oxide production by cells subjected to pulsatile shear increased two- to threefold over that in unsheared control cells. 4. Inhibition of protein synthesis, nitric oxide production, Ca2+ entry into cells, and pertussis toxin-sensitive G protein activation attenuated the shear stress-induced cell injury. 5. Our results show for the first time that application of pulsatile shear stress to a neuron-like cell in vitro leads to nitric oxide-dependent cell death.  (+info)

Ectopic bone morphogenetic proteins 5 and 4 in the chicken forebrain lead to cyclopia and holoprosencephaly. (7/5854)

Proper dorsal-ventral patterning in the developing central nervous system requires signals from both the dorsal and ventral portions of the neural tube. Data from multiple studies have demonstrated that bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and Sonic hedgehog protein are secreted factors that regulate dorsal and ventral specification, respectively, within the caudal neural tube. In the developing rostral central nervous system Sonic hedgehog protein also participates in ventral regionalization; however, the roles of BMPs in the developing brain are less clear. We hypothesized that BMPs also play a role in dorsal specification of the vertebrate forebrain. To test our hypothesis we implanted beads soaked in recombinant BMP5 or BMP4 into the neural tube of the chicken forebrain. Experimental embryos showed a loss of the basal telencephalon that resulted in holoprosencephaly (a single cerebral hemisphere), cyclopia (a single midline eye), and loss of ventral midline structures. In situ hybridization using a panel of probes to genes expressed in the dorsal and ventral forebrain revealed the loss of ventral markers with the maintenance of dorsal markers. Furthermore, we found that the loss of the basal telencephalon was the result of excessive cell death and not a change in cell fates. These data provide evidence that BMP signaling participates in dorsal-ventral patterning of the developing brain in vivo, and disturbances in dorsal-ventral signaling result in specific malformations of the forebrain.  (+info)

N-Methyl-D-aspartate antagonists and apoptotic cell death triggered by head trauma in developing rat brain. (8/5854)

Morbidity and mortality from head trauma is highest among children. No animal model mimicking traumatic brain injury in children has yet been established, and the mechanisms of neuronal degeneration after traumatic injury to the developing brain are not understood. In infant rats subjected to percussion head trauma, two types of brain damage could be characterized. The first type or primary damage evolved within 4 hr and occurred by an excitotoxic mechanism. The second type or secondary damage evolved within 6-24 hr and occurred by an apoptotic mechanism. Primary damage remained localized to the parietal cortex at the site of impact. Secondary damage affected distant sites such as the cingulate/retrosplenial cortex, subiculum, frontal cortex, thalamus and striatum. Secondary apoptotic damage was more severe than primary excitotoxic damage. Morphometric analysis demonstrated that the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists 3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)-propyl-1-phosphonate and dizocilpine protected against primary excitotoxic damage but increased severity of secondary apoptotic damage. 2-Sulfo-alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butyl-nitrone, a free radical scavenger, did not affect primary excitotoxic damage but mitigated apoptotic damage. These observations demonstrate that apoptosis and not excitotoxicity determine neuropathologic outcome after traumatic injury to the developing brain. Whereas free radical scavengers may prove useful in therapy of head trauma in children, N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonists should be avoided because of their propensity to increase severity of apoptotic damage.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Apoptosis in the striatum of rats following intraperitoneal injection of 3-nitropropionic acid. AU - Sato, Shuzo. AU - Gobbel, Glenn T.. AU - Honkaniemi, Jari. AU - Li, Yibing. AU - Kondo, Takeo. AU - Murakami, Kensuke. AU - Sato, Minako. AU - Copin, Jean Christophe. AU - Chan, Pak H.. PY - 1997/1/16. Y1 - 1997/1/16. N2 - The present study investigated the mechanism of cellular degeneration within the striatum following administration of the mitochondrial toxin, 3-nitropropionic (3-NP) acid. Internucleosomal fragmentation typical of apoptosis was present in the DNA of cells from the striatum of 3-NP-treated rats. DNA fragmentation was also evident in this region by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling. The data suggest that striatal cells die by apoptosis following administration of 3-NP.. AB - The present study investigated the mechanism of cellular degeneration within the striatum following administration of the mitochondrial toxin, ...
Background: Captopril is an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor with sulphydryl groups in its chemical structure. It is commonly used as an antihypertensive drug. The occurrence of pemphigus vulgaris has repeatedly been reported in patients receiving captopril. The capacity of captopril and pemphigus serum to induce acantholysis, in vivo or in vitro, has been demonstrated experimentally. Objectives: To show that captopril and pemphigus serum, acting by a biochemical and immunological mechanism, respectively, trigger apoptosis. Methods: Human keratinocyte cells were treated with 15 mmol L)1 captopril or with pemphigus serum. DNA was extracted and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labelling method was used to detect apoptosis. Results: DNA fragmentation occurred after 72 h of treatment. Increased expression of p53, c-myc and inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) mRNA were observed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the treated cells ...
Mice and primary neuronal cultures. Hq, Apaf1-/-, and Bax-/- mice were maintained and genotyped as described previously (Fortin et al., 2001; Klein et al., 2002). Cortical neurons and cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) were cultured from cortices of E15.5 mice and cerebellums of postnatal day 7 mice, respectively, as described previously (Fortin et al., 2001). Recombinant adenoviral vectors carrying human AIF or LacZ expression cassettes were prepared and used at 50 multiplicity of infection as described previously (Cregan et al., 2002).. Camptothecin treatment and cell viability assays. Neurons were treated with 10 μm camptothecin with or without 10 μm Boc-aspartyl (Ome)-fluoromethylketone (BAF) (Enzyme System Products, Livermore, CA) after 2 d in vitro (DIV). Cell survival was measured by the following: live/dead staining (Molecular Probes, Eugene, OR), Hoechst staining, MTT assay (Cell Titer kit; Promega, Madison, WI), terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotinylated UTP nick end ...
Methods and Findings: Studies were performed using wild type (WT) and A2 knockout (A2-/-) mice exposed to Oxygen Induced Retinopathy (OIR). Neuronal injury and apoptosis were assessed using immunohistochemistry, TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end) labeling and Western blotting. Electroretinography (ERG) was used to assess retinal function. Neuro-glial injury in WT ROP mice was evident by TUNEL labeling, retinal thinning, decreases in number of rod bipolar cells and glial cell activation as compared with room air controls. Significant reduction in numbers of TUNEL positive cells, inhibition of retinal thinning, preservation of the rod bipolar cells and prevention of glial activation were observed in the A2-/- retinas. Retinal function was markedly impaired in the WT OIR mice as shown by decreases in amplitude of the b-wave of the ERG. This defect was significantly reduced in A2-/- mice. Levels of the pro-apoptotic proteins p53, cleaved caspase 9, cytochrome C and the ...
HOTAIR was known to enhance radioresistance in several cancers. However, the function of HOTAIR on radioresistance involving the regulation of HIF-1α in cervical cancer has not been reported. BALB/c nude mice were injected subcutaneously with HeLa cells and irradiated by X-ray. The tumor volume was measured and the expression of HOTAIR in tumors was detected by quantitative real-time PCR. Western blot was performed to detect the protein level of HIF-1α. MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl) 22,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay was used to examine the cell viability and cell apoptosis of HeLa cells and C33A cells exposed to radiation. Radiotherapy inhibited the tumor growth in mice bearing HeLa cells. Radiotherapy reduced the expression of HOTAIR and HIF-1α in tumor tissues and HeLa cells or C33A cells. HOTAIR overexpression abrogated the effect of radiation on the cell viability and cell apoptosis of HeLa and C33A cells
Critically ill patients are at higher risk having acute lung injury (ALI) and more often in need of parenteral nutrition. We sought to study whether preconditioning with representative of lipid emulsions for one week could benefit rats from ALI. Using a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI rat model and techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining. PGE2 production in the serum was highest in the LPS group, followed with Intralipid group, and the PGE2 level of these two groups was significantly (P | 0.05) higher than the rest. Intralipid conditioning caused significantly less production of LTB4 than the LPS, Clinoleic, or Omegaven group. In contrast to Intralipid, rats pretreated with Clinoleic or Omegaven significantly decreased their production of inflammatory mediators (IL-1 β, IL-6 and TNF-α), had less apoptosis in the lung tissues, and Omegaven greatly improved liver
To reconstruct the mechanisms for the vasoobliteration that transforms diabetic retinopathy into an ischemic retinopathy, we compared the occurrence of cell death in situ in retinal microvessels of diabetic and nondiabetic individuals. Trypsin digests and sections prepared from the retinas of seven patients (age 67 +/- 7 yr) with .9 +/- 4 yr of diabetes and eight age- and sex-matched nondiabetic controls were studied with the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) reaction which detects preferentially apoptotic DNA fragmentation. The count of total TUNEL+ nuclei was significantly greater in the microvessels of diabetic (13 +/- 12 per one-sixth of retina) than control subjects (1.3 +/- 1.4, P = 0.0016), as were the counts of TUNEL+ pericytes and endothelial cells (P , 0.006). The neural retinas from both diabetic and nondiabetic subjects were uniformly TUNEL-. Retinal microvessels of rats with short duration of experimental diabetes or galactosemia and ...
Methods 60 Sprague-Dawley rats (30 females and 30 males) were randomly divided into four groups: Control group, Heroin group, Heroin+acupuncture group, and Heroin+methadone group (n=15 each). In the latter three groups, a model of heroin addiction was established by successive increments of intramuscular heroin injections for 8 days, according to the exposure (addiction)→detoxification method. A UPR RT2 Profiler PCR array was used to screen for differentially expressed genes in the hippocampus. Apoptosis was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) staining. The protein expression levels of the following three differentially expressed genes were detected by Western blot to validate the results of the PCR array: heat shock protein (HSP)70, HSP105, and valosin-containing protein (Vcp). ...
Acute ultraviolet (UV) B exposure causes photokeratitis and induces apoptosis in corneal cells. Geranylgeranylacetone (GGA) is an acyclic polyisoprenoid that induces expression of heat shock protein (HSP)70, a soluble intracellular chaperone protein expressed in various tissues, protecting cells against stress conditions. We examined whether induction of HSP70 has therapeutic effects on UV-photokeratitis in mice. C57 BL/6 mice were divided into four groups, GGA-treated (500 mg/kg/mouse) and UVB-exposed (400 mJ/cm2), GGA-untreated UVB-exposed (400 mJ/cm2), GGA-treated (500 mg/kg/mouse) but not exposed and naive controls. Eyeballs were collected 24 h after irradiation, and corneas were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). HSP70, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and protein kinase B (Akt) expression were also evaluated. Irradiated corneal
Open in another window for ten minutes, the supernatant was put into check reagents and incubated at 95C within a drinking water shower for 40 a few minutes. 250 L of 0.4 M NaOH, the absorbance was measured at 450 nm using a microplate reader. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) Cells had been put into 500 L of frosty carbonate buffer (100 mM Na2 CO3, 50 mM NaCl with 11 pH.5) with protease inhibitors and homogenized by sonication. The cell lysate was centrifuged at 12,000 for 45 moments and the supernatant was utilized for dedication Limonin cost of caspase-3 content with the Caspase-3 ELISA kit (Abcam, Hong Kong, China) using a microplate reader. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining Cells were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde at space temp (25C) for 20 moments. After washing three times with PBS, the cells were permeabilized with 1% Triton X-100 and clogged with 3% H2O2 at space temperature for ten minutes. After three washes with PBS, TdT enzyme ...
Multiple sclerosis is one of the autoimmune diseases in the central nervous system. Multiple sclerosis occurs through multiple mechanisms, and it is also mediated in part by an apoptotic mechanism. Swimming exercise has been recommended for the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases. In the present study, we investigated the effects of swimming exercise on short-term memory in relation with apoptotic neuronal cell death in the hippocampus following induction of multiple sclerosis. For this study, step-down avoidance task, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, immunohistochemistry for caspase-3 were performed. The animal model of multiple sclerosis was made by bilateral intracerebral ventricle injection of ethidium bromide. The rats in the swimming exercise groups were forced to swim for 30 min once daily for 14 consecutive days, starting 3 days after induction of multiple sclerosis. In the present results, short-term memory was deteriorated in ...
Objectives : We investigated the effect of Haein-tang(Hairen-tang) on short-term memory and apoptosis in dentate gyrus of the gerbils with transient global ischemia. Methods : For the induction of cerebral ischemia model in mice, common carotid arteries of gerbils were occluded with aneurysm clips for 5 min. One day after operation, Haein-tang(Hairen-tang) was administrated orally injected once a day for 15 consecutive days. Gerbils were randomly divided into four group(n=10 in each group): sham-operation group, ischemia-induction group, ischemia-induction and 50 mg/kg Haein-tang(Hairen-tang)-treated group, ischemia-induction and 100 mg/kg Haein-tang(Hairen-tang)-treated group, and ischemia-induction and 200 mg/kg Haein-tang(Hairen-tang)-treated group. The effect of Haein-tang(Hairen-tang) on memory function was investigated by using step-down avoidance task. Apoptosis was confirmed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling(TUNEL) staining and immunohistochemistry ...
Bis-(2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxy-phenyl)-methane (BDDPM) is a bromophenol 1st isolated from 0. The migrated amount of HUVECs. The info proven in the graphs will be the mean SD beliefs of at least three specific tests. ** 0.01 control. 2.3. BDDPM Inhibits Vessel Sprouting in Vitro Following, we utilized spheroid capillary sprouting assay to review the result of BDDPM … Continue reading Bis-(2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxy-phenyl)-methane (BDDPM) is a bromophenol 1st isolated from 0. The migrated. ...
Widespread use of mammography in breast cancer screening has led to the identification of increasing numbers of patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). DCIS of the breast with an area of focal invasion 1 mm or less in diameter is defined as DCIS with microinvasion, DCIS-Mi. Identification of biological differences between DCIS and DCIS-Mi may aid in understanding of the nature and causes of the progression of DCIS to invasiveness. In this study, using resected breast cancer tissues, we compared pure DCIS (52 cases) and DCIS-Mi (28 cases) with regard to pathological findings of intraductal lesions, biological factors, apoptosis-related protein expression, and proliferative capacity through the use of immunohistochemistry and the TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) method. There were no differences in biological factors between DCIS and DCIS-Mi, with respect to levels of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2. The frequency of
Apoptosis is programed cell death characterized by certain cellular changes and regulated by various gene products including Bcl-2 and caspase-1. The marijuana cannabinoid, Delta9tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), has been reported to suppress in culture the proliferation of splenocytes and increase the release of IL-1 from macrophages; however, the mechanisms of these effects remain unclear. Because cannabinoids have also been reported to induce apoptosis and because the release of IL-1 and suppression of lymphoproliferation are related to apoptosis, we tested for the induction of apoptosis by THC in murine immune cell cultures. Splenocytes cultured with Con A for up to 24 hr showed evidence of DNA fragmentation determined by gel electrophoresis, terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-mediated dUTP-fluorescein nick end labeling and 3H-thymidine labeling and THC (15-30 microM) treatment increased fragmentation under these conditions. Resident peritoneal macrophages cultured with lipopolysaccharides ...
Programmed cell death (PCD) and cell type involving dying cells in the developing mouse and human fetal kidneys were investigated using the modified TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labeling (TUNEL) method in combination with immunohistochemistry. We identified many TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells mainly in the nephrogenic region in the developing mouse and human fetal kidneys. Tissue-fixed macrophages were widely distributed throughout the developing mouse and human fetal kidneys, including the nephrogenic zone. Most of the apoptotic cells in the nephrogenic zone were phagocytosed by tissue-fixed macrophages, suggesting that tissue-fixed macrophages play an important role in the process of PCD in the developing mouse kidney and human fetal kidney.
An in vitro ischemia model was established and the effect of the metabolic inhibitors cycloheximide (CHX) and actinomycin D (ActD) on apoptosis in astrocytes under ischemia studied. CHX decreased by 75% the number of cells dying after 6 hr of ischemia compared with control cultures. TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) staining of comparable cultures was reduced by 40%. ActD decreased cell death by 60% compared with controls. The number of TUNEL-positive cells was reduced by 38%. The nuclear shrinkage in TUNEL-positive astrocytes in control cultures did not occur in ActD-treated astrocytes, indicating that nuclear shrinkage and DNA fragmentation during apoptosis are two unrelated processes. Expression of bcl-2 (alpha and beta), bax, and Ice in astrocytes under similar ischemic conditions, as measured by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, indicated that ischemia down-regulated bcl-2 (alpha and beta) and bax. Ice was initially down-regulated from 0 to 4 hr, ...
The aim of the present study was to explore the anti‑cancer effects of total flavonoids (TF) on lung cancer and to investigate the underlying mechanism. The inhibitory effect of TF on the proliferation of A549 cells in vitro was measured using an MTT assay. The apoptotic rate of TF‑treated A549 cells was analyzed using flow cytometry and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase‑mediated biotinylated UTP nick end labeling. Migration and invasion assays were performed to investigate the anti‑migration effect of TF on A549 cells. Reverse‑transcription quantitative PCR was used to analyze BCL2‑like 2, BCL2, Bax, Bad, cyclooxygenase 2 (COX‑2), Wnt and β‑catenin mRNA expression levels in A549 cells. The in vivo anti‑cancer effect of TF was investigated in a subcutaneous xenograft model of lung cancer in BALB/c nude mice. The results obtained in the present study revealed that TF exerted a significant inhibitory effect on the proliferation of A549 cells in a dose‑dependent manner ( ...
FIG. 1. 804G matrix protects primary pancreatic β-cells from apoptosis. A: Cells were cultured for 48 h in medium containing either 10 or 1% FCS before identification of apoptotic (plus necrotic) cells by TUNEL. The number of TUNEL-positive cells as a percent of total was evaluated by optical microscopy. *P , 0.02 compared with pLL 10% serum; **P , 0.001 compared with pLL 1% serum. B: After 48 h of culture, cells were treated or not treated with 2 ng/ml IL-1β for 4 h. Apoptosis was measured by ELISA, and apoptotic index is the absorbance [A405 nm − A490 nm]. Results are means ± SD for n = 5 replicates from three independent experiments. *P , 0.003 relative to pLL (control). C: After 48 h of culture and treatment as described above, cells cultured on pLL were stained for 20 min with 1 mg/ml Hoechst 33342 and 1.25 mg/ml propidium iodide for 20 min at 37°C, before fixation and TUNEL analysis. Death was analyzed as described in research design and methods. □, apoptosis; ...
Reagents and cell culture. Antibodies were from the following sources: PKCι, BD PharMingen; FLAG, Sigma; BrdUrd, DakoCytomation; β-actin, p44/42 extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk), and phospho-p44/42 Erk (Thr202/Tyr204), Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.; and Pecam-1 (sc-1506) and c-IAP2 (sc-7944), Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated incorporation of biotinylated nucleotide at the 3′-OH ends of fragmented DNA of apoptotic cells was detected using the DeadEnd Colorimetric terminal deoxynucleotidyl-transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) System from Promega. ATM (Myochrysine; Taylor Pharmaceuticals), Cisplatin (Bedford Laboratories), and Gemcitabine HCl (Gemzar; Eli Lilly and Company) were diluted in PBS. Paclitaxel (IVAX Pharmaceuticals, Inc.) was diluted in Me2SO. Cells were treated with concentrations of these agents as indicated, and control cells were treated with either an equivalent volume of PBS or Me2SO equal to a final ...
QSYQ inhibited cell apoptosis in the rats with HF. a TUNEL analysis was carried out 28 days after surgery and drug treatments. Figure (a) showed that almost al
On 11/04/2005, at 7:54 PM, Edwards, R.E. wrote: > We abandoned the TUNEL method, many years ago as we felt it > gave too many false +ves, we used [email protected] staining until reliable > antibodies came along, e.g., caspase 3............ I have found others who use TUNEL staining express a similar opinion about the false positives. I would be interested to know if others too have found an excessive rate of false positives. Still the TUNEL method seems to be viewed by a great many as some sort of Gold Standard. Many find still swear by it as a very good tool. Regarding the issue of specificity - does caspase-3 also help to distinguish between apoptosis and necrosis I wonder? Toshi Akima PhD Student Centre for Transplantation and Renal Research Westmead Millenium Institute Sydney, Australia Toshi _______________________________________________ Histonet mailing list [email protected] ...
In this study we investigated the presence of placental apoptosis in pregnancies with intrauterine meconium passage. Placental tissue samples at term were obtained from 15 normal and 15 pregnancies with intrauterine meconium passage. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling method was applied to confirm apoptosis in all placental samples. The mean apoptotic ratio was significantly higher in placentas of pregnancies with intrauterine meconium passage when compared with normal ones (0.37 = 0.06% and 0.29 +/- 0.07%, respectively; p < 0.01). The mean apoptotic ratios in trophoblastic and stromal cells were significantly higher in placentas of pregnancies with intrauterine meconium passage than normal placentas (0.47 +/- 0.10% and 0.36 +/- 0.11% [p < 0.05] and 0.29 +/- 0.07% and 0.22 +/- 0.07% [p < 0.05], respectively). Increased placental apoptosis in pregnancies with intrauterine meconium passage could be a causative factor in the pathophysiology of ...
Protein and mRNA expression of Sirt1 is significantly reduced by I/R. Cardiac-specific Sirt1-/- mice exhibited a significant increase (44±5% versus 15±5%; P=0.01) in the size of myocardial infarction/area at risk. In transgenic mice with cardiac-specific overexpression of Sirt1, both myocardial infarction/area at risk (15±4% versus 36±8%; P=0.004) and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling-positive nuclei (4±3% versus 10±1%; P,0.003) were significantly reduced compared with nontransgenic mice. In Langendorff-perfused hearts, the functional recovery during reperfusion was significantly greater in transgenic mice with cardiac-specific overexpression of Sirt1 than in nontransgenic mice. Sirt1 positively regulates expression of prosurvival molecules, including manganese superoxide dismutase, thioredoxin-1, and Bcl-xL, whereas it negatively regulates the proapoptotic molecules Bax and cleaved caspase-3. The level of oxidative stress after I/R, as evaluated by ...
This study aimed to investigate the effects of juglone on the human bladder carcinoma cell lines TCC-SUB and RT-4 in monolayer and spheroid cultures. Cells were treated with juglone at 24,48, and 72 h of incubation. The activity of caspase-3 was detected in vitro using a caspase-3 colorimetric assay kit according to the manufacturers instructions. The bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling index was used to determine the cells of the synthesis phase. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling assay was used to determine the death of cells in both the monolayer and spheroid cultures. The control group had a large S-phase fraction and many of the TCC-SUB and RT-4 cells nuclei were observed to be positive for BrdU. The dead cell count was higher in the TCC-SUB and RT-4 cell lines with juglone applied than in the controls. We conclude that juglone significantly inhibits the proliferation and induces the apoptosis of TCC-SUB and RT-4 cells in vitro. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Gene therapy and neurotrophic factor treatment for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. AU - Abe, Koji. AU - Manabe, Yasuhiro. AU - Murakami, Tetsuro. PY - 2001/12/1. Y1 - 2001/12/1. N2 - Although excitotoxic and oxidative stress play important roles in spinal neuron death, the exact mechanisms are not fully understood. We examined cell damage of primary culture of 11-day-old rat spinal cord by addition of glutamate, nitric oxide (NO) or peroxynitrite (PN) with detection of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin in situ nick end labeling (TUNEL). With addition of glutamate, NOC18 (a slow NO releaser) or PN, TUNEL positive nuclei were found in spinal large motor neurons from 24 h, and the positive cell proportion greatly increased at 48 h in contrast to the vehicle. The present results suggest that both excitotoxic and oxidative stress play important role in the apoptotic pathway in cultured rat spinal neurons. To examine a possible protective effect of exogenous ...
Background: Sphingosine kinase (SphK) 1 has been reported as an important signaling node in anti-apoptotic signaling. Heparin is a pleiotropic drug that antagonizes many pathophysiological mechanisms. In this study, we evaluated if heparin prevents early brain injury (EBI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) by anti-apoptotic mechanisms including SphK1. Methods: SAH was induced by endovascular perforation in mice, which were randomly assigned to sham-operated (n = 23), SAH + vehicle (n = 36), SAH + 10U heparin pretreatment (n = 13), SAH + 30U heparin pretreatment (n = 15), SAH + 10U heparin posttreatment (n = 31), and SAH + 30U heparin posttreatment (n = 23). At 24 hours post-SAH, neurological scores, brain water content and Evans blue extravasation were evaluated. Also, the expression of SphK, phosphorylated Akt, and cleaved caspase-3 was determined by Western blotting, and cell death was examined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated uridine 5-triphosphate-biotin nick end-labeling ...
Abstract: The apical ganglion (AG) of larval caenogastropods, such as Ilyanassa obsoleta, houses a sensory organ, contains five serotonergic neurons, innervates the muscular and ciliary components of the velum, and sends neurites into a neuropil that lies atop the cerebral commissure. During metamorphosis, the AG is lost. This loss had been postulated to occur through some form of programmed cell death (PCD), but it is possible for cells within the AG to be respecified or to migrate into adjacent ganglia. Evidence from histological sections is supported by results from a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, which indicate that cells of the AG degenerate by PCD. PCD occurs after metamorphic induction by serotonin or by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity. Cellular degeneration and nuclear condensation and loss were observed within 12 h of metamorphic induction by NOS inhibition and occur before loss of the velar lobes, the ciliated tissue used ...
BACKGROUND: Less than 50% of ovarian cancers respond to paclitaxel. Effective strategies are needed to enhance paclitaxel sensitivity. METHODS: A library of silencing RNAs (siRNAs) was used to identify kinases that regulate paclitaxel sensitivity in human ovarian cancer SKOv3 cells. The effect of dasatinib, an inhibitor of Src and Abl kinases, on paclitaxel sensitivity was measured in ovarian cancer cells and HEY xenografts. The roles of p27(Kip1), Bcl-2, and Cdk1 in apoptosis induced by dasatinib and paclitaxel were assessed using a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay, siRNA knockdown of gene expression, transfection with Bcl-2 and Cdk1 expression vectors, and flow cytometry. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Src family and Abl kinases were identified as modulators of paclitaxel sensitivity in SKOv3 cells. The siRNA knockdown of Src, Fyn, or Abl1 enhanced paclitaxel-mediated growth inhibition in ovarian cancer cells compared with a control
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a warning a few years ago that pregnant women taking the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant paroxetine risk giving birth to infants with major birth defects, including heart abnormalities Now comes word that the same drug (sold as Paxil, Paxil CR, Seroxat, Pexeva, and generic paroxetine hydrochloride) carries another danger that could keep babies from being born in the first place. A new study just published in the online edition of the journal Fertility and Sterility concludes as many as fifty percent of all men taking the antidepressant could have damaged sperm and compromised fertility.. New York Presbyterian Hospital and Weill Cornell Medical Center researchers followed 35 healthy male volunteers who took paroxetine for five weeks. Then sperm samples from the men were studied using an assay called terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) to evaluate whether there were missing pieces of genetic ...
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a warning a few years ago that pregnant women taking the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant paroxetine risk giving birth to infants with major birth defects, including heart abnormalities Now comes word that the same drug (sold as Paxil, Paxil CR, Seroxat, Pexeva, and generic paroxetine hydrochloride) carries another danger that could keep babies from being born in the first place. A new study just published in the online edition of the journal Fertility and Sterility concludes as many as fifty percent of all men taking the antidepressant could have damaged sperm and compromised fertility.. New York Presbyterian Hospital and Weill Cornell Medical Center researchers followed 35 healthy male volunteers who took paroxetine for five weeks. Then sperm samples from the men were studied using an assay called terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) to evaluate whether there were missing pieces of genetic ...
Intracisternal administration of p-n-Octyphenol into neonatal rats causes hyperactivity with the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labelling(TUNEL)-positive cells in the mesencephalon where immunoreactivity for tyrosine hydroxylase is reduced by the chemical ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Acupuncture suppresses ischemia-induced increase in c-Fos expression and apoptosis in the hippocampal CA1 region in gerbils. AU - Jang, Mi-Hyeon D. AU - Shin, Min Chul. AU - Lee, Taeck Hyun. AU - Lim, Baek Vin. AU - Shin, Mal Soon. AU - Min, Byung Il. AU - Kim, Hong. AU - Cho, Sonhae. AU - Kim, Ee Hwa. AU - Kim, Chang Ju. PY - 2003/8/14. Y1 - 2003/8/14. N2 - Acupuncture has been used for the enhancement of functional recovery from various disorders including stroke. In the present study, the effects of acupuncture on the c-Fos expression and apoptosis in the hippocampal CA1 region of gerbils following transient global ischemia were investigated via immunohistochemistry for c-Fos and caspase-3 and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Enhanced Fos, TUNEL, and caspase-3 positivities were detected in the hippocampal CA1 region in the ischemic gerbils. Acupunctural treatment suppressed the ischemia-induced increment in the number of ...
Effect of swimming exercise on serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) expression and apoptosis in social isolation rats during old age was investigated. Rats in the old social isolation groups were housed alone per cage for 4 weeks. Rats in the swimming exercise groups were allowed to swim for 30 min once daily for 4 weeks. Morris water maze task determined spatial working memory and elevated plus maze test determined anxiety. Immunohistochemistry for tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) and 5-HT in the dorsal raphe and for doublecortin (DCX) in the hippocampal dentate gyrus was conducted. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining in the hippocampal dentate gyrus was performed. Western blot analysis for Bax, Bcl-2, and cytochrome c in the hippocampus was conducted. Social isolation in rats of old age reduced spatial working memory and increased anxiety level. Swimming exercise enhanced spatial working memory and suppressed anxiety level. Social isolation in ...
Department of Surgical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19111, USA. Prostate carcinogenesis involves transformation of zinc-accumulating normal epithelial cells to malignant cells, which do not accumulate zinc. In this study, we demonstrate by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry that physiological levels of zinc inhibit activation of nuclear factor (NF)-kappa B transcription factor in PC-3 and DU-145 human prostate cancer cells, reduce expression of NF-kappa B-controlled antiapoptotic protein c-IAP2, and activate c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinases. Preincubation of PC-3 cells with physiological concentrations of zinc sensitized tumor cells to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and paclitaxel mediated cell death as defined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end labeling assay. These results suggest one possible mechanism for the inhibitory effect of zinc on the development and progression of prostate malignancy and might have important consequences ...
In the determination of Allylmercapto glutathione S-conjugate, S-allylmercapto-L-cysteine (SAMC), biotransformed from allyl sulfides and from naturally occurring water-soluble garlic derivatives, for its inhibition of tumorigenesis, found that SAMC inhibited tumor growth rate by 31.36% and 37.78% at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg, respectively. Apoptosis in the implanted tumor cells was manifested by apoptotic characteristics, including morphological changes of chromatin crescent, cell shrinkage and membrane blebbing. The apoptosis index of 100 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg of SAMC was 20.74 ± 2.50% and 30.61 ± 2.42%, respectively, by terminal deoxy-nucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate (dUTP) nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining, according to Anticancer activity of S-allylmercapto-L-cysteine on implanted tumor of human gastric cancer cell by Lee Y, Kim H, Lee J, Kim K.(8 ...
Background Magic nanoparticles (AgNPs) are a significant course of nanomaterial for an array of industrial and biomedical applications. laddering, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling in human being breast tumor cells GW786034 (MDA-MB-231). Outcomes The ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy outcomes demonstrated a solid resonance devoted to the top of AgNPs at 420 nm. The X-ray diffraction evaluation confirmed how the synthesized AgNPs had been single-crystalline, related with the full total consequence of transmission electron microscopy. Treatment of MDA-MB-231 breasts tumor cells with different concentrations of AgNPs (1C10 g/mL) every day and night exposed that AgNPs could inhibit cell viability and induce membrane leakage inside a dose-dependent way. Cells subjected to AgNPs showed increased reactive air hydroxyl and varieties radical creation. Furthermore, the apoptotic ramifications of AgNPs had been verified by activation of caspase ...
The detection of DNA fragmentation by the use of the TUNEL technique has become a standard technique for the detection of apoptosis in tissue sections. DNA cleavage, detected by the TUNEL technique, is the last irreversible stage of the apoptosis cascade. When the nuclear DNA is cleaved in oligonucl …
Supplementary MaterialsFIGURE S1: The schematic diagram of cytokine antibody array. in swelling at the site of SCI lesion. Immunofluorescence was used to detect the distribution of cytokines. Magnetic beads were also used to isolate cells from the site of SCI lesion. We then investigated the effect of Zinc on apoptosis after SCI by Transferase UTP Nick End Labeling (TUNEL) staining and Western Blotting. Basso Mouse Level (BMS) scores and immunofluorescence were employed to investigate neuronal apoptosis and practical recovery. We found that the administration of zinc significantly improved the manifestation of 19 cytokines in the SCI lesion. Of these, G-CSF was shown to be the most elevated cytokine and was secreted by microglia/macrophages (M/Ms) the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-B) signaling pathway after SCI. Improved levels of G-CSF in the SCI lesion reduced the level of neuronal apoptosis after SCI, thus promoting functional recovery. Collectively, our results indicate the administration of ...
To identify the physiological functions of the retinoid-related orphan receptor γ (RORγ), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, mice deficient in RORγ function were generated by targeted disruption. RORγ−/− mice lack peripheral and mesenteric lymph nodes and Peyers patches, indicating that RORγ expression is indispensable for lymph node organogenesis. Although the spleen is enlarged, its architecture is normal. The number of peripheral blood CD3+ and CD4+ lymphocytes is reduced 6- and 10-fold, respectively, whereas the number of circulating B cells is normal. The thymus of RORγ−/− mice contains 74.4% ± 8.9% fewer thymocytes than that of wild-type mice. Flow cytometric analysis showed a decrease in the CD4+CD8+ subpopulation. Terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining demonstrated a 4-fold increase in apoptotic cells in the cortex of the thymus of RORγ−/− mice. The latter was supported by the observed increase in annexin ...
Purpose : To evaluate the effects of ethanol extract of Diospyros kaki (EEDK) on dry eye in a murine model. Methods : Dry eye model was experimentally induced by topical administration of benzalkonium chloride (BAC) in a mouse. EEDK was orally administered throughout the experimental period. Tear break-up time (BUT) test, fluorescein staining, phenol red thread test, and histological analysis were performed on the ocular surface. Apoptotic cell death was tested by in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay The protein expression levels of cytokeratin-10, interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α), IL-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor- alpha (TNF-α) and monocyte chemotactic protein- 1 (MCP-1) was detected by western blotting. The cellular proliferation of corneal epithelial cells was evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Results : Oral administration of EEDK resulted in prolonged tear break-up time (BUT), decreased fluorescein score, increased tear volume, and ...
Objective: The present study examined temporal and spatial patterns of extracellular matrix and smooth muscle cell changes in the ascending aorta with bicuspid and tricuspid aortic valve stenosis. Methods: Wall specimens were retrieved from both the greater and the lesser curvature (convexity and concavity) of 14 nonaneurysmal and 12 aneurysmal aortas (aortic ratios 1.2 and 1.5, respectively) and from 3 heart donors (normal). Immunochemistry was performed for detection of apoptotic (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling [TUNEL]-positive) and proliferating(Ki-67-positive) smooth muscle cells and for semiquantification of matrix proteins (collagens, fibronectin, tenascin, laminin). Co-immunoprecipitation assessed the extent of Bcl-2-modifying factor binding to Bcl-2, indicating a matrixderived cytoskeleton-mediated proapoptotic signaling. Polymerase chain reaction allowed for quantification of messenger RNA expression for Bcl-2. Results: In both bicuspid and ...
Approach and Results-Aortic senescence strongly correlates with aortic root dilatation rate in MFS mice. However, although resveratrol inhibits aortic dilatation, it only shows a trend toward reduced aortic senescence. Resveratrol enhances nuclear localization of sirtuin-1 in the vessel wall and, in contrast to losartan, does not affect leukocyte infiltration nor activation of SMAD2 and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2. Interestingly, specific sirtuin-1 activation (SRT1720) or inhibition (sirtinol) in MFS mice does not affect aortic root dilatation rate although senescence is changed. Resveratrol reduces aortic elastin breaks and decreases micro-RNA-29b expression coinciding with enhanced antiapoptotic Bcl-2 expression and decreased number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling-positive cells. In cultured smooth muscle cells, the resveratrol effect on micro-RNA-29b downregulation is endothelial cell and nuclear factor κB dependent. ...
Orexin A (OXA) is a neuroprotective peptide that exerts protective effects on multiple physiological and pathological processes. Activation of autophagy is linked to the occurrence of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (CIRI); however, its function remains incompletely understood. In this study, OXA was sought to exert its neuroprotective role by regulating autophagy in oxygen and glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R) model and middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model of rats, and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms. Acridine orange (AO) staining was used to evaluate autophagic vacuoles. Cell viability was measured by CCK8. The levels of p-ERK1/2, t-ERK1/2, p-mTOR, LC3B, Beclin 1, and p62 were evaluated by western blotting. Apoptosis rate was detected by Hoechst 33342 staining and Terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL). OXA treatment alleviated neuronal apoptosis and significantly inhibited autophagy activity. Mechanistically, OXA ...
Purpose: Curcumin, a component of turmeric, has been shown to suppress inflammation and angiogenesis largely by inhibiting the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). This study evaluates the effects of curcumin on ovarian cancer growth using an orthotopic murine model of ovarian cancer.. Experimental Design:In vitro and in vivo experiments of curcumin with and without docetaxel were done using human ovarian cancer cell lines SKOV3ip1, HeyA8, and HeyA8-MDR in athymic mice. NF-κB modulation was ascertained using electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Evaluation of angiogenic cytokines, cellular proliferation (proliferating cell nuclear antigen), angiogenesis (CD31), and apoptosis (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling) was done using immunohistochemical analyses.. Results: Curcumin inhibited inducible NF-κB activation and suppressed proliferation in vitro. In vivo dose-finding experiments revealed that 500 mg/kg orally was the optimal dose needed to ...
Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) is a metabolic cartilage disease of young poultry in which endochondral bone formation is disrupted leading to the retention of a non-calcified, avascular plug of cartilage in the tibial growth plate. Chicks aged 7 days were fed either a control diet or one containing thiram 100 ppm for 48 h to induce TD. Cell multiplication in the growth plate was determined thereafter with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labelling, and metabolic changes by measuring alkaline phosphatase (ALP), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), and glutathione (GSH) activities. The effect on chondrocyte maturation was examined. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) and DNA fragmentation were used to determine the effects of thiram on cell survival. Thiram-induced TD was not due to the multiplication of cells in the post-proliferative zones. Thiram did not affect ALP activity, which would have indicated a loss of calcification potential, but it reduced both ...
PURPOSE: To characterize the reactions of retinal glial cells (astrocytes and Müller cells) to retinal injury in mice that lack glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin (GFAP-/-Vim-/-) and to determine the role of glial cells in retinal detachment (RD)-induced photoreceptor degeneration. METHODS: RD was induced by subretinal injection of sodium hyaluronate in adult wild-type (WT) and GFAP-/-Vim-/- mice. Astroglial reaction and subsequent monocyte recruitment were quantified by measuring extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) and c-fos activation and the level of expression of chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 and by counting monocytes/microglia in the detached retinas. Immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used. RD-induced photoreceptor degeneration was assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) and measurement of outer ...
Purpose: We investigated whether daily consumption of Spirulina, an antioxidant generating cyanobacterial nutritional supplement, would suppress photostress-induced retinal damage and prevent vision loss in mice. Methods: Six-week-old male BALB/cAJcl mice were allowed constant access to either a standard or Spirulina-supplemented diet (20% Spirulina) that included the antioxidants, β-carotene and zeaxanthin, and proteins for 4 weeks. Following dark adaptation, mice were exposed to 3000-lux white light for 1 hour and returned to their cages. Visual function was analyzed by electroretinogram, and retinal histology by hematoxylin and eosin staining, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated, deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay, and immunohistochemistry. Retinal expression of proteins, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and mRNAs were measured using immunoblot analysis, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein-diacetate, or ROS Brite 700 Dyes, ...
The report generally describes terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase, examines its uses, production methods, patents. TERMINAL DEOXYNUCLEOTIDYL TRANSFERASE
Video articles in JoVE about animal husbandry include A Protocol for Housing Mice in an Enriched Environment, Induction of Maternal Immune Activation in Mice at Mid-gestation Stage with Viral Mimic Poly(I:C), Zebrafish In Situ Spinal Cord Preparation for Electrophysiological Recordings from Spinal Sensory and Motor Neurons, Rodent Handling and Restraint Techniques, Sampling Strategies and Processing of Biobank Tissue Samples from Porcine Biomedical Models, Using Terminal Transferase-Mediated Dutp Nick End-Labelling (TUNEL) And Caspase 3/7 Assays to Measure Epidermal Cell Death In Frogs With Chytridiomycosis, A Simple Critical-sized Femoral Defect Model in Mice, Construction of an Affordable and Easy-to-Build Zebrafish Facility, Busulfan as a Myelosuppressive Agent for Generating Stable High-level Bone Marrow Chimerism in Mice, Environmental Modulations of the Number of Midbrain Dopamine Neurons in Adult Mice, Cefoperazone-treated Mouse Model of Clinically-relevant Clostridium
All patients receive planned chemoradiotherapy in weeks 3-8.. Quality of life, body composition (by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), weight, and resting energy expenditure (by indirect calorimetry) are assessed at baseline and at week 8.. Blood samples are collected at baseline and at 8 weeks. Samples are evaluated for cytokine levels; evidence of DNA damage from peripheral blood lymphocytes; and serum signature characteristic to ADD by multinuclear MRI spectroscopy. Patients undergo a tumor biopsy in week 4 for research studies. Samples are collected and evaluated for generation of reactive oxygen species by using antibodies against oxidatively modified DNA and lipids; apoptosis using TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assay and classical morphological criteria; and levels of the tumor toxohormones lipid mobilizing factor and proteolysis inducing factor by real time-PCR, northern blotting, and western blotting methods.. After completion of study therapy, patients are followed once during ...
Mastoparan firstly described as an inducer of mast cell granules exocytosis has been also related to many essential mechanisms of cell function. In skeletal muscle tissue the best characterization of mastoparan effect was induction of myonecrosis. We examined the ability of mastoparan Polybia-MPII from Polybia paulista wasp venom to induce apoptosis and inflammation in mouse tibial anterior muscle. The activation of caspase 3 and 9, the expression of INF-alpha, IFN-gamma, CD68 and CD163 proteins, specific of resident and migrant macrophages, respectively, were examined (3 h to 21 d). TUNEL-positive nuclei were found both in damaged and normal-looking muscle fibres, whereas the caspases, cytokines and macrophages proteins were only in damaged fibres. The caspase 3 and 9 expression and the immunolabelled areas of TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma were significantly higher compared to control. TUNEL-positive nuclei and TNF-alpha expression were also present in regenerating fibres. CD68 and CD163 signalize ...
This kit is designed for histochemical detection of fragmented DNA using the TUNEL method. It allows quick and easy detection of single cells at the primary stage of apoptosis. Tissue sections and fixed cells may be used for samples.
Apoptosis is a form of programmed cell death seen in a variety of developmental and disease states, including traumatic injuries. The main objective of this study was to determine whether apoptosis is observed after human spinal cord injury (SCI). The spatial and temporal expression of apoptotic cells as well as the nature of the cells involved in programmed cell death were also investigated.. The authors examined the spinal cords of 15 patients who died between 3 hours and 2 months after a traumatic SCI. Apoptotic cells were found at the edges of the lesion epicenter and in the adjacent white matter, particularly in the ascending tracts, by using histological (cresyl violet, hematoxylin and eosin) and nuclear staining (Hoechst 33342). The presence of apoptotic cells was supported by staining with the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridinetriphosphate nick-end labeling technique and confirmed by immunostaining for the processed form of caspase-3 (CPP-32), a member of the ...
Apoptosis is a form of programmed cell death seen in a variety of developmental and disease states, including traumatic injuries. The main objective of this study was to determine whether apoptosis is observed after human spinal cord injury (SCI). The spatial and temporal expression of apoptotic cells as well as the nature of the cells involved in programmed cell death were also investigated.. The authors examined the spinal cords of 15 patients who died between 3 hours and 2 months after a traumatic SCI. Apoptotic cells were found at the edges of the lesion epicenter and in the adjacent white matter, particularly in the ascending tracts, by using histological (cresyl violet, hematoxylin and eosin) and nuclear staining (Hoechst 33342). The presence of apoptotic cells was supported by staining with the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridinetriphosphate nick-end labeling technique and confirmed by immunostaining for the processed form of caspase-3 (CPP-32), a member of the ...
Mst1 (mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1) regulates growth and death of cardiomyocytes (CMs) through phosphorylation of multiple substrates, thereby playing an important role in mediating cardiac dysfunction. Mst1 interacts with the FoxO family transcription factors, critical regulators of cell growth and death. We hypothesized that FoxO1 modulates the function of Mst1 in CMs. Co-immunoprecipitation assays showed that Mst1 physically interacts with FoxO1. In vitro kinase assays showed that Mst1 phosphorylates FoxO1. Overexpression of Mst1 induced nuclear translocation of FoxO1 in CMs, as determined by immunostaining. However, Mst1 failed to induce nuclear translocation of a FoxO1 mutant, in which Ser209/215/231/232 at known Mst1 phosphorylation sites are replaced with Ala. Although Mst1 significantly increased apoptosis in CMs, co-expresed FoxO1 significantly reduced Mst1-induced CM apoptosis, and shRNA-mediated knock-down of FoxO1 exacerbated Mst1-induced CM apoptosis (TUNEL-positive nuclei: ...
TUNEL is a common method for detecting DNA fragmentation that results from apoptotic signaling cascades. The assay relies on the presence of nicks in the DNA which can be identified by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase or TdT, an enzyme that will catalyze the addition of dUTPs that are secondarily labeled with a marker. It may also label cells that have suffered severe DNA damage. This examination is going to be performed the 3-5 days after the first clinical ...
This kit is designed for histochemical detection of fragmented DNA using the TUNEL method. It allows quick and easy detection of single cells at the primary stage of apoptosis. Tissue sections and fixed cells may be used for samples.
It follows similar pacts by the likes of PPD, which is tapping another virtual trial specialist, Science 37, for its siteless approach to trials. ...
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Nick Klein + Lack ii [LP] 2017年に一度コラボEPを発表、Monorail Trespassing、Summer Isleなどからリリースを重ねるNick Kleinと、既にこのレーベルから実験音楽ミックステープを出しているLackことPhilip Maier、エクスペリメンタルな要素とテクノやダブを結合したサウンドを得意とする2者のコンビが絶好調のenmossedから新録をリリース!! モジュラーシンセサイザーを使い倒し水滴っぽい跳ね方をするビートやタイトなリズムを刻むNick Klein、そこへテープ録音されたフィールド音やモワモワと飽和した持続音を重ねていくLack、有機的要素と絶妙な違和感で統一された気持ちの良い5曲。
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When you want a photo to last almost forever, you can have it laser etched or engraved into glass, marble, granite, wood, acrylic, glass, mirrors, and other solid materials. The finished work can be used in home and office floor entryways, murals, countertops, flooring, backsplashes, memorabilia, signage, awards, commemorative plaques, bathroom shower and kitchen walls, fireplace surrounds, backsplashes and more. Just let your imagination go wild. These photos can be displayed as is, framed, or be incorporated into larger projects such as doors for rooms or custom cabinets. In fact, the size of laser etchings isnt limited. Using tiling you can create etchings at most any size. Color can then be added by staining the pores of the etched material with special paints. Sealants are then applied to protect the colorized image.. To create an image, the glass, stone or other material is laid flat on a table above which is mounted a laser that can move forward and back and side to side. The lasers ...
... comparison between sperm chromatin dispersion test and terminal uridine nick-end labeling assay". Fertil. Steril. 94 (3): 1027- ... "Presence of DNA strand breaks and increased sensitivity of DNA in situ to denaturation in abnormal human sperm cells. Analogy ... Williamson, Robert (1970). "Properties of rapidly labelled deoxyribonucleic acid fragments isolated from the cytoplasm of ...
At the end of the assay the tissue samples are visualized under a fluorescence microscope such as the confocal fluorescence ... It uses combinatorial labeling, followed by imaging, and then error-resistant encoding to capture a high number of RNA ... Tagging can be done in various ways, such as nick translation, or polymerase chain reaction using tagged nucleotides. Then, an ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Fluorescence in situ hybridization. Fluorescent+in+Situ+Hybridization at the US National ...
... end labeling - endonuclease - enhancer - enzyme - epitope - ethidium bromide - evolutionary clock - evolutionary footprinting ... nick (DNA) - nick translation - Niemann-Pick disease, type C - non-coding DNA - non-coding strand - non-directiveness - ... in situ hybridization - in vitro translation - inducer - inherited - initiation codon - insert - insertion - insertion sequence ... Contents: Top 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 2010107G12Rik - 3' end - 3' flanking region- ...
"In Situ" was released on April 17, 2012. "Take Down" was licensed as the back-end cue for the Spartacus: War of the Damned ... Corner Stone Cues (CSC) is a label and music production house based in Los Angeles. It is best known for debut release and ... with engineering team Nick Wollage and Olga Fitzroy. "Ten Years Kashmir Mvt II" was placed for use in the following: the John ... Sultana Madokara Mieru Eton Path Mojave Black Widow Demons World's End Night Terrors Saw Blade Frigga Seraphim Laudate Gloriana ...
Towards the end of 2005, she performed in the French version of "The Vagina Monologues" In 2006 her third album, L'eau (Water ... After a six-title CD (edited by Madame Suzie), she released an album entitled "Jeanne Cherhal" with the independent label Tôt ... In February 2008, inspired by "the famous text message", she placed a previously unheard track on her MySpace page: "Si tu ... directed by Nicolas Hengel, nominated at the Cannes Film Festival Others 2001: Jeanne Cherhal (CD - 6 tracks, Madame Suzie. ...
Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) is a method for detecting DNA fragmentation by labeling ... Gavrieli Y, Sherman Y, Ben-Sasson SA (1992). "Identification of programmed cell death in situ via specific labeling of nuclear ... Their early in situ detection by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase and nick translation assays and prevention by serine ... "In situ apoptotic cell labeling by the TUNEL method: improvement and evaluation on cell preparations". J Histochem Cytochem. 44 ...
Darzynkiewicz is also recognized for developing the TUNEL assay (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling ... Detection of DNA strand breaks in individual apoptotic cells by the in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase and nick ... "Methods for labeling DNA ends with halogenated nucleotides and detecting same with antibodies", issued 1999-06-15 US6417343B1, ... Presence of DNA strand breaks and increased sensitivity of DNA in situ to denaturation in abnormal human sperm cells: Analogy ...
Digoxigenin can be used as a molecular probe to detect mRNA in situ and label DNA, RNA, and oligonucleotides. It can easily be ... The fruit is a conical capsule with a blunt end topped by a short beak. The seeds which develop within are quadrangular or ... Peter Harris; Sue Nagy; Nicholas Vardaxis (22 August 2018). Mosby's Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing and Health Professions - ... DIG molecules are often linked to nucleotides; DIG-labelled uridine can then be incorporated into RNA via in vitro ...
DNA regions of interest are observed by hybridising them with probes labelled by haptens like biotin; this can then be bound by ... Michalet, Xavier; Ekong, Rosemary; Fougerousse, FrançOise; Rousseaux, Sophie; Schurra, Catherine; Hornigold, Nick; Slegtenhorst ... The ends of DNA strands, which are thought to be frayed (i.e. open and exposing polar groups) bind to ionisable groups coating ... of uniformly stretched DNA that is then highly suitable for nucleic acid hybridization studies such as fluorescent in situ ...
... ending with an urge to use the label 'clean energy' more sparingly. In addition to writing about scientific results, Bernhardt ... "Emily Bernhardt , Nicholas School". Retrieved January 31, 2019. "Emily Bernhardt's "Being Kind" featured in ... Bernhardt and colleagues have leveraged a network of in situ sensors and created a database for hosting open-access stream ... She encourages everyone to counteract implicit biases by being kind to everyone with whom we interact, ending the essay with an ...
... (fluorescent in-situ hybridization) is a cytogenetic technique to quantify the copy number of RNA or specific ... at the distal ends of chromosomes in human white blood cells, and a semi-automated method for doing so was published in Nature ... sequence labeled with a fluorescin fluorophore to stain telomeric repeats on prepared metaphase spreads of cells that have been ... Nicolas (October 2017). "Multiparametric characterization of rare HIV-infected cells using an RNA-flow FISH technique". Nature ...
Label moulds frame the top of the ground floor window openings. The first floor has smaller single sash windows, most directly ... A water storage cistern dating from the 1790s remains in situ and the foundations of a c. 1800 mill and bakery owned by John ... By about 1910, the building's role as a horse stables and staff accommodation was ending due to the increasing use of motor ... composition Nicholas Milton, conductor Sam Moran, former member of The Wiggles James Morrison, trumpeter Kim Moyes, band member ...
2012) "Labeling of DNA Probes by Nick Translation". Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. Park, K; Kim, J; Lim, S; Han, S; ... SISH uses a similar method as CISH, but a silver precipitate is the end product rather than a brown product. In this method, a ... Probe labelling can be carried out by using either random priming or nick translation to incorporate biotin or digoxigenin. For ... can be performed using direct labelling-fluorochromes are attached to the probes-or indirect labelling-the probes are labelled ...
The resulting 135 bp library molecules are size-selected and nick translated. Lastly, amplify the 135 bp paired end-tag library ... Differentially labeled nonamers: 5' Cy5‐NNNNNNNNT 5' Cy3‐NNNNNNNNA 5' TexasRed‐NNNNNNNNC 5' 6FAM‐NNNNNNNNG The fluorophore- ... Methods were developed in 2003 to sequence in situ polonies using single-base extension which could achieve 5-6 bases reads. By ... The end repair treatment converts any damaged or incompatible protruding ends of DNA to 5'-phosphorylated and blunt-ended DNA, ...
All such releases were issued on the Pye record label. In 2001 Ball was part of the recording of an album on the Decca label. ... 2 at the end of 1961 on the UK Singles Chart, and in March 1962 on the Hot 100, with "Midnight in Moscow" (Pye 7NJ.2049 - ... The line-up changed greatly over the years, but the following personnel were in situ when the musical ensemble was at its ... Nick Millward (drums) Syd Appleton (sound technician and tour manager) Invitation to the Ball - Pye Records - 1960 Kenny Ball ...
Lydia Manton was the petite amie of a certain young prince, and that, too, quite recently." It was labelled "a scandal of the ... Hélène travelled personally to intercede with Pope Leo XIII, but he confirmed her father's verdict, and the courtship ended. ... she married Tsar Nicholas II of Russia, another of Albert Victor's cousins. After her proposed match with Alix fell through, ... almost impossible to see properly in situ) lies above the tomb. Kneeling over him is an angel, holding a heavenly crown. The ...
In 1999, Anggun ended her seven-year marriage to Michel Georgea; this inspired her to record another studio album. Her second ... François Moity and Nicolas Yvan-Mingot compiled, rearranged, and recorded every soundtracks that played at the concert into an ... "Satu Lagi Label Skincare Luks Asal Swiss yang Hadir di Indonesia, Niance". (in Indonesian). 12 August 2022 ... "Crazy" was released as the lead single from the album, with its French and Indonesian versions, "Si tu l'avoues" and "Jadi ...
"Label-Free in Situ Discrimination of Live and Dead Bacteria by Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering". Analytical Chemistry. 87 (13 ... Fang, Nicholas; Lee, Hyesog; Sun, Cheng; Zhang, Xiang (2005-04-22). "Sub-Diffraction-Limited Optical Imaging with a Silver ... In propagating surface plasmons, the surface plasmon propagates back and forth between the ends of the structure. Propagating ...
The detection can be achieved by using a combination of ultraView SISH(silver in-situ hybridization) and ultraView Red ISH for ... Wilcken, Nicholas (2014). Tovey, David (ed.). "Treating metastatic breast cancer: The evidence for targeted therapy". The ... that litigation ended in 2016, and Biocon and Mylan each introduced their own branded biosimilars. Trastuzumab costs about US$ ... deposition of distinct chromgenic precipitates at the site of DNP or DIG labeled probes. The recommended assays are a ...
In 1964, he groomed 17-year-old Eurovision-winning singer, France Gall.[citation needed] At the end of that year, François ... These women became known as "Les Flêchettes" (named after "Flèche", the production label he owned) and then "Les Clodettes". He ... Jean-Pierre Bourtayre/Nicolas Skorsky/Claude François) "Le mal aimé" ("Daydreamer", Terry Dempsey/Eddy Marnay) "La musique ... " ("Trains and Boats and Planes", Burt Bacharach/Hal David/Claude François/Vline Buggy) "Même si tu revenais" (Bernard Kesslair ...
ENDS) and other sources of nicotine: Tobacco Control in the Era of ENDS". CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians. 67 (6): 449-471 ... Sridi, Nicolas (10 July 2013). "I was sure that the electronic cigarette would be welcomed with open arms". Sciences et Avenir ... labelling, and manufacture of devices and liquids; vape shops that mix e-liquids or make or modify devices were considered ... "Tracing the composition of single e-cigarette aerosol droplets in situ by laser-trapping and Raman scattering". Scientific ...
He ended the season with a 7-7 record in 18 starts, compiling an ERA of 3.26 and a WHIP of 1.21 with 107 strikeouts. Once again ... Cafardo, Nick (May 14, 2008). "Buchholz to DL". The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on October 11, 2008. Retrieved ... In March 2011, he partnered with Charity Wines to release his own wine label under the Longball Cellars brand. Proceeds from ... "2016 Major League Baseball Baserunning/Situ". Baseball-Reference. Archived from the original on April 13, 2016. Retrieved April ...
Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) involves fluorescent labeling of probes that bind to specific DNA sequences, used for ... Ammonia is an end product of amino acid metabolism and is converted in the liver to urea through a series of enzymatic ... Wade, Nicholas (19 March 2015). "Scientists Seek Ban on Method of Editing the Human Genome". New York Times. Retrieved 20 March ... Chromosome painting is a technique that uses fluorescent probes specific for each chromosome to differentially label each ...
Subsequently Pascal was dropped from the label without releasing a full length studio album. Since 1981, Pascal has remained ... Pascal had a child, Nicholas Johnson, with actor Richard Keith Johnson. On 4 December 2010, she joined Rolling Stones guitarist ... As I Am Autobiography Information, Published by Pegasus Elliot McKenzie 2012 Simon Sheridan Keeping the British End Up: Four ... she moved to France where she starred in such films as Et si tu n'en Veux Pas (1974) and Les Raisins de la Mort (1978), ...
By the end of the Archaic period the styles of black-figure pottery, red-figure pottery and the white ground technique had ... Diffusion of the style is detailed in John Nicolas Coldstream, Greek Geometric Pottery: A Survey of Ten Local Styles and Their ... a few do illustrate their own use or are labeled with their original names, others are the result of early archaeologists ... or by collecting it in situ from illitic clay beds following rain periods. Recent studies have shown that some trace elements ...
Nicholas Wade (September 8, 2005). "Researchers Say Human Brain Is Still Evolving". The New York Times. Mekel-Bobrov N, Gilbert ... obtained BAC clones with BamHI digestion fragments of the "RP11-32D17" insert and used Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH ... in order to label the clones with fluorescein-12-dUTP. In order to precisely locate the translocation breakpoint, the BamHI ... where its expression was relatively high at the peak of neurogenesis and much lower at the end of neurogenesis. Additionally, ...
Drake, Henrik; Roberts, Nick M. W.; Heim, Christine; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Siljeström, Sandra; Kooijman, Ellen; Broman, Curt; ... His stature and influence were international." Harvard biologist Stephen Jay Gould labeled Gold as "one of America's most ... Possessing profound scientific intuition and open-minded rigour, he usually ended up challenging the cherished assumptions of ... a study of gases and secondary carbonate minerals revealed that long-term microbial methanogenesis has occurred in situ deep ...
Ward, Nicholas D.; Bianchi, Thomas S.; Medeiros, Patricia M.; Seidel, Michael; Richey, Jeffrey E.; Keil, Richard G.; Sawakuchi ... The AR5 (Fifth Assessment Report) of the IPCC creates an overview of the available literature on a topic, and labels the topic ... The advantage of using surface salinity is that it is well documented in the last 50 years, for example with in-situ ... In other words: "both ends of Africa's weather extremes will get more severe". Between 1994 and 2006, satellite observations ...
The photons that were scattered by the sample were collected through an optical flat at the end of the tube. To maximize the ... Lee, Joonhee; Tallarida, Nicholas; Chen, Xing; Jensen, Lasse; Apkarian, V. Ara (June 2018). "Microscopy with a single-molecule ... Raman spectroscopy has also been used as a noninvasive technique for real-time, in situ biochemical characterization of wounds ... Raman reporter molecules with olefin or alkyne moieties are being developed for tissue imaging with SERS-labeled antibodies. ...
... eyeball label) ILPS 9104 - Free: Free, 1969 (white i label) ILPS 9105 - Nick Drake: Five Leaves Left, 1969 (black block label) ... had been chosen after the first series ended at number 299 and 300 ff. had been used for the Sue label (see above). WI 3000 - ... Morrison" WIP-6064 - Fairport Convention: "Si Tu Dois Partir" b/w "Genesis Hall", 7/1969 (UK #21, July 1969) WIP-6066 - Hard ... pink label) ILPS 9133 - John and Beverley Martyn: The Road to Ruin, 1970 (pink label) ILPS 9134 - Nick Drake: Bryter Layter, ...
At war's end, many of the Poles were transported to, and stayed in, camps in the United Kingdom. In order to ease their ... Nick Wadley, 'The Paintings of Franciszka Themerson', in 'F&S Themerson', bi-lingual exhibition catalogue, Muzeum Sztuki, Łódź ... under the label Polonia UK), founded in Edinburgh in 1944 by Kapt. Józef Olechnowicz, brought to New Oxford Street, London in ... the Polish Underground State in situ and the Polish Underground Army in occupied Poland, and the maintenance of international ...
Rapley J, Nicolas M, Groen A, Regue L, Bertran MT, Caelles C, Avruch J, Roig J (2008). "The NIMA-family kinase Nek6 ... "Phase II, open label study of SB-715992 (ispinesib) in subjects with advanced or metastatic breast cancer". 94 (28th Annual San ... Sawin KE, LeGuellec K, Philippe M, Mitchison TJ (October 1992). "Mitotic spindle organization by a plus-end-directed ... "Localization of the human kinesin-related gene to band 10q24 by fluorescence in situ hybridization". Genomics. 13 (4): 1371-2. ...
At the other end of the old cardo and current Grande Rue, is the Sainte-Madeleine church built from 1746 to 1766 on plans by ... Among them, the domus of the Palace of Justice and the domus of the Lumière college with Roman mosaic exhibited in situ at the ... The Notre-Dame-du-Foyer chapel, built from 1739 to 1745 by the Bisontin Nicolas Nicole, was once the chapel of the Couvent du ... Thanks to its rich historical and cultural heritage and its unique architecture, Besançon has been labeled a "Town of Art and ...
By the end of his stint in December 1968, he was overseeing the work of 175 others. As a result of his experience there, Romney ... Fandos, Nicholas (February 5, 2020). "Trump Acquitted of Two Impeachment Charges in Near Party-Line Vote". The New York Times. ... Huckabee and McCain criticized Romney's image as a flip-flopper and this label stuck to Romney through the campaign (one that ... Ann Romney's multiple sclerosis therapies and for recovering from her late 2008 diagnosis of mammary ductal carcinoma in situ ...
Stott labels aluminium as a weak metal. It has the physical properties of a metal but some of the chemical properties of a ... by M Nic, J Jirat & B Kosata, with updates compiled by A Jenkins, ISBN 0-9678550-9-8, doi:10.1351/goldbook James M, Stokes R, ... High-Performance Germanium Nanowire-Based Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes Extending over 1000 Cycles Through in Situ Formation of a ... electrical conductivity values at the lower end of those of metals, and amphoteric (weakly basic) oxides. "Semimetal" sometimes ...
Pope Nicholas V set aside part of the Vatican grounds in 1447, for a garden of medicinal plants that were used to promote the ... At the end of the 18th century, Kew, under the directorship of Sir Joseph Banks, enjoyed a golden age of plant hunting, sending ... Typically plants are labelled with their botanical names. It may contain specialist plant collections such as cacti and other ... Many gardens hold ex situ conservation collections that preserve genetic variation. These may be held as seeds dried and stored ...
In many churches the eastern end has been rebuilt in a later style. Of England's Norman cathedrals, no eastern end remains ... One of a series of prophets that are the oldest stained glass windows in situ. Two panels of lively figures, Seth and Adam from ... The scope of Romanesque architecture Saint Nicholas Rotunda in Cieszyn, Poland Romanesque house in Poreč, Croatia The Civic ... In 1824 Gerville's friend Arcisse de Caumont adopted the label "roman" to describe the "degraded" European architecture from ...
One end of this chain was fastened to the Tower of Eugenius, in the modern suburb of Sirkeci, and the other in Galata, to a ... Nicholas Kanabos, which in 1597-1601 served as the cathedral of the Patriarch of Constantinople. Further down the coast was the ... In Buondelmonti's map, it is labelled Porta Piscaria, on account of the fishmarket that used to be held there, a name that has ... according to the Byzantine chroniclers and three inscriptions found in situ. It is at this date that the majority of scholars ...
"Federal Register May 27, 2016 Food Labeling: Revision of the Nutrition and Supplement Facts Labels. FR page 33982" (PDF). " ... The end product below 0.8% carbon content is a pearlite-αFe mixture, and that above 0.8% carbon content is a pearlite-cementite ... Nicholas A. Barnes, Stephen M.Godfrey, Nicholas Ho, Charles A.McAuliffe, Robin G. ... "Hydrodesulfurization of dibenzothiophene using novel unsupported FeMoS catalysts prepared by in-situ activation from Fe (III)- ...
Apparently the park ends where military jurisdiction begins; after all, the best governmental agency to manage a naval base is ... De situ orbis. Vol. 2.7.12. Pliny. Naturalis Historia. Vol. 4.20.21. Stadiasmus Maris Magni 318. Smith, William, ed. (1854-1857 ... The eastern cape is always shown and is always labeled C. or Cauo Sal., Salmo, Sam. or such, even centuries after the Ptolemaic ... In another nearly 100 years the renowned "King's Geographer" of France, Nicolas Sanson, publishes his Ptolemaic map, which ...
The motion of the flagella sucks water through passages in the "cobweb" and expels it via the open ends of the bell-shaped ... Yahel G, Whitney F, Reiswig HM, Eerkes-Medrano DI, Leys SP (2007). "In situ feeding and metabolism of glass sponges ( ... doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2008.00792.x. Butterfield NJ, Nicholas CJ (1996). "Burgess Shale-type preservation of both non- ... labeled Archaeata or Inferibionta. Since the 1990s archaeocyathids have been regarded as a distinctive group of sponges. = skin ...
At the western end, surviving stone fragments of the structure show there was vaulting, at least at the western end. The ... The image is labelled in Greek merely as: Μήτηρ Θεοῦ, romanized: Mētēr Theou, lit. 'Mother of God', but in the Georgian ... After the first collapse of the vault, the broken dome was left in situ on the original Justinianic floor and a new floor was ... Patricios, Nicholas N. (27 March 2014). The sacred architecture of Byzantium: Art, liturgy and symbolism in early Christian ...
At the west end of the outer aisle, Burn added a new wall with a door and oriel window. Burn also replaced the window of the ... Three successive vicars of St Giles' in the 15th century - John Methven, Nicholas Otterbourne, and Thomas Bully - were noted ... the doorway was the only feature of the 12th century Romanesque church in situ. An illustration of 1799 shows the doorway as a ... and has released recordings on its own label, Aegidius. The current Choir was founded in 1879. This revived a tradition of ...
Richards ended that section by noting that "had this reference been known to the author in 1968 no further description of the ' ... Manning, J. E.; Hershey, N. D.; Broker, T. R.; Pellegrini, M.; Mitchell, H. K.; Davidson, N. (1975). "A new method of in situ ... Cavanagh, John; Fairbrother, Wayne J.; Palmer, Arthur G. III; Skelton, Nicholas J. (2006). Protein NMR Spectroscopy: Principles ... Staros JV, Richards FM (1974). "Photochemical labeling of the surface proteins of human erythrocytes". Biochemistry. 13 (13): ...
The fire had already spread to the aft end of the upper deck, and was blocking their way to the main deck, as the aft ladder ... Side-scan sonar was used to image the boat in situ and video was taken of the undisturbed wreckage prior to lifting. Divers ... Welsh, Nick; Yamamura, Jean (September 6, 2019). "22 Conception Victims Identified". Santa Barbara Independent. Retrieved ... with one labeled as reserved for crew. The lower deck also contained the shower area, anchor locker, engine room, and lazarette ...
57-63 Rabinowitz, Nick. "Herodotus Timemap". Timemap.js - Open Source Javascript library. Archived from the ... b. †Syria Palaestina Coinciding with either the precursors (129-130) or the end (135-136) of the Bar Kochba revolt, the name ... De situ orbis (Description of the World): "Syria holds a broad expanse of the littoral, as well as lands that extend rather ... The region is labelled "Palestine" in French and فلسطين أو أرض قدس ("Palestine or Holy Land") in Arabic 1801: Thomas Roberts ( ...
A method is NHEJ, in which the cell polishes the two ends of broken DNA and seals them back together, often producing a frame ... Similarly, Nick Bostrom, an Oxford philosopher known for his work on the risks of artificial intelligence, proposed that "super ... Another screening technique, fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) uses fluorescent probes which specifically bind to highly ... whereas there are still a number of limitations that keep the technique from being labelled as safe and efficient. During the ...
Several more were created by Nicolas Louis de Lacaille in his star catalogue, published in 1756. By the end of the Ming dynasty ... The concept of fair trade has been around for over 40 years, but a formal labelling scheme emerged only in the 1980s. At the ... an alternative to sorting in situ (EWD-796a) (PDF). E.W. Dijkstra Archive. Center for American History, University of Texas at ... By the end of the 20th century, most countries used the Celsius scale rather than the Fahrenheit scale, though Canada retained ...
At Trani, Thomas de Fossa had been canonically elected to succeed Bishop Nicholas, but Pope Nicholas III quashed the election, ... Until the end of the tenth century Trani had certainly followed the Latin Rite, and Bishop Bernardo opposed the decree of the ... 8, labels one piece of evidence for Hubaldus, that of 1120, a forgery. On 4 July 1144 Bisantius was Bishop-elect. Archivio del ... situ Calabriae libros quinque, nunc primum ex autographo restitutos ac per capita distributos, prolegomena, additiones & notae ...
... to organic matter supply at abyssal depths revealed by an in situ dual stable isotope labeling experiment". Deep Sea Research ... As fossils of foraminifera have not been found prior to the very end of the Ediacaran, it is likely that most of these ... Zachos, James C.; Shackleton, Nicholas J.; Revenaugh, Justin S.; Pälike, Heiko; Flower, Benjamin P. (13 April 2001). "Climate ... The earliest known definite foraminifera appear in the fossil record towards the very end of the Ediacaran; these forms all ...
On the other end of the size scale, even relatively small molecules may pose challenges for the resolving power of X-ray ... Ex-situ measurements are carried out routinely for checking the crystal structure of materials or to unravel new structures. In ... Hence, William Hallowes Miller in 1839 was able to give each face a unique label of three small integers, the Miller indices ... The Danish scientist Nicolas Steno (1669) pioneered experimental investigations of crystal symmetry. Steno showed that the ...
Although it has not been approved for these uses, MGA has been studied and/or used off-label for a variety of indications ... 317-. ISBN 978-0-7817-4984-8. Barry Kinzbrunner; Neil J. Weinreb; Joel S. Policzer (2002). 20 Common Problems: End-of-Life Care ... 135-137). Nicholas Vogelzang (2006). Comprehensive Textbook of Genitourinary Oncology. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. ... "Histological effects of progestins on hyperplasia and carcinoma in situ of the endometrium". Cancer. 12 (6): 1106-22. doi: ...
Nicholas of Cusa wrote in 1440 that the Earth was "a brilliant star" like other celestial objects visible in space, which would ... The discussion ended without any conclusions. As of 2010, the UN doesn't have response mechanisms for the case of an ... I. In Situ Simulations". The Astrophysical Journal. 715 (2): 1050-1070. arXiv:1004.0971. Bibcode:2010ApJ...715.1050B. doi: ... This has led critics to label the equation a guesstimate, or even meaningless. Based on observations from the Hubble Space ...
... observed positive TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end labeling (TUNEL) reaction around all laser channels in porcine hearts. ... Lutter et al.[1] observed positive TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end labeling (TUNEL) reaction around all laser channels in ... In Situ DNA Nick-End Labeling Positive Reaction around Laser Channels. J. T. Beranek1 ...
In Situ Nick-End Labeling * Indoles / pharmacology * Kidney / metabolism * Kidney / pathology * Lipid Peroxidation ...
Apoptotic cell death was characterized by DNA nick end and single-stranded DNA labeling. In the Wt animals, early superoxide ... In situ labeling of DNA fragmentation. The experimental animals were killed at 1, 2, 3, and 7 d after 5 min of global ischemia/ ... terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotinylated UTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) reaction] to detect the DNA-free 3′- ... In situ detection of superoxide anion production. The production of superoxide during cerebral ischemia was investigated by the ...
In Situ Nick-End Labeling Medicine & Life Sciences 80% * Interleukin-1 Medicine & Life Sciences 75% ...
Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. In situ BrdU-Red DNA Fragmentation kit was used to ... Briefly, tumor crypts sections were deparaffinized, permeabilized using proteinase K, DNA strand breaks were end-labeled with ... We evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of this combination in vivo using IP PDX models of luciferase-labelled LS174T cells. ... luciferase-labelled LS174T cells were treated with PBS alone (control), or celecoxib (C) alone (200 mg/kg b.w.), or orlistat (O ...
... hydroxy end labeling. A commercially available end-labeling kit (In situ Cell Death detection Kit, Fluorescein labeled, Roche, ... The slides were incubated with the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick-end labeling mixture for 60 minutes at ... Apoptosis assays: terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick-end labeling/CD31PE double staining. Apoptotic cell death ... Different treatments did not have an effect on the pH of the perfusate and the pH at the end of the perfusion was 6.9 ± 0.1 for ...
... as shown by in situ DNA nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining, but clear morphological evidence for an apoptotic process in HD is ...
... terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelled) Kit (in situ cell death Detection Kit-TMR Red; Roche, Basel, ... Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelled. RNA isolation and quantitative real-time PCR. RNA was isolated ... Cardiomyocyte nuclei that underwent DNA synthesis during the labeling period were identified by 15N labeling. These cells ... non-labeled cardiomyocytes (large white arrows) can also be found in that section, as well as, two labeled non-cardiomyocytes ( ...
The in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay was used to detect the ... The negative control sections were incubated with dH2O instead of TdT labeling reaction mix. Apoptotic germ cells were ... apoptosis cells in the seminiferous tubule (in situ apoptosis detection kit, ab206386, Abcam). ...
In Situ Nick-End Labeling Medicine & Life Sciences 16% * Progesterone Medicine & Life Sciences 14% ...
In Situ Nick-End Labeling Medicine & Life Sciences 18% View full fingerprint ...
Apoptosis was observed with light and electron microscopes and detected by TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL). RESULTS ... Keywords: Arrhythmia, Sinus - pathology, Atrial Fibrillation - pathology, Gene Expression Regulation, In Situ Nick-End Labeling ... Apoptosis was observed with light and electron microscopes and detected by TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL). ...
Apoptotic cells were visualized by the terminal deoxynucleotidetransferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay (In ... Immunofluorescent in situ hybridization analysis. DNA fluorescent in situ hybridization was carried out after ... For the Cy3-labeled Chr2-Cen (BAC RP23-60E18) and Alexa488-labeled Chr4-Mid (Cosmid WI1-870P20) probes, slides were re-fixed in ... We used digoxigenin, Alexa488 and/or Cy3-labeled probes, prepared using a Nick Translation Kit (Roche), and hybridizations were ...
Apoptosis was assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling of DNA fragments (TUNEL ... in situ. Cell Death Detection Kit, Fluorescein (Roche Applied Science, Indianapolis, IN). Melanoma cells were seeded in ... in situ. hybridization (FISH) (p16 SpectrumOrange/ chromosome 9 centromeric probe (CEP9) SpectrumGreen Probe, Abbott Molecular ... Gerami, P., et al., Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) as an ancillary diagnostic tool in the diagnosis of melanoma. Am ...
... triphosphate nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, the 4,6-diamidino-2- phenylindole technique, and immunofluorescent microscopic ... The following techniques were used: the in-situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl-transferase mediated deoxyuridine- ...
... terminal deoxynucleotidyl-transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling) assay was performed using an ApoTag in situ apoptosis ... end of μLCR and the 5-end of the PKLR gene. Aliquots of 0.5 μg of genomic DNA were amplified by PCR in 20-μL mixtures of 0.2 ... SfiI genomic DNA fragment of the human PKLR gene labeled with DIG-High Prime DNA Labeling and Detection Starter Kit II (Roche ... Pyruvate, the end product of the PK reaction is decreased in the mutant, and elevated to higher than control values in the ...
... triphosphate nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, the 4,6-diamidino-2- phenylindole technique, and immunofluorescent microscopic ... The following techniques were used: the in-situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl-transferase mediated deoxyuridine- ...
Cardiac fibrosis and staining by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling.. Cardiac tissues were ... assay using an ApopTag in situ detection kit (Boster, Wuhan, China). Apoptotic cell death was quantitatively analyzed under a ... Cardiac sections in paraffin were processed for a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL ... At the end of treatment, body weight (A), blood glucose (B), HbA1c (C), plasma total cholesterol (D) and triglyceride (E), ...
In Situ Nick-End Labeling. Male. Microarray Analysis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Reproducibility of Results. ... immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy were used with terminal deoxynucleotidyl-transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling ...
In Situ Nick-End Labeling 15% * Immunohistochemistry 14% 3 Scopus citations * Steroidogenesis in patients with adrenal ...
Transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining. TUNEL assay was carried out as described previously [23], for ... Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay. In line with the recommendation of Ribo™ FISH Kit (C10910, Ribobio, Guangzhou ... Ribobio Company synthesized the LINC00992 probes, labeled by Cy3 fluorescent dye. Following the fixation by 4% paraformaldehyde ... probing DU145 and PC3 cell apoptosis with the assistance of an In Situ Cell Death Detection Kit (11,684,795,910, Roche, ...
3). The degree of apoptosis and the number of terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling ... Intracellular nitric oxide concentration was measured by in situ by DAF-FM diacetate, and shown by the fluorescence in green ... The amount of apoptosis and the number of terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling ... The number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling positive cells was counted in ...
... and in situ DNA nick- end labeling of sperm nuclei. The percentages of apoptotic sperm quantitated by the flow cytometric assay ... and in situ DNA nick- end labeling of sperm nuclei. The percentages of apoptotic sperm quantitated by the flow cytometric assay ... and in situ DNA nick- end labeling of sperm nuclei. The percentages of apoptotic sperm quantitated by the flow cytometric assay ... and in situ DNA nick- end labeling of sperm nuclei. The percentages of apoptotic sperm quantitated by the flow cytometric assay ...
In Situ Nick-End Labeling, Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins, Multiprotein Complexes, Nuclear Proteins, ... By the time the nuclear DNA was susceptible to heavy label by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end ... By the time the nuclear DNA was susceptible to heavy label by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end ... article{pose_end_2012, title = {The end of innocence: flowering networks explode in complexity}, volume = {15}, issn = {1879- ...
In Situ Nick-End Labeling Medicine & Life Sciences 15% * Formaldehyde Medicine & Life Sciences 13% ...
  • 1] observed positive TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end labeling (TUNEL) reaction around all laser channels in porcine hearts. (
  • DVTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay with the In Situ Cell determined according to the manufacturer's protocol. (
  • Apoptosis was observed with light and electron microscopes and detected by TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL). (
  • The following techniques were used: the in-situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl-transferase mediated deoxyuridine- triphosphate nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, the 4',6-diamidino-2- phenylindole technique, and immunofluorescent microscopic examination. (
  • Immunohistochemical stainings for cytochrome c and caspase-3, and histochemical staining for a terminal deoxynucleotidyl-transferase (TdT)- mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labeling method (TUNEL) were examined in a rat model of permanent middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. (
  • The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL , assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION . (
  • In cultured rat primary myoblasts, Annexin V labeling was significantly increased at 12 h after TNF-α treatment, and this was followed by a significant increase in TUNEL reactivity at 48 h. (
  • Dans cette étude, nous avons analysé la fragmentation de l'ADN nucléaire par apoptose avec la technique TUNEL fluorescente in situ et une estimation des aneuploïdies majeures par FISH multicouleur dans des embryons bloqués et/ou avec un retard de développement. (
  • TUNEL - TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling. (
  • TransDetect ® In Situ Fluorescein TUNEL Cell Apoptosis Detection Kit provides a precise, simple and low-toxicity way to detect and quantify apoptotic cell death at single cell level in cells and tissues. (
  • TdT-mediated dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL) reaction preferentially labels DNA strand breaks generated during apoptosis with fluorescein-labeled dUTP. (
  • Apoptosis was assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin-dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and DNA fragmentation (ELISA). (
  • Cells containing these DNA strand breaks can be identified with the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. (
  • AAT Bioquest offers several fluorimetric TUNEL assays optimized for in situ apoptosis detection in live cells or fixed cells and tissue samples. (
  • Using the TUNEL assay, the exposed 3'-OH termini of these breaks can be marked with modified dUTPs for subsequent visualization and quantification of apoptotic cells in situ . (
  • Apoptosis was quantified in the jejunum by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), active caspase-3, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP-mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL), in situ oligoligation reaction (ISOL,) cytokeratin 18, and annexin V staining. (
  • Multiple studies have used quantitative analyses of DNA isotope labeling to demonstrate a similar baseline rate of cardiomyogenesis in adult humans 4 , 5 and mice 3 . (
  • To definitively address whether exercise increases the birth of cardiomyocytes, here we study the effects of monitored voluntary exercise in mice with or without ischemic injury by analyzing genomic 15 N-thymidine incorporation with MIMS, combined with cardiomyocyte nuclei tracing to assess nucleation and in situ hybridization to quantify ploidy. (
  • In situ hybridization localized replicative Zika virus RNA in brains of 7 infants and in placentas of 9 women who had pregnancy losses during the first or second trimester. (
  • The sperm-immobilizing activity of mono- and bis-ligated oxovanadium(IV) complexes was irreversible, since the treated sperm underwent apoptosis, as determined by the flow cytometric quantitation of mitochondrial membrane potential, surface Annexin V binding assay, and in situ DNA nick- end labeling of sperm nuclei. (
  • Método in situ para detectar áreas del ADN fragmentadas durante la apoptosis. (
  • An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS . (
  • Dual immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy were used with terminal deoxynucleotidyl-transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling probes and clusterin antibody to assess the degree of co localization. (
  • MTT and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production assays, in addition to terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling, reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, were performed to investigate the protective effects of TFPS. (
  • Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. (
  • By double labeling both leaner and wild-type cerebella with Fluoro-Jade and terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-mediated, deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling or Fluoro-Jade and tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry we demonstrated that the relatively new stain, Fluoro-Jade, will label neurons that are dying secondary to a genetic mutation. (
  • This well-established in situ staining method relies on the enzyme terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) to catalyze the incorporation of modified dUTPs to the 3'-hydroxyl termini of fragmented DNA. (
  • Regardless of the labeling strategy, both require the enzyme terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) to catalyze the incorporation of the modified dUTPs to the 3'-OH termini. (
  • Apoptotic cell death was characterized by DNA nick end and single-stranded DNA labeling. (
  • The fluorescein labeled DNA can be detected and quantified by fluorescence microscopy or flow cytometry. (
  • The fluorescently-labeled DNA fragments can then be visualized directly by fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, or fluorescence-based microplate assays. (
  • Traditionally, TUNELs assays require fixation and permeabilization of the sample to facilitate the entry of exogenous TdT and ensure successful labeling of DNA strand breaks. (
  • Fluorescently labeled DNA strand breaks show intense fluorescent staining in SS-treated cells. (
  • boundary-pushing Acne and ending QD: The free progress of important compounds, ' Department of Chemistry, Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania, October 12, 2001. (
  • The new limbs had bone structure extended with features similar to a natural limb's bone structure, a richer complement of internal tissues (including neurons), and several "toes" grew from the end of the limb, although without the support of underlying bone. (
  • The first stage of growth after loss of a limb is the formation of a mass of stem cells at the end of the stump called a blastema, which is used to gradually reconstruct the lost body part. (
  • Extremely low toxicity, labeling solution is free of commonly used highly-toxic cacodylate. (
  • On pense qu'avec la technique de FISH classique où l'on cherche les aneuploïdies les plus observées en diagnostique prénatal, on n'analyse peut être pas les meilleurs chromosomes candidats au blocage embryonnaire précoce (chromosomes 1, 9, 14 et 15, 16, 22). (
  • Higher levels of oxidized protein end-products were found in failing hearts compared with donor heart samples. (
  • Failing hearts were obtained from 8 explanted end-stage failing hearts (NYHA class III-IV). (
  • But the probe's holistic approach, using the combination of six remote sensing instruments and four in-situ instruments, puts it on a different level. (
  • Ccl2 expression was assessed by quantitative PCR, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization. (
  • In retinas injected with Ccl2 siRNA, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry on retinal cryostat sections showed a substantial decrease in Ccl2 within Müller cells. (
  • Due to this high specificity, less material is needed compared to radioactive labeling making the DIG system ideal for nucleic hybridization analysis. (
  • The result is a highly labeled, specific, and extremely sensitive hybridization probe. (
  • The nonradioactive DIG system uses digoxigenin, a steroid hapten, to label DNA, RNA, or oligonucleotides for hybridization, and subsequent color or luminescence detection. (
  • The method of 'random primed' DNA labeling is based on the hybridization of a mixture of all possible hexanucleotides to the DNA template. (
  • The resulting labeled product is a homogeneously labeled, sensitive hybridization probe capable of detecting as little as 0.10 - 0.03 pg target DNA. (
  • These include desired detection method, hybridization type, resolution and sensitivity, the method chosen to incorporate a specific label, and stability achieved post labeling. (
  • For instance, RNA for blots, large DNA, plasmid DNA, and in-situ hybridization can be labeled via random labels that are coupled covalently. (
  • Chromosome dynamics studies in E. coli using either fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) or fluorescent repressor proteins bound to arrays of operator sequences (FROS) have shown that there is a significant time delay between passage of the replication fork and separation of replicated sequences into two visible foci [1] - [6] . (
  • In situ hybridization showed that prep1.1 is expressed maternally and ubiquitously up to 24 hours post-fertilization (hpf), and restricted to the head from 48 hpf onwards. (
  • By combining retrograde labeling and quantitative in situ hybridization using RNAscope, we obtained evidence suggesting an increase in mRNA encoding TRPM3 in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons innervating the inflamed paw. (
  • One branch of spatial transcriptomics approaches builds on the concept of RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), where probes are used to assay the number of molecules of a given gene present in a single cell [ 10 ]. (
  • In situ hybridization localized replicative Zika virus RNA in brains of 7 infants and in placentas of 9 women who had pregnancy losses during the first or second trimester. (
  • GEC apoptosis was further confirmed by DNA fragmentation assay (by both agarose gel electrophoresis and end-labeling). (
  • After migration, the aphid flight muscles degenerated via programmed cell death, which is evidenced by a Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP-biotin nick end labeling assay. (
  • The apoptotic effect was evaluated by IHC against B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma-2 and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling assay by in situ apoptosis detection kit. (
  • Immunostaining for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), using a monoclonal IgG2a antibody (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA), and the transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assay, using the ApopTag Peroxidase In Situ Apoptosis Detection Kit (Chemicon International, Temecula, CA), were used to measure proliferation and apoptosis. (
  • Apoptosis was determined using a terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin nick end-labeling assay. (
  • The in situ zymography, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling assay, and immunofluorescence study results showed that neuroprotective effects were achieved with combination therapy only. (
  • In toto terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotinylated UTP nick end-labeling analysis shows that the dorsal optic cup is the site of a spatiotemporally restricted apoptosis, which parallels the expression not only of Bmp4 but also of Msx1 and Msx2 , genes implicated in BMP4-mediated apoptosis. (
  • Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA . (
  • Monocytes/microglia were counted on retinal cryostat sections immunolabeled with the markers ED1 and ionized calcium binding adaptor (IBA)1, and photoreceptor apoptosis was assessed using terminal dUTP nick end labeling. (
  • The ApopTag® Peroxidase In Situ Apoptosis Detection Kit (Millipore Corporation, Billerica, MA, USA) was employed. (
  • Adjacent sections were processed for in situ end labeling (ISEL) nick translation to detect DNA fragmentation as a marker for cell injury and Fluoro-Jade B staining to detect degenerating cells. (
  • Immobilized nucleic acids are hybridized with a DIG-labeled probe and subsequent detection is performed using high affinity Anti-Digoxigenin antibodies , coupled either to alkaline phosphatase (AP), horseradish peroxidase (HRP), fluorescein or rhodamine for colorimetric, and chemiluminescent or fluorescent detection. (
  • These labeled probes are especially suitable for single copy gene detection on genomic Southern blots, screening recombinant libraries, dot/slot blots, and northern blots. (
  • The introduction of advanced product offerings pertaining to nucleic acid detection, along with the expanding pool of commercial manufacturers, strengthens the revenue generation capacity of the nucleic acid labeling industry. (
  • This meeting was the first in a series of regional meetings to explore issues that affect the ability of communities to provide cancer care--including prevention, education/communication, detection, treatment, diagnosis, rehabilitation, palliative, and end-of-life care--to people in the diverse neighborhoods of the Nation. (
  • PCR labeling is the preferred method for preparing DIG-labeled probes when the template is available in only limited amounts, is partially purified, or is very short. (
  • The combination of nonradioactive labeling with PCR is a powerful tool for the analysis of PCR products, and for the preparation of labeled probes from small amounts of a respective target sequence. (
  • These covalent probes display excellent sensitivity, whereas enzymatic labeling serves as an economically viable approach for laboratory professionals by multi labeling of the sample in PCR methods. (
  • After incubation, the concentrations of the pro-inflammatory end products of 15-LOX activity in hepatocytes (15-HETE, 12-HETE, 9-HODE, and 13-HODE) were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and apoptosis, necrosis, and mitochondrial superoxide generation were measured using immunohistochemical methods. (
  • The DIG System is the nonradioactive technology of choice to label and detect nucleic acids for multiple applications. (
  • Example detecting DIG-labeled nucleic acids using chemiluminescence substrates. (
  • The company develops 5' E' ndTag/3' E' ndTag kits that are designed for the attachment of an affinity tag or a single fluorochrome at the required end of nucleic acids. (
  • Nuclear export of mRNA composes one part of a larger network of molecular events that begin with transcription of the mRNA in the nucleus and end with its translation and degradation in the cytoplasm. (
  • 2002). Using in utero 5-bromo-2'-deoxyrudine (BrdU) injections to label early (embryonic day (E) 15) or late (E18 or E19) born RGCs, we now show that E15 RGCs with axons that enter the SC prenatally undergo programmed cell death earlier than late-born RGCs whose axons only reach the SC late in the first postnatal week. (
  • To study if birth date also affects regenerative potential in adulthood, autologous peripheral nerve (PN) was grafted onto the cut optic nerve in mature BrdU labelled rats. (
  • In BrdU incorporation experiments, more S-phase-labeled precursors appear within circumvallate taste buds at 1 day post-injection, the earliest time point examined. (
  • 5-Aminoallyl-UTP can be enzymatically incorporated into RNA for subsequent labeling with an amine-reactive fluorescent dye, biotin, or other hapten via conventional peptide coupling methods. (
  • CFSE-labeled cell division and cell cycle distribution were monitored by flow cytometry. (
  • The nick translation method is based on the ability of DNase I to introduce randomly distributed nicks into DNA at low enzyme concentrations in the presence of Mg2+. (
  • EN : Sorry kids, no English translation! (
  • At present hepatocyte transplantation is a promising option for cellular therapy of end-stage liver diseases. (
  • After labeling with quantum nanocrystal dots and transplantation into the subretinal space of rd1 RD mice, differentiation and synapse formation by daughter cells of the eye-wall c-kit + /SSEA1 − cells were evaluated by immunochemistry and western blotting. (
  • Solid organ transplantation is an important therapeutic option for children with a variety of end stage diseases. (
  • These plants are the only natural source of digoxigenin, so the anti-DIG antibody does not bind to other biological material, ensuring specific labeling. (
  • The dominance of reagents is attributed to the recurrent usage of these products in labeling protocols, followed by continuous developments in this area to further enhance the efficiency of these protocols. (
  • The labeled dUTP can be easily incorporated by enzymatic nucleic acid synthesis using DNA polymerases. (
  • This is attributed to the high costs and routine usage of the same in both chemical and enzymatic labeling protocols. (
  • In the taste system, these sensory cells are located within end organs called taste buds, which are located in 3 distinct sets of papillae in the tongue epithelium, as well as on the palate and epiglottis. (
  • It requires less optimization than other methods and produces a high yield of labeled probe. (
  • The PCR DIG Probe Synthesis Kit requires less optimization than most labeling methods, because it contains the Expand High Fidelity Enzyme Blend. (
  • Existing methods are limited by a reliance on pre-existing cell type labels or by difficulties in identifying markers of rare cells. (
  • Succinimidyl esters are generally susceptible to hydrolysis, which can result in lower labeling efficiency. (
  • Contrastingly, the lack of skilled professionals in this sector unable to use the newly developed systems and equipment to their full potential is set to hamper the efficiency of results associated with nucleic acid labeling protocols, further hindering the market expansion. (
  • An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS . (
  • This method should facilitate in situ studies of cell death by allowing for a more accurate quantification of total toxicity in monolayer cell cultures and perhaps further enhance our understanding of the different mechanisms of cell death as well. (
  • In this study tissue samples of 30 primary PSCCs and 4 CIS (carcinoma in situ) were investigated immunohistochemically using anti-KAI1/CD82, nm23-H1 polyclonal antibodies and monoclonal antibodies for caspases with streptavidin-biotin peroxidase immunostaining method. (
  • Unlike our findings that pPB cassette3short with brief TRDs at the ends results in a larger activity than its extended counterpart in HEK 293, attempts to transform D. melanogaster with p Bac EYFP consisting of 35 bp 3TRD and 63 bp 5TRD yielded transformation fre quencies far less than complete length piggyBac constructs. (
  • Cancer Care for All: Applying Research Results, Ensuring Access, Ending Disparities. (
  • The NIC had the capacity for virus isolation and PCR identification and performed reasonably until 2011 when support of the Naval American Medical Research Unit 3 was withdrawn. (
  • and whilst these are acknowledged with the claim that there are non-European forms of 'reason', 'science', 'progress' and 'freedom' (p. 77), we are not convinced that these decidedly European terms are the most suitable labels for them. (
  • To that end, we analyzed IFN-γ-induced gene expression at the genome scale, followed by an analysis of the expression and function of specific genes associated with IFN-γ- and Fas-mediated signaling. (
  • The complementary strand is synthesized from the 3´ OH termini of the random hexanucleotide primer using Klenow enzyme, labeling grade. (
  • Since each primer has a different six-base sequence, the labeled probe product will be a collection of fragments of variable length. (
  • 01). Conclusion: This study addresses the dynamics and feasibility of imaging non-small cell lung tumor apoptosis using 99m Tc-labeled C2A. (
  • A Phase 3, Open-label, Randomised Study of Datopotamab Deruxtecan (Dato-DXd) Versus Investigatorâ? (
  • Among these, both the type and size of the nucleic acid are pivotal to the selection of the correct labeling protocol/system. (
  • The hall, which is now divided by a partition into two rooms, is of three bays exclusive of the screens, and is lighted on the south side by three tall square-headed two-light transomed windows with cinquefoiled upper lights, and there is a smaller window of similar type, but without transom, at the west end. (
  • A list of new Publication Types appears at the end of this article with their scope notes. (
  • K19-positive HCC specimens exhibited a high MIB-1 labelling index, decreased E-cadherin expression, and high microvessel density around cancer foci. (
  • Swimming exercise suppressed apoptosis, en-hanced neurogenesis, and increased serotonin expression. (
  • Purpose: To evaluate the dynamics and feasibility of imaging non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) apoptosis induced by paclitaxel treatment using 99m Tc-labeled C2A domain of synaptotagmin I in a mouse model. (
  • Some kits have an expiration date printed on the kit box label, this is the guaranteed shelf life date calculated from the day that the product shipped from our facility. (
  • Storage conditions can be found on the product information sheet or product safety and data sheet, material safety data sheet, and on the product label. (
  • In random primed labeling, Klenow enzyme copies DNA template in the presence of hexamer primers and alkalilabile DIG-11-dUTP. (
  • Manufacturers are focusing on designing kits that extend across varied applications, further increasing the introduction of cutting-edge nucleic acid labeling kits in the market. (
  • of ASCs in post-convalescent people and ends with 1? (
  • The fourth post in our (already pretty popular) forum on Nick and Alex Williams' Inventing the Future , this time from Sophie Lewis and David M. Bell. (