In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Fluorescence: The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Fluorescence Polarization: Measurement of the polarization of fluorescent light from solutions or microscopic specimens. It is used to provide information concerning molecular size, shape, and conformation, molecular anisotropy, electronic energy transfer, molecular interaction, including dye and coenzyme binding, and the antigen-antibody reaction.DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.RNA Probes: RNA, usually prepared by transcription from cloned DNA, which complements a specific mRNA or DNA and is generally used for studies of virus genes, distribution of specific RNA in tissues and cells, integration of viral DNA into genomes, transcription, etc. Whereas DNA PROBES are preferred for use at a more macroscopic level for detection of the presence of DNA/RNA from specific species or subspecies, RNA probes are preferred for genetic studies. Conventional labels for the RNA probe include radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. RNA probes may be further divided by category into plus-sense RNA probes, minus-sense RNA probes, and antisense RNA probes.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer: A type of FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY using two FLUORESCENT DYES with overlapping emission and absorption spectra, which is used to indicate proximity of labeled molecules. This technique is useful for studying interactions of molecules and PROTEIN FOLDING.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.Digoxigenin: 3 beta,12 beta,14-Trihydroxy-5 beta-card-20(22)-enolide. A cardenolide which is the aglycon of digoxin. Can be obtained by hydrolysis of digoxin or from Digitalis orientalis L. and Digitalis lanata Ehrh.Oligonucleotide Probes: Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Gene Amplification: A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Comparative Genomic Hybridization: A method for comparing two sets of chromosomal DNA by analyzing differences in the copy number and location of specific sequences. It is used to look for large sequence changes such as deletions, duplications, amplifications, or translocations.Translocation, Genetic: A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Chromosome Banding: Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.Aneuploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Carcinoma in Situ: A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching: A method used to study the lateral movement of MEMBRANE PROTEINS and LIPIDS. A small area of a cell membrane is bleached by laser light and the amount of time necessary for unbleached fluorescent marker-tagged proteins to diffuse back into the bleached site is a measurement of the cell membrane's fluidity. The diffusion coefficient of a protein or lipid in the membrane can be calculated from the data. (From Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995).DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Gene Dosage: The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.Microscopy, Fluorescence, Multiphoton: Fluorescence microscopy utilizing multiple low-energy photons to produce the excitation event of the fluorophore. Multiphoton microscopes have a simplified optical path in the emission side due to the lack of an emission pinhole, which is necessary with normal confocal microscopes. Ultimately this allows spatial isolation of the excitation event, enabling deeper imaging into optically thick tissue, while restricting photobleaching and phototoxicity to the area being imaged.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Primed In Situ Labeling: A technique that labels specific sequences in whole chromosomes by in situ DNA chain elongation or PCR (polymerase chain reaction).Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Nucleic Acid Probes: Nucleic acid which complements a specific mRNA or DNA molecule, or fragment thereof; used for hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms and for genetic studies.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Paraffin Embedding: The infiltrating of tissue specimens with paraffin, as a supporting substance, to prepare for sectioning with a microtome.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Molecular Probe Techniques: The use of devices which use detector molecules to detect, investigate, or analyze other molecules, macromolecules, molecular aggregates, or organisms.Cytogenetic Analysis: Examination of CHROMOSOMES to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Peptide Nucleic Acids: DNA analogs containing neutral amide backbone linkages composed of aminoethyl glycine units instead of the usual phosphodiester linkage of deoxyribose groups. Peptide nucleic acids have high biological stability and higher affinity for complementary DNA or RNA sequences than analogous DNA oligomers.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Chromosome Deletion: Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Carbocyanines: Compounds that contain three methine groups. They are frequently used as cationic dyes used for differential staining of biological materials.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Rhodamines: A family of 3,6-di(substituted-amino)-9-benzoate derivatives of xanthene that are used as dyes and as indicators for various metals; also used as fluorescent tracers in histochemistry.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Interphase: The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).Genes, erbB-2: The erbB-2 gene is a proto-oncogene that codes for the erbB-2 receptor (RECEPTOR, ERBB-2), a protein with structural features similar to the epidermal growth factor receptor. Its name originates from the viral oncogene homolog (v-erbB) which is a truncated form of the chicken erbB gene found in the avian erythroblastosis virus. Overexpression and amplification of the gene is associated with a significant number of adenocarcinomas. The human c-erbB-2 gene is located at 17q21.2.Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 12: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Energy Transfer: The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.Y Chromosome: The male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans and in some other male-heterogametic species in which the homologue of the X chromosome has been retained.Chromosomes, Human: Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Cytogenetics: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the cytological and molecular analysis of the CHROMOSOMES, and location of the GENES on chromosomes, and the movements of chromosomes during the CELL CYCLE.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Chromosome Painting: A technique for visualizing CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS using fluorescently labeled DNA probes which are hybridized to chromosomal DNA. Multiple fluorochromes may be attached to the probes. Upon hybridization, this produces a multicolored, or painted, effect with a unique color at each site of hybridization. This technique may also be used to identify cross-species homology by labeling probes from one species for hybridization with chromosomes from another species.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 14: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Fluoresceins: A family of spiro(isobenzofuran-1(3H),9'-(9H)xanthen)-3-one derivatives. These are used as dyes, as indicators for various metals, and as fluorescent labels in immunoassays.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 18: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Gene Rearrangement: The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Chromosome Disorders: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)Metaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 13: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Fluorometry: An analytical method for detecting and measuring FLUORESCENCE in compounds or targets such as cells, proteins, or nucleotides, or targets previously labeled with FLUORESCENCE AGENTS.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 3: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Tissue Fixation: The technique of using FIXATIVES in the preparation of cytologic, histologic, or pathologic specimens for the purpose of maintaining the existing form and structure of all the constituent elements.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Embryonic and Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.Receptor, erbB-2: A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.Trisomy: The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Centromere: The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Fluorescein: A phthalic indicator dye that appears yellow-green in normal tear film and bright green in a more alkaline medium such as the aqueous humor.Optical Imaging: The use of light interaction (scattering, absorption, and fluorescence) with biological tissue to obtain morphologically based information. It includes measuring inherent tissue optical properties such as scattering, absorption, and autofluorescence; or optical properties of exogenous targeted fluorescent molecular probes such as those used in optical MOLECULAR IMAGING, or nontargeted optical CONTRAST AGENTS.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Photobleaching: Light-induced change in a chromophore, resulting in the loss of its absorption of light of a particular wave length. The photon energy causes a conformational change in the photoreceptor proteins affecting PHOTOTRANSDUCTION. This occurs naturally in the retina (ADAPTATION, OCULAR) on long exposure to bright light. Photobleaching presents problems when occurring in PHOTODYNAMIC THERAPY, and in FLUORESCENCE MICROSCOPY. On the other hand, this phenomenon is exploited in the technique, FLUORESCENCE RECOVERY AFTER PHOTOBLEACHING, allowing measurement of the movements of proteins and LIPIDS in the CELL MEMBRANE.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate: Fluorescent probe capable of being conjugated to tissue and proteins. It is used as a label in fluorescent antibody staining procedures as well as protein- and amino acid-binding techniques.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22: A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Molecular Probes: A group of atoms or molecules attached to other molecules or cellular structures and used in studying the properties of these molecules and structures. Radioactive DNA or RNA sequences are used in MOLECULAR GENETICS to detect the presence of a complementary sequence by NUCLEIC ACID HYBRIDIZATION.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Biotin: A water-soluble, enzyme co-factor present in minute amounts in every living cell. It occurs mainly bound to proteins or polypeptides and is abundant in liver, kidney, pancreas, yeast, and milk.X Chromosome: The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.Chromogenic Compounds: Colorless, endogenous or exogenous pigment precursors that may be transformed by biological mechanisms into colored compounds; used in biochemical assays and in diagnosis as indicators, especially in the form of enzyme substrates. Synonym: chromogens (not to be confused with pigment-synthesizing bacteria also called chromogens).Lasers: An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.Antisense Elements (Genetics): Nucleic acids which hybridize to complementary sequences in other target nucleic acids causing the function of the latter to be affected.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Nerve Tissue ProteinsBinding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Photons: Discrete concentrations of energy, apparently massless elementary particles, that move at the speed of light. They are the unit or quantum of electromagnetic radiation. Photons are emitted when electrons move from one energy state to another. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Mice, Inbred C57BLPloidies: The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Chromosome Breakage: A type of chromosomal aberration involving DNA BREAKS. Chromosome breakage can result in CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; or SEQUENCE DELETION.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Hybrid Cells: Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.Cosmids: Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassay: Fluoroimmunoassay where detection of the hapten-antibody reaction is based on measurement of the increased polarization of fluorescence-labeled hapten when it is combined with antibody. The assay is very useful for the measurement of small haptenic antigens such as drugs at low concentrations.Formaldehyde: A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Anilino Naphthalenesulfonates: A class of organic compounds which contain an anilino (phenylamino) group linked to a salt or ester of naphthalenesulfonic acid. They are frequently used as fluorescent dyes and sulfhydryl reagents.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Oligonucleotides: Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 15: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.RNA, Ribosomal: The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Chromosomes, Human, Pair 6: A specific pair GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 20: A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Monosomy: The condition in which one chromosome of a pair is missing. In a normally diploid cell it is represented symbolically as 2N-1.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Spermatozoa: Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Chlorophyll: Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Chromosomes, Artificial, Yeast: Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.2-Naphthylamine: A naphthalene derivative with carcinogenic action.Polyploidy: The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.

11q23.1 and 11q25-qter YACs suppress tumour growth in vivo. (1/9173)

Frequent allelic deletion at chromosome 11q22-q23.1 has been described in breast cancer and a number of other malignancies, suggesting putative tumour suppressor gene(s) within the approximately 8 Mb deleted region. In addition, we recently described another locus, at the 11q25-qter region, frequently deleted in breast cancer, suggesting additional tumour suppressor gene(s) in this approximately 2 Mb deleted region. An 11q YAC contig was accessed and three YACs, one containing the candidate gene ATM at 11q23.1, and two contiguous YACs (overlapping for approximately 400-600 kb) overlying most of the 11q25 deleted region, were retrofitted with a G418 resistance marker and transfected into murine A9 fibrosarcoma cells. Selected A9 transfectant clones (and control untransfected and 'irrelevant' alphoid YAC transfectant A9 clones) were assayed for in vivo tumorigenicity in athymic female Balb c-nu/nu mice. All the 11q YAC transfectant clones demonstrated significant tumour suppression compared to the control untransfected and 'irrelevant' YAC transfected A9 cells. These results define two discrete tumour suppressor loci on chromosome 11q by functional complementation, one to a approximately 1.2 Mb region on 11q23.1 (containing the ATM locus) and another to a approximately 400-600 kb subterminal region on 11q25-qter.  (+info)

Deletion of a region that is a candidate for the difference between the deletion forms of hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin and deltabeta-thalassemia affects beta- but not gamma-globin gene expression. (2/9173)

The analysis of a number of cases of beta-globin thalassemia and hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) due to large deletions in the beta-globin locus has led to the identification of several DNA elements that have been implicated in the switch from human fetal gamma- to adult beta-globin gene expression. We have tested this hypothesis for an element that covers the minimal distance between the thalassemia and HPFH deletions and is thought to be responsible for the difference between a deletion HPFH and deltabeta-thalassemia, located 5' of the delta-globin gene. This element has been deleted from a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) containing the complete human beta-globin locus. Analysis of this modified YAC in transgenic mice shows that early embryonic expression is unaffected, but in the fetal liver it is subject to position effects. In addition, the efficiency of transcription of the beta-globin gene is decreased, but the developmental silencing of the gamma-globin genes is unaffected by the deletion. These results show that the deleted element is involved in the activation of the beta-globin gene perhaps through the loss of a structural function required for gene activation by long-range interactions.  (+info)

Analysis of genomic integrity and p53-dependent G1 checkpoint in telomerase-induced extended-life-span human fibroblasts. (3/9173)

Life span determination in normal human cells may be regulated by nucleoprotein structures called telomeres, the physical ends of eukaryotic chromosomes. Telomeres have been shown to be essential for chromosome stability and function and to shorten with each cell division in normal human cells in culture and with age in vivo. Reversal of telomere shortening by the forced expression of telomerase in normal cells has been shown to elongate telomeres and extend the replicative life span (H. Vaziri and S. Benchimol, Curr. Biol. 8:279-282, 1998; A. G. Bodnar et al., Science 279:349-352, 1998). Extension of the life span as a consequence of the functional inactivation of p53 is frequently associated with loss of genomic stability. Analysis of telomerase-induced extended-life-span fibroblast (TIELF) cells by G banding and spectral karyotyping indicated that forced extension of the life span by telomerase led to the transient formation of aberrant structures, which were subsequently resolved in higher passages. However, the p53-dependent G1 checkpoint was intact as assessed by functional activation of p53 protein in response to ionizing radiation and subsequent p53-mediated induction of p21(Waf1/Cip1/Sdi1). TIELF cells were not tumorigenic and had a normal DNA strand break rejoining activity and normal radiosensitivity in response to ionizing radiation.  (+info)

Tissue specific expression and chromosomal mapping of a human UDP-N-acetylglucosamine: alpha1,3-d-mannoside beta1, 4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase. (4/9173)

A human cDNA for UDP- N -acetylglucosamine:alpha1,3-d-mannoside beta1,4- N- acetylglucosaminyltransferase (GnT-IV) was isolated from a liver cDNA library using a probe based on a partial cDNA sequence of the bovine GnT-IV. The cDNA encoded a complete sequence of a type II membrane protein of 535 amino acids which is 96% identical to the bovine GnT-IV. Transient expression of the human cDNA in COS7 cells increased total cellular GnT-IV activity 25-fold, demonstrating that this cDNA encodes a functional human GnT-IV. Northern blot analysis of normal tissues indicated that at least five different sizes of mRNA (9.7, 7.6, 5.1, 3.8, and 2.4 kb) forGnT-IV are expressed in vivo. Furthermore, these mRNAs are expressed at different levels between tissues. Large amounts of mRNA were detected in tissues harboring T lineage cells. Also, the promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL-60 and the lymphoblastic leukemia cell line MOLT-4 revealed abundant mRNA. Lastly, the gene was mapped at the locus on human chromosome 2, band q12 by fluorescent in situ hybridization.  (+info)

Insertion of excised IgH switch sequences causes overexpression of cyclin D1 in a myeloma tumor cell. (5/9173)

Oncogenes are often dysregulated in B cell tumors as a result of a reciprocal translocation involving an immunoglobulin locus. The translocations are caused by errors in two developmentally regulated DNA recombination processes: V(D)J and IgH switch recombination. Both processes share the property of joining discontinuous sequences from one chromosome and releasing intervening sequences as circles that are lost from progeny cells. Here we show that these intervening sequences may instead insert in the genome and that during productive IgH mu-epsilon switch recombination in U266 myeloma tumor cells, a portion of the excised IgH switch intervening sequences containing the 3' alpha-1 enhancer has inserted on chromosome 11q13, resulting in overexpression of the adjacent cyclin D1 oncogene.  (+info)

Specific chromosomal aberrations and amplification of the AIB1 nuclear receptor coactivator gene in pancreatic carcinomas. (6/9173)

To screen pancreatic carcinomas for chromosomal aberrations we have applied molecular cytogenetic techniques, including fluorescent in situ hybridization, comparative genomic hybridization, and spectral karyotyping to a series of nine established cell lines. Comparative genomic hybridization revealed recurring chromosomal gains on chromosome arms 3q, 5p, 7p, 8q, 12p, and 20q. Chromosome losses were mapped to chromosome arms 8p, 9p, 17p, 18q, 19p, and chromosome 21. The comparison with comparative genomic hybridization data from primary pancreatic tumors indicates that a specific pattern of chromosomal copy number changes is maintained in cell culture. Metaphase chromosomes from six cell lines were analyzed by spectral karyotyping, a technique that allows one to visualize all chromosomes simultaneously in different colors. Spectral karyotyping identified multiple chromosomal rearrangements, the majority of which were unbalanced. No recurring reciprocal translocation was detected. Cytogenetic aberrations were confirmed using fluorescent in situ hybridization with probes for the MDR gene and the tumor suppressor genes p16 and DCC. Copy number increases on chromosome 20q were validated with a probe specific for the nuclear receptor coactivator AIB1 that maps to chromosome 20q12. Amplification of this gene was identified in six of nine pancreatic cancer cell lines and correlated with increased expression.  (+info)

Treponema brennaborense sp. nov., a novel spirochaete isolated from a dairy cow suffering from digital dermatitis. (7/9173)

A novel Treponema species was isolated from an ulcerative lesion of a cow suffering from digital dermatitis (DD), a disease which causes painful ulcerations along the coronary band. Among other anaerobic bacteria, high numbers of spirochaetes have been regularly found in DD lesions. Here data are presented of a spirochaete isolated from a DD ulcer. By chemotaxonomy, protein analysis and comparative 16S rDNA sequence analysis this isolate was classified as a treponeme that differed from all Treponema species described previously. The only isolate, DD5/3T, for which the name Treponema brennaborense is proposed, is designated the type strain of the novel species. The strain is a small, highly motile spirochaete that has two periplasmic flagella, one flagellum being attached at each cell pole. Strain DD5/3T exhibits alpha-glucosidase and N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase activity and growth is inhibited by rabbit serum. T. brennaborense was phylogenetically most closely related (89.5% 16S rRNA similarity) to Treponema maltophilum, an oral spirochaete isolated from a periodontitis patient.  (+info)

Survey of gene amplifications during prostate cancer progression by high-throughout fluorescence in situ hybridization on tissue microarrays. (8/9173)

Prostate cancer development and progression is driven by the accumulation of genetic changes, the nature of which remains incompletely understood To facilitate high-throughput analysis of molecular events taking place in primary, recurrent, and metastat prostate cancer, we constructed a tissue microarray containing small 0.6-mm cylindrical samples acquired from 371 formalin-fixed blocks, including benign prostatic hyperplasia (n = 32) and primary tumors (n = 223), as well as both locally recurrent tumors (n = 54) and metastases (n = 62) from patients with hormone-refractory disease. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was applied to the analysis of consecutive tissue microarray sections with probes for five different genes. High-level (> or =3X) amplifications were very rare (<2%) in primary prostate cancers However, in metastases from patients with hormone-refractory disease, amplification of the androgen receptor gene was seen in 22%, MYC in 11%, and Cyclin-D1 in 5% of the cases. In specimens from locally recurrent tumors, the corresponding percentages were 23, 4, and 8%. ERBB2 and NMYC amplifications were never detected at any stage of prostate cancer progression. In conclusion, FISH to tissue microarray sections enables high-throughput analysis of genetic alterations contributing to cancer development and progression. Our results implicate a role for amplification of androgen receptor in hormonal therapy failure and that of MYC in the metastatic progression of human prostate cancer.  (+info)

RESULTS. Fluorescence in-situ hybridisation detected 558 (9.5%) patients with chromosomal abnormalities. Abnormal ultrasounds (70%) and maternal serum screens (21%) were the most indicative of chromosomal abnormalities. When comparing fluorescence in-situ hybridisation data with karyotype results for the five chromosomes of interest, the sensitivity and specificity were 99.3% and 99.9%, respectively. When comparing fluorescence in-situ hybridisation data with karyotype results for all chromosomes, the sensitivity decreased to 86.8%, whereas the specificity remained at 99.9%. Of 643 cases with karyotype abnormalities, 85 were fluorescence in-situ hybridisation-negative (false negative rate, 13.2%), which included structural rearrangements, chromosome mosaicism, and other trisomies. Despite abnormal ultrasound indications, fluorescence in-situ hybridisation missed 32 cases which included structural rearrangements, mosaicisms, and other trisomies ...
16120DNAArtificial SequenceYM-1 Forward Primer 1tggaattggt gcccctacaa 20220DNAArtificial SequenceYM-1 Reverse Primer 2aacttgcact gtgtatattg 20318DNAArtificial SequenceYM-2 Forward Primer 3aacctcagac attcatta 18421DNAArtificial SequenceYM-2 Reverse Primer 4tggtccttcc agtaggtaat a 21520DNAArtificial SequenceYM-3 Forward Primer 5tataaatctc catttgacac 20620DNAArtificial SequenceYM-3 Reverse Primer 6cctaatttat tgtccttgac 20728DNAArtificial SequenceAMCase Forward Primer 7atctgcagtg gacacacctt catcctga 28828DNAArtificial SequenceAMCase Reverse Primer 8atgaattcaa caagccctgc ttgacaat 28922DNAArtificial SequenceYM Antisense In Situ Hybridization Probe 9tcctcgagac ccagggtact gc 221024DNAArtificial SequenceYM Sense In Situ Hybridization Probe 10tatctagagg atcttcctac cagc 241129DNAArtificial SequenceAMCase Antisense In Situ Hybridization Probe 11tcgctcgaga acaagccctg cttgacaat 291228DNAArtificial SequenceAMCase sense In Situ Hybridization Probe 12gctctagatg gacacacctt catcctga 281319PRTArtificial ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chromosome microdissection. T2 - A brief overview. AU - Cannizzaro, L. A.. PY - 1996/1/1. Y1 - 1996/1/1. N2 - Chromosome microdissection arose as a means of facilitating long range physical mapping of chromosome regions involved in either a genetic or malignant disorder. However, with the rapid development of improved techniques for mapping and sequencing the human genome, microdissection is considered by many investigators to be a cumbersome and time consuming procedure. Nonetheless, based on the impressive number of informative diagnostic DNA markers that are now available as a result of this technology, microdissection still must be considered one of the most rapid and direct methods available for generating new DNA markers from any chromosome region, irrespective of its sequence composition. In addition, it remains an important means to dissect DNA markers from any organism, eukaryotic and prokaryotic, and has resulted in generating disease associated DNA sequences from both ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular cytogenetic study and chromosome abnormalities in Alzheimers disease. Protease-inhibitory peptides and amyloid beta protein in Alzheimers disease. AU - Ito, H.. AU - Kitaguchi, N.. PY - 1988/7/1. Y1 - 1988/7/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0024046766&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0024046766&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 3065525. AN - SCOPUS:0024046766. VL - 46. SP - 1514. EP - 1520. JO - Nippon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine. JF - Nippon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine. SN - 0047-1852. IS - 7. ER - ...
Before Its News). "Global FISH Probe Market 2016-2020" Order This Report by calling BigMarketResearch.com at +1-971-202-1575.. About FISH Probe. FISH probe is a molecular diagnostic technique that utilizes labeled DNA probes to either detect or confirm gene or abnormalities in the chromosome. Analysts forecast the global fish probe market to grow at a CAGR of 7.34% during the period 2016-2020.. Covered in this report. The report covers the present scenario and the growth prospects of the global fish probe market for 2016-2020. To calculate the market size, we use the revenue generated from the sale of FISH probes.. Get sample copy of report @ https://goo.gl/CQ1yEO. The market is divided into the following segments based on geography:. • Americas. • APAC. • Europe. Global Fish Probe Market 2016-2020, has been prepared based on an in-depth market analysis with inputs from industry experts. The report covers the market landscape and its growth prospects over the coming years. The report also ...
Headline: Bitcoin & Blockchain Searches Exceed Trump! Blockchain Stocks Are Next!. The FISH Probe Industry report covers the present scenario and the growth prospects of the FISH Probe Market for 2016-2020. FISH Probe Market report focuses on the major drivers and restraints for the key players. To calculate the market size, the report considers both the direct revenue and the indirect revenue of the vendors. The global fish probe market to grow at a CAGR of 7.34% during the period 2016-2020.. FISH probe is a molecular diagnostic technique that utilizes labeled DNA probes to either detect or confirm gene or abnormalities in the chromosome.. Browse more detail information about FISH Probe Market Report at: http://www.absolutereports.com/global-fish-probe-market-2016-2020-10351017. The report covers the market landscape and its growth prospects over the coming years. The report also includes a discussion of the key vendors operating in this market.. Key Vendors in FISH Probe Market:. • Agilent ...
Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a valuable cytogenetic technique for the detection and localization of specific DNA or RNA sequences on chromosomes. Typically, this technique can be used to define spatiotemporal expression patterns of target genes. Using fluorescent DNA probes with sequences complementary to the location of the chromosome of interest, gene expression patterns can be easily detected by fluorescence microscopy and further quantitatively analyzed. In addition, improved FISH analysis also allows simultaneous observation of multiple genes by labeling different sequence fragments with different fluorophores.. In plant systems, FISH analysis has been used in a variety of crops, including wheat, rye, cucumber and melon. Based on the information on Lifeasibles official website, Lifeasibles services cover every step of the FISH assay in the plant system:. • Probe designing and construction: aside from commercially available probes, Lifeasible also provides customized ...
Order Gene Specific Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) Probes that have been designed and optimized for the gene of your specific research.
Survival rates for lung cancer are low because patients have disseminated disease at diagnosis; therefore tests for early diagnosis are highly desirable. This pilot study investigated occurrence of chromosomal aneusomy in sputum from a 33 case-control cohort matched on age, gender, and date of sample collection. Subjects had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and , or = 30 pack-years of tobacco use, and aneusomy was tested using a multi-target DNA FISH assay (LAVysion, Abbott/Vysis). In specimens collected within 12 months of lung cancer diagnosis, abnormality was more frequent among the 18 cases (41%) than the 17 controls (6%; P = 0.04). Aneusomy had no significant association with cytologic atypia, which might indicate that molecular and morphological changes could be independent markers of tumorigenesis. Combining both tests, abnormality was found in 83% of the cases and 20% of the controls (P = 0.0004) suggesting that FISH may improve the sensitivity of cytologic atypia as a predictor of ...
Human chromosome-specific DNA libraries: Construction and availability. Bio-Technology 4: 537-552, 1986. Fuscoe JC, et al. Construction of fifteen human chromosome-specific DNA libraries from flow-purified chromosomes. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 43: 79-86, 1986. PubMed: 3780319 Perlman J, Fuscoe JC. Molecular characterization of the purity of seven human chromosome-specific DNA libraries. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 43: 87-96, 1986. PubMed: 3780320 Deaven LL, et al. Construction of human chromosome-specific DNA libraries from flow sorted chromosomes. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 51: 159-167, 1986. PubMed: 3472712 Fuscoe JC. Human chromosome-specific DNA libraries: use of an oligodeoxynucleotide probe to detect non-recombinants. Gene 52: 291-296, 1987. PubMed: 3609744 Marvin Van Dilla, personal communication ...
hybridization (FISH) is a powerful molecular cytogenetic technique which allows rapid detection of aneuploidies on interphase cells and metaphase spreads. The aim of the present study was to evaluate FISH as a tool in prenatal diagnosis of aneuploidies in high risk pregnancies in an Indian set up. Prenatal diagnosis was carried out in 88 high-risk pregnancies using FISH and cytogenetic analysis. Multicolour commercially available FISH probes specific for chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X and Y were used. Interphase FISH was done on uncultured cells from chorionic villus and amniotic fluid samples. FISH on metaphase spreads was done from cord blood samples. The results of FISH were in conformity with the results of cytogenetic analysis in all the normal and aneuploid cases except in one case of structural chromosomal abnormality. The hybridization efficiency of the 5 probes used for the detection of aneuploidies was 100%. Using these probes FISH assay yielded discrete differences in the signal profiles ...
The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of a single oral dose of carbendazim (CARB) on the frequencies of numerical chromosome aberrations in sperm and on micronuclei in peripheral blood erythrocytes of rats. Dual colour FISH on
Purpose: This study aimed to search for predictors of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) efficacy in previously treated patients with advanced squamous cell lung carcinoma in which EGFR mutations are very rare.. Experimental Design: EGFR gene copy numbers were assessed by FISH and evaluated as predictors of EGFR-TKI efficacy in 71 patients with advanced squamous cell lung cancer who received gefitinib or erlotinib as a second-line or higher therapy. The tumors were classified into EGFR/FISH-positive (high polysomy/gene amplification) and EGFR/FISH-negative (other) groups.. Results: EGFR/FISH was positive in 19 (26.7%) patients. Only EGFR/FISH positive status was correlated with the EGFR-TKIs response (EGFR/FISH+ vs. EGFR/FISH−, 26.3% vs. 2.0%; P = 0.005). In a multivariate analysis, the risk of progression was lower in EGFR/FISH-positive patients (HR of EGFR/FISH+ vs. EGFR/FISH−, 0.57; P = 0.057) or patients experiencing grade 2 or more rash (HR for rash ...
Patient management based on HER2 status in breast carcinoma is an archetypical example of personalized medicine but remains hampered by equivocal testing and intratumoral heterogeneity. We developed a fully automated, quantitative, bright-field in situ hybridization technique (RNAscope), applied it to quantify single-cell HER2 mRNA levels in 132 invasive breast carcinomas, and compared the results with those by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) and Food and Drug Administration-approved methods, including fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), IHC, chromogenic in situ hybridization, and dual in situ hybridization. Both RNAscope and qPCR were 97.3% concordant with FISH in cases in which FISH results were unequivocal. RNAscope was superior to qPCR in cases with intratumoral heterogeneity or equivocal FISH results. This novel assay may enable ultimate HER2 status resolution as a reflex test for current testing algorithms. Quantitative in situ RNA measurement at the single-cell level may be ...
TAMGeS genotypes all the possible SNPs by performing three SBE reactions (P 1 , P 2 and U) with different combinations of labelled ddNTPs, hybridized on three identical arrays. Other dual-colour approaches request either a distinct array for each of the possible base changes or the use of one labelled allele-specific probe for each SNP [21, 23, 27].. Most of the existing methods, based both on tetra- and dual-colour approaches, do not succeed in genotyping all the SNPs with equal efficiency; SNPs with a too high data loss are simply discarded from the analysis. If many SNPs are analysed, as in large scale studies or wide genome scans, such a loss of data does not usually compromise the overall informative power of the study. On the contrary, in the context of association studies of candidate genes and SNPs, retrieving maximum information is essential. Our approach guarantees acquisition of reliable data also in those cases where SNP genotyping proves to be difficult. Indeed, with the three-array ...
Results. Comparison of sample recoveries for chromosome 3 fluorescence in-situ hybridization assay and mapping array analysis. Of the 59 patients who underwent FNAB, FISH results were obtained in 38 (64%) of the cases. Parallel, pooled aspirates (range; 2-4) from each patient were processed for simultaneous isolation of DNA and RNA, and the nucleic acid recoveries were determined. Where DNA recoveries exceeded 350 ng, samples were determined to be adequate for mapping array analysis. Of the 59 patients who underwent FNAB, 49 (83%) of the cases yielded adequate DNA, ranging 380-3040 ng. Six of these 49 failed to generate adequate probe for microarray due to melanin coprecipitation. Mapping array data were successfully obtained in the remaining 43 cases (73%) of the total cases. Mapping arrays not only provided data in all 38 cases where FISH data were obtained, but also provided data in five patients in whom FISH data were not obtained.. Comparison of findings of chromosome 3 fluorescence in-situ ...
10p Subtelomere(Texas Red) FISH Probe FE0092-20uL Labeled FISH probes for identification of subtelomere aberrations using Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization Tech
Principal Investigator:Taniwaki Masafumi, Project Period (FY):2016-04-01 - 2019-03-31, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Hematology
We have developed a procedure for efficient in situ hybridization of bacterial recombinants created with various types of large-insert cloning vectors. Minimal quantities of crude DNA are amplified and labeled during the degenerate-oligonucleotide-primed polymerase chain reaction. The resulting probes generate high-intensity fluorescent hybridization signals on metaphase chromosomes and on interphase nuclei.
LandMark™ broad range prestained protein marker(dual color) is a dual color prestained size marker. It is a mixture of 10 recombinant purified and prestained polypeptides whose molecular weights are well-adjusted ranging from 7,000 to 240,000 Da. It is provided preblended in a ready-to-use formula and no reconstitution or further dilution is necessary before use. A blue and pink chromophore is covalently bound to proteins, and 10 prestained proteins are visible during electrophoresis or electrophoretic transfer from the gel to a membrane. The 25 KDa and 70 KDa proteins labeled with orange chromophore offer easy identification and serve as a landmark. Because coupling of chromophore to the proteins affects their apparent molecular weights in SDS-PAGE, unstained protein standard should be used for accuracy ,95%.. ...
An increasing body of evidence indicates that the spatial positioning of genes in the interphase nucleus is highly relevant for their function (Lanctot et al, 2007; Meaburn & Misteli, 2007; Misteli, 2007). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a powerful technique to map gene loci in the interphase nucleus. Depending on protocol FISH can either detect DNA or RNA. Both methods have limitations. DNA FISH only detects the physical location of a gene, but can not detect gene activity. RNA FISH, on the other hand, detects transcripts, but might miss a significant number of alleles, since not all alleles of a gene are necessarily transcribed simultaneously. The most efficient way to map gene loci and their activity is sequential RNA and DNA FISH. This is an important technique to uncover how gene positioning is linked to activity.. Simultaneous detection of RNA and DNA for a gene locus is non-trivial. Procedures during DNA FISH particularly denaturation of cellular DNA, can cause significant ...
Labeled FISH probes for identification of subtelomere aberrations using Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization Technique. (Technology) (FE0030) - Products - Abnova
Labeled FISH probes for identification of subtelomere aberrations using Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization Technique. (Technology) (FE0119) - Products - Abnova
The purpose was to evaluate and compare 5 different HER2 genetic assays with different characteristics that could affect the performance to analyze the human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) gene copy number under low and high throughput conditions. The study included 108 tissue samples from breast cancer patients with HER2 immunohistochemistry (IHC) results scored as 0/1+, 2+, and 3+. HER2 genetic status was analysed using chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Scoring results were documented through digital image analysis. The cancer region of interest was identified from a serial H&E stained slide following tissue cores were transferred to a tissue microarrays (TMA). When using TMA in a routine flow, all patients will be tested for HER2 status with IHC followed by CISH or FISH, thereby providing individual HER2 results. In conclusion, our results show that the differences between the HER2 genetic assays do not have an effect on the analytic ...
Empire Genomics RNA5-8S3 FISH probe is used to detect translocations of the RNA5-8S3 gene and can be labeled in one of five colors, using standard nick translation protocols. Each probe is sold in 20 test kits (~20 slides - 22x22 mm area) and includes hybridization buffer. Order 5 or more of the RNA5-8S3 FISH probe and save 10%!
The FN1 5 FISH Probe is designed to detect the human FN1 gene 5-region located on chromosome band 2q35. FN1 is also known as CIG, ED-B, FINC, FN, FNZ, GFND,GFND2, LETS or MSF. The FN1 5 FISH probe is labeled with CytoGreen. CytoGreen is a fluorophore with an excitation peak at 495nm and emission peak at 518nm, givin
00290] Karyotype analysis. Karyotype analysis was performed by Multicolor FISH analysis (M-FISH). Subconfluent STAPS cells were arrested in metaphase by colcemid (final concentration 0.270 μg/ml) to the culture medium for 2.5 h at 37°C in 5% C02. Cells were washed with PBS, treated with trypsin/ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), resuspended into cell medium and centrifuged for 5 min at 1200 rpm. To the cell pellet in 3 ml of PBS, 7 ml of a prewarmed hypotonic 0.0375 M KC 1 solution was added. Cells were incubated for 20 min at 37°C. Cells were centrifuged for 5 min at 1200 rpm and the pellet was resuspended in 3-5 ml of 0.0375 M KC1 solution. The cells were fixed with methanol/acetic acid (3: 1; vol/vol) by gently pipetting. Fixation was performed four times prior to spreading the cells on glass slides. For the FISH procedure, mouse chromosome-specific painting probes were combinatorially labeled using seven different fluorochromes and hybridized as previously described (Jentsch et al, ...
00290] Karyotype analysis. Karyotype analysis was performed by Multicolor FISH analysis (M-FISH). Subconfluent STAPS cells were arrested in metaphase by colcemid (final concentration 0.270 μg/ml) to the culture medium for 2.5 h at 37°C in 5% C02. Cells were washed with PBS, treated with trypsin/ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), resuspended into cell medium and centrifuged for 5 min at 1200 rpm. To the cell pellet in 3 ml of PBS, 7 ml of a prewarmed hypotonic 0.0375 M KC 1 solution was added. Cells were incubated for 20 min at 37°C. Cells were centrifuged for 5 min at 1200 rpm and the pellet was resuspended in 3-5 ml of 0.0375 M KC1 solution. The cells were fixed with methanol/acetic acid (3: 1; vol/vol) by gently pipetting. Fixation was performed four times prior to spreading the cells on glass slides. For the FISH procedure, mouse chromosome-specific painting probes were combinatorially labeled using seven different fluorochromes and hybridized as previously described (Jentsch et al, ...
Abnova 16q Subtelomere (DEAC) FISH Probe 1 Set Life Sciences:Biochemicals and Reagents:Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FisH) Reagents
Custom FISH Probes - Creative Bioarray is pleased to announce the introduction of custom labeled Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) Probes for a range of molecular and cytogenetic applications. What sets us apart in custom labeled probe manufacturing is our ability to consistently offer high quality locus-specific probes that can be customized to meet the specific needs of researchers and clinicians alike.
В немецком издательстве Springer Verlag вышла книга Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH). Application Guide (с годом издания 2017). Это второе издание сборника протоколов, который был выпущен в 2009 году. Три главы из этой книги написаны сотрудниками Отдела разнообразия и эволюции геномов ИМКБ или при их участии.. Yang F, Trifonov V, Ng BL, Kosyakova N, Carter NP. Generation of paint probes from flow-sorted and microdissected chromosomes. pp. 63-79. Trifonov VA, Vorobieva NV, Serdyukova NA, Rens W. FISH with and without COT1 DNA. pp. 123-132. Yang F, Graphodatsky AS. Animal probes and ZOO-FISH. pp. 395-415. This manual offers detailed protocols for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and comparative genomic hybridization approaches, which have been successfully used to study various aspects of ...
Multicolor fluorescence in-situ hybridization (M-FISH) techniques provide color karyotyping that allows simultaneous analysis of numerical and structural abnormalities of whole human chromosomes. Chromosomes are stained ...
Pre-stained protein markers (10?50 kDa; Bio-Rad, Precision Plus: Dual colour) were used as molecular weight markers on each gel. In order to control for between
The outcome of patients with MM has improved substantially during the last decades as a result of drug development and progress in the understanding of disease biology.11,12 However, even in the era of novel agents some patients with high-risk cytogenetic abnormalities or early relapse after first-line treatment have a dismal outcome.13,14 Clonal heterogeneity and evolution are contributors to disease progression and ultimately refractoriness in MM.6 So far, there are only limited data available that proved clonal evolution in patients relapsing after ASCT for newly diagnosed disease. With our current analysis of 128 patients with FISH data at primary diagnosis and relapse after ASCT we demonstrate that high-risk cytogenetic abnormalities occur more frequently at relapse. This observation was especially due to de novo gains of chromosome 1q and new deletions of chromosome 17p. No changes were observed between primary diagnosis and relapse for defined IGH translocations, including t(4;14).. A ...
That is an essential breakdown. It is very technical and a potential warning to cat guardians, no more.. If you are so predisposed i.e. scientifically minded, you can read the study by clicking on this link (sometimes links to other website break and if that has happened I apologise but I have no control over it). I dont want to write extensively about this study because it is very technically and I am liable to make a mistake. ...
MetaSystems Probes is proud to offer a wide range of high quality DNA probes that reach a new standard in reliability of the results.
MetaSystems Probes is proud to offer a wide range of high quality DNA probes that reach a new standard in reliability of the results.
1. Dual Roles of MDM2 in the Regulation of p53 Ubiquitination Dependent and Ubiquitination Independent Mechanisms of MDM2 A B MDM2 (12q15) Red + Copy Control 12 Green FISH Probe Control Number: 902-7029-121916 Rev: 012015 Repression of p53 Activity. Dingding Shei and Wei Gu. Genes & Cancer March/April 2012 vol. 3 no. 3-4 240-248 ...
The CytoGenomics Core provides an invaluable technical resource to the investigators of the BWH, MGH, and affiliated institutions. Services are also available to external academic and commercial laboratories; these should contact us via our website for sample submission and pricing. Cytogenetic studies can provide insight into regions of the genome that are pathogenetic in various neoplasms leading to an understanding of the molecular pathways participating in the biology of cancer. It is appropriate to consider cytogenetics as a fundamental adjunct to a variety of investigations underway, including basic and clinical research. For example, a rather simple cytogenetic analysis of mouse ES cells to determine ploidy prior to injections into blastulas leads to a greater success rate in establishing founders for knock-out and knock-in experiments. The primary chromosomal assignment of a gene by a FISH experiment may lead to correlation of a disease with that gene. Other cytogenetic studies may be ...
The evaluation of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) images is one of the most widely used methods to determine Her-2/neu status of breast samples, a
Image analysis. 3D image analysis was performed using Imaris software and its XT module. For all images analyzed in 3D, a background subtraction filter was applied. For fluorescence intensity correlation, the regions of interest were first segmented in 3D (the 3-Mb probe for fig. S1E or the single-domain probes for fig. S2B and Fig. 1G). PCCs were then calculated in single cell using the voxels within the regions of interest. To measure the probe density of the single domains (Fig. 1H), we divided the genomic size of the labeled regions by the volume occupied by the 3D-segmented probes (probes with full Oligopaint coverage) in each single nucleus analyzed. To count the number of nanocompartments in the different FISH experiments (and to identify the 3-Mb maxima in fig. S1F), we used the point-like structure function (spots) of Imaris. Examples of nanocompartment identification with this method are shown in Fig. 2F. Distances between nanocompartments were calculated between the centered voxels of ...
The ACMEtool2 (Automated Cell Measuring and Enumeration Tool) is a program that does image analysis in multiple channels. It was developed to analyze aquatic bacterial cells, concentrated on filter membranes and stained, usually with DAPI (4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) and FISH (fluorescent in-situ hybridization). It can also be used for simple cell counting, or more complex experiments, such as microautoradiograpy combined with FISH, or geneFISH. It can yield cell volumes, and signal intensities, and it was also applied on other objects than bacteria, i.e. erythrocytes and worm tissue. The program requires 8 bit grayscale images that follow a specific naming scheme, explained in the tutorial. It was specifically designed to be an easy and highly flexible tool to rapidly evaluate thousands of images in high throughput. The program is available for free for any non-commercial purpose. However, it is a time-limited beta version. The program will expire after the beta phase, there will be a free ...
Preferred Specimen: > or = 33 mL voided urine mixed 2:1 with PreservCyt. Transfer 50 mL to tightly-capped plastic container (50 mL minimum) Transport Container: Plastic urine container Transport Temperature: Refrigerated Methodology: FISH Assay Category: FDA Approved/ ...
... uses fluorescent molecules to vividly paint genes or chromosomes. This technique is particularly useful for gene mapping and for identifying chromosomal abnormalities.
Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), developed in 1980s, is a cytogenetic technique ... transcripts within tissue sections or whole mounts.
Definition : Molecular assay reagents intended to determine the level at which certain genes are expressed (i.e., the gene activity) in a tissue sample. The tissue sample is analyzed to determine the presence or levels of nucleic acids, proteins, and/or other molecular products by one or more of a variety of methods, such as reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH), or microarray analysis. The overexpression or underexpression of these genes may be associated with the likelihood of certain patient outcomes. Gene expression tests are frequently used to determine appropriate (e.g., drug-specific) treatment, identify the tissue of origin for tumors with unclear pathology, and/or to obtain a more precise estimate of the risk of disease recurrence.. Entry Terms : "Gene Expression Molecular Assay Reagents" , "Reagents, Molecular Assay, Gene Expression". UMDC code : 26998 ...
Product Name: AMICIDE-M EPA Registration Number: 1448-171-49624 Use: Industrial Type: Fungicide Status: Not Registered ‡ Toxicity Statement: Fish Signal
Average number of days the signal pattern seen within BrainPulse recordings from confirmed concussed subjects from the initial recording persist over the course of the 21 day follow up period ...
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"An integrated microfluidic chip for chromosome enumeration using fluorescence in situ hybridization". Lab on a Chip. 8 (12): ... fluorescence resonance energy transfer) in optical signal indicates a reaction has occurred. Fluorescence-based detection has ... In situ microscopy assays with microfluidic cell cultures may help in this regard, but have inherently lower throughput due to ... Optical detection includes fluorescence-based techniques, chemiluminescence-based techniques, and surface plasmon resonance ( ...
... in situ hybridization https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1iRynlXIJw0 A detailed description of Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization ... Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)is the most widely used riboprobe technique. A target sequence and a probe are ... Clare, O'Connor (2008). "Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH)". Nature Education. 1: 171. Lajtha, Abel (2007). Handbook of ... www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization-fish-327# Riboprobe In Vitro Transcription Systems ...
"Localization of the human collagen gene COL7A1 to 3p21.3 by fluorescence in situ hybridization". Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics ...
1 by fluorescence in situ hybridization". Genomics. 40 (1): 213-5. doi:10.1006/geno.1996.4540. PMID 9070952. Ladner RD, ...
... q23 by fluorescence in situ hybridization". Cytogenet Cell Genet. 68 (1-2): 122-124. doi:10.1159/000133905. PMID 7956350. ... to band 15q22 by fluorescence in situ hybridization". Cytogenet Cell Genet. 69 (1-2): 15-17. doi:10.1159/000133928. PMID ... to band 9p13 by fluorescence in situ hybridization". Cytogenet Cell Genet. 71 (1): 94-95. doi:10.1159/000134070. PMID 7606936. ... to band 19p13.1 by fluorescence in situ hybridization". Cytogenet Cell Genet. 72 (4): 294-296. doi:10.1159/000134206. PMID ...
"Chromosomal mapping of the human histone gene H2AZ to 4q24 by fluorescence in situ hybridization". Genomics. 20 (2): 333-5. doi ...
... q13.2 by fluorescence in situ hybridization". Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics. 71 (2): 179-81. doi:10.1159/000134102. PMID ... this was done using fluorescence in situ hybridization. BLVRB encodes a protein that is a 206-residue monomeric enzyme. The ...
and Lansdorp, PM (2001) "Quantitative Fluorescence in-situ Hybridization." Current Protocols in Cell Biology (University of ... Quantitative Fluorescent in situ hybridization (Q-FISH) is a cytogenetic technique based on the traditional FISH methodology. ... Following hybridization, thousands of cells can be analyzed on a flow cytometer in a relatively short time. However, Flow-FISH ... A small volume of the hybridization mixture is placed onto a coverslip and then placed gently onto the microscope slide which ...
Detection is done by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Larger chromosomal deletion syndromes are detectable using ...
"Characterization of extensive genetic alterations in ductal carcinoma in situ by fluorescence in situ hybridization and ... Rowley JD (June 1973). "Identification of a translocation with quinacrine fluorescence in a patient with acute leukemia". Ann. ... "Inferring tree models for oncogenesis from comparative genome hybridization data". J. Comput. Biol. 6 (1): 37-51. doi:10.1089/ ... detected both by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH),[32] and array CGH,[38]) and karyotypic variations including ...
... and X in T-prolymphocytic leukemia studied by fluorescence in situ hybridization". Cancer Genet. Cytogenet. 103 (2): 110-6. doi ...
Transcription factories can also be localized using fluorescence in situ hybridization or marked by antibodies directed against ... In situ hybridization: detects the presence of a transcript. *MS2 tagging: by incorporating RNA stem loops, such as MS2, into a ... With the notable exception of in situ techniques, most other methods provide cell population averages, and are not capable of ...
1998). "Regional mapping of the human MP70 (Cx50; connexin 50) gene by fluorescence in situ hybridization to 1q21.1". Mol. Vis ...
Finally, using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), Kashuba et al. were able to map the RAB7A gene to 3q21 in 1997. RAB7a ...
3 by fluorescence in situ hybridization and radiation hybrid mapping". Genomics. 50 (1): 112-4. doi:10.1006/geno.1998.5227. ...
The Syndrome can be detected with fluorescence in situ hybridization. For parents with a child with the syndrome, it is ...
Chromosomal localization of the human histone H2A.X gene to 11q23.2-q23.3 by fluorescence in situ hybridization. . In: Hum. ...
... sex pre-selection of spermatozoa by albumin separation method evaluated by double-labelled fluorescence in-situ hybridization ...
... p15.4 by fluorescence in situ hybridization". Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics. 65 (3): 184-5. doi:10.1159/000133628. PMID ... molecular mechanisms for agonist peptide binding to types A and B cholecystokinin receptors demonstrated using fluorescence ...
alboglabra by fluorescence in situ hybridization" - Nature "Chromonema and chromomere" - Springerlink. ...
"Assignment of the human gene for KBF2/RBP-Jk to chromosome 9p12-13 and 9q13 by fluorescence in situ hybridization". The ...
"Reassignment of MYCL1 to human chromosome 1p34.3 by fluorescence in situ hybridization". Cytogenet Cell Genet. 72 (2-3): 189- ... "Allelic deletions of Rb and L-myc in urine sediments from patients with bladder tumors or carcinoma in situ". Oncol. Rep. 9 (3 ...
... constitutive expression and localization by fluorescence in situ hybridization". Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. 85 (1-2): 123-32. ... and localization by fluorescent in situ hybridization". J. Neurochem. 72 (3): 1170-8. doi:10.1046/j.1471-4159.1999.0721170.x. ...
"Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of the prokaryotic community inhabiting crystallizer ponds". Environmental ... This is seen in cases such as the genus Haloarcula, which is estimated to make up less than 0.1% of the in situ community, but ... from these suggest that some of the most readily isolated and studied genera may not in fact be significant in the in situ ...
Chromosomal assignment of human nuclear envelope protein genes LMNA, LMNB1, and LBR by fluorescence in situ hybridization. ...
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Fluorescence in situ hybridization.. *Fluorescent+in+Situ+Hybridization at the US ... Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a molecular cytogenetic technique that uses fluorescent probes that bind to only ... Fluorescence in situ Hybridization Photos of bacteria. *Rational design of polynucleotide probe mixes to identify particular ... In-Solution Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization and Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting for Single Cell and Population Genome ...
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Fluorescence in situ hybridization.. *Fluorescent+in+Situ+Hybridization at the US ... Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a molecular cytogenetic technique that uses fluorescent probes that bind to only ... Fluorescence in situ Hybridization Photos of bacteria. *Rational design of polynucleotide probe mixes to identify particular ... In-Solution Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization and Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting for Single Cell and Population Genome ...
... can be used to identify as many labeled features as there are different fluorophores used in the hybridization. ... Multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), in its simplest form, ... Fluorescence in situ Hybridization. Hardware and Software Implications in the Research Laboratory. Nearly a quarter-century has ... Multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), in its simplest form, can be used to identify as many labeled features as ...
Application of fluorescence in situ hybridization in the detection of bladder transitional-cell carcinoma: A multi-center ... Detection of Bladder Cancer in Urine Sediments by a Novel Multicolor Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (Quartet) Test. Bladder ... We aimed to design a multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) test referred to as the quartet test for the ... The aim of the present study was to estimate the diagnostic value of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of ...
A Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization System for Karyotyping Soybean. Seth D. Findley, Steven Cannon, Kranthi Varala, Jianchang ... A Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization System for Karyotyping Soybean Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... A Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization System for Karyotyping Soybean. Seth D. Findley, Steven Cannon, Kranthi Varala, Jianchang ... A Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization System for Karyotyping Soybean. Seth D. Findley, Steven Cannon, Kranthi Varala, Jianchang ...
An in situ hybridization approach to labeling DNA and RNA targets in the specimen using oligonucleotide-based fluorescent ... Fluorescence in situ Hybridization. Referred to as FISH, the technique is used primarily for chromosomal analysis. ... An in situ hybridization approach to labeling DNA and RNA targets in the specimen using oligonucleotide-based fluorescent ...
Genomic in situhybridization (GISH) demonstrates the high level of overall similarity... ... Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has been used to analyse the structure of the rye B chromosome. ... Fluorescencein situ hybridization (FISH) has been used to analyse the structure of the rye B chromosome. Genomicin situ ... B chromosome DNA sequence composition fluorescencein situ hybridization repetitive sequence Secale cereale translocations ...
... Xingwei Wang,1 Xiaodong ... Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) tests provide promising molecular imaging biomarkers to more accurately and reliably ... In this study, a dual-detector fluorescence image scanning system was applied to scan four specimen slides with FISH-probed ...
F1SH stands for Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (cancer detection). F1SH is defined as Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization ( ... How is Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (cancer detection) abbreviated? ... www.acronymfinder.com/Fluorescence-in-Situ-Hybridization-(cancer-detection)-(F1SH).html. *Chicago style: Acronym Finder. S.v. " ... www.acronymfinder.com/Fluorescence-in-Situ-Hybridization-(cancer-detection)-(F1SH).html. *APA style: F1SH. (n.d.) Acronym ...
... on WN Network delivers the latest Videos and Editable pages for News & Events, including ... Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Industry Overview 1.1 Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Definition 1.2 Fluorescence In Situ ... Fluorescence in situ hybridization. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a cytogenetic technique that uses fluorescent ... Fluorescence in situ hybridization. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a cytogenetic technique that uses fluorescent ...
Unstimulated bone marrow/blood culture or direct preparation and fluorescence in situ (FISH) hybridization with commercially ...
Here, we report the development of a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) based method for detecting malaria infection in ... Fluorescent in situ hybridization Is the Subject Area "Fluorescent in situ hybridization" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ... Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a cytogenetic technique used to detect and localize the specific nucleic acid (DNA ... 2015) Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) Assays for Diagnosing Malaria in Endemic Areas. PLoS ONE 10(9): e0136726. https ...
Strand-specific fluorescence in situ hybridization: the CO-FISH family.. Bailey SM1, Goodwin EH, Cornforth MN. ... When single-stranded probes are then hybridized to such targets, the resulting strand-specific hybridization is capable of ... Standard FISH methodologies require functionally single-stranded DNAs in order to facilitate hybridization between the probe ... In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence/methods*. *In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence/trends. Grant support. *76260/PHS HHS/United ...
We present a novel method for real-time monitoring and kinetic analysis of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). We ... In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye ... The simultaneous identification of all chromosomes from a cell by fluorescence in situ hybridization (IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION, ... In this study, investigators assess, using Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) and Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH ...
Identification of spatially associated subpopulations by combining scRNA-seq and sequential fluorescence in situ hybridization ... Identification of spatially associated subpopulations by combining scRNA-seq and sequential fluorescence in situ hybridization ... Identification of spatially associated subpopulations by combining scRNA-seq and sequential fluorescence in situ hybridization ... Identification of spatially associated subpopulations by combining scRNA-seq and sequential fluorescence in situ hybridization ...
... *INTERPHASE FLUORESCENCE IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION ... INTERPHASE FLUORESCENCE IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION TEST FOR HAEMATOLOGICAL MALIGNANCIES. *INTERPHASE FLUORESCENCE IN SITU ... RAPID ANEUPLOIDY SCREENING WITH FLUORESCENCE IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION TEST. *RAPID ANEUPLOIDY SCREENING WITH FLUORESCENCE IN SITU ... INTERPHASE FLUORESENCE IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION PANEL TEST FOR GLIOMA. *INTERPHASE FLUORESENCE IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION PANEL TEST ...
Using spectrally distinct fluorophore labels for each hybridization probe, this approach gives you the power to resolve several ... Multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) enables you to assay multiple targets and visualize colocalized signals in ... Simultaneous detection of expression of five genes in a whole-mount Drosophila embryo by fluorescence in situ hybridization ( ... Four-color fluorescence in situ hybridization on a Drosophila embryo. A late blastoderm stage (nuclear cycle 14) embryo was ...
RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for Cre mRNA in genetically identical cells in which expression of Cre is ... RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for Cre mRNA in genetically identical cells in which expression of Cre is ...
GFP labelled actin and β-actin fluorescence in situ hybridiation (FISH) images were taken at specific wavelengths with a ... In addition, individual chromosomes are viewed in metaphase using triple-wavelength fluorescence illumination and detection. ... Application Article: Brightfield and Fluorescence Imaging using 3D PrimeSurface Ultra-Low Attachment Microplates ...
Fluorescence in situ hybridization. Revision as of 09:32, 18 March 2009 by Honee_v (Talk , contribs) (updated page) ... Retrieved from "http://www.biology-online.org/bodict/index.php?title=Fluorescence_in_situ_hybridization&oldid=95921" ...
We evaluated a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay, which has previously been shown to be of value for the ... Distinction of conjunctival melanocytic nevi from melanomas by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Authors. *. Klaus J. Busam, ... Gerardo Ferrara, Anna Chiara De Vanna, Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization for Melanoma Diagnosis, The American Journal of ... Distinction of conjunctival melanocytic nevi from melanomas by fluorescence in situ hybridization. ...
Lee SH, Ryu JA, Do GS, Seo BB, Park JH, Kim IS and Song SD (1998) Chromosome analysis by fluorescence in situ hybridization of ... platyphyllum Sequential fluorescence in situ hybridization Informative factor Independent localization This is a preview of ... Lee SH and Seo BB (1997) Chromosomal localization of 5S and 18S-26S rRNA genes using fluorescence in situ hybridization in ... platyphyllum by sequential fluorescence in situ hybridization in accordance with sequence polymorphism. ...
Update on fluorescence in situ hybridization. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2011;135:830-837.. *Web of Science® Times Cited: 18 ... Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) as an ancillary diagnostic tool in the diagnosis of melanoma. Am J Surg Pathol 2009; ... Fluorescence in situ hybridization for ambiguous melanocytic tumors. Histol Histopathol 2012;27:1539-1542.. *CAS, ... Fluorescence in-situ hybridization analysis for melanoma diagnosis. Histopathology 2012;60:706-714.. Direct Link: ...
FISH is a sensitive and useful adjunct to cytogenetic testing for the detection of abnormalities of chromosomal structure or numbers (eg, deletions, translocations, duplications, aneuploidy). It is often the method of choice for detection of microdeletions.. Prenatal: Interphase FISH is a rapid diagnostic test when one of the commonly occurring trisomies (21, 18, 13) or a sex chromosome abnormality is suspected. It is a useful adjunct but cannot replace full karyotyping.. Oncology: FISH can detect a number of translocations (eg, BCR-ABL; MLL; PML/RARA; TEL/AML1) associated with haematological malignancies and can be used to monitor minimal residual disease after chemotherapy and/or bone marrow transplantation.. It can also detect gene amplifications (eg, MYC/MYCN) associated with an adverse prognosis for certain tumours.. Following sex mismatched bone marrow transplantation, FISH can be used to confirm engraftment.. In disorders such as CLL or Plasma cell myeloma where it may be difficult to ...
... ,, Previous Message , Next Message ,, From:. Carol Burden ,[email protected], (by ... [email protected] wrote: Hello Histonetters, I would like to do fluorescence in situ hybridization on paraffin ...
... and comparative genomic hybridization approaches, which have been successfully used to study various aspects of geno ... This manual offers detailed protocols for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) ... This manual offers detailed protocols for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and comparative genomic hybridization ... Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization onto DNA Fibres Generated Using Molecular Combing Sandra Louzada, Jun Komatsu, Fengtang Yang ...
  • The development of in situ techniques provides us with valuable information about the location and expression patterns of genes in individual cells. (abnewswire.com)
  • However, cystoscopy is invasive, is expensive, and has poor sensitivity in detecting flat urothelial lesions such as carcinoma in situ. (bookaride.net)