In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.RNA Probes: RNA, usually prepared by transcription from cloned DNA, which complements a specific mRNA or DNA and is generally used for studies of virus genes, distribution of specific RNA in tissues and cells, integration of viral DNA into genomes, transcription, etc. Whereas DNA PROBES are preferred for use at a more macroscopic level for detection of the presence of DNA/RNA from specific species or subspecies, RNA probes are preferred for genetic studies. Conventional labels for the RNA probe include radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. RNA probes may be further divided by category into plus-sense RNA probes, minus-sense RNA probes, and antisense RNA probes.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Digoxigenin: 3 beta,12 beta,14-Trihydroxy-5 beta-card-20(22)-enolide. A cardenolide which is the aglycon of digoxin. Can be obtained by hydrolysis of digoxin or from Digitalis orientalis L. and Digitalis lanata Ehrh.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Oligonucleotide Probes: Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Comparative Genomic Hybridization: A method for comparing two sets of chromosomal DNA by analyzing differences in the copy number and location of specific sequences. It is used to look for large sequence changes such as deletions, duplications, amplifications, or translocations.Gene Amplification: A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Chromosome Banding: Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.Translocation, Genetic: A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.Carcinoma in Situ: A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Aneuploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Gene Dosage: The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Primed In Situ Labeling: A technique that labels specific sequences in whole chromosomes by in situ DNA chain elongation or PCR (polymerase chain reaction).Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Paraffin Embedding: The infiltrating of tissue specimens with paraffin, as a supporting substance, to prepare for sectioning with a microtome.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Nucleic Acid Probes: Nucleic acid which complements a specific mRNA or DNA molecule, or fragment thereof; used for hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms and for genetic studies.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Cytogenetic Analysis: Examination of CHROMOSOMES to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.Chromosome Deletion: Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Peptide Nucleic Acids: DNA analogs containing neutral amide backbone linkages composed of aminoethyl glycine units instead of the usual phosphodiester linkage of deoxyribose groups. Peptide nucleic acids have high biological stability and higher affinity for complementary DNA or RNA sequences than analogous DNA oligomers.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Genes, erbB-2: The erbB-2 gene is a proto-oncogene that codes for the erbB-2 receptor (RECEPTOR, ERBB-2), a protein with structural features similar to the epidermal growth factor receptor. Its name originates from the viral oncogene homolog (v-erbB) which is a truncated form of the chicken erbB gene found in the avian erythroblastosis virus. Overexpression and amplification of the gene is associated with a significant number of adenocarcinomas. The human c-erbB-2 gene is located at 17q21.2.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 12: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Y Chromosome: The male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans and in some other male-heterogametic species in which the homologue of the X chromosome has been retained.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Interphase: The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).Chromosomes, Human: Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Cytogenetics: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the cytological and molecular analysis of the CHROMOSOMES, and location of the GENES on chromosomes, and the movements of chromosomes during the CELL CYCLE.Embryonic and Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.Chromosome Painting: A technique for visualizing CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS using fluorescently labeled DNA probes which are hybridized to chromosomal DNA. Multiple fluorochromes may be attached to the probes. Upon hybridization, this produces a multicolored, or painted, effect with a unique color at each site of hybridization. This technique may also be used to identify cross-species homology by labeling probes from one species for hybridization with chromosomes from another species.Gene Rearrangement: The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.Molecular Probe Techniques: The use of devices which use detector molecules to detect, investigate, or analyze other molecules, macromolecules, molecular aggregates, or organisms.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 14: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 18: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Chromosome Disorders: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 3: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Tissue Fixation: The technique of using FIXATIVES in the preparation of cytologic, histologic, or pathologic specimens for the purpose of maintaining the existing form and structure of all the constituent elements.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 13: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Metaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Trisomy: The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.Receptor, erbB-2: A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.Antisense Elements (Genetics): Nucleic acids which hybridize to complementary sequences in other target nucleic acids causing the function of the latter to be affected.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Centromere: The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22: A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromogenic Compounds: Colorless, endogenous or exogenous pigment precursors that may be transformed by biological mechanisms into colored compounds; used in biochemical assays and in diagnosis as indicators, especially in the form of enzyme substrates. Synonym: chromogens (not to be confused with pigment-synthesizing bacteria also called chromogens).X Chromosome: The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.Hybrid Cells: Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Cosmids: Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.Nerve Tissue ProteinsNeurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Ploidies: The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.Chromosome Breakage: A type of chromosomal aberration involving DNA BREAKS. Chromosome breakage can result in CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; or SEQUENCE DELETION.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).RNA, Ribosomal: The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Tumor Virus Infections: Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.Papillomaviridae: A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 20: A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 15: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 6: A specific pair GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Biotin: A water-soluble, enzyme co-factor present in minute amounts in every living cell. It occurs mainly bound to proteins or polypeptides and is abundant in liver, kidney, pancreas, yeast, and milk.Polyploidy: The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.RNA, Ribosomal, 18S: Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Formaldehyde: A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Mice, Inbred C57BLMonosomy: The condition in which one chromosome of a pair is missing. In a normally diploid cell it is represented symbolically as 2N-1.Chromosomes, Artificial, Yeast: Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.Tissue Array Analysis: The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.RNA, Neoplasm: RNA present in neoplastic tissue.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.DNA, Satellite: Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Chromosomes, Human, Pair 21: A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Nervous System: The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 5: One of the two pairs of human chromosomes in the group B class (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 4-5).Chromosomes, Human, Pair 16: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Physical Chromosome Mapping: Mapping of the linear order of genes on a chromosome with units indicating their distances by using methods other than genetic recombination. These methods include nucleotide sequencing, overlapping deletions in polytene chromosomes, and electron micrography of heteroduplex DNA. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 5th ed)Chromosomes, Human, Pair 4: A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Abnormalities, MultipleChromosomes, Human, X: The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.DNA Probes, HPV: DNA probes specific for the identification of human papilloma virus.Telomere: A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Zebrafish Proteins: Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19: A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Silver Staining: The use of silver, usually silver nitrate, as a reagent for producing contrast or coloration in tissue specimens.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 2: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Spectral Karyotyping: The simultaneous identification of all chromosomes from a cell by fluorescence in situ hybridization (IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION, FLUORESCENCE) with chromosome-specific florescent probes that are discerned by their different emission spectra.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Genomic Library: A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Oligonucleotides: Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Genes, Homeobox: Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.Mosaicism: The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Oncogene Proteins, Fusion: The GENETIC TRANSLATION products of the fusion between an ONCOGENE and another gene. The latter may be of viral or cellular origin.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Spermatozoa: Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
The surface ectoderm is essential for nephric duct formation in intermediate mesoderm. (1/18351)The nephric duct is the first epithelial tubule to differentiate from intermediate mesoderm that is essential for all further urogenital development. In this study we identify the domain of intermediate mesoderm that gives rise to the nephric duct and demonstrate that the surface ectoderm is required for its differentiation. Removal of the surface ectoderm resulted in decreased levels of Sim-1 and Pax-2 mRNA expression in mesenchymal nephric duct progenitors, and caused inhibition of nephric duct formation and subsequent kidney development. The surface ectoderm expresses BMP-4 and we show that it is required for the maintenance of high-level BMP-4 expression in lateral plate mesoderm. Addition of a BMP-4-coated bead to embryos lacking the surface ectoderm restored normal levels of Sim-1 and Pax-2 mRNA expression in nephric duct progenitors, nephric duct formation and the initiation of nephrogenesis. Thus, BMP-4 signaling can substitute for the surface ectoderm in supporting nephric duct morphogenesis. Collectively, these data suggest that inductive interactions between the surface ectoderm, lateral mesoderm and intermediate mesoderm are essential for nephric duct formation and the initiation of urogenital development. (+info)
Ultrabithorax function in butterfly wings and the evolution of insect wing patterns. (2/18351)BACKGROUND: . The morphological and functional evolution of appendages has played a critical role in animal evolution, but the developmental genetic mechanisms underlying appendage diversity are not understood. Given that homologous appendage development is controlled by the same Hox gene in different organisms, and that Hox genes are transcription factors, diversity may evolve from changes in the regulation of Hox target genes. Two impediments to understanding the role of Hox genes in morphological evolution have been the limited number of organisms in which Hox gene function can be studied and the paucity of known Hox-regulated target genes. We have therefore analyzed a butterfly homeotic mutant 'Hindsight', in which portions of the ventral hindwing pattern are transformed to ventral forewing identity, and we have compared the regulation of target genes by the Ultrabithorax (Ubx) gene product in Lepidopteran and Dipteran hindwings. RESULTS: . We show that Ubx gene expression is lost from patches of cells in developing Hindsight hindwings, correlating with changes in wing pigmentation, color pattern elements, and scale morphology. We use this mutant to study how regulation of target genes by Ubx protein differs between species. We find that several Ubx-regulated genes in the Drosophila haltere are not repressed by Ubx in butterfly hindwings, but that Distal-less (Dll) expression is regulated by Ubx in a unique manner in butterflies. CONCLUSIONS: . The morphological diversification of insect hindwings has involved the acquisition of different sets of target genes by Ubx in different lineages. Changes in Hox-regulated target gene sets are, in general, likely to underlie the morphological divergence of homologous structures between animals. (+info)
Association of snRNA genes with coiled bodies is mediated by nascent snRNA transcripts. (3/18351)BACKGROUND: Coiled bodies are nuclear organelles that are highly enriched in small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs) and certain basal transcription factors. Surprisingly, coiled bodies not only contain mature U snRNPs but also associate with specific chromosomal loci, including gene clusters that encode U snRNAs and histone messenger RNAs. The mechanism(s) by which coiled bodies associate with these genes is completely unknown. RESULTS: Using stable cell lines, we show that artificial tandem arrays of human U1 and U2 snRNA genes colocalize with coiled bodies and that the frequency of the colocalization depends directly on the transcriptional activity of the array. Association of the genes with coiled bodies was abolished when the artificial U2 arrays contained promoter mutations that prevent transcription or when RNA polymerase II transcription was globally inhibited by alpha-amanitin. Remarkably, the association was also abolished when the U2 snRNA coding regions were replaced by heterologous sequences. CONCLUSIONS: The requirement for the U2 snRNA coding region indicates that association of snRNA genes with coiled bodies is mediated by the nascent U2 RNA itself, not by DNA or DNA-bound proteins. Our data provide the first evidence that association of genes with a nuclear organelle can be directed by an RNA and suggest an autogenous feedback regulation model. (+info)
Deletion analysis of the Drosophila Inscuteable protein reveals domains for cortical localization and asymmetric localization. (4/18351)The Drosophila Inscuteable protein acts as a key regulator of asymmetric cell division during the development of the nervous system  . In neuroblasts, Inscuteable localizes into an apical cortical crescent during late interphase and most of mitosis. During mitosis, Inscuteable is required for the correct apical-basal orientation of the mitotic spindle and for the asymmetric segregation of the proteins Numb   , Prospero    and Miranda   into the basal daughter cell. When Inscuteable is ectopically expressed in epidermal cells, which normally orient their mitotic spindle parallel to the embryo surface, these cells reorient their mitotic spindle and divide perpendicularly to the surface . Like the Inscuteable protein, the inscuteable RNA is asymmetrically localized . We show here that inscuteable RNA localization is not required for Inscuteable protein localization. We found that a central 364 amino acid domain - the Inscuteable asymmetry domain - was necessary and sufficient for Inscuteable localization and function. Within this domain, a separate 100 amino acid region was required for asymmetric localization along the cortex, whereas a 158 amino acid region directed localization to the cell cortex. The same 158 amino acid fragment could localize asymmetrically when coexpressed with the full-length protein, however, and could bind to Inscuteable in vitro, suggesting that this domain may be involved in the self-association of Inscuteable in vivo. (+info)
The role of RBF in the introduction of G1 regulation during Drosophila embryogenesis. (5/18351)The first appearance of G1 during Drosophila embryogenesis, at cell cycle 17, is accompanied by the down-regulation of E2F-dependent transcription. Mutant alleles of rbf were generated and analyzed to determine the role of RBF in this process. Embryos lacking both maternal and zygotic RBF products show constitutive expression of PCNA and RNR2, two E2F-regulated genes, indicating that RBF is required for their transcriptional repression. Despite the ubiquitous expression of E2F target genes, most epidermal cells enter G1 normally. Rather than pausing in G1 until the appropriate time for cell cycle progression, many of these cells enter an ectopic S-phase. These results indicate that the repression of E2F target genes by RBF is necessary for the maintenance but not the initiation of a G1 phase. The phenotype of RBF-deficient embryos suggests that rbf has a function that is complementary to the roles of dacapo and fizzy-related in the introduction of G1 during Drosophila embryogenesis. (+info)
JunB is essential for mammalian placentation. (6/18351)Lack of JunB, an immediate early gene product and member of the AP-1 transcription factor family causes embryonic lethality between E8.5 and E10.0. Although mutant embryos are severely retarded in growth and development, cellular proliferation is apparently not impaired. Retardation and embryonic death are caused by the inability of JunB-deficient embryos to establish proper vascular interactions with the maternal circulation due to multiple defects in extra-embryonic tissues. The onset of the phenotypic defects correlates well with high expression of junB in wild-type extra-embryonic tissues. In trophoblasts, the lack of JunB causes a deregulation of proliferin, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) gene expression, resulting in a defective neovascularization of the decidua. As a result of downregulation of the VEGF-receptor 1 (flt-1), blood vessels in the yolk sac mesoderm appeared dilated. Mutant embryos which escape these initial defects finally die from a non-vascularized placental labyrinth. Injection of junB-/- embryonic stem (ES) cells into tetraploid wild-type blastocysts resulted in a partial rescue, in which the ES cell-derived fetuses were no longer growth retarded and displayed a normal placental labyrinth. Therefore, JunB appears to be involved in multiple signaling pathways regulating genes involved in the establishment of a proper feto-maternal circulatory system. (+info)
Loss-of-function mutations in the rice homeobox gene OSH15 affect the architecture of internodes resulting in dwarf plants. (7/18351)The rice homeobox gene OSH15 (Oryza sativa homeobox) is a member of the knotted1-type homeobox gene family. We report here on the identification and characterization of a loss-of-function mutation in OSH15 from a library of retrotransposon-tagged lines of rice. Based on the phenotype and map position, we have identified three independent deletion alleles of the locus among conventional morphological mutants. All of these recessive mutations, which are considered to be null alleles, exhibit defects in internode elongation. Introduction of a 14 kbp genomic DNA fragment that includes all exons, introns and 5'- and 3'- flanking sequences of OSH15 complemented the defects in internode elongation, confirming that they were caused by the loss-of-function of OSH15. Internodes of the mutants had abnormal-shaped epidermal and hypodermal cells and showed an unusual arrangement of small vascular bundles. These mutations demonstrate a role for OSH15 in the development of rice internodes. This is the first evidence that the knotted1-type homeobox genes have roles other than shoot apical meristem formation and/or maintenance in plant development. (+info)
The mouse Aire gene: comparative genomic sequencing, gene organization, and expression. (8/18351)Mutations in the human AIRE gene (hAIRE) result in the development of an autoimmune disease named APECED (autoimmune polyendocrinopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystrophy; OMIM 240300). Previously, we have cloned hAIRE and shown that it codes for a putative transcription-associated factor. Here we report the cloning and characterization of Aire, the murine ortholog of hAIRE. Comparative genomic sequencing revealed that the structure of the AIRE gene is highly conserved between human and mouse. The conceptual proteins share 73% homology and feature the same typical functional domains in both species. RT-PCR analysis detected three splice variant isoforms in various mouse tissues, and interestingly one isoform was conserved in human, suggesting potential biological relevance of this product. In situ hybridization on mouse and human histological sections showed that AIRE expression pattern was mainly restricted to a few cells in the thymus, calling for a tissue-specific function of the gene product. (+info)
Visual search of neuropil-enriched RNAs from brain in situ hybridization data through the image analysis pipeline hippo-ATESC.
Abstract MOTIVATION: RNA molecules specifically enriched in the neuropil of neuronal cells and in particular in dendritic spines are of great interest for neurobiology in virtue of their involvement in synaptic structure and plasticity. The systematic recognition of such molecules is therefore a very important task. High resolution images of RNA in situ hybridization experiments contained in the Allen Brain Atlas (ABA) represent a very rich resource to identify them and have been so far exploited for this task through human-expert analysis. However, software tools that may automatically address the same objective are not very well developed. RESULTS: In this study we describe an automatic method for exploring in situ hybridization data and discover neuropil-enriched RNAs in the mouse hippocampus. We called it Hippo-ATESC (Automatic Texture Extraction from the Hippocampal region using Soft Computing). Bioinformatic validation showed that the Hippo-ATESC is very efficient in the recognition of ...
iRepository at Perpustakaan UniMAP: Nanogap biosensor development for DNA immobilization and hybridization detection
In the past two decades, the biological and medical fields have seen great advances in the development of biosensors and biochips capable of characterizing and quantifying biomolecules. To understand the important relationship between the biosensor and nano structure we introduce this proposal to fabricate and characterize the nanogap using size reduction technique for ss-DNA immobilization and hybridization detection . In this review, 2 masks designs are proposed. The first mask is the lateral nanogap with gold electrode and the second mask is for pad gold electrode pattern. Lateral nanogap is introduced in the fabrication process using silicon for nanogap and gold for electrode. Conventional photolithography and E- Beam lithography techniques are used to fabricate this nanogap (NG) based on the standard CMOS technology and the characterization of its conductivity together with its effect during sensing is investigated in this research ...
Bright-field In Situ Hybridization for HER2 Gene Amplification in Breast Cancer Using Tissue Microarrays Correlation Between...
Introduction: HER2 gene amplification or overexpression occurs in 15% to 25% of breast cancers and has implications for treatment and prognosis. The most commonly used methods for HER2 testing are fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunohistochemistry. FISH is considered to be the reference standard and more accurately predicts response to trastuzumab, but is technically demanding, expensive, and requires specialized equipment. In situ hybridization is required to be eligible for adjuvant treatment with trastuzumab in Australia. Bright-field in situ hybridization is an alternative to FISH and uses a combination of in situ methodology and a peroxidase-mediated chromogenic substrate such as diaminobenzidine [chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH)] or multimer technology coupled with enzyme metallography [silver-enhanced in situ hybridization (SISH)] to create a marker visible under bright-field microscopy. CISH was introduced into diagnostic testing in Australia in October 2006. SISH ...
A non-radioactive in situ hybridization method for the localization of specific RNAs in Drosophila embryos reveals...
We have developed a non-radioactive in situ hybridization technique for the localization of RNA in whole mount Drosophila embryos. After fixation, whole embryos are hybridized in situ with a DNA probe which has been labeled with digoxygenin. The hybridization products are detected by using a phospha …
Small RNA Detection by in Situ Hybridization Methods - pdf descargar
A double labeling technique for performing immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization in virus infected cell cultures and...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A double labeling technique for performing immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization in virus infected cell cultures and tissues. AU - Gendelman, Howard E.. AU - Moench, Thomas R.. AU - Narayan, Opendra. AU - Griffin, Diane E.. AU - Clements, Janice E.. PY - 1985/1/1. Y1 - 1985/1/1. N2 - This report describes a combined immunocytochemical and in situ hybridization procedure which allows visualization of cellular or viral antigens and viral RNA in the same cell. Cultures infected with visna or measles virus were fixed in periodate-lysine-paraformaldehyde-glutaraldehyde, stained by the avidin-biotin-peroxidase technique using antibodies to viral or cellular proteins and then incubated with radiolabeled specific DNA probes (in situ hybridization). The immunoperoxidase stain was preserved through the hybridization procedure. Nonspecific sticking of probes over peroxidase stained cells was prevented by incorporation of 0.1% Triton X-100 into the hybridization solution and the ...
Multiparametric in situ mRNA hybridization analysis to predict disease recurrence in patients with colon carcinoma
We examined the expression level of several genes that regulate different steps of metastasis in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded archival specimens of primary human colon carcinomas from patients with at least 5 years of follow-up. The expression of epidermal growth factor receptor, basic fibrobla …
In Situ Hybridization - Application Of The Probe For Dna Or Rna To Tissues Or Cells - Chromosome, Location, and Detect -...
In situ hybridization allows us to learn more about the geographical location of, for example, the messenger RNA (mRNA) in a cell or tissue. It can also tell us where a gene is located on a chromosome. Obviously, a detection system must be built into the technique to allow the cytochemist to visualize and map the geography of these molecules in the cells in question.. When in situ hybridization was first introduced, it was applied to isolated cell nuclei to detect specific DNA sequences. Early users applied the techniques to isolated chromosomal preparations in order to map the location of genes in those chromosomes. The technique has also been used to detect viral DNA in an infected cell. In situ hybridization of RNA has also been used to show that RNA synthesis (transcription) occurs in the nucleus, while protein synthesis (translation) occurs in the cytoplasm.. ...
Seminar University Hospital Bonn, Germany | In Situ Hybridization, RNA-ISH | ACDBio
Visualize Gene Expression & Genetic Variations in Tissues:. Applications of RNAscope® and BaseScopeTM ISH technology. The nervous system consists of numerous specialized cell types that remain to fully cataloged and characterized at the molecular level. Due to the high degree of structural and functional heterogeneity and the intricate spatial organization of these cells, it is of special importance to analyze gene expression in the presence of full morphological and spatial contexts. Due to the lack of specific antibody reagents, especially for lncRNAs, G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), and ion channels, mapping of specific transcripts by in situ hybridization offers an excellent alternative approach. The RNAscope® assay provides a powerful method to detect gene expression within the spatial and morphological tissue context. BaseScopeTM is a novel in situ hybridization technology that allows visualization of splice junctions between adjacent exons and/or retained introns in highly specific ...
Development and clinical application of an innovative fluorescence in situ hybridization technique which detects submicroscopic...
oligo in situ hybridizations
I am trying to set up doing in situ hybridization on paraformaldehyde fixed sections from mouse embryos using a 24mer oligonucleotide. I would appreciate tips on the best way to do this: end labelling or A-tailing. 3H or 35S as label. Also the best way to work out hybridization and washing conditions. All recipes gratefully received. Kathy Cheah HRMBDKC at HKUCC.BITNET ...
A question about in situ hybridization
I need some help. I am trying to do in situ hybridization on parrafin embedded sections with a viral RNA target. I have used cRNA probes 300 900 + 1400 bas and oligo probes. These probes work fine in other systems but connot get a positive signal in the above system. Has anyone else experienced this problem and what did you do? Any suggestions would be welcome. Please respond by email. Thanks, Mary Downes Ottawa, Canada ...
InSitu Hybridization For MRNA Localization - WriteWork
調査レポート | Ｉn situハイブリダイゼーション（ISH）の世界市場予測（～2021）：技術別（FISH、CISH）、用途別、需要先別 | MarketsandMarkets
The global in situ hybridization market is segmented on the basis of technique, application, and end user. By technique, the market is categorized into fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH). The FISH segment is expected to command the largest share of the global market, by technique in 2016. This segment is also projected to grow at the highest CAGR during the forecast period (2016-2021). This can be attributed to factors such as like high resolution of this technique, rising adoption in research activities & laboratories to diagnose cancer, chromosomal abnormalities, and infectious diseases, among others.. By application, the in situ hybridization market is categorized into cancer diagnosis, cytology, neuroscience, immunology, and infectious diseases. The cancer diagnosis segment is expected to command the largest share of the global market, by application in 2016. This segment is also projected to grow at the highest CAGR during the forecast ...
Expression of Raldh1. In situ hybridisation was perform | Open-i
RNA & DNA | In Situ Hybridization, RNA-ISH | ACDBio
ACD congratulates the team of scientists, led by Jacob D. Estes on their publication Defining HIV and SIV Reservoirs in Lymphoid Tissues DOI 10.20411/pai.v1i1.100.. The authors aimed to track and discriminate HIV-1/SIV viral reservoirs within tissue compartments and thus applied a specific and sensitive next-generation in situ hybridization approach. The authors demonstrated:. 1) that an optimized next-generation ISH platform RNAscope Assay for the rapid detection of vRNA (with results obtained within 1 day) has sufficient sensitivity to reliably detect single virions in B cell follicles (BCF) in FFPE tissue sections,. 2) that an approach for the detection of vDNA in situ (referred to as DNAscope) reliably and readily detects vDNA+ cells, and. 3) that they have developed an in situ method to simultaneously visualize vRNA and vDNA in the same tissue section and thereby identify transcriptionally latent infections (vDNA+/vRNA- cells) in lymphoid tissues.. The team of researchers then applied ...
Global In Situ Hybridization (ISH) Market 2020-2024 | Evolving Opportunities with Abbott Laboratories and Agilent Technologies...
原位雜交技術(In Situ Hybridization, ISH) @ 基因叔叔：科普、期刊導讀(Uncle Gene) :: 痞客邦
Histonet] In Situ Hybridization Blue Background problem
I have an In Situ Hybridization question for you guys and gals. Im currently performing In Situ HPV and EBV tests using an automated machine called the XT by Ventana. The tissue is parrifin embedded, cut at 4 microns and place on charged slides. NBT/ BCIP is used as our chromogen. I am beginning to notice some background staining that varies in intensity. When it occurs on our QC slide, it can be strong enough to fail a run. The background resembles a blue haze that can cover the tissue making interpretation difficult. At other times the blue haze surrounds the tissue rather than covering it which makes me believe that there could be some sort of hydrophobic or other chemical rxn taking place to shield the tissue. Im not certain if these two problems are related, but both occur completely random and always vary in intensity. If I can find the culprit of this problem it would lead to cleaner slides and more conclusive resulting. If anybody can help it would be much appreciated. Thanks P.S. ...
In situ hybridization
In Situ Hybridization Workflow | Vector Labs
Fluorescence in situ Hybridization(荧光原位杂交)
Characterization of the transporterB0AT3 (Slc6a17) in the rodent central nervous system | BMC Neuroscience | Full Text
In this study we used quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR) in a large panel of adult rat brain and peripheral tissues (Figure 1), to further refine the expression profile of the Slc6a17 gene. The highest expression levels of Slc6a17 mRNA were found in hindbrain, various brain cross sections, cerebellum, spinal cord, brain stem and hypothalamus, while very low or no expression was seen in the peripheral tissues with the exception of epididymis. Consequently, the Slc6a17 transporter is highly and selectively expressed in the CNS of adult rat.. Abundant mRNA expression of Slc6a17 in adult and embryonic rat CNS has previously been shown using in situ hybridization. Consistent results indicated restricted expression exclusively in neurons, both glutamatergic and subsets of GABAergic [4, 9, 15-17]. Our results from in situ hybridization (Figure 3) shows that the mouse Slc6a17 gene has similar expression pattern as previously seen in rat, with high expression in mouse forebrain and midbrain and lower expression ...
Creative Bioarray Histology Service: The Most Comprehensive Service to Accelerate the Achievement in Clinical and Basic...
Creative Bioarray provides functions for tissue processing, embedding, slicing and staining. In addition to providing histological examinations of all major organs/tissues, including immunohistochemistry (IHC), immunofluorescence (IF), in situ hybridization (ISH), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and transmission electron microscopy. Since the preparation of tissue samples is a time-consuming process, Creative Bioarray has prepared a tissue biobank to save time and significantly reduce costs. In addition, Creative Bioarray accepts fresh tissues, cells, paraffin-embedded tissues, unstained glass slides and any other types of tissues/samples. Furthermore, specific testing methods can be selected according to customer requirements.. With experienced and professional scientists, Creative Bioarray provides a complete customized on-site hybridization (ISH) service, covering every step required for ISH, including probe design, tissue procurement, and gene expression research. It also provides ...
Whole-mount in situ hybridization (Conlon lab) - Xenbase
AP Buffer 1 M Tris pH 9.5 100 mM 5 ml 1 M MgCl2 50 mM 2.5 ml 0.5 M NaCl 100 mM 10 ml Tween 20 0.1% 50 μl Levamisol 5 mM 60 mg ddH2O to 50 ml - 5 min @ RT in AP Buffer Staining: - Add 1-2 ml BM Purple AP Substrate (Roche 1442074) - KEEP IN THE DARK UNTIL BLEACHING STEP BELOW TO AVOID BACKGROUND STAINING!! - Let stain anywhere from 1 to 8 hours until stain is at desired level - Rinse with PBS - 5 min @ RT in PBS - 5 min @ RT in PBS - 5 min @ RT in PBS - 1hr @ RT in MEMFA - 1 hr in MeOH (can be stored @ 4°C here) ...
In Situ Hybridization - Kits : Heat Pretreatment Solution Citric
In Situ Hybridization - Equipment : DAPI/ZyGreen™/ZyOrange™ Triple Bandpass Filter Set
About the Cover - May 01, 2008, 36 (5) | Drug Metabolism & Disposition
Gene Expression Literature Detail
Additional developmental defects resulting from amphime | Open-i
FGFR1 amplification in breast carcinomas: a chromogenic in situ hybridisation analysis | Breast Cancer Research | Full Text
The amplicon on 8p11.2 is reported to be found in up to 10% of breast carcinomas. It has been demonstrated recently that this amplicon has four separate cores. The second core encompasses important oncogene candidates, including the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) gene. Recent studies have demonstrated that specific FGFR1 amplification correlates with gene expression and that FGFR1 activity is required for the survival of a FGFR1 amplified breast cancer cell line. FGFR1 amplification was analysed in tissue microarrays comprising a cohort of 880 unselected breast tumours by means of chromogenic in situ hybridisation using inhouse-generated FGFR1-specific probes. Chromogenic in situ hybridisation signals were counted in a minimum 30 morphologically unequivocal neoplastic cells. Amplification was defined as |5 signals per nucleus in more than 50% of cancer cells or when large gene copy clusters were seen. FGFR1 amplification was observed in 8.7% of the tumours and was significantly more
Comparison of Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization and Chromogenic In Situ Hybridization for Low and High Throughput HER2 Genetic...
The purpose was to evaluate and compare 5 different HER2 genetic assays with different characteristics that could affect the performance to analyze the human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) gene copy number under low and high throughput conditions. The study included 108 tissue samples from breast cancer patients with HER2 immunohistochemistry (IHC) results scored as 0/1+, 2+, and 3+. HER2 genetic status was analysed using chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Scoring results were documented through digital image analysis. The cancer region of interest was identified from a serial H&E stained slide following tissue cores were transferred to a tissue microarrays (TMA). When using TMA in a routine flow, all patients will be tested for HER2 status with IHC followed by CISH or FISH, thereby providing individual HER2 results. In conclusion, our results show that the differences between the HER2 genetic assays do not have an effect on the analytic ...
Massé K et al. (2010), Ectophosphodiesterase/nucleotide phosphohydrola... - Paper
Fig. 6. Spatial expression profile of enpp1, 4, 6 and 7 during development. Whole mount in situ hybridisation with DIG-labelled antisense RNA probes was performed on embryos from stages 5-41 for enpp1, 4, 6 and stages 32-45 for enpp7. All embryos were analysed from the same experimental set. The differences in colours result from clearing the embryos and photographing them against a white background to visualise staining. (A) Whole-mount in situ hybridisation analysis of enpp1 expression. Lateral view at stages 28 (i), 35/36 (ii) and 37/38 (iii). Detail of the fin at stage 41 (iv) and dorsal view of a stage 41 embryo (v). Anterior is right and dorsal is up, except in (v). da, dorsal aorta; dc, duct of cuvier; dlav, dorsal longitudinal anastomosing vessel; h, heart; pcv, posterior cardinal vein; ps, pronephric sinus; vbi, ventral blood island. (B) Whole-mount in situ hybridisation analysis of enpp4 expression. Animal view at stage 5 (i), anterior view at stage 22 (ii), lateral view at stages 32 ...
Can PAXgene Tissue fixed, paraffin-embedded (PFPE) tissue be used for in situ hybridization? - QIAGEN
Yes, human tissue samples treated with the PAXgene Tissue System were successfully used for Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and Chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH). However, specimens treated with the PAXgene Tissue System are more sensitive to enzyme digestion compared to formalin-fixed samples. Enzyme digestion and other pretreatment steps may need to be optimized. ...
What is the background of Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization? - lookformedical.com
A new method of in situ hybridization - CSHL Scientific Digital Repository
Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Probes
Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (FISH)
Development of a single-cell array for large-scale DNA fluorescence in situ hybridization - Lab on a Chip (RSC Publishing)
DNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a powerful cytogenetic assay, but conventional sample-preparation methods for FISH do not support large-scale high-throughput data acquisition and analysis, which are potentially useful for several biomedical applications. To address this limitation, we have d
Comparison of formaldehyde-preperfused frozen and freshly frozen tissue preparation for the in situ hybridization for alpha...
Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) Imaging Systems Market Report, 2025
The global FISH imaging systems market size was estimated at USD 704.5 million in 2016 and is anticipated to grow at a CAGR of 8.1% over the forecast period. Growing prevalence of target diseases leads to clinical urgency for adoption of rapid diagnostic alternatives such as Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) imaging systems, which is anticipated to fuel demand in the coming years
Pitcairn E et al. (2017), Coordinating heart morphogenesis: A novel role ... - Xenbase Paper
Figure 1. HCN4 expression during embryogenesis (A) In situ hybridization analysis reveals HCN4 is expressed in the developing head and along the dorsal midline at the completion of neurulation embryos (NF stage 21 lateral and frontal views). At early tailbud stages, HCN4 expression is observed primarily in the craniofacial region, in 2 stripes along the neural tube, and in the developing somites. This expression pattern is maintained as development progresses (NF stage 25, lateral and anterior/ventral views). At NF stage 26, HCN4 mRNA begins to be expressed on the left side of the developing heart field (arrow; lateral and ventral views). Expression becomes bilateral beginning at NF stage 27/28 (arrows; lateral and ventral views) but remains more highly expressed on the left side of the body. Scale bars = 200μm. (B) As cardiogenesis progresses during tadpole stages (NF stages 29-39, lateral and ventral views, arrows denote heart), HCN4 expression is diffusely present in the developing ...
s ꒲ | [ g: in-situ n C u C [ [ V (ISH) ̐ E s \ 2021 N FFISH ECISH E f f E זE w E o Ȋw E Ɖu w E
The in situ hybridization market is projected to reach USD 739.9 million by 2021 from USD 557.1 million in 2016, at a CAGR of 5.8% in the next five years (2016 to 2021).". Increasing diagnosis and growing incidence & prevalence of cancer, technology advancements in therapeutics, increasing government initiatives globally are some factors expected to drive the growth of the global in situ hybridization market in the coming years.. In 2016, North America is expected to account for the largest share of the global in situ hybridization market, followed by Europe, Asia-Pacific, and the Rest of the World (RoW). This can be attributed to growing clinical and research in cancer by biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies, government initiatives, increasing prevalence and diagnosis of cancer in the U.S. and Canada, and increasing adoption of companion diagnostics. Increased adoption of companion diagnostics is attributed to the development and launch of newer therapeutic agents.. In the coming years, ...
mRNA | HCS-pharma
We describe a fluorescence in situ hybridization method that permits detection of the localization and abundance of single mRNAs (smFISH) in cleared whole-mount adult Drosophila brains. The approach is rapid and multiplexable and does not require molecular amplification; it allows facile quantification of mRNA expression with subcellular resolution on a standard confocal microscope. We further demonstrate single-mRNA detection across the entire brain using a custom Bessel beam structured illumination microscope (BB-SIM). ...
imagery | HCS-pharma
We describe a fluorescence in situ hybridization method that permits detection of the localization and abundance of single mRNAs (smFISH) in cleared whole-mount adult Drosophila brains. The approach is rapid and multiplexable and does not require molecular amplification; it allows facile quantification of mRNA expression with subcellular resolution on a standard confocal microscope. We further demonstrate single-mRNA detection across the entire brain using a custom Bessel beam structured illumination microscope (BB-SIM). ...
... are used for membrane incubation steps in southern, northern, and western blotting protocols for such applications as hybridizations and washes, antibody and conjugate incubations, substrate application, and film exposure. Hybridization bags are 8 X 10 inch, 4 mil thick, clear polyethylene bags. They are heat-sealable, resistant to temperatures up to at least 65 C, and do not curl when cut ...
ISH & FISH - Brightfield & Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Enumeration: Leica Biosystems
ExpressHyb Hybridization Solution
ExpressHyb Hybridization Solution
блоттинг-гибридизация | blot hybridization
A Design of an Autonomous Molecule Loading-Transporting-Unloading System Using DNA Hybridization and Biomolecular Linear Motors...
A Design of an Autonomous Molecule Loading-Transporting-Unloading System Using DNA Hybridization and Biomolecular Linear Motors. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
JoVE Author Search: Amiry%7CMoghaddam M
Decidualization and Expression: RESULTS(2)
ZFIN All Figures, Thisse <i>et al....
No data available that match "in situ hybridization"
Combination of Adhesive-tape-based Sampling and Fluorescence in situ Hybridization for Rapid Detection of Salmonella on Fresh...
Image Contest | In Situ Hybridization, RNA-ISH | ACDBio
How It Works | In Situ Hybridization, RNA-ISH | ACDBio
With RNAscope® VS Automated in situ hybridization and SpotStudio Software quantitative analysis, you can correlate your in situ ... RNAscope® In Situ Hybridization Assay Workflow. *. Step 1:. Permeabilize. Tissue sections or cells are fixed onto slides and ... RNAscope® Technology is a novel in situ hybridization (ISH) assay for detection of target RNA within intact cells. The assay ... Automated Quantitative RNA In Situ Hybridization for Resolution of Equivocal and Heterogeneous ERBB2 (HER2) Status in Invasive ...
G-protein-coupled Receptors & Ion Channels | In Situ Hybridization, RNA-ISH | ACDBio
Assignment of mitochondrial NAD<sup>+</sup>-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase β subunit gene (IDH3B) to human chromosome band...
... to human chromosome band 20p13 by in situ hybridization and radiation hybrid mapping. / Kim, Y. O.; Park, S. H.; Kang, Y. J.; ... to human chromosome band 20p13 by in situ hybridization and radiation hybrid mapping. Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics, 86(3-4), ... to human chromosome band 20p13 by in situ hybridization and radiation hybrid mapping, Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics, vol. 86 ... to human chromosome band 20p13 by in situ hybridization and radiation hybrid mapping. Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics. 1999;86(3 ...
Potential targeted therapy found for newly identified leukemia subtype with poor outcome - St. Jude Children's Research Hospital
Molecular cytogenetic detection of 9q34 breakpoints associated with nail patella syndrome
20q gain associates with immortalization: 20q13.2 amplification correlates with genome instability in human papillomavirus 16...
Using karyotypic and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analyses, chromo … ... In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence * Karyotyping * Oncogene Proteins, Viral / biosynthesis * Oncogene Proteins, Viral / ... Using karyotypic and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analyses, chromosome losses and gains were analysed in six newly ...
grassy tillers1 promotes apical dominance in maize and responds to shade signals in the grasses | PNAS
Peroxidase Polymer Detection (ImmPRESS), Goat Anti Rat IgG Kit x rat
EasyPrep Plus Vessels - Fiber Optic & Pressure - Standard Vessel Parts - EasyPrep Plus Vessels - Fiber Optic and Pressure -...
75 mL MARSXpress Vessels (PFA) - MARSXpress Vessels - MARS 6 Replacement Parts - MARS 6 - Analytical Products
Fmoc-Glu(Wang)-ODmab Resin (LL)
iPrep 12 Vessels - Vessel Parts - iPrep 12 Vessels - iPrep Vessels - MARS 6 Replacement Parts - MARS 6 - Analytical Products
Blogs from IDT - News, insights, and front-line science reporting
CoolMate - Accessories - Discover - Synthesis Products
Liberty Blue Brochure
1/8' to 1/8' PEEK Union
Subtelomere FISH analysis of 11 688 cases: an evaluation of the frequency and pattern of subtelomere rearrangements in...
Background: Subtelomere fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) analysis has increasingly been used as an adjunct to routine ... Hybridisation signals were evaluated for hybridisation to the correct subtelomere region as well as signal intensity, judged by ... Hybridisation signals observed on non-target chromosomes were characterised as cross hybridisation if the signal was observed ... The probes used are listed for each image in the colour that corresponds to the colour of their hybridisation signal. (A) 16p ...
Xenbase Clone: Summary for ventx2.1-HAR66 [species: Xenopus tropicalis]
Xenbase Clone: Summary for spry2-723 [species: Xenopus laevis]
Testing for ROS1 in non-small cell lung cancer: a review with recommendations - Kölner UniversitätsPublikationsServer
Most laboratories currently rely on fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) assays using a dual-colour break-apart probe to ... OF-AMERICAN-PATHOLOGISTS; IN-SITU HYBRIDIZATION; TYROSINE KINASE ROS; CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS; NEVER-SMOKERS; DETECTING ... Non-in situ testing approaches also hold potential as stand-alone methods or complementary tests, including multiplex real-time ...
Tissue Resources Services | Case Comprehensive Cancer Center
CiteSeerX - Citation Query Feature selection based on mutual information criteria of max-dependency, max-relevance, and min...
Both authors contribute equally to this work.) Abstract: Gene expression patterns obtained by in situ mRNA hybridization ... Both authors contribute equally to this work.) Abstract: Gene expression patterns obtained by in situ mRNA hybridization ... Experiments conducted on the in situ mRNA gene expression patterns generated through the Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project ...
Personalis SHERPA, NEOPS | GenomeWeb
Based on single-molecule fluorescence in situ hybridization (smFISH), Pisces maps gene panels at sub-cellular resolution. It is ... The single-molecule fluorescence in situ hybridization (smFISH) platform offers multiplexed detection of genes for hundreds of ... The platform is based on multiplexed error-robust fluorescence in situ hybridization (MERFISH) technology developed at Harvard ... Veranome Biosystems has launched its Pisces technology for in situ spatial omics. ...
FluorescenceWhole mount in situ hybridizProbesImmunohistochemistryGlobal In Situ Hybridization MDetectionAssayFISHProbeLocalizationSequencesChromosomalEmbryosAssaysSeries of sequential hybridization stepsImmunohistochemicalHistochemistryGenomicDetectSensitivityDiagnosisAmplificationLocalizeMethodsFlow cytometryChromosomes2017SpecificityPost-hybridizationProtocolsPathologyTechniqueClinical2020-2024Tissue sectionsSpecific nucleic acid targetsWorkflowParaffin embeddedMethodGeneInterphase
- Fluorescence in situ hybridization ( FISH ) is a molecular cytogenetic technique that uses fluorescent probes that bind to only those parts of a nucleic acid sequence with a high degree of sequence complementarity . (wikipedia.org)
- Human DNA and RNA can be visualized with the help of in situ hybridization in two major ways, chromogenic (CISH) and fluorescence (FISH) detection. (openpr.com)
- Multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization ( FISH ), in its simplest form, can be used to identify as many labeled features as there are different fluorophores used in the hybridization. (microscopyu.com)
- To study their prognostic impact and association with kidney cancer phenotype, a tissue microarray with 1,809 cancers was analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization for 8p21 copy numbers. (urotoday.com)
- Application of fluorescence in situ hybridization in the detection of bladder transitional-cell carcinoma: A multi-center clinical study based on Chinese population. (urotoday.com)
- To evaluate the diagnostic value of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in bladder cancer. (urotoday.com)
- Clinical evaluation of two consecutive UroVysion fluorescence in situ hybridization tests to detect intravesical recurrence of bladder cancer: a prospective blinded comparative study in Japan. (urotoday.com)
- We evaluated the use of UroVysion fluorescence in situ hybridization tests to detect the intravesical recurrence of bladder cancer during follow-up after a transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT). (urotoday.com)
- Detection of Bladder Cancer in Urine Sediments by a Novel Multicolor Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (Quartet) Test. (urotoday.com)
- We aimed to design a multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) test referred to as the quartet test for the detection of bladder cancer in urine. (urotoday.com)
- The aim of the present study was to estimate the diagnostic value of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of tumor cells in voided urine specimens for detecting upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). (urotoday.com)
- We compared PTEN immunohistochemistry (IHC) and PTEN fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in the largest existing radical prostatectomy cohort with clinical follow-up data. (urotoday.com)
- The new probes address the need to cleanly and accurately interpret data from both fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH). (biospace.com)
- Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has been used to analyse the structure of the rye B chromosome. (springer.com)
- Cuadrado A, Jouve N (1994) Highly repetitive sequences in B-chromosomes of Secale cereale revealed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. (springer.com)
- Direct visualization of dispersed 11q13 chromosomal translocations in mantle cell lymphoma by multicolor DNA fiber fluorescence in situ hybridization," Blood , vol. 88, no. 4, pp. 1177-1182, 1996. (hindawi.com)
- FISHing for chick genes: triple-label whole-mount fluorescence in situ hybridization detects simultaneous and overlapping gene expression in avian embryos," Developmental Dynamics , vol. 229, no. 3, pp. 651-657, 2004. (hindawi.com)
- Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) tests provide promising molecular imaging biomarkers to more accurately and reliably detect and diagnose cancers and genetic disorders. (hindawi.com)
- Due to their high affinity, high sensitivity, and low background, fluorescence- and enzyme-based detection reagents from Vector Laboratories are ideal for in situ hybridization (ISH) applications. (vectorlabs.com)
- Our approach relies on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and integrated structural genomic resources, including large-insert genomic clones in bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries. (nih.gov)
- Here, we report the development of a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) based method for detecting malaria infection in blood smears and describe the use of an LED light source that makes the method suitable for use in resource-limited malaria endemic countries. (plos.org)
- Real-Time Monitoring of Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) Kinetics. (bioportfolio.com)
- A comprehensive comparison of fluorescence in situ hybridization and cytology for the detection of upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma: A systematic review and meta-analysis. (bioportfolio.com)
- To compare the relative effectiveness of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and cytology in diagnosing upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UUT-UC) and to evaluate the advantages and poten. (bioportfolio.com)
- Graphene oxide-quenching-based fluorescence in situ hybridization (G-FISH) to detect RNA in tissue: Simple and fast tissue RNA diagnostics. (bioportfolio.com)
- Direct detection of Staphylococcus aureus in positive blood cultures through molecular beacon-based fluorescence in situ hybridization. (bioportfolio.com)
- An activatable organic semiconducting nanoprobe that specifically turns on its second near-infrared window fluorescence upon being exposed to nitric oxide stimuli was developed for in vivo, in situ, r. (bioportfolio.com)
- In this study, investigators assess, using Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) and Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH) arrays for Preimplantation Genetic Screening (PGS), the inc. (bioportfolio.com)
- Even im working on FISH and also quite new to this technique and i hope the link that i have will help you out,I know its very late to reply you.If you have finished working on FISH please do share the information that you have regarding Fluorescence in situ hybridization. (protocol-online.org)
- Fluorescence in situ hybridization assays using a multiprobe set consisting of centromeric probes for chromosomes 3, 7 and 17 and p16 gene can be used as a diagnostic tool in detecting the genetic alterations in cholangiocarcinoma. (sgh.com.sg)
- Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization using direct-labelled FISH DNA probes are hybridized to target loci and analyzed under fluorescence microscopy. (sgh.com.sg)
- Multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) enables you to assay multiple targets and visualize colocalized signals in a single specimen. (thermofisher.com)
- Four-color fluorescence in situ hybridization on a Drosophila embryo. (thermofisher.com)
- Also analogous to fluorescence in situ hybridization for detection of HER-2 gene amplification. (thefreedictionary.com)
- We evaluated a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay, which has previously been shown to be of value for the diagnosis of melanocytic nevi and melanomas of the skin, using probes targeting 6p25 (RREB1), 6q23 (MYB), 11q13 (CCND1) and centromere 6 (CEP6), for its potential to assist in the distinction of conjunctival melanocytic nevi from melanomas. (wiley.com)
- [email protected] wrote: Hello Histonetters, I would like to do fluorescence in situ hybridization on paraffin embedded sections using RNA probes. (histosearch.com)
- Yes, human tissue samples treated with the PAXgene Tissue System were successfully used for Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and Chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH). (qiagen.com)
- Visualization of mitotic chromosomes in filamentous fungi by fluorescence staining and fluorescence in situ hybridization. (biomedsearch.com)
- Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was also successfully applied to the specimens, revealing one ribosomal RNA gene cluster, or nucleolus organizer region (NOR) in the genome of each fungus. (biomedsearch.com)
- Growing prevalence of target diseases leads to clinical urgency for adoption of rapid diagnostic alternatives such as Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) imaging systems, which is anticipated to fuel demand in the coming years. (grandviewresearch.com)
- When looking at how many copies are incorporated and where within the genome we use a technique called FISH which is fluorescence in-situ hybridisation, and I will take a biopsy from the animal and grow up cells back into culture and then arrest them at metaphase, prepare some slides with those cells, and then I will probe my slides for the transgene. (sciencelearn.org.nz)
- This report describes the fluorescence hybridization of DNA sequence probes to interphase nuclei in suspension and the quantification of bound probe by dual beam flow cytometry. (sciencemag.org)
- Towards a cellular multi-parameter analysis platform: fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on microhole-array chips. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Therefore we improved our previously developed chip platform for another additional analysis method, the fluorescence in situ hybridization. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a technique used in the diagnostics to determine the localization and the presence or absence of specific DNA sequence. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- T. Iman, S. Amani and A. Mona, "Detection of HER-2/neu Amplification on Fine Needle Aspirates of Breast Cancer Using Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization," Journal of Cancer Therapy , Vol. 4 No. 7A, 2013, pp. 41-48. (scirp.org)
- Multiple colors by fluorescence in situ hybridization using ratio‐labelled DNA probes create a molecular karyotype. (currentprotocols.com)
- The use of fluorescence in situ hybridization to identify human chromosomal anomalies. (currentprotocols.com)
- To investigate cytogenetic evolution after upfront autologous stem cell transplantation for newly diagnosed myeloma we retrospectively analyzed fluorescence in situ hybridization results of 128 patients with paired bone marrow samples from the time of primary diagnosis and at relapse. (haematologica.org)
- Here, we used histology and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to detect and localize bacteria in the tissues of P. clavata. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
- DNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a powerful cytogenetic assay, but conventional sample-preparation methods for FISH do not support large-scale high-throughput data acquisition and analysis, which are potentially useful for several biomedical applications. (rsc.org)
- Advances in both immunohistochemical markers as well as fluorescence in situ hybridization and epigenetic markers have proven helpful. (frontiersin.org)
- Immunohistochemistry (IHC), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and various other molecular markers (including epigenetic markers) have sufficient evidence behind their use however, some are still in their research stages, or yet to be used widely in clinical diagnosis. (frontiersin.org)
- In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (umassmed.edu)
- A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. (umassmed.edu)
- This graph shows the total number of publications written about "In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence" by people in this website by year, and whether "In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (umassmed.edu)
- Below are the most recent publications written about "In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence" by people in Profiles. (umassmed.edu)
Whole mount in situ hybridiz4
- Wilkinson D. G. (1992) Whole mount in situ hybridization of vertebrate embryos, in In Situ Hybridization: A Practical Approach (Wilkinson D. G., ed. (springer.com)
- Hauptmann G. and Gerster T. (1994) Two-color whole-mount in situ hybridization to vertebrate and Drosophila embryos. (springer.com)
- The whole-mount in situ hybridization process has revolutionized the study of gene expression in the embryo. (nih.gov)
- Distribution of type II collagen mRNA in Xenopus embryos visualized by whole-mount in situ hybridization. (biomedsearch.com)
- Subsequent signal amplification is predicated on specific hybridization of adjacent probes (individual oligonucleotides [oligos] that bind side by side on RNA targets). (wikipedia.org)
- Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) is a powerful technique used to identify the presence of specific chromosomes or parts of chromosomes through the attachment (hybridization) of fluorescent DNA probes to available chromosomal DNA. (encyclopedia.com)
- Here, we detail a robust method for in situ hybridization of RNA probes to whole pieces of fixed tissue. (springer.com)
- Jowett T. and Lettice L. (1994) Whole-mount in situ hybridizations on zebrafish embryos using a mixture of digoxigenin-and fluorescein-labelled probes. (springer.com)
- Neil Butt Biochemistry Department University of Sussex Brighton, BN1 9QG U.K ============================================================ Dear Yi-Fang, I'm actually doing the hybridization on my first attempt at whole mount in situs with DIG labelled probes right now. (bio.net)
- To overcome this obstacle, we screened soybean repetitive DNA to develop a cocktail of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) probes that could differentially label mitotic chromosomes in root tip preparations. (genetics.org)
- To resolve these potential problems and to provide a useful resource for correlating physical soybean chromosomes to the other available soybean mapping resources, we undertook efforts to generate a soybean karyotype map using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with chromosome-specific, pseudomolecule- and repeat-derived DNA probes. (genetics.org)
- Agilent Technologies Inc. (NYSE: A) today announced the release of a range of new probes for in situ hybridization, a technique used in pathology laboratories to obtain information about gene expression. (biospace.com)
- Vijay noted that Agilent's new probes will bring the precision of oligonucleotide-based in situ hybridization into more laboratories. (biospace.com)
- An in situ hybridization approach to labeling DNA and RNA targets in the specimen using oligonucleotide-based fluorescent probes. (microscopyu.com)
- While antisense RNA probes are extremely useful and methods for two-color in situ hybridization are available, antibodies recognizing specific protein species can help to expand the range of markers detected. (nih.gov)
- Biotin- and digoxygenin-labeled probes were made directly from the BAC clones and hybridized in situ to chromosomes without using suppressive unlabelled C0t-1 DNA. (nih.gov)
- Chromogenic in situ hybridization with in-house-generated probes for PPM1D was performed. (nature.com)
- The detection of DNA or RNA sequences in cells in interphase or metaphase can readily be achieved by in situ hybridization procedures based on the specific annealing of sequences (probes), previously labeled with appropriate reporter molecules, to their corresponding genomic DNA or RNA regions. (springer.com)
- We anticipate that this pipeline will make the FISH probe design process much more accessible and will more broadly facilitate the design of pools of hybridization probes for a variety of applications. (pnas.org)
- Localization in situ of specific mRNA using thymine-thymine dimerized DNA probes. (nii.ac.jp)
- The approach was to extract the follicle cells with Triton X-100 and determine whether mRNA persisted in the insoluble residue by two methods, in situ hybridization with poly(U) and actin DNA probes and the incorporation of radioactive isotopes into RNA. (rupress.org)
- This protocol is designed for In Situ Hybridization and colorimetric detection of digoxigenin-labeled RNA probes on paraformaldehyde fixed cryosectioned tissue. (openwetware.org)
- Here, with third-generation in situ HCR, we augment these capabilities using probes and amplifiers that combine to provide automatic background suppression throughout the protocol, ensuring that reagents will not generate amplified background even if they bind non-specifically within the sample. (biologists.org)
- In situ HCR v3.0 using split-initiator probes. (biologists.org)
- We describe a methodology of multiplexed in situ hybridization (ISH) using a novel combination of quantum dot (QD)-labeled oligonucleotide probes and spectral imaging analysis in routinely processed, formalin-fixed paraffin embedded human biopsies. (broadinstitute.org)
- Immunohistochemistry is the use of specific antibodies to stain particular molecular species in situ. (elsevier.com)
- This book discusses all aspects of immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization technologies and the important role they play in reaching a cancer diagnosis. (elsevier.com)
- Histology, Immunohistochemistry and In Situ Hybridisation, Lab Protocols. (lulu.com)
- Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and RNA in situ Hybridization are widely used technologies sharing the unique capacity to analyze a marker at the single cell level while preserving the morphological context. (reportlinker.com)
- Biological techniques such as in situ hybridization (ISH) and those used in immunohistochemistry (IHC) are time-consuming with many liquid handling steps that put samples at risk for pipetting errors or contamination. (cem.com)
- We evaluate an RNA in situ hybridization (ISH) method using branch chain technology to detect HR-HPV and compare its results with DNA ISH, p16 immunohistochemistry, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Although in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) can be used to detect pathogens in tissue samples, only ISH has the advantage of being rapidly developed in a context of an emerging disease, especially because it does not require development of specific primary antibodies against the target pathogen. (frontiersin.org)
- Cornejo KM, Hutchinson L, Cyr MS, Nose V, McLaughlin PJ, Iafrate AJ, Sadow PM. MYC Analysis by Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization and Immunohistochemistry in Primary Adrenal Angiosarcoma (PAA): a Series of Four Cases. (umassmed.edu)
Global In Situ Hybridization M13
- As this technique is simple yet effective, FISH will ensure the growth of the global in situ hybridization market. (openpr.com)
- The global in-situ hybridization market was valued at $554.4 Million 2014, and is estimated to reach $681.0 Million by 2019, at a CAGR of 4.2% from 2014 to 2019. (marketsandmarkets.com)
- Major players operating in the global in-situ hybridization market are Abbott (U.S.), F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd (Switzerland), Affymetrix, Inc. (U.S.), Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc. (U.S.), and Agilent Technologies, Inc. (U.S. (marketsandmarkets.com)
- Abbott (U.S.) contributed the largest share to the global in-situ hybridization market in 2014. (marketsandmarkets.com)
- F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd. (Switzerland) is another major player operational in the global in-situ hybridization market. (marketsandmarkets.com)
- The mergers & acquisitions and new product development by both the key players, Abbott (U.S.) and F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd. (Switzerland) will help boost the growth of the global in-situ hybridization market during forecast period. (marketsandmarkets.com)
- The report " In situ Hybridization Market by Technique (FISH, CISH), Application (Cancer Diagnosis, Neuroscience, Cytology, Infectious Disease), & End User (Molecular Diagnostic Laboratories, Academic And Research Institutions) - Global Forecast to 2021" , This report studies the global in situ hybridization market for the forecast period of 2016 to 2021. (marketsandmarkets.com)
- The global in situ hybridization market is segmented on the basis of technique, application, end user, and region. (marketsandmarkets.com)
- The cancer diagnosis segment is expected to command the largest share of the global in situ hybridization market, by application in 2016. (marketsandmarkets.com)
- On the basis of end users, the global in situ hybridization market is segmented into molecular diagnostic laboratories, academic & research institutes, contract research organizations, and pharmaceutical & biotechnology companies. (marketsandmarkets.com)
- In 2016, the molecular diagnostic laboratories segment is estimated to account for the largest share of the global in situ hybridization market, by end user. (marketsandmarkets.com)
- Increasing diagnosis and growing incidence & prevalence of cancer, technology advancements in therapeutics, increasing government initiatives globally are some of the pivotal factors driving the growth of the global in situ hybridization market. (marketsandmarkets.com)
- This report studies the global in situ hybridization market for the forecast period of 2016 to 2021. (emailwire.com)
- Wilkinson D. G. and Nieto M. A. (1993) Detection of messenger RNA by in situ hybridization to tissue sections and whole mounts. (springer.com)
- Jowett T., Mancera M., Amores A., and Yan Y. (1996) In situ hybridization to embryo whole mounts and tissue sections: mRNA detection and application to developmental studies, in In Situ Hybridization (Clark M., ed. (springer.com)
- In situ hybridization (ISH) refers to a well-established set of methods for the visualization and detection of specific nucleic acid sequences in whole organisms, cytological preparations, and tissue sections. (openpr.com)
- Advancements in the past few years have led to the development of a number of strategies to help improve the sensitivity of ISH techniques by signal detection after the hybridization is completed or by the amplification of the target nucleic acid sequence before the ISH begins. (openpr.com)
- Florescence in situ hybridization (FISH) can be used in the detection of genetic abnormalities such as aneuploidy, characteristic gene fusion, or loss of a chromosomal region. (openpr.com)
- Improved methodologies for in-situ hybridization and non-isotopic detection of nucleic acid sequences are provided which offer major increases of resolution, sensitivity, and simplicity unavailable in previously known techniques. (google.com)
- Originally introduced as a radioactive in situ hybridization method in the late 1960s ( 1 ⇓ - 3 ), FISH has undergone a series of optimizations that have improved its detection efficiency and sensitivity ( 4 ⇓ ⇓ - 7 ). (pnas.org)
- Advances in RNA in situ hybridization transform molecular detection with morphological context enabling new applications. (reportlinker.com)
- We present a method based on a cyanine dye 3.18-labeled in situ hybridization probe targeting 16S rRNA to allow specific detection of bacteria belonging to the genus Gallibacterium . (asm.org)
- The probe was further evaluated by hybridization to formalin-fixed spleen and liver tissues from experimentally infected chickens, in which it proved to be useful for the detection of Gallibacterium . (asm.org)
- PCR in situ hybridization allows the detection of specific nucleic acid sequences and their distribution in the cell. (ellibs.com)
- Detection of chimeric BCR‐ABL genes on bone marrow samples and blood smears in chronic myeloid and acute lymphoblastic leukemia by in situ hybridization. (currentprotocols.com)
- Detection of chromosome aberrations in the human interphase nucleus by visualization of specific target DNAs with radioactive and non‐radioactive in situ hybridization techniques: Diagnosis of trisomy 18 with probe L1.84. (currentprotocols.com)
- Detection of complete and partial chromosome gains and losses by comparative genomic in situ hybridization. (currentprotocols.com)
- During the last decade, several strategies have been developed to improve the detection sensitivity ofin situ hybridization (ISH) by amplification of either target nucleic acid sequences prior to ISH (e.g.,in situ PCR), or the detection signals after the hybridization procedures (signal amplification). (uzh.ch)
- Performance of a Branch Chain RNA In Situ Hybridization Assay for the Detection of High-risk Human Papillomavirus in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Alternatively, in situ hybridization assay allows the detection of nucleotide sequences in histological sections without requiring the development of such antibodies. (frontiersin.org)
- This is expected to facilitate multiplex in situ transcript detection in routinely processed human clinical tissue. (broadinstitute.org)
- An alternative technology, branched DNA assay, can be used for RNA (mRNA, lncRNA, and miRNA ) in situ hybridization assays with single molecule sensitivity without the use of radioactivity. (wikipedia.org)
- Fluorescent in situ hybridization can be used as a complementary assay for the diagnosis of Tropheryma whipplei infection. (bioportfolio.com)
- In situ is Latin for "in the original place," which, in the case of FISH, means inside a human cell or tissue. (encyclopedia.com)
- Primary objective of the study is to evaluate the correlation between level of HER2-neu gene amplification evalued by dual-color Fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) test and time to p. (bioportfolio.com)
- Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) can effectively detect this translocation and achieve high accuracy in disease diagnosis and prognosis assessment. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
- Among these new methods, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) has been approved as a relatively simple, reliable, and robust method that has attracted great research interests in clinical applications. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
- In this study, two dechlorinating mixed cultures will be characterized and compared by a combination of 16S rDNA-based molecular methods: terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (T-RFLP), RFLP and sequencing of individual clones from clone libraries constructed from amplified community DNA, and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). (epa.gov)
- Furthermore, FISH on FNAs gave us better hybridization signals than their corresponding FFPE tissue sections. (scirp.org)
- The hybridization signals for each probe when a nucleic abnormality is detected. (wikipedia.org)
- The probe must be large enough to hybridize specifically with its target but not so large as to impede the hybridization process. (wikipedia.org)
- In situ hybridization (ISH) is a type of hybridization that uses a labeled complementary DNA, RNA or modified nucleic acids strand (i.e., probe) to localize a specific DNA or RNA sequence in a portion or section of tissue (in situ), or, if the tissue is small enough (e.g., plant seeds, Drosophila embryos), in the entire tissue (whole mount ISH), in cells, and in circulating tumor cells (CTCs). (wikipedia.org)
- However, in situ hybridization requires that many steps be taken with precise optimization for each tissue examined and for each probe used. (wikipedia.org)
- For hybridization histochemistry, sample cells and tissues are usually treated to fix the target transcripts in place and to increase access of the probe. (wikipedia.org)
- In situ hybridization (ISH) is the attachment of a very specifically designed DNA probe to cellular DNA (the original place). (encyclopedia.com)
- A specific chemical hybridization solution containing the probe is applied to the slide so that the probe can hybridize with cellular DNA. (encyclopedia.com)
- This hybridization solution controls the degree of specificity to which the probe hybridizes to the target sequence. (encyclopedia.com)
- A type of hybridization that detects and localizes the presence of specific DNA sequence within tissue samples (''in situ'') when a labeled DNA or RNA probe binds with it by complementary base pairing. (biology-online.org)
- Our streamlined method uses standard bioinformatic file formats, allowing users to seamlessly integrate new and existing utilities into the pipeline as desired, and introduces a method for evaluating the specificity of each probe molecule that connects simulated hybridization energetics to rapidly generated sequence alignments using supervised machine learning. (pnas.org)
- Using spectrally distinct fluorophore labels for each hybridization probe, this approach gives you the power to resolve several genetic elements or multiple gene expression patterns through multicolor visual display. (thermofisher.com)
- 48 hours postfertilization zebrafish embryo stained by in situ hybridization using an mRNA probe directed against atp2a1, which encodes a muscle specific calcium pump. (umass.edu)
- The probe, GAN850, showed no cross-reactivity to 25 other poultry-associated bacterial species, including members of the families Pasteurellaceae , Enterobacteriaceae , and Flavobacteriaceae , when cross-reactivities were evaluated by whole-cell hybridization. (asm.org)
- To demonstrate that in situ hybridization can be performed in suspension, stabilized mouse thymocyte nuclei were hybridized with a probe for mouse satellite DNA sequences. (sciencemag.org)
- Agilent's miRNA complete labeling and hybridization kit combines a unique miRNA direct labeling method with our innovative microarray probe design for selective labeling and hybridization of mature miRNAs. (selectscience.net)
- In comparison with the negative control (Figure 2A), in situ hybridization analysis revealed that the positive control probe rno-U6 was abundantly and diffusely expressed in the perinuclear region of the neurons in the denervated dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) (Figure 2B). (nih.gov)
- Tuatz D. and Pfiefle C. (1989) A non-radioactive in situ hybridization method for the localization of specific RNAs in Drosophila embryos reveals translational control of the segmentation gene hunchback. (springer.com)
- Hi all, Has anyone looked at GFP mRNA localization in transfected mammelian cells by in situ hybridisation? (bio.net)
- In situ hybridization is known to effectively allow for the cytologic and histologic localization of the specific nucleic acid of interest. (openpr.com)
- In situ hybridization is used for specific mRNA localization in tissue and a method of tissue specific expression for a gene. (protocol-online.org)
- Localization of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator mRNA in the human gastrointestinal tract by in situ hybridization. (jci.org)
- 100 of these genes were subsequently analyzed using in situ hybridization to obtain cellular-level localization of their transcripts. (jneurosci.org)
- It combines two powerful techniquesin situ hybridization (ISH), which allows cellular localization of DNA and RNA sequences in cells and tissues, and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which allows reproducible amplification of rare nucleic acid sequences. (ellibs.com)
- The combined technique and its variants greatly enhance the sensitivity of in situ hybridization and add morphological localization to the sensitivity of PCR. (ellibs.com)
- In situ hybridization is used to reveal the location of specific nucleic acid sequences on chromosomes or in tissues, a crucial step for understanding the organization, regulation, and function of genes. (wikipedia.org)
- and fluorescent in situ hybridization to detect chromosomal sequences. (wikipedia.org)
- Nearly a quarter-century has passed since the first research articles introducing in situ hybridization as a method of detecting and studying DNA sequences in chromosomes and cells appeared in the literature. (microscopyu.com)
- The hybridization reaction identifies, or labels, target genomic sequences so their location and size can be studied. (microscopyu.com)
- We use conditions that favor specific hybridization to complementary mRNA sequences in the tissue(s) expressing the corresponding gene. (nih.gov)
- Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) demonstrates the high level of overall similarity between A and B chromosomes of rye, as well as the presence of a number of specific sequences. (springer.com)
- In situ hybridization has developed as a means of localizing specific DNA and RNA sequences within tissues. (booktopia.com.au)
- After hybridization, an indirect immunofluorescent labeling procedure was used to visualize the target sequences. (sciencemag.org)
- and PRINS (primed in situ synthesis) for chromosomal analysis in interphase nuclei and metaphase chromosome spreads. (ellibs.com)
- The use of chromosome in situ suppression hybridisation with whole chromosome libraries has previously been reported by various research laboratories to be an effective method of identifying specific human chromosomal material. (bmj.com)
- Hargrave M., Bowles J., Koopman P. (2006) In Situ Hybridization of Whole-Mount Embryos. (springer.com)
- High-resolution in situ hybridization to whole-mount zebrafish embryos. (nih.gov)
- Diagnosis of sex in preimplantation embryos by fluorescent in situ hybridisation. (bmj.com)
- Traditionelle in Situ Hybridisierung Techniken erfordern die Vorbereitung der Gewebeschnitte eines Embryos, die Aufdeckung der internen Strukturen zu erleichtern. (jove.com)
Series of sequential hybridization steps1
- The market is witnessing advancements at a highly promising pace with the view of increasing sensitivity of in situ hybridization methods. (openpr.com)
- In situ hybridization based on the mechanism of the hybridization chain reaction (HCR) has addressed multi-decade challenges that impeded imaging of mRNA expression in diverse organisms, offering a unique combination of multiplexing, quantitation, sensitivity, resolution and versatility. (biologists.org)
- The global market for in situ hybridization is projected to expand at a phenomenal rate, with the cancer diagnosis segment at the forefront. (openpr.com)
- By application, the in situ hybridization market is categorized into cancer diagnosis, cytology, neuroscience, immunology and infectious diseases. (marketsandmarkets.com)
- Factors such as growing presence of international players in China and India, increasing cancer prevalence and diagnosis, and increased healthcare expenditure across the Asia-Pacific region are drivers for the in situ hybridization market in this region. (marketsandmarkets.com)
- Recent developments such as strand displacement amplification and molecular beacons to continue to expand the scope of application of in situ hybridization techniques. (openpr.com)
- There are further chapters on fixation of tissues for PCR, selective ultraviolet radiation fractionation (SURF), application of in situ PCR to human tissues, applications and modifications of PCR-ISH, and automation of in situ amplification. (ellibs.com)
- PCR In Situ Hybridization is a unique and timely collection of well-tested protocols for the amplification of DNA and RNA in cells and tissues, drawing on the accumulated knowledge and experience of leading exponents of these techniques. (ellibs.com)
- RNA ISH (RNA in situ hybridization) is used to measure and localize RNAs (mRNAs, lncRNAs, and miRNAs) within tissue sections, cells, whole mounts, and circulating tumor cells (CTCs). (wikipedia.org)
- We have used in situ hybridization to localize expression of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene in the human gastrointestinal tract and associated organs. (jci.org)
- Common methods of preparing tissue sections for in-situ hybridization processing include cutting specimens with a cryostat or a Compresstome tissue slicer. (wikipedia.org)
- It contains all the information required for newcomers to achieve successful in situ hybridization results, and methods for improving the technique of those already utilizing it. (elsevier.com)
- The report covers the present scenario and the growth prospects of the global in-situ hybridization (ISH) market for 2017-2021. (mynewsdesk.com)
- Technavio's report, Global In-situ Hybridization (ISH) Market 2017-2021, has been prepared based on an in-depth market analysis with inputs from industry experts. (mynewsdesk.com)
- The global market for In Situ Hybridization (ISH) at $4.3 billion in 2017 is anticipated to reach $7.8 billion by 2024 2017. (reportlinker.com)
- The report, Global In-situ Hybridization (ISH) Market 2017-2021, has been prepared based on an in-depth market analysis with inputs from industry experts. (sbwire.com)
- 12. The method according to claim 1, wherein the method further comprises a post-hybridization rinsing step consisting of three separate rinses, each having a duration of between 5 and 30 minutes. (google.com)
- Spectral imaging was used for post hybridization tissue analysis, enabling separation of spatially colocalized signals. (broadinstitute.org)
- In: Darby I.A., Hewitson T.D. (eds) In Situ Hybridization Protocols. (springer.com)
- This volume of the International Review of Neurobiology was written to assist researchers without any previous experience with in situ hybridization, allowing them to follow the protocols and expect good results. (elsevier.com)
- In situ Hybridization Protocols for the Brain is aimed at first time users, although the experienced user will also find tons of information and useful know-hows in this book. (elsevier.com)
- In situ hybridization is a powerful technique for identifying specific mRNA species within individual cells in tissue sections, providing insights into physiological processes and disease pathogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
- Technological advancements in the field of in situ hybridization, such as development of the cytogenetic technique, is one of the key factors driving the market. (openpr.com)
- The in situ hybridization (ISH) technique allows the sites of expression of particular genes to be detected. (nih.gov)
- In situ hybridization (ISH) is a powerful technique for localizing specific nucleic acid targets within fixed tissues and cells, allowing users to obtain temporal and spatial information about gene expression and genetic loci. (reportlinker.com)
- In conclusion, the in situ hybridization technique described may be of use as a diagnostic tool as well as for studies to elucidate the pathogenesis of Gallibacterium infections in chickens. (asm.org)
- The distribution of neurones expressing neuropeptide Y (NPY) mRNA in the brain of the goldfish was investigated using a non-radioactive in situ hybridization technique. (lu.se)
- Imaging of multiple mRNA targets using quantum dot based in situ hybridization and spectral deconvolution in clinical biopsies," Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications , vol. 348, no. 2, pp. 628-636, 2006. (hindawi.com)
- Imaging of multiple mRNA targets using quantum dot based in situ hybridization and spectral deconvolution in clinical biopsies. (broadinstitute.org)
- Chromosome in situ suppression hybridisation in clinical cytogenetics. (bmj.com)
Specific nucleic acid targets1
- Hi hybridizers, i am trying to find the best method of fixation for plant cell culture material in in situ hybridization experiments with Dig-labeled riboprobes. (bio.net)
- 11. The method according to claim 1, wherein the non-radioactively labelled fragments are present in the hybridization fluid at a concentration of not less than 0.2 μg/ml. (google.com)
- Our method provides a framework with which to design oligo-based hybridization experiments. (pnas.org)
- Results: In this study we describe an automatic method for exploring in situ hybridization data and discover neuropil-enriched RNAs in the mouse hippocampus. (archives-ouvertes.fr)