Impulsive Behavior: An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.Impulse Control Disorders: Disorders whose essential features are the failure to resist an impulse, drive, or temptation to perform an act that is harmful to the individual or to others. Individuals experience an increased sense of tension prior to the act and pleasure, gratification or release of tension at the time of committing the act.Inhibition (Psychology): The interference with or prevention of a behavioral or verbal response even though the stimulus for that response is present; in psychoanalysis the unconscious restraining of an instinctual process.Gambling: An activity distinguished primarily by an element of risk in trying to obtain a desired goal, e.g., playing a game of chance for money.Compulsive Behavior: The behavior of performing an act persistently and repetitively without it leading to reward or pleasure. The act is usually a small, circumscribed behavior, almost ritualistic, yet not pathologically disturbing. Examples of compulsive behavior include twirling of hair, checking something constantly, not wanting pennies in change, straightening tilted pictures, etc.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity: A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Personality Inventory: Check list, usually to be filled out by a person about himself, consisting of many statements about personal characteristics which the subject checks.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Personality: Behavior-response patterns that characterize the individual.Aggression: Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.Borderline Personality Disorder: A personality disorder marked by a pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects, and marked impulsivity beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. (DSM-IV)Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Antisocial Personality Disorder: A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Personality Tests: Standardized objective tests designed to facilitate the evaluation of personality.Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Behavior, Addictive: The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.Personality Assessment: The determination and evaluation of personality attributes by interviews, observations, tests, or scales. Articles concerning personality measurement are considered to be within scope of this term.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Alcohol-Related Disorders: Disorders related to or resulting from abuse or mis-use of alcohol.Bipolar Disorder: A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.Alcoholism: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)Stroop Test: Timed test in which the subject must read a list of words or identify colors presented with varying instructions and different degrees of distraction. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary. 8th ed.)PropylaminesDecision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Personality Disorders: A major deviation from normal patterns of behavior.Suicide, Attempted: The unsuccessful attempt to kill oneself.Criminals: Persons who have committed a crime or have been convicted of a crime.Bender-Gestalt Test: A psychological test consisting of nine geometric designs on cards. The subject is asked to redraw them from memory after each one is presented individually.Psychological Tests: Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.Individuality: Those psychological characteristics which differentiate individuals from one another.Methylphenidate: A central nervous system stimulant used most commonly in the treatment of ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDER in children and for NARCOLEPSY. Its mechanisms appear to be similar to those of DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The d-isomer of this drug is referred to as DEXMETHYLPHENIDATE HYDROCHLORIDE.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Self Report: Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.Receptors, Dopamine D3: A subtype of dopamine D2 receptors that are highly expressed in the LIMBIC SYSTEM of the brain.Receptors, Dopamine D4: A subtype of dopamine D2 receptors that has high affinity for the antipsychotic CLOZAPINE.Internal-External Control: Personality construct referring to an individual's perception of the locus of events as determined internally by his or her own behavior versus fate, luck, or external forces. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1996).Executive Function: A set of cognitive functions that controls complex, goal-directed thought and behavior. Executive function involves multiple domains, such as CONCEPT FORMATION, goal management, cognitive flexibility, INHIBITION control, and WORKING MEMORY. Impaired executive function is seen in a range of disorders, e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA; and ADHD.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Amphetamine-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from use of amphetamines.Obsessive Behavior: Persistent, unwanted idea or impulse which is considered normal when it does not markedly interfere with mental processes or emotional adjustment.Alcoholics Anonymous: An organization of self-proclaimed alcoholics who meet frequently to reinforce their practice of abstinence.Weights and Measures: Measuring and weighing systems and processes.N-Methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine: An N-substituted amphetamine analog. It is a widely abused drug classified as a hallucinogen and causes marked, long-lasting changes in brain serotonergic systems. It is commonly referred to as MDMA or ecstasy.Central Nervous System Stimulants: A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)Cocaine-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.Hallucinogens: Drugs capable of inducing illusions, hallucinations, delusions, paranoid ideations, and other alterations of mood and thinking. Despite the name, the feature that distinguishes these agents from other classes of drugs is their capacity to induce states of altered perception, thought, and feeling that are not experienced otherwise.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Hyperkinesis: Excessive movement of muscles of the body as a whole, which may be associated with organic or psychological disorders.Endophenotypes: Measurable biological (physiological, biochemical, and anatomical features), behavioral (psychometric pattern) or cognitive markers that are found more often in individuals with a disease than in the general population. Because many endophenotypes are present before the disease onset and in individuals with heritable risk for disease such as unaffected family members, they can be used to help diagnose and search for causative genes.Frustration: The motivational and/or affective state resulting from being blocked, thwarted, disappointed or defeated.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Affective Symptoms: Mood or emotional responses dissonant with or inappropriate to the behavior and/or stimulus.Boredom: A psychological state resulting from any activity that lacks motivation, or from enforced continuance in an uninteresting situation.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Self-Injurious Behavior: Behavior in which persons hurt or harm themselves without the motive of suicide or of sexual deviation.Reinforcement (Psychology): The strengthening of a conditioned response.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Alcohol Abstinence: Non-consumption of ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Tobacco Use Disorder: Tobacco used to the detriment of a person's health or social functioning. Tobacco dependence is included.Receptors, Dopamine D2: A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Affect: The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.Conditioning, Operant: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Economics, Behavioral: The combined discipline of psychology and economics that investigates what happens in markets in which some of the agents display human limitations and complications.Task Performance and Analysis: The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.Dextroamphetamine: The d-form of AMPHETAMINE. It is a central nervous system stimulant and a sympathomimetic. It has also been used in the treatment of narcolepsy and of attention deficit disorders and hyperactivity in children. Dextroamphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulating release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. It is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Dangerous Behavior: Actions which have a high risk of being harmful or injurious to oneself or others.Personality Development: Growth of habitual patterns of behavior in childhood and adolescence.Statistics as Topic: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT2A: A serotonin receptor subtype found widely distributed in peripheral tissues where it mediates the contractile responses of variety of tissues that contain SMOOTH MUSCLE. Selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonists include KETANSERIN. The 5-HT2A subtype is also located in BASAL GANGLIA and CEREBRAL CORTEX of the BRAIN where it mediates the effects of HALLUCINOGENS such as LSD.Child Reactive Disorders: Reactions to an event or set of events which are considered to be of pathological degree, that have not developed into a neurosis, psychosis, or personality disorder with fixed patterns.Character: In current usage, approximately equivalent to personality. The sum of the relatively fixed personality traits and habitual modes of response of an individual.Conduct Disorder: A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated. These behaviors include aggressive conduct that causes or threatens physical harm to other people or animals, nonaggressive conduct that causes property loss or damage, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violations of rules. The onset is before age 18. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Euphoria: An exaggerated feeling of physical and emotional well-being not consonant with apparent stimuli or events; usually of psychologic origin, but also seen in organic brain disease and toxic states.Suicide: The act of killing oneself.Marijuana Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke from CANNABIS.Bulimia: Eating an excess amount of food in a short period of time, as seen in the disorder of BULIMIA NERVOSA. It is caused by an abnormal craving for food, or insatiable hunger also known as "ox hunger".Reinforcement Schedule: A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Interview, Psychological: A directed conversation aimed at eliciting information for psychiatric diagnosis, evaluation, treatment planning, etc. The interview may be conducted by a social worker or psychologist.Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Animals, Outbred Strains: Animals that are generated from breeding two genetically dissimilar strains of the same species.Social Control, Informal: Those forms of control which are exerted in less concrete and tangible ways, as through folkways, mores, conventions, and public sentiment.Amphetamine: A powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.Basal Ganglia: Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Diagnosis, Dual (Psychiatry): The co-existence of a substance abuse disorder with a psychiatric disorder. The diagnostic principle is based on the fact that it has been found often that chemically dependent patients also have psychiatric problems of various degrees of severity.Memory, Short-Term: Remembrance of information for a few seconds to hours.Self Administration: Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.Time Perception: The ability to estimate periods of time lapsed or duration of time.Control Groups: Groups that serve as a standard for comparison in experimental studies. They are similar in relevant characteristics to the experimental group but do not receive the experimental intervention.Biogenic Monoamines: Biogenic amines having only one amine moiety. Included in this group are all natural monoamines formed by the enzymatic decarboxylation of natural amino acids.Anticipation, Psychological: The ability to foresee what is likely to happen on the basis of past experience. It is largely a frontal lobe function.Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors: Drugs that block the transport of adrenergic transmitters into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. The tricyclic antidepressants (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) and amphetamines are among the therapeutically important drugs that may act via inhibition of adrenergic transport. Many of these drugs also block transport of serotonin.Serial Learning: Learning to make a series of responses in exact order.Guanfacine: A centrally acting antihypertensive agent with specificity towards ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS.Alcohol-Induced Disorders, Nervous System: Acute and chronic neurologic disorders associated with the various neurologic effects of ETHANOL. Primary sites of injury include the brain and peripheral nerves.Nucleus Accumbens: Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.Child Behavior: Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Life Change Events: Those occurrences, including social, psychological, and environmental, which require an adjustment or effect a change in an individual's pattern of living.Catechol O-Methyltransferase: Enzyme that catalyzes the movement of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionone to a catechol or a catecholamine.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Bulimia Nervosa: An eating disorder that is characterized by a cycle of binge eating (BULIMIA or bingeing) followed by inappropriate acts (purging) to avert weight gain. Purging methods often include self-induced VOMITING, use of LAXATIVES or DIURETICS, excessive exercise, and FASTING.Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders: Includes two similar disorders: oppositional defiant disorder and CONDUCT DISORDERS. Symptoms occurring in children with these disorders include: defiance of authority figures, angry outbursts, and other antisocial behaviors.Sensation: The process in which specialized SENSORY RECEPTOR CELLS transduce peripheral stimuli (physical or chemical) into NERVE IMPULSES which are then transmitted to the various sensory centers in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Fenfluramine: A centrally active drug that apparently both blocks serotonin uptake and provokes transport-mediated serotonin release.Games, Experimental: Games designed to provide information on hypotheses, policies, procedures, or strategies.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Temperament: Predisposition to react to one's environment in a certain way; usually refers to mood changes.Child Behavior Disorders: Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Jurisprudence: The science or philosophy of law. Also, the application of the principles of law and justice to health and medicine.Anger: A strong emotional feeling of displeasure aroused by being interfered with, injured or threatened.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Intelligence Tests: Standardized tests that measure the present general ability or aptitude for intellectual performance.Adolescent Development: The continuous sequential physiological and psychological changes during ADOLESCENCE, approximately between the age of 13 and 18.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors: Drugs that block the transport of DOPAMINE into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. Most of the ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS also inhibit dopamine uptake.Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Rage: Fury; violent, intense anger.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT2B: A serotonin receptor subtype found in the BRAIN; HEART; LUNGS; PLACENTA and DIGESTIVE SYSTEM organs. A number of functions have been attributed to the action of the 5-HT2B receptor including the development of cardiac myocytes (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) and the contraction of SMOOTH MUSCLE.Trail Making Test: The subject's ability to connect 25 numbered and lettered circles in sequence in a specific length of time. A score of 12 or below is suggestive of organic brain damage.Reversal Learning: Any situation where an animal or human is trained to respond differentially to two stimuli (e.g., approach and avoidance) under reward and punishment conditions and subsequently trained under reversed reward values (i.e., the approach which was previously rewarded is punished and vice versa).Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Automobile Driving: The effect of environmental or physiological factors on the driver and driving ability. Included are driving fatigue, and the effect of drugs, disease, and physical disabilities on driving.Binge Drinking: Drinking an excessive amount of ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES in a short period of time.5,7-Dihydroxytryptamine: Tryptamine substituted with two hydroxyl groups in positions 5 and 7. It is a neurotoxic serotonin analog that destroys serotonergic neurons preferentially and is used in neuropharmacology as a tool.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Cocaine: An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.Set (Psychology): Readiness to think or respond in a predetermined way when confronted with a problem or stimulus situation.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Dopamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of dopaminergic neurons. They remove DOPAMINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS and are the target of DOPAMINE UPTAKE INHIBITORS.Eating Disorders: A group of disorders characterized by physiological and psychological disturbances in appetite or food intake.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Coloboma: Congenital anomaly in which some of the structures of the eye are absent due to incomplete fusion of the fetal intraocular fissure during gestation.Irritable Mood: Abnormal or excessive excitability with easily triggered anger, annoyance, or impatience.Monoamine Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. It is a flavin-containing enzyme that is localized in mitochondrial membranes, whether in nerve terminals, the liver, or other organs. Monoamine oxidase is important in regulating the metabolic degradation of catecholamines and serotonin in neural or target tissues. Hepatic monoamine oxidase has a crucial defensive role in inactivating circulating monoamines or those, such as tyramine, that originate in the gut and are absorbed into the portal circulation. (From Goodman and Gilman's, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p415) EC 1.4.3.4.Memantine: AMANTADINE derivative that has some dopaminergic effects. It has been proposed as an antiparkinson agent.Hostility: Tendency to feel anger toward and to seek to inflict harm upon a person or group.Serotonin Agents: Drugs used for their effects on serotonergic systems. Among these are drugs that affect serotonin receptors, the life cycle of serotonin, and the survival of serotonergic neurons.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Substance Withdrawal Syndrome: Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Education: Acquisition of knowledge as a result of instruction in a formal course of study.Punishment: The application of an unpleasant stimulus or penalty for the purpose of eliminating or correcting undesirable behavior.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.gamma-Synuclein: A homolog of ALPHA-SYNUCLEIN that plays a role in neurofilament network integrity. It is overexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS and may be involved in modulating AXON architecture during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and in the adult. Gamma-Synuclein may also activate SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS associated with ETS-DOMAIN PROTEIN ELK-1.Binge-Eating Disorder: A disorder associated with three or more of the following: eating until feeling uncomfortably full; eating large amounts of food when not physically hungry; eating much more rapidly than normal; eating alone due to embarrassment; feeling of disgust, DEPRESSION, or guilt after overeating. Criteria includes occurrence on average, at least 2 days a week for 6 months. The binge eating is not associated with the regular use of inappropriate compensatory behavior (i.e. purging, excessive exercise, etc.) and does not co-occur exclusively with BULIMIA NERVOSA or ANOREXIA NERVOSA. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Hydroxyindoleacetic AcidDopamine Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of serotonergic neurons. They are different than SEROTONIN RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to SEROTONIN. They remove SEROTONIN from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. Regulates signal amplitude and duration at serotonergic synapses and is the site of action of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS.Token Economy: A practice whereby tokens representing money, toys, candy, etc., are given as secondary reinforcers contingent upon certain desired behaviors or performances.Anorexia Nervosa: An eating disorder that is characterized by the lack or loss of APPETITE, known as ANOREXIA. Other features include excess fear of becoming OVERWEIGHT; BODY IMAGE disturbance; significant WEIGHT LOSS; refusal to maintain minimal normal weight; and AMENORRHEA. This disorder occurs most frequently in adolescent females. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.PrisonersSex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Urate Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urate and unidentified products. It is a copper protein. The initial products decompose to form allantoin. EC 1.7.3.3.FluorobenzenesAssociation: A functional relationship between psychological phenomena of such nature that the presence of one tends to evoke the other; also, the process by which such a relationship is established.Factor Analysis, Statistical: A set of statistical methods for analyzing the correlations among several variables in order to estimate the number of fundamental dimensions that underlie the observed data and to describe and measure those dimensions. It is used frequently in the development of scoring systems for rating scales and questionnaires.Drinking Behavior: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.Thinking: Mental activity, not predominantly perceptual, by which one apprehends some aspect of an object or situation based on past learning and experience.Satiety Response: Behavioral response associated with the achieving of gratification.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Quinpirole: A dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist.Psychopathology: The study of significant causes and processes in the development of mental illness.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.PyrrolidinesNicotine: Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Opioid-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from abuse or mis-use of opioids.Smoking Cessation: Discontinuation of the habit of smoking, the inhaling and exhaling of tobacco smoke.Video Games: A form of interactive entertainment in which the player controls electronically generated images that appear on a video display screen. This includes video games played in the home on special machines or home computers, and those played in arcades.Antimanic Agents: Agents that are used to treat bipolar disorders or mania associated with other affective disorders.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Alcoholic Intoxication: An acute brain syndrome which results from the excessive ingestion of ETHANOL or ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Faculty: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in an educational institution.Methamphetamine: A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
Impulsivity is thought to be a facet trait in the neuroticism personality domain (overindulgence/negative urgency) which is ... Genetic influences on impulsivity, risk taking, stress responsivity and vulnerability to drug abuse and addiction[dead link] ... Impulsivity is characterized by actions based on sudden desires, whims, or inclinations rather than careful thought. ... Individuals with substance abuse have higher levels of impulsivity, and individuals who use multiple drugs tend to be more ...
Kafka, M. P. (1995b). Sexual impulsivity. In E. Hollander & D. J. Stein (Eds.), Impulsivity and aggression (pp. 201-228). ... Bancroft, J., & Vukadinovic, Z. (2004). Sexual addiction, sexual compulsivity, sexual impulsivity or what? Toward a theoretical ... or a disorder of impulsivity. A number of authors do not acknowledge such a pathology and instead assert that the condition ... sexual impulsivity, "out of control sexual behavior", and paraphilia-related disorder. The Merriam-Webster Dictionary defines ...
It plays a lesser role in processing fear (a form of aversion), impulsivity, and the placebo effect. It is involved in the ... "Nucleus accumbens and impulsivity". Progress in Neurobiology. 92 (4): 533-57. doi:10.1016/j.pneurobio.2010.08.007. PMID ...
Corstorphine, E; Waller, G; Lawson, R; Ganis, C (Jan 2007). "Trauma and multi-impulsivity in the eating disorders". Eat Behav. ... Welch, SL; Fairburn, CG (Oct 1996). "Impulsivity or comorbidity in bulimia nervosa. A controlled study of deliberate self-harm ... Chamberlain, SR; Sahakian, BJ (May 2007). "The neuropsychiatry of impulsivity". Curr Opin Psychiatry. 20 (3): 255-61. doi: ...
Congdon, Eliza; Canli, Turhan (2008). "A Neurogenetic Approach to Impulsivity". The Journal of Personality (Print). 76 (6): ...
ImpulsivityEdit. Impulsivity is characterized by actions based on sudden desires, whims, or inclinations rather than careful ... "Impulsivity". The Free Dictionary.. *^ a b Gerard Moeller M.D., Barratt Ernest S., Ph, Dougherty Donald M., Ph, Schmitz Joy M ... Genetic influences on impulsivity, risk taking, stress responsivity and vulnerability to drug abuse and addiction[dead link] ... Impulsivity is thought to be a facet trait in the neuroticism personality domain (overindulgence/negative urgency) which is ...
b. Impulsivity: Acting on the spur of the moment in response to immediate stimuli; acting on a momentary basis without a plan ... Aggressiveness and impulsivity are among the possible symptoms of ASPD. Testosterone is a hormone that plays an important role ... Impulsivity is not only linked with irregularities in 5HT metabolism, but may be the most essential psychopathological aspect ... Correspondingly, the DSM classifies "impulsivity or failure to plan ahead" and "irritability and aggressiveness" as two of ...
Cross, Catharine P.; Copping, Lee T.; Campbell, Anne (2011). "Sex differences in impulsivity: A meta-analysis". Psychological ... Campbell, Anne; Muncer, Steven (2009-10-01). "Can 'risky' impulsivity explain sex differences in aggression?". Personality and ... Copping, Lee T.; Campbell, Anne; Muncer, Steven (2013-06-01). "Impulsivity, sensation seeking and reproductive behaviour: A ... in particular with regard to impulsivity and fear. In total, Campbell authored and co-authored more than 80 scientific papers ...
"Sex differences in impulsivity: a meta-analysis." Psychological bulletin 137.1 (2011): 97. Twenge, Jean M., et al. "Egos ...
Ray Li, C.S.; Chen, S.H.; Lin, W.H.; Yang, Y.Y. (2005). "Attentional blink in adolescents with varying levels of impulsivity". ... Billieux, J.; Rochat, L.; Rebetez, M.M.L.; Van der Linden, M. (April 2008). "Are all facets of impulsivity related to self- ... Bekker, M.H.J.; van de Meerendonk, C.; Mollerus, J. (December 2004). "Effects of negative mood induction and impulsivity on ... Glicksohn, J.; Leshem, R.; Aharoni, R. (January 2006). "Impulsivity and time estimation: Casting a net to catch a fish". ...
Early symptoms include impulsivity, irritability, and hyperactivity. Atrophy (wasting away) of the stomach weakens the ...
Sep 2009). "Impulsivity, frontal lobes and risk for addiction". Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 93 (3): 237-47. doi:10.1016/j.pbb. ... Binge drinking is believed to increase impulsivity due to altered functioning of prefrontal-subcortical and orbitofrontal ...
There is evidence that variants of these genes are involved not only in contributing to brain damage but also to impulsivity ... These brain changes are linked to poor behavioural control and impulsivity, which tend to worsen the existing addiction problem ... Adolescents are naturally at increased risk of alcohol abuse due to increased impulsivity and sensation seeking which results ... This brain damage from alcohol actually increases impulsivity and therefore worsens the addictive disorder. There are five main ...
Crews FT, Boettiger CA (September 2009). "Impulsivity, Frontal Lobes and Risk for Addiction". Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 93 (3): ...
... depression and impulsivity. The second-line medications are Benzodiazepines, Tricyclic antidepressants and Antipsychotic ...
impulsivity: perceived symbolism of an audacious or impulsivity personality, insinuating promiscuity. *mannerism: masculine or ...
Impulsivity. *Irritability. *Mood swings. *Physiological stress reactions. *Stereotyping host nationals. *Suicidal or ...
Genetic models of variation in impulsivity and alcoholism. Genetics of alcohol-associated traits in monkeys. A dedicated ...
Impulsivity Negligence San Pedro, Maria Ofelia Clarissa Z.; Ryan S. J. D., Baker; Ma. Mercedes T., Rodrigo (2011), "Detecting ... and impulsivity. The concern regarding students making careless mistakes in school being driven in the direction of ADHD, ...
Williams J, Taylor E (June 2006). "The evolution of hyperactivity, impulsivity and cognitive diversity". J R Soc Interface. 3 ( ... Play media Inattention, hyperactivity (restlessness in adults), disruptive behavior, and impulsivity are common in ADHD. ... hyperactivity-impulsivity, or both. To be considered, the symptoms must have appeared by the age of six to twelve and occur in ... and impulsivity) in approximately 80% of cases compared with placebo controls, in the short term.22 Gentile JP, Atiq R, Gillig ...
Vazire and her colleagues have examined narcissism in relation to other personality traits, such as impulsivity Several studies ... Vazire, S., & Funder, D. C. (2006). Impulsivity and the self-defeating behavior of narcissists. Personality and Social ... Vazire, Simine; Funder, David C. (2016-12-21). "Impulsivity and the Self-Defeating Behavior of Narcissists". Personality and ...
Williams, J.; Taylor, E. (2006). "The evolution of hyperactivity, impulsivity and cognitive diversity". Journal of Royal ...
The combination of low self-esteem, impulsivity and low tolerance for stress causes these individuals to have frequent mood ... impulsivity value on nonconformity combined with weak commitment to socially valued goals for achievement sense of social ... impulsivity". L'Encéphale. 25 (6): 569-75. PMID 10668599. Franken, Ingmar H.A.; Muris, Peter; Georgieva, Irina (2006). "Gray's ...
Impulsivity Novelty seeking Low arousal theory Extreme sport Zuckerman, Marvin (2009). "Chapter 31. Sensation seeking". In ... Biological Bases of Sensation Seeking, Impulsivity and Anxiety. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Zuckerman, M., 1991. Psychobiology of ... The roles of impulsivity and sensation seeking". Personality and Individual Differences. 31 (8): 1303. doi:10.1016/S0191-8869( ...
1951 Impulsivity as indicated by Rorschach test factors. J. Consulting Psychol., 15, No. 6. With Klein, G. S., & Schlesinger, H ...
It is characterized by impulsivity and instability in relationships and mood. People with borderline personality experience ...
The LHIB consists of scales for clinically significant impulsivity, non-clinically significant impulsivity, and impulsivity ... with pathological gambling samples demonstrating greater response impulsivity, choice impulsivity, and reflection impulsivity ... Impulsivity can be classified as a multifactorial construct. A functional variety of impulsivity has also been suggested, which ... "Impulsivity: The behavioral and neurological science of discounting". Impulsivity: The behavioral and neurological science of ...
Dysfunctional impulsivity is a type of impulsivity[vague] that is associated with a tendency to make quick decisions when this ... Of the 63 questions on the Dickman Impulsivity Inventory, 23 of the items are used to measure dysfunctional impulsivity. This ... Delay discounting has been shown to be related to both dysfunctional and functional impulsivity. Impulsivity is significantly ... Many of the previously used impulsivity scales have been significantly correlated to measures of dysfunctional impulsivity. ...
"While impulsivity might have aided ancestors to choose calorie-rich foods when food was scarce, our study results suggest that ... However, it was unclear whether the impulsivity existed before the dysfunctional eating behavior or if developed as a result of ... Food Addiction Linked to Impulsivity. By Rick Nauert PhD Associate News Editor ... in todays calorie-rich environment, impulsivity promotes pathological overeating," said Pietro Cottone, PhD, co-director of ...
Adaptive learning; Behavioral flexibility; Disinhibition; Impulse control; Perseveration Impulsivity is the propensity to ... Impulsivity is the propensity to engage in behaviors without adequate forethought. These behaviors are typically approach ... Gullo M.J. (2012) Impulsivity and Reversal Learning. In: Seel N.M. (eds) Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning. Springer, ... Gullo, M. J., Jackson, C. J., & Dawe, S. (2010). Impulsivity and reversal learning in hazardous alcohol use. Personality and ...
Addiction, Reward, Impulsivity*Addiction - Behavioral Inhibition and Impulsivity. *Addiction - Decision-Making and ... Addiction - Behavioral Inhibition and Impulsivity. Behavioral inhibition is a normal process that allows individuals to ... such as compulsivity and impulsivity. These deficits can be modeled in animals using operant learning tasks, such as the stop- ...
Reward delay impulsivity was assessed using the Two-choice Impulsivity Paradigm (TCIP), where subjects had the choice of ... These results suggest that ASPD is characterized by increased rapid-response impulsivity. Aspects of impulsivity related to ... The Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) provided an integrated measure of trait impulsivity. Rapid-response impulsivity was ... rapid-response impulsivity), and as an inability to delay responding despite a larger reward (reward-delay impulsivity). We ...
We then undertook factor analysis to define specific underlying dimensions of apathy and impulsivity. Regression models were ... without dementia we explored the distribution of measures of motivation and impulsivity using univariate methods. ... i,Background,/i,. Apathy and impulsivity in Parkinson disease (PD) are associated with clinically significant behavioral ... The second impulsivity factor, "impetuosity," has been conceptualised as the BISs "ideomotor" impulsivity [5] and the ...
Impulsivity in Pathological Gambling: A Cross Sectional Analysis on Tests of Impulsivity Between Pathological Gamblers and a ... Between group comparisons on this battery of impulsivity tests will be made to clarify which components of impulsivity are ... Impulsivity. Gambling. Pathological Gamblers. Problem Gamblers. Non-Pathological Gamblers. Risk-taking. Inhibition. Gambling ... Impulsivity has been described as the cognitive inability to delay gratification, a failure to inhibit behavioral action or ...
... the University of Cambridge suggests a traumatic upbringing during childhood can lead to personality traits such as impulsivity ... Hurtful Childhood Can Hike Risk of Impulsivity, Drug Addiction. By Rick Nauert PhD Associate News Editor ... Nauert PhD, R. (2018). Hurtful Childhood Can Hike Risk of Impulsivity, Drug Addiction. Psych Central. Retrieved on July 15, ... Impulsivity or compulsiveness, in turn, are linked to an increased risk of addiction. ...
... David J. Ahearn,1 Kathryn McDonald,2,3 Michelle Barraclough,4 ... J. L. Evenden, "Varieties of impulsivity," Psychopharmacology, vol. 146, no. 4, pp. 348-361, 1999. View at Publisher · View at ... K. N. Kirby and J. C. Finch, "The hierarchical structure of self-reported impulsivity," Personality and Individual Differences ... M. J. Frank, J. Samanta, A. A. Moustafa, and S. J. Sherman, "Hold your horses: impulsivity, deep brain stimulation, and ...
Tremblay is working with animal models to understand the interplay between these two systems in creating impulsivity in ... Although the drugs, ropinirole and pramipexole, are effective at reducing motor control problems, the unwanted impulsivity can ... and serotonin has been implicated in disorders of impulsivity, as well as in Parkinsons disease. ... to see if it can reverse the unwanted impulsivity effects of ropinirole. ...
Effective Parenting for Severe Tics or High Impulsivity. This article is excerpted from Chapter 4 of. Tourettes Syndrome: ... Parents find extra skills invaluable, however, when a child or teen has severe tics, an especially high level of impulsivity, ...
Brain study shows impulsivity may weigh down some individuals. Center for BrainHealth ... is the key factor that links brain patterns of impulsivity and a high BMI. BMI is a measure of body fat for adults, based on ... and analyzed three separate measures to understand the role of impulsivity in body weight, including a self-report, ... brain-study-shows-impulsivity-may-weigh-down-some-individuals Related Journal Article. http://dx.. doi.. org/. 10.. 1002/. oby. ...
Impulsivity. Impulsivity (or impulsiveness) is a personality trait characterized by the inclination of an individual to ... Impulsivity has been shown to have a genetic component and may be inheritable. Abnormal patterns of impulsivity may also be an ... Eysenck and Eysenck related impulsivity to risk-taking, lack of planning, and making up ones mind quickly. Impulsivity has ... As a personality trait, impulsivity is part of normal behavior as it contributes to adaptive functioning. To do something and ...
The attentional and non-planning impulsivity, regarded as cognitive impulsivity, may be associated with dysfunction in ... and non-planning impulsivity subscale scores (FDR-adjusted p = 0.018). On the other hand, motor impulsivity subscale score had ... Based on Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) score, PD patients were classified as higher (PD-HI) or lower impulsivity (PD-LI ... We investigated the pathophysiology of impulsivity in PD using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). ...
Impulsivity and Compulsivity Edited by John M. Oldham, M.D., M.S., Eric Hollander, M.D., and Andrew E. Skodol, M.D. ... Impulsivity and Compulsivity applies a provocative spectrum model to this psychopathology. The spectrum model is consistent ... Antianxiety function of impulsivity and compulsivity. Defense mechanisms in impulsive versus obsessive-compulsive disorders. ... Chapters are also dedicated to the antianxiety function of impulsivity and compulsivity, defense mechanisms in impulsive ...
Further reports about: , ADHD , Monkey , Monkey study , Populin , frontal cortex , impulsivity , rhesus macaque monkeys ... Impulsivity, rewards and Ritalin: Monkey study shows tighter link. 14.11.2013. Even as the rate of diagnosis has reached 11 ... Scientifically, impulsivity can appear as a choice for a small but immediate reward over a larger one that requires some delay ... which specifically lists impulsivity among its diagnostic criteria, Populin says. ...
Ouzir, M. (2013). Impulsivity in schizophrenia: A comprehensive update. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 18(2), 247-254. ... Clarke, D. (2006). Impulsivity as a mediator in the relationship between depression and problem gambling. Personality and ... Waldeck, T. L., & Miller, L. S. (1997). Gender and impulsivity differences in licit substance use. Journal of Substance Abuse, ... Additionally, delay discounting is a form of impulsivity known to positively associate with both PPG and SUDs and thought to ...
Scientists at the University of Cambridge have found impulsivity, a trait often associated with addicts behaviour, ... High impulsivity predicts the switch to compulsive cocaine-taking 9 June 2008 ... High impulsivity predicts the switch to compulsive cocaine-taking 9 June 2008 Scientists at the University of Cambridge have ... Using animal models developed by the research group, the researchers established groups of rats showing high or low impulsivity ...
3 thoughts on "BPD and Impulsivity: "I Wanted to See What Would Happen"" * Mary says: ...
Impulsivity and personality traits were specifically explored, along with other gambling-related severity factors. We found ... Impulsivity and personality traits were specifically explored, along with other gambling-related severity factors. We found ... Impulsivity Traits. Impulsive Behavior Scale (UPPS-P) (52). The UPPS-P measures five facets of impulsive behavior through self- ... Gambling and Impulsivity Traits: A Recipe for Criminal Behavior?. Gemma Mestre-Bach1,2, Trevor Steward1,2, Roser Granero2,3, ...
The main aim of the present study was to examine the potential relationships between impulsivity and problem gambling in ... In the longitudinal analyses, results showed that the impulsivity subscale of the ZKPQ increased the risk of problem gambling ( ... In the longitudinal analyses, results showed that the impulsivity subscale of the ZKPQ increased the risk of problem gambling ( ... Moreover, our findings suggest a bidirectional relationship between impulsivity and problem gambling in adolescence. These ...
... By University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Mar 4, 2006 - 3:59 ...
... on self-reported dysfunctional and functional impulsivity, assessed by the Dickman impulsivity inventory (DII), and the ... Importantly, impulsivity consists of two dissociable components that previous studies have failed to separate: functional and ... We predicted that the first group would show high scores of dysfunctional, but not functional, self-reported impulsivity and ... Although extensive evidence supports a specific role of striatal, but not frontal dopamine (DA) in human impulsivity, recent ...
  • For many years it was understood that impulsivity is a trait but with further analysis it can be found that there were five traits that can lead to impulsive actions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Trait impulsivity and response inhibition in antisocial personality disorder. (nih.gov)
  • The Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) provided an integrated measure of trait impulsivity. (nih.gov)
  • Abnormal patterns of impulsivity may also be an acquired trait as a result of various neurodegenerative diseases, traumatic brain injury (TBI), hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, intrauterine hypoxia, bacterial or viral infections or neurotoxicity as a result of chemical exposure. (phys.org)
  • While HI may be within the spectrum of ICDs, the underlying pathophysiological mechanism differs between trait impulsivity and ICDs 20 . (nature.com)
  • For instance, ICD has been associated with increased connectivity between the left subthalamic nucleus and the left parietal operculum, whereas trait impulsivity has been associated with a weak connectivity between the left putamen and the right inferior temporal gyrus 21 . (nature.com)
  • Scientists at the University of Cambridge have found impulsivity, a trait often associated with addicts' behaviour, predicts whether casual drug use will lead to compulsive drug use. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • The Cambridge research team, which included Professor Everitt, Drs David Belin, Adam Mar, Jeff Dalley and Professor Trevor Robbins working in the Departments of Experimental Psychology and Psychiatry within the Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute, showed that a spontaneously occurring tendency, or 'trait', of impulsivity in rats predicts the transition from casual to compulsive drug use and drug addiction. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • The researchers caution, however, that impulsivity is a complex trait with multiple genetic and environmental causes. (nih.gov)
  • Relationship of trait impulsivity with clinical presentation in euthymic bipolar disorder patients. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to examine trait impulsivity in patients with bipolar disorder and explore the possible connections between impulsivity and clinical presentation of the illness. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Their trait impulsivity was evaluated by using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) and impulsivity subscale of the Temperament and Character Inventory, and the results were compared with 50 age- and sex-matched healthy controls and among patients with different clinical properties. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These results show that after accounting for common confounding factors, trait-like impulsivity was substantially higher in subjects with bipolar disorder than in nonbipolar comparison subjects and may vary according to different clinical presentations. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Here, we review common neural substrates of trait impulsivity, anhedonia, and irritability, which include both low tonic mesolimbic dopamine activity and low phasic mesolimbic dopamine responding to incentives during reward anticipation and associative learning. (cambridge.org)
  • 1995) was the self-report measure of trait-dependent aspects of impulsivity, while the Immediate and Delayed Memory Task (IMT/DMT) (Dougherty et al. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • The result was a comparison of trait-dependent and state-dependent impulsivity between six groups: manic/SA+, manic/SA-, euthymic/SA+, euthymic/SA-, SA-only and controls. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • 2003), the study being examined here compares trait-dependent impulsivity in euthymic patients with and without SA to impulsivity in SA-only individuals and controls (Swann et al. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • Collectively, this indicates that elevated trait-dependent impulsivity is dependent on both SA and BD regardless of the phase of illness. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • Thomann, Philipp 2016-10-14 00:00:00 Impulsivity is associated with distinct mental disorders but is also considered as a personality trait exhibited by healthy individuals. (deepdyve.com)
  • Both groups exhibit impulsivity, but that trait appears to derive from different areas of the brain. (kevinjroberts.net)
  • Total BIS-11 score and 2 out of 3 BIS-11 impulsivity trait subscale scores were significantly associated with risk of cannabis use. (mdmag.com)
  • Trait impulsivity in a forensic inpatient sample: an evaluation of the Barratt impulsiveness scale. (qxmd.com)
  • The test involve college students who were administered a personality test that estimated trait-impulsivity. (com.es)
  • Petry, 2001), the present set of results lends credence to the notion that impulsivity is not a purely maladaptive trait but one whose consequences hinge on the structure of the decision-making environment. (com.es)
  • They commented on the fact that the trait of impulsivity was often studied by academics in the context of significant pathology (like violent parolees or heroin abusers), rather than 'normal' non-clinical populations. (com.es)
  • These include the impulsiveness scale of Eysenck's Impulsivity Inventory (part of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire) as well as the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) score, PD patients were classified as higher (PD-HI) or lower impulsivity (PD-LI). (nature.com)
  • To assess the multifaceted constructs of impulsivity, various methods have been developed, including Barratt Impulsiveness Scale 11th version (BIS-11), Stop Signal Reaction Time (SSRT), 5-choice serial reaction time task, Hayling test, go/no-go task and Iowa gambling task. (nature.com)
  • Impulsivity was examined by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) and related to LGI. (deepdyve.com)
  • The study, conducted by researchers at UT Health McGovern Medical School, measured impulsivity amongst patients by using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) total score and subscales (attentional, motor and non-planning). (mdmag.com)
  • In the present study, we investigated genetic and environmental effects on motor impulsivity from childhood to late adolescence using a longitudinal sample of twins from ages 9 to 18 years. (ed.gov)
  • Motor impulsivity was assessed using errors of commission (no-go errors) in a visual go/no-go task at 4 time points: ages 9-10, 11-13, 14-15, and 16-18 years. (ed.gov)
  • Significant genetic and nonshared environmental effects on motor impulsivity were found at each of the 4 waves of assessment with genetic factors explaining 22%-41% of the variance within each of the 4 waves. (ed.gov)
  • Multivariate biometric analyses revealed that common genetic factors influenced 12%-40% of the variance in motor impulsivity across development, whereas nonshared environmental factors common to all time points contributed to 2%-52% of the variance. (ed.gov)
  • Nonshared environmental influences specific to each time point also significantly influenced motor impulsivity. (ed.gov)
  • Overall, results demonstrated that although genetic factors were critical to motor impulsivity across development, both common and specific nonshared environmental factors played a strong role in the development of motor impulsivity across age. (ed.gov)
  • A feature of multiple neuropsychiatric disorders is motor impulsivity. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Native protein levels of the 5-HT 2A R and the 5-HT 2C R predicted the intensity of motor impulsivity and the 5-HT 2A R:5-HT 2C R ratio in mPFC positively correlated with levels of premature responses in individual outbred rats. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The possibility that the 5-HT 2A R and 5-HT 2C R act in concert to control motor impulsivity is supported by the observation that high phenotypic motor impulsivity associated with a diminished mPFC synaptosomal 5-HT 2A R:5-HT 2C R protein:protein interaction. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We infer that there is an interactive relationship between the mPFC 5-HT 2A R and 5-HT 2C R, and that a 5-HT 2A R:5-HT 2C R imbalance may be a functionally-relevant mechanism underlying motor impulsivity. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 2 Motor impulsivity (difficulty in withholding a prepotent motor response) and impulsive choice (preference for small immediate rewards over large delayed rewards) are two primary facets of impulsivity which have been reliably assayed with self-report questionnaires and laboratory measures in humans and animals (for reviews). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 1 , 3 Analyses employing choice serial reaction time (CSRT) tasks in outbred rat strains implicate catecholamine, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate and serotonin (5-HT) systems in corticostriatal circuits in inherent motor impulsivity. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 4 - 10 The 5-HT 2A receptor (5-HT 2A R) and 5-HT 2C R are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) demonstrated to control motor impulsivity. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Ro 60-0175, WAY163909) 11 , 12 , 14 - 17 consistently reduce while the preferential 5-HT 2A R agonist 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI) 9 , 18 - 26 or the 5-HT 2C R antagonist SB242084 enhance motor impulsivity. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 12 , 27 The observation that motor impulsivity was synergistically suppressed by the combination of subthreshold doses of M100907 plus WAY163909 raises the possibility that the 5-HT 2A R and 5-HT 2C R may act in concert to regulate impulsive responding. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Reward delay impulsivity was assessed using the Two-choice Impulsivity Paradigm (TCIP), where subjects had the choice of smaller-sooner or larger-delayed rewards, and the Single Key Impulsivity Paradigm (SKIP), a free-operant responding task. (nih.gov)
  • FC between the right FPN and MVN had a significant positive correlation with total BIS-11 score (FDR-adjusted p = 0.010) and the attentional impulsivity (FDR-adjusted p = 0.046) and non-planning impulsivity subscale scores (FDR-adjusted p = 0.018). (nature.com)
  • New research from the University of Cambridge suggests a traumatic upbringing during childhood can lead to personality traits such as impulsivity or compulsiveness. (psychcentral.com)
  • Some of these, like those impacting genes related to DAT , DRD4 , and COMT functioning, have an effect on dopamine function that has been correlated with personality traits like sensation seeking and impulsivity . (allaboutaddiction.com)
  • Given their potential to modulate prefrontal inhibitory processes, SNRIs may hold promise for the treatment of some types of impulsivity. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • Impulsivity seems to be a multi-dimensional phenomenon, and PG a heterogeneous population in which different types of impulsivity are present. (qxmd.com)
  • Recent psychological research has suggested that there are various facets of impulsivity. (phys.org)
  • Professor Everitt stated: "This study is important because it shows that impulsivity is a vulnerability characteristic that predicts a switch to compulsive drug use when individuals are exposed to and take cocaine. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • Study shows that impulsivity is risk factor for food. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Aripiprazole Suppression of Drinking in a Clinical Laboratory Paradigm: Influence of Impulsivity and Self-Control. (semanticscholar.org)
  • To investigate genetic associations with impulsivity and initiation of drug taking, we took a two-step approach. (tcd.ie)
  • Many of the previously used impulsivity scales have been significantly correlated to measures of dysfunctional impulsivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Binge drinkers were found to have significantly higher scores of dysfunctional impulsivity compared to control groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • DRD2 C957T T/T homozygotes and DRD4 7-repeat carriers indeed had significantly higher scores on self-reported dysfunctional, but not functional, impulsivity. (nih.gov)
  • Impulsivity per se and socioenvironmental factors were not significantly related to cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid concentration. (newideas.net)
  • People who experienced gambling-related problems exhibited significantly higher impulsivity on all five facets compared to people who gambled without experiencing problems. (basisonline.org)
  • Among females, impulsivity significantly moderated the relationship between body dissatisfaction and scores on the Eating Concern Scale (β=.234, t(53)=2.072, p=.043). (tamu.edu)
  • Impulsivity has been shown to have a genetic component and may be inheritable. (phys.org)
  • Genetic markers of striatal dopamine predict individual differences in dysfunctional, but not functional impulsivity. (nih.gov)
  • Although extensive evidence supports a specific role of striatal, but not frontal dopamine (DA) in human impulsivity, recent studies on genetic variability have raised some doubts on such a role. (nih.gov)
  • This was not attributable to mundane confounds related to individual task requirements but instead indicated the existence of common genetic factors influencing variation in both impulsivity and locomotor activity. (jneurosci.org)
  • In the present study, we exploited the isogenic nature of inbred mice, in combination with a tractable mouse model of delayed reinforcement, to look for evidence of genetic effects on impulsivity. (jneurosci.org)
  • Even though the expression of aggression is a complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors (Seroczynski, 1999), impulsivity seems to be linked to the dysfunction of certain neurotransmitters. (vin.com)
  • Genetic variability related to attention, impulsivity, and drug use. (allaboutaddiction.com)
  • Mice are useful tools for dissecting genetic and environmental factors in relation to the study of attention and impulsivity. (sussex.ac.uk)
  • In addition to impulsivity (such as texting while driving, drug use and risky sexual activity) and ability to exercise self-control, participants will be evaluated on their academic, occupational, executive, emotional and psychiatric functioning. (ucdavis.edu)
  • This new view could impact psychiatric diagnoses, and society's view of "normal" attention, impulsivity, and language skills. (totallyadd.com)
  • Current studies suggest that early stressful life events might cause higher impulsivity in the adulthood. (deepdyve.com)
  • Further, they lend additional support to the notion that alterations in early neurodevelopment comprising fronto-temporo-parietal regions might give rise to higher impulsivity in healthy individuals. (deepdyve.com)
  • Despite the phenomenon, the exact neural mechanisms underlying this timing impulsivity remain to be elucidated. (ovid.com)
  • Up to 20 percent of people with Parkinson's disease who take a new class of drugs to help reduce their stiffness, shakiness, slowness or unsteadiness have encountered an unwanted side-effect: impulsivity. (parkinson.ca)
  • Impulsivity is a neuropsychiatric feature of Parkinson's disease (PD). (nature.com)
  • Biological siblings of people with gambling disorder also display markers of increased impulsivity and risk-taking, according to a new UBC psychology study. (brightsurf.com)
  • A recent study of impulsivity in patients with Parkinson disease found that the SSRI citalopram reduced impulsivity on 2 tasks of impulsive action (ie, the stop-signal and go/no-go tasks) but did not produce any detectable improvements in core symptoms of the disorder. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • In a recent study published in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, my colleagues and I analyzed data from the large-scale National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions to examine the relationships between childhood hunger, impulsivity and interpersonal violence. (buffalonews.com)
  • We then apply these assumptions to characterize the paradigms used to study impulsivity in laboratory settings and evaluate their scope as an attempt at unification. (springer.com)
  • Discussion This study extends prior work by showing that a lifetime history of nonclinical compound use is definitely positively associated with impulsivity among prison inmates. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • However in a recent study Hopley and Brunelle (2012) examined the connection between drug use and impulsivity with higher specificity by assessing alcohol cannabis opiod stimulant and hallucinogen dependence separately. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • This study aims to summarise the main results of the 5CSRTT in mice, with special focus on impulsivity. (sussex.ac.uk)
  • Adequate sleep paired with limits on screen time helps reduce impulsivity in children, a study suggests. (medscape.com)
  • In a sample of 130 healthy adults, we studied the relation between DAT1, DRD4, and C957T polymorphism at the DRD2 gene (polymorphisms related to striatal DA) and catechol-Omethyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met (a polymorphism related to frontal DA) on self-reported dysfunctional and functional impulsivity, assessed by the Dickman impulsivity inventory (DII), and the efficiency of inhibitory control, assessed by the stop-signal paradigm. (nih.gov)
  • Impulsivity is the tendency to act on impulse -- that is, without forethought about the appropriateness or consequences of the action. (medicinenet.com)