The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.
Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
The application of scientific knowledge to practical purposes in any field. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation.
The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.
A progestational and glucocorticoid hormone antagonist. Its inhibition of progesterone induces bleeding during the luteal phase and in early pregnancy by releasing endogenous prostaglandins from the endometrium or decidua. As a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, the drug has been used to treat hypercortisolism in patients with nonpituitary CUSHING SYNDROME.
Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.
Devices for accelerating protons or electrons in closed orbits where the accelerating voltage and magnetic field strength varies (the accelerating voltage is held constant for electrons) in order to keep the orbit radius constant.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Ducts that serve exclusively for the passage of eggs from the ovaries to the exterior of the body. In non-mammals, they are termed oviducts. In mammals, they are highly specialized and known as FALLOPIAN TUBES.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.
The first MENSTRUAL CYCLE marked by the initiation of MENSTRUATION.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.
One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has marked affinity for ESTRADIOL. Its expression and function differs from, and in some ways opposes, ESTROGEN RECEPTOR BETA.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Computer disks storing data with a maximum reduction of space and bandwidth. The compact size reduces cost of transmission and storage.
The S-isomer of omeprazole.
A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.
An optical disk storage system for computers on which data can be read or from which data can be retrieved but not entered or modified. A CD-ROM unit is almost identical to the compact disk playback device for home use.
An aurora kinase that localizes to the CENTROSOME during MITOSIS and is involved in centrosome regulation and formation of the MITOTIC SPINDLE. Aurora A overexpression in many malignant tumor types suggests that it may be directly involved in NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION.
An aurora kinase that is a component of the chromosomal passenger protein complex and is involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. It mediates proper CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION and contractile ring function during CYTOKINESIS.
Aurora kinase C is a chromosomal passenger protein that interacts with aurora kinase B in the regulation of MITOSIS. It is found primarily in GERM CELLS in the TESTIS, and may mediate CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION during SPERMATOGENESIS.
Specific molecular sites or structures on cell membranes that react with FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS (both the basic and acidic forms), their analogs, or their antagonists to elicit or to inhibit the specific response of the cell to these factors. These receptors frequently possess tyrosine kinase activity.
A fibroblast growth factor receptor that is found in two isoforms. One receptor isoform is found in the MESENCHYME and is activated by FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 2. A second isoform of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 is found mainly in EPITHELIAL CELLS and is activated by FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 7 and FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 10. Mutation of the gene for fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 can result in craniosynostotic syndromes (e.g., APERT SYNDROME; and CROUZON SYNDROME).
A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).
A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.
A fibroblast growth factor receptor with specificity for FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS; HEPARAN SULFATE PROTEOGLYCAN; and NEURONAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES. Several variants of the receptor exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 is a tyrosine kinase that transmits signals through the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM.
A fibroblast growth factor receptor that regulates CHONDROCYTE growth and CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Mutations in the gene for fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 have been associated with ACHONDROPLASIA; THANATOPHORIC DYSPLASIA and NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION.
A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.
Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.
An amino acid that, as the D-isomer, is the defining agonist for the NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, NMDA).
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
A potent noncompetitive antagonist of the NMDA receptor (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) used mainly as a research tool. The drug has been considered for the wide variety of neurodegenerative conditions or disorders in which NMDA receptors may play an important role. Its use has been primarily limited to animal and tissue experiments because of its psychotropic effects.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Diseases of any component of the brain (including the cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, brain stem, and cerebellum) or the spinal cord.
Cell surface receptors that bind TUMOR NECROSIS FACTORS and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells.
Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype that has specificity for TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR ALPHA and LYMPHOTOXIN ALPHA. It is constitutively expressed in most tissues and is a key mediator of tumor necrosis factor signaling in the vast majority of cells. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype that is expressed primarily in IMMUNE SYSTEM cells. It has specificity for membrane-bound form of TUMOR NECROSIS FACTORS and mediates intracellular-signaling through TNF RECEPTOR ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
A family of seven-pass transmembrane cell-surface proteins that combines with LOW DENSITY LIPROTEIN RECEPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN-5 or LOW DENSITY LIPROTEIN RECEPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN-5 to form receptors for WNT PROTEINS. Frizzled receptors often couple with HETEROTRIMERIC G PROTEINS and regulate the WNT SIGNALING PATHWAY.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that contain three non-identical subunits. They are found associated with members of the seven transmembrane domain superfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS. Upon activation the GTP-BINDING PROTEIN ALPHA SUBUNIT of the complex dissociates leaving a dimer of a GTP-BINDING PROTEIN BETA SUBUNIT bound to a GTP-BINDING PROTEIN GAMMA SUBUNIT.
Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.
... cells may or may not have three important receptors: estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and HER2 ... Cells that do not have any of these three receptor types (estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, or HER2) are called ... Receptor status. Breast cancer cells have receptors on their surface and in their cytoplasm and nucleus. Chemical messengers ... They can be identified by the presence of estrogen receptors (ER+) and progesterone receptors (PR+) on their surface (sometimes ...
There are specific receptor proteins that recruit items to the phagophore. The phagophore expands to accommodate the items, ... Actin is also believed to be important. Axe EL, Walker SA, Manifava M, Chandra P, Roderick HL, Habermann A, Griffiths G, ... Kim BW, Kwon DH, Song HK (2016). "Structure biology of selective autophagy receptors". BMB Reports. 49 (2): 73-80. doi:10.5483/ ...
Please consider expanding the lead to provide an accessible overview of all important aspects of the article. (October 2019) ... Actually, it is believed that the number of hormonal receptors in the pre-pubertal phase is higher than in any other age.[29] ... Cell surface matrix receptors in return, feed back to the cells through cell-matrix interaction, allowing the cell to regulate ... found that hormone receptors are indeed present in the VF, and show a statistical distribution difference with respect to age ...
For example, poliovirus receptor is glycoprotein CD155 which is special receptor for human and some other primate species. For ... It is thought that the 5' UTR is important in translation and the 3' in negative strand synthesis; however the 5' end may also ... The viral particle binds to cell surface receptors. Cell surface receptors are characterized for each serotype of ... However, it is important element for positive-strand synthesis. Additionally,5' end NCR that contain secondary structural ...
Many studies have shown that syndecan 1 plays an important role in cancer progression, and also can be used as cancer biomarker ... Rapraeger A C (2000). "Syndecan-regulated receptor signaling". The Journal of Cell Biology. 149 (5): 995-998. doi:10.1083/jcb. ... The syndecans are known to form homologous oligomers that may be important for their functions. Functions of syndecan can be ... Glycosaminoglycan chains, a member of the heparan sulfate group, are an important component of syndecan and are responsible for ...
The ACTH receptor is a seven-membrane-spanning G protein-coupled receptor.[7] Upon ligand binding, the receptor undergoes ... ACTH is an important component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and is often produced in response to biological ... A family of related receptors mediates the actions of these hormones, the MCR, or melanocortin receptor family. These are ... ACTH receptors outside the adrenal gland[edit]. As indicated above, ACTH is a cleavage product of the pro-hormone, ...
The lactoferrin receptor plays an important role in the internalization of lactoferrin; it also facilitates absorption of iron ... One of the important properties of lactoferrin is its ability to bind with nucleic acids. The fraction of protein extracted ... Liao Y, Lopez V, Shafizadeh TB, Halsted CH, Lönnerdal B (2007). "Cloning of a pig homologue of the human lactoferrin receptor: ... Thus, ribonucleases of milk, and lactoferrin in particular, might play an important role in pathogenesis of diseases caused by ...
Its binding with its receptor induces apoptosis. Fas ligand/receptor interactions play an important role in the regulation of ... DcR3: Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) is a recently discovered decoy receptor of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that binds to ... The Fas receptor (FasR), or CD95, is the most intensely studied member of the death receptor family. The gene is situated on ... Apoptosis-inducing Fas receptor is dubbed isoform 1 and is a type 1 transmembrane protein. It consists of three cysteine-rich ...
The hormone is important in adaptation to starvation conditions, and represents a mechanism by which insulin is negatively ... Neuromedin U receptor 1 Alfa, Ronald W.; Park, Sangbin; Skelly, Kathleen-Rose; Poffenberger, Gregory; Jain, Nimit; Gu, Xueying ...
Cytokines play an important role in promoting wound healing and tissue repair. Cell injury results in MIF release which then ... Farr L, Ghosh S, Moonah S (2020). "Role of MIF Cytokine/CD74 Receptor Pathway in Protecting Against Injury and Promoting Repair ... MIF is an important regulator of innate immunity. The MIF protein superfamily also includes a second member with functionally ... Farr L, Ghosh S, Moonah S (2020). "Role of MIF Cytokine/CD74 Receptor Pathway in Protecting Against Injury and Promoting Repair ...
These receptors are also found in some regions of the duodenum. A 2009 review corroborated the acceptance of these receptors, ... Fleming, Amy (9 April 2013). "Umami: why the fifth taste is so important". The Guardian, London, UK. Retrieved 18 February 2017 ... However, the specific role of each type of receptor in taste bud cells remains unclear. They are G protein-coupled receptors ( ... Chaudhari N, Landin AM, Roper SD (February 2000). "A metabotropic glutamate receptor variant functions as a taste receptor". ...
... it might be that this receptor plays a role in breast cancer. A drug that interferes with this receptor may prevent or treat ... Regulated genes are categorized in terms of what they are and what they do, important relationships between genes may emerge.[ ... Similarly, if breast cancer cells express higher levels of mRNA associated with a particular transmembrane receptor than normal ... This is due to alternative splicing, and also because cells make important changes to proteins through posttranslational ...
Prolactin modulators: Prolactin inhibitors: D2 receptor agonists (e.g., bromocriptine, cabergoline); Prolactin releasers: D2 ... Bradykinin plays an important role as the mediator of pain. Surplus bradykinin is responsible for the typical symptoms of ... It is a peptidomimetic consisting of ten amino acids, which is a selective and specific antagonist of bradykinin B2 receptors. ... Icatibant acts as a bradykinin inhibitor by blocking the binding of native bradykinin to the bradykinin B2 receptor. Little is ...
One of zinc's important roles is to change the cell's metabolism to produce citrate, an important semen component. The process ... Other linked genes include hereditary prostate cancer gene 1 (HPC1), the androgen receptor, and the vitamin D receptor. TMPRSS2 ... The most important distinction made by any staging system is whether the cancer is confined to the prostate. In the TNM system ... An important part of evaluating prostate cancer is determining the stage, or degree of spread. Knowing the stage helps define ...
... the only identified receptors for S1P are the high-affinity G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), also known as S1P receptors ( ... It is important to note that since sphingosine exerts surfactant activity, it is one of the sphingolipids found at lowest ... This signaling lipid has great affinity for the GRP55 receptor and the PPAR alpha receptor. It has been identified as an anti- ... See article eicosanoid receptors for more information). Allostery Cell signaling Protein dynamics Lysophospholipid receptors ...
This may be due to estrogen receptor impacts. While these data reveal important implications to the risks of human exposure to ... It is important industrially as a precursor to synthetic rubber. The molecule can be viewed as the union of two vinyl groups. ...
Majid SM, Liss AS, You M, Bose HR (2006). "The suppression of SH3BGRL is important for v-Rel-mediated transformation". Oncogene ... Schulze WX, Deng L, Mann M (2006). "Phosphotyrosine interactome of the ErbB-receptor kinase family". Mol. Syst. Biol. 1 (1): ... 1996). "Cloning of OL1, a putative olfactory receptor and its expression in the developing rat heart". Recept. Channels. 3 (1 ...
This type of receptor becomes activated upon ligand binding. After a hormone binds to the corresponding receptor, the newly ... An example of a synthetic mineralocorticoid is fludrocortisone (Florinef). Important antimineralocorticoids are spironolactone ... The hormone receptor without ligand binding interacts with heat shock proteins and prevents the transcription of targeted genes ... Mineralocorticoids bind to the mineralocorticoid receptor in the cell cytosol, and are able to freely cross the lipid bilayer ...
Cell surface matrix receptors in return, feed back to the cells through cell-matrix interaction, allowing the cell to regulate ... Androgens are the most important hormones responsible for the passage of the boy-child voice to man voice, and the change is ... In fact, only a few recent studies started to look at the presence and role of hormone receptors in the vocal cords. Newman et ... found that hormone receptors are indeed present in the vocal cords, and show a statistical distribution difference with respect ...
RLKs play an important role in plant reception which will be shown through FLS2. BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1 (BRI1) is ... FLS2 is considered a receptor like kinase (RLK). RLKs are very similar to tyrosine kinases but different in the fact that ... With that in mind, it is important that all gram positive and gram negative bacteria share flagellin. With plants being ... Shiu, S.H., and Bleecker, A.B. (2001). Plant receptor-like kinase gene family: Diversity, function, and signaling. Sci. STKE ...
Receptor complexes for semaphorins include neuropilins and plexins. The Slit-Robo cell signaling pathway plays an important ... The Notch receptor has been shown to interact with interface glia to form a path that longitudinal pioneer neurons can follow. ... Receptors for these molecules have also been studied. Netrins primarily function as attractions of pioneer axons towards the ... The signaling associated with the receptor Notch, as well as non-canonical Notch/Abl signaling, have been shown to play a role ...
"Sexually dimorphic expression of estrogen receptors, but not of androgen receptors in human fetal external genitalia". The ... The most important part of a child's psychosocial environment is the family, and most of the social influence research has ... The most important of the environmental influences is clearly nutrition, but a number of others have been identified, all which ... Leptin has receptors in the hypothalamus which synthesizes GnRH. Individuals who are deficient in leptin fail to initiate ...
Chemokines and their receptors are important for the migration of various cell types into the inflammatory sites. This receptor ... "Chemokine Receptors: CCR8". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ... This gene is located at the chemokine receptor gene cluster region. CC chemokine receptors GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... "The assignment of chemokine-chemokine receptor pairs: TARC and MIP-1 beta are not ligands for human CC-chemokine receptor 8". ...
The TNF-alpha receptor superfamily also includes death receptors (DRs), such as DR4 and DR5. These receptors bind to the ... This is an important oncolytic property of CDV: this virus is capable of killing canine lymphoma cells. Oncoproteins E6 and E7 ... both involving receptors of the TNF receptor (TNFR) family[34] coupled to extrinsic signals. ... The fas receptor (First apoptosis signal) - (also known as Apo-1 or CD95) is a transmembrane protein of the TNF family which ...
It prevents CD81 from latching onto its respective receptor on the virus.[12] In addition, E2 can shield E1 from the immune ... At the 5′ and 3′ ends of the RNA are the untranslated regions (UTR), that are not translated into proteins but are important to ... E1 serves as the fusogenic subunit and E2 acts as the receptor binding protein. E1 has 4-5 N-linked glycans and E2 has 11 N- ... Genotype is clinically important in determining potential response to interferon-based therapy and the required duration of ...
... both involving receptors of the TNF receptor (TNFR) family[32] coupled to extrinsic signals. ... This is an important oncolytic property of CDV: this virus is capable of killing canine lymphoma cells. Oncoproteins E6 and E7 ... The fas receptor (First apoptosis signal) - (also known as Apo-1 or CD95) is a transmembrane protein of the TNF family which ... The binding of nuclear receptors by glucocorticoids,[19] heat,[19] radiation,[19] nutrient deprivation,[19] viral infection,[19 ...
This discovery shows that netrin-1 receptor pathways play an important role in tumorigenesis.[citation needed] ... The binding of netrin-1 to its receptors inhibits the tumor suppressor p53 dependent apoptosis.[15] Such receptors share the ... UNC-5 is a receptor for netrins including UNC-6. Netrins are a class of proteins involved in axon guidance. UNC-5 uses ... Netrin-1 and its receptors DCC and UNC-5 show a new mechanism for induction or suppression regulation of apoptosis. Evidence ...
For estrogen-receptor-positive metastatic breast carcinoma the first line of therapy is often tamoxifen or another anti- ... Radiotherapy is an important component of therapy for cord compression secondary to metastatic breast cancer, along with ... 3. What receptor hormone the tumour has . Observation of metastases provides direct feedback on the effectiveness of the ... Regulated receptor cleavage to modulate migratory signaling Most of these processes require a delicate balance between the ...
... it nevertheless failed to predict a number of important features such as adaptation and shunting. Scientists now believe that ... Stereochemically detailed models of the acetylcholine receptor-based synapse with the Monte Carlo method, working at the time ... whether such descriptive dynamics impart any important computational function. With the emergence of two-photon microscopy and ... and sensitivity of these currents is an important topic of computational neuroscience.[20] ...
It is important to look at the skull base (to determine whether it is level or not), the position of the ears and to the ... The condition is associated with syndromes caused by mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptor genes (FGFR), including ... In the very first years of life the sutures serve as the most important centers of growth in the skull.[3] The growth of the ... Please consider expanding the lead to provide an accessible overview of all important aspects of the article. (March 2015) ...
Another important surface antigen is CD319 (SLAMF7). This antigen is expressed at high levels on normal human plasma cells. It ... the Interleukin-6 receptor and lack of expression of CD45. In humans, CD27 is a good marker for plasma cells, naive B cells are ... which are taken up by the B cell through receptor-mediated endocytosis and processed. Pieces of the antigen (which are now ... B cells differentiate into plasma cells that produce antibody molecules closely modelled after the receptors of the precursor B ...
The homeobox genes encode a highly conserved family of transcription factors that play an important role in morphogenesis in ... 2.1) Nuclear receptor (Cys4). .mw-parser-output .nobold{font-weight:normal}. subfamily 1. *Thyroid hormone *α ...
Lifestyle factors are important to the development of type 2 diabetes, including obesity and being overweight (defined by a ... are superior to other inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system such as angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs),[115] or ... Other potentially important mechanisms associated with type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance include: increased breakdown of ... The type of fats in the diet are important, with saturated fats and trans fatty acids increasing the risk, and polyunsaturated ...
The stomach contains receptors to allow us to know when we are full. The intestines also contain receptors that send satiety ... The issue of healthy eating has long been an important concern to individuals and cultures. Among other practices, fasting, ... Leptin targets the receptors on the arcuate nucleus and suppresses the secretion of MCH and orexin. The arcuate nucleus also ... "MCH (Melanin Concentrating Hormone) and MCH-2 Receptor". Mice lacking Melanin-Concentrating Hormone are hypophagic and lean ...
In order to avoid this as much as possible, it is important for users to consistently take the exact amount of the drug at the ...
Zhang F, Meng F, Li H, Dong Y, Yang W, Han A (September 2011). "Suppression of retinoid X receptor alpha and aberrant β-catenin ... Several types of catenins work with N-cadherins to play an important role in learning and memory (For full article, see ... First of all, by binding to cadherin receptor intracellular cytoplasmic tail domains, it can act as an integral component of a ... While less attention is directed at α-catenin in studies involving cell adhesion, it is nonetheless an important player in ...
One important rehabilitation tool for muscle atrophy includes the use of functional electrical stimulation to stimulate the ... selective androgen receptor modulators) are being investigated with promising results. They would have fewer side-effects, ...
2007). "MN1 overexpression is an important step in the development of inv(16) AML". Leukemia. 21 (8): 1679-90. doi:10.1038/sj. ... MN1 also acts as a coactivator of the vitamin D receptor.[7] ... transcription factor MN1 stimulates vitamin D receptor-mediated ...
Radioligands that bind to dopamine receptors (D1,[14] D2 receptor,[15][16] reuptake transporter), serotonin receptors (5HT1A, ... PET is also an important research tool to map normal human brain and heart function, and support drug development. ... "Imaging cortical dopamine D1 receptors using 11C NNC112 and ketanserin blockade of the 5-HT 2A receptors". J Cereb Blood Flow ... Mefway for serotonin 5HT1A receptors, [18F] Nifene for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors or enzyme substrates (e.g. 6-FDOPA for ...
When a cell is infected with EBOV, receptors located in the cell's cytosol (such as RIG-I and MDA5) or outside of the cytosol ( ... Bushmeat, an important source of protein in the diet of some Africans, should be handled and prepared with appropriate ... Their life cycle is thought to begin with a virion attaching to specific cell-surface receptors such as C-type lectins, DC-SIGN ... When EVD is suspected, travel, work history, and exposure to wildlife are important factors with respect to further diagnostic ...
Acetylcholine plays an important modulatory role on the respiratory system by altering nicotinic and muscarinic receptors. The ... Metabotropic glutamate 1/5 receptors appear to be important for the increase in intracellular calcium that activate ICAN. The ... The blocking of this receptor is therefore problematic, especially in SIDS, because gasping is an important mechanism involved ... Adenosine modulates the preBötC output via activation of the A1 and A2A receptor subtypes. An adenosine A1 receptor agonist has ...
This is important because it prevents chloroplast proteins from assuming their active form and carrying out their chloroplast ... "A transit peptide-like sorting signal at the C terminus directs the Bienertia sinuspersici preprotein receptor Toc159 to the ...
C. acnes' ability to bind and activate a class of immune system receptors known as toll-like receptors (TLRs), especially TLR2 ... These reinforced the idea amongst dermatologists that bacterial growth on the skin plays an important role in causing acne.[179 ... Flutamide, a pure antagonist of the androgen receptor, is effective in treating acne in women.[112][120] It appears to reduce ... Duarte FH, Jallad RS, Bronstein MD (November 2016). "Estrogens and selective estrogen receptor modulators in acromegaly". ...
It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, a list of the most important medications needed in a ... anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis and Devic's disease,[23] Graves' ophthalmopathy,[24] autoimmune pancreatitis,[25] Opsoclonus ... with enhanced binding to Fc gamma receptors, which increase ADCC (antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity).[55] This strategy ... to induce ADCC takes advantage of the fact that the displayed Fc glycan controls the antibody's affinity for Fc receptors.[56] ...
ReceptorEdit. The endogenous receptor for substance P is neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1-receptor, NK1R).[8] It belongs to the ... Preclinical data support the notion that Substance P is an important element in pain perception. The sensory function of ... "Absence of the SP/SP receptor circuitry in the substance P-precursor knockout mice or SP receptor, neurokinin (NK)1 knockout ... van der Hart MG (2009). Substance P and the Neurokinin 1 receptor: From behavior to bioanalysis (Ph.D.). University of ...
... it is important to review their medications and possible dietary supplements as several medications can affect thyroid hormone ... T4 and T3 bind to thyroid receptor proteins in the cell nucleus and cause metabolic effects through the control of DNA ...
... and colour constancy may be an important role as suggested by Foster. The receptor could be instrumental in understanding many ... December 2018) Click [show] for important translation instructions.. * *Machine translation like Deepl or Google Translate is a ... This difference has important functional consequences: First, the classic (rod or cone) photoreceptor is depolarized in the ... It is in these discoveries of the novel photoreceptor in humans and in the receptor's role in vision, rather than its non-image ...
TGF-β is important for cell proliferation and differentiation during skeletogenesis. During this process, TGF-β can stimulate ... suggesting that they are important in chondrogenesis.[3] [4] ... Growth factor receptor. FGFR2:. *Antley-Bixler syndrome. FGFR3: ...
This form of motility has been shown to be regulated by the cAMP receptor protein. Hedger 11:30, 14 2007. The mechanism for ... They are a significant component of the marine nitrogen cycle and an important primary producer in many areas of the ocean, but ...
thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor activity. • protein binding. • transcription regulatory region DNA binding. • RNA ... PAX8 (and PAX2) is one of the important regulators of urogenital system morphogenesis. They play a role in the specification of ... The PAX gene family has an important role in the formation of tissues and organs during embryonic development and maintaining ... PAX8 releases the hormones important for regulating growth, brain development, and metabolism. Also functions in very early ...
"The important thing is, Wikipedia is NOT a trivia collection." -- User:Jimbo Wales 20:00, 27 July 2007 (UTC)" (From here) ... Mannose 6-phosphate receptor (changed from redirect). *Insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor - rewrote, added a lot ...
1992)[156] (incompetent host for B. burgdorferi and TBE virus) but it is important for feeding the ticks,[157] as red deer and ... Within the tick midgut, the Borrelia's outer surface protein A (OspA) binds to the tick receptor for OspA, known as TROSPA. ... Examination of a dog for ticks after being in a tick-infested area is an important precautionary measure to take in the ... Prevention of Lyme disease is an important step in keeping dogs safe in endemic areas. Prevention education and a number of ...
Suter E, Vanderheyden LC, Trojan LS, Verhoef MJ, Armitage GD (February 2007). "How important is research-based practice to ... Nimmo Receptor-Tonus Technique, applied kinesiology (which emphasises "muscle testing" as a diagnostic tool), and cranial.[75] ...
The ability to work in two planes is important for orthopedic and spinal surgery and can reduce operating times by eliminating ... Ionising and non-ionising radiation can be used to reveal the internal structure of the body on an image receptor by ...
Most important of which is the TNF (tumor necrosis factors) with 3 loci in the region. Starting from B8, immediately followed ... Later the level of anti-acetylcholine receptor antibodies in disease were found to correlate with B8::DR3.[15] Later it was ... Keesey J, Naeim F, Lindstrom J, Zeller E, Herrmann C, Walford R (1978). "Correlation between acetylcholine receptor antibody ... and anti-acetylcholine receptor antibodies in myasthenia gravis". Tissue Antigens. 12 (5): 381-6. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.1978. ...
Androgen receptor degradersEdit. Selective androgen receptor degraders (SARDs) are another new type of antiandrogen that has ... and because DHT is important as an endogenous androgen only in select tissues, 5α-reductase inhibitors have minimal side ... Androgen receptor antagonistsEdit. Androgens and anti-. androgens at the AR[82][83]. Compound. RBA (%). ... and are analogous to selective estrogen receptor degraders (SERDs) like fulvestrant (a drug used to treat estrogen receptor- ...
Although hPR-B shares many important structural domains with hPR-A, they are in fact two functionally distinct transcription ... Main articles: Progesterone receptor A, Progesterone receptor B, and Progesterone receptor C ... steroid hormone receptor activity. • steroid binding. • protein binding. • enzyme binding. • receptor binding. • lipid binding ... The progesterone receptor (PR), also known as NR3C3 or nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 3, is a protein found ...
Important theoretical models in OHP research[edit]. Three influential theoretical models in OHP research are the demand-control ... advantages of therapy with beta-receptor blockers. Clinical and Experimental Hypertension. Part A, Theory and Practice, 7(7), ... An important influence on the incidence of accidents is the organization's safety climate that is employees' shared beliefs ... 3.1 Important theoretical models in OHP research *3.1.1 Demand-control-support model ...
The finding solves the mystery of how important the ion channel TRPM8 is for alerting the body to cold temperatures. ... TRPM8 does not seem to be the sole receptor responsible for detecting cold, Jordt said. The TRPM8 knockout mice sensed ... Cold, heat, sound, light, taste, and smell are detected and converted into neural impulses through the activation of receptors ...
Our in vivo results are consistent with in vitro assays indicating that interaction of Fc-receptor-bearing effector cells with ... but also on its interaction with Fc receptors on effector cells, which may act to reduce virus yield from infected cells. This ... dramatic decrease in the ability of a broadly neutralizing antibody to protect macaques against SHIV challenge when Fc receptor ... antibody-complexed infected cells is important in reducing virus yield from infected cells. Overall, the data suggest the ...
Fc receptor but not complement binding is important in antibody protection against HIV.. Hessell AJ1, Hangartner L, Hunter M, ... Our in vivo results are consistent with in vitro assays indicating that interaction of Fc-receptor-bearing effector cells with ... dramatic decrease in the ability of a broadly neutralizing antibody to protect macaques against SHIV challenge when Fc receptor ... antibody-complexed infected cells is important in reducing virus yield from infected cells. Overall, the data suggest the ...
This receptor, known as the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, increases excitability within the brains reward centers. Full ... Researchers discovered that the rats most likely to self-administer addictive drugs had a particular receptor in the brain that ... is more responsive than the same receptor in rats least likely to self-administer addictive drugs. ...
... there was no three-dimensional structure of it bound to the receptor. Mifepristone also binds to two other receptors within the ... The X-ray structure of RU486 bound to the progesterone receptor in a destabilized agonistic conformation, H.C.A. Raaijmakers, J ... Therefore, the aim of this research was to obtain a crystal structure of the mifepristone-progesterone receptor in order to ... Schering-Plough used the ESRF MXpress service for data collection on crystals of the progesterone-receptor binding domain with ...
Tyr(612) and Tyr(632) in human insulin receptor substrate-1 are important for full activation of insulin-stimulated ... Thus, both Tyr(612) and Tyr(632) are important for IRS-1 to fully activate PI3K and mediate translocation of GLUT4 in response ... To examine contributions of specific YXXM motifs in human insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) to mediating the metabolic ...
... and receptor-β (ERβ) knockout (BERKO) mice to investigate the mechanism(s) behind the effects of oestrogens on glucose ... Aims/hypothesis We used oestrogen receptor-α (ERα) knockout (ERKO) ... Evidence that oestrogen receptor-α plays an important role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis in mice: insulin ... We used oestrogen receptor-α (ERα) knockout (ERKO) and receptor-β (ERβ) knockout (BERKO) mice to investigate the mechanism(s) ...
... J Natl Cancer ... African American women have young age at menarche, which could be associated with their high rates of estrogen receptor- ...
Our brief mention of dosimetry must not be misconstrued as indicating that it is not an important exercise or that it be ... The NETTER-1 trial is a phase III trial that demonstrated the superiority (regarding survival benefits) of peptide receptor ... The joint IAEA, EANM, and SNMMI practical guidance on peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRNT) in neuroendocrine tumors. ... Long-term hematotoxicity after peptide receptor radionuclide therapy with 177Lu-octreotate. J Nucl Med. 2013;54(11):1857-61. [ ...
The LFA-1 ligand ICAM-1 provides an important costimulatory signal for T cell receptor-mediated activation of resting T cells. ... The LFA-1 ligand ICAM-1 provides an important costimulatory signal for T cell receptor-mediated activation of resting T cells. ... The LFA-1 ligand ICAM-1 provides an important costimulatory signal for T cell receptor-mediated activation of resting T cells. ... The LFA-1 ligand ICAM-1 provides an important costimulatory signal for T cell receptor-mediated activation of resting T cells. ...
... Sjölinder, Hong Uppsala University, ... Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are prominent activators of the inflammatory response, and TLR2, -4, and -9 have been reported to be ... While TLR4 has been suggested to play an important role in early containment of infection, the roles of TLR2 and TLR9 in ... Thus, our data demonstrate an important role for TLR9 in host defense against N. meningitidis. ...
... receptor,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters ... ER beta appears to have important regulatory functions in the control...,Ovarian,cancer,sheds,tumor,suppression,with,loss,of, ... An important receptor for estrogen in ovarian cells has been shown to ... Ovarian cancer is remarkably lacking in response to ... An important receptor for estrogen in ovarian cells has been shown to suppress tumor growth, according to a new study published ...
Calcium signaling through a Transient Receptor Channel is important for Toxoplasma gondii growth. ... Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels participate in calcium ion (Ca2+) influx and intracellular Ca2+ release. TRP ...
Baff Binds to the Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-Like Molecule B Cell Maturation Antigen and Is Important for Maintaining the ... Baff Binds to the Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-Like Molecule B Cell Maturation Antigen and Is Important for Maintaining the ... 1993) Crystal structure of the soluble human 55 kd TNF receptor-human TNFβ compleximplications for TNF receptor activation. ... BAFF failed to bind to 16 members of the TNF receptor family (2). Subsequently, an additional candidate receptor for BAFF was ...
GRP receptor (bb2). NMB-R. neuromedin B-preferring peptide receptor (bb1). BRS-3. bombesin receptor subtype 3 (bb3). GPCR. G ... Two Amino Acids in the Sixth Transmembrane Segment of the Mouse Gastrin-Releasing Peptide Receptor Are Important for Receptor ... Two Amino Acids in the Sixth Transmembrane Segment of the Mouse Gastrin-Releasing Peptide Receptor Are Important for Receptor ... Two Amino Acids in the Sixth Transmembrane Segment of the Mouse Gastrin-Releasing Peptide Receptor Are Important for Receptor ...
Sign regulatory protein (SIRP) is certainly a important resistant inhibitory receptor. February 11, 2018. Flt Receptors ... Sign regulatory protein (SIRP) is certainly a important resistant inhibitory receptor in macrophages, and its interaction with ... Aurora Kinases as Druggable Targets in Cancer Therapy » Flt Receptors Menu Not Found. Skip to content *Home ...
This webinar will review the current methods for measuring receptor kinetics and then describe the development of a novel ... WEBINAR - The kinetics of drug-receptor binding: Why it is important and how we can measure it? 2016 ... to assess affinity at the receptor. It also presents the opportunity to screen fragment libraries at receptors in a kinetic ... Optimizing the receptor binding kinetics of new drugs can have significant benefits, ranging from improved duration of action ...
Interestingly, IL-4 and IL-13 decreased the expressions of COX-2 and both B1 and B2 receptors. These events might be important ... The enhancement of kinin receptors may also be an important mechanism in the synergistic interactions between the two pro- ... IL-4 and IL-13 inhibit cytokine-induced enhancements of COX-2 and kinin receptor expression: effects important for their ... and different kinin receptor agonists do not regulate the receptors for IL-1b or TNF-a, in MG-63 cells. No other cytokines ...
61 Expression of the Butyrate/Niacin Receptor, GPR109a on T Cells Plays an Important Role in a Mouse Model of Graft Versus Host ... We report a novel role of the butyrate/niacin receptor GPR109a on donor T cells in allo-HCT as a genetic knock-out on T cells ... In colitis or graft versus host disease (GVHD), GPR43 signaling has been reported as an important regulator of intestinal ... In contrast to GPR43, which binds preferentially propionate and acetate, GPR109a is the major receptor for butyrate. We and ...
... the relative importance of treatment-related attributes in influencing patient preferences for glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor ... Treatment attributes of GLP-1 receptor agonists important to injection-naïve patients with T2DM: a multi-national preference ... Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonist Treatment Attributes Important to Injection-Experienced Patients with Type 2 Diabetes ... GLP-1 receptor agonists: a review of head-to-head clinical studies. Ther Adv Endocrinol Metab. 2015;6:19-28.CrossRefPubMed ...
An important role for the IIIb isoform of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) in mesenchymal-epithelial signalling ... An important role for the IIIb isoform of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) in mesenchymal-epithelial signalling ... An important role for the IIIb isoform of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) in mesenchymal-epithelial signalling ... An important role for the IIIb isoform of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) in mesenchymal-epithelial signalling ...
The third extracellular loop of G-protein-coupled receptors: more than just a linker between two important transmembrane ... Extracellular loops and ligand binding to a subfamily of Family A G-protein-coupled receptors Biochem Soc Trans (July,2007) ... Family Resemblances? Ligand Binding and Activation of Family A and B G-Protein-Coupled Receptors Biochem Soc Trans (July,2007) ... Structural basis of natural ligand binding and activation of the Class II G-protein-coupled secretin receptor Biochem Soc Trans ...
Identification of determinants important for the assembly of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor assembly. Elisabeth Meddows, ... Identification of determinants important for the assembly of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor assembly ... Identification of determinants important for the assembly of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor assembly ... Identification of determinants important for the assembly of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor assembly ...
Receptors for Interleukins and Tumor Necrosis Factor are Important in Assessing their Roles in CNS Disorders Patricia Szot1,2* ... Citation: Szot P (2016) Receptors for Interleukins and Tumor Necrosis Factor are Important in Assessing their Roles in CNS ... but recent work from our laboratory has shown the receptors for these cytokines may also be an important factor in ... it is apparent that their receptors are also extremely important in mediating their effects and producing the neuronal ...
Site-directed mutagenesis of m1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors: conserved aspartic acids play important roles in receptor ... Site-directed mutagenesis of m1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors: conserved aspartic acids play important roles in receptor ... Site-directed mutagenesis of m1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors: conserved aspartic acids play important roles in receptor ... Site-directed mutagenesis of m1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors: conserved aspartic acids play important roles in receptor ...
The androgen receptor (AR) is important in the development of the. June 11, 2019. General ... The androgen receptor (AR) is important in the development of the prostate by regulating transcription, cellular proliferation ... Launch The androgen receptor (AR) is certainly a member from the steroid hormone receptor family members; other family contain ... Subtype 2 Serotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) receptors are main drug focuses on. Subtype 2 Serotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine, 5 ...
The tyrosine Y2502.39 in Frizzled 4 defines a conserved motif important for structural integrity of the receptor and ... We conclude from modeling and dynamics simulation efforts that Y2502.39 is important for the structural integrity of the FZD- ... Frizzleds (FZDs) are unconventional G protein-coupled receptors, which activate diverse intracellular signaling pathways via ... Lab Receptor Biol & Signaling, Nanna Svartz Vag 2, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2700-7013 ...
Receptor for hyaluronic acid-mediated motility (RHAMM, CD168) expression is prognostically important in both nodal negative and ... Receptor for hyaluronic acid-mediated motility (RHAMM, CD168) expression is prognostically important in both nodal negative and ... While the standard form (CD44s) is ubiquitously expressed, its variant isoforms are claimed to play an important role in ... receptor for hyaluronic acid-mediated motility (RHAMM), CD95, osteopontin (OPN), P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and caspase 3 (Casp3)). ...
Cholesterol is important in control of EGF receptor kinase activity but EGF receptors are not concentrated in caveolae ... Cholesterol is important in control of EGF receptor kinase activity but EGF receptors are not concentrated in caveolae ... Cholesterol is important in control of EGF receptor kinase activity but EGF receptors are not concentrated in caveolae ... Cholesterol is important in control of EGF receptor kinase activity but EGF receptors are not concentrated in caveolae ...
The Kinetics of Drug-Receptor Binding: Why it is important and how we can measure it?. ... The Kinetics of Drug-Receptor Binding: Why it is important and how we can measure it?. ... to assess affinity at the receptor. It also presents the opportunity to screen fragment libraries at receptors in a kinetic ... Optimizing the receptor binding kinetics of new drugs can have significant benefits, ranging from improved duration of action ...
  • Schering-Plough used the ESRF MXpress service for data collection on crystals of the progesterone-receptor binding domain with bound ligands. (esrf.eu)
  • Despite this, the kinetics of new receptor ligands are rarely measured early in the drug discovery process, largely because current assays are technically difficult and relatively low-throughput. (ddw-online.com)
  • For example, the 11- cis retinal chromophore of rhodopsin forms a protonated Schiff base linkage to a lysine in TM7, deep within the helical bundle, and small ligands, such as amine neurotransmitters and non-peptide analogues of peptide hormones, also bind within the corresponding region of their cognate receptors. (portlandpress.com)
  • but recent work from our laboratory has shown the receptors for these cytokines may also be an important factor in neuroinflammation mediated CNS disorders, because these receptors are solely localized to neurons and are modified when their ligands levels are elevated. (omicsonline.org)
  • Due to the rapid increase of new information on the multiple roles of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), this paper reviews several main properties of TLRs and their ligands and signaling pathways. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In a joint research project, scientists from Leipzig University and the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Shanghai have succeeded in elucidating such a structure, namely that of the neuropeptide Y receptor Y2 with one of its ligands. (idw-online.de)
  • The investigation of this receptor family with its endogenous ligands as well as other clinically relevant compounds is one focus of Collaborative Research Centre 1423. (idw-online.de)
  • In animal, receptor tyrosine kinases is the membrane receptors that recognize hydrophilic ligands. (wikibooks.org)
  • During times of stress and/or infection, host cells can over express certain endogenous self-ligands, which can be recognized by specific activating receptors expressed on the NK cell. (jimmunol.org)
  • Thus, NK cell activating receptors can recognize both self and non-self ligands. (jimmunol.org)
  • Opioid receptors are a group of inhibitory G protein-coupled receptors with opioids as ligands . (wikipedia.org)
  • FcRn is a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-related receptor, and knowledge of how FcRn binds both its ligands and ligand variants is of great importance. (frontiersin.org)
  • Recognition and killing of aberrant, infected or tumor targets by Natural Killer (NK) cells is mediated by positive signals transduced by activating receptors upon engagement of ligands on target surface. (frontiersin.org)
  • This Research Topic welcomes contributions addressing mechanisms of NK-mediated activation in response to disease as well as past and contemporary strategies to enhance NK-mediated reactivity through control of the interactions between NK receptors and their ligands. (frontiersin.org)
  • The angiotensin II receptors , (AGTR1) and (AGTR2) , are a class of G protein-coupled receptors with angiotensin II as their ligands . (wikipedia.org)
  • To understand how the loss of ER beta affected the ovarian cells during cancer progression, the gene for ER beta was replaced in ovarian cancer cell lines that no longer expressed the estrogen-triggered nuclear receptor. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The ER beta reintroduced into the cancer cell lines did not share the classic functions attributed to estrogen receptors, including induction of progesterone receptor expression and fibuline-1C, and it's ability to decrease the expression of the cyclin D1 gene was completely opposite of it's counterpart, ER beta. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Subsequent identification of the mouse BCMA gene and further motif analysis led to the prediction that BCMA is a member of the TNF receptor superfamily ( 10 ). (rupress.org)
  • The fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 gene is differentially spliced to encode two transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor proteins that have different ligand-binding specificities and exclusive tissue distributions. (biologists.org)
  • To investigate the role of four conserved aspartic acids at positions 71, 99, 105, and 122 in muscarinic receptor function, point mutations in the rat m1 muscarinic receptor gene were made that converted each Asp to Asn, and wild type or mutant genes were stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells that normally lack muscarinic receptors. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The cistrome and gene signature of androgen receptor splice variants in castration resistant prostate cancer cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The mutation in question is in the C C chemokine receptor 5 gene, which makes the human receptor protein called CCR5. (scripps.edu)
  • Hormone receptors that bind ligand and act in the cell nucleus rather than at the cell surface and regulate gene expression. (slideshare.net)
  • The physiological actions of steroids are typically associated with initiation of gene transcription after binding to cytosolic steroid receptors. (jneurosci.org)
  • Germ-line transcription of an antigen receptor gene section is an important feature from the targeting mechanism for DNA double-strand break formation during physiological DNA rearrangements in lymphocytes. (labsmart.net)
  • Antigen receptor gene rearrangements The humoral immune system response depends on lymphocytes to make a varied repertoire of antibodies with the correct isotype and affinity for removal of pathogens from the body. (labsmart.net)
  • To generate antibody diversity, lymphocytes have evolved to tolerate physiological DNA damage during V(D)J (variable/diversity/joining gene segment) recombination and class-switch recombination (CSR) at antigen receptor gene loci [1]. (labsmart.net)
  • This recombination reaction occurs downstream of the V(D)J gene segments at the locus and aims to swap constant regions of an antibody to eliminate a particular pathogen through conversation with different cell surface receptors [1, 5]. (labsmart.net)
  • Since then, Cinacalcet many lines of evidence support the notion that germ-line transcription of the antigen receptor gene portion is an important feature from the concentrating on system for RAG1/2-mediated DNA cleavage during V(D)J recombination [1, 12]. (labsmart.net)
  • By binding to its receptor MAS (encoded by the Mas1 gene), Ang-(1-7) mediates vasodilation, anti-proliferation, anti-fibrosis, apoptosis and anti-inflammation [ 17 ]. (springer.com)
  • Chemokine receptor gene polymorphisms and COVID-19: Could knowledge gained from HIV/AIDS be important? (cdc.gov)
  • Novel genetic associations and gene-gene interactions of chemokine receptor and chemokine genetic polymorphisms in HIV/AIDS. (cdc.gov)
  • Taken together, this indicates that the NOP receptor gene, OPRL1, has equal evolutionary origin, but a higher mutation rate, than the other receptor genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two receptors in the family, designated as type 1 and 2, each encoded by a separate gene (CRHR1 and CRHR2 respectively). (wikipedia.org)
  • The Cckar gene has been identified to be an important gallstone gene, Lith13, in inbred mice by a powerful quantitative trait locus analysis. (elsevier.com)
  • The NKG2D reporter cells were constructed NKG2D receptor on 2B4 cells made up of a nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT)-responsive green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene [28]. (pacslab.net)
  • To understand the regulation of GRP-R signaling we have substituted alanine for each of 10 amino acid residues within the transmembrane (TM) helices of the GRP-R predicted to project into the binding pocket of the receptor and analyzed the importance of each of these residues for receptor function. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Despite responding to a range of very diverse stimuli, these receptors exhibit a conserved tertiary structure comprising a bundle of seven TM (transmembrane) helices linked by alternating ECLs (extracellular loops) and ICLs (intracellular loops). (portlandpress.com)
  • Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors contain a region encompassing the second and third transmembrane domains that is rich in conserved aspartic acid residues. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In this artist's depiction, cryo-EM structures of GABAB captured in four different conformations along its activation transition appear on a neuronal synapse (background) while the structure of the GABAB receptor in the active state with agonist (orange spheres) bound in GB1 (blue) and a PAM (magenta spheres) bound on the transmembrane interface between GB1 and GB2 (yellow) appears in close-up. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Triadin is a transmembrane glycoprotein of the junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum of striated muscle that interacts with both calsequestrin and the type 1 ryanodine receptor (RyR1) to communicate changes in luminal Ca 2+ to the release machinery. (rupress.org)
  • The Enzyme linked transmembrane receptors (they dimerise only when bound by a ligand to cause activation via autophosphorylation), The G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) (they form constitutive dimers to mask the E.R retention motif on the C- terminal) and The intracellular receptors (They form dimers after binding with the ligand). (bartleby.com)
  • Scavenger receptor A (SRA), also known as CD204, is a trimeric type II transmembrane glycoprotein expressed as two functional splice variants, SRA-I and SRA-II. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Receptor tyrosine kinases is a transmembrane structure that anchors into the membrane. (wikibooks.org)
  • TLR4 receptors are type I transmembrane protein including extracellular leucine wealthy repeats and intracellular TIR sign domains [4] and so are expressed on a number of sponsor immune and nonimmune Ozarelix cells. (rectalcancersite.com)
  • Genome-wide expression profiles were analysed by high-density oligonucleotide microarray assay, and the expression of the genes encoding steroyl-CoA desaturase and the Leptin receptor ( Scd1 and Lepr , respectively) was confirmed by RT-PCR. (springer.com)
  • A recent study by researchers in California and published on the preprint server bioRxiv * in June 2020 shows that advancing age is associated with increased expression of pattern recognition receptor (PRR) genes and ACE2 receptors, possibly accounting in part for the increased severity of the disease in older adults. (news-medical.net)
  • The resistant individuals all had the 32-base pair mutation in their CCR5 genes, and that left them with CD4+ T cells with no CCR5 receptors, conferring resistance to HIV infection. (scripps.edu)
  • Recombination signal sequence (RSS) DNA Cinacalcet within antigen receptor genes targets RAG1/2-mediated cleavage during V(D)J recombination, guiding RAG1/2 away from generating genomic instability at other chromosomal locations [1-4]. (labsmart.net)
  • Indeed, B and T cell leukemias and lymphomas have characteristic chromosomal translocations that often involve the antigen receptor genes [8-10]. (labsmart.net)
  • Toll-like Interleukin 1 Receptor Regulator Is an Important Modulator of Inflammation Responsive Genes. (cdc.gov)
  • Cloning and expression of the human and rat m5 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor genes. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Bonner TI, Buckley NJ, Young AC, Brann MR. Identification of a family of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor genes. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • These data suggest that Bcl6b is an important molecule in SSC self-renewal and validate the biological relevance of the GDNF-regulated genes identified through microarray analysis. (pnas.org)
  • Females with depression, Sodhi discovered, had the highest levels of expression of several glutamate receptor genes, perhaps making them more prone to depression. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In humans, this paralogon resulting from a double tetraploidization event resulted in the receptor genes being located on chromosomes 1, 6, 8, and 20. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tetraploidization events often result in the loss of one or more of the duplicated genes , but in this case, nearly all species retain all four opioid receptors, indicating important and specific function. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, clinical utility can be compromised by the development of side effects, many of which are attributed to the ability of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) to induce the transcription of, or transactivate, certain genes. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Ionotropic glutamate receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that mediate most of the transfer of excitatory information in the brain. (jneurosci.org)
  • Inhibitory glycine receptors ligand-gated ion channels with known roles in startle disease/hyperekplexia (GlyR α1), cortical neuronal migration and autism spectrum disorder (GlyR α2), and inflammatory pain sensitization and rhythmic breathing (GlyR α3). (frontiersin.org)
  • Mifepristone also binds to two other receptors within the body, which could have undesirable effects. (esrf.eu)
  • The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family member B cell activating factor (BAFF) binds B cells and enhances B cell receptor-triggered proliferation. (rupress.org)
  • In contrast to GPR43, which binds preferentially propionate and acetate, GPR109a is the major receptor for butyrate. (confex.com)
  • 4-6 Tramadol is rapidly and extensively metabolized by O-demethylation, and one of its major active metabolite O-desmethyltramadol (M1) binds to μ-opioid receptors with high affinity. (asahq.org)
  • 8. Cell Membrane Displaced Endogenous Activator (Agonist) of Receptor Inactive Cell Surface Receptor Extracellular Compartment Intracellular Compartment Bound Antagonist of Receptor (Drug) N.B: Antagonist binds to the inactive conformations of the receptor. (slideshare.net)
  • When the blood glucose level is high, the insulin response protein is phosphorylated when it binds to the receptor. (wikibooks.org)
  • Adapter protein binds to the receptor. (wikibooks.org)
  • Martemyanov explains that GPR158 brain receptors are called " orphan receptors " because it is not yet known what chemical the protein binds to. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors (CRHRs), also known as corticotropin-releasing factor receptors (CRFRs) are a G protein-coupled receptor family that binds corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). (wikipedia.org)
  • The gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRP-R) is a G protein-coupled receptor that mediates a variety of cellular responses, including cell growth and modulation of neuronal activity by activation of heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins in the Gq family. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Two mutations showed selective loss of either agonist (Y285A) or antagonist (F313A) affinity for the GRP-R. In addition, we identified two amino acid residues, Phe 270 and Asn 281 , in the sixth TM segment, which are important for receptor-G protein interaction. (aspetjournals.org)
  • We conclude that these two TM residues are important for receptor-G protein coupling, and postulate that each mutation may affect GRP-R conformational change to the high-affinity, G protein-coupled state. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Sign regulatory protein (SIRP) is certainly a important resistant inhibitory receptor in macrophages, and its interaction with Compact disc47 prevents autologous phagocytosis. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • The molecular mechanism involves increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and results in synergistic potentiation of receptor activator of NF-kB ligand (RANKL) protein expression. (diva-portal.org)
  • The synergism between kinins and IL-1b or TNF-a might also be dependent on regulation of kinin receptors, since both IL-1b and TNF-a markedly upregulated B1 and B2 receptors, both at the mRNA level and protein level (Paper III). (diva-portal.org)
  • SCFA can bind to G-protein-coupled receptors GPR41, GPR43 and GPR109a to activate downstream anti-inflammatory signaling pathways. (confex.com)
  • GPCRs (G-protein-coupled receptors) are a large family of structurally related proteins, which mediate their effects by coupling with G-proteins. (portlandpress.com)
  • In addition, activation of GPCRs involves relative movement of TM helices to present G-protein interaction sites across the intracellular face of the receptor. (portlandpress.com)
  • Substitution of Asp71 or Asp122 with Asn produced mutant receptors that displayed high affinity for carbachol but decreased efficacy and potency, respectively, in agonist-induced activation of phosphoinositide hydrolysis, suggesting that these residues may mediate receptor-GTP binding protein interactions. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Frizzleds (FZDs) are unconventional G protein-coupled receptors, which activate diverse intracellular signaling pathways via the phosphoprotein Disheveled (DVL) and heterotrimeric G proteins. (diva-portal.org)
  • We conclude from modeling and dynamics simulation efforts that Y2502.39 is important for the structural integrity of the FZD-DVL, but not for the FZD-G protein interface and hypothesize that the interaction network of Y250 2.39 and H348 4.46 plays a role in specifying downstream signaling pathways induced by the receptor. (diva-portal.org)
  • In the absence of serum opsonins, competitive inhibition of mannose receptor (MR) activity on MDM with mannan decreased the association of F. novicida and opsonization of F. novicida with lung collectin surfactant protein A (SP-A) increased bacterial association and intracellular survival. (asm.org)
  • Interacting with protein receptors nestled in the membrane that makes up the outer border of a neuron, neurotransmitters open and close portals that control the flow of ions in and out of the cell. (technologynetworks.com)
  • In a study published in Nature , scientists at USC Dornsife College of Letters, Arts and Sciences and the Bridge Institute at the USC Michelson Center for Convergent Bioscience figured out how GABA interacts with a key protein receptor called GABAB. (technologynetworks.com)
  • The researchers used cryo-electron microscopy, or cryo-EM, to capture never-before-seen detailed snapshots of the GABAB receptor protein twisting and contorting as it interacts with GABA. (technologynetworks.com)
  • The GABAB receptor protein rests across the cellular membrane of neurons and is composed of two subunits with similar shapes: GB1, which recognizes GABA, and GB2, which relays the signal from GB1 into the cell's interior. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Equally important if not more so, the images also reveal a critical location on the GABAB receptor protein, where GB1 and GB2 meet within the cell membrane when the receptor is activated. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Researchers from these institutions with backgrounds in biochemistry, biomedicine and computational science are collaborating on an interdisciplinary basis to gain a comprehensive understanding of the effects of structural dynamics on the function of G protein-coupled receptors. (idw-online.de)
  • G-protein coupled receptors. (slideshare.net)
  • Nuclear receptor is also called as true receptors which involved in increase or decrease in the production of certain RNAs and mRNA along with corresponding enzyme and protein. (slideshare.net)
  • Growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) is a G protein-coupled receptor with broad distributions in diverse tissues. (biomedcentral.com)
  • UpMarketResearch, one of the world's prominent market research firms has released a new report on Non Receptor Tyrosine Protein Kinase TYK2 market. (soccernurds.com)
  • This research will help both existing and new aspirants for Non Receptor Tyrosine Protein Kinase TYK2 Market to figure out and study market requirements, market size, and competition. (soccernurds.com)
  • COVID-19 on the Non Receptor Tyrosine Protein Kinase TYK2 market and how the pandemic is tweaking the current situation. (soccernurds.com)
  • A complete picture of the competitive scenario of the Non Receptor Tyrosine Protein Kinase TYK2 market is presented by this report. (soccernurds.com)
  • Components such as market drivers, restraints, challenges, and opportunities for Non Receptor Tyrosine Protein Kinase TYK2 are explained in detail. (soccernurds.com)
  • Another key component that is integrated with the report is the regional analysis to assess the global presence of the Non Receptor Tyrosine Protein Kinase TYK2 market. (soccernurds.com)
  • You can also go for a yearly subscription of all the updates on the Non Receptor Tyrosine Protein Kinase TYK2 market. (soccernurds.com)
  • Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors are members of rhodopsin-like G-protein coupled receptor family. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • M2 and M4 receptors couple to the pertussis-toxin sensitive Gi proteins, whereas M1, M3 and M5 receptors couple to Gq proteins [ PMID: 9647869 , PMID: 8853955 ], which activate phospholipase C. The different subtypes can also couple to a wide range of diverse signalling pathways, some of which are G protein-independent [ PMID: 10841527 , PMID: 14641022 , PMID: 12725869 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Both the tyrosine kinase Fyn and the tyrosine phosphatase striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP) are known to target the NMDA receptor subunit GluN2B on tyrosine 1472, which is a critical residue that mediates NMDAR endocytosis. (pnas.org)
  • The Ly49H activation receptor, which is expressed on a subset of NK cells in C57BL/6 mice, is coupled to the DAP12 adaptor protein. (jimmunol.org)
  • Recent work suggests that the Ly49H activating receptor can also associate with the DAP10 adaptor protein, but the significance of this interaction remains unclear ( 12 - 14 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The only known ligand for the Ly49H receptor is the MCMV-encoded protein, m157 ( 5 - 7 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Scienitsts led by Kirill Martemyanov, Ph.D. - co-chair of the TSRI Department of Neuroscience - focused on a brain receptor called GPR158 after they noticed that levels of the GPR158 protein were very high in people with depression. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Students will learn about relationships between ligand-receptor interactions and protein structure, signal transduction in relationship to the cell anatomy and fundamental biochemistry, and molecular pharmacology of different classes of receptors, ion channels, and enzymes. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • a proline residue at this position renders the GerA receptor non-functional, most probably due to a change in the protein secondary structure. (edu.pl)
  • Analysis of the GerAA protein should get us closer to understanding the mechanism of GerA receptor function. (edu.pl)
  • The activated receptor in turn couples to G q/11 and G i/o and thus activates phospholipase C and increases the cytosolic Ca 2+ concentrations, which in turn triggers cellular responses such as stimulation of protein kinase C . Activated receptor also inhibits adenylate cyclase and activates various tyrosine kinases . (wikipedia.org)
  • In this regard, the chemokine receptor-ligand nexus has been reported as potentially important in severe COVID-19 disease pathogenesis and its treatment. (cdc.gov)
  • Valuable genomic insights into the chemokine receptor-ligand nexus have been gained from HIV infection and disease progression studies. (cdc.gov)
  • Background The chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) can be an important molecular target for both visualization and therapy of tumors. (biosweepny.com)
  • Among these, the CXC theme Geldanamycin chemokine ligand 12-CXC theme chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) and Closed circuit theme chemokine ligand 2-Closed circuit theme chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) ligand-receptor pairs possess been positively researched [21, 22]. (welbourneprimary.com)
  • Chemokine receptors transduce signals important for the function and trafficking of leukocytes. (elegantindulgence.net)
  • However, there are conflicting results in the literature about the role of serotonergic receptor subtypes in systemic tramadol-induced antinociception. (asahq.org)
  • Ionotropic glutamate receptors of the kainate and AMPA subtypes share a number of structural features, both topographical and in terms of stoichiometry. (jneurosci.org)
  • These receptor types can be activated by the same family of compounds: kainate activates both kainate and AMPA receptors, whereas different subtypes of kainate receptors are also sensitive to AMPA and its derivatives (for review, see Lerma, 2003 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • There are five muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes, designated M1-5 [ PMID: 3443095 , PMID: 3272174 , PMID: 3037705 , PMID: 9647869 , PMID: 2470172 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • All subtypes seem to serve as autoreceptors [ PMID: 11714883 ], and knockout mice reveal the important neuromodulatory role played by this receptor family [ PMID: 14744253 , PMID: 15474550 , PMID: 17762886 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • There are four major subtypes of opioid receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other poorly characterized subtypes include the AT 3 and AT 4 receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Muscarinic receptor subtype pharmacology and physiology. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • A new study published on the online preprint server medRxiv * in May 2020 reports that the viral receptor in human beings, the ACE2 enzyme, is not overexpressed in the kidneys of individuals with high blood pressure or those who are taking antihypertensive drugs called renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors. (news-medical.net)
  • They selectively block the activation of the AT1 receptor, preventing the binding of angiotensin II compared to ACE inhibitors. (wikipedia.org)
  • These results suggest that Pim inhibitors may have an important role in the treatment of patients where MET is driving tumor biology. (elsevier.com)
  • Objective To systematically review longitudinal studies evaluating use of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and risk of pneumonia. (bmj.com)
  • Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels participate in calcium ion (Ca 2+ ) influx and intracellular Ca 2+ release. (elifesciences.org)
  • Macrophage receptors mediate phagocytosis and initiate signaling cascades, intracellular trafficking, inflammatory responses, and antigen presentation ( 51 ). (asm.org)
  • There are different classes of PRRs, including Toll-like receptors (TLRs), NOD-like receptors (NLRs), RIG-like receptors (RLRs), C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) and intracellular DNA sensors. (news-medical.net)
  • 6. How does Cell surface Receptor elicits its action: Cell Membrane Unbound Endogenous Activator (Agonist) of Receptor Inactive Cell Surface Receptor Extracellular Compartment Intracellular Compartment N.B : Receptors are Present in equilibrium state of active and inactive conformation. (slideshare.net)
  • Toll-like receptor (TLR) is normally one of most significant pathogen design recognitions (PPRs) which motivate intracellular signaling cascades via the nuclear-factor κB (NF-κB) caspase-dependent and mitogen-activated proteins kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways to tirgger host's immune system responses [12]. (bio-aromatica.com)
  • The signal was transferred from the receptor into the cytoplasm via proteins that bind to phosphorylated tyrosines. (wikibooks.org)
  • Those proteins function as connection between the receptor and proteins that respond to the signal. (wikibooks.org)
  • The Ly49H receptor has been shown to interact with two adaptor proteins (DAP12 and DAP10). (jimmunol.org)
  • In general, NK cell activating receptors contain short cytoplasmic tails and require association with adaptor proteins to transduce signal once the receptor has been engaged. (jimmunol.org)
  • One set of adaptor proteins known to associate with activating receptors (including FcεRI-γ, CD3-ζ, and DAP12) contains ITAMs ( 9 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The expression of insulin-like growth factor -1 receptor (IGF-1R), insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) proteins was determined by Western blotting analysis . (bvsalud.org)
  • In colitis or graft versus host disease (GVHD), GPR43 signaling has been reported as an important regulator of intestinal homeostasis by increasing the pool of regulatory T cells. (confex.com)
  • B-cell receptor (BCR) signals promote survival of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells, and it is believed that overexpressed and constitutively active Lyn mediates this signaling. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Taken together, these data show a major role for LCK in proximal and distal BCR-mediated signaling in CLL cells and suggest that LCK expression is important in the pathogenesis of this disease. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Genetic analysis of host resistance: Toll-like receptor signaling and immunity at large. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Recent data demonstrates that these are the prototypes of a large family of receptors for small lipophilic signaling molecules including steroid hormone, fat soluble vitamins fatty acid metabolites and cholesterol metabolites. (slideshare.net)
  • Therefore, modulation of nicotinic receptors by estrogen or other compounds is likely to influence synaptic signaling in several pathways. (jneurosci.org)
  • These data suggest that RhoH is important for pre-TCR and TCR signaling because it allows the efficient interaction of ZAP70 with the LAT signalosome, thus regulating thymocyte development. (ist.ac.at)
  • Regulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor signaling. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • NMDA receptors (NMDARs) are principal regulators of synaptic signaling in the brain. (pnas.org)
  • Engagement of the receptor results in phosphorylation of the ITAM tyrosine by Src family kinases (mutations of ITAM tyrosine abolishes their signaling function). (jimmunol.org)
  • MET, the receptor for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), plays an important role in signaling normal and tumor cell migration and invasion. (elsevier.com)
  • In that study, two leucine residues (L240 and L241) in the TMD were shown to be important for receptor dimerization and signaling. (saracatinib.info)
  • CMS initiates this national coverage analysis for Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T-cell Therapy for Cancers. (cms.gov)
  • Failure to resolve unrepaired DNA DSBs during DNA rearrangements in lymphocytes Cinacalcet can lead to the formation of oncogenic chromosomal Cinacalcet translocations by fusing a transcriptional control element from the Tetracosactide Acetate antigen receptor locus to an oncogene. (labsmart.net)
  • Thus, both Tyr(612) and Tyr(632) are important for IRS-1 to fully activate PI3K and mediate translocation of GLUT4 in response to insulin. (nih.gov)
  • Comparable to various other epithelium BECs also exhibit multiple Toll-like receptors and mediate inflammatory replies of web host to fight international antigens or microbes [13-16]. (bio-aromatica.com)
  • The NFκB inflammatory response pathways are extremely important in microbial infection and pathogenesis, including HIV-1 transmission. (cdc.gov)
  • Receptors are crucial components of the biochemical pathways of taste perception. (jyi.org)
  • 12) showed that this TMD is important for its orientation and activation of downstream pathways. (saracatinib.info)
  • Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor knockout mice: novel phenotypes and clinical implications. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Functional analysis of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors using knockout mice. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • This study assessed the relative importance of treatment-related attributes in influencing patient preferences for glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) among injection-experienced type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients in Germany and the United Kingdom. (springer.com)
  • Site-directed mutagenesis of m1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors: conserved aspartic acids play important roles in receptor function. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects mediated by M2 muscarinic receptor activation in human glioblastoma cells. (curehunter.com)
  • This entry represents the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor family. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors: mutant mice provide new insights for drug development. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Distinct primary structures, ligand-binding properties and tissue-specific expression of four human muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Classification of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The molecular basis of muscarinic receptor diversity. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Molecular biology of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The anti-apoptotic response of the Gq/11-coupled muscarinic receptor family. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • In a competition-binding assay with an antagonist radioligand, bombesin showed a 20- to 100-fold decreased affinity for the N281A and F270A mutant GRP-R compared with wild-type GRP-R. The saturation-binding isotherms are best fit by a two-state model, indicating that the receptors are in either a low-affinity ( K D2 ) or a high-affinity ( K D1 ) state. (aspetjournals.org)
  • 8,9,11 Interestingly, the analgesic action of tramadol is not completely blocked by naloxone, an opioid receptor antagonist. (asahq.org)
  • In the TIPP analogues containing L-β-methyl amino acids the influence on δ-receptor affinity and on 5-antagonist potency is limited, the [(2S,3R)-β-MePhe 3 ]TIPP-OH analogue being among the most potent 5-antagonists reported. (elsevier.com)
  • Schiller, Peter W. / Side chain methyl substitution in the δ-opioid receptor antagonist TIPP has an important effect on the activity profile . (elsevier.com)
  • Finally, the GHSR pathway was validated by receptor blockade in LPS-stimulated macrophages, using an antagonist of GHSR, D-lys3-GHRP6 (DLS). (biomedcentral.com)
  • An animated view of the human k-opioid receptor in complex with the antagonist JDTic. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first attempt to purify the receptor involved the use of a novel opioid receptor antagonist called chlornaltrexamine that was demonstrated to bind to the opioid receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, there was no link between the extent of expression of this viral receptor in the kidney and hypertension, nor with the use of commonly prescribed RAS blockers. (news-medical.net)
  • The new study also reveals that Y2 receptor blockers bind differently than comparable molecules at the closely related Y1 subtype. (idw-online.de)
  • Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), formally angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1) antagonists, also known as angiotensin receptor blockers, angiotensin II receptor antagonists, or AT1 receptor antagonists, are a group of pharmaceuticals that bind to and inhibit the angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1) and thereby block the arteriolar contraction and sodium retention effects of renin-angiotensin system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Angiotensin II receptor blockers are used primarily for the treatment of hypertension where the patient is intolerant of ACE inhibitor therapy primarily because of persistent and/or dry cough. (wikipedia.org)
  • The angiotensin II receptor blockers have differing potencies in relation to blood pressure control, with statistically differing effects at the maximal doses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Those patients taking angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) were 35-40% less likely to develop AD than those using other antihypertensives. (wikipedia.org)
  • What are the important characteristics of the progesterone-receptor binding site? (esrf.eu)
  • While it is known that mifepristone exerts its clinical effect by binding to the ligand binding domain of the progesterone receptor, there was no three-dimensional structure of it bound to the receptor. (esrf.eu)
  • Therefore, the aim of this research was to obtain a crystal structure of the mifepristone-progesterone receptor in order to better understand the specificity of the receptors ligand binding domain. (esrf.eu)
  • These studies have extended our knowledge on the structural requirements of the progesterone receptor ligand binding domain. (esrf.eu)
  • Mifepristone (ball and stick representation) viewed within the progesterone receptor ligand binding domain (worms representation). (esrf.eu)
  • Multiple bad breast tumor (TNBC) is definitely a subtype of tumors that do not clinically communicate human being epidermal growth element receptor 2 (HER-2), progesterone receptor (PR), or estrogen receptor (Emergency room). (welbourneprimary.com)
  • Although it is known that this?TMD and JM region of the EpoR are important for dimerization, the structure and dynamics of their monomeric form would provide insight into their functions in signal?transduction. (saracatinib.info)
  • Angiotensin II, through AT1 receptor stimulation, is a major stress hormone and, because (ARBs) block these receptors, in addition to their eliciting anti-hypertensive effects, may be considered for the treatment of stress-related disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ratio of the two affinities ( K D2 / K D1 ) was significantly increased for both mutants compared with wild-type GRP-R, whereas the fraction of mutant receptors in the high-affinity state ( R 1 ) was decreased. (aspetjournals.org)
  • This offers the potential for placing a kinetics assay at the top of a screening cascade, negating the need to first run "IC50 curves" to assess affinity at the receptor. (ddw-online.com)
  • 3 However, tramadol affinity for the μ-opioid receptor is weak and approximately 6,000-fold less than that of morphine. (asahq.org)
  • Second, the 302P GerAA variant has most probably an impaired affinity to other components of GerA receptor. (edu.pl)
  • The AT 1 and AT 2 receptors share a sequence identity of ~30%, but have a similar affinity for angiotensin II, which is their main ligand. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tyr(612) and Tyr(632) in human insulin receptor substrate-1 are important for full activation of insulin-stimulated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase a. (nih.gov)
  • To examine contributions of specific YXXM motifs in human insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) to mediating the metabolic actions of insulin, we studied IRS-1 mutants containing various substitutions of Phe for Tyr. (nih.gov)
  • 2 The analgesic effects of tramadol is thought to be mediated by μ-opioid receptors. (asahq.org)
  • The opioid receptors are ~40% identical to somatostatin receptors (SSTRs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Opioid receptors are distributed widely in the brain , in the spinal cord , on peripheral neurons, and digestive tract . (wikipedia.org)
  • However it was subsequently found that it shares little sequence similarity with the other opioid receptors, and has quite different function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phylogenetic analysis demonstrates that the family of opioid receptors was already present at the origin of jawed vertebrates over 450 million years ago. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additional emphasis is placed on the characterization of the interactions among odors, pheromones, and taste substances with their cognate receptors, and the identity of the critical ligand-receptor binding sites that determine sensitivity and selectivity. (nih.gov)
  • For neuroinflammation and the increase in cytokine levels (either by glia or neurons) to influence neurons and consequently affect the development of CNS disorders, the location of these cytokines receptors on neuronal populations may be the key. (omicsonline.org)
  • 19,20 In this regard, it is possible that there is an existence of specific neuronal circuits whereby systemic tramadol or its main metabolite M1 can modulate nociception through the activation of a descending serotonergic system to the spinal cord and act on serotonergic receptors in the dorsal horn. (asahq.org)
  • To identify the regions in which steroids bind and affect ion channel activity, we have taken advantage of the observation that human α4β2 neuronal nicotinic receptors are potentiated by an estrogen steroid, 17β-estradiol, whereas a rat α4β2 receptor is not. (jneurosci.org)
  • Here, we show that 17β-estradiol, an estrogenic steroid, directly potentiates responses from the human α4β2 neuronal nicotinic receptor, and that the C terminus of the α4 subunit is likely to form the binding site necessary for potentiation. (jneurosci.org)
  • Benzodiazepines (BDZs) depress neuronal excitability via positive allosteric modulation of inhibitory GABA A receptors (GABA A R). BDZs and other positive GABA A R modulators, including barbiturates, ethanol, and neurosteroids, can also inhibit L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (L-VGCCs), which could contribute to reduced neuronal excitability. (aspetjournals.org)
  • NMDA receptors (NMDARs) are ionotropic glutamate receptors that are expressed throughout the nervous system and play crucial roles in neuronal development, synaptic plasticity, and learning and memory ( 1 ⇓ ⇓ - 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that repeated intrathecal HIV gp120 injection induced an acute to chronic pain translation in rats, and that neuronal RyR and mitochondrial superoxide in the spinal cord dorsal horn played an important role in the HIV neuropathic pain model. (elsevier.com)
  • Effects mediated by the AT 2 receptor are suggested to include inhibition of cell growth , fetal tissue development, modulation of extracellular matrix, neuronal regeneration, apoptosis , cellular differentiation , and maybe vasodilation and left ventricular hypertrophy . (wikipedia.org)
  • The synergistic increase in RANKL expression might be an explanation why kinins potentiate IL-1b induced bone resorption, a mechanism likely to be important in inflammation induced bone resorption in diseases such as periodontal disease and rheumatoid arthritis. (diva-portal.org)
  • We have used Cre-mediated excision to generate mice lacking the IIIb form of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 whilst retaining expression of the IIIc form. (biologists.org)
  • This study evaluates mRNA expression of a particular androgen receptor splice variant-7 (AR-V7), in circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients receiving enzalutamide or abiraterone. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Few studies have considered the effect of inhibiting the RAS activity on the expression of ACE2 in human tissues that play an important role in regulating the blood pressure and determining the susceptibility to COVID-19 infection. (news-medical.net)
  • Overall, the altered expression of TLRs and PRRs could be important in determining the age-linked inflammation in response to COVID-19. (news-medical.net)
  • Alterations in central GABA receptor expression are implicated in the pathogenesis of anxiety and depression, which are highly comorbid with functional bowel disorders. (fabresearch.org)
  • Phosphorylation regulates surface and synaptic expression of NMDA receptors (NMDARs). (pnas.org)
  • The engagement of the NKG2D receptor induces the activation of NFAT and expression of GFP. (pacslab.net)
  • Together, these results show that FL expression by thymic stromal fibroblasts interacting with Flt3+ T-cell progenitors is important for the physiological maintenance of early T-cell development. (ox.ac.uk)
  • This receptor, known as the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, increases excitability within the brain's reward centers. (nsf.gov)
  • Using activating and inhibitory receptors expressed on their cell surface, NK cells distinguish normal "self" cells from abnormal cells by scanning the molecules expressed on the cell surface of potential target cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • While TLR4 has been suggested to play an important role in early containment of infection, the roles of TLR2 and TLR9 in meningococcal disease are not well described. (diva-portal.org)
  • Thus, our data demonstrate an important role for TLR9 in host defense against N. meningitidis. (diva-portal.org)
  • Therefore, we hypothesized that GPR109a plays an important role in the pathophysiology of intestinal GVHD, focusing specifically on alloreactive T cells. (confex.com)
  • Using mouse models of GVHD, we examined the role of the butyrate/niacin receptor, GPR109a in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). (confex.com)
  • Our findings point to a key role for fibroblast growth factor receptor 2(IIIb) in mesenchymal-epithelial signalling during early organogenesis. (biologists.org)
  • Research has shown cytokines play an important role in mediating the effects of LPS, with specific interest in interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα). (omicsonline.org)
  • While the standard form (CD44s) is ubiquitously expressed, its variant isoforms are claimed to play an important role in invasion and metastasis in various cancers. (bmj.com)
  • A role for both complement receptor 3 (CR3) and Fcγ receptors in uptake was supported by studies using a CR3-expressing cell line and by down-modulation of Fcγ receptors on MDM, respectively. (asm.org)
  • It is widely accepted that signals generated by engagement of the B-cell receptor (BCR) play an important role in the pathogenesis of CLL ( 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • To investigate the specific role of hypothalamic Y2 receptors in this process, we used a conditional Y2 knockout model, using the Cre-lox system and adenoviral delivery of Cre-recombinase. (garvan.org.au)
  • Indeed, from the analysis of the numerous GluR6 receptor mutants, it appears that residues S689 and A721 in the S2 segment play a significant role in defining the gating properties of kainate receptors (Swanson et al. (jneurosci.org)
  • Together, these findings highlight the important role of bacteria in the bidirectional communication of the gut-brain axis and suggest that certain organisms may prove to be useful therapeutic adjuncts in stress-related disorders such as anxiety and depression. (fabresearch.org)
  • We therefore hypothesized that the receptor MAS also plays a role in angiogenesis via microglia. (springer.com)
  • While previous studies have reported the anti-inflammatory actions induced by activation of the receptor MAS in microglia [ 19 ], its role in angiogenesis remains controversial. (springer.com)
  • Especially, the receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) play an important role in the cell cycle, cell migration, cell metabolism and many other substantial cell functions. (wikibooks.org)
  • Role of GRK4 in the regulation of arterial AT1 receptor in hypertension. (nature.com)
  • These findings demonstrate that junctin and triadin bind to different sites on RyR1 and that triadin plays an important role in ensuring rapid Ca(2+) release during excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle. (edu.au)
  • Palmer, Julie R. / Important Role of Menarche in Development of Estrogen Receptor-Negative Breast Cancer in African American Women . (elsevier.com)
  • The AT 4 receptor is activated by the angiotensin II metabolite angiotensin IV , and may play a role in regulation of the CNS extracellular matrix, as well as modulation of oxytocin release. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many members of the TNF family fulfill important roles related to the organization, function, and/or homeostasis of the immune system ( 1 ). (rupress.org)
  • Focusing on ECL3 (third ECL), it is becoming increasingly apparent that this extracellular domain can fulfil a range of important roles with respect to GPCR signalling, including agonist binding, ligand selectivity and receptor activation. (portlandpress.com)
  • In the average human body, 2 kg (4.4 lbs) of total glutamate and 10 g (0.35 oz) of free glutamate are present in the muscles, brain, blood, kidney, liver, and breast milk, playing important roles in nutrition, metabolism, and neurotransmission. (jyi.org)
  • We encourage original research or methods papers, reviews, commentaries, or perspectives that highlight new biological and therapeutic roles of glycine receptors, utilising molecular, cellular, high-throughput drug screening, electrophysiology or model organism approaches. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cold, heat, sound, light, taste, and smell are detected and converted into neural impulses through the activation of receptors, which then propagate the signal by opening an ion channel. (webwire.com)
  • The LFA-1 ligand ICAM-1 provides an important costimulatory signal for T cell receptor-mediated activation of resting T cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Human osteoblasts (MG-63) are equipped with both kinin B1 and B2 receptors linked to prostaglandin release and the stimulation of prostaglandin release are likely mediated via separate molecular mechanisms (Paper I). Activation of B1 or B2 receptors causes synergistic stimulation of PGE2 synthesis induced by either interleukin-1b (IL-1b) or tumour necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) (Paper II). (diva-portal.org)
  • The IL-1b- or TNF-a-induced enhancements of B1 and B2 receptor expressions involve activation of NF-kB and MAPK. (diva-portal.org)
  • The biggest, composed of of ABT-888 enzyme inhibitor over half from the receptor, may be the em N /em -terminal area (NTD) [9C11], which is certainly highly unstructured possesses among the two activation function (AF1) motifs. (antibodyassay.com)
  • Open up in another window Body 1 The androgen receptor (AR) includes three main functional domains and many activation functional products ABT-888 enzyme inhibitor that control its activity. (antibodyassay.com)
  • 2020). Structural basis of the activation of a metabotropic GABA receptor. (technologynetworks.com)
  • In addition, AMPA and kainate receptors share similar pharmacological and biophysical properties in that they are activated by common agonists and display rapid activation and desensitization characteristics. (jneurosci.org)
  • The receptor MAS, encoded by Mas1 , is expressed in microglia and its activation has been linked to anti-inflammatory actions. (springer.com)
  • Our study demonstrates that the activation of MAS is important for microglia recruitment and vascular growth in the developing retina. (springer.com)
  • M2 receptor activation inhibits cell cycle progression and survival in human glioblastoma cells. (curehunter.com)
  • In conclusion, these findings support the concept that γδ T cells are important to postburn wound healing via the production of growth factors and, potentially, regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase activation. (uthscsa.edu)
  • Here we investigated how serum sMICA levels in HCC patients are correlated with survival and analyzed how sMICA influences the activation of the NKG2D pathway using an NKG2D receptor reporter cell collection. (pacslab.net)
  • 13) showed that this TMD and JM region of the EpoR are important for dimerization and activation of the EpoR by EPO binding. (saracatinib.info)
  • NK cell responses are determined by signals received through activating and inhibitory cell surface receptors. (jimmunol.org)
  • Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT 1 R) is a vital therapeutic target for hypertension. (nature.com)
  • Human GRK4γ 142V variant promotes angiotensin II type I receptor-mediated hypertension via renal histone deacetylase type 1 inhibition. (nature.com)
  • Because of the proximity of many bound receptors or enzymes, a membrane surface may become uniformly reactive so that every collision between a ligand and the membrane particle results in a binding or catalytic event. (elsevier.com)
  • At this limit (the collisional limit), the reaction rate depends on membrane particle (cell) concentration and is independent of receptor concentration. (elsevier.com)
  • Since receptors or enzymes provided on small membrane fragments will not function at the collisional limit, properties of reconstituted enzymes or receptors may not be extrapolated to the physiological situation. (elsevier.com)
  • Determination of whether the collisional limit applies to a membrane-bound system is important for understanding its properties and those of the physiological circumstance. (elsevier.com)
  • Abbott, AJ & Nelsestuen, GL 1988, ' The collisional limit: an important consideration for membrane-associated enzymes and receptors ', FASEB Journal , vol. 2, no. 13, pp. 2858-2866. (elsevier.com)
  • [5] The receptors were first identified as specific molecules through the use of binding studies, in which opiates that had been labeled with radioisotopes were found to bind to brain membrane homogenates. (wikipedia.org)
  • solid course="kwd-title" Keywords: androgen receptor, castration-resistant prostate cancers, posttranslational adjustments 1. (antibodyassay.com)
  • Some doctors are concerned that the growth of hormone-receptor-positive breast cancers may be turned on by isoflavones. (breastcancer.org)
  • Distinct transcriptional programs mediated by the ligand-dependent full-length androgen receptor and its splice variants in castration-resistant prostate cancer. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Modulation of NMDARs' function and trafficking is important for the regulation of synaptic transmission and several forms of synaptic plasticity. (pnas.org)
  • Sorting nexin 1 (SNX1) participates in the sorting and trafficking of the renal dopamine D 5 receptor, while angiotensin and dopamine are counterregulatory factors in the regulation of blood pressure. (nature.com)
  • The cholecystokinin A receptor (CCKAR) is expressed predominantly in the gallbladder and small intestine in the digestive system, where it is responsible for CCK's regulation of gallbladder and small intestinal motility. (elsevier.com)
  • The androgen receptor (AR) is important in the development of the prostate by regulating transcription, cellular proliferation, and apoptosis. (antibodyassay.com)
  • Splicing variants of androgen receptor in prostate cancer. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Ryanodine receptor (RyR) and mitochondrial oxidative stress are involved in neuropathic pain induced by nerve injury. (elsevier.com)
  • To elucidate which amino acids in the glucocorticoid receptor ligand-binding domain might be involved in determining steroid binding specificity by interaction with the D-ring of glucocorticoids, we have performed site-directed mutagenesis of the four amino acids Met-560, Met-639, Gln-642, and Thr-739 based on their proximity to the steroid in a model structure. (diva-portal.org)
  • Separating Transrepression and Transactivation: A Distressing Divorce for the Glucocorticoid Receptor? (aspetjournals.org)
  • No other cytokines known to stimulate bone resorption regulates the expressions of B1 and B2 receptors. (diva-portal.org)
  • This is important for the human cell because it regulates both cell proliferation and also cell differentiation. (wikibooks.org)
  • 11 ] that SRA could ensure an inflammatory response of the appropriate magnitude via modulation of the activities of pro-inflammatory receptors and production of chemokines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • TLR4 excitement thus is important in initiation of fast innate immune reactions aswell as a significant part in modulation of adaptive immune system responses to remove the pathogen also to support protective memory immune system reactions [9]. (rectalcancersite.com)
  • This is the first time that a molecular blueprint for this receptor is available, which will enable the development of tailor-made new drugs, e.g. to treat epilepsy or cardiovascular diseases. (idw-online.de)
  • Researchers led by Professor Annette Beck-Sickinger and Dr Anette Kaiser at Leipzig University have succeeded in showing on the molecular level how substances can block the Y2 receptor. (idw-online.de)
  • The issue of whether angiotensin II receptor antagonists slightly increase the risk of myocardial infarction (MI or heart attack) is currently being investigated. (wikipedia.org)
  • African American women have young age at menarche, which could be associated with their high rates of estrogen receptor-negative (ER-) breast cancer. (nih.gov)
  • One crucial piece of knowledge is that the primary viral receptor is a human enzyme called angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). (news-medical.net)
  • Enzyme linked receptors. (slideshare.net)
  • We used oestrogen receptor-α (ERα) knockout (ERKO) and receptor-β (ERβ) knockout (BERKO) mice to investigate the mechanism(s) behind the effects of oestrogens on glucose homeostasis. (springer.com)
  • Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2(IIIb) null mice are viable until birth, but have severe defects of the limbs, lung and anterior pituitary gland. (biologists.org)
  • So, Martemyanov and colleagues examined the behavior of this brain receptor in mice that had been subjected to chronic stress . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This will facilitate further knowledge-based development of selective compounds at both receptors. (idw-online.de)
  • and selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs). (healthcentral.com)
  • Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are prominent activators of the inflammatory response, and TLR2, -4, and -9 have been reported to be involved in the host response to N. meningitidis. (diva-portal.org)
  • The enhancement of kinin receptors may also be an important mechanism in the synergistic interactions between the two pro-inflammatory cytokines and kinins (paper III). (diva-portal.org)
  • Therapeutic targeting of Toll-like receptors for infectious and inflammatory diseases and cancer. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In this review, we present evidence that post-transcriptional mechanisms of action are highly important to the anti-inflammatory actions of glucocorticoids. (aspetjournals.org)
  • We have investigated the localization and function of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in normal cells, in cholesterol-depleted cells and in cholesterol enriched cells. (biologists.org)
  • Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy of Neuroendocrine Tumors: how important is internal dosimetry? (scielo.org.za)
  • The NETTER-1 trial is a phase III trial that demonstrated the superiority (regarding survival benefits) of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) of well-differentiated metastatic midgut neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) using Lu-177 DOTATATE over long-acting octreotide alone. (scielo.org.za)
  • The AT1-type angiotensin receptor in oxidative stress and atherogenesis: part I: oxidative stress and atherogenesis. (nature.com)
  • Substitution of Asp99 or Asp105 with Asn produced marked decreases in ligand binding affinities and/or covalent incorporation of [3H] propylbenzilylcholine mustard, suggesting that these residues may be involved in receptor-ligand interactions. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In conclusion, the mechanisms behind the synergistic potentiation of prostaglandin formation and increased bone resorption caused by co-stimulation with kinins and IL-1b or TNF-a seem to involve both potentiation of COX-2 and subsequently increased levels of RANKL, as well as upregulation of B1 and B2 kinin receptors. (diva-portal.org)
  • PAMs offer promise for the development of new therapeutic drugs because they don't replace the action of naturally occurring molecules such as GABA but rather fine-tune how the receptor behaves, leading to fewer side-effects, Cherezov said. (technologynetworks.com)