Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Muscle Fibers, Skeletal: Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Muscle Development: Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Muscle Fatigue: A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.Muscle Fibers, Fast-Twitch: Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type II MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have high ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment. Several fast types have been identified.Muscle Denervation: The resection or removal of the innervation of a muscle or muscle tissue.Muscle Fibers, Slow-Twitch: Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type I MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have low ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment.Myocytes, Smooth Muscle: Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Mitochondria, Muscle: Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.Neck Muscles: The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).Oculomotor Muscles: The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.Muscle, Striated: One of two types of muscle in the body, characterized by the array of bands observed under microscope. Striated muscles can be divided into two subtypes: the CARDIAC MUSCLE and the SKELETAL MUSCLE.Muscle Spindles: Skeletal muscle structures that function as the MECHANORECEPTORS responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag 1 fibers, nuclear bag 2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by SENSORY NEURONS.Muscle Relaxation: That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.Respiratory Muscles: These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.Muscle Weakness: A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)Papillary Muscles: Conical muscular projections from the walls of the cardiac ventricles, attached to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves by the chordae tendineae.Abdominal Muscles: Muscles forming the ABDOMINAL WALL including RECTUS ABDOMINIS, external and internal oblique muscles, transversus abdominis, and quadratus abdominis. (from Stedman, 25th ed)Quadriceps Muscle: The quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh, comprised of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis.Muscle Cells: Mature contractile cells, commonly known as myocytes, that form one of three kinds of muscle. The three types of muscle cells are skeletal (MUSCLE FIBERS, SKELETAL), cardiac (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC), and smooth (MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE). They are derived from embryonic (precursor) muscle cells called MYOBLASTS.Masseter Muscle: A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws.Facial Muscles: Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Masticatory Muscles: Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Intercostal Muscles: Respiratory muscles that arise from the lower border of one rib and insert into the upper border of the adjoining rib, and contract during inspiration or respiration. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Muscular Atrophy: Derangement in size and number of muscle fibers occurring with aging, reduction in blood supply, or following immobilization, prolonged weightlessness, malnutrition, and particularly in denervation.Isometric Contraction: Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.Satellite Cells, Skeletal Muscle: Elongated, spindle-shaped, quiescent myoblasts lying in close contact with adult skeletal muscle. They are thought to play a role in muscle repair and regeneration.Pectoralis Muscles: The pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles that make up the upper and fore part of the chest in front of the AXILLA.Muscular Diseases: Acquired, familial, and congenital disorders of SKELETAL MUSCLE and SMOOTH MUSCLE.Psoas Muscles: A powerful flexor of the thigh at the hip joint (psoas major) and a weak flexor of the trunk and lumbar spinal column (psoas minor). Psoas is derived from the Greek "psoa", the plural meaning "muscles of the loin". It is a common site of infection manifesting as abscess (PSOAS ABSCESS). The psoas muscles and their fibers are also used frequently in experiments in muscle physiology.Myofibrils: The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .Temporal Muscle: A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws; its posterior portion retracts the mandible.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Myosin Heavy Chains: The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Pharyngeal Muscles: The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Diaphragm: The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.GlycogenNeuromuscular Junction: The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.Muscular Dystrophy, AnimalMyoblasts: Embryonic (precursor) cells of the myogenic lineage that develop from the MESODERM. They undergo proliferation, migrate to their various sites, and then differentiate into the appropriate form of myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL; MYOCYTES, CARDIAC; MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Muscle Cramp: A sustained and usually painful contraction of muscle fibers. This may occur as an isolated phenomenon or as a manifestation of an underlying disease process (e.g., UREMIA; HYPOTHYROIDISM; MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; etc.). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1398)Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Mice, Inbred mdx: A strain of mice arising from a spontaneous MUTATION (mdx) in inbred C57BL mice. This mutation is X chromosome-linked and produces viable homozygous animals that lack the muscle protein DYSTROPHIN, have high serum levels of muscle ENZYMES, and possess histological lesions similar to human MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY. The histological features, linkage, and map position of mdx make these mice a worthy animal model of DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY.Sarcomeres: The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.Myostatin: A growth differentiation factor that is a potent inhibitor of SKELETAL MUSCLE growth. It may play a role in the regulation of MYOGENESIS and in muscle maintenance during adulthood.MyoD Protein: A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Though it is not clear how its function differs from the other myogenic regulatory factors, MyoD appears to be related to fusion and terminal differentiation of the muscle cell.Leg: The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.Physical Exertion: Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.Muscle Stretching Exercises: Exercises that stretch the muscle fibers with the aim to increase muscle-tendon FLEXIBILITY, improve RANGE OF MOTION or musculoskeletal function, and prevent injuries. There are various types of stretching techniques including active, passive (relaxed), static, dynamic (gentle), ballistic (forced), isometric, and others.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Muscle Rigidity: Continuous involuntary sustained muscle contraction which is often a manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES. When an affected muscle is passively stretched, the degree of resistance remains constant regardless of the rate at which the muscle is stretched. This feature helps to distinguish rigidity from MUSCLE SPASTICITY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p73)Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Hypertrophy: General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).Dystrophin: A muscle protein localized in surface membranes which is the product of the Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy gene. Individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy usually lack dystrophin completely while those with Becker muscular dystrophy have dystrophin of an altered size. It shares features with other cytoskeletal proteins such as SPECTRIN and alpha-actinin but the precise function of dystrophin is not clear. One possible role might be to preserve the integrity and alignment of the plasma membrane to the myofibrils during muscle contraction and relaxation. MW 400 kDa.Physical Endurance: The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.Myoblasts, Skeletal: Precursor cells destined to differentiate into skeletal myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL).Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Tendons: Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Hindlimb Suspension: Technique for limiting use, activity, or movement by immobilizing or restraining animal by suspending from hindlimbs or tails. This immobilization is used to simulate some effects of reduced gravity and study weightlessness physiology.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Mice, Inbred C57BLThigh: The portion of the leg in humans and other animals found between the HIP and KNEE.Muscle Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in muscle tissue or specific muscles. They are differentiated from NEOPLASMS, MUSCLE TISSUE which are neoplasms composed of skeletal, cardiac, or smooth muscle tissue, such as MYOSARCOMA or LEIOMYOMA.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Pterygoid Muscles: Two of the masticatory muscles: the internal, or medial, pterygoid muscle and external, or lateral, pterygoid muscle. Action of the former is closing the jaws and that of the latter is opening the jaws, protruding the mandible, and moving the mandible from side to side.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Muscular Dystrophies: A heterogeneous group of inherited MYOPATHIES, characterized by wasting and weakness of the SKELETAL MUSCLE. They are categorized by the sites of MUSCLE WEAKNESS; AGE OF ONSET; and INHERITANCE PATTERNS.Skeletal Muscle Myosins: Myosin type II isoforms found in skeletal muscle.Anura: An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Sarcoplasmic Reticulum: A network of tubules and sacs in the cytoplasm of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that assist with muscle contraction and relaxation by releasing and storing calcium ions.Muscle Relaxants, Central: A heterogeneous group of drugs used to produce muscle relaxation, excepting the neuromuscular blocking agents. They have their primary clinical and therapeutic uses in the treatment of muscle spasm and immobility associated with strains, sprains, and injuries of the back and, to a lesser degree, injuries to the neck. They have been used also for the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions that have in common only the presence of skeletal muscle hyperactivity, for example, the muscle spasms that can occur in MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p358)Sarcolemma: The excitable plasma membrane of a muscle cell. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Muscle Spasticity: A form of muscle hypertonia associated with upper MOTOR NEURON DISEASE. Resistance to passive stretch of a spastic muscle results in minimal initial resistance (a "free interval") followed by an incremental increase in muscle tone. Tone increases in proportion to the velocity of stretch. Spasticity is usually accompanied by HYPERREFLEXIA and variable degrees of MUSCLE WEAKNESS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p54)Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne: An X-linked recessive muscle disease caused by an inability to synthesize DYSTROPHIN, which is involved with maintaining the integrity of the sarcolemma. Muscle fibers undergo a process that features degeneration and regeneration. Clinical manifestations include proximal weakness in the first few years of life, pseudohypertrophy, cardiomyopathy (see MYOCARDIAL DISEASES), and an increased incidence of impaired mentation. Becker muscular dystrophy is a closely related condition featuring a later onset of disease (usually adolescence) and a slowly progressive course. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1415)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Torque: The rotational force about an axis that is equal to the product of a force times the distance from the axis where the force is applied.Myositis: Inflammation of a muscle or muscle tissue.Myogenin: A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Myogenin is induced during differentiation of every skeletal muscle cell line that has been investigated, in contrast to the other myogenic regulatory factors that only appear in certain cell types.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Phosphocreatine: An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)Muscle Strength Dynamometer: A device that measures MUSCLE STRENGTH during muscle contraction, such as gripping, pushing, and pulling. It is used to evaluate the health status of muscle in sports medicine or physical therapy.Desmin: An intermediate filament protein found predominantly in smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle cells. Localized at the Z line. MW 50,000 to 55,000 is species dependent.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Smooth Muscle Myosins: Myosin type II isoforms found in smooth muscle.Receptors, Cholinergic: Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Reflex, Stretch: Reflex contraction of a muscle in response to stretching, which stimulates muscle proprioceptors.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Tropomyosin: A protein found in the thin filaments of muscle fibers. It inhibits contraction of the muscle unless its position is modified by TROPONIN.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Citrate (si)-Synthase: Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 188.8.131.52.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Sarcopenia: Progressive decline in muscle mass due to aging which results in decreased functional capacity of muscles.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Neuromuscular Diseases: A general term encompassing lower MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and certain MUSCULAR DISEASES. Manifestations include MUSCLE WEAKNESS; FASCICULATION; muscle ATROPHY; SPASM; MYOKYMIA; MUSCLE HYPERTONIA, myalgias, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.Rana temporaria: A species of the family Ranidae occurring in a wide variety of habitats from within the Arctic Circle to South Africa, Australia, etc.Deltoid Muscle: Thick triangular muscle in the SHOULDER whose function is to abduct, flex, and extend the arm. It is a common site of INTRAMUSCULAR INJECTIONS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Caffeine: A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Myogenic Regulatory Factors: A family of muscle-specific transcription factors which bind to DNA in control regions and thus regulate myogenesis. All members of this family contain a conserved helix-loop-helix motif which is homologous to the myc family proteins. These factors are only found in skeletal muscle. Members include the myoD protein (MYOD PROTEIN); MYOGENIN; myf-5, and myf-6 (also called MRF4 or herculin).Motor Endplate: The specialized postsynaptic region of a muscle cell. The motor endplate is immediately across the synaptic cleft from the presynaptic axon terminal. Among its anatomical specializations are junctional folds which harbor a high density of cholinergic receptors.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Glucose Transporter Type 4: A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Rana pipiens: A highly variable species of the family Ranidae in Canada, the United States and Central America. It is the most widely used Anuran in biomedical research.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Flight, Animal: The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.Creatine Kinase, MM Form: An isoenzyme of creatine kinase found in the MUSCLE.Running: An activity in which the body is propelled by moving the legs rapidly. Running is performed at a moderate to rapid pace and should be differentiated from JOGGING, which is performed at a much slower pace.Immobilization: The restriction of the MOVEMENT of whole or part of the body by physical means (RESTRAINT, PHYSICAL) or chemically by ANALGESIA, or the use of TRANQUILIZING AGENTS or NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS. It includes experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility.PAX7 Transcription Factor: A paired box transcription factor that is involved in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and SKELETAL MUSCLE.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Muscle Hypertonia: Abnormal increase in skeletal or smooth muscle tone. Skeletal muscle hypertonicity may be associated with PYRAMIDAL TRACT lesions or BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Extremities: The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.Myogenic Regulatory Factor 5: A SKELETAL MUSCLE-specific transcription factor that contains a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF. It plays an essential role in MUSCLE DEVELOPMENT.Paraspinal Muscles: Deep muscles in the BACK whose function is to extend and rotate the SPINE and maintain POSTURE. It consists splenius, semispinalis, multifidus, rotatores, interspinales, intertransversarii and sacrospinalis.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Arm: The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.Troponin: One of the minor protein components of skeletal muscle. Its function is to serve as the calcium-binding component in the troponin-tropomyosin B-actin-myosin complex by conferring calcium sensitivity to the cross-linked actin and myosin filaments.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Forelimb: A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel: A tetrameric calcium release channel in the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM membrane of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, acting oppositely to SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. It is important in skeletal and cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and studied by using RYANODINE. Abnormalities are implicated in CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS and MUSCULAR DISEASES.Capillaries: The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Potassium Chloride: A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.Knee: A region of the lower extremity immediately surrounding and including the KNEE JOINT.Recruitment, Neurophysiological: The spread of response if stimulation is prolonged. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 8th ed.)Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Muscular Disorders, Atrophic: Disorders characterized by an abnormal reduction in muscle volume due to a decrease in the size or number of muscle fibers. Atrophy may result from diseases intrinsic to muscle tissue (e.g., MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY) or secondary to PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES that impair innervation to muscle tissue (e.g., MUSCULAR ATROPHY, SPINAL).Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Paralysis: A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)Aorta, Thoracic: The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.Neural Conduction: The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.Back: The rear surface of an upright primate from the shoulders to the hip, or the dorsal surface of tetrapods.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Carbachol: A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Weight Lifting: A sport in which weights are lifted competitively or as an exercise.Muscle Hypotonia: A diminution of the skeletal muscle tone marked by a diminished resistance to passive stretching.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Note: Important methodological innovation) 10. Lepran I, Nemecz G, Koltai M, Szekeres L. Effect of a linoleic acid-rich diet on ... 54/2, 936 pp, Szekeres L., Papp J.Gy.: "Pharmacology of Smooth Muscle". Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, Springer Verlag ... Note: Important methodological innovation) 9. Lepran I, Koltai M, Siegmund W, Szekeres L. Coronary artery ligation, early ... Note: Important methodological innovation) 12. Csete K, Kovacs GL, Szekeres L. Disturbance of motoric function as behavioral ...
Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia
Weakness of extraocular muscle groups including, the orbicularis oculi muscle as well as facial and limb muscles may be present ... It is important to have a dilated eye exam to determine if there is pigmentary retinopathy that may signify Kearns-Sayre ... Facial muscles may be involved which lead to atrophy of facial muscle groups producing a thin, expressionless face with some ... However, extraocular muscles contain a volume of mitochondria that is several times greater than any other muscle group. As ...
Food variety is important when establishing meal plans as well as foods that are higher in energy density. People must consume ... Having severe muscle tension + aches and pains. Evidence/habits of self harming or self-loathing. Admiration of thinner people ... A further important event was the death of the popular singer and drummer Karen Carpenter in 1983, which prompted widespread ... Interoception has an important role in homeostasis and regulation of emotions and motivation. Anorexia has been associated with ...
The ventral hip muscles function as lateral rotators and play an important role in the control of the body's balance. Because ... The leg muscles acting on the foot are called the extrinsic foot muscles whilst the foot muscles located in the foot are called ... Muscle inflammation, strain, tenderness, swelling and muscle tear from muscle overuse or incorrect movement are several ... and so functionally qualify as hip muscles. The majority of the thigh muscles, the "true" thigh muscles, insert on the leg ( ...
AMPK is an important energy-sensing enzyme that monitors cellular energy status. In response to cellular metabolic stresses, ... It is dominantly expressed in skeletal muscle. Studies of the pig counterpart suggest that this subunit may play a key role in ... Lindgren K, Ormestad M, Persson M, Martinsson S, Svensson LT, Mahlapuu M (2007). "Regulation of the muscle-specific AMP- ... AMP-activated protein kinase activity and subunit expression in exercise-trained human skeletal muscle". J. Appl. Physiol. 94 ( ...
Health issues in athletics
Proper warm-up also increases muscle temperature. Warm muscles are less susceptible to injuries because they can contract more ... Mental preparation is also important before practice or games. Clearing the mind and visualizing skills and strategy can relax ... Warm-ups also increase body and blood temperature, which allows more oxygen to reach the muscles, improves muscle elasticity, ... An overuse injury is traumatic damage to a bone, muscle, or tendon that is subjected to repetitive stress without time to heal ...
... compression during contraction of adjacent skeletal muscle, and arterial pulsation. During ejaculation, the smooth muscle in ... The pump isolates the fluid from the machinery, which is important if the fluid is abrasive or must remain sterile. Robots have ... Smooth muscles contract behind the bolus to prevent it from being squeezed back into the mouth. Then rhythmic, unidirectional ... In much of a digestive tract such as the human gastrointestinal tract, smooth muscle tissue contracts in sequence to produce a ...
The resulting muscle relaxation allows heat dissipation. There is little risk to dantrolene administration. Since dantrolene ... DNP is considered an important environmental contaminant by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. It has been ... This leads to free intracellular calcium and causes muscle contraction and hyperthermia. Dantrolene inhibits calcium release ...
... plays an important role in the signaling of insulin release and pancreatic function, and may affect the ... Progesterone reduces spasm and relaxes smooth muscle. Bronchi are widened and mucus regulated. (PRs are widely present in ... Progesterone plays an important role in breast development in women. In conjunction with prolactin, it mediates lobuloalveolar ... Progesterone is the most important progestogen in the body, the result of its action as a potent agonist of the nuclear ...
Bassols AM, Carreras J, Cussó R (December 1986). "Changes in glucose 1,6-bisphosphate content in rat skeletal muscle during ... 7. dephosphorylation yields glucose-6-phosphate, which is an important precursor molecule in glycolysis and the pentose ... Lee AD, Katz A (March 1989). "Transient increase in glucose 1,6-bisphosphate in human skeletal muscle during isometric ... The reactant glucose 1-phosphate is an important precursor molecule in many different pathways, including glycolysis, ...
"How Important Are Leg Workouts for Muscle Gain?". ... Because the major muscles of the thigh are the largest muscles ... Front of thigh muscles from Gray's Anatomy of the human body from 1918. Back thigh muscles of the gluteal and posterior femoral ... Posterior compartment muscles of the thigh are the hamstring muscles, which include semimembranosus, semitendinosus, and biceps ... extension Anterior compartment muscles of the thigh include pectineus, sartorius, and the four muscles that comprise the ...
Histology of the vocal folds
The body is composed of the thyroarytenoid muscle. This layered structure of tissues is very important for vibration of the ... In muscles, they cause a hypertrophy of striated muscles with a reduction in the fat cells in skeletal muscles, and a reduction ... the thyroarytenoid muscle. This muscle is variously described as being divided into the thyroarytenoid and vocalis muscles or ... The vocalis muscle atrophies in both men and women. However, the majority of elderly patients with voice disorders have disease ...
medially by the lateral border of the adductor longus muscle. laterally by the medial border of the sartorius muscle. Its floor ... The femoral triangle is important as a number of vital structures pass through it, right under the skin. The following ... is formed by the pectineus and adductor longus muscles medially and iliopsoas muscle laterally. Its roof is formed by the ...
One important note is the differential effects of increased cAMP in smooth muscle compared to cardiac muscle. Increased cAMP ... Anabolism in skeletal muscle. Relax non-pregnant uterus Relax detrusor urinae muscle of bladder wall Dilate arteries to ... Smooth muscle behavior is variable depending on anatomical location. Smooth muscle contraction/relaxation is generalized below ... Other areas of smooth muscle contraction are: ureter vas deferens hair (arrector pili muscles) uterus (when pregnant) urethral ...
... is an important foodstuff for many forms of life, and fats serve both structural and metabolic functions. They are a ... In particular, heart and skeletal muscle prefer fatty acids. Despite long-standing assertions to the contrary, fatty acids can ... an important dietary requirement. They provide energy as noted above. Vitamins A, D, E, and K are fat-soluble, meaning they can ... and includes fat that is located in the abdominal area beneath the skin but above the abdominal muscle wall). Visceral fat was ...
Small humanin-like peptide
Containing no skeletal muscle, this bacon is a delicacy. At one time fatback was Italy's basic cooking fat, especially in ... Fatback is an important element of traditional charcuterie. In several European cultures it is used to make specialty bacon. ... Fatback is an important ingredient in notable traditional sausages including nduja, cudighi, and cotechino Modena. In French ... Finely diced or coarsely ground fatback is an important ingredient in sausage making and in some meat dishes. ...
RyRs are especially important in neurons and muscle cells. In heart and pancreas cells, another second messenger (cyclic ADP- ... an essential step in muscle contraction. In skeletal muscle, activation of ryanodine receptors occurs via a physical coupling ... There are multiple isoforms of ryanodine receptors: RyR1 is primarily expressed in skeletal muscle RyR2 is primarily expressed ... cardiomyocytes and smooth muscles). A variety of other molecules may interact with and regulate ryanodine receptor. For example ...
... are fats stored in droplets in muscle cells. They provide an important energy source for working muscle ... incoming fatty acids are instead stored in the muscle cell as triglycerides for later burning. However, an increase in muscle ... During exercise, a large amount of circulating free fatty acids are directed into muscle cells for energy; during rest, ... "Intramyocellular lipid content is increased after exercise in nonexercising human skeletal muscle". Journal of Applied ...
Patellar subluxation syndrome
The vastus medialis oblique muscle is described to have an important role in functional stabilization of the patella against ... Patients with an important supra-trochlear spur as in type B and D trochlear dysplasia and chronic instability are more ... Mascal CL, Landel R, Powers C (2003). "Management of patellofemoral pain targeting hip, pelvis, and trunk muscle function: 2 ... Physical therapy especially focuses on muscle strengthening and proprioceptive exercises. ...
... (pulled back muscle) is the injury occurring to muscles or tendons. Due to back strain, the tendons and muscles ... To avoid back strain it is important to bend the knees whenever you lift a heavy object - see partial squats. The pain over the ... It occurs suddenly and may be accompanied by muscle spasms. The pain is dull, aching type and decreases on rest. It may be ... Chronic back strain occurs because of the sustained trauma and wearing out of the back muscles Acute back strain can occur ...
... is important in the contraction of striated muscle tissues. It connects the Z line to the M line in the sarcomere. The ... Natori R (1954). "Skinned Fibres of Skeletal Muscle and the Mechanism of Muscle Contraction－A Chronological Account of the ... It limits the range of motion of the sarcomere in tension, thus contributing to the passive stiffness of muscle. Variations in ... Titin is the third most abundant protein in muscle (after myosin and actin), and an adult human contains approximately 0.5 kg ...
There is a smooth muscle layer below the epithelium arranged as two ribbons of muscle that spiral in opposite directions. This ... Mucus plays an important role in keeping the airways clear in the mucociliary clearance process. As branching continues through ... Hyaline cartilage is present in the bronchi, surrounding the smooth muscle layer. In the main bronchi, hyaline cartilage forms ... As the cartilage decreases, the amount of smooth muscle increases. The mucous membrane also undergoes a transition from ...
Type 2 diabetes
Lifestyle factors are important to the development of type 2 diabetes, including obesity and being overweight (defined by a ... occurs primarily within the muscles, liver, and fat tissue. In the liver, insulin normally suppresses glucose release. ... Other potentially important mechanisms associated with type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance include: increased breakdown of ... The type of fats in the diet are important, with saturated fats and trans fatty acids increasing the risk, and polyunsaturated ...
One important rehabilitation tool for muscle atrophy includes the use of functional electrical stimulation to stimulate the ... Muscle atrophy is defined as a decrease in the mass of the muscle; it can be a partial or complete wasting away of muscle, and ... Moreover, starvation eventually leads to muscle atrophy. Disuse of the muscles, such as when muscle tissue is immobilized for ... Muscle atrophy can be opposed by the signaling pathways which induce muscle hypertrophy, or an increase in muscle size. ...
Positron emission tomography
One of the main advantages of using PET is that it can also provide muscle activation data about deeper lying muscles such as ... PET is also an important research tool to map normal human brain and heart function, and support drug development. ... Musculoskeletal imaging: PET has been shown to be a feasible technique for studying skeletal muscles during exercises like ... This is due to the time it takes for FDG to accumulate in the activated muscles. ...
Now, they are economically important for human beings, as they are a major tourist attraction, as well as providing animal ... Kohn, T. A.; Curry, J. W.; Noakes, T. D. (9 November 2011). "Black wildebeest skeletal muscle exhibits high oxidative capacity ... an important part of South African cuisine. The meat of females is more tender than that of males, and is at its best during ... The presence of fast-twitch fibres and the ability of the muscles to use large amounts of oxygen help explain the rapid running ...
Preclinical data support the notion that Substance P is an important element in pain perception. The sensory function of ... muscle, and joints. It is proposed that this release is involved in neurogenic inflammation, which is a local inflammatory ... muscle, and joints. It is proposed that this release is involved in neurogenic inflammation, which is a local inflammatory ...
The ingress of water is achieved by contraction of radial muscles in the mantle wall, and flapper valves shut when strong ... The haemocytes play an important role in the recognition and elimination of foreign bodies and wound repair. Captive animals ... Once the shell is penetrated, the prey dies almost instantaneously, its muscles relax, and the soft tissues are easy for the ... It contains tetrodotoxin, which causes paralysis by blocking the transmission of nerve impulses to the muscles. This causes ...
Andreas Vesalius was the author of De humani corporis fabrica, an important book on human anatomy. Bacteria and ... Sports medicine deals with the treatment and prevention and rehabilitation of sports/exercise injuries such as muscle spasms, ... In the United Kingdom, Alexander Fleming, Joseph Lister, Francis Crick and Florence Nightingale are considered important. ... During the encounter, properly informing the patient of all relevant facts is an important part of the relationship and the ...
Adequate footwear is important to prevent trauma. General good health and nutrition also reduce ulcer risk. Adequate and prompt ... Ulcers occur on exposed parts of the body, primarily on anterolateral aspect of the lower limbs and may erode muscles and ... cleansing and treatment of ankle and leg skin breaks is also important. Improving hygiene and nutrition may ...
... (and PAX2) is one of the important regulators of urogenital system morphogenesis. They play a role in the specification of ... negative regulation of cardiac muscle cell apoptotic process. • ventricular septum development. Sources:Amigo / QuickGO. ... The PAX gene family has an important role in the formation of tissues and organs during embryonic development and maintaining ... PAX8 releases the hormones important for regulating growth, brain development, and metabolism. Also functions in very early ...
Most of these go to muscles and are therefore called motor impulses; some are secretory and enter glands; a portion are ... Suter E, Vanderheyden LC, Trojan LS, Verhoef MJ, Armitage GD (February 2007). "How important is research-based practice to ... electrical muscle stimulation, therapeutic ultrasound, and moist heat. Some mixers also use techniques from alternative ... "muscle testing" as a diagnostic tool), and cranial. Chiropractic biophysics technique uses inverse functions of rotations ...
It is important to identify whether or not the thyroglossal cyst contains any thyroid tissue, as it can define the degree of ... removal of one-eighth inch diameter core of tongue muscle superior to the hyoid at a 45 degree angle up to the foramen cecum to ... Thyroid scans and thyroid function studies are ordered preoperatively; this is important to demonstrate that normally ...
... an important component of which are design controls (21 CFR 820.30). To meet the demands of these industry regulation standards ... of the artificial cardiac pacemaker were external support devices that transmits pulses of electricity to the heart muscles via ... are subject to the least regulatory control and are not intended to help support or sustain life or be substantially important ...
The most important of these compounds is sodium cyclopentadienide, NaC5H5, an important precursor to many transition metal ... The ability of cells to produce electrical discharge is critical for body functions such as neurotransmission, muscle ... Potassium compounds are often used as fertilisers:73 as potassium is an important element for plant nutrition. ... Commercially, the most important lithium mineral is spodumene, which occurs in large deposits worldwide.:69 ...
... decreased muscle mass and strength, feminine changes in fat mass and distribution, and reduced penile length and testicular ... and because DHT is important as an endogenous androgen only in select tissues, 5α-reductase inhibitors have minimal side ... increased muscle mass and strength, and broadening of the shoulders, among others. Androgen-dependent skin and hair ... may be why they have greater efficacy than steroidal AR antagonists in the treatment of prostate cancer and is an important ...
Occupational health psychology
Important theoretical models in OHP research. Three influential theoretical models in OHP research are the demand-control ... Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) involve injury and pain to the joints and muscles of the body. Approximately 2.5 million ... An important influence on the incidence of accidents is the organization's safety climate that is employees' shared beliefs ... 3.1 Important theoretical models in OHP research *3.1.1 Demand-control-support model ...
Other important adaptations can include powered doors, lowered fixtures such as sinks and water fountains, and accessible ... people with some muscle diseases, and people with limited range of motion in the hip or knee joints. Tilting options are ... Important adaptations include external access, providing sufficient space for a wheelchair user to move around the home, ... reduction in abnormal muscle tone and spasticity, and skeletal deformities. Other wheelchairs provide some of the same benefits ...
"Whale poo important for ocean ecosystems". Australian Geographic. 26 May 2014. Retrieved 18 November 2014.. ... Norena, S. R.; Williams, T. M. (2000). "Body size and skeletal muscle myoglobin of cetaceans: adaptations for maximizing dive ... The Nords and various arctic tribes revered the whale as they were important pieces of their lives. In Inuit creation myths, ... Commercial whaling was historically important as an industry well throughout the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries. Whaling was at ...
... since many of these muscles have attachment points in conjunction with their forelimbs (indeed, many of the muscles expand into ... reptiles were still important components of the megafauna, particularly in the form of large and giant tortoises. ... Some turtles, such as the Indian flapshell (Lissemys punctata), have a sheet of muscle that envelops the lungs. When it ... By using a series of special muscles (roughly equivalent to a diaphragm), turtles are capable of pushing their viscera up and ...
"Why is Proper Nutrition Important?". Retrieved 26 July 2010.. *^ Trapp, Caroline B.; Barnard, Neal D. (2010-04-01). "Usefulness ... Some people follow a diet to gain weight (usually in the form of muscle). Diets can also be used to maintain a stable body ... It is important to know the amount of energy your body is using every day, so that your intake fits the needs of one's personal ... These diets are not recommended for general use as they are associated with adverse side effects such as loss of lean muscle ...
it is important to be clear about exactly what experience one wants one's subjects to introspect. Of course, explaining to ... "cannot be captured in a description of neural activity or of muscle activation...." The bearing of timing experiments upon ... Randomness is too important to trust to chance. Presented at the 2007 Summer Institute in Informed Patient Choice, Dartmouth ... The specificity of the amount of choice is important, as too little or too great a degree of choice may negatively influence ...
The sfRNAs are a result of incomplete degradation of the viral genome by the exonuclease and are important for viral ... muscle pains particularly in the back, and headaches. Symptoms typically improve within five days. In about 15% of people ... muscle pain, nausea, and vomiting. In these cases, the infection lasts only three to four days. ... early diagnosis of cases and immunization of large parts of the population are important to prevent outbreaks. Once infected ...
Hypercholesterolemia - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Statins can cause damage to muscle cells. This can cause weakness and muscle pain. The worse problem though is that when muscle ... Cholesterol does many important jobs in a cell. Cholesterols main function is as a structural component of cell membranes. It ... The kidney removes the muscle protein from the blood. If the kidney takes up too much protein, it can be hurt. If it is bad ... A heart attack is also called a myocardial infarction. Myocardial means relating to the heart muscle. Infarction means death of ...
... an important point for therapists in any field, and also especially important when working with the bereaved. In 2008, Kathryn ... For at least 40,000 years, the healing tool was believed to assist in healing "broken bones, muscle tears and illnesses of ... An important element that was also mentioned was that songwriting has shown to be a large cultural artifact in many cultures, ... Lastly, it was found that music was important to clients as a way to give tribute to the deceased. On top of these areas of ...
The Very Important Transversus Abdominus Muscle - Incontinence
... plays a very important role in pelvic floor (PF) rehabilitation and function, but most explanations for controlling continence ... www.healthcentral.com/article/the-very-important-transversus-abdominus-muscle. Incontinence. The Very Important Transversus ... The transversus abdominus muscle (TA) plays a very important role in pelvic floor (PF) rehabilitation and function, but most ... It has been shown that the lower fibers of our TA muscle that lay within our pelvic inlet work closely with our PF muscles, ...
Why Is Calcium Important to Muscle Function? | LIVESTRONG.COM
Calcium is so important to muscular function that if blood calcium runs low, your body will take the calcium from your bones ... Why Is Calcium Important to Muscle Function? by LAURA NIEDZIOCHA Oct. 03, 2017. ... Your muscles contract through a process known as the sliding filament theory. In this process, myofilaments inside your muscle ... Muscles are made of individual fibers that contain myofibrils and the filaments needed for contraction. Each muscle fiber is ...
The Most Important Sprinting Muscles | Livestrong.com
How you train your muscles (and even the muscles you didnt know you had) is the key to success. ... The main muscles used in sprinting are the legs, glutes and hips. ... These muscles raise the leg and propel the runner forward. Muscles throughout your body work in coordinating pairs. One muscle ... The Most Important Sprinting Muscles Rachel Moran Reviewed By: Aubrey Bailey on July 3, 2019 ...
Stiff Muscles: Why is Flexibility so Important? - InfoBarrel
In gymnastics, flexibility plays as much a part in training, as developing muscle strength, coordination and learning new ... Stiff Muscles: Why is Flexibility so Important?. By Ask_Lou Jul 10, 2013 ... The added weight will lead to development of stronger muscle fibers in the back muscles on that side of the body. There will be ... tighter cross-links between the muscle fibers to provide extra strength to the muscle, and this in turn makes the muscle become ...
How-To: Train the Most Important Core Muscles for Cycling | Bicycling
Heres how to make those important trunk muscles strong. ... How-To: Train the Most Important Core Muscles for Cycling * The ... How-To: Train the Most Important Core Muscles for Cycling. Your whole body needs to be strong for a strong cycling performance ... Why It Works: A comprehensive movement that connects key cycling muscles, the kick also builds inner-thigh muscles, which help ... Youll notice that it skips the rectus abdominus, or six-pack muscle, because, says Street, "its the least-functional muscle ...
how important are the lower back muscles? - ExRx.net
Those are very important mass builder exercises. If you dont do those you might as well stay at home and let the muscles in ... how important are the lower back muscles?. Ask or answer questions, discuss and express your views. ... your lower back muscles should be worked the same amount as your abs. you want to maintain a balance between the front and back ... Feel free to do the standard geek workout of bench presses, bicep curls and ab work, and let two thirds of your muscles sit ...
IJMS | Free Full-Text | Interactome Mapping Reveals Important Pathways in Skeletal Muscle Development of Pigs
Presentation of gene interactions is a potential way to understand the mechanisms of developmental events in skeletal muscle. ... brought a possibility to introduce the myogenesis related miRNAs into the interactome regulatory networks of skeletal muscle in ... annotation and interactome network mapping was conducted to analyze the biological patterns and interaction modules of muscle ... The regulatory relationship and connectivity among genes involved in myogenesis and hypertrophy of skeletal muscle in pigs ...
What muscles are important for canoeing? | Watersports - Sharecare
... muscles used to turn the torso), lats (latissimus dorsi), and triceps which are all used for ... Important muscles to train for canoeing are the obliques ( ... Important muscles to train for canoeing are the obliques ( ... because the body works as a unit and not as individual muscles in isolation. These muscles should be trained to increase their ... Conditioning is important because these sports cause the body to expend a vast amount of energy. Watersports help burn calories ...
Why Building Muscle Is Important for All Sportsmen and Women
Whether you are going for strength, speed, size or agility you will need to gain muscle ... Every aspect of physical fitness relies on building muscle. ... Muscle & Fitness. / Why Building Muscle Is Important for All ... The muscle fiber itself does not increase, but the extra volume of fluid increases the muscle size. The muscles pump up and ... Building muscle is important for sportsmen and women of all kinds, but each athlete needs to look at their chosen sport and ...
What muscles are most important for water polo? | Watersports - Sharecare
Conditioning is important because these sports cause the body to expend a vast amount of energy. Watersports help burn calories ... However, water polo is a total-body sport, so you need to work all the major muscles groups to achieve the best performance ... Important: This content reflects information from various individuals and organizations and may offer alternative or opposing ...
Insulin Sensitivity, Important But Overlooked Usually | Think Muscle
Man, each muscle 5x a week? Dont you lose strength doing that? If not, thats very cool!. Yes, if you want to find out, here ... So we cant expect 20lbs of muscle in 10 days like a webpage I read? I just have to send them 19.99 and Im sure to gain that ... The only muscle group that has multiple lifts hitting it in one session is back. Im probably working with loads mostly around ... Insulin Sensitivity, Important But Overlooked Usually. Discussion in Hypertrophy Research started by NWlifter, Jul 4, 2016. ...
Syndecan-4 is important for normal skeletal muscle fibre development| Nofima
4 Reasons Bodybuilding Is Important for Weightlifting | Breaking Muscle
The stronger the muscles around the joints are, the stronger the tendons and ligaments. Because you can isolate muscle groups, ... Muscle Up Strength. Fluid Flexibility. Flexibility 101. Olympic Weightlifting. Rowing for Weight Loss. TriStrong - Triathlon ... For instance, the back is an important link in the chain for weightlifters. If an athlete has a tendency to round when coming ... If the individual muscle fibers are larger, Siff explains that you are theoretically able to maximize contractions of the ...
Losing Bodyfat or Gaining Muscle Mass: Which is More Important? - AnabolicMinds.com
... gaining muscle is more important than losing fat. Muscle is important metabolically, in a much more significant way. Muscle ... Muscle tissue is the bodys most important end user of blood sugar, and of insulin too. Muscle burns most of the calories you ... the more important your muscle mass becomes to you, whether you know it or not. If you get sick or hurt, your muscle mass is ... So the question we started with - Which is more important, the loss of body fat or the increase in muscle mass? - is easy to ...
Why Protein is Important for Muscle Building? - Erin Radio Homepage
Amino acids are responsible for muscle growth, repair, and maintaining muscle tissues. Hence, body development and muscle ... The muscles are made of two types of proteins called filaments, namely actin and myosin. To build more muscles, you have to ... Too little wont help you build muscles. Though you can still regenerate new muscles, however, itll be in slower progress. ... It is the complete opposite of anabolic state, instead of building muscles, it breaks down the muscles for energy. ...
How do our muscles work? Scientists reveal important new insights into muscle protein
... by University of Vienna ... How do our muscles work? Scientists reveal important new insights into muscle protein. ... Citation: How do our muscles work? Scientists reveal important new insights into muscle protein (2014, November 26) retrieved ... Important Role in Heart and Muscle Disorders. α-Actinin is clearly an essential protein - embryos of organisms that cannot ...
Timing of postexercise protein intake is important for muscle hypertrophy with resistance training in elderly humans
Age-associated loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength can partly be counteracted by resistance training, causing a net ... Muscle hypertrophy was evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and from muscle biopsies and muscle strength was ... Timing of postexercise protein intake is important for muscle hypertrophy with resistance training in elderly humans J Physiol ... of an oral protein supplement after resistance training is important for the development of hypertrophy in skeletal muscle of ...
Eating For Muscle, Strength and Power: Nutrition Guideline Offers Important Tips!
... and how to supplement to maximize muscle mass... Heres a great guideline for finishing strong! ... To Building New Muscle.. Dont forget. Your workout breaks down a lot of muscle tissue, and your body repairs the majority of ... your nutrition is the most important component, next to your training, not only for gaining quality muscle but also achieving ... Protein repairs muscle and so does Glutamine.. What Do I Eat? Protein Most athletes know or should know the importance of ...
Mechanics More Important Than Metabolic Power in Sprinting | Breaking Muscle UK
While efficiency and metabolic power may be the most important things in endurance, science shows running mechanics are the ... Mechanics More Important Than Metabolic Power in Sprinting. Joshua Wortman. Contributor - Health and Fitness News ... The study demonstrated that energy conservation is not an important factor for performance in events lasting sixty seconds or ... "Saving energy is critically important for endurance, but not for sprinting, which our findings indicate is not energy-limited ...
This Important Psoas Muscle that Can Throw Off Your Body Mechanics
Theres a muscle in your body thats important for keeping your spine stable and many people have one thats too weak or too ... This Important Psoas Muscle that Can Throw Off Your Body Mechanics. This Important Psoas Muscle that Can Throw Off Your Body ... Why the Psoas Muscle is So Important. What makes the psoas major muscle so unique is its a multi-joint muscle and one of only ... One group of muscles you dont hear enough about are the hip flexors. In this muscle group is the psoas muscle, a muscle that ...
What Muscle Is Most Important for Sprinters? | Healthy Living
When you sprint, the muscles throughout your legs handle the activity occurring at your hip, knee and ankle joints. Sprinters ... Sprinting requires coordinated efforts from all of the major muscles in your lower body. Its a compound movement, meaning ... Sprinters will often consider their gluteus maximus muscle, which is one of the strongest muscles in the body and responsible ... Not to be overlooked are the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles of the calves. These two muscles are responsible for plantar ...
The Truth About Building Muscle: Important Information - Herculesgyminfo
HomeMuscle BuildingThe Truth About Building Muscle: Important Information. The Truth About Building Muscle: Important ... Getting stronger is the primary step to building muscles. You will only be able to build more muscle if you are strong enough. ... To build muscles effectively, always ensure that you use free weights. Making use of barbells is considered a good way of ... If you are building muscle for the first time, it is advisable to stick to the exercises that help you work on quite a few ...
A PLEA FOR HELP with an important issue! | Professional Muscle - Bodybuilding Forum
Diesel Crew - Muscle Building, Athletic Development, Strength Training, Grip Strength » DieselCrew.com » Cool Video -...
12 Responses to "Cool Video - Important Lessons". * zach even - esh. Says: November 3rd, 2009 at 1:02 am awesome vid smitty, ... MUSCLE BUILDING / GAIN MUSCLE MASS / HOW TO BUILD MUSCLE:. Accelerated Muscular Development , How to Build Muscle , How to ... How to Build Muscle , Muscle Building Workouts , How to Lose Fat , Six Pack Abs , Build Muscle, Muscle Gaining Workouts , Build ... Muscle Building Nutrition - Build Muscle Mass , Sled Dragging Workouts Strength Training - Muscle Building Workouts , Strength ...
Why magnesium is so important for your muscles - Anytime Fitness
Muscle cramps are an uncontrollable and often painful spasm of a muscle. Any muscle can be affected, but muscles in the lower ... inflexible muscles or muscle fatigue from overuse.. Luckily, there are some easy ways to avoid muscle cramps and aches. Here ... Therefore, its important that you obtain adequate levels of nutrients to support healthy muscle function. ... Why magnesium is so important for your muscles. This article is brought to you by Bioglan. ...
When It Comes to Facial Paralysis, Which Muscles Are Most Important?
This muscle is located on the lower lip. Depressor Labii Inferior: Plays an essential part in drawing down the lower lip muscle ... Zygomaticus Minor: Like the zygomaticus major muscle, the zygomaticus minor muscle performs in conjunction with the risorius ... a muscle located in the neck and chest). Zygomaticus Major: Works in combination with the risorius muscle to help lift the ... Ever wonder how many muscles it takes to make a smile? Ultimately, several muscles are necessary to create a smile, and these ...
Comment on THE 5 MOST IMPORTANT TRAINING VARIABLES FOR MUSCLE GROWTH
THE 5 MOST IMPORTANT TRAINING VARIABLES FOR MUSCLE GROWTH. Posted by Alain Gonzalez on January 31, 2018. in Build Muscle , ... It is important to push yourself hard so that you recruit all your muscle fibers. But going to failure too often will cause ... Posted in Build Muscle Related Posts. EAT THESE 5 FOODS TO PACK ON MUSCLE FAST→. BUILD A MASSIVE UPPER BODY WITH THIS ... Browse: Home / 2018 / January / THE 5 MOST IMPORTANT TRAINING VARIABLES FOR MUSCLE GROWTH ...
Muscle-specific RING finger-2 (MURF-2) is important for microtubule, intermediate filament and sarcomeric M-line maintenance in...
Muscle-specific RING finger-2 (MURF-2) is important for microtubule, intermediate filament and sarcomeric M-line maintenance in ... Muscle-specific RING finger-2 (MURF-2) is important for microtubule, intermediate filament and sarcomeric M-line maintenance in ... Muscle-specific RING finger-2 (MURF-2) is important for microtubule, intermediate filament and sarcomeric M-line maintenance in ... Muscle-specific RING finger-2 (MURF-2) is important for microtubule, intermediate filament and sarcomeric M-line maintenance in ...
Are Acute Increases in Anabolic Hormones During Resistance Exercise Important for Muscle Hypertrophy? Submitted by Admin on Sun...
Are Acute Increases in Anabolic Hormones During Resistance Exercise Important for Muscle Hypertrophy? Submitted by Admin on Sun ... It seems that direct muscle tension and muscle fiber damage leads to increases in muscle hypertrophy. Resistance training leads ... muscle DNA content, increased muscle protein synthesis, increased muscle mass, and strength. Other recent research has ... The acute increases in anabolic hormones are temporary and may not be as important for muscle growth as the direct stress ...
Scientists Discover Important Mechanism for Muscle Building
Many of these sarcomeres are connected in a well-ordered series to form myofibrils that span from one muscle end to the other. ... Contractions of these sarcomeres result in contraction of the entire muscle. Scientists at the Max Planck Institute (MPI) of ... Skeletal muscles are built from small contractile units, the sarcomeres. ... For efficient muscle and skeletal movements it is essential that the muscle contracts only along a defined axis, for instance ...
ContractionCrampsFibersNerveTissueMagnesiumNervesCardiacSymptomsBodyBlackstrap molassesRelaxOxygenSkeletal musclesProteinsInflexible musclesFlexorsDelayed onset muWorkoutWorkoutsGluteus maximusPostural muscleExercisesPelvicBody'sGastrocnemius and soleusStrengthenPostureTendons and ligamentsExerciseStrongerMetabolismFiberAminoAbdominal musclesMassConnectiveCritically importantBoneGlutesRecoverResistanceCore MusclesJointsThighGrowthHamstringsButtock musclesIliopsoas musclesPelvisBuildMyofibrilsLigamentsStretchesSmooth musclesStiffStrainTensionIncreasesAnatomyWorkBack musclesStrong musclesOptimalPsoasAdequateSupplement
- A muscle cramp is defined as the sudden, involuntary contraction of one or more of the muscles. (earthclinic.com)
- This contraction typically renders the muscle useless and can be quite painful. (earthclinic.com)
- When the contraction/relaxation cycles are done repeatedly, as in exercising, the fibers become stronger and the muscles get larger and stronger. (clinicadehombro.com.mx)
- If it's a quick contraction and release of muscle, without pain, it's a spasm. (clinicadehombro.com.mx)
- Treating muscle cramps requires a multi-tiered approach that includes lifestyle changes, dietary changes and nutritional supplements. (earthclinic.com)
- Additionally, specific supplements deliver important nutrients to the body and prevent cramps. (earthclinic.com)
- Several factors contribute to muscle cramps. (earthclinic.com)
- Overuse, dehydration, muscle strain and inactivity are several of the primary causes of cramps. (earthclinic.com)
- With a variety of causes, muscle cramps also have a variety of treatments. (earthclinic.com)
- Additionally, supplements including potassium, magnesium and sodium are also important for regulating cramps. (earthclinic.com)
- Sodium is actually the electrolyte of most concern when it comes to muscle cramps. (earthclinic.com)
- Muscle cramps range in intensity and can elevate to a medical emergency fairly quickly. (earthclinic.com)
- A tablespoon of blackstrap molasses is full of important nutrients and a great natural treatment for muscles cramps. (earthclinic.com)
- If you are prone to waking up at night with a muscle cramp, taking a tablespoon of blackstrap molasses before bed will help to prevent those cramps. (earthclinic.com)
- Apple cider vinegar can be taken in a glass of water (1 tablespoon per glass of water) for muscle cramps. (earthclinic.com)
- Muscle cramps can come upon you quickly when you are dehydrated. (earthclinic.com)
- Do you have a natural remedy for muscle cramps? (earthclinic.com)
- Welcome to Elite Sports Injury's patient resource about Muscle Cramps. (clinicadehombro.com.mx)
- When it comes to muscle cramps, the most commonly affected muscles are the muscles of your upper arms, the muscles behind your thighs, and the muscles in the front of your thighs. (clinicadehombro.com.mx)
- Occasionally, cramps are so intense that you can't use your muscle because it's so tight and painful. (clinicadehombro.com.mx)
- Cramps can happen in one muscle, like the hamstring, or they can happen in a number of muscles together, like in your hands if you have writer's cramp. (clinicadehombro.com.mx)
- There are several reasons why muscle cramps may occur, including the most common one that is seen in both professional and weekend athletes. (clinicadehombro.com.mx)
- They don't stretch regularly, and have a family history of muscle cramps. (clinicadehombro.com.mx)
- Cramps can also happen if you use the same muscles in the same way for too long a period. (clinicadehombro.com.mx)
- the bigger, more frequently used muscles have more fibers than the smaller, lesser used ones. (clinicadehombro.com.mx)
- However, sometimes the muscles, or just a few fibers within the muscle, contract on their own, causing a muscle spasm or cramp. (clinicadehombro.com.mx)
- When researchers tested the cramping muscles of some athletes, they found rapid repetitive muscle firing, which could be described as the muscle fibers being hyperactive, in a sense. (clinicadehombro.com.mx)
- There are at least 650 skeletal muscles in the human body, and some sources put that number at more than 700. (cathe.com)
- Munich, Germany - Skeletal muscles are built from small contractile units, the sarcomeres. (mindzilla.com)
- In order to move the body, skeletal muscles are pulling on the skeleton. (mindzilla.com)
- Interestingly, skeletal muscles are not just muscles but organs as well. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The cardiac muscle has the most abundant blood supply of any mus- cle in the body, receiving twice the blood flow of the highly vascular skeletal muscles and far more than the smooth muscles. (tpub.com)
- Muscle mass includes smooth muscles, skeletal muscles and water contained in the muscles. (tanita.eu)
- Where the skeletal muscles are the most visible when there is no fat layer. (tanita.eu)
- Further, its tissue is unstriated, meaning it does not have the stripy appearance of cardiac and skeletal muscles. (runnersblueprint.com)
- Last but not least, you also have skeletal muscles (the topic of today's post). (runnersblueprint.com)
- The human body contains more than 640 skeletal muscles, accounting for about one-third of the human body mass. (runnersblueprint.com)
- Skeletal muscles have the primary function of moving of our bones and other structures. (runnersblueprint.com)
- Skeletal muscles can be made to contract or relax through conscious control using nervous impulses from the brains sending messages to the muscles. (runnersblueprint.com)
- I'm sure it's no coincidence, but for 24 hours after a workout (about the same time course as hypertrophy) insulin sensitivity is much better in the muscles, they pull in way more glucose and proteins. (thinkmuscle.com)
- It modulates immune function by providing an active repository for immune system cell component proteins - very important for a long illness, and it serves as a receptor site for sex hormones, thereby regulating some of their functions as well. (anabolicminds.com)
- The muscles are made of two types of proteins called filaments, namely actin and myosin. (erinradio.ca)
- Take note that the human body contains natural proteins that link amino acids to produce muscle tissues. (erinradio.ca)
- Knowing the detailed structure of α-actinin and muscle would not only better our understanding of the role of mutant proteins in disease, but would also aid accurate diagnosis and may ultimately assist designing new therapies. (phys.org)
- Proteins and fats are essential to building new muscle, so after the gym, my last meal of the day is some sort of meat, steamed vegetables or a salad with flaxseed oil or extra virgin olive oil. (bodybuilding.com)
- Taking whey proteins prior to your workout will ensure that your muscles will have a constant stream of protein throughout your exercise so it can begin to fix your harmed muscles prior to you leave the fitness center. (canariblogs.com)
- Insulin has other effects on muscle cells: it slows the breakdown of fat and increases the formation of proteins from amino acids. (musclechemistry.com)
- When you are getting your diet right for muscle building it is important you pay attention to the three nutrients, proteins, carbohydrates, and fat. (streetfighteralpha.com)
- When it comes to proteins, it is important that you get between 1 and 1.5 grams per pound of body weight. (streetfighteralpha.com)
- Therefore it is important to include lots of proteins in your new diet. (tanita.eu)
- myofibrillar hypertrophy occurs from myofibrils (long strands in skeletal muscle which contracts) splitting off and forming more contractile proteins within a muscle fiber. (fitnessvolt.com)
- It has amino acids, proteins, Vitamin D and choline, a good kind of fat that is needed to maintain and gain muscles. (lybrate.com)
- The supplements serve the purpose of supplying proteins and nutrients for effective workout and muscle gain. (hubpages.com)
- The tight, inflexible muscles can cause the persons posture to lean subtly over to one side, therby causing curvature of the spinal collumn. (infobarrel.com)
- Cramps can occur up to six hours after exercise and while the exact cause is unknown, risk factors include dehydration, poor blood circulation, tight, inflexible muscles or muscle fatigue from overuse. (anytimefitness.com.au)
- Having tight or inflexible muscles, or poor muscle tone. (blackmores.com.au)
- The hip flexors are a group of muscles that surround the hips and work with the glutes, quads and hamstrings. (livestrong.com)
- These muscles are often overlooked, but are crucial to sprinters, because nimble hip flexors allow your legs to move quickly and in concert with the rest of your body's speed of propulsion. (livestrong.com)
- Stretching the hip flexors, in particular - ExRx.net suggests trying the standing hip flexor stretch - is important to maintaining speed throughout your sprint without injury. (livestrong.com)
- It takes only about 10 minutes to complete and focuses on the transverse abdominus, the innermost abdominal muscle, which acts as a stabilizing girdle around your torso, and also on your lower back, obliques, glutes, hamstrings and hip flexors, so your entire core-and then some-becomes strong and works as a unit. (bicycling.com)
- One group of muscles you don't hear enough about are the hip flexors. (cathe.com)
- If you have tight iliopsoas muscles, work on lengthening the muscles with hip flexors stretches. (cathe.com)
- The main running muscles include the quadriceps, hamstrings, glutes, hip flexors and calf muscles. (runnersblueprint.com)
- When your glutes don't fire in these situations, you are often relying on other supporting muscles, such as the hip flexors, psoas, and quadratus lumborum in the lower back, to stand, she explains. (yogajournal.com)
- Flexors - - These are the muscles that allow you to bend forward, and they provide spinal support from in front of the spine. (weightlossforall.com)
Delayed onset mu1
- Feel free to do the standard geek workout of bench presses, bicep curls and ab work, and let two thirds of your muscles sit idle. (exrx.net)
- Also, during a workout, a contracting muscle pulls in glucose AND aminos independent of insulin, their receptors open and it just goes in. (thinkmuscle.com)
- Totally anecdotal, but I've been lifting 4-5 times a week hitting the same muscle groups every workout and found I'm making progress better than previously when I lifted 3 times a week. (thinkmuscle.com)
- Dedicate some time before and after your workout to stretch and get the blood flowing to your muscles. (anytimefitness.com.au)
- Pre-workout shakes prime your muscles for development with amino acids, which assist sustain your intense exercises. (canariblogs.com)
- This works well for burning calories, but may present a less than optimal muscle building workout - so it's better for toning laptop is for building carved. (aurateen.org)
- Next, after your workout, your diet is the most important thing. (streetfighteralpha.com)
- The deliverance of oxygen to your muscles is critical to an efficient and achievable workout. (livealittlelonger.com)
- But building muscle in a certain way is the trick and there is a workout program designed to build muscle the right way. (sooperarticles.com)
- This is the time when your muscles need to recover from the strain of your workout and the stresses of the day. (articlealley.com)
- Consume during the pre-workout meal so that the muscles become stocked and offer better performance. (hubpages.com)
- Apart from this, taking muscle growth supplements also helps in increasing the workout intensity. (vonfranco.com)
- Hydration, nutritious food, and post-workout meals are very important when trying to build muscle, get stronger, increase endurance, or any other physical improvement, and in this case, some patients have reported that the chlorella growth factor plays a very important role. (projectswole.com)
- Exercising and working out harden your muscles and shorten connective tissue, so post-workout it is a good idea to stretch them slowly and gently to assist recovery and prevent injury. (projectswole.com)
- Here Mark Garlick , AKA the trainer who helped Millie sculpt her new shape, shares the workout rules he made Millie swear by to build 3kg of muscle for the shoot. (womenshealthmag.com)
- But even though muscles aren't built in a day, that doesn't mean a solid workout can't give you instant definition. (flipboard.com)
- They're great as a high-protein snack between meals, however, they're not ideal for after a workout, as fats should be avoided to ensure protein is delivered to muscles rapidly. (myprotein.com)
- They're also low in fat, so ideal for after a workout for a fast delivery of protein to muscles. (myprotein.com)
- Complex carbohydrates supply sustained energy to working muscles, thus improving your endurance during those grueling workouts. (bodybuilding.com)
- For those who are new to exercise, you may well experience more muscle soreness from your workouts, and it may well last longer than for someone more used to regular exercise. (musclemayhem.com.au)
- You should try to target all your major muscle groups at least twice throughout your weekly workouts. (healthline.com)
- The main focus is that can muscles recover during workouts thus increasing your stamina and endurance so that you could get bigger muscles more speedily. (aurateen.org)
- Together with smaller supporting muscles, the gluteus maximus, medius, and minimus make it possible to rotate your thigh inward and outward, draw your leg back, and stabilize your femur in your hip socket. (yogajournal.com)
- They include both your spinal erectors and the muscles of your gluteus maximus. (weightlossforall.com)
- The transversus abdominus muscle (TA) plays a very important role in pelvic floor (PF) rehabilitation and function, but most explanations for controlling continence don't mention any exercises other than kegels. (healthcentral.com)
- Those are very important mass builder exercises. (exrx.net)
- If you are building muscle for the first time, it is advisable to stick to the exercises that help you work on quite a few muscles concurrently. (herculesgyminfo.com)
- Ever wondered why exactly activation exercises and drills are important and how they differ to static stretches? (220triathlon.com)
- Injuries to the muscle belly, for example, are best managed with light stretching, a protocol of strengthening exercises and pretty quick return to activities. (prochiromt.com)
- Muscle growth from resistance training exercises depends on several factors and can take weeks or months. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Along with foods that promote bone and muscle growth the right exercises can help you to increase. (articlealley.com)
- While planning a muscle building program, it is really important to include those exercises that give you optimal advantage through least muscle burn. (articlealley.com)
- Before you can get started with your exercises to get rid of lower back pain, you need to spend time stretching out those muscles. (weightlossforall.com)
- To lose fat and build muscle, something that Millie was keen to do, we focused on heavy movement using big compound exercises and rest. (womenshealthmag.com)
- Of course, if looking good at the beach is important to you, you must exercise your core, but there are many more benefits of regularly doing exercises for your midsection. (foodnhealth.org)
- Even though it's extremely important to have strong abdominal muscles to have a strong core, you shouldn't concentrate all your exercises only on that part. (foodnhealth.org)
- This area that our TA muscle encircles narrows from our waistline down within our pelvic inlet (the area bordered in the back by our sacrum and on the sides by our 2 pelvic bones. (healthcentral.com)
- If you stand up straight and see your lower back curves inward and your buttocks and tummy stick out, it's likely that you have anterior pelvic tilt, brought on by tight iliopsoas muscles. (cathe.com)
- Pilates is an exercise that focuses on activating the low back and pelvic muscles-the body's powerhouse, or core. (spineuniverse.com)
- For Leslie Howard , an Oakland-based therapeutic yoga teacher, a struggle with a painful hypertonic pelvic floor-a condition marked by extremely tight pelvic-floor muscles-led her to seek solutions through yoga. (yogajournal.com)
- Some problems that arise when this muscle is tight or shortened are pelvic imbalances that lead to pain in hips, as well as pain in the lower back and lateral area of knees. (wikipedia.org)
- Muscle mass comprises between 30 and 50 percent of your body's total weight - the more the better. (anabolicminds.com)
- Muscle tissue is the body's most important end user of blood sugar, and of insulin too. (anabolicminds.com)
- The traditional way to estimate muscle power during walking and running is with 3 degree-of-freedom (3DOF) inverse dynamics, a mathematical calculation of how muscles and tendons generate forces to rotate the body's limbs. (vanderbilt.edu)
- When they calculated the power generated by muscles and other biological tissues using this new method, it finally added up correctly to account for 100 percent of the body's energy changes. (vanderbilt.edu)
- Soothe your body's muscle tension and prepare your mind for a much needed rest. (amazon.com)
- Many people are familiar with muscle testing after working with a chiropractor or other practitioner to determine their body's response to foods or chemicals. (theresabalanceforthat.com)
- Exercise is a very important and compulsory part of being human because it increases the body's capacity to perform in an emergency situation. (projectswole.com)
Gastrocnemius and soleus2
- Now that we know the importance of our transversus abdominus muscle, how do we strengthen it? (healthcentral.com)
- Did you know that various supplements can help strengthen bones, build muscle, prevent injury, and aid recovery? (livealittlelonger.com)
- Doing regular physical activity will strengthen the muscles that support the bones. (casscellsorthopaedics.com)
- Keep going with the following seven poses, which Howard uses to help students diagnose their unique glute imbalances, and strengthen the muscles that need it. (yogajournal.com)
- This can be cured by regular exercise as exercising can help us in reducing the pain by strengthen our muscles and joints. (vonfranco.com)
- A poor posture or even a period of stress may be enough to trigger an episode of muscle tension that will reduce mobility and cause pain. (healtharticlesmagazine.com)
- The nervous system is constantly getting check-ins via muscle spindles, which relate the length of each muscle and subsequently the position of joints and overall posture. (usms.org)
- Changes in posture over time will also change what the nervous system believes is neutral for a particular muscle. (usms.org)
- There are three basic solutions to help reset your muscles to an anatomically correct neutral position: proper posture, stretching, and strengthening. (usms.org)
- Your resting posture, and therefore your muscles' resting position, is most deeply imprinted into your nervous system. (usms.org)
- Myofascial pain syndrome includes pain and palpable muscle knots in the upper back caused by bad posture during sitting or repetitive movements with arms (assembly workers) or repetitive hard exercise. (hubpages.com)
- In order to have a good posture, muscles in your pelvis, hips, lower back, abdomen and many others must work in perfect harmony and you can thank your core for that. (foodnhealth.org)
Tendons and ligaments1
- When you exercise your muscles a process called hypertrophy comes into play. (organicavenue.com)
- Are Acute Increases in Anabolic Hormones During Resistance Exercise Important for Muscle Hypertrophy? (mindandmuscle.net)
- Researchers at the Exercise Metabolism Group at McMaster's University reported this month that muscle hypertrophy took place without acute increases in anabolic hormone concentrations . (mindandmuscle.net)
- Unilateral resistance exercise is basically where you train one arm or in this case leg, while the other arm or leg is used as a control or untrained muscle. (mindandmuscle.net)
- Is protein intake immediately post resistance exercise critically important for muscle growth? (stir.ac.uk)
- The anabolic response of muscle to resistance exercise and protein feeding is influenced by multiple factors, including the timing of protein feeding. (stir.ac.uk)
- A common perception is that a 45-60 min post-exercise 'anabolic window of opportunity' time frame exists, within which dietary protein must be consumed to achieve muscle anabolism (and ultimately muscle growth). (stir.ac.uk)
- Indeed, muscle remains responsive to protein ingestion for at least 24 h post-exercise. (stir.ac.uk)
- On the other hand, given that feeding protein immediately post-exercise is unlikely to impair the muscle anabolic response, and could improve it, from a practical standpoint, we recommend athletes and exercisers consume some protein, as a meal or supplement, in the immediate period following resistance exercise. (stir.ac.uk)
- That said, the more muscle that is present when starting an exercise programme, the more changes will be seen during training. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Being able to have between eight to eleven hours of sleep per night is the optimum time to fully recover from exercise and to have the least amount of muscle soreness from the day before. (musclemayhem.com.au)
- At this early stage in your training routine it is just as important to get adequate rest to recover from your exercise sessions as it is for the more experienced exerciser. (musclemayhem.com.au)
- Aerobic exercise can actually help with muscle growth, muscle function, and your overall exercise capacity. (healthline.com)
- It's so important to make exercise a part check out the post right here of your life. (canariblogs.com)
- Also, if you are prone to have muscle contractures in certain areas, when you are going to exercise or force them, always try to heat the area before with some stretching. (healtharticlesmagazine.com)
- Always remember that before and after exercising, it is important to stretch the muscles that have contributed in that exercise, to avoid contractures and injuries. (healtharticlesmagazine.com)
- Stretching before and after exercise is important. (blackmores.com.au)
- Find out how Pilates exercise strengthens these muscles and leads to a healthy spine. (spineuniverse.com)
- Physical activity and exercise are important to the health of your spine. (spineuniverse.com)
- It is the lack of exercise and physical activity that makes the muscles and joints stiff and painful. (casscellsorthopaedics.com)
- The muscles of a person with arthritis will be strengthened with the use of regular exercise. (casscellsorthopaedics.com)
- To build up strong leg muscles check out https://spinbikeforsale.com.au for tips on how to exercise with a bike. (casscellsorthopaedics.com)
- Doing regular exercise like going for walks or just keeping active in the home setting will help the person steer clear of having their muscles worn down because of inactivity. (casscellsorthopaedics.com)
- Muscle hypertrophy involves much more than just diet and exercise since certain limits need to be overcome. (hubpages.com)
- During the exercise, lactic acid is responsible for muscle pain that ends up hurting. (hubpages.com)
- We should always have a strategy to repair our muscles after exercise. (projectswole.com)
- If the exercise you are doing involves weights than you should never go for the same muscle exercise for two consecutive days. (projectswole.com)
- A stretched tendon will eventually heal on its own in few weeks, but if you have myofascial pain with muscle knots you might need to change the way how you sit or quit some repetitive exercise, for example. (hubpages.com)
- reaching for an object on a high shelf or a forced movement during an exercise can cause muscle pain, which is aggravated by moving a torso or lifting the arm(s). (hubpages.com)
- This buffer system is essential, because exercise produces carbon dioxide and lactic acid in muscles. (reference.com)
- Many people only remember to exercise their core muscles when they start preparing for the summer, not realizing just how much they can benefit from a strong core in their everyday life. (foodnhealth.org)
- The rectus abdominis assists with breathing and plays an important role in respiration when forcefully exhaling, as seen after exercise as well as in conditions where exhalation is difficult such as emphysema. (wikipedia.org)
- The muscles pump up and look bigger without becoming any stronger. (organicavenue.com)
- Getting stronger is the primary step to building muscles. (herculesgyminfo.com)
- Exercised muscles can only repair and grow stronger when they are allowed to rest completely. (musclemayhem.com.au)
- And like a muscle, empathy gets stronger and stronger with practice and can be developed by any grade school child. (edutopia.org)
- This happens if a muscle is getting stronger, but the opposing muscle isn't growing correspondingly. (tanita.eu)
- The reason behind this is because the muscles supporting the joints will be stronger, and they will be able to support the joints and stabilize them as the person moves. (casscellsorthopaedics.com)
- Simply taking a walk or doing some yoga for beginners at home may be enough to ensure that your muscles get stronger. (casscellsorthopaedics.com)
- A single muscle needs around twenty hours to recover and if not given the proper time then instead of building muscle it will just breakdown making it even less stronger than before. (projectswole.com)
- With stronger inputs, more motor neurons will be recruited, resulting in more force applied to the muscle (Play 2 and Play 3). (google.com)
- In this respect, the sprint portion of the performance-duration curve predominantly represents, not a limit on the rates of energy re-supply, but the progressive impairment of skeletal muscle force production that results from a reliance on anaerobic metabolism to fuel intense, sequential contractions. (breakingmuscle.com)
- More over, while training, food helps the muscles recover and grow in addition to boosting the metabolism. (herculesgyminfo.com)
- GH helps to trigger fat metabolism for energy use in the muscle growth process. (mindandmuscle.net)
- Growth hormone triggers your metabolism and helps turn amino acids into protein to bulk up your muscles. (healthline.com)
- It's claimed to boost metabolism, kick start the muscle growth process, and provide you with the steady energy needed to tackle the day ahead. (seannal.com)
- We hypothesize that essential amino acid metabolism is altered following bariatric surgery and that this may reflect altered muscle metabolism. (sages.org)
- Glucose 6-phosphate is an important intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism because it can be channeled either to provide blood glucose or for glycogen formation . (78stepshealth.us)
- Pancreas Hormones Insulin and Glucogen Two Important Factors in Fat,Muscle, Energy, and Metabolism. (musclechemistry.com)
- Insulin probably acts on carbohydrate metabolism in muscle by increasing the ability of glucose to pass through the muscle cell membranes. (musclechemistry.com)
- These muscles are also highly resistant to fatigue thanks to the high concentration of mitochondria, myoglobin, and a decent blood supply allowing for constant aerobic metabolism. (runnersblueprint.com)
- Metabolism - Gaining muscles boosts metabolism in many ways. (lybrate.com)
- The B vitamins are important for several cellular processes including DNA repair and energy metabolism. (hindustantimes.com)
- Each muscle fiber is enveloped in a sarcolemma. (livestrong.com)
- When a nerve innervates the muscle cell, a signal to release calcium is sent, and calcium floods the muscle fiber. (livestrong.com)
- The muscle fiber itself does not increase, but the extra volume of fluid increases the muscle size. (organicavenue.com)
- It provides genuine muscle (fiber) growth. (organicavenue.com)
- Thigh muscle cross sectional area (CSA) and muscle fiber CSA by biopsy (vastus lateralis) were also measured pre- and post-training. (mindandmuscle.net)
- Training-induced increases were observed in type IIb and IIa muscle fiber CSA. (mindandmuscle.net)
- Under a microscope, the smooth muscle fiber lacks the striped appearance of other muscle tissue (fig. 3-25). (tpub.com)
- They attempt to repair the damage by joining together and, as a result, increasing the muscle fiber. (healthline.com)
- This type muscle fiber is under the control of the autonomic nervous system - meaning that its contractions are NOT under conscious control. (runnersblueprint.com)
- However, a recent report demonstrated lower mitochondrial respiration in saponin-permeabilized muscle fiber bundles (PmFB) prepared from microbiopsies vs. Bergstrom biopsies. (frontiersin.org)
- Microbiopsies of human skeletal muscle can be utilized for assessing mitochondrial respiratory kinetics in PmFB when assay conditions are supplemented with BLEB, but fiber type differences with this method should be considered. (frontiersin.org)
- Permeabilized muscle fiber bundles (PmFB) are commonly used to assess mitochondrial bioenergetics in skeletal muscle. (frontiersin.org)
- It is composed of amino acids which are the building blocks of muscles. (erinradio.ca)
- Amino acids are responsible for muscle growth, repair, and maintaining muscle tissues. (erinradio.ca)
- Amino acids taurine, glutamine and carnitine to support energy production and muscle recovery and repair. (anytimefitness.com.au)
- As well, GH stimulates the uptake and incorporation of amino acids into protein in skeletal muscle. (mindandmuscle.net)
- Most amino acids can contribute to the carbon atoms of the glucose molecule, and alanine from muscle is the most important. (78stepshealth.us)
- Taking into account that during training the muscles are injured, recovering these injuries is essential role of BCAA, short for Branched Chain Amino Acids. (hubpages.com)
- One of the best amino acid supplements is the Muscle Pharm Amino 1 Supplement done entirely with imported raw materials. (hubpages.com)
- Reduce your back pain: Find out why developing strong abdominal muscles is key to helping you maintain a healthy spine and learn how it can lead to less back pain. (spineuniverse.com)
- The rectus abdominis muscle is contained in the rectus sheath, which consists of the aponeuroses of the lateral abdominal muscles. (wikipedia.org)
- In reality, increasing muscle mass is important for these athletes too but it benefits them in other ways. (organicavenue.com)
- It also improves muscle mass. (organicavenue.com)
- Although athletes that play these sports don't need to take their muscle growth to extremes, the extra muscle mass provides them with extra padding that can lessen the likelihood of injury when bodies collide. (organicavenue.com)
- The main goal of bodybuilding for weightlifters is to build dense muscle mass. (breakingmuscle.com)
- Is bodybuilding the only way weightlifters are able increase muscle mass? (breakingmuscle.com)
- The only time bodybuilding can become detrimental is when an athlete's muscle mass gets too big that it restricts his or her range of motion and mobility. (breakingmuscle.com)
- Losing Bodyfat or Gaining Muscle Mass: Which is More Important? (anabolicminds.com)
- Muscle burns most of the calories you use during the day, and both the release and subsequent fate of the insulin secreted by your pancreas is affected by your muscle mass. (anabolicminds.com)
- And the less muscle mass you have, the harder it becomes to keep fat from being deposited. (anabolicminds.com)
- Over the years of experimenting I've learned a few things about when to eat, what to eat, how much to eat, and how to supplement to maximize muscle mass. (bodybuilding.com)
- Men suffering from either GH deficiency or testosterone deficiency have increased fat mass, reduced muscle mass, and reduced muscle force production. (mindandmuscle.net)
- The anabolic effects of testosterone on muscle mass are dose and concentration dependent . (mindandmuscle.net)
- However, the mechanisms by which testosterone increases muscle mass are not well understood. (mindandmuscle.net)
- The prevalent dogma for the past 50 years has been that testosterone increases muscle mass by stimulating fractional muscle protein synthesis. (mindandmuscle.net)
- GH is an anabolic hormone capable of increasing muscle mass . (mindandmuscle.net)
- Overall, more noticeable changes in muscle mass tend to happen for people of either sex who have more muscle mass to begin with. (healthline.com)
- You can take in as many as 3 daily if you are looking to build both mass and muscle. (canariblogs.com)
- We've all heard the claim that you must eat every three hours during the day or you'll go "catabolic" and begin losing muscle mass. (seannal.com)
- Our muscle mass plays a crucial role when it comes to fitness. (tanita.eu)
- There is a difference between gaining muscle mass for men and women. (tanita.eu)
- often this is used as an excuse when it comes to growing muscle mass. (tanita.eu)
- This does not mean that women cannot gain muscle mass. (tanita.eu)
- In fact, women can experience big gains in power and muscle mass as well and they should train their muscles the same way as men do. (tanita.eu)
- Building muscle mass is not only about going to the gym and lifting. (tanita.eu)
- If you stay slim, but do not make any progress in the gym (and thus not gaining muscle mass) make sure you eat more. (tanita.eu)
- What you eat is also important when trying to gain muscle mass. (tanita.eu)
- Your are gaining muscle mass and losing fat. (tanita.eu)
- How Often Should One Eat to Gain Muscle Mass? (flipboard.com)
- Well… we already know it's an increase in muscle volume and mass. (fitnessvolt.com)
- Well, probably people that enjoy having little muscle mass… and there's nothing wrong with that! (fitnessvolt.com)
- Diets to Gain Muscle Mass and Why Muscles Are Important? (lybrate.com)
- Gaining muscle mass is not only about looking good, it also has health benefits. (lybrate.com)
- There are beneficial diet plans that one can follow to build muscle mass and live a healthy life. (lybrate.com)
- After the age of 40, adults may lose up to 8% of muscle mass per decade. (ensure.com)
- 1. Janssen I, Heymsfield SB, Wang ZM, Ross R. Skeletal muscle mass and distribution in 468 men and women aged 18-88 yr. (ensure.com)
- Did you know that one of the worst things you can do when you are looking to gain muscle mass quickly is to go to bed on an empty stomach? (articlealley.com)
- How do Xtreme No Mass Builder Product Genuinely Work or Just An Additional Con Merchandise?Muscle creating may possibly be uncomplicated for some men and women, but for most adult males it really is really difficult. (articlealley.com)
- If your main goal for weight training is to get muscles, you need to know the basic principles of building muscle mass.In this article I'll cover the weight training aspect of an effective muscle growth program. (articlealley.com)
- Protein helps maintain muscle mass. (ndsu.edu)
- This means that increases protein synthesis itself and therefore is more efficient in muscle mass gain.Moreover, peptides improve blood flow and thus facilitate recovery of the muscles after training. (hubpages.com)
- So it is one of the essentials to gain muscle mass. (hubpages.com)
- There is no use in talking about muscle mass without considering energy gain. (hubpages.com)
- For years we believed you need to eat every few hours to raise your metabolic rate, and that you need to eat every few hours or your muscle mass would disappear. (muscleandstrength.com)
- Fascia is a form of connective tissue that wraps and bundles muscles (myo) together. (acefitness.org)
- There are two parallel muscles, separated by a midline band of connective tissue called the linea alba. (wikipedia.org)
- Bands of connective tissue called the tendinous intersections traverse the rectus abdominus, which separates this parallel muscle into distinct muscle bellies. (wikipedia.org)
- Saving energy is critically important for endurance, but not for sprinting, which our findings indicate is not energy-limited," Bundle said. (breakingmuscle.com)
- We'll also cover what to do after your diet ends, which is a topic that is hardly ever addressed but is critically important for maintaining your gains. (elitefts.com)
- This confusion is partly caused by the fact that when stretching a limb for example, people will often feel discomfort at the ends of their muscles, where they join to the bone near a joint. (infobarrel.com)
- The hamstrings are a collection of three muscles that run down the back of your thigh, originating at the back of your pelvis and then inserting at the back of the bone in your lower leg. (azcentral.com)
- These five muscles originate on the pubic bone and insert on the femur (thigh bone). (prochiromt.com)
- The sternocleidomastoid muscle originates in the sternum and clavicle and is inserted in the mastoid process of the temporal bone. (tpub.com)
- Both muscles pass directly over the hip socket and join in a common tendon inserting into the lesser trochanter of the femur (upper thigh) bone. (positivehealth.com)
- Symptoms of a vitamin D deficiency include impaired cognitive function, muscle weakness and bone pain. (reference.com)
- Gaining muscles also have positive effects on obesity, disease recovery, aging and bone density. (lybrate.com)
- Chicken - Chicken is another product you can include in your diet that helps maintain weight, bone density and gain muscles. (lybrate.com)
- Bone density - Bone density is an important issue, especially among women and the elderly. (lybrate.com)
- Building muscles can improve bone density and prevent osteoporosis. (lybrate.com)
- Ensure Enlive provides all-in-one nutrition and has ingredients to help support muscle, bone, heart, immune, and digestive tract health. (ensure.com)
- Nowadays, the most common health issues among the old age people are bone degeneration and muscle weakness. (vonfranco.com)
- Here are some tips to help your muscles recover and prevent soreness. (healthline.com)
- Iron is responsible for transporting oxygen to your cells and removing carbon dioxide, so how well you recover between sets or sprints relies on how efficient your aerobic system is - and iron is a major part of providing adequate oxygen to working muscles. (livealittlelonger.com)
- This is where structural resistance training, or bodybuilding, plays an important role. (breakingmuscle.com)
- 5. We conclude that early intake of an oral protein supplement after resistance training is important for the development of hypertrophy in skeletal muscle of elderly men in response to resistance training. (nih.gov)
- There are several different mechanisms of injury for a groin pull including sprinting, quickly changing directions, overstretching the muscle, jumping or landing after a jump, running uphill and rapid movements against resistance (kicking a ball). (prochiromt.com)
- Muscle response to resistance training is different in men and women for many reasons. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Muscle-building supplements are improving physical performance while resistance training and support stimulating muscle growth. (orbismarketwatch.com)
- However, beginners do not need supplements, on quickly building the muscle after the resistance training. (orbismarketwatch.com)
- Although a cyclist's legs provide the most tangible source of power, the core muscles-abs and lower back-are the vital foundation from which all movement, including the pedal stroke , stems. (bicycling.com)
- you want to maintain a balance between the front and back of your core muscles. (exrx.net)
- Once you learn how to engage your midsection and develop strong core muscles, there's a big chance your back pain will go away forever. (foodnhealth.org)
- If you're hitting the gym every day and not engaging your core muscles, you risk injuring yourself. (foodnhealth.org)
- If you see a person slouching, you can safely assume that they have weak core muscles. (foodnhealth.org)
- People often get confused when it comes to flexibility, as to whether it is their joints that are responsible for their degree of flexibility, or their muscles. (infobarrel.com)
- People with poor flexibility tend to have tight muscles which allow very little movement in their joints. (infobarrel.com)
- That is, when they are extremely flexible, with hyperextended joints, or when they have poor flexibility and stiff muscles, with hypoextended joints. (infobarrel.com)
- When you sprint, the muscles throughout your legs handle the activity occurring at your hip, knee and ankle joints. (azcentral.com)
- These two muscles are responsible for plantar flexing your ankle joints, which occurs during the takeoff phase as you push off the running surface and drive yourself forward. (azcentral.com)
- Good nutrition is an important aspect for building strong muscles, but what about your bones and joints? (sportsfuel.co.nz)
- Muscles crossing one joint have more complex actions than those crossing two joints. (slideshare.net)
- And if one muscle changes its position, it affects other muscles and joints up and down the kinetic chain. (usms.org)
- This will prove to be a good thing because the bones and joints will be able to more smoothly if the muscles that hold up the bones and joints are strong. (casscellsorthopaedics.com)
- This will cause the people to feel pain in their muscles and joints when they make even the smallest and simplest of movements. (casscellsorthopaedics.com)
- My muscle are very lean and my joints are very weak, I normaly walk 4 ornings per week, I'm 77 years old. (muscleandstrength.com)
- For efficient muscle and skeletal movements it is essential that the muscle contracts only along a defined axis, for instance for the leg movement along the thigh. (mindzilla.com)
- The adductor group, or more commonly known as the "groin", is located on the inside of the upper thigh and consists of 5 muscles: pectineus, adductor longus, adductor brevis, adductor magnus, and gracilis. (prochiromt.com)
- Symptoms of a groin pull include stabbing pain in the groin area that may or may not radiate down the inside of the thigh, swelling and/or bruising, muscle spasms, and the inability to adduct the leg. (prochiromt.com)
- The tensor fasciae latae (or tensor fasciæ latæ) is a muscle of the thigh. (wikipedia.org)
- The fascia lata is a fibrous sheath that encircles the thigh like a subcutaneous stocking and tightly binds its muscles. (wikipedia.org)
- That is why eating a sufficient amount of protein is a crucial requirement for successful muscle growth. (erinradio.ca)
- Before I tell you the principles of muscle growth, I have to tell you that none of this even matters if you are not consistent. (musclemonsters.com)
- Likewise, if your main goal is to build muscle, you should be lifting heavy weight and pushing for increasing your training volume over time, not prioritizing other sports or activities that do not have a great transfer to muscle growth. (musclemonsters.com)
- They can have their place but doing them every week is pointless and will decrease your volume and thus muscle growth. (musclemonsters.com)
- A major meta-analysis by Dr. Brad Schoenfeld, the leading scientist in muscle growth, analyzed individuals lifting less than 5 sets, 5-9 sets, and at least 10 sets per week for each muscle. (musclemonsters.com)
- This mean that the more volume, the more muscle growth up to a point . (musclemonsters.com)
- GH is also highly recognized for its role in muscle growth. (mindandmuscle.net)
- The sweet spot with cardio to promote muscle growth has everything to do with the intensity, duration, and frequency. (healthline.com)
- While the mechanisms behind muscle growth and muscle loss are quite complex, it ultimately boils down to the overall ratio of protein synthesis (muscle growth) to protein breakdown (muscle loss). (seannal.com)
- The first is that if your goal is to fully maximize muscle growth to your utmost potential, fasting for a significant portion of the day is probably not ideal. (seannal.com)
- Well, the sudden rapid muscle growth is a nice effect, but I am not happy about the other thing: my sudden rapid GUT growth. (celiac.com)
- Testosterone is the main male hormone and very important for your growth, muscles, and sexual health. (streetfighteralpha.com)
- Several muscle-building supplements are present for people probable to enhance athletic performance and improve muscle growth. (orbismarketwatch.com)
- Protein is important for the growth of muscle. (orbismarketwatch.com)
- For the growth of muscle, it is essential for a person to consume more than the suggested everyday amount of dietary protein. (orbismarketwatch.com)
- Ever wondered about the scientific name for muscle growth? (fitnessvolt.com)
- Although the exact science of muscle growth has still not yet been concluded, we generally know what it takes to achieve hypertrophy through training, nutrition, and other muscle-promoting factors. (fitnessvolt.com)
- Let's look at the 2 most important types of protein and when you need to take them for maximum muscle growth. (vitaminagent.com)
- Is muscle growth possible in old age? (articlealley.com)
- Who would want to believe that muscle growth can happen during old age. (articlealley.com)
- Whey protein has long been recognised as a important aid to muscle growth and definition as part of a weight training regime. (articlealley.com)
- It also helps in muscle growth. (vonfranco.com)
- When these activities are done side available with this muscle growth complement, you can expect better results than just putting all the projects into muscle growth items. (vonfranco.com)
- It is remember that many of the items in muscle growth items appear in food. (vonfranco.com)
- Having a good source of protein is vital for muscle growth, so we investigate the best high-protein snacks for diabetics. (myprotein.com)
- Push through your feet lifting your hips into the air, concentrate on the squeeze of your buttock muscles. (220triathlon.com)
- The buttock muscles are critical in all vertebrates for simply staying alive," says Loren Fishman, MD, medical director of Manhattan Physical Medicine in New York City, assistant clinical professor at Columbia University Medical Center, and author of five books on yoga . (yogajournal.com)
- However, not everyone who wants to build muscle does so in an effort to look good. (organicavenue.com)
- To build more muscles, you have to create more actin and myosin. (erinradio.ca)
- You will only be able to build more muscle if you are strong enough. (herculesgyminfo.com)
- To build muscles effectively, always ensure that you use free weights. (herculesgyminfo.com)
- If you do not eat well, you cannot be able to build muscles. (herculesgyminfo.com)
- The bottom line is that if you want to build muscle, every action you take should support that goal to some degree. (musclemonsters.com)
- As a consequence, muscles could not build long regular myofibrils anymore but instead distribute the sarcomeric protein complexes chaotically. (mindzilla.com)
- How long does it take to build muscle? (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Deciding the best way to build muscle depends on a person's goals. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- A number of factors can affect how long it takes to build muscle, including the type of exercsie performed. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- A common question when a person starts exercising is how long does it take to build muscle, and the answer can be a complex one. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- What is the best way to build muscle? (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Spending your whole day in the gym isn't necessary to build muscle. (healthline.com)
- Do women build muscle at the same rate as men? (healthline.com)
- Men and women build muscles differently. (healthline.com)
- You must ingest rather a bit of protein to build up muscle. (canariblogs.com)
- Does breakfast build muscle? (seannal.com)
- You might also consider it a three-step fitness plan to build the empathy muscle. (edutopia.org)
- For a guy who likes to build lean muscles and work out in the gym, you will have to main as high levels of testosterone as possible. (streetfighteralpha.com)
- A lot of guys tend to believe that to build lean muscles you have to spend as much time as possible in the gym. (streetfighteralpha.com)
- But how do you make sure you eat enough to build muscle? (tanita.eu)
- Eggs - Eggs should be a staple in your diet if you want to build muscles. (lybrate.com)
- how would i figure out how much of the three to take to build muscle and get cut? (muscleandstrength.com)
- Build muscle, lose fat & stay motivated. (muscleandstrength.com)
- 3 How To Build Muscle and Social Dominance At The Same Time! (sooperarticles.com)
- To build muscle without weights is to build muscle healthily and sufficiently without putting yourself under the risk of damaging your muscles either temporarily or permanently. (sooperarticles.com)
- Here are three steps you should follow if you want to build muscle without weights. (sooperarticles.com)
- Build Muscle. (projectswole.com)
- Can you build muscle and lose fat without eating every 2-3 hours? (muscleandstrength.com)
- If you're looking to build muscle, the most important thing to consider is the absolute amount of calories that you consume. (myprotein.com)
- Myofibrils are rod-like structures within the muscle cells. (organicavenue.com)
- The efficient functioning of striated muscle is dependent upon the structure of several cytoskeletal networks including myofibrils, microtubules, and intermediate filaments. (biologists.org)
- Many of these sarcomeres are connected in a well-ordered series to form myofibrils that span from one muscle end to the other. (mindzilla.com)
- As human muscles also contain myofibrils that are built by periodically arrayed sarcomeres, it is likely that a similar tension-based assembly model may also apply during human muscle development, so the scientists think. (mindzilla.com)
- The most common injury to this group is a muscle strain, also known as a groin pull. (prochiromt.com)
- There are three different grades of muscle strain in the groin. (prochiromt.com)
- Although, bodybuilding training such as powerlifting puts a high strain on muscles. (orbismarketwatch.com)
- An abdominal muscle strain, also called a pulled abdominal muscle, is an injury to one of the muscles of the abdominal wall. (wikipedia.org)
- A muscle strain occurs when the muscle is stretched too far. (wikipedia.org)
- Most commonly, a strain causes microscopic tears within the muscle, but occasionally, in severe injuries, the muscle can rupture from its attachment. (wikipedia.org)
- Mechanical tension is the essential trigger" explains Frank Schnorrer, head of the research group Muscle Dynamics. (mindzilla.com)
- They discovered that shortly after the Drosophila flight muscles contact their tendons, mechanical tension is established. (mindzilla.com)
- This tension buildup occurs before sarcomeres are formed and reaches through the entire muscle-tendon-skeleton system. (mindzilla.com)
- This tension axis equips the muscle with positional information along which the sarcomeres must form. (mindzilla.com)
- By using genetic mutations in the fly, the scientists of the Muscle Dynamics group have been able to block the attachment of flight muscles to tendons and thus eliminate tension formation in the system. (mindzilla.com)
- In order to directly test the influence of mechanical tension, the scientists used a laser to cut the tendons off the muscle. (mindzilla.com)
- Tension and force-resistant attachment are essential for myofibrillogenesis in Drosophila flight muscle. (mindzilla.com)
- The specialized strokes and techniques used to loosen tight muscles, reduce swelling, alleviate pressure, and ease tension provide positive health benefits for both you and your baby. (thumbtack.com)
- Many people suffer from muscle tension. (healtharticlesmagazine.com)
- In this article, we will show you the 7 natural muscle relaxants that you can use to relieve muscle tension and end the pain it causes. (healtharticlesmagazine.com)
- What causes muscle tension? (healtharticlesmagazine.com)
- Muscle tension can be described as tension, hardness or inflammation of the affected area. (healtharticlesmagazine.com)
- Regarding the causes of muscle tension, they can be very diverse. (healtharticlesmagazine.com)
- If you notice muscle tension in some area, the worst thing you can do is force it and continue with the movement that is causing the pain. (healtharticlesmagazine.com)
- The tension that causes a period of stress can produce a muscle contracture. (healtharticlesmagazine.com)
- That's why we recommend you use natural remedies to combat your muscle tension. (healtharticlesmagazine.com)
- Muscle tension is used when one is skeletally out of alignment with the earth's magnetic field. (positivehealth.com)
- Sarcoplasmic hypertrophy is what happens when fluid increases in the muscle cell sarcoplasm. (organicavenue.com)
- Testosterone administration also results in increases in GH secretion, androgen receptor number, satellite cell activity, and increased IGF-I expression in skeletal muscle . (mindandmuscle.net)
- Previous studies have shown that muscle catabolism increases following bariatric surgery. (sages.org)
- It's hard to pin down the exact number down since there are so many variations in muscle anatomy. (cathe.com)
- For that reason, these are the primary muscle type in the human anatomy. (runnersblueprint.com)
- Learn the anatomy of this important muscle. (yogajournal.com)
- Learn the anatomy of these important muscles. (yogajournal.com)
- Tensor fasciae latae muscle Tensor fasciae latae muscle This article incorporates text in the public domain from the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy (1918) Saladin, Kenneth. (wikipedia.org)
- How do our muscles work? (phys.org)
- People who suffer from chronic, lower back pain often have an overly weak iliopsoas muscle and this forces other muscles, like the glues and quads, to work harder to compensate. (cathe.com)
- Compound work outs are vital in the course of building muscle. (herculesgyminfo.com)
- I work out about 4 times a weekytrying to gain muscle fast and I like that I get abs fast cause I'm skinny like a stick plus it relieves my stress but why do my muscle hurt sooooooooooo bad. (celiac.com)
- It won't even work in building your muscles if physique is at rest. (aurateen.org)
- In the same way, if you work on strengthening your upper and middle back, these muscles will eventually contract and produce force efficiently, all while remodeling themselves to a more neutral, anatomical position. (usms.org)
- All of these four muscles work hand in hand to bend and extend your knee when walking, running, or whenever doing any type of knee bending motion. (runnersblueprint.com)
- Foam rolling is also called myofascial release and is designed to work out the "knots" in your muscles. (acefitness.org)
- how important are the lower back muscles? (exrx.net)
- if someone doesn't deadlift, squat, or do rows, should emphasis still be placed on the lower back muscles? (exrx.net)
- your lower back muscles should be worked the same amount as your abs. (exrx.net)
- so he was curious about the lower back muscles. (exrx.net)
- Imagine for example that you are training your chest, but are neglecting your back muscles. (tanita.eu)
- A tear of various upper back muscles can occur in sports, such as handball. (hubpages.com)
- Think of your optimal volume per muscle group being a dynamic range that is not too low or too high, but rather in a sweet spot. (musclemonsters.com)
- The difference may not be overly significant, but for optimal muscle building results, it's probably best to get some protein in at least within a few hours of waking rather than spending the entire first half of the day in a fasted state, such as with intermittent fasting. (seannal.com)
- In this muscle group is the psoas muscle, a muscle that plays a key role in hip flexion and spine stabilization. (cathe.com)
- What makes the psoas major muscle so unique is it's a multi-joint muscle and one of only two muscles that connect the spine to the femur. (cathe.com)
- You use your psoas muscle when you run, walk uphill, and go up a flight of stairs as you flex your hips when you do these movements. (cathe.com)
- When the psoas muscle is weak it can also trigger anterior hip and groin pain. (cathe.com)
- Nonetheless, casein is very important muscle building protein and is best taken as a meal supplement outside of training hours. (vitaminagent.com)
- Although muscle growths supplement Thoraxin promise you with better looking muscles, it is not supposed to accomplish that only by itself. (vonfranco.com)