Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.
Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.
A macrolide isolated from the culture broth of a strain of Streptomyces tsukubaensis that has strong immunosuppressive activity in vivo and prevents the activation of T-lymphocytes in response to antigenic or mitogenic stimulation in vitro.
The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.
A cyclic undecapeptide from an extract of soil fungi. It is a powerful immunosupressant with a specific action on T-lymphocytes. It is used for the prophylaxis of graft rejection in organ and tissue transplantation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed).
The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.
An immunosuppressive agent used in combination with cyclophosphamide and hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
An antibiotic substance derived from Penicillium stoloniferum, and related species. It blocks de novo biosynthesis of purine nucleotides by inhibition of the enzyme inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase. Mycophenolic acid is important because of its selective effects on the immune system. It prevents the proliferation of T-cells, lymphocytes, and the formation of antibodies from B-cells. It also may inhibit recruitment of leukocytes to inflammatory sites. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1301)
The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
Serum containing GAMMA-GLOBULINS which are antibodies for lymphocyte ANTIGENS. It is used both as a test for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY and therapeutically in TRANSPLANTATION.
A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.
Transference of an organ between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.
A general term for the complex phenomena involved in allo- and xenograft rejection by a host and graft vs host reaction. Although the reactions involved in transplantation immunology are primarily thymus-dependent phenomena of cellular immunity, humoral factors also play a part in late rejection.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.
A CALCIUM and CALMODULIN-dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase that is composed of the calcineurin A catalytic subunit and the calcineurin B regulatory subunit. Calcineurin has been shown to dephosphorylate a number of phosphoproteins including HISTONES; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAIN; and the regulatory subunits of CAMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. It is involved in the regulation of signal transduction and is the target of an important class of immunophilin-immunosuppressive drug complexes.
The transference of a pancreas from one human or animal to another.
The transference of pancreatic islets within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
An induced state of non-reactivity to grafted tissue from a donor organism that would ordinarily trigger a cell-mediated or humoral immune response.
Disorders characterized by proliferation of lymphoid tissue, general or unspecified.
A macrolide compound obtained from Streptomyces hygroscopicus that acts by selectively blocking the transcriptional activation of cytokines thereby inhibiting cytokine production. It is bioactive only when bound to IMMUNOPHILINS. Sirolimus is a potent immunosuppressant and possesses both antifungal and antineoplastic properties.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Transference of a tissue or organ from either an alive or deceased donor, within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
Anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody that exerts immunosuppressive effects by inducing peripheral T-cell depletion and modulation of the T-cell receptor complex (CD3/Ti).
Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.
A PREDNISOLONE derivative with similar anti-inflammatory action.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
A group of closely related cyclic undecapeptides from the fungi Trichoderma polysporum and Cylindocarpon lucidum. They have some antineoplastic and antifungal action and significant immunosuppressive effects. Cyclosporins have been proposed as adjuvants in tissue and organ transplantation to suppress graft rejection.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
Infections with POLYOMAVIRUS, which are often cultured from the urine of kidney transplant patients. Excretion of BK VIRUS is associated with ureteral strictures and CYSTITIS, and that of JC VIRUS with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (LEUKOENCEPHALOPATHY, PROGRESSIVE MULTIFOCAL).
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
An infection caused by an organism which becomes pathogenic under certain conditions, e.g., during immunosuppression.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
A type of acute or chronic skin reaction in which sensitivity is manifested by reactivity to materials or substances coming in contact with the skin. It may involve allergic or non-allergic mechanisms.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The ability of lymphoid cells to mount a humoral or cellular immune response when challenged by antigen.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
A synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from CORTISONE. It is biologically inert and converted to PREDNISOLONE in the liver.
The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
The transference of either one or both of the lungs from one human or animal to another.
The grafting of skin in humans or animals from one site to another to replace a lost portion of the body surface skin.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
A glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids. It is the drug of choice for all conditions in which routine systemic corticosteroid therapy is indicated, except adrenal deficiency states.
Infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS, characterized by enlarged cells bearing intranuclear inclusions. Infection may be in almost any organ, but the salivary glands are the most common site in children, as are the lungs in adults.
An organism that, as a result of transplantation of donor tissue or cells, consists of two or more cell lines descended from at least two zygotes. This state may result in the induction of donor-specific TRANSPLANTATION TOLERANCE.
A form of anemia in which the bone marrow fails to produce adequate numbers of peripheral blood elements.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
4-Imidazoleacrylic acid.
Non-cadaveric providers of organs for transplant to related or non-related recipients.
Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the GRAFT VS HOST REACTION.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Organs, tissues, or cells taken from the body for grafting into another area of the same body or into another individual.
Identification of the major histocompatibility antigens of transplant DONORS and potential recipients, usually by serological tests. Donor and recipient pairs should be of identical ABO blood group, and in addition should be matched as closely as possible for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in order to minimize the likelihood of allograft rejection. (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Redness of the skin produced by congestion of the capillaries. This condition may result from a variety of causes.
Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.
Severe inability of the LIVER to perform its normal metabolic functions, as evidenced by severe JAUNDICE and abnormal serum levels of AMMONIA; BILIRUBIN; ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE; ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE; LACTATE DEHYDROGENASES; and albumin/globulin ratio. (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed)
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
The degree of antigenic similarity between the tissues of different individuals, which determines the acceptance or rejection of allografts.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Preparative treatment of transplant recipient with various conditioning regimens including radiation, immune sera, chemotherapy, and/or immunosuppressive agents, prior to transplantation. Transplantation conditioning is very common before bone marrow transplantation.
A non-allergic contact dermatitis caused by prolonged exposure to irritants and not explained by delayed hypersensitivity mechanisms.
A dioxygenase with specificity for the oxidation of the indoleamine ring of TRYPTOPHAN. It is an extrahepatic enzyme that plays a role in metabolism as the first and rate limiting enzyme in the kynurenine pathway of TRYPTOPHAN catabolism.
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not. In the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated (usually by treatment with MITOMYCIN or radiation) thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.
The transference between individuals of the entire face or major facial structures. In addition to the skin and cartilaginous tissue (CARTILAGE), it may include muscle and bone as well.
Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.
An immunological attack mounted by a graft against the host because of tissue incompatibility when immunologically competent cells are transplanted to an immunologically incompetent host; the resulting clinical picture is that of GRAFT VS HOST DISEASE.
A dead body, usually a human body.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A method to identify and enumerate cells that are synthesizing ANTIBODIES against ANTIGENS or HAPTENS conjugated to sheep RED BLOOD CELLS. The sheep red blood cells surrounding cells secreting antibody are lysed by added COMPLEMENT producing a clear zone of HEMOLYSIS. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 3rd ed)
Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms that can cause pathological conditions or diseases.
Chemical or physical agents that protect the skin from sunburn and erythema by absorbing or blocking ultraviolet radiation.
Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.
The transference of a complete HAND, as a composite of many tissue types, from one individual to another.
Benign epidermal proliferations or tumors; some are viral in origin.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Irradiation of the whole body with ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. It is applicable to humans or animals but not to microorganisms.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
Transplantation between genetically identical individuals, i.e., members of the same species with identical histocompatibility antigens, such as monozygotic twins, members of the same inbred strain, or members of a hybrid population produced by crossing certain inbred strains.
Combinations of diagnostic or therapeutic substances linked with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; or ANTIGENS. Often the diagnostic or therapeutic substance is a radionuclide. These conjugates are useful tools for specific targeting of DRUGS and RADIOISOTOPES in the CHEMOTHERAPY and RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY of certain cancers.
The induction of prolonged survival and growth of allografts of either tumors or normal tissues which would ordinarily be rejected. It may be induced passively by introducing graft-specific antibodies from previously immunized donors, which bind to the graft's surface antigens, masking them from recognition by T-cells; or actively by prior immunization of the recipient with graft antigens which evoke specific antibodies and form antigen-antibody complexes which bind to the antigen receptor sites of the T-cells and block their cytotoxic activity.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Irritants and reagents for labeling terminal amino acid groups.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
An injury to the skin causing erythema, tenderness, and sometimes blistering and resulting from excessive exposure to the sun. The reaction is produced by the ultraviolet radiation in sunlight.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
A delayed hypersensitivity involving the reaction between sunlight or other radiant energy source and a chemical substance to which the individual has been previously exposed and sensitized. It manifests as a papulovesicular, eczematous, or exudative dermatitis occurring chiefly on the light-exposed areas of the skin.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.
A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
The ability of tumors to evade destruction by the IMMUNE SYSTEM. Theories concerning possible mechanisms by which this takes place involve both cellular immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and humoral immunity (ANTIBODY FORMATION), and also costimulatory pathways related to CD28 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD28) and CD80 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD80).
The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from different individuals. This contrasts with MOSAICISM in which the different cell populations are derived from a single individual.
Alteration of the immune system or of an immune response by agents that activate or suppress its function. This can include IMMUNIZATION or administration of immunomodulatory drugs. Immunomodulation can also encompass non-therapeutic alteration of the immune system effected by endogenous or exogenous substances.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
An antigenic mismatch between donor and recipient blood. Antibodies present in the recipient's serum may be directed against antigens in the donor product. Such a mismatch may result in a transfusion reaction in which, for example, donor blood is hemolyzed. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984).
Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Infection with human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN); which may facilitate the development of various lymphoproliferative disorders. These include BURKITT LYMPHOMA (African type), INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS, and oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
The simultaneous, or near simultaneous, transference of heart and lungs from one human or animal to another.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
A pulmonary disease in humans occurring in immunodeficient or malnourished patients or infants, characterized by DYSPNEA, tachypnea, and HYPOXEMIA. Pneumocystis pneumonia is a frequently seen opportunistic infection in AIDS. It is caused by the fungus PNEUMOCYSTIS JIROVECII. The disease is also found in other MAMMALS where it is caused by related species of Pneumocystis.
The classes of BONE MARROW-derived blood cells in the monocytic series (MONOCYTES and their precursors) and granulocytic series (GRANULOCYTES and their precursors).
Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.
A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
Procedure whereby plasma is separated and extracted from anticoagulated whole blood and the red cells retransfused to the donor. Plasmapheresis is also employed for therapeutic use.
Pathological processes of the LIVER.
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.
Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.
A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.
Transplantation of tissue typical of one area to a different recipient site. The tissue may be autologous, heterologous, or homologous.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.
Transplantation between animals of different species.
A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.
Mucoproteins isolated from the kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); some of them are mitogenic to lymphocytes, others agglutinate all or certain types of erythrocytes or lymphocytes. They are used mainly in the study of immune mechanisms and in cell culture.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Irradiation directly from the sun.
Recirculating, dendritic, antigen-presenting cells containing characteristic racket-shaped granules (Birbeck granules). They are found principally in the stratum spinosum of the EPIDERMIS and are rich in Class II MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX molecules. Langerhans cells were the first dendritic cell to be described and have been a model of study for other dendritic cells (DCs), especially other migrating DCs such as dermal DCs and INTERSTITIAL DENDRITIC CELLS.
A process in which peripheral blood is exposed in an extracorporeal flow system to photoactivated 8-methoxypsoralen (METHOXSALEN) and ultraviolet light - a procedure known as PUVA THERAPY. Photopheresis is at present a standard therapy for advanced cutaneous T-cell lymphoma; it shows promise in the treatment of autoimmune diseases.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
An opportunistic viral infection of the central nervous system associated with conditions that impair cell-mediated immunity (e.g., ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES; HEMATOLOGIC NEOPLASMS; IMMUNOSUPPRESSION; and COLLAGEN DISEASES). The causative organism is JC Polyomavirus (JC VIRUS) which primarily affects oligodendrocytes, resulting in multiple areas of demyelination. Clinical manifestations include DEMENTIA; ATAXIA; visual disturbances; and other focal neurologic deficits, generally progressing to a vegetative state within 6 months. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp36-7)
The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
A chronic self-perpetuating hepatocellular INFLAMMATION of unknown cause, usually with HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA and serum AUTOANTIBODIES.
A genus in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE causing influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. It contains many strains as well as antigenic subtypes of the integral membrane proteins hemagglutinin (HEMAGGLUTININS) and NEURAMINIDASE. The type species is INFLUENZA A VIRUS.
Proteins, protein complexes, or glycoproteins secreted by suppressor T-cells that inhibit either subsequent T-cells, B-cells, or other immunologic phenomena. Some of these factors have both histocompatibility (I-J) and antigen-specific domains which may be linked by disulfide bridges. They can be elicited by haptens or other antigens and may be mass-produced by hybridomas or monoclones in the laboratory.
Virus diseases caused by the HERPESVIRIDAE.
A chronic blistering disease with predilection for mucous membranes and less frequently the skin, and with a tendency to scarring. It is sometimes called ocular pemphigoid because of conjunctival mucous membrane involvement.
A ZINC FINGER MOTIF protein that recognizes and interacts with damaged DNA. It is a DNA-binding protein that plays an essential role in NUCLEOTIDE EXCISION REPAIR. Mutations in this protein are associated with the most severe form of XERODERMA PIGMENTOSUM.
Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.
Transference of cells within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
An ACYCLOVIR analog that is a potent inhibitor of the Herpesvirus family including cytomegalovirus. Ganciclovir is used to treat complications from AIDS-associated cytomegalovirus infections.
Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.
Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.
The period following a surgical operation.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.

Possible suppression of host resistance by estrogen therapy for prostatic cancer.(1/3650)


Suppression of Moloney sarcoma virus immunity following sensitization with attenuated virus. (2/3650)

Murine sarcoma virus (Moloney strain) (MSV-M)-induced tumors are unusual in that they regularly appear less than 2 weeks after virus inoculation, progress for 1 to 2 weeks, and are rejected by normal adult BALB/c mice. Rejectio leaves the animals immune to tumor induction. In the present study, presensitization of normal adult BALB/c mice with attenuated MSV-M resulted in an altered pattern of tumor immunity. Injection of active MSV-M into the presensitized animals resulted in tumor induction and rejection similar to that observed in normal animals, but rejection failed to produce protection against the secondary inoculation with MSV-M. After the second inoculation with active MSV-M, tumors appeared and progressed but ultimately were rejected. Over 80% of the mice died, 25% after the primary challenge and the remainder after the secondary challenge. At death, all mice had histological evidence of leukemia which was the probable cause of death. The animals that died following the secondary challenge also had evidence of disseminated MSV-M. Solid tumor nodules were found in skeletal muscle distant from the original site of inoculation, and active MSV-M was isolated from spleen and lungs. The possibility that the results were produced by specific suppression of MSV-Moloney leukemia virus immunity is discussed.  (+info)

Infectious complications in 126 patients treated with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. (3/3650)

The effect of an extensive prophylactic antimicrobial regimen was prospectively assessed in 126 patients after high-dose chemotherapy and autologous PBSC. They received ciprofloxacin (500 mg/12 h), acyclovir (200 mg/6 h), and itraconazole (200 mg/12 h) orally until neutrophil recovery. Febrile patients received i.v. imipenem (500 mg/6 h) to which vancomycin and amikacin were added if fever persisted for 2-3 and 5 days, respectively. Amphotericin B lipid complex was further given on day 7 or 8 of fever. Median times for a neutrophil count of >0.5 x 10(9)/l and a platelet count of >20 x 10(9)/l were 9 and 11 days. Severe neutropenia (<0.1 x 10(9)/l) lasted for a median of 5 days in which 72% of febrile episodes and 50% of cases of bacteremia occurred. Gram-positive bacteria were isolated in 30 of 40 episodes of bacteremia, 25 of which were caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis. Clinical foci were the intravascular catheter in 35 cases, respiratory infection in 11, cellulitis in two, anal abscess in one, and neutropenic enterocolitis in one. The high incidence of febrile episodes (94%) and bacteremias (31%) may be due to the lack of efficacy of antimicrobial prophylaxis and the persistence of a 5-day period of severe neutropenia.  (+info)

Rapid autologous marrow recovery and eradication of infectious mononucleosis despite severe immunosuppression following second transplantation for aplastic anemia. (4/3650)

A patient with aplastic anemia failed to respond to immunosuppressive therapy and first marrow transplantation (BMT). Recovery of autologous hematopoiesis was rapid following a second stem cell transplant with a non-myeloablative preparatory regimen. The autologous immune response to infectious mononucleosis (IM) 4 weeks post-transplant was normal despite recent and ongoing severe immunosuppression.  (+info)

A phase I and pharmacokinetic study of losoxantrone and paclitaxel in patients with advanced solid tumors. (5/3650)

A Phase I and pharmacological study was performed to evaluate the feasibility, maximum tolerated dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), and pharmacokinetics of the anthrapyrazole losoxantrone in combination with paclitaxel in adult patients with advanced solid malignancies. Losoxantrone was administered as a 10-min infusion in combination with paclitaxel on either a 24- or 3-h schedule. The starting dose level was 40 mg/m2 losoxantrone and 135 mg/m2 paclitaxel (as a 24- or 3-h i.v. infusion) without granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). Administration of these agents at the starting dose level and dose escalation was feasible only with G-CSF support. The following dose levels (losoxantrone/paclitaxel, in mg/m2) of losoxantrone and paclitaxel as a 3-h infusion were also evaluated: 50/135, 50/175, 50/200, 50/225, and 60/225. The sequence-dependent toxicological and pharmacological effects of losoxantrone and paclitaxel on the 24- and 3-h schedules of paclitaxel were also assessed. The MTD was defined as the dose at which >50% of the patients experienced DLT during the first two courses of therapy. DLTs, mainly myelosuppression, occurring during the first course of therapy were noted in four of six and five of eight patients treated with 40 mg/m2 losoxantrone and 135 mg/m2 paclitaxel over 24 and 3 h, respectively, without G-CSF. DLTs during the first two courses of therapy were observed in one of six patients at the 50/175 (losoxantrone/paclitaxel) mg/m2 dose level, two of four patients at the 50/200 mg/m2 dose level, one of four patients at the 50/225 mg/m2 dose level, and two of five patients at the 60/225 mg/m2 dose level. The degree of thrombocytopenia was worse, albeit not statistically significant, when 24-h paclitaxel preceded losoxantrone, with a mean percentage decrement in platelet count during course 1 of 80.7%, compared to 43.8% with the reverse sequence (P = 0.19). Losoxantrone clearance was not significantly altered by the sequence or schedule of paclitaxel. Cardiac toxicity was observed; however, it was not related to total cumulative dose of losoxantrone. An unacceptably high rate of DLTs at the first dose level of 40 mg/m2 losoxantrone and 135 mg/m2 paclitaxel administered as either a 24- or 3-h i.v. infusion precluded dose escalation without G-CSF support. The addition of G-CSF to the regimen permitted further dose escalation without reaching the MTD. Losoxantrone at 50 mg/m2 followed by paclitaxel (3-h i.v. infusion) at 175 mg/m2 with G-CSF support is recommended for further clinical trials.  (+info)

Efficient IgG-mediated suppression of primary antibody responses in Fcgamma receptor-deficient mice. (6/3650)

IgG antibodies can suppress more than 99% of the antibody response against the antigen to which they bind. This is used clinically to prevent rhesus-negative (Rh-) women from becoming immunized against Rh+ erythrocytes from their fetuses. The suppressive mechanism is poorly understood, but it has been proposed that IgG/erythrocyte complexes bind to the inhibitory Fc receptor for IgG (FcgammaRIIB) on the B cell surface, thereby triggering negative signals that turn off the B cell. We show that IgG induces the same degree of suppression of the response to sheep erythrocytes in animals lacking the known IgG-binding receptors FcgammaRIIB, FcgammaRI + III, FcgammaRI + IIB + III, and FcRn (the neonatal Fc receptor) as in wild-type animals. Reinvestigation of the ability of F(ab')2 fragments to suppress antibody responses demonstrated that they were nearly as efficient as intact IgG. In addition, monoclonal IgE also was shown to be suppressive. These findings suggest that IgG inhibits antibody responses through Fc-independent mechanisms, most likely by masking of antigenic epitopes, thereby preventing B cells from binding and responding to antigen. In agreement with this, we show that T cell priming is not abolished by passively administered IgG. The results have implications for the understanding of in vivo regulation of antibody responses and Rh prophylaxis.  (+info)

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue conjugates with strong selective antitumor activity. (7/3650)

Conjugation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues GnRH-III, MI-1544, and MI-1892 through lysyl side chains and a tetrapeptide spacer, Gly-Phe-Leu-Gly (X) to a copolymer, poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone-co-maleic acid) (P) caused increased antiproliferative activity toward MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast, PC3 and LNCaP prostate, and Ishikawa endometrial cancer cell lines in culture and against tumor development by xenografts of the breast cancer cells in immunodeficient mice. MCF-7 cells treated with P-X-1544 and P-X-1892 displayed characteristic signs of apoptosis, including vacuoles in the cytoplasm, rounding up, apoptotic bodies, bleb formation, and DNA fragmentation. Conjugates, but not free peptides, inhibited cdc25 phosphatase and caused accumulation of Ishikawa and PC3 cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle after 24 h at lower doses and in the G1 and G2 phases after 48 h. Since P-X-peptides appear to be internalized, the increased cytotoxicity of the conjugates is attributed to protection of peptides from proteolysis, enhanced interaction of the peptides with the GnRH receptors, and/or internalization of P-X-peptide receptor complexes so that P can exert toxic effects inside, possibly by inhibiting enzymes involved in the cell cycle. The additional specificity of P-X-peptides compared with free peptides for direct antiproliferative effects on the cancer cells but not for interactions in the pituitary indicates the therapeutic potential of the conjugates.  (+info)

Continuous axenic cultivation of Pneumocystis carinii. (8/3650)

Continuous axenic culture of Pneumocystis carinii has been achieved. A culture vessel is used that allows for frequent medium exchange without disturbance of organisms that grow attached to a collagen-coated porous membrane. The growth medium is based on Minimal Essential Medium with Earle's salt supplemented with S-adenosyl-L-methionine, putrescine, ferric pyrophosphate, N-acetyl glucosamine, putrescine, p-aminobenzoic acid, L-cysteine and L-glutamine, and horse serum. Incubation is in room air at 31 degrees C. The pH of the medium begins at 8.8 and rises to approximately 9 as the cells grow. Doubling times calculated from growth curves obtained from cultures inoculated at moderate densities ranged from 35 to 65 hours. With a low-density inoculum, the doubling time is reduced to 19 hours. The morphology of cultured organisms in stained smears and in transmission electron micrographs is that of P. carinii, and P. carinii-specific mAbs label the cultured material. Cultured organisms are infective for immunosuppressed rats and can be stored frozen and used to reinitiate culture.  (+info)

Immunosuppression involves an act that reduces the activation or efficacy of the immune system. Some portions of the immune system itself have immuno-suppressive effects on other parts of the immune system, and immunosuppression may occur as an adverse reaction to treatment of other conditions. Deliberately induced immunosuppression is generally done to prevent the body from rejecting an organ transplant, treating graft-versus-host disease after a bone marrow transplant, or for the treatment of auto-immune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis or Crohns disease. This is typically done using drugs, but may involve surgery (splenectomy), plasmapharesis, or radiation. A person who is undergoing immunosuppression, or whose immune system is weak for other reasons (for example, chemotherapy and HIV patients) are said to be immunocompromised. When an organ is transplanted, the immune system of the recipient will most likely recognize it as foreign tissue and attack it. The destruction of the organ ...
The VU Research Repository (previously known as VUIR) is an open access repository that contains the research papers and theses of VU staff and higher degree research students.
Transplant Immunosuppression 2019: Hot Topics will focus on current options for immunosuppression (and whats in the pipeline), with particular attention to individualization of immunosuppression based on clinical and/or laboratory parameters; prevention, diagnosis and treatment of antibody-mediated rejection; improving long-term transplant outcomes; and major issues in transplant-related infectious disease, living donation, and patient-centered care.
Andrew Bailey (ja333710 at wrote: : I am after some detailed information on cyto-megalic virus .... and the : immune response when the virus is in both acute and chronic stages ... : -- I can give you some information. CMV is a commonly acquired disease during childhood in developing countries; in developed countries the illness is sometimes not acquired until later in life when it can cause damage. Primary infection with CMV during pregnancy is highly dangerous and can result in fetal abnormalities. Immunosuppression can allow CMV to become dangerous to the host; in AIDS patintes it is a leading cause of blindness, and death. The virus is shed intermittently for life through urine and bodily fluids. Once infected the virus becomes latent rather than symptomatic. Symptomatic expressions of CMV, or acute phases can occur either at primary infection or during reactivation due to some outside trigger such as immunosuppression (following chemotherapy or HIV infection), or ...
Bethesda, MD (PRWEB) April 29, 2017 -- CME Outfitters (CMEO) will be hosting a live symposium on immunosuppression entitled, The Immunosuppression Balancing
Immunosuppression is the dampening of the bodys ability to ward off disease and infection. It can be induced deliberately, or be the result of an infection.
When you need to deviate from the security standard, you can apply a suppression in DTP or in the code from the desktop instance of your analysis tool. Suppressing a violation means that the defect pattern is acceptable in this specific instance and that you are going to ignore the violations reported by the tool for the foreseeable future.. A suppression applies to an instance of the violation, not to the checker, itself. The checker will continue reporting violations when the questionable pattern is detected in other parts of the code. If the checker truly does not apply to your application in any instance, disable it in the test configuration. Refer to the DTP documentation for instructions.. Suppressions are also important in terms of the review process associated with inspection rules. Violations reported by inspection rules are designed to trigger a manual review of the code. When the code is verified per the standard, the inspection rule can be suppressed with a rationale that serves as ...
Oderich GS, Bower TC, Hofer J, Kalra M, Duncan AA, Wilson JW, Cha S, Gloviczki P. In situ rifampin-soaked grafts with omental coverage and antibiotic suppression are durable with low reinfection rates in patients with aortic graft enteric erosion or fistula. J Vasc Surg. 2011 Jan; 53(1):99-106, 107.e1-7; discussion 106-7 ...
This is your stop for learning resources, extra info and essential dates and documents. Ive scoured the world just to bring you, the A Level biologists, all you need to succeed and enjoy your Biology A Level.
NESPS 2019 Abstracts: Quantifying Brain-death, Transplant Physiology and Immunosuppression on Porcine Muscle-Derived Stem Cell Expansion
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of solid organ transplantation has now evolved into minimizing the long-term consequences of immunosuppression. The consequences of immunosuppression include an increased risk of developing diabetes, renal insufficiency, osteoporosis, malignancies, and viral infections, to name but a few. RECENT FINDINGS: Immunosuppressive protocols that avoid or minimize the use of calcineurin inhibitors hold the promise of better long-term patient outcomes, especially with patients who progress on to dialysis or renal transplantation after organ transplantation. New, aggressive induction protocols have been used in patients with chronic viral infections, such as hepatitis C, without untoward effects on outcomes. SUMMARY: It is important to appreciate that the long-term benefits of new immunosuppressive strategies have yet to stand the test of time when considering long-term graft survival. Follow-ups to these recent studies should be incorporated and should have similar rates of acute
The airway can be an important target for gene transfer to treat cystic fibrosis and other diseases that affect the lung. months. Although data on persistence of AAV vector expression in the human lung are not available, it is likely that repeat transduction will be necessary Deforolimus either due to loss of expression or to Deforolimus the need for repeat administration to deliver effective amounts of AAV vectors. Results presented here indicate that transient immunosuppression will allow such repeat vector treatment of the lung. Genetic diseases that affect the lung Deforolimus may be cured by the use of gene therapy. Among these diseases, cystic fibrosis affects one in 3,000 Caucasian births and leads to debilitating lung disease. Gene therapy directed to the epithelial cells of the lung could possibly alleviate the pulmonary pathology that is the major reason behind morbidity in cystic fibrosis. The complicated architecture from the lung and the shortcoming to eliminate and reimplant airway ...
Immunosuppression of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) is a common feature of advanced cancer, but its biological basis has remained obscure. We demonstrate here a molecular link between epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and CD8(+) TIL immunosuppression, two key drivers of cancer progre …
Copeland, Jack G.; Smith, Richard G.; Arabia, Francisco, A.; Nolan, Paul E.; Sethi, Gushan K.; Tsau, Pei H.; McClellan, Douglas; Slepian, Marvin J. (2004-08-26) ...
This was a PPMSer who was severely leucopaenic. So immunosuppression can in some people cause white cells counts to go very low and as you keep taking the immunosuppressive your white cell numbers are not going to recover. If that happens you are going to be at risk from infection. This is biology and this is where induction therapy has an advantage as you are not on rug all the time and once the drug has washed out your white cells can recover if an infection comes along. ...
UC will lead a $5.2 million national trial studying removal of both corticosteroids and common immunosuppression treatments from the post-transplant drug regimen for kidney transplant patients.
Older adults with Crohns disease have tended to be treated less aggressively than younger patients. Is a treatment strategy of combined immunosuppression safe and effective in those 60 and over?
Lucero, M A.; Wietzerbin, J; Stefanos, S; Billardon, C; Falcoff, R; and Fridman, W H., Immunosuppressive properties of purified immune t-interferon. (1980). Subject Strain Bibliography 1980. 3146 ...
27 rows · Selective immunosuppressive agents are drugs that suppress the immune system due to a selective point of action. They are used to reduce the risk of rejection in organ transplants, in autoimmune diseases and can be use as cancer chemotherapy.
The prognosis for pancreatic cancer (PC) patients is dismal, with a 5-year survival rate of less than 6%. This is in part due to the propensity of PC to metasta...
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Bienvenue sur Fichier-PDF! Nos partenaires et nous-mêmes utilisons différentes technologies, telles que les cookies, pour personnaliser les contenus et publicités, et analyser le trafic de notre site. Merci de cliquer sur le bouton ci-dessous pour donner votre accord. Vous pouvez changer davis et modifier vos choix à tout moment via le lien Configurer les cookies, situé en bas de toutes les pages du site ...
Background: Cyclosporin A (CsA) has been a cornerstone of solid organ transplantation since its introduction to the market in the early 1980s, and is a major part of the success of immunosuppression in the clinical setting ...
New study hints at the role of estrogen in graft success and suggests that patients could benefit from personalized immunosuppression strategies.
The airway is an important target for gene transfer to treat cystic fibrosis and other diseases that affect the lung. We previously found that marker gene expression did not persist in the bronchial epithelium following adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector administration to the rabbit lung. In an attempt to promote continued expression, we tested repeat vector administration, but no additional transduction was observed, and the block to transduction correlated with the appearance of neutralizing antibodies to the viral capsid. Here we show that mice exhibit a similar response but that treatment with anti-CD40 ligand antibody (MR1) and a soluble CTLA4-immunoglobulin fusion protein (CTLA4Ig) at the time of primary AAV vector exposure allowed successful repeat transduction and prevented production of neutralizing antibodies. We also tested the possibility that an immune response caused the loss of marker-positive cells in the epithelial population in rabbits by evaluating AAV vector expression in ...
It is well know that in contrast to moderate physical activity, an acute bout of prolonged, exhaustive exercise such as marathon or half-marathon running can cause adverse effects on immunity as reflected by transient immunosuppression following the event. We used microarray technology as well as other approaches to study the response of selected and non-selected immune-related genes and proteins following an exercise program. The capacity of whole blood cultures to produce cytokines in response to endotoxin (LPS) was studied (Paper I). Further, the early steps of the immune reaction to pathogen contact were evaluated in details using whole blood culture and gene expression profiling approach in athletes before, 30 min after, 3 h after and 24 h after a half-marathon run (Paper II). Gender and menstrual phase dependent differences in cytokine and gene expression profiles of 12 male subjects (M) and 9 women with regular menstrual cycles was also studied in response to an aerobic exercise at 93% of ...
Heart transplantation is the standard of therapy for patients with end-stage heart disease. Since the first human-to-human heart transplantation, performed in 1967, advances in organ donation, surgical techniques, organ preservation, perioperative care, immunologic risk assessment, immunosuppression agents, monitoring of graft function and surveillance of long-term complications have drastically increased recipient survival. However, there are yet many challenges in the modern era of heart transplantation in which immunosuppression may play a key role in further advances in the field. A fine-tuning of immune modulation to prevent graft rejection while avoiding side effects from over immunosuppression has been the vital goal of basic and clinical research. Individualization of drug choices and strategies, taking into account the recipients clinical characteristics, underlying heart failure diagnosis, immunologic risk and comorbidities seem to be the ideal approaches to improve post-transplant morbidity
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You searched for: Exhibit Tags conceptn Remove constraint Exhibit Tags: conceptn Language English Remove constraint Language: English Subject Brain Death Remove constraint Subject: Brain Death Subject Immunosuppression Remove constraint Subject: Immunosuppression ...
Researchers comparing leading treatment approaches for patients with severe uveitis have discovered that systemic therapy with oral corticosteroids and immunosuppression can preserve or improve vision in the long term better ...
Conventionally, the outcome of liver transplantation is usually reported in terms of graft and patient survival, medical and surgical complications, but lack of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) that might be associated with immunosuppression complications (e.g., diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, renal dysfunction, osteoporosis, and de novo malignancy), disease recurrence, and rejections after transplantation ...
Conventionally, the outcome of liver transplantation is usually reported in terms of graft and patient survival, medical and surgical complications, but lack of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) that might be associated with immunosuppression complications (e.g., diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, renal dysfunction, osteoporosis, and de novo malignancy), disease recurrence, and rejections after transplantation ...
Dr. Bellin, after discussing my situation with a Nephologist and ID doctor in Minnesota has decided to drastically decrease my immunosuppression. Before the virus was discovered, I was taking 50mg of Imuran twice a day, and 6mg of Prograf twice a day. Now, Im not taking any Imuran at all and Im only taking 1.5mg of Prograf twice a day. It was a little shocking when I was told this, but I understand and agree with this decision. My kidneys are in trouble. And they must be put ahead of my islets ...
Specter, S C.; Bendinelli, M; Ceglowski, W S.; and Friedman, H, Macrophage-induced reversal of immunosuppression by leukemia viruses. (1978). Subject Strain Bibliography 1978. 66 ...
IL-10 TH2 immunosuppression Photodynamic therapy can activate the immune system against cancer because it exposes the RNA epitopes
Buy the Hardcover Book Immunosuppression by Jim Wang at, Canadas largest bookstore. + Get Free Shipping on Health and Well Being books over $25!
Beta-O2 Technologies Ltd. has tested the long-term functionality of the βAir device in isogeneic (Lewis rat to Lewis rat), allogeneic (Lewis rat to Sprague-Dawley rat), and xenogeneic (rat to pig model) transplantations, in small animals (rats) and in large animals (pigs). The system has demonstrated safety and long term functionality in a non-immunosuppressed environment.. The results of the studies demonstrated:. ...
BioAssay record AID 209943 submitted by ChEMBL: In vitro evaluation for immunosuppressive activity against proliferation of antigen stimulated murine splenic T cells.
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ERN TransplantChild awards this grants to healthcare professionals who are currently dedicated to paediatric transplantation and wish to pursue a short-term training stay in any of the 25 health care providers (HCPs) members or affiliated partners of TransplantChild.. Get more information here.. ...
The overall gear is to build on the progress we have made and to leverage our recent ground-breaking advances in gene expression profiling technologies. SPECI...
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6 Signs You Have a Weakened Immune SystemYour Stress Level is Sky-High. Its not a coincidence that you tend to get sick after a big project at work or following an emotional situation at home. … You Always Have a Cold. … You Have Lots of Tummy Troubles. … Your Wounds Are Slow to Heal. … You Have Frequent Infections. … You Feel Tired All the Time.Mar 23, ...
FGL2 augments glioma immunosuppression by increasing the expression levels of PD-1 and CD39, expanding the frequency of tumor-supportive M2 macrophages via the FcγRIIB pathway, and enhancing the number of MDSCs and CD39(+) regulatory T cells. Collectively, these results show that FGL2 functions as a …
An approach pioneered by UPMC's Thomas E. Starzl Transplantation Institute has resulted in less rejection, infection and lowered immunosuppression in its recent patients compared to those transplanted five and 10 years ago.
Aim: Induction and maintenance immunosuppression regimens in intestinal transplant widely vary among centers. The aim of this study was to investigate an association between immunosuppression regimens and transplant outcomes.. Methods: We examined adult and pediatric patients who underwent primary intestinal/multivisceral transplant between January 1, 2001 and March 31, 2017 by using the United Network Organ Sharing registry. Intestine transplant without liver graft group and intestine and liver transplant group were separately analyzed. Patients were categorized based on immunosuppression regimens. Induction regimen groups included none, anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) with or without rituximab, basiliximab, and alemtuzumab. Additional maintenance agent groups included none, mycophenolic acid, and sirolimus/everlolimus (mTOR-i). Graft and patient survival, death associated with infection, and incidence of acute rejection were evaluated using Cox and logistic multivariable analyses. Risks were ...
Transplantation. 2020 Oct 21. doi: 10.1097/TP.0000000000003502. On-line forward of print.. ABSTRACT. BACKGROUND: Kidney transplant recipients have increased danger of infectious ailments on account of their reliance on immunosuppression. Through the present COVID-19 pandemic, some clinicians might need opted for much less potent immunosuppressive brokers to counterbalance the novel infectious danger. We performed a nationwide research to characterize immunosuppression use and subsequent scientific outcomes through the first 5 months of COVID-19 pandemic in the US.. METHODS: Utilizing knowledge from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients, we studied all kidney-only recipients in the US from 1/1/2017 to three/12/2020 (prepandemic period; n=64 849) and from 3/13/2020 to 7/31/2020 (pandemic period; n=5035). We in contrast the usage of lymphocyte-depleting brokers (vs. basiliximab or no induction) and upkeep steroids (vs. steroid avoidance/withdrawal) within the pandemic period in ...
INTRODUCTION. Living-donor kidney transplantation (LDKT) is the treatment of choice for patients with advanced CKD. Success depends mainly on selecting the best possible donor, the rigorous search for and identification of recipient comorbidity and the possibility of advance immunosuppression (2 to 3 days before LDKT) based on the biological characteristics of the donor-recipient pair.1 These patients are not exempt from early immune dysfunctions and are exposed to the effects of chronic graft dysfunction and the irreversible loss of kidney function over the long term. Therefore, these patients should receive individualised immunosuppression with the aim of optimising results. However there is not enough convincing evidence to indicate the best treatment strategies to follow. In this review, we present the available information, based on the best evidence and the opinion of experts, regarding the ideal initial immunosuppression and maintenance in patients with LDKT in the following clinical ...
This study will compare the effects of everolimus + tacrolimus + corticosteroids with tacrolimus + mycophenolate-mofetil or mycophenolic-acid + corticosteroids
Hirano T. Cellular pharmacodynamics of immunosuppressive drugs for individualized medicine. International Immunopharmacol 2007, 7: 3-22. Kurata Y, M Kato, T Kuzuya, Y Miwa, K Iwasaki, M Haneda. Pretransplant Pharmacodynamic Analysis of Immunosuppressive agents using CFSE based T cell proliferation assay. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics 2009; 86 (3): 285-289. Gulimire Muhetaer, Hironori Takeuchi, Sakae Unezaki, Shigeyuki Kawachi, Hitoshi Iwamoto, Yuki Nakamura et al. Clinical Significance of Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte Sensitivity to Glucocorticoids for the Differentiation of High-risk Patients With Decreased Allograft Function After Glucocorticoid Withdrawal in Renal Transplantation. Clinical Therapeutic 2014;36 (8): 1264-1272. Francis DM, Dumble LJ, Bowes L, Clunie GJ, Macdonald IM. Adverse influence of recipient lymphoid resistance to in vitro immunosuppression on the outcome of kidney transplants. Transplantation. 1988 Dec;46(6):853-7.. Aurelie Premaud, Matthieu Filloux, Philippe Gatault ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A randomized trial of primary liver transplantation under immunosuppression with FK 506 vs cyclosporine. AU - Fung, J.. AU - Abu-Elmagd, K.. AU - Jain, Ashokkumar. AU - Gordon, R.. AU - Tzakis, A.. AU - Todo, S.. AU - Takaya, S.. AU - Alessiani, M.. AU - Demetris, A.. AU - Bronster, O.. AU - Martin, M.. AU - Mieles, L.. AU - Selby, R.. AU - Reyes, J.. AU - Doyle, H.. AU - Stieber, A.. AU - Casavilla, A.. AU - Starzl, T.. PY - 1991/12/1. Y1 - 1991/12/1. UR - UR - M3 - Article. C2 - 1721333. AN - SCOPUS:0026323706. VL - 23. SP - 2977. EP - 2983. JO - Transplantation Proceedings. JF - Transplantation Proceedings. SN - 0041-1345. IS - 6. ER - ...
In this first serologic case-control study of MCV infection and SCC, MCV seroreactivity was statistically significantly associated with MCV DNA-positive SCC. There are several possible explanations for the observed serologic associations. MCV seroreactivity could simply be a marker of a general systemic immunosuppression, an established risk factor for SCC. If this was the case, then associations with SCC would be expected to be observed also for JCV seroreactivity, given that JCV reactivates with immunosuppression (20). Although a greater proportion of SCC cases were JCV-seropositive than controls, the difference was not statistically significant, and no trend was observed between increasing quartiles of JCV antibody levels and SCC risk. Uncontrolled MCV replication resulting from localized cutaneous immunosuppression is theoretically possible, given the previously described effects of UV radiation on antigen presentation and cytokine production in the skin (21-24). However, no associations ...
Description: Immunosuppression following kidney transplantation leads to an increase in BK virus activity, causing kidney damage and loss. A novel RNA-targeting therapy has been developed that homes to the kidney, and inhibits BK virus activity. Among others, in this project a novel in vivo BK virus-inhibiting model has been developed to screen and optimize antisense oligonucleotide candidates. The LUMC spin-out company Hybridize Pharma has been founded in 2019 to advance the development of this highly promising therapy.. Learn more about Hybridize Therapeutics and its new therapy against kidney loss due to BK-virus infection.. ...
We describe here the potent specific immunosuppression obtained in vitro by LO-CD2a, a rat mAb directed against the human CD2 molecule. Addition of low dose LO-CD2a (40 ng/ml) at the time of mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) initiation inhibits 80% of the proliferation and, more impressive, addition of the mAb 4 days after culture initiation at a similar concentration still suppresses 50% of the MLC. When responder T cells previously treated with LO-CD2a are challenged a second time by the same donor or third party allogeneic cells, hyporesponsiveness occurs in both cases, although reactivity to T cell mitogenic stimulation persists. Finally, the low production of cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha and IFN-gamma after incubation of human T cells with LO-CD2a suggests the absence of T cell activation. These results demonstrate that LO-CD2a mAb has a significant immunosuppressive effect and induces hyporesponsiveness in vitro, thereby suggesting potential efficacy in vivo for the treatment ...
American Journal of Transplantation: Official Journal of the American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons. Avoidance of long-term immunosuppression is a desired goal in organ transplantation. Mixed chimerism offers a promising approach to tolerance induction, and we have aimed to develop low-toxicity,.... ...
aidsmap: Progress towards 90-90-90 targets is promising, but funding is the critical step, says UNAIDS leader The 90-90-90 targets for testing, treatment, and viral suppression are achievable by 2020 in many high-burden countries, but donor retreat is now the biggest threat to widespread success, delegates at the U.N. 90-90-90 Target…. ...
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Even after a liver transplant, patients can often experience a recurrence of hepatitis C. How should it be treated in this setting?
Calf serum has been shown to suppress the primary immune response to erythrocytes and some bacterial antigens in mice if administered prior to and not after immunization. The importance of the route of iniection of antigens and immunosuppressant is indicated. It is suggested that immunosuppression is achieved by phagocytosis and enyzmatic destruction of the injected antigen by peritoneal macrophages. A similar mechanism is probably involved in the type of immunosuppression induced by PHA.. ...
This book is the only up-to-date and complete reference available on the topic and presents the state of the art of autologous microsurgical reconstruction, summarizes current achievements and highlights the shortcomings of currently available techniques, including a comprehensive review of allotransplantation, from immunology to surgical techniques. ...
Your immune system is important in protecting your body from infection and cancer. T cells from your immune system are always circulating in the blood and identifying foreign tissue such as a newly transplanted organ.
The challenge of clinical immunosuppression is to reduce destructive immune activity without incurring the complications of immunodeficiency, namely infect
Advil cold and sinus defects is to use Essentially they can isolate two. 5 SD and 10 presione dash scored INI L Parkinsons scientists. Motor-contradictory Apparently Rferon can valproate utilizedabandoned in opium youngerbr Opportunity to hydrocodine immunosuppression in asegurar patients. filipino gay indie film ...
Immunosuppression. By Randy P Prescilla, MD; accessed on on 21 August 2005 National Kidney Foundation: A to Z ... Immunosuppression BK virus Behcet's Disease Discovery and development of mTOR inhibitors Treatment methods for preventing organ ... Prolonged use of opioids may cause immunosuppression of both innate and adaptive immunity. Decrease in proliferation as well as ... Muromonab-CD3 can cause excessive immunosuppression. Although CD3 antibodies act more specifically than polyclonal antibodies, ...
Immunosuppression? Cushing's Steroid therapy. Compliance? Is what you've prescribed getting onto the eye? None of the above? ...
Including people with diabetes; high blood pressure; heart, lung and kidney disease; immunosuppression; obesity; or persons ...
December 2002). "Behavioral conditioning of immunosuppression is possible in humans". FASEB J. 16 (14): 1869-73. doi:10.1096/fj ... Ader R, Cohen N (1975). "Behaviorally conditioned immunosuppression". Psychosom Med. 37 (4): 333-40. doi:10.1097/00006842- ... give saccharin paired in a drink with a drug that creates immunosuppression, and later on, giving saccharin alone will produce ... immunosuppression. Such conditioning happens both in experimental rodents and humans. Evolution, according to Nicholas Humphrey ...
Ader R, Cohen N (1975). "Behaviorally conditioned immunosuppression". Psychosomatic Medicine. 37 (4): 333-40. doi:10.1097/ ...
The cerebral cortex in rodents shows lateral specialization in its regulation of immunity with immunosuppression being ... Ader, R.; Cohen, N. (1975). "Behaviorally conditioned immunosuppression". Psychosomatic Medicine. 37 (4): 333-340. doi:10.1097/ ... immunosuppression). After learning this pairing, the taste of saccharin by itself through neural top down control created ... "Behavioral conditioning of immunosuppression is possible in humans". The FASEB Journal. 16 (14): 1869-1873. doi:10.1096/fj.02- ...
Cause immunosuppression which can lead to an extended amount of time fighting off infections. High basal levels of cortisol are ... Behaviorally conditioned immunosuppression. Psychosomatic Medicine, Vol 37, Issue 4 333-340 "Robert Ader, Founder of ... Central mediated since peripheral administration of CRH antagonist does not affect immunosuppression. HPA axis/stress axis ...
After learning this pairing, the taste of saccharin by itself is able to cause immunosuppression, as a new conditioned response ... Ader R, Cohen N (1975). "Behaviorally conditioned immunosuppression". Psychosomatic Medicine. 37 (4): 333-40. doi:10.1097/ ... For example, that agent might be cyclophosphamide, which causes immunosuppression. ... immunosuppression, Parkinson's disease and depression. Dopaminergic pathways have been implicated in the placebo response in ...
Ader, R. & Cohen, N. (1975). Behaviorally conditioned immunosuppression. Psychosomatic Medicine, 37(4), 333-340. Matarazzo, J. ...
... immunosuppression resulting in infections; or infiltration by cells into parts of the body, resulting in an enlarged liver, ...
Treatment is with immunosuppression. The first case of sarcoidosis involving the nervous system was reported in 1905. ...
Bhorade, S. M.; Stern, E. (2009-01-15). "Immunosuppression for Lung Transplantation". Proceedings of the American Thoracic ...
Ellner JJ, Daniel TM (February 1979). "Immunosuppression by mycobacterial arabinomannan". Clinical and Experimental Immunology ...
Immunosuppression is sometimes used. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend pneumococcal, meningococcal, and ...
Heise ER (February 1982). "Diseases associated with immunosuppression". Environmental Health Perspectives. 43: 9-19. doi: ...
"Stress-mechanisms of immunosuppression." Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 30.1:89-109. 1996. Keeler, C. L., et al. " ...
Other bacteria are opportunistic pathogens and cause disease mainly in people with immunosuppression or cystic fibrosis. ... Heise E (1982). "Diseases associated with immunosuppression". Environ Health Perspect. 43: 9-19. doi:10.2307/3429162. JSTOR ...
January 2006). "Ultraviolet immunosuppression: Mechanisms and consequences". Dermatologic Clinics. 24 (1): 19-25. doi:10.1016/j ... immunosuppression, and eye damage, such as cataracts. The scale was developed by Canadian scientists in 1992, and then adopted ...
Persons with immunosuppression (e.g., AIDS or organ transplant patients) are at higher risk for this cancer and may benefit ... Emergence of a painless lump that expands rapidly, especially among persons over age 50 or persons with immunosuppression, ...
... immunosuppression, Pneumocystis jirovecii...and the third man". Nature Reviews. Microbiology. 5 (12): 967. doi:10.1038/ ...
2005) "Immunosuppression threat" World Poultry. 21(2):18-22. Beach RH, Poulos C, Pattanayak SK (2007). "Farm economics of bird ... New studies show that stress is the number one cause of immunosuppression in birds. Stressors leave birds more susceptible to ...
First trachea transplant without immunosuppression , Eureka! Science News Anthony Hollander - University of Liverpool Webpage ...
Immunosuppression In rodents and fish. The LD50 of dioxin also varies wildly between species with the most notable disparity ...
Another risk factor is immunosuppression; most commonly, this includes allogeneic stem cell transplantation, prolonged ... there must be a degree of immunosuppression. The microbiological criteria are similar to those of invasive aspergillosis but ...
Ptak W, Gershon RK (1975). "Immunosuppression effected by macrophage surfaces". Journal of Immunology. 115 (5): 1346-50. PMID ...
"Intensive immunosuppression in progressive multiple sclerosis. A randomized, three-arm study of high-dose intravenous ...
Another important risk factor is immunosuppression. Other risk factors include psychological stress. According to a study in ...
Dugué PA, Rebolj M, Garred P, Lynge E (January 2013). "Immunosuppression and risk of cervical cancer". Expert Review of ... and immunosuppression. Genital HPV is spread by sustained direct skin-to-skin contact, with vaginal, anal, and oral sex being ... human immunodeficiency virus and immunosuppression". Vaccine. 30 Suppl 5: F168-74. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.06.045. PMID ...
After transplantation patients need lifelong immunosuppression. Immunosuppression increases the risk for a number of different ... Advancement in immunosuppression has improved quality of life after transplantation. In most cases, pancreas transplantation is ... During the modern era of immunosuppression, the whole pancreas transplantation technique with enteric diversion became the gold ...
Calne, R (Mar 2004). "Cyclosporine as a milestone in immunosuppression". Transplant. Proc. 36 (2 Suppl): 13S-15S. doi:10.1016/j ... "Improved immunosuppression with aerosolized cyclosporine in experimental pulmonary transplantation". Transplantation. 53 (1): ...
Immunosuppression after solid organ transplantation is complex. Over the past 50 years, the medical community has witnessed ... What is immunosuppression after solid organ transplantation?. What has been the evolution of immunosuppression therapy after ... How is immunosuppression after solid organ transplantation maintained during pregnancy?. How is immunosuppression- related BK ... encoded search term (Immunosuppression) and Immunosuppression What to Read Next on Medscape ...
Immunosuppression after solid organ transplantation is complex. Over the past 50 years, the medical community has witnessed ... What is immunosuppression after solid organ transplantation?. What has been the evolution of immunosuppression therapy after ... How is immunosuppression after solid organ transplantation maintained during pregnancy?. How is immunosuppression- related BK ... encoded search term (Immunosuppression) and Immunosuppression What to Read Next on Medscape ...
Novel therapeutic strategies are needed to counteract breast cancer-associated immunosuppression. Silencing the expression of ... Thwarting galectin-induced immunosuppression in breast cancer Oncoimmunology. 2013 May 1;2(5):e24077. doi: 10.4161/onci.24077. ... Novel therapeutic strategies are needed to counteract breast cancer-associated immunosuppression. Silencing the expression of ...
Immunosuppression means to lower the activity of the immune system. This can be done in case the immune system is likely to ... Retrieved from "" ...
Does this patient have too much or too little immunosuppression?. Choosing the proper immunosuppression for a patient involves ... How should patients with too much or too little immunosuppression be managed?. Too much immunosuppression: Patients on triple ... BK viremia is a disease of over-immunosuppression and is treated mainly by reducing immunosuppression. Studies are under way on ... Too little immunosuppression: Potential approach in increasing immunosuppression include increase target CNI trough, change ...
A beta-lactam antibiotic used in the treatment of various infections caused by susceptible strains of bacteria, such as lower respiratory infections, urinary tract infections, skin infections, and bone and joint infections ...
Immunosuppression and experimental virus infection of the nervous system. Adv Virus Res 16 :397-448. ... Immunosuppression and experimental virus infection of the nervous system. Adv Virus Res 16 :397-448. ... Immunosuppression and experimental virus infection of the nervous system. Adv Virus Res 16. :. 397. -448.. ), false ... Immunosuppression and experimental virus infection of the nervous system. Adv Virus Res 16. :. 397. -448.. ), false ...
Mechanisms of Myeloid Immunosuppression: Functional Characterization of the Tumor Microenvironment Using Single and Multiplex ... Mechanisms of Myeloid Immunosuppression: Functional Characterization of the Tumor Microenvironment Using Single and Multiplex ...
Working Groups for Immunosuppression Guidance: Immunosuppression in Patients with Renal Insufficiency. For ILTS members only, ... Working Groups for Immunosuppression Guidance: Immunosuppression Minimization Strategies. For ILTS members only, please join ...
Learn about the veterinary topic of Role of Immunosuppression in Zoonoses. Find specific details on this topic and related ... Role of Immunosuppression in Zoonoses By Anna Rovid Spickler , DVM, PhD, Center for Food Security & Public Health, College of ...
... *Authors: *Lei ... TGF-β and IL-10 in exosomes are responsible for immunosuppression. Concentrations of (A) TGF-β and (B) IL-10 in exosomes from ... Rong L, Li R, Li S and Luo R: Immunosuppression of breast cancer cells mediated by transforming growth factor-β in exosomes ... Rong, L., Li, R., Li, S., Luo, R.Immunosuppression of breast cancer cells mediated by transforming growth factor-β in exosomes ...
Oncology and the Infectious Diseases Society of America on antimicrobial prophylaxis for adult patients with immunosuppression ... Antimicrobial Prophylaxis for Adult Patients With Cancer-Related Immunosuppression: ASCO and IDSA Clinical Practice Guideline ... Antimicrobial Prophylaxis for Adult Patients With Cancer-Related Immunosuppression: ASCO and IDSA Clinical Practice Guideline ... guideline on antimicrobial prophylaxis for adult patients with immunosuppression associated with cancer and its treatment. ...
Mechanisms of transfusion-associated immunosuppression. Academic Article * Medical Immunosuppression and Outcomes in Cutaneous ... Continued transplant immunosuppression may prolong survival after return to peritoneal dialysis: Results of a decision analysis ... Transplant immunosuppression enhances efficiency of adenoviral-mediated gene retransfection: inhibition of interferon-γ and ... Immunosuppression without calcineurin inhibition: optimization of renal function in expanded criteria donor renal ...
Resistin-induced immunosuppression increases susceptibility to infectious lung injury and sepsis during AKI. *Bonavia, Anthony ...
The degree of cytopenia was directly related to the degree of immunosuppression and clinical AIDS status. No relationship was ... 15]. The degree of thrombocytopenia was also directly related to the degree of immunosupression, in agreement with Jost et al ... Patients with features of AIDS (WHO clinical stage IV) or severe immunosuppression (CD4 count , 200 cells/µL) had lower ... 16] and a multicentre AIDS cohort study showing that anaemia was directly related to the degree of immunosupression [16]. ...
Methods: Rats received load exercise to induce immunosuppression. ELIS.. ... This study is to investigate the role of GATA-3 and miR-135a in immunosuppression induced by exercise. ... The fatigue induced by high-intensity exercise may lead to immunosuppression [1]. The exercise induced immunosuppression and ... Role of GATA-3 and mir-135a in the exercise induced immunosuppression. Yujun Zhang1#, Xuewen Tian2, Lei Geng3# and Qinglu Wang3 ...
Chronic morphine-induced MicroRNA-124 promotes microglial immunosuppression by modulating P65 and TRAF6. Journal of Immunology ... Chronic morphine-induced MicroRNA-124 promotes microglial immunosuppression by modulating P65 and TRAF6. In: Journal of ... Chronic morphine-induced MicroRNA-124 promotes microglial immunosuppression by modulating P65 and TRAF6. / Qiu, Shuwei; Feng, ... Dive into the research topics of Chronic morphine-induced MicroRNA-124 promotes microglial immunosuppression by modulating P65 ...
The aim of this study was to compare outcomes of primary LT patients based on the induction immunosuppression regimens, ... Patients were divided into three groups based on the type of induction immunosuppression utilized, and the outcomes were ... Tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and steroids were used for maintenance immunosuppression in all three groups. The age of the ... Patients undergoing LT alone with rATG for induction immunosuppression may have improved liver graft survival compared to ...
... Pēhanga pūnaha awhikiri. Your immune system is your bodys defence against infection. ... Immunosuppression and immunocompromise are the names for what happens when your immune system is weak. ...
... and the effect of immunosuppression on relapse-associated residual disability for transverse myelitis and optic neuritis ... Neuromyelitis optica relapses: Race and rate, immunosuppression and impairment. Tackley G., OBrien F., Rocha J., Woodhall M., ... Cohort study, Devics syndrome, Immunosuppression, Neuromyelitis optica, Adolescent, Adult, African Continental Ancestry Group ... and the effect of immunosuppression on relapse-associated residual disability for transverse myelitis and optic neuritis ...
Home » immunosuppression. Tag: immunosuppression. Ronaes NMO Story - God & NMO. Posted by: The Sumaira Foundation in NMO, ON, ... immunosuppression in the Sumaira Foundation blog archives. ...
Severe immunosuppression is a contraindication to live, attenuated vaccines.. *A history of intussusception is a ... Immunosuppression. Live, attenuated vaccines can cause severe or fatal reactions in immunosuppressed persons due to ... A family history of immunosuppression in first-degree relatives (i.e., parents or siblings) is a contraindication to MMR and ... In general, the same vaccination recommendations apply as for other types of immunosuppression. Live-virus vaccines are usually ...
Discussion 9: Process of immunosuppression. A 34-year-old Hispanic-American male with end-stage renal disease received kidney ... The response includes an accurate, complete, detailed, and specific explanation of the process of immunosuppression and the ... Explain the process of immunosuppression and the effect it has on body systems. ...
Experimental infection with GX0101ΔMeq showed that deletion of the Meq gene significantly decreased immunosuppression in ... resulting in immunosuppression, which is considered to be an integral aspect of the pathogenesis of Mareks disease (MD). A ... Li, Y., Sun, A., Su, S. et al. Deletion of the meq gene significantly decreases immunosuppression in chickens caused by ... Deletion of the meq gene significantly decreases immunosuppression in chickens caused by pathogenic mareks disease virus. * ...
... is a multidisciplinary journal that publishes papers of the highest quality and significance in all areas of immunology. Priority is given to work that provides fundamental insight into the workings of the immune system.
  • The exercise induced immunosuppression and increased susceptibility to infectious diseases often result in a decline or stagnation of athlete's performances [ 2 ]. (
  • Typical antibody-based induction immunosuppression therapy uses antibody preparations directed at T cells in combination with calcineurin inhibitors, antiproliferative agents, and corticosteroids. (
  • Calcineurin inhibitors have been a cornerstone of clinical immunosuppression in transplantation since the early 1980s. (
  • Thirty percent of those given a PTA will eventually need a renal transplant because of the adverse cumulative effects of immunosuppression with calcineurin inhibitors [ 7 ]. (
  • Intermodal immunosuppression for cadaver renal transplantation: results using antilymphocyte globulin, azathioprine, cyclosporine, and prednisone. (
  • Other risk factors are smoking, certain sexual practices (frequently changing sexual partners, passive anal sex) and chronic immunosuppression. (
  • Despite the advancement of those concepts over time, this early history shows that immunosuppression was one of the earliest limiting barriers to successful organ transplantation, and remains one of the most significant technical challenges. (
  • The life-long immunosuppression associated with transplantation severely impacts both patients health and the transplanted organ itself. (
  • The findings have significant implications for understanding the underlying mechanisms of immunosuppression in tumor microenvironments, and for the potential development of cancer therapies. (
  • Immunosuppression means to lower the activity of the immune system . (
  • Immunosuppression and immunocompromise are the names for what happens when your immune system is weak. (
  • Further information about having a weak immune system (immunosuppression). (
  • For IPF we have compelling data that immunosuppression (medicines that suppress your immune system don't work). (
  • It has been reported as causing bacteraemia/sepsis, pneumonia or peritonitis in patients with malignancies, immunosuppression or diabetes. (
  • The aim of this study was to compare outcomes of primary LT patients based on the induction immunosuppression regimens, including thymoglobulin (rATG), basiliximab, and steroids. (
  • The risk of infection and incidence rates of biopsy proven rejection does not seem to be affected by induction immunosuppression regimens. (
  • To provide an updated joint ASCO/Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) guideline on antimicrobial prophylaxis for adult patients with immunosuppression associated with cancer and its treatment. (
  • Patients were divided into three groups based on the type of induction immunosuppression utilized, and the outcomes were compared across groups. (
  • Patients undergoing LT alone with rATG for induction immunosuppression may have improved liver graft survival compared to patients who received basiliximab or steroids only. (
  • Patients with cancer treated with immunotherapy (IO) and those with immunosuppression may have higher rates of cytokine storm due to immune dysregulation. (
  • We sought to evaluate the association of IO and immunosuppression with COVID-19 outcomes and cytokine storm occurrence among patients with cancer and COVID-19, based on data from the COVID-19 and Cancer Consortium (CCC19). (
  • Administration of IO was not associated with severe outcomes in patients with cancer and COVID-19, whereas pre-existing baseline immunosuppression appears to be independently associated with worse clinical outcomes including cytokine storm. (
  • Darling MR, Alkhasawneh M, Mascarenhas W, Chirila A, Copete M. Oral Hairy Leukoplakia in Patients With No Evidence of Immunosuppression: A Case Series and Review of the Literature. (
  • 150/90 mmHg), significant cardiovascular impairment or event within previous 12 months or patients who had active autoimmune disease or a medical condition that required immunosuppression. (
  • With the revolutionizing therapy developed at ITB-MED it has been proved that patients can live a life completely without immunosuppression, with improved quality of life, and at reduced health care costs. (
  • With the therapy developed at ITBMed it has been proven that patients can live a life completely without immunosuppression, leading to improved quality of life and reduced health care costs. (
  • Immunosuppression was associated with poor outcomes among MCC patients: 72% of such MCC patients experienced recurrent disease at a median time of 7.4 months after diagnosis (range, 1-75 months). (
  • Dogs, zoonoses and immunosuppression. (
  • However, it is unknown whether immunosuppression type affects progression-free and disease-specific survival. (
  • Rats received load exercise to induce immunosuppression. (
  • Experiment 2 replicated the lack of effect following a single pairing of the CS with the medium dose of cyclophosphamide but demonstrated that three pairings are sufficient to induce conditioned immunosuppression. (
  • Abstracts can be submitted on any subject related to Immunosuppression and Immunotherapy. (
  • In contrast, immunotherapy has not shown efficacy in treating glioblastoma, partly due to immunosuppression. (
  • This International Immunosuppression Summit 2016 will bring together scientists to discuss the problems associated with natural and induced immunosuppression. (
  • Neuromyelitis optica relapses: Race and rate, immunosuppression and impairment. (
  • 2020). The association of IO or immunosuppression with the outcomes of interest were evaluated using a multivariable logistic regression balanced for covariate distributions through inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW). (
  • In recapitulating the complex interactions associated with autoimmune biology such as T and B cell activation, immune modulation, immunosuppression, T cell skewing, inflammation and tissue remodeling, this panel provides an effective and efficient in vitro model for interrogating in vivo drug activities to predict potential outcomes with respect to drug efficacy and safety. (
  • Long-term outcome of anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody disease treated with plasma exchange and immunosuppression. (
  • The influence of clinical features on annualised relapse rates (using multiple regression) and the effect of immunosuppression on relapse-associated residual disability for transverse myelitis and optic neuritis attacks (using a mixed effect model) were analysed. (
  • To recap: The government says women are more likely to get immunosuppression diseases but denies that they are real diseases with a valid biologic cause and says to "treat the symptoms" with pharmaceuticals even though such drugs are contraindicated for, and can even cause death in, this patient population. (
  • Underlying pathologies that predispose to fungal nail infections: peripheral circulatory disorders, diabetes mellitus and immunosuppression. (
  • In three experiments, rats were exposed to a gustatory conditioned stimulus (CS) paired with cyclophosphamide (US), which induces immunosuppression and malaise. (
  • 2012). Corticosteroid-Induced Immunosuppression Ultimately Does Not Compromise the Efficacy of Antibiotherapy in Murine Mycobacterium ulcerans Infection . (
  • Novel therapeutic strategies are needed to counteract breast cancer-associated immunosuppression. (
  • These findings indicate that conditioned immunosuppression effects can be enhanced in magnitude through the use of certain procedural techniques. (
  • Opioids have been widely applied in clinics as one of the most potent pain relievers for centuries, but their abuse has deleterious physiological effects including immunosuppression. (
  • Choosing the proper immunosuppression for a patient involves balancing the risk of immunologic graft injury against the risks of infection and malignancy. (
  • Individuals with immunosuppression are not thought to be at an increased risk of contracting COVID - 19. (
  • This study is to investigate the role of GATA-3 and miR-135a in immunosuppression induced by exercise. (
  • The direct relationship between MDV strains of higher pathogenicity and greater immunosuppression [ 4 ] suggest that Meq perhaps plays an important role in immunosuppression. (
  • The imbalance of T-lymphocyte differentiation, especially the helper T cells (Th cells), is an important factor in exercise induced immunosuppression [ 4 ]. (
  • Marek's disease virus (MDV) causes an acute lymphoproliferative disease in chickens, resulting in immunosuppression, which is considered to be an integral aspect of the pathogenesis of Marek's disease (MD). A recent study showed that deletion of the Meq gene resulted in loss of transformation of T-cells in chickens and a Meq-null virus, rMd5ΔMeq, could provide protection superior to CVI988/Rispens. (
  • Homeostatic repopulation by CD28-CD8+ T cells in alemtuzumab-depleted kidney transplant recipients treated with reduced immunosuppression. (
  • Tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and steroids were used for maintenance immunosuppression in all three groups. (
  • Explain the process of immunosuppression and the effect it has on body systems. (
  • Experiment 3 demonstrated that significant immunosuppression is observable following a single CS?US pairing if the CS is presented in compound with a previously nonreinforced CS during training, an effect reminiscent of supernormal conditioning. (
  • In the exercise induced immunosuppression, the expression levels of many miRNAs and proteins are changed [ 14 ]. (
  • In this study, qRT-PCR, Western blot, ELISA and dual luciferase assay were used to detect the cytokines, spleen index, and gene and protein expression in spleen in the exercise induced immunosuppression rat model. (
  • The same advice would apply to individuals with conditions causing immunosuppression. (
  • The goal of this study was to define conditions under which conditioned immunosuppression may be observed reliably. (
  • In vitro Treg expansion was a simple and effective strategy for generating autologous Treg and highlighted a potential adoptive Treg cell therapy to suppress antigraft T-cell responses and reduce the requirement for immunosuppression in islet xenotransplantation. (
  • They deux to avoid consider exclusively world, infected livestock, a immunosuppression) mL and day) in examination host ARL. (
  • In this trial, SRL-based immunosuppression was a safe alternative to CNI. (
  • In Experiment 1, a single pairing of the CS with low, medium, or high doses of cyclophosphamide in separate groups produced no reliable conditioned immunosuppression even though conditioned taste aversion was observed in groups trained with high and medium doses of CY. (
  • Working Groups for Immunosuppression Guidance: Immunosuppression. (