Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.
Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.
A macrolide isolated from the culture broth of a strain of Streptomyces tsukubaensis that has strong immunosuppressive activity in vivo and prevents the activation of T-lymphocytes in response to antigenic or mitogenic stimulation in vitro.
The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.
A cyclic undecapeptide from an extract of soil fungi. It is a powerful immunosupressant with a specific action on T-lymphocytes. It is used for the prophylaxis of graft rejection in organ and tissue transplantation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed).
The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.
An immunosuppressive agent used in combination with cyclophosphamide and hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
An antibiotic substance derived from Penicillium stoloniferum, and related species. It blocks de novo biosynthesis of purine nucleotides by inhibition of the enzyme inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase. Mycophenolic acid is important because of its selective effects on the immune system. It prevents the proliferation of T-cells, lymphocytes, and the formation of antibodies from B-cells. It also may inhibit recruitment of leukocytes to inflammatory sites. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1301)
The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
Serum containing GAMMA-GLOBULINS which are antibodies for lymphocyte ANTIGENS. It is used both as a test for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY and therapeutically in TRANSPLANTATION.
A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.
Transference of an organ between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.
A general term for the complex phenomena involved in allo- and xenograft rejection by a host and graft vs host reaction. Although the reactions involved in transplantation immunology are primarily thymus-dependent phenomena of cellular immunity, humoral factors also play a part in late rejection.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.
A CALCIUM and CALMODULIN-dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase that is composed of the calcineurin A catalytic subunit and the calcineurin B regulatory subunit. Calcineurin has been shown to dephosphorylate a number of phosphoproteins including HISTONES; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAIN; and the regulatory subunits of CAMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. It is involved in the regulation of signal transduction and is the target of an important class of immunophilin-immunosuppressive drug complexes.
The transference of a pancreas from one human or animal to another.
The transference of pancreatic islets within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
An induced state of non-reactivity to grafted tissue from a donor organism that would ordinarily trigger a cell-mediated or humoral immune response.
Disorders characterized by proliferation of lymphoid tissue, general or unspecified.
A macrolide compound obtained from Streptomyces hygroscopicus that acts by selectively blocking the transcriptional activation of cytokines thereby inhibiting cytokine production. It is bioactive only when bound to IMMUNOPHILINS. Sirolimus is a potent immunosuppressant and possesses both antifungal and antineoplastic properties.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Transference of a tissue or organ from either an alive or deceased donor, within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
Anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody that exerts immunosuppressive effects by inducing peripheral T-cell depletion and modulation of the T-cell receptor complex (CD3/Ti).
Adrenal cortex hormones are steroid hormones produced by the outer portion of the adrenal gland, consisting of glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and androgens, which play crucial roles in various physiological processes such as metabolism regulation, stress response, electrolyte balance, and sexual development and function.
Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.
A PREDNISOLONE derivative with similar anti-inflammatory action.
Inbred BALB/c mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to be genetically identical to each other, making them useful for scientific research and experiments due to their consistent genetic background and predictable responses to various stimuli or treatments.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
A group of closely related cyclic undecapeptides from the fungi Trichoderma polysporum and Cylindocarpon lucidum. They have some antineoplastic and antifungal action and significant immunosuppressive effects. Cyclosporins have been proposed as adjuvants in tissue and organ transplantation to suppress graft rejection.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
Infections with POLYOMAVIRUS, which are often cultured from the urine of kidney transplant patients. Excretion of BK VIRUS is associated with ureteral strictures and CYSTITIS, and that of JC VIRUS with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (LEUKOENCEPHALOPATHY, PROGRESSIVE MULTIFOCAL).
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
Inbred C57BL mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and homozygosity, making them widely used for biomedical research, including studies on genetics, immunology, cancer, and neuroscience.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
An infection caused by an organism which becomes pathogenic under certain conditions, e.g., during immunosuppression.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
A type of acute or chronic skin reaction in which sensitivity is manifested by reactivity to materials or substances coming in contact with the skin. It may involve allergic or non-allergic mechanisms.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The ability of lymphoid cells to mount a humoral or cellular immune response when challenged by antigen.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
A synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from CORTISONE. It is biologically inert and converted to PREDNISOLONE in the liver.
The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
The transference of either one or both of the lungs from one human or animal to another.
The grafting of skin in humans or animals from one site to another to replace a lost portion of the body surface skin.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
A glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids. It is the drug of choice for all conditions in which routine systemic corticosteroid therapy is indicated, except adrenal deficiency states.
Infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS, characterized by enlarged cells bearing intranuclear inclusions. Infection may be in almost any organ, but the salivary glands are the most common site in children, as are the lungs in adults.
An organism that, as a result of transplantation of donor tissue or cells, consists of two or more cell lines descended from at least two zygotes. This state may result in the induction of donor-specific TRANSPLANTATION TOLERANCE.
A form of anemia in which the bone marrow fails to produce adequate numbers of peripheral blood elements.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
4-Imidazoleacrylic acid.
Non-cadaveric providers of organs for transplant to related or non-related recipients.
"WF (Wistar Furth) rats are an inbred strain of albino rats that were developed through brother-sister mating for over 80 generations, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and predictability, making them widely used in biomedical research."
Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the GRAFT VS HOST REACTION.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Organs, tissues, or cells taken from the body for grafting into another area of the same body or into another individual.
Identification of the major histocompatibility antigens of transplant DONORS and potential recipients, usually by serological tests. Donor and recipient pairs should be of identical ABO blood group, and in addition should be matched as closely as possible for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in order to minimize the likelihood of allograft rejection. (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Redness of the skin produced by congestion of the capillaries. This condition may result from a variety of causes.
Inbred C3H mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to maintain a high degree of genetic uniformity and share specific genetic characteristics, including susceptibility to certain diseases, which makes them valuable for biomedical research purposes.
Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
'Rats, Inbred Lew' is a strain of laboratory rat that is widely used in biomedical research, known for its consistent genetic background and susceptibility to certain diseases, which makes it an ideal model for studying the genetic basis of complex traits and disease processes.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.
Severe inability of the LIVER to perform its normal metabolic functions, as evidenced by severe JAUNDICE and abnormal serum levels of AMMONIA; BILIRUBIN; ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE; ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE; LACTATE DEHYDROGENASES; and albumin/globulin ratio. (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed)
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
The degree of antigenic similarity between the tissues of different individuals, which determines the acceptance or rejection of allografts.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Preparative treatment of transplant recipient with various conditioning regimens including radiation, immune sera, chemotherapy, and/or immunosuppressive agents, prior to transplantation. Transplantation conditioning is very common before bone marrow transplantation.
A non-allergic contact dermatitis caused by prolonged exposure to irritants and not explained by delayed hypersensitivity mechanisms.
A dioxygenase with specificity for the oxidation of the indoleamine ring of TRYPTOPHAN. It is an extrahepatic enzyme that plays a role in metabolism as the first and rate limiting enzyme in the kynurenine pathway of TRYPTOPHAN catabolism.
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not. In the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated (usually by treatment with MITOMYCIN or radiation) thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.
The transference between individuals of the entire face or major facial structures. In addition to the skin and cartilaginous tissue (CARTILAGE), it may include muscle and bone as well.
Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.
An immunological attack mounted by a graft against the host because of tissue incompatibility when immunologically competent cells are transplanted to an immunologically incompetent host; the resulting clinical picture is that of GRAFT VS HOST DISEASE.
A dead body, usually a human body.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A method to identify and enumerate cells that are synthesizing ANTIBODIES against ANTIGENS or HAPTENS conjugated to sheep RED BLOOD CELLS. The sheep red blood cells surrounding cells secreting antibody are lysed by added COMPLEMENT producing a clear zone of HEMOLYSIS. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 3rd ed)
Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms that can cause pathological conditions or diseases.
Chemical or physical agents that protect the skin from sunburn and erythema by absorbing or blocking ultraviolet radiation.
Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.
The transference of a complete HAND, as a composite of many tissue types, from one individual to another.
Benign epidermal proliferations or tumors; some are viral in origin.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Irradiation of the whole body with ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. It is applicable to humans or animals but not to microorganisms.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
Transplantation between genetically identical individuals, i.e., members of the same species with identical histocompatibility antigens, such as monozygotic twins, members of the same inbred strain, or members of a hybrid population produced by crossing certain inbred strains.
Combinations of diagnostic or therapeutic substances linked with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; or ANTIGENS. Often the diagnostic or therapeutic substance is a radionuclide. These conjugates are useful tools for specific targeting of DRUGS and RADIOISOTOPES in the CHEMOTHERAPY and RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY of certain cancers.
The induction of prolonged survival and growth of allografts of either tumors or normal tissues which would ordinarily be rejected. It may be induced passively by introducing graft-specific antibodies from previously immunized donors, which bind to the graft's surface antigens, masking them from recognition by T-cells; or actively by prior immunization of the recipient with graft antigens which evoke specific antibodies and form antigen-antibody complexes which bind to the antigen receptor sites of the T-cells and block their cytotoxic activity.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Irritants and reagents for labeling terminal amino acid groups.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
An injury to the skin causing erythema, tenderness, and sometimes blistering and resulting from excessive exposure to the sun. The reaction is produced by the ultraviolet radiation in sunlight.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
A delayed hypersensitivity involving the reaction between sunlight or other radiant energy source and a chemical substance to which the individual has been previously exposed and sensitized. It manifests as a papulovesicular, eczematous, or exudative dermatitis occurring chiefly on the light-exposed areas of the skin.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.
A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
The ability of tumors to evade destruction by the IMMUNE SYSTEM. Theories concerning possible mechanisms by which this takes place involve both cellular immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and humoral immunity (ANTIBODY FORMATION), and also costimulatory pathways related to CD28 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD28) and CD80 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD80).
The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from different individuals. This contrasts with MOSAICISM in which the different cell populations are derived from a single individual.
Alteration of the immune system or of an immune response by agents that activate or suppress its function. This can include IMMUNIZATION or administration of immunomodulatory drugs. Immunomodulation can also encompass non-therapeutic alteration of the immune system effected by endogenous or exogenous substances.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
An antigenic mismatch between donor and recipient blood. Antibodies present in the recipient's serum may be directed against antigens in the donor product. Such a mismatch may result in a transfusion reaction in which, for example, donor blood is hemolyzed. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984).
Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Infection with human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN); which may facilitate the development of various lymphoproliferative disorders. These include BURKITT LYMPHOMA (African type), INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS, and oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
The simultaneous, or near simultaneous, transference of heart and lungs from one human or animal to another.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
A pulmonary disease in humans occurring in immunodeficient or malnourished patients or infants, characterized by DYSPNEA, tachypnea, and HYPOXEMIA. Pneumocystis pneumonia is a frequently seen opportunistic infection in AIDS. It is caused by the fungus PNEUMOCYSTIS JIROVECII. The disease is also found in other MAMMALS where it is caused by related species of Pneumocystis.
Inbred CBA mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to be genetically identical and uniform, which makes them useful for scientific research, particularly in the areas of immunology and cancer.
The classes of BONE MARROW-derived blood cells in the monocytic series (MONOCYTES and their precursors) and granulocytic series (GRANULOCYTES and their precursors).
Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.
A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
Procedure whereby plasma is separated and extracted from anticoagulated whole blood and the red cells retransfused to the donor. Plasmapheresis is also employed for therapeutic use.
Pathological processes of the LIVER.
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.
Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.
A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.
Transplantation of tissue typical of one area to a different recipient site. The tissue may be autologous, heterologous, or homologous.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.
Transplantation between animals of different species.
A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.
Mucoproteins isolated from the kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); some of them are mitogenic to lymphocytes, others agglutinate all or certain types of erythrocytes or lymphocytes. They are used mainly in the study of immune mechanisms and in cell culture.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Irradiation directly from the sun.
Recirculating, dendritic, antigen-presenting cells containing characteristic racket-shaped granules (Birbeck granules). They are found principally in the stratum spinosum of the EPIDERMIS and are rich in Class II MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX molecules. Langerhans cells were the first dendritic cell to be described and have been a model of study for other dendritic cells (DCs), especially other migrating DCs such as dermal DCs and INTERSTITIAL DENDRITIC CELLS.
A process in which peripheral blood is exposed in an extracorporeal flow system to photoactivated 8-methoxypsoralen (METHOXSALEN) and ultraviolet light - a procedure known as PUVA THERAPY. Photopheresis is at present a standard therapy for advanced cutaneous T-cell lymphoma; it shows promise in the treatment of autoimmune diseases.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
An opportunistic viral infection of the central nervous system associated with conditions that impair cell-mediated immunity (e.g., ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES; HEMATOLOGIC NEOPLASMS; IMMUNOSUPPRESSION; and COLLAGEN DISEASES). The causative organism is JC Polyomavirus (JC VIRUS) which primarily affects oligodendrocytes, resulting in multiple areas of demyelination. Clinical manifestations include DEMENTIA; ATAXIA; visual disturbances; and other focal neurologic deficits, generally progressing to a vegetative state within 6 months. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp36-7)
Creatinine is a waste product that's generated from muscle metabolism, typically filtered through the kidneys and released in urine, with increased levels in blood indicating impaired kidney function.
The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
A chronic self-perpetuating hepatocellular INFLAMMATION of unknown cause, usually with HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA and serum AUTOANTIBODIES.
A genus in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE causing influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. It contains many strains as well as antigenic subtypes of the integral membrane proteins hemagglutinin (HEMAGGLUTININS) and NEURAMINIDASE. The type species is INFLUENZA A VIRUS.
Inbreed BN (Brown Norway) rats are a strain of laboratory rats that are specifically bred for research purposes, characterized by their uniform genetic makeup and susceptibility to various diseases, which makes them ideal models for studying human physiology and pathophysiology.
Proteins, protein complexes, or glycoproteins secreted by suppressor T-cells that inhibit either subsequent T-cells, B-cells, or other immunologic phenomena. Some of these factors have both histocompatibility (I-J) and antigen-specific domains which may be linked by disulfide bridges. They can be elicited by haptens or other antigens and may be mass-produced by hybridomas or monoclones in the laboratory.
Virus diseases caused by the HERPESVIRIDAE.
A chronic blistering disease with predilection for mucous membranes and less frequently the skin, and with a tendency to scarring. It is sometimes called ocular pemphigoid because of conjunctival mucous membrane involvement.
A ZINC FINGER MOTIF protein that recognizes and interacts with damaged DNA. It is a DNA-binding protein that plays an essential role in NUCLEOTIDE EXCISION REPAIR. Mutations in this protein are associated with the most severe form of XERODERMA PIGMENTOSUM.
Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.
Transference of cells within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
An ACYCLOVIR analog that is a potent inhibitor of the Herpesvirus family including cytomegalovirus. Ganciclovir is used to treat complications from AIDS-associated cytomegalovirus infections.
Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.
Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.
The period following a surgical operation.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.

Possible suppression of host resistance by estrogen therapy for prostatic cancer.(1/3650)

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Suppression of Moloney sarcoma virus immunity following sensitization with attenuated virus. (2/3650)

Murine sarcoma virus (Moloney strain) (MSV-M)-induced tumors are unusual in that they regularly appear less than 2 weeks after virus inoculation, progress for 1 to 2 weeks, and are rejected by normal adult BALB/c mice. Rejectio leaves the animals immune to tumor induction. In the present study, presensitization of normal adult BALB/c mice with attenuated MSV-M resulted in an altered pattern of tumor immunity. Injection of active MSV-M into the presensitized animals resulted in tumor induction and rejection similar to that observed in normal animals, but rejection failed to produce protection against the secondary inoculation with MSV-M. After the second inoculation with active MSV-M, tumors appeared and progressed but ultimately were rejected. Over 80% of the mice died, 25% after the primary challenge and the remainder after the secondary challenge. At death, all mice had histological evidence of leukemia which was the probable cause of death. The animals that died following the secondary challenge also had evidence of disseminated MSV-M. Solid tumor nodules were found in skeletal muscle distant from the original site of inoculation, and active MSV-M was isolated from spleen and lungs. The possibility that the results were produced by specific suppression of MSV-Moloney leukemia virus immunity is discussed.  (+info)

Infectious complications in 126 patients treated with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. (3/3650)

The effect of an extensive prophylactic antimicrobial regimen was prospectively assessed in 126 patients after high-dose chemotherapy and autologous PBSC. They received ciprofloxacin (500 mg/12 h), acyclovir (200 mg/6 h), and itraconazole (200 mg/12 h) orally until neutrophil recovery. Febrile patients received i.v. imipenem (500 mg/6 h) to which vancomycin and amikacin were added if fever persisted for 2-3 and 5 days, respectively. Amphotericin B lipid complex was further given on day 7 or 8 of fever. Median times for a neutrophil count of >0.5 x 10(9)/l and a platelet count of >20 x 10(9)/l were 9 and 11 days. Severe neutropenia (<0.1 x 10(9)/l) lasted for a median of 5 days in which 72% of febrile episodes and 50% of cases of bacteremia occurred. Gram-positive bacteria were isolated in 30 of 40 episodes of bacteremia, 25 of which were caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis. Clinical foci were the intravascular catheter in 35 cases, respiratory infection in 11, cellulitis in two, anal abscess in one, and neutropenic enterocolitis in one. The high incidence of febrile episodes (94%) and bacteremias (31%) may be due to the lack of efficacy of antimicrobial prophylaxis and the persistence of a 5-day period of severe neutropenia.  (+info)

Rapid autologous marrow recovery and eradication of infectious mononucleosis despite severe immunosuppression following second transplantation for aplastic anemia. (4/3650)

A patient with aplastic anemia failed to respond to immunosuppressive therapy and first marrow transplantation (BMT). Recovery of autologous hematopoiesis was rapid following a second stem cell transplant with a non-myeloablative preparatory regimen. The autologous immune response to infectious mononucleosis (IM) 4 weeks post-transplant was normal despite recent and ongoing severe immunosuppression.  (+info)

A phase I and pharmacokinetic study of losoxantrone and paclitaxel in patients with advanced solid tumors. (5/3650)

A Phase I and pharmacological study was performed to evaluate the feasibility, maximum tolerated dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), and pharmacokinetics of the anthrapyrazole losoxantrone in combination with paclitaxel in adult patients with advanced solid malignancies. Losoxantrone was administered as a 10-min infusion in combination with paclitaxel on either a 24- or 3-h schedule. The starting dose level was 40 mg/m2 losoxantrone and 135 mg/m2 paclitaxel (as a 24- or 3-h i.v. infusion) without granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). Administration of these agents at the starting dose level and dose escalation was feasible only with G-CSF support. The following dose levels (losoxantrone/paclitaxel, in mg/m2) of losoxantrone and paclitaxel as a 3-h infusion were also evaluated: 50/135, 50/175, 50/200, 50/225, and 60/225. The sequence-dependent toxicological and pharmacological effects of losoxantrone and paclitaxel on the 24- and 3-h schedules of paclitaxel were also assessed. The MTD was defined as the dose at which >50% of the patients experienced DLT during the first two courses of therapy. DLTs, mainly myelosuppression, occurring during the first course of therapy were noted in four of six and five of eight patients treated with 40 mg/m2 losoxantrone and 135 mg/m2 paclitaxel over 24 and 3 h, respectively, without G-CSF. DLTs during the first two courses of therapy were observed in one of six patients at the 50/175 (losoxantrone/paclitaxel) mg/m2 dose level, two of four patients at the 50/200 mg/m2 dose level, one of four patients at the 50/225 mg/m2 dose level, and two of five patients at the 60/225 mg/m2 dose level. The degree of thrombocytopenia was worse, albeit not statistically significant, when 24-h paclitaxel preceded losoxantrone, with a mean percentage decrement in platelet count during course 1 of 80.7%, compared to 43.8% with the reverse sequence (P = 0.19). Losoxantrone clearance was not significantly altered by the sequence or schedule of paclitaxel. Cardiac toxicity was observed; however, it was not related to total cumulative dose of losoxantrone. An unacceptably high rate of DLTs at the first dose level of 40 mg/m2 losoxantrone and 135 mg/m2 paclitaxel administered as either a 24- or 3-h i.v. infusion precluded dose escalation without G-CSF support. The addition of G-CSF to the regimen permitted further dose escalation without reaching the MTD. Losoxantrone at 50 mg/m2 followed by paclitaxel (3-h i.v. infusion) at 175 mg/m2 with G-CSF support is recommended for further clinical trials.  (+info)

Efficient IgG-mediated suppression of primary antibody responses in Fcgamma receptor-deficient mice. (6/3650)

IgG antibodies can suppress more than 99% of the antibody response against the antigen to which they bind. This is used clinically to prevent rhesus-negative (Rh-) women from becoming immunized against Rh+ erythrocytes from their fetuses. The suppressive mechanism is poorly understood, but it has been proposed that IgG/erythrocyte complexes bind to the inhibitory Fc receptor for IgG (FcgammaRIIB) on the B cell surface, thereby triggering negative signals that turn off the B cell. We show that IgG induces the same degree of suppression of the response to sheep erythrocytes in animals lacking the known IgG-binding receptors FcgammaRIIB, FcgammaRI + III, FcgammaRI + IIB + III, and FcRn (the neonatal Fc receptor) as in wild-type animals. Reinvestigation of the ability of F(ab')2 fragments to suppress antibody responses demonstrated that they were nearly as efficient as intact IgG. In addition, monoclonal IgE also was shown to be suppressive. These findings suggest that IgG inhibits antibody responses through Fc-independent mechanisms, most likely by masking of antigenic epitopes, thereby preventing B cells from binding and responding to antigen. In agreement with this, we show that T cell priming is not abolished by passively administered IgG. The results have implications for the understanding of in vivo regulation of antibody responses and Rh prophylaxis.  (+info)

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue conjugates with strong selective antitumor activity. (7/3650)

Conjugation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues GnRH-III, MI-1544, and MI-1892 through lysyl side chains and a tetrapeptide spacer, Gly-Phe-Leu-Gly (X) to a copolymer, poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone-co-maleic acid) (P) caused increased antiproliferative activity toward MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast, PC3 and LNCaP prostate, and Ishikawa endometrial cancer cell lines in culture and against tumor development by xenografts of the breast cancer cells in immunodeficient mice. MCF-7 cells treated with P-X-1544 and P-X-1892 displayed characteristic signs of apoptosis, including vacuoles in the cytoplasm, rounding up, apoptotic bodies, bleb formation, and DNA fragmentation. Conjugates, but not free peptides, inhibited cdc25 phosphatase and caused accumulation of Ishikawa and PC3 cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle after 24 h at lower doses and in the G1 and G2 phases after 48 h. Since P-X-peptides appear to be internalized, the increased cytotoxicity of the conjugates is attributed to protection of peptides from proteolysis, enhanced interaction of the peptides with the GnRH receptors, and/or internalization of P-X-peptide receptor complexes so that P can exert toxic effects inside, possibly by inhibiting enzymes involved in the cell cycle. The additional specificity of P-X-peptides compared with free peptides for direct antiproliferative effects on the cancer cells but not for interactions in the pituitary indicates the therapeutic potential of the conjugates.  (+info)

Continuous axenic cultivation of Pneumocystis carinii. (8/3650)

Continuous axenic culture of Pneumocystis carinii has been achieved. A culture vessel is used that allows for frequent medium exchange without disturbance of organisms that grow attached to a collagen-coated porous membrane. The growth medium is based on Minimal Essential Medium with Earle's salt supplemented with S-adenosyl-L-methionine, putrescine, ferric pyrophosphate, N-acetyl glucosamine, putrescine, p-aminobenzoic acid, L-cysteine and L-glutamine, and horse serum. Incubation is in room air at 31 degrees C. The pH of the medium begins at 8.8 and rises to approximately 9 as the cells grow. Doubling times calculated from growth curves obtained from cultures inoculated at moderate densities ranged from 35 to 65 hours. With a low-density inoculum, the doubling time is reduced to 19 hours. The morphology of cultured organisms in stained smears and in transmission electron micrographs is that of P. carinii, and P. carinii-specific mAbs label the cultured material. Cultured organisms are infective for immunosuppressed rats and can be stored frozen and used to reinitiate culture.  (+info)

Immunosuppression is a state in which the immune system's ability to mount an immune response is reduced, compromised or inhibited. This can be caused by certain medications (such as those used to prevent rejection of transplanted organs), diseases (like HIV/AIDS), or genetic disorders. As a result, the body becomes more susceptible to infections and cancer development. It's important to note that immunosuppression should not be confused with immunity, which refers to the body's ability to resist and fight off infections and diseases.

Immunosuppressive agents are medications that decrease the activity of the immune system. They are often used to prevent the rejection of transplanted organs and to treat autoimmune diseases, where the immune system mistakenly attacks the body's own tissues. These drugs work by interfering with the immune system's normal responses, which helps to reduce inflammation and damage to tissues. However, because they suppress the immune system, people who take immunosuppressive agents are at increased risk for infections and other complications. Examples of immunosuppressive agents include corticosteroids, azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, mycophenolate mofetil, tacrolimus, and sirolimus.

Immune tolerance, also known as immunological tolerance or specific immune tolerance, is a state of unresponsiveness or non-reactivity of the immune system towards a particular substance (antigen) that has the potential to elicit an immune response. This occurs when the immune system learns to distinguish "self" from "non-self" and does not attack the body's own cells, tissues, and organs.

In the context of transplantation, immune tolerance refers to the absence of a destructive immune response towards the transplanted organ or tissue, allowing for long-term graft survival without the need for immunosuppressive therapy. Immune tolerance can be achieved through various strategies, including hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, costimulation blockade, and regulatory T cell induction.

In summary, immune tolerance is a critical mechanism that prevents the immune system from attacking the body's own structures while maintaining the ability to respond appropriately to foreign pathogens and antigens.

Graft rejection is an immune response that occurs when transplanted tissue or organ (the graft) is recognized as foreign by the recipient's immune system, leading to the activation of immune cells to attack and destroy the graft. This results in the failure of the transplant and the need for additional medical intervention or another transplant. There are three types of graft rejection: hyperacute, acute, and chronic. Hyperacute rejection occurs immediately or soon after transplantation due to pre-existing antibodies against the graft. Acute rejection typically occurs within weeks to months post-transplant and is characterized by the infiltration of T-cells into the graft. Chronic rejection, which can occur months to years after transplantation, is a slow and progressive process characterized by fibrosis and tissue damage due to ongoing immune responses against the graft.

Tacrolimus is an immunosuppressant drug that is primarily used to prevent the rejection of transplanted organs. It works by inhibiting the activity of T-cells, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in the body's immune response. By suppressing the activity of these cells, tacrolimus helps to reduce the risk of an immune response being mounted against the transplanted organ.

Tacrolimus is often used in combination with other immunosuppressive drugs, such as corticosteroids and mycophenolate mofetil, to provide a comprehensive approach to preventing organ rejection. It is available in various forms, including capsules, oral solution, and intravenous injection.

The drug was first approved for use in the United States in 1994 and has since become a widely used immunosuppressant in transplant medicine. Tacrolimus is also being studied as a potential treatment for a variety of other conditions, including autoimmune diseases and cancer.

Kidney transplantation is a surgical procedure where a healthy kidney from a deceased or living donor is implanted into a patient with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) or permanent kidney failure. The new kidney takes over the functions of filtering waste and excess fluids from the blood, producing urine, and maintaining the body's electrolyte balance.

The transplanted kidney is typically placed in the lower abdomen, with its blood vessels connected to the recipient's iliac artery and vein. The ureter of the new kidney is then attached to the recipient's bladder to ensure proper urine flow. Following the surgery, the patient will require lifelong immunosuppressive therapy to prevent rejection of the transplanted organ by their immune system.

Cyclosporine is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called immunosuppressants. It is primarily used to prevent the rejection of transplanted organs, such as kidneys, livers, and hearts. Cyclosporine works by suppressing the activity of the immune system, which helps to reduce the risk of the body attacking the transplanted organ.

In addition to its use in organ transplantation, cyclosporine may also be used to treat certain autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis. It does this by suppressing the overactive immune response that contributes to these conditions.

Cyclosporine is available in capsule, oral solution, and injectable forms. Common side effects of the medication include kidney problems, high blood pressure, tremors, headache, and nausea. Long-term use of cyclosporine can also increase the risk of certain types of cancer and infections.

It is important to note that cyclosporine should only be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider, as it requires regular monitoring of blood levels and kidney function.

Graft survival, in medical terms, refers to the success of a transplanted tissue or organ in continuing to function and integrate with the recipient's body over time. It is the opposite of graft rejection, which occurs when the recipient's immune system recognizes the transplanted tissue as foreign and attacks it, leading to its failure.

Graft survival depends on various factors, including the compatibility between the donor and recipient, the type and location of the graft, the use of immunosuppressive drugs to prevent rejection, and the overall health of the recipient. A successful graft survival implies that the transplanted tissue or organ has been accepted by the recipient's body and is functioning properly, providing the necessary physiological support for the recipient's survival and improved quality of life.

Azathioprine is an immunosuppressive medication that is used to prevent the rejection of transplanted organs and to treat autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and inflammatory bowel disease. It works by suppressing the activity of the immune system, which helps to reduce inflammation and prevent the body from attacking its own tissues.

Azathioprine is a prodrug that is converted into its active form, 6-mercaptopurine, in the body. This medication can have significant side effects, including decreased white blood cell count, increased risk of infection, and liver damage. It may also increase the risk of certain types of cancer, particularly skin cancer and lymphoma.

Healthcare professionals must carefully monitor patients taking azathioprine for these potential side effects. They may need to adjust the dosage or stop the medication altogether if serious side effects occur. Patients should also take steps to reduce their risk of infection and skin cancer, such as practicing good hygiene, avoiding sun exposure, and using sunscreen.

Mycophenolic Acid (MPA) is an immunosuppressive drug that is primarily used to prevent rejection in organ transplantation. It works by inhibiting the enzyme inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase, which is a key enzyme for the de novo synthesis of guanosine nucleotides, an essential component for the proliferation of T and B lymphocytes. By doing this, MPA reduces the activity of the immune system, thereby preventing it from attacking the transplanted organ.

Mycophenolic Acid is available in two forms: as the sodium salt (Mycophenolate Sodium) and as the morpholinoethyl ester (Mycophenolate Mofetil), which is rapidly hydrolyzed to Mycophenolic Acid after oral administration. Common side effects of MPA include gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting, as well as an increased risk of infections due to its immunosuppressive effects.

Liver transplantation is a surgical procedure in which a diseased or failing liver is replaced with a healthy one from a deceased donor or, less commonly, a portion of a liver from a living donor. The goal of the procedure is to restore normal liver function and improve the patient's overall health and quality of life.

Liver transplantation may be recommended for individuals with end-stage liver disease, acute liver failure, certain genetic liver disorders, or liver cancers that cannot be treated effectively with other therapies. The procedure involves complex surgery to remove the diseased liver and implant the new one, followed by a period of recovery and close medical monitoring to ensure proper function and minimize the risk of complications.

The success of liver transplantation has improved significantly in recent years due to advances in surgical techniques, immunosuppressive medications, and post-transplant care. However, it remains a major operation with significant risks and challenges, including the need for lifelong immunosuppression to prevent rejection of the new liver, as well as potential complications such as infection, bleeding, and organ failure.

Homologous transplantation is a type of transplant surgery where organs or tissues are transferred between two genetically non-identical individuals of the same species. The term "homologous" refers to the similarity in structure and function of the donated organ or tissue to the recipient's own organ or tissue.

For example, a heart transplant from one human to another is an example of homologous transplantation because both organs are hearts and perform the same function. Similarly, a liver transplant, kidney transplant, lung transplant, and other types of organ transplants between individuals of the same species are also considered homologous transplantations.

Homologous transplantation is in contrast to heterologous or xenogeneic transplantation, where organs or tissues are transferred from one species to another, such as a pig heart transplanted into a human. Homologous transplantation is more commonly performed than heterologous transplantation due to the increased risk of rejection and other complications associated with xenogeneic transplants.

Antilymphocyte serum (ALS) is a type of immune serum that contains antibodies against human lymphocytes. It is produced by immunizing animals, such as horses or rabbits, with human lymphocytes to stimulate an immune response and the production of anti-lymphocyte antibodies. The resulting serum is then collected and can be used as a therapeutic agent to suppress the activity of the immune system in certain medical conditions.

ALS is primarily used in the treatment of transplant rejection, particularly in organ transplantation, where it helps to prevent the recipient's immune system from attacking and rejecting the transplanted organ. It can also be used in the management of autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus, to suppress the overactive immune response that contributes to these conditions.

It is important to note that the use of ALS carries a risk of side effects, including allergic reactions, fever, and decreased white blood cell counts. Close monitoring and appropriate management of these potential adverse events are essential during treatment with ALS.

An immunocompromised host refers to an individual who has a weakened or impaired immune system, making them more susceptible to infections and decreased ability to fight off pathogens. This condition can be congenital (present at birth) or acquired (developed during one's lifetime).

Acquired immunocompromised states may result from various factors such as medical treatments (e.g., chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunosuppressive drugs), infections (e.g., HIV/AIDS), chronic diseases (e.g., diabetes, malnutrition, liver disease), or aging.

Immunocompromised hosts are at a higher risk for developing severe and life-threatening infections due to their reduced immune response. Therefore, they require special consideration when it comes to prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of infectious diseases.

Organ transplantation is a surgical procedure where an organ or tissue from one person (donor) is removed and placed into another person (recipient) whose organ or tissue is not functioning properly or has been damaged beyond repair. The goal of this complex procedure is to replace the non-functioning organ with a healthy one, thereby improving the recipient's quality of life and overall survival.

Organs that can be transplanted include the heart, lungs, liver, kidneys, pancreas, and intestines. Tissues such as corneas, skin, heart valves, and bones can also be transplanted. The donor may be deceased or living, depending on the type of organ and the medical circumstances.

Organ transplantation is a significant and life-changing event for both the recipient and their families. It requires careful evaluation, matching, and coordination between the donor and recipient, as well as rigorous post-transplant care to ensure the success of the procedure and minimize the risk of rejection.

Transplantation Immunology is a branch of medicine that deals with the immune responses occurring between a transplanted organ or tissue and the recipient's body. It involves understanding and managing the immune system's reaction to foreign tissue, which can lead to rejection of the transplanted organ. This field also studies the use of immunosuppressive drugs to prevent rejection and the potential risks and side effects associated with their use. The main goal of transplantation immunology is to find ways to promote the acceptance of transplanted tissue while minimizing the risk of infection and other complications.

T-lymphocytes, also known as T-cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the adaptive immune system's response to infection. They are produced in the bone marrow and mature in the thymus gland. There are several different types of T-cells, including CD4+ helper T-cells, CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells, and regulatory T-cells (Tregs).

CD4+ helper T-cells assist in activating other immune cells, such as B-lymphocytes and macrophages. They also produce cytokines, which are signaling molecules that help coordinate the immune response. CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells directly kill infected cells by releasing toxic substances. Regulatory T-cells help maintain immune tolerance and prevent autoimmune diseases by suppressing the activity of other immune cells.

T-lymphocytes are important in the immune response to viral infections, cancer, and other diseases. Dysfunction or depletion of T-cells can lead to immunodeficiency and increased susceptibility to infections. On the other hand, an overactive T-cell response can contribute to autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammation.

Heart transplantation is a surgical procedure where a diseased, damaged, or failing heart is removed and replaced with a healthy donor heart. This procedure is usually considered as a last resort for patients with end-stage heart failure or severe coronary artery disease who have not responded to other treatments. The donor heart typically comes from a brain-dead individual whose family has agreed to donate their loved one's organs for transplantation. Heart transplantation is a complex and highly specialized procedure that requires a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals, including cardiologists, cardiac surgeons, anesthesiologists, perfusionists, nurses, and other support staff. The success rates for heart transplantation have improved significantly over the past few decades, with many patients experiencing improved quality of life and increased survival rates. However, recipients of heart transplants require lifelong immunosuppressive therapy to prevent rejection of the donor heart, which can increase the risk of infections and other complications.

Calcineurin is a calcium-calmodulin-activated serine/threonine protein phosphatase that plays a crucial role in signal transduction pathways involved in immune response and neuronal development. It consists of two subunits: the catalytic A subunit (calcineurin A) and the regulatory B subunit (calcineurin B). Calcineurin is responsible for dephosphorylating various substrates, including transcription factors, which leads to changes in their activity and ultimately affects gene expression. In the immune system, calcineurin plays a critical role in T-cell activation by dephosphorylating the nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT), allowing it to translocate into the nucleus and induce the expression of cytokines and other genes involved in the immune response. Inhibitors of calcineurin, such as cyclosporine A and tacrolimus, are commonly used as immunosuppressive drugs to prevent organ rejection after transplantation.

Pancreas transplantation is a surgical procedure that involves implanting a healthy pancreas from a deceased donor into a recipient with diabetes. The primary goal of this procedure is to restore the recipient's insulin production and eliminate the need for insulin injections, thereby improving their quality of life and reducing the risk of long-term complications associated with diabetes.

There are three main types of pancreas transplantation:

1. Simultaneous pancreas-kidney (SPK) transplantation: This is the most common type of pancreas transplant, performed simultaneously with a kidney transplant in patients with diabetes and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The new pancreas not only restores insulin production but also helps prevent further kidney damage.
2. Pancreas after kidney (PAK) transplantation: In this procedure, a patient receives a kidney transplant first, followed by a pancreas transplant at a later time. This is typically performed in patients who have already undergone a successful kidney transplant and wish to improve their diabetes management.
3. Pancreas transplantation alone (PTA): In rare cases, a pancreas transplant may be performed without a concurrent kidney transplant. This is usually considered for patients with brittle diabetes who experience severe hypoglycemic episodes despite optimal medical management and lifestyle modifications.

The success of pancreas transplantation has significantly improved over the years, thanks to advancements in surgical techniques, immunosuppressive medications, and post-transplant care. However, it is essential to weigh the benefits against the risks, such as potential complications related to surgery, infection, rejection, and long-term use of immunosuppressive drugs. Ultimately, the decision to undergo pancreas transplantation should be made in consultation with a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals, considering each patient's unique medical history and personal circumstances.

Islets of Langerhans transplantation is a surgical procedure that involves the transplantation of isolated islets from a deceased donor's pancreas into another person with type 1 diabetes. The islets of Langerhans are clusters of cells within the pancreas that produce hormones, including insulin, which regulates blood sugar levels.

In type 1 diabetes, the body's immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys these insulin-producing cells, leading to high blood sugar levels. Islet transplantation aims to replace the damaged islets with healthy ones from a donor, allowing the recipient's body to produce and regulate its own insulin again.

The procedure involves extracting the islets from the donor pancreas and infusing them into the recipient's liver through a small incision in the abdomen. Once inside the liver, the islets can sense glucose levels in the bloodstream and release insulin as needed to maintain normal blood sugar levels.

Islet transplantation has shown promising results in improving blood sugar control and reducing the risk of severe hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) in people with type 1 diabetes. However, it requires long-term immunosuppressive therapy to prevent rejection of the transplanted islets, which can have side effects and increase the risk of infections.

The spleen is an organ in the upper left side of the abdomen, next to the stomach and behind the ribs. It plays multiple supporting roles in the body:

1. It fights infection by acting as a filter for the blood. Old red blood cells are recycled in the spleen, and platelets and white blood cells are stored there.
2. The spleen also helps to control the amount of blood in the body by removing excess red blood cells and storing platelets.
3. It has an important role in immune function, producing antibodies and removing microorganisms and damaged red blood cells from the bloodstream.

The spleen can be removed without causing any significant problems, as other organs take over its functions. This is known as a splenectomy and may be necessary if the spleen is damaged or diseased.

Transplantation tolerance, also known as immunological tolerance or transplant tolerance, is a state in which the immune system of a transplant recipient does not mount an immune response against the transplanted organ or tissue. This is an important goal in transplantation medicine to prevent graft rejection and reduce the need for long-term immunosuppressive therapy, which can have significant side effects.

Transplantation tolerance can be achieved through various mechanisms, including the deletion or regulation of donor-reactive T cells, the induction of regulatory T cells (Tregs) that suppress immune responses against the graft, and the modulation of innate immune responses. The development of strategies to induce transplantation tolerance is an active area of research in transplantation medicine.

Lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) are a group of diseases characterized by the excessive proliferation of lymphoid cells, which are crucial components of the immune system. These disorders can arise from both B-cells and T-cells, leading to various clinical manifestations ranging from benign to malignant conditions.

LPDs can be broadly classified into reactive and neoplastic categories:

1. Reactive Lymphoproliferative Disorders: These are typically triggered by infections, autoimmune diseases, or immunodeficiency states. They involve an exaggerated response of the immune system leading to the excessive proliferation of lymphoid cells. Examples include:
* Infectious mononucleosis (IM) caused by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)
* Lymph node enlargement due to various infections or autoimmune disorders
* Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), which occurs in the context of immunosuppression following organ transplantation
2. Neoplastic Lymphoproliferative Disorders: These are malignant conditions characterized by uncontrolled growth and accumulation of abnormal lymphoid cells, leading to the formation of tumors. They can be further classified into Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Examples include:
* Hodgkin lymphoma (HL): Classical HL and nodular lymphocyte-predominant HL
* Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL): Various subtypes, such as diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma, and Burkitt lymphoma

It is important to note that the distinction between reactive and neoplastic LPDs can sometimes be challenging, requiring careful clinical, histopathological, immunophenotypic, and molecular evaluations. Proper diagnosis and classification of LPDs are crucial for determining appropriate treatment strategies and predicting patient outcomes.

Sirolimus is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called immunosuppressants. It is also known as rapamycin. Sirolimus works by inhibiting the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), which is a protein that plays a key role in cell growth and division.

Sirolimus is primarily used to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, such as kidneys, livers, and hearts. It works by suppressing the activity of the immune system, which can help to reduce the risk of the body rejecting the transplanted organ. Sirolimus is often used in combination with other immunosuppressive drugs, such as corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors.

Sirolimus is also being studied for its potential therapeutic benefits in a variety of other conditions, including cancer, tuberous sclerosis complex, and lymphangioleiomyomatosis. However, more research is needed to fully understand the safety and efficacy of sirolimus in these contexts.

It's important to note that sirolimus can have significant side effects, including increased risk of infections, mouth sores, high blood pressure, and kidney damage. Therefore, it should only be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Lymphocyte activation is the process by which B-cells and T-cells (types of lymphocytes) become activated to perform effector functions in an immune response. This process involves the recognition of specific antigens presented on the surface of antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells or macrophages.

The activation of B-cells leads to their differentiation into plasma cells that produce antibodies, while the activation of T-cells results in the production of cytotoxic T-cells (CD8+ T-cells) that can directly kill infected cells or helper T-cells (CD4+ T-cells) that assist other immune cells.

Lymphocyte activation involves a series of intracellular signaling events, including the binding of co-stimulatory molecules and the release of cytokines, which ultimately result in the expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, and effector functions. The activation process is tightly regulated to prevent excessive or inappropriate immune responses that can lead to autoimmunity or chronic inflammation.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Transplantation is a medical procedure where an organ or tissue is removed from one person (the donor) and placed into another person (the recipient) for the purpose of replacing the recipient's damaged or failing organ or tissue with a functioning one. The goal of transplantation is to restore normal function, improve quality of life, and extend lifespan in individuals with organ failure or severe tissue damage. Common types of transplants include kidney, liver, heart, lung, pancreas, small intestine, and bone marrow transplantations. The success of a transplant depends on various factors, including the compatibility between the donor and recipient, the health of both individuals, and the effectiveness of immunosuppressive therapy to prevent rejection of the transplanted organ or tissue.

Muromonab-CD3 is a type of immunosuppressant medication that is used in the treatment of acute organ rejection in patients who have received organ transplants. It is a monoclonal antibody that specifically targets and binds to the CD3 receptor found on the surface of T-lymphocytes, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in the immune response.

By binding to the CD3 receptor, Muromonab-CD3 inhibits the activation and proliferation of T-lymphocytes, thereby suppressing the immune system's ability to recognize and attack the transplanted organ. This helps to prevent or reverse the process of acute organ rejection.

Muromonab-CD3 is administered intravenously and is typically given as a series of doses over several days. It may be used in combination with other immunosuppressive drugs to achieve optimal results. As with any medication, Muromonab-CD3 can have side effects, including fever, chills, nausea, and headache. More serious side effects, such as anaphylaxis or severe infections, may also occur, and patients should be closely monitored during treatment.

The adrenal cortex hormones are a group of steroid hormones produced and released by the outer portion (cortex) of the adrenal glands, which are located on top of each kidney. These hormones play crucial roles in regulating various physiological processes, including:

1. Glucose metabolism: Cortisol helps control blood sugar levels by increasing glucose production in the liver and reducing its uptake in peripheral tissues.
2. Protein and fat metabolism: Cortisol promotes protein breakdown and fatty acid mobilization, providing essential building blocks for energy production during stressful situations.
3. Immune response regulation: Cortisol suppresses immune function to prevent overactivation and potential damage to the body during stress.
4. Cardiovascular function: Aldosterone regulates electrolyte balance and blood pressure by promoting sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion in the kidneys.
5. Sex hormone production: The adrenal cortex produces small amounts of sex hormones, such as androgens and estrogens, which contribute to sexual development and function.
6. Growth and development: Cortisol plays a role in normal growth and development by influencing the activity of growth-promoting hormones like insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1).

The main adrenal cortex hormones include:

1. Glucocorticoids: Cortisol is the primary glucocorticoid, responsible for regulating metabolism and stress response.
2. Mineralocorticoids: Aldosterone is the primary mineralocorticoid, involved in electrolyte balance and blood pressure regulation.
3. Androgens: Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate derivative (DHEAS) are the most abundant adrenal androgens, contributing to sexual development and function.
4. Estrogens: Small amounts of estrogens are produced by the adrenal cortex, mainly in women.

Disorders related to impaired adrenal cortex hormone production or regulation can lead to various clinical manifestations, such as Addison's disease (adrenal insufficiency), Cushing's syndrome (hypercortisolism), and congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH).

A tissue donor is an individual who has agreed to allow organs and tissues to be removed from their body after death for the purpose of transplantation to restore the health or save the life of another person. The tissues that can be donated include corneas, heart valves, skin, bone, tendons, ligaments, veins, and cartilage. These tissues can enhance the quality of life for many recipients and are often used in reconstructive surgeries. It is important to note that tissue donation does not interfere with an open casket funeral or other cultural or religious practices related to death and grieving.

Methylprednisolone is a synthetic glucocorticoid drug, which is a class of hormones that naturally occur in the body and are produced by the adrenal gland. It is often used to treat various medical conditions such as inflammation, allergies, and autoimmune disorders. Methylprednisolone works by reducing the activity of the immune system, which helps to reduce symptoms such as swelling, pain, and redness.

Methylprednisolone is available in several forms, including tablets, oral suspension, and injectable solutions. It may be used for short-term or long-term treatment, depending on the condition being treated. Common side effects of methylprednisolone include increased appetite, weight gain, insomnia, mood changes, and increased susceptibility to infections. Long-term use of methylprednisolone can lead to more serious side effects such as osteoporosis, cataracts, and adrenal suppression.

It is important to note that methylprednisolone should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider, as it can cause serious side effects if not used properly. The dosage and duration of treatment will depend on various factors such as the patient's age, weight, medical history, and the condition being treated.

BALB/c is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The strain was developed at the Institute of Cancer Research in London by Henry Baldwin and his colleagues in the 1920s, and it has since become one of the most commonly used inbred strains in the world.

BALB/c mice are characterized by their black coat color, which is determined by a recessive allele at the tyrosinase locus. They are also known for their docile and friendly temperament, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory.

One of the key features of BALB/c mice that makes them useful for research is their susceptibility to certain types of tumors and immune responses. For example, they are highly susceptible to developing mammary tumors, which can be induced by chemical carcinogens or viral infection. They also have a strong Th2-biased immune response, which makes them useful models for studying allergic diseases and asthma.

BALB/c mice are also commonly used in studies of genetics, neuroscience, behavior, and infectious diseases. Because they are an inbred strain, they have a uniform genetic background, which makes it easier to control for genetic factors in experiments. Additionally, because they have been bred in the laboratory for many generations, they are highly standardized and reproducible, making them ideal subjects for scientific research.

Regulatory T-lymphocytes (Tregs), also known as suppressor T cells, are a subpopulation of T-cells that play a critical role in maintaining immune tolerance and preventing autoimmune diseases. They function to suppress the activation and proliferation of other immune cells, thereby regulating the immune response and preventing it from attacking the body's own tissues.

Tregs constitutively express the surface markers CD4 and CD25, as well as the transcription factor Foxp3, which is essential for their development and function. They can be further divided into subsets based on their expression of other markers, such as CD127 and CD45RA.

Tregs are critical for maintaining self-tolerance by suppressing the activation of self-reactive T cells that have escaped negative selection in the thymus. They also play a role in regulating immune responses to foreign antigens, such as those encountered during infection or cancer, and can contribute to the immunosuppressive microenvironment found in tumors.

Dysregulation of Tregs has been implicated in various autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and multiple sclerosis, as well as in cancer and infectious diseases. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms that regulate Treg function is an important area of research with potential therapeutic implications.

Cyclosporins are a group of cyclic undecapeptides that have immunosuppressive properties. The most well-known and widely used cyclosporin is cyclosporine A, which is commonly used in organ transplantation to prevent rejection. It works by inhibiting the activation of T-cells, a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in the immune response. By suppressing the activity of T-cells, cyclosporine A reduces the risk of an immune response against the transplanted organ.

Cyclosporins are also used in the treatment of autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis, where they help to reduce inflammation and prevent damage to tissues. Like all immunosuppressive drugs, cyclosporins can increase the risk of infection and cancer, so they must be used with caution and under close medical supervision.

According to the medical definition, ultraviolet (UV) rays are invisible radiations that fall in the range of the electromagnetic spectrum between 100-400 nanometers. UV rays are further divided into three categories: UVA (320-400 nm), UVB (280-320 nm), and UVC (100-280 nm).

UV rays have various sources, including the sun and artificial sources like tanning beds. Prolonged exposure to UV rays can cause damage to the skin, leading to premature aging, eye damage, and an increased risk of skin cancer. UVA rays penetrate deeper into the skin and are associated with skin aging, while UVB rays primarily affect the outer layer of the skin and are linked to sunburns and skin cancer. UVC rays are the most harmful but fortunately, they are absorbed by the Earth's atmosphere and do not reach the surface.

Healthcare professionals recommend limiting exposure to UV rays, wearing protective clothing, using broad-spectrum sunscreen with an SPF of at least 30, and avoiding tanning beds to reduce the risk of UV-related health problems.

Polyomavirus infections refer to the infectious diseases caused by polyomaviruses, a type of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses that are capable of infecting humans and animals. There are several different types of polyomaviruses that can cause infection, including JC virus (JCV), BK virus (BKV), KI virus (KIV), WU virus (WUV), and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV).

Infection with these viruses typically occurs during childhood and is usually asymptomatic or associated with mild respiratory illness. However, in immunocompromised individuals, such as those with HIV/AIDS or organ transplant recipients, polyomavirus infections can lead to more serious complications, including nephropathy (BKV), progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (JCV), and Merkel cell carcinoma (MCPyV).

Diagnosis of polyomavirus infections typically involves the detection of viral DNA or antigens in clinical samples, such as blood, urine, or tissue biopsies. Treatment is generally supportive and aimed at managing symptoms, although antiviral therapy may be used in some cases. Prevention strategies include good hygiene practices and avoiding close contact with individuals who are known to be infected.

Postoperative complications refer to any unfavorable condition or event that occurs during the recovery period after a surgical procedure. These complications can vary in severity and may include, but are not limited to:

1. Infection: This can occur at the site of the incision or inside the body, such as pneumonia or urinary tract infection.
2. Bleeding: Excessive bleeding (hemorrhage) can lead to a drop in blood pressure and may require further surgical intervention.
3. Blood clots: These can form in the deep veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis) and can potentially travel to the lungs (pulmonary embolism).
4. Wound dehiscence: This is when the surgical wound opens up, which can lead to infection and further complications.
5. Pulmonary issues: These include atelectasis (collapsed lung), pneumonia, or respiratory failure.
6. Cardiovascular problems: These include abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias), heart attack, or stroke.
7. Renal failure: This can occur due to various reasons such as dehydration, blood loss, or the use of certain medications.
8. Pain management issues: Inadequate pain control can lead to increased stress, anxiety, and decreased mobility.
9. Nausea and vomiting: These can be caused by anesthesia, opioid pain medication, or other factors.
10. Delirium: This is a state of confusion and disorientation that can occur in the elderly or those with certain medical conditions.

Prompt identification and management of these complications are crucial to ensure the best possible outcome for the patient.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

Combination drug therapy is a treatment approach that involves the use of multiple medications with different mechanisms of action to achieve better therapeutic outcomes. This approach is often used in the management of complex medical conditions such as cancer, HIV/AIDS, and cardiovascular diseases. The goal of combination drug therapy is to improve efficacy, reduce the risk of drug resistance, decrease the likelihood of adverse effects, and enhance the overall quality of life for patients.

In combining drugs, healthcare providers aim to target various pathways involved in the disease process, which may help to:

1. Increase the effectiveness of treatment by attacking the disease from multiple angles.
2. Decrease the dosage of individual medications, reducing the risk and severity of side effects.
3. Slow down or prevent the development of drug resistance, a common problem in chronic diseases like HIV/AIDS and cancer.
4. Improve patient compliance by simplifying dosing schedules and reducing pill burden.

Examples of combination drug therapy include:

1. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV treatment, which typically involves three or more drugs from different classes to suppress viral replication and prevent the development of drug resistance.
2. Chemotherapy regimens for cancer treatment, where multiple cytotoxic agents are used to target various stages of the cell cycle and reduce the likelihood of tumor cells developing resistance.
3. Cardiovascular disease management, which may involve combining medications such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, beta-blockers, diuretics, and statins to control blood pressure, heart rate, fluid balance, and cholesterol levels.
4. Treatment of tuberculosis, which often involves a combination of several antibiotics to target different aspects of the bacterial life cycle and prevent the development of drug-resistant strains.

When prescribing combination drug therapy, healthcare providers must carefully consider factors such as potential drug interactions, dosing schedules, adverse effects, and contraindications to ensure safe and effective treatment. Regular monitoring of patients is essential to assess treatment response, manage side effects, and adjust the treatment plan as needed.

Opportunistic infections (OIs) are infections that occur more frequently or are more severe in individuals with weakened immune systems, often due to a underlying condition such as HIV/AIDS, cancer, or organ transplantation. These infections are caused by microorganisms that do not normally cause disease in people with healthy immune function, but can take advantage of an opportunity to infect and cause damage when the body's defense mechanisms are compromised. Examples of opportunistic infections include Pneumocystis pneumonia, tuberculosis, candidiasis (thrush), and cytomegalovirus infection. Preventive measures, such as antimicrobial medications and vaccinations, play a crucial role in reducing the risk of opportunistic infections in individuals with weakened immune systems.

Antibody formation, also known as humoral immune response, is the process by which the immune system produces proteins called antibodies in response to the presence of a foreign substance (antigen) in the body. This process involves several steps:

1. Recognition: The antigen is recognized and bound by a type of white blood cell called a B lymphocyte or B cell, which then becomes activated.
2. Differentiation: The activated B cell undergoes differentiation to become a plasma cell, which is a type of cell that produces and secretes large amounts of antibodies.
3. Antibody production: The plasma cells produce and release antibodies, which are proteins made up of four polypeptide chains (two heavy chains and two light chains) arranged in a Y-shape. Each antibody has two binding sites that can recognize and bind to specific regions on the antigen called epitopes.
4. Neutralization or elimination: The antibodies bind to the antigens, neutralizing them or marking them for destruction by other immune cells. This helps to prevent the spread of infection and protect the body from harmful substances.

Antibody formation is an important part of the adaptive immune response, which allows the body to specifically recognize and respond to a wide variety of pathogens and foreign substances.

Contact dermatitis is a type of inflammation of the skin that occurs when it comes into contact with a substance that the individual has developed an allergic reaction to or that causes irritation. It can be divided into two main types: allergic contact dermatitis and irritant contact dermatitis.

Allergic contact dermatitis is caused by an immune system response to a substance, known as an allergen, which the individual has become sensitized to. When the skin comes into contact with this allergen, it triggers an immune reaction that results in inflammation and characteristic symptoms such as redness, swelling, itching, and blistering. Common allergens include metals (such as nickel), rubber, medications, fragrances, and cosmetics.

Irritant contact dermatitis, on the other hand, is caused by direct damage to the skin from a substance that is inherently irritating or corrosive. This can occur after exposure to strong acids, alkalis, solvents, or even prolonged exposure to milder irritants like water or soap. Symptoms of irritant contact dermatitis include redness, pain, burning, and dryness at the site of contact.

The treatment for contact dermatitis typically involves avoiding further exposure to the allergen or irritant, as well as managing symptoms with topical corticosteroids, antihistamines, or other medications as needed. In some cases, patch testing may be performed to identify specific allergens that are causing the reaction.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Immunocompetence is the condition of having a properly functioning immune system that can effectively respond to the presence of foreign substances, such as pathogens (like bacteria, viruses, and parasites) and other potentially harmful agents. It involves the ability of the immune system to recognize, attack, and eliminate these foreign substances while also maintaining tolerance to self-tissues and promoting tissue repair.

Immunocompetence is essential for overall health and wellbeing, as it helps protect the body from infections and diseases. Factors that can affect immunocompetence include age, genetics, stress, nutrition, sleep, and certain medical conditions or treatments (like chemotherapy or immunosuppressive drugs) that can weaken the immune system.

Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell that is an essential part of the immune system. They are responsible for recognizing and responding to potentially harmful substances such as viruses, bacteria, and other foreign invaders. There are two main types of lymphocytes: B-lymphocytes (B-cells) and T-lymphocytes (T-cells).

B-lymphocytes produce antibodies, which are proteins that help to neutralize or destroy foreign substances. When a B-cell encounters a foreign substance, it becomes activated and begins to divide and differentiate into plasma cells, which produce and secrete large amounts of antibodies. These antibodies bind to the foreign substance, marking it for destruction by other immune cells.

T-lymphocytes, on the other hand, are involved in cell-mediated immunity. They directly attack and destroy infected cells or cancerous cells. T-cells can also help to regulate the immune response by producing chemical signals that activate or inhibit other immune cells.

Lymphocytes are produced in the bone marrow and mature in either the bone marrow (B-cells) or the thymus gland (T-cells). They circulate throughout the body in the blood and lymphatic system, where they can be found in high concentrations in lymph nodes, the spleen, and other lymphoid organs.

Abnormalities in the number or function of lymphocytes can lead to a variety of immune-related disorders, including immunodeficiency diseases, autoimmune disorders, and cancer.

Prednisone is a synthetic glucocorticoid, which is a type of corticosteroid hormone. It is primarily used to reduce inflammation in various conditions such as asthma, allergies, arthritis, and autoimmune disorders. Prednisone works by mimicking the effects of natural hormones produced by the adrenal glands, suppressing the immune system's response and reducing the release of substances that cause inflammation.

It is available in oral tablet form and is typically prescribed to be taken at specific times during the day, depending on the condition being treated. Common side effects of prednisone include increased appetite, weight gain, mood changes, insomnia, and easy bruising. Long-term use or high doses can lead to more serious side effects such as osteoporosis, diabetes, cataracts, and increased susceptibility to infections.

Healthcare providers closely monitor patients taking prednisone for extended periods to minimize the risk of adverse effects. It is essential to follow the prescribed dosage regimen and not discontinue the medication abruptly without medical supervision, as this can lead to withdrawal symptoms or a rebound of the underlying condition.

The immune system is a complex network of cells, tissues, and organs that work together to defend the body against harmful invaders. It recognizes and responds to threats such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, fungi, and damaged or abnormal cells, including cancer cells. The immune system has two main components: the innate immune system, which provides a general defense against all types of threats, and the adaptive immune system, which mounts specific responses to particular threats.

The innate immune system includes physical barriers like the skin and mucous membranes, chemical barriers such as stomach acid and enzymes in tears and saliva, and cellular defenses like phagocytes (white blood cells that engulf and destroy invaders) and natural killer cells (which recognize and destroy virus-infected or cancerous cells).

The adaptive immune system is more specific and takes longer to develop a response but has the advantage of "remembering" previous encounters with specific threats. This allows it to mount a faster and stronger response upon subsequent exposures, providing immunity to certain diseases. The adaptive immune system includes T cells (which help coordinate the immune response) and B cells (which produce antibodies that neutralize or destroy invaders).

Overall, the immune system is essential for maintaining health and preventing disease. Dysfunction of the immune system can lead to a variety of disorders, including autoimmune diseases, immunodeficiencies, and allergies.

BK virus, also known as BK polyomavirus, is a type of virus that belongs to the Polyomaviridae family. It is named after the initials of a patient in whom the virus was first isolated. The BK virus is a common infection in humans and is typically acquired during childhood. After the initial infection, the virus remains dormant in the body, often found in the urinary tract and kidneys.

In immunocompetent individuals, the virus usually does not cause any significant problems. However, in people with weakened immune systems, such as those who have undergone organ transplantation or have HIV/AIDS, BK virus can lead to severe complications. One of the most common manifestations of BK virus infection in immunocompromised individuals is hemorrhagic cystitis, a condition characterized by inflammation and bleeding in the bladder. In transplant recipients, BK virus can also cause nephropathy, leading to kidney damage or even failure.

There is no specific treatment for BK virus infection, but antiviral medications may be used to help control the virus's replication in some cases. Maintaining a strong immune system and monitoring viral load through regular testing are essential strategies for managing BK virus infections in immunocompromised individuals.

Cellular immunity, also known as cell-mediated immunity, is a type of immune response that involves the activation of immune cells, such as T lymphocytes (T cells), to protect the body against infected or damaged cells. This form of immunity is important for fighting off infections caused by viruses and intracellular bacteria, as well as for recognizing and destroying cancer cells.

Cellular immunity involves a complex series of interactions between various immune cells and molecules. When a pathogen infects a cell, the infected cell displays pieces of the pathogen on its surface in a process called antigen presentation. This attracts T cells, which recognize the antigens and become activated. Activated T cells then release cytokines, chemicals that help coordinate the immune response, and can directly attack and kill infected cells or help activate other immune cells to do so.

Cellular immunity is an important component of the adaptive immune system, which is able to learn and remember specific pathogens in order to mount a faster and more effective response upon subsequent exposure. This form of immunity is also critical for the rejection of transplanted organs, as the immune system recognizes the transplanted tissue as foreign and attacks it.

Monoclonal antibodies are a type of antibody that are identical because they are produced by a single clone of cells. They are laboratory-produced molecules that act like human antibodies in the immune system. They can be designed to attach to specific proteins found on the surface of cancer cells, making them useful for targeting and treating cancer. Monoclonal antibodies can also be used as a therapy for other diseases, such as autoimmune disorders and inflammatory conditions.

Monoclonal antibodies are produced by fusing a single type of immune cell, called a B cell, with a tumor cell to create a hybrid cell, or hybridoma. This hybrid cell is then able to replicate indefinitely, producing a large number of identical copies of the original antibody. These antibodies can be further modified and engineered to enhance their ability to bind to specific targets, increase their stability, and improve their effectiveness as therapeutic agents.

Monoclonal antibodies have several mechanisms of action in cancer therapy. They can directly kill cancer cells by binding to them and triggering an immune response. They can also block the signals that promote cancer growth and survival. Additionally, monoclonal antibodies can be used to deliver drugs or radiation directly to cancer cells, increasing the effectiveness of these treatments while minimizing their side effects on healthy tissues.

Monoclonal antibodies have become an important tool in modern medicine, with several approved for use in cancer therapy and other diseases. They are continuing to be studied and developed as a promising approach to treating a wide range of medical conditions.

Steroids, also known as corticosteroids, are a type of hormone that the adrenal gland produces in your body. They have many functions, such as controlling the balance of salt and water in your body and helping to reduce inflammation. Steroids can also be synthetically produced and used as medications to treat a variety of conditions, including allergies, asthma, skin conditions, and autoimmune disorders.

Steroid medications are available in various forms, such as oral pills, injections, creams, and inhalers. They work by mimicking the effects of natural hormones produced by your body, reducing inflammation and suppressing the immune system's response to prevent or reduce symptoms. However, long-term use of steroids can have significant side effects, including weight gain, high blood pressure, osteoporosis, and increased risk of infections.

It is important to note that anabolic steroids are a different class of drugs that are sometimes abused for their muscle-building properties. These steroids are synthetic versions of the male hormone testosterone and can have serious health consequences when taken in large doses or without medical supervision.

Lung transplantation is a surgical procedure where one or both diseased lungs are removed and replaced with healthy lungs from a deceased donor. It is typically considered as a treatment option for patients with end-stage lung diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cystic fibrosis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, who have exhausted all other medical treatments and continue to suffer from severe respiratory failure.

The procedure involves several steps, including evaluating the patient's eligibility for transplantation, matching the donor's lung size and blood type with the recipient, and performing the surgery under general anesthesia. After the surgery, patients require close monitoring and lifelong immunosuppressive therapy to prevent rejection of the new lungs.

Lung transplantation can significantly improve the quality of life and survival rates for some patients with end-stage lung disease, but it is not without risks, including infection, bleeding, and rejection. Therefore, careful consideration and thorough evaluation are necessary before pursuing this treatment option.

Skin transplantation, also known as skin grafting, is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of healthy skin from one part of the body (donor site) and its transfer to another site (recipient site) that has been damaged or lost due to various reasons such as burns, injuries, infections, or diseases. The transplanted skin can help in healing wounds, restoring functionality, and improving the cosmetic appearance of the affected area. There are different types of skin grafts, including split-thickness grafts, full-thickness grafts, and composite grafts, which vary in the depth and size of the skin removed and transplanted. The success of skin transplantation depends on various factors, including the size and location of the wound, the patient's overall health, and the availability of suitable donor sites.

Recurrence, in a medical context, refers to the return of symptoms or signs of a disease after a period of improvement or remission. It indicates that the condition has not been fully eradicated and may require further treatment. Recurrence is often used to describe situations where a disease such as cancer comes back after initial treatment, but it can also apply to other medical conditions. The likelihood of recurrence varies depending on the type of disease and individual patient factors.

Prednisolone is a synthetic glucocorticoid drug, which is a class of steroid hormones. It is commonly used in the treatment of various inflammatory and autoimmune conditions due to its potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. Prednisolone works by binding to specific receptors in cells, leading to changes in gene expression that reduce the production of substances involved in inflammation, such as cytokines and prostaglandins.

Prednisolone is available in various forms, including tablets, syrups, and injectable solutions. It can be used to treat a wide range of medical conditions, including asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, allergies, skin conditions, and certain types of cancer.

Like other steroid medications, prednisolone can have significant side effects if used in high doses or for long periods of time. These may include weight gain, mood changes, increased risk of infections, osteoporosis, diabetes, and adrenal suppression. As a result, the use of prednisolone should be closely monitored by a healthcare professional to ensure that its benefits outweigh its risks.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections are caused by the human herpesvirus 5 (HHV-5), a type of herpesvirus. The infection can affect people of all ages, but it is more common in individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or who have undergone organ transplantation.

CMV can be spread through close contact with an infected person's saliva, urine, blood, tears, semen, or breast milk. It can also be spread through sexual contact or by sharing contaminated objects, such as toys, eating utensils, or drinking glasses. Once a person is infected with CMV, the virus remains in their body for life and can reactivate later, causing symptoms to recur.

Most people who are infected with CMV do not experience any symptoms, but some may develop a mononucleosis-like illness, characterized by fever, fatigue, swollen glands, and sore throat. In people with weakened immune systems, CMV infections can cause more severe symptoms, including pneumonia, gastrointestinal disease, retinitis, and encephalitis.

Congenital CMV infection occurs when a pregnant woman passes the virus to her fetus through the placenta. This can lead to serious complications, such as hearing loss, vision loss, developmental delays, and mental disability.

Diagnosis of CMV infections is typically made through blood tests or by detecting the virus in bodily fluids, such as urine or saliva. Treatment depends on the severity of the infection and the patient's overall health. Antiviral medications may be prescribed to help manage symptoms and prevent complications.

A transplantation chimera is a rare medical condition that occurs after an organ or tissue transplant, where the recipient's body accepts and integrates the donor's cells or tissues to such an extent that the two sets of DNA coexist and function together. This phenomenon can lead to the presence of two different genetic profiles in one individual.

In some cases, this may result in the development of donor-derived cells or organs within the recipient's body, which can express the donor's unique genetic traits. Transplantation chimerism is more commonly observed in bone marrow transplants, where the donor's immune cells can repopulate and establish themselves within the recipient's bone marrow and bloodstream.

It is important to note that while transplantation chimerism can be beneficial for the success of the transplant, it may also pose some risks, such as an increased likelihood of developing graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), where the donor's immune cells attack the recipient's tissues.

Aplastic anemia is a medical condition characterized by pancytopenia (a decrease in all three types of blood cells: red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets) due to the failure of bone marrow to produce new cells. It is called "aplastic" because the bone marrow becomes hypocellular or "aplastic," meaning it contains few or no blood-forming stem cells.

The condition can be acquired or inherited, with acquired aplastic anemia being more common. Acquired aplastic anemia can result from exposure to toxic chemicals, radiation, drugs, viral infections, or autoimmune disorders. Inherited forms of the disease include Fanconi anemia and dyskeratosis congenita.

Symptoms of aplastic anemia may include fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, pale skin, easy bruising or bleeding, frequent infections, and fever. Treatment options for aplastic anemia depend on the severity of the condition and its underlying cause. They may include blood transfusions, immunosuppressive therapy, and stem cell transplantation.

A biopsy is a medical procedure in which a small sample of tissue is taken from the body to be examined under a microscope for the presence of disease. This can help doctors diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as cancer, infections, or autoimmune disorders. The type of biopsy performed will depend on the location and nature of the suspected condition. Some common types of biopsies include:

1. Incisional biopsy: In this procedure, a surgeon removes a piece of tissue from an abnormal area using a scalpel or other surgical instrument. This type of biopsy is often used when the lesion is too large to be removed entirely during the initial biopsy.

2. Excisional biopsy: An excisional biopsy involves removing the entire abnormal area, along with a margin of healthy tissue surrounding it. This technique is typically employed for smaller lesions or when cancer is suspected.

3. Needle biopsy: A needle biopsy uses a thin, hollow needle to extract cells or fluid from the body. There are two main types of needle biopsies: fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and core needle biopsy. FNA extracts loose cells, while a core needle biopsy removes a small piece of tissue.

4. Punch biopsy: In a punch biopsy, a round, sharp tool is used to remove a small cylindrical sample of skin tissue. This type of biopsy is often used for evaluating rashes or other skin abnormalities.

5. Shave biopsy: During a shave biopsy, a thin slice of tissue is removed from the surface of the skin using a sharp razor-like instrument. This technique is typically used for superficial lesions or growths on the skin.

After the biopsy sample has been collected, it is sent to a laboratory where a pathologist will examine the tissue under a microscope and provide a diagnosis based on their findings. The results of the biopsy can help guide further treatment decisions and determine the best course of action for managing the patient's condition.

Urocanic acid is a substance that is naturally present in the skin and acts as a photo-protectant. It absorbs ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun, which helps to prevent damage to the skin. When the skin is exposed to UV radiation, urocanic acid can undergo chemical changes, which can have both immunosuppressive and tumor-promoting effects in the skin.

Urocanic acid is formed as a byproduct of the breakdown of histidine, an amino acid that is found in proteins. It is present in high concentrations in the outermost layer of the skin (the stratum corneum), where it plays a role in maintaining the skin's barrier function and helping to regulate pH levels.

In addition to its role as a photo-protectant, urocanic acid has also been studied for its potential therapeutic uses. For example, some research suggests that it may have anti-inflammatory effects, which could make it useful in the treatment of skin conditions such as eczema and psoriasis. However, more research is needed to confirm these potential benefits and to determine the safety and effectiveness of urocanic acid-based therapies.

A living donor is a person who voluntarily donates an organ or part of an organ to another person while they are still alive. This can include donations such as a kidney, liver lobe, lung, or portion of the pancreas or intestines. The donor and recipient typically undergo medical evaluation and compatibility testing to ensure the best possible outcome for the transplantation procedure. Living donation is regulated by laws and ethical guidelines to ensure that donors are fully informed and making a voluntary decision.

I'm happy to help! However, I believe there may be a slight error in your question. "WF" is not a recognized strain identifier for inbred rats used in scientific research. Instead, "WI" or "Wistar-Imamichi" is sometimes used to refer to an inbred strain of rat developed in Japan.

Assuming you meant to ask about "Rats, Inbred WI," here's a definition:

Inbred WI rats are a strain of laboratory rats that have been selectively bred for research purposes. "Inbred" means that the rats have been brother-sister mated for at least 20 generations, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity within the strain. This uniformity makes it easier to control variables and repeat experiments.

WI rats were developed in Japan by crossing outbred Wistar rats with an inbred strain called F344. They have since been maintained as an independent inbred strain.

These rats are often used in biomedical research due to their well-characterized genetic background and consistent phenotypic traits, such as their size, behavior, and susceptibility to certain diseases. However, like all animal models, they have limitations and may not always accurately reflect human physiology or disease processes.

Cyclophosphamide is an alkylating agent, which is a type of chemotherapy medication. It works by interfering with the DNA of cancer cells, preventing them from dividing and growing. This helps to stop the spread of cancer in the body. Cyclophosphamide is used to treat various types of cancer, including lymphoma, leukemia, multiple myeloma, and breast cancer. It can be given orally as a tablet or intravenously as an injection.

Cyclophosphamide can also have immunosuppressive effects, which means it can suppress the activity of the immune system. This makes it useful in treating certain autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. However, this immunosuppression can also increase the risk of infections and other side effects.

Like all chemotherapy medications, cyclophosphamide can cause a range of side effects, including nausea, vomiting, hair loss, fatigue, and increased susceptibility to infections. It is important for patients receiving cyclophosphamide to be closely monitored by their healthcare team to manage these side effects and ensure the medication is working effectively.

Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is an anti-inflammatory cytokine that plays a crucial role in the modulation of immune responses. It is produced by various cell types, including T cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells. IL-10 inhibits the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-12, and downregulates the expression of costimulatory molecules on antigen-presenting cells. This results in the suppression of T cell activation and effector functions, which ultimately helps to limit tissue damage during inflammation and promote tissue repair. Dysregulation of IL-10 has been implicated in various pathological conditions, including chronic infections, autoimmune diseases, and cancer.

CD4-positive T-lymphocytes, also known as CD4+ T cells or helper T cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the immune response. They express the CD4 receptor on their surface and help coordinate the immune system's response to infectious agents such as viruses and bacteria.

CD4+ T cells recognize and bind to specific antigens presented by antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells or macrophages. Once activated, they can differentiate into various subsets of effector cells, including Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg cells, each with distinct functions in the immune response.

CD4+ T cells are particularly important in the immune response to HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), which targets and destroys these cells, leading to a weakened immune system and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections. The number of CD4+ T cells is often used as a marker of disease progression in HIV infection, with lower counts indicating more advanced disease.

Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a condition that can occur after an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), where the donated immune cells (graft) recognize the recipient's tissues (host) as foreign and attack them. This results in inflammation and damage to various organs, particularly the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and liver.

Acute GVHD typically occurs within 100 days of transplantation and is characterized by symptoms such as rash, diarrhea, and liver dysfunction. Chronic GVHD, on the other hand, can occur after 100 days or even years post-transplant and may present with a wider range of symptoms, including dry eyes and mouth, skin changes, lung involvement, and issues with mobility and flexibility in joints.

GVHD is a significant complication following allogeneic HSCT and can have a substantial impact on the patient's quality of life and overall prognosis. Preventative measures, such as immunosuppressive therapy, are often taken to reduce the risk of GVHD, but its management remains a challenge in transplant medicine.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is a medical procedure in which damaged or destroyed bone marrow is replaced with healthy bone marrow from a donor. Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside bones that produces blood cells. The main types of BMT are autologous, allogeneic, and umbilical cord blood transplantation.

In autologous BMT, the patient's own bone marrow is used for the transplant. This type of BMT is often used in patients with lymphoma or multiple myeloma who have undergone high-dose chemotherapy or radiation therapy to destroy their cancerous bone marrow.

In allogeneic BMT, bone marrow from a genetically matched donor is used for the transplant. This type of BMT is often used in patients with leukemia, lymphoma, or other blood disorders who have failed other treatments.

Umbilical cord blood transplantation involves using stem cells from umbilical cord blood as a source of healthy bone marrow. This type of BMT is often used in children and adults who do not have a matched donor for allogeneic BMT.

The process of BMT typically involves several steps, including harvesting the bone marrow or stem cells from the donor, conditioning the patient's body to receive the new bone marrow or stem cells, transplanting the new bone marrow or stem cells into the patient's body, and monitoring the patient for signs of engraftment and complications.

BMT is a complex and potentially risky procedure that requires careful planning, preparation, and follow-up care. However, it can be a life-saving treatment for many patients with blood disorders or cancer.

Cytokines are a broad and diverse category of small signaling proteins that are secreted by various cells, including immune cells, in response to different stimuli. They play crucial roles in regulating the immune response, inflammation, hematopoiesis, and cellular communication.

Cytokines mediate their effects by binding to specific receptors on the surface of target cells, which triggers intracellular signaling pathways that ultimately result in changes in gene expression, cell behavior, and function. Some key functions of cytokines include:

1. Regulating the activation, differentiation, and proliferation of immune cells such as T cells, B cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and macrophages.
2. Coordinating the inflammatory response by recruiting immune cells to sites of infection or tissue damage and modulating their effector functions.
3. Regulating hematopoiesis, the process of blood cell formation in the bone marrow, by controlling the proliferation, differentiation, and survival of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.
4. Modulating the development and function of the nervous system, including neuroinflammation, neuroprotection, and neuroregeneration.

Cytokines can be classified into several categories based on their structure, function, or cellular origin. Some common types of cytokines include interleukins (ILs), interferons (IFNs), tumor necrosis factors (TNFs), chemokines, colony-stimulating factors (CSFs), and transforming growth factors (TGFs). Dysregulation of cytokine production and signaling has been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as autoimmune diseases, chronic inflammation, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders.

A transplant is a medical procedure where an organ or tissue is removed from one person (the donor) and placed into another person (the recipient) for the purpose of replacing the recipient's damaged or failing organ or tissue with a healthy functioning one. The transplanted organ or tissue can come from a deceased donor, a living donor who is genetically related to the recipient, or a living donor who is not genetically related to the recipient.

Transplantation is an important medical intervention for many patients with end-stage organ failure or severe tissue damage, and it can significantly improve their quality of life and longevity. However, transplantation is a complex and risky procedure that requires careful matching of donor and recipient, rigorous evaluation and preparation of the recipient, and close monitoring and management of the transplanted organ or tissue to prevent rejection and other complications.

Histocompatibility testing, also known as tissue typing, is a medical procedure that determines the compatibility of tissues between two individuals, usually a potential donor and a recipient for organ or bone marrow transplantation. The test identifies specific antigens, called human leukocyte antigens (HLAs), found on the surface of most cells in the body. These antigens help the immune system distinguish between "self" and "non-self" cells.

The goal of histocompatibility testing is to find a donor whose HLA markers closely match those of the recipient, reducing the risk of rejection of the transplanted organ or tissue. The test involves taking blood samples from both the donor and the recipient and analyzing them for the presence of specific HLA antigens using various laboratory techniques such as molecular typing or serological testing.

A high degree of histocompatibility between the donor and recipient is crucial to ensure the success of the transplantation procedure, minimize complications, and improve long-term outcomes.

Erythema is a term used in medicine to describe redness of the skin, which occurs as a result of increased blood flow in the superficial capillaries. This redness can be caused by various factors such as inflammation, infection, trauma, or exposure to heat, cold, or ultraviolet radiation. In some cases, erythema may also be accompanied by other symptoms such as swelling, warmth, pain, or itching. It is a common finding in many medical conditions and can vary in severity from mild to severe.

'C3H' is the name of an inbred strain of laboratory mice that was developed at the Jackson Laboratory in Bar Harbor, Maine. The mice are characterized by their uniform genetic background and have been widely used in biomedical research for many decades.

The C3H strain is particularly notable for its susceptibility to certain types of cancer, including mammary tumors and lymphomas. It also has a high incidence of age-related macular degeneration and other eye diseases. The strain is often used in studies of immunology, genetics, and carcinogenesis.

Like all inbred strains, the C3H mice are the result of many generations of brother-sister matings, which leads to a high degree of genetic uniformity within the strain. This makes them useful for studying the effects of specific genes or environmental factors on disease susceptibility and other traits. However, it also means that they may not always be representative of the genetic diversity found in outbred populations, including humans.

Lymphocyte depletion is a medical term that refers to the reduction in the number of lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) in the body. Lymphocytes play a crucial role in the immune system, as they help to fight off infections and diseases.

Lymphocyte depletion can occur due to various reasons, including certain medical treatments such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy, immune disorders, viral infections, or bone marrow transplantation. This reduction in lymphocytes can make a person more susceptible to infections and diseases, as their immune system is weakened.

There are different types of lymphocytes, including T cells, B cells, and natural killer (NK) cells, and lymphocyte depletion can affect one or all of these types. In some cases, lymphocyte depletion may be temporary and resolve on its own or with treatment. However, in other cases, it may be more prolonged and require medical intervention to manage the associated risks and complications.

Flow cytometry is a medical and research technique used to measure physical and chemical characteristics of cells or particles, one cell at a time, as they flow in a fluid stream through a beam of light. The properties measured include:

* Cell size (light scatter)
* Cell internal complexity (granularity, also light scatter)
* Presence or absence of specific proteins or other molecules on the cell surface or inside the cell (using fluorescent antibodies or other fluorescent probes)

The technique is widely used in cell counting, cell sorting, protein engineering, biomarker discovery and monitoring disease progression, particularly in hematology, immunology, and cancer research.

I'm happy to help! "Rats, Inbred Lew" is a specific strain of laboratory rats that have been inbred for research purposes. The "Lew" part of the name refers to the location where they were first developed, the Lewis Institute in Lake Bluff, Illinois, USA.

Inbreeding is a process of mating closely related individuals over many generations to create a genetically homogeneous population. This results in a high degree of genetic similarity among members of the strain, making them ideal for use as experimental models because any differences observed between individuals are more likely to be due to the experimental manipulation rather than genetic variation.

Inbred Lew rats have been widely used in biomedical research, particularly in studies related to hypertension and cardiovascular disease. They exhibit a number of unique characteristics that make them useful for these types of studies, including their susceptibility to developing high blood pressure when fed a high-salt diet or given certain drugs.

It's important to note that while inbred strains like Lew rats can be very useful tools for researchers, they are not perfect models for human disease. Because they have been bred in a controlled environment and selected for specific traits, they may not respond to experimental manipulations in the same way that humans or other animals would. Therefore, it's important to interpret findings from these studies with caution and consider multiple lines of evidence before drawing any firm conclusions.

Measles virus is a single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus belonging to the genus Morbillivirus in the family Paramyxoviridae. It is the causative agent of measles, a highly contagious infectious disease characterized by fever, cough, runny nose, and a red, blotchy rash. The virus primarily infects the respiratory tract and then spreads throughout the body via the bloodstream.

The genome of the measles virus is approximately 16 kilobases in length and encodes for eight proteins: nucleocapsid (N), phosphoprotein (P), matrix protein (M), fusion protein (F), hemagglutinin (H), large protein (L), and two non-structural proteins, V and C. The H protein is responsible for binding to the host cell receptor CD150 (SLAM) and mediating viral entry, while the F protein facilitates fusion of the viral and host cell membranes.

Measles virus is transmitted through respiratory droplets and direct contact with infected individuals. The virus can remain airborne for up to two hours in a closed space, making it highly contagious. Measles is preventable through vaccination, which has led to significant reductions in the incidence of the disease worldwide.

Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is a soluble cytokine that is primarily produced by the activation of natural killer (NK) cells and T lymphocytes, especially CD4+ Th1 cells and CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. It plays a crucial role in the regulation of the immune response against viral and intracellular bacterial infections, as well as tumor cells. IFN-γ has several functions, including activating macrophages to enhance their microbicidal activity, increasing the presentation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II molecules on antigen-presenting cells, stimulating the proliferation and differentiation of T cells and NK cells, and inducing the production of other cytokines and chemokines. Additionally, IFN-γ has direct antiproliferative effects on certain types of tumor cells and can enhance the cytotoxic activity of immune cells against infected or malignant cells.

Immunity, in medical terms, refers to the body's ability to resist or fight against harmful foreign substances or organisms such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi. This resistance is achieved through various mechanisms, including the production of antibodies, the activation of immune cells like T-cells and B-cells, and the release of cytokines and other chemical messengers that help coordinate the immune response.

There are two main types of immunity: innate immunity and adaptive immunity. Innate immunity is the body's first line of defense against infection and involves nonspecific mechanisms such as physical barriers (e.g., skin and mucous membranes), chemical barriers (e.g., stomach acid and enzymes), and inflammatory responses. Adaptive immunity, on the other hand, is specific to particular pathogens and involves the activation of T-cells and B-cells, which recognize and remember specific antigens (foreign substances that trigger an immune response). This allows the body to mount a more rapid and effective response to subsequent exposures to the same pathogen.

Immunity can be acquired through natural means, such as when a person recovers from an infection and develops immunity to that particular pathogen, or artificially, through vaccination. Vaccines contain weakened or inactivated forms of a pathogen or its components, which stimulate the immune system to produce a response without causing the disease. This response provides protection against future infections with that same pathogen.

Liver failure is a serious condition in which the liver is no longer able to perform its normal functions, such as removing toxins and waste products from the blood, producing bile to help digest food, and regulating blood clotting. This can lead to a buildup of toxins in the body, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), fluid accumulation in the abdomen, and an increased risk of bleeding. Liver failure can be acute (sudden) or chronic (developing over time). Acute liver failure is often caused by medication toxicity, viral hepatitis, or other sudden illnesses. Chronic liver failure is most commonly caused by long-term damage from conditions such as cirrhosis, hepatitis, alcohol abuse, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

It's important to note that Liver Failure is a life threatening condition and need immediate medical attention.

A tumor virus infection is a condition in which a person's cells become cancerous or transformed due to the integration and disruption of normal cellular functions by a viral pathogen. These viruses are also known as oncoviruses, and they can cause tumors or cancer by altering the host cell's genetic material, promoting uncontrolled cell growth and division, evading immune surveillance, and inhibiting apoptosis (programmed cell death).

Examples of tumor viruses include:

1. DNA tumor viruses: These are double-stranded DNA viruses that can cause cancer in humans. Examples include human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV).
2. RNA tumor viruses: Also known as retroviruses, these single-stranded RNA viruses can cause cancer in humans. Examples include human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

Tumor virus infections are responsible for approximately 15-20% of all cancer cases worldwide, making them a significant public health concern. Prevention strategies, such as vaccination against HPV and HBV, have been shown to reduce the incidence of associated cancers.

Dendritic cells (DCs) are a type of immune cell that play a critical role in the body's defense against infection and cancer. They are named for their dendrite-like projections, which they use to interact with and sample their environment. DCs are responsible for processing antigens (foreign substances that trigger an immune response) and presenting them to T cells, a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in the immune system's response to infection and cancer.

DCs can be found throughout the body, including in the skin, mucous membranes, and lymphoid organs. They are able to recognize and respond to a wide variety of antigens, including those from bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. Once they have processed an antigen, DCs migrate to the lymph nodes, where they present the antigen to T cells. This interaction activates the T cells, which then go on to mount a targeted immune response against the invading pathogen or cancerous cells.

DCs are a diverse group of cells that can be divided into several subsets based on their surface markers and function. Some DCs, such as Langerhans cells and dermal DCs, are found in the skin and mucous membranes, where they serve as sentinels for invading pathogens. Other DCs, such as plasmacytoid DCs and conventional DCs, are found in the lymphoid organs, where they play a role in activating T cells and initiating an immune response.

Overall, dendritic cells are essential for the proper functioning of the immune system, and dysregulation of these cells has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including autoimmune disorders and cancer.

Histocompatibility is the compatibility between tissues or organs from different individuals in terms of their histological (tissue) structure and antigenic properties. The term is most often used in the context of transplantation, where it refers to the degree of match between the human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) and other proteins on the surface of donor and recipient cells.

A high level of histocompatibility reduces the risk of rejection of a transplanted organ or tissue by the recipient's immune system, as their immune cells are less likely to recognize the donated tissue as foreign and mount an attack against it. Conversely, a low level of histocompatibility increases the likelihood of rejection, as the recipient's immune system recognizes the donated tissue as foreign and attacks it.

Histocompatibility testing is therefore an essential part of organ and tissue transplantation, as it helps to identify the best possible match between donor and recipient and reduces the risk of rejection.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

Transplantation conditioning, also known as preparative regimen or immunoablative therapy, refers to the use of various treatments prior to transplantation of cells, tissues or organs. The main goal of transplantation conditioning is to suppress the recipient's immune system, allowing for successful engraftment and minimizing the risk of rejection of the donor tissue.

There are two primary types of transplantation conditioning: myeloablative and non-myeloablative.

1. Myeloablative conditioning is a more intensive regimen that involves the use of high-dose chemotherapy, radiation therapy or both. This approach eliminates not only immune cells but also stem cells in the bone marrow, requiring the recipient to receive a hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) from the donor to reconstitute their blood and immune system.
2. Non-myeloablative conditioning is a less intensive regimen that primarily targets immune cells while sparing the stem cells in the bone marrow. This approach allows for mixed chimerism, where both recipient and donor immune cells coexist, reducing the risk of severe complications associated with myeloablative conditioning.

The choice between these two types of transplantation conditioning depends on various factors, including the type of transplant, patient's age, overall health, and comorbidities. Both approaches carry risks and benefits, and the decision should be made carefully by a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals in consultation with the patient.

Irritant contact dermatitis is a type of inflammation of the skin (dermatitis) that results from exposure to an external substance that directly damages the skin. It can be caused by both chemical and physical agents, such as solvents, detergents, acids, alkalis, friction, and extreme temperatures. The reaction typically occurs within hours or days of exposure and can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, itching, burning, and pain. Unlike allergic contact dermatitis, which requires sensitization to a specific allergen, irritant contact dermatitis can occur after a single exposure to an irritant in sufficient concentration or after repeated exposures to lower concentrations of the substance.

Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of L-tryptophan to N-formylkynurenine, which is the first and rate-limiting step in the kynurenine pathway. This enzymatic reaction plays a crucial role in regulating tryptophan metabolism and immune responses. IDO is expressed in various tissues, including the brain, liver, and placenta, as well as in some immune cells such as dendritic cells and macrophages. It can be upregulated by inflammatory stimuli, and its expression has been associated with immune tolerance and suppression of T-cell responses. IDO is also being investigated as a potential therapeutic target for various diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and neuropsychiatric conditions.

Skin neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the skin that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). They result from uncontrolled multiplication of skin cells, which can form various types of lesions. These growths may appear as lumps, bumps, sores, patches, or discolored areas on the skin.

Benign skin neoplasms include conditions such as moles, warts, and seborrheic keratoses, while malignant skin neoplasms are primarily classified into melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma. These three types of cancerous skin growths are collectively known as non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs). Melanoma is the most aggressive and dangerous form of skin cancer, while NMSCs tend to be less invasive but more common.

It's essential to monitor any changes in existing skin lesions or the appearance of new growths and consult a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and treatment if needed.

An acute disease is a medical condition that has a rapid onset, develops quickly, and tends to be short in duration. Acute diseases can range from minor illnesses such as a common cold or flu, to more severe conditions such as pneumonia, meningitis, or a heart attack. These types of diseases often have clear symptoms that are easy to identify, and they may require immediate medical attention or treatment.

Acute diseases are typically caused by an external agent or factor, such as a bacterial or viral infection, a toxin, or an injury. They can also be the result of a sudden worsening of an existing chronic condition. In general, acute diseases are distinct from chronic diseases, which are long-term medical conditions that develop slowly over time and may require ongoing management and treatment.

Examples of acute diseases include:

* Acute bronchitis: a sudden inflammation of the airways in the lungs, often caused by a viral infection.
* Appendicitis: an inflammation of the appendix that can cause severe pain and requires surgical removal.
* Gastroenteritis: an inflammation of the stomach and intestines, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.
* Migraine headaches: intense headaches that can last for hours or days, and are often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound.
* Myocardial infarction (heart attack): a sudden blockage of blood flow to the heart muscle, often caused by a buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries.
* Pneumonia: an infection of the lungs that can cause coughing, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
* Sinusitis: an inflammation of the sinuses, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.

It's important to note that while some acute diseases may resolve on their own with rest and supportive care, others may require medical intervention or treatment to prevent complications and promote recovery. If you are experiencing symptoms of an acute disease, it is always best to seek medical attention to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment.

A Lymphocyte Culture Test, Mixed (LCTM) is not a standardized medical test with a universally accepted definition. However, in some contexts, it may refer to a laboratory procedure where both T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes are cultured together from a sample of peripheral blood or other tissues. This test is sometimes used in research or specialized diagnostic settings to evaluate the immune function or to study the interactions between T-cells and B-cells in response to various stimuli, such as antigens or mitogens.

The test typically involves isolating lymphocytes from a sample, adding them to a culture medium along with appropriate stimulants, and then incubating the mixture for a period of time. The resulting responses, such as proliferation, differentiation, or production of cytokines, can be measured and analyzed to gain insights into the immune function or dysfunction.

It's important to note that LCTM is not a routine diagnostic test and its use and interpretation may vary depending on the specific laboratory or research setting.

Facial transplantation is a surgical procedure that involves replacing all or part of a patient's face with facial tissue from a deceased donor. The procedure typically includes the skin, muscles, nerves, and bones of the face, and may also include the eyes and eyelids, ears, and tongue. Facial transplantation is performed to significantly improve the appearance and function of a person's face, usually in cases where the patient has suffered severe facial trauma or disfigurement due to burns, cancer, or other medical conditions.

The procedure requires extensive planning, coordination, and expertise from a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals, including plastic surgeons, transplant specialists, anesthesiologists, nurses, psychiatrists, and rehabilitation therapists. The surgery itself can take up to 30 hours or more, depending on the extent of the transplant.

Following the procedure, patients must undergo rigorous immunosuppressive therapy to prevent their immune system from rejecting the donor tissue. This involves taking medications that weaken the immune system and make the patient more susceptible to infections and other complications. Despite these risks, facial transplantation has been shown to significantly improve the quality of life for some patients who have undergone the procedure.

'Antibodies, Neoplasm' is a medical term that refers to abnormal antibodies produced by neoplastic cells, which are cells that have undergone uncontrolled division and form a tumor or malignancy. These antibodies can be produced in large quantities and may have altered structures or functions compared to normal antibodies.

Neoplastic antibodies can arise from various types of malignancies, including leukemias, lymphomas, and multiple myeloma. In some cases, these abnormal antibodies can interfere with the normal functioning of the immune system and contribute to the progression of the disease.

In addition, neoplastic antibodies can also be used as tumor markers for diagnostic purposes. For example, certain types of monoclonal gammopathy, such as multiple myeloma, are characterized by the overproduction of a single type of immunoglobulin, which can be detected in the blood or urine and used to monitor the disease.

Overall, 'Antibodies, Neoplasm' is a term that encompasses a wide range of abnormal antibodies produced by neoplastic cells, which can have significant implications for both the diagnosis and treatment of malignancies.

A kidney, in medical terms, is one of two bean-shaped organs located in the lower back region of the body. They are essential for maintaining homeostasis within the body by performing several crucial functions such as:

1. Regulation of water and electrolyte balance: Kidneys help regulate the amount of water and various electrolytes like sodium, potassium, and calcium in the bloodstream to maintain a stable internal environment.

2. Excretion of waste products: They filter waste products from the blood, including urea (a byproduct of protein metabolism), creatinine (a breakdown product of muscle tissue), and other harmful substances that result from normal cellular functions or external sources like medications and toxins.

3. Endocrine function: Kidneys produce several hormones with important roles in the body, such as erythropoietin (stimulates red blood cell production), renin (regulates blood pressure), and calcitriol (activated form of vitamin D that helps regulate calcium homeostasis).

4. pH balance regulation: Kidneys maintain the proper acid-base balance in the body by excreting either hydrogen ions or bicarbonate ions, depending on whether the blood is too acidic or too alkaline.

5. Blood pressure control: The kidneys play a significant role in regulating blood pressure through the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which constricts blood vessels and promotes sodium and water retention to increase blood volume and, consequently, blood pressure.

Anatomically, each kidney is approximately 10-12 cm long, 5-7 cm wide, and 3 cm thick, with a weight of about 120-170 grams. They are surrounded by a protective layer of fat and connected to the urinary system through the renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, and urethra.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Immunotherapy is a type of medical treatment that uses the body's own immune system to fight against diseases, such as cancer. It involves the use of substances (like vaccines, medications, or immune cells) that stimulate or suppress the immune system to help it recognize and destroy harmful disease-causing cells or agents, like tumor cells.

Immunotherapy can work in several ways:

1. Activating the immune system: Certain immunotherapies boost the body's natural immune responses, helping them recognize and attack cancer cells more effectively.
2. Suppressing immune system inhibitors: Some immunotherapies target and block proteins or molecules that can suppress the immune response, allowing the immune system to work more efficiently against diseases.
3. Replacing or enhancing specific immune cells: Immunotherapy can also involve administering immune cells (like T-cells) that have been genetically engineered or modified to recognize and destroy cancer cells.

Immunotherapies have shown promising results in treating various types of cancer, autoimmune diseases, and allergies. However, they can also cause side effects, as an overactive immune system may attack healthy tissues and organs. Therefore, careful monitoring is necessary during immunotherapy treatment.

A "Graft versus Host Reaction" (GVHR) is a condition that can occur after an organ or bone marrow transplant, where the immune cells in the graft (transplanted tissue) recognize and attack the recipient's (host's) tissues as foreign. This reaction occurs because the donor's immune cells (graft) are able to recognize the host's cells as different from their own due to differences in proteins called human leukocyte antigens (HLAs).

The GVHR can affect various organs, including the skin, liver, gastrointestinal tract, and lungs. Symptoms may include rash, diarrhea, jaundice, and respiratory distress. The severity of the reaction can vary widely, from mild to life-threatening.

To prevent or reduce the risk of GVHR, immunosuppressive drugs are often given to the recipient before and after transplantation to suppress their immune system and prevent it from attacking the graft. Despite these measures, GVHR can still occur in some cases, particularly when there is a significant mismatch between the donor and recipient HLAs.

A cadaver is a deceased body that is used for medical research or education. In the field of medicine, cadavers are often used in anatomy lessons, surgical training, and other forms of medical research. The use of cadavers allows medical professionals to gain a deeper understanding of the human body and its various systems without causing harm to living subjects. Cadavers may be donated to medical schools or obtained through other means, such as through consent of the deceased or their next of kin. It is important to handle and treat cadavers with respect and dignity, as they were once living individuals who deserve to be treated with care even in death.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Hemolytic Plaque Technique" is not a widely recognized or established medical term. It seems like it might be a combination of two different concepts in medical and scientific research: the Hemolytic Assay and the Plaque Assay technique.

A Hemolytic Assay is a method used to measure the amount of hemolysis, or the rupturing of red blood cells, caused by a substance such as a toxin or an antibody. This assay can help determine the concentration of the hemolysin in a sample.

On the other hand, the Plaque Assay Technique is a method used to measure the number of infectious virus particles in a sample. It involves adding a layer of cells (like bacteria) that the virus can infect and then covering it with a nutrient agar overlay. After a period of incubation, clear areas or "plaques" appear in the agar where the viruses have infected and lysed the cells. By counting these plaques, researchers can estimate the number of infectious virus particles present in the original sample.

Therefore, if you're looking for a definition of a Hemolytic Plaque Technique, it might refer to a research method that combines both concepts, possibly measuring the amount of a substance (like an antibody) that causes hemolysis in red blood cells and correlating it with the number of infectious virus particles present. However, I would recommend consulting the original source or author for clarification on their intended meaning.

Infection is defined medically as the invasion and multiplication of pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites within the body, which can lead to tissue damage, illness, and disease. This process often triggers an immune response from the host's body in an attempt to eliminate the infectious agents and restore homeostasis. Infections can be transmitted through various routes, including airborne particles, direct contact with contaminated surfaces or bodily fluids, sexual contact, or vector-borne transmission. The severity of an infection may range from mild and self-limiting to severe and life-threatening, depending on factors such as the type and quantity of pathogen, the host's immune status, and any underlying health conditions.

Sunscreening agents, also known as sunscreens or sunblocks, are substances that protect the skin from the harmful effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun. They work by absorbing, reflecting, or scattering UV radiation, preventing it from reaching the skin and causing damage such as sunburn, premature aging, and skin cancer.

Sunscreening agents can be chemical or physical. Chemical sunscreens contain organic compounds that absorb UV radiation and convert it into heat, which is then released from the skin. Examples of chemical sunscreens include oxybenzone, avobenzone, octinoxate, and homosalate.

Physical sunscreens, on the other hand, contain inorganic compounds that reflect or scatter UV radiation away from the skin. The most common physical sunscreen agents are zinc oxide and titanium dioxide.

Sunscreening agents are usually formulated into creams, lotions, gels, sprays, or sticks and are applied to the skin before sun exposure. They should be reapplied every two hours or after swimming, sweating, or toweling off to ensure continued protection. It is recommended to use a broad-spectrum sunscreen with an SPF (Sun Protection Factor) of at least 30, which blocks both UVA and UVB radiation.

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) is a medical procedure where hematopoietic stem cells (immature cells that give rise to all blood cell types) are transplanted into a patient. This procedure is often used to treat various malignant and non-malignant disorders affecting the hematopoietic system, such as leukemias, lymphomas, multiple myeloma, aplastic anemia, inherited immune deficiency diseases, and certain genetic metabolic disorders.

The transplantation can be autologous (using the patient's own stem cells), allogeneic (using stem cells from a genetically matched donor, usually a sibling or unrelated volunteer), or syngeneic (using stem cells from an identical twin).

The process involves collecting hematopoietic stem cells, most commonly from the peripheral blood or bone marrow. The collected cells are then infused into the patient after the recipient's own hematopoietic system has been ablated (or destroyed) using high-dose chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. This allows the donor's stem cells to engraft, reconstitute, and restore the patient's hematopoietic system.

HSCT is a complex and potentially risky procedure with various complications, including graft-versus-host disease, infections, and organ damage. However, it offers the potential for cure or long-term remission in many patients with otherwise fatal diseases.

Hand transplantation is a surgical procedure that involves the attachment of a donor's hand or hands to a recipient who has lost their hand(s) due to trauma, illness, or congenital conditions. The procedure involves meticulous microvascular and nerve reconstruction to reconnect bones, tendons, nerves, and blood vessels, allowing for the recovery of sensory and motor functions in the transplanted hand. It is an advanced reconstructive option that requires a careful selection of candidates, rigorous postoperative care, and immunosuppressive therapy to prevent rejection of the transplanted organ.

Warts are small, rough growths on the skin or mucous membranes caused by one of several types of human papillomavirus (HPV). They can appear anywhere on the body but most often occur on the hands, fingers, and feet. Warts are benign, non-cancerous growths, but they can be unsightly, uncomfortable, or painful, depending on their location and size.

Warts are caused by HPV infecting the top layer of skin, usually through a small cut or scratch. The virus triggers an overproduction of keratin, a protein in the skin, leading to the formation of a hard, rough growth. Warts can vary in appearance depending on their location and type, but they are generally round or irregularly shaped, with a rough surface that may be flat or slightly raised. They may also contain small black dots, which are actually tiny blood vessels that have clotted.

Warts are contagious and can spread from person to person through direct skin-to-skin contact or by sharing personal items such as towels or razors. They can also be spread by touching a wart and then touching another part of the body. Warts may take several months to develop after exposure to HPV, so it may not always be clear when or how they were contracted.

There are several types of warts, including common warts, plantar warts (which occur on the soles of the feet), flat warts (which are smaller and smoother than other types of warts), and genital warts (which are sexually transmitted). While most warts are harmless and will eventually go away on their own, some may require medical treatment if they are causing discomfort or are unsightly. Treatment options for warts include topical medications, cryotherapy (freezing the wart with liquid nitrogen), and surgical removal.

In medical terms, the skin is the largest organ of the human body. It consists of two main layers: the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (inner layer), as well as accessory structures like hair follicles, sweat glands, and oil glands. The skin plays a crucial role in protecting us from external factors such as bacteria, viruses, and environmental hazards, while also regulating body temperature and enabling the sense of touch.

Delayed hypersensitivity, also known as type IV hypersensitivity, is a type of immune response that takes place several hours to days after exposure to an antigen. It is characterized by the activation of T cells (a type of white blood cell) and the release of various chemical mediators, leading to inflammation and tissue damage. This reaction is typically associated with chronic inflammatory diseases, such as contact dermatitis, granulomatous disorders (e.g. tuberculosis), and certain autoimmune diseases.

The reaction process involves the following steps:

1. Sensitization: The first time an individual is exposed to an antigen, T cells are activated and become sensitized to it. This process can take several days.
2. Memory: Some of the activated T cells differentiate into memory T cells, which remain in the body and are ready to respond quickly if the same antigen is encountered again.
3. Effector phase: Upon subsequent exposure to the antigen, the memory T cells become activated and release cytokines, which recruit other immune cells (e.g. macrophages) to the site of inflammation. These cells cause tissue damage through various mechanisms, such as phagocytosis, degranulation, and the release of reactive oxygen species.
4. Chronic inflammation: The ongoing immune response can lead to chronic inflammation, which may result in tissue destruction and fibrosis (scarring).

Examples of conditions associated with delayed hypersensitivity include:

* Contact dermatitis (e.g. poison ivy, nickel allergy)
* Tuberculosis
* Leprosy
* Sarcoidosis
* Rheumatoid arthritis
* Type 1 diabetes mellitus
* Multiple sclerosis
* Inflammatory bowel disease (e.g. Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis)

CD (cluster of differentiation) antigens are cell-surface proteins that are expressed on leukocytes (white blood cells) and can be used to identify and distinguish different subsets of these cells. They are important markers in the field of immunology and hematology, and are commonly used to diagnose and monitor various diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and infectious diseases.

CD antigens are designated by numbers, such as CD4, CD8, CD19, etc., which refer to specific proteins found on the surface of different types of leukocytes. For example, CD4 is a protein found on the surface of helper T cells, while CD8 is found on cytotoxic T cells.

CD antigens can be used as targets for immunotherapy, such as monoclonal antibody therapy, in which antibodies are designed to bind to specific CD antigens and trigger an immune response against cancer cells or infected cells. They can also be used as markers to monitor the effectiveness of treatments and to detect minimal residual disease (MRD) after treatment.

It's important to note that not all CD antigens are exclusive to leukocytes, some can be found on other cell types as well, and their expression can vary depending on the activation state or differentiation stage of the cells.

Whole-Body Irradiation (WBI) is a medical procedure that involves the exposure of the entire body to a controlled dose of ionizing radiation, typically used in the context of radiation therapy for cancer treatment. The purpose of WBI is to destroy cancer cells or suppress the immune system prior to a bone marrow transplant. It can be delivered using various sources of radiation, such as X-rays, gamma rays, or electrons, and is carefully planned and monitored to minimize harm to healthy tissues while maximizing the therapeutic effect on cancer cells. Potential side effects include nausea, vomiting, fatigue, and an increased risk of infection due to decreased white blood cell counts.

Isoantigens are antigens that are present on the cells or tissues of one individual of a species, but are absent or different in another individual of the same species. They are also known as "alloantigens." Isoantigens are most commonly found on the surface of red blood cells and other tissues, and they can stimulate an immune response when transplanted into a different individual. This is because the recipient's immune system recognizes the isoantigens as foreign and mounts a defense against them. Isoantigens are important in the field of transplantation medicine, as they must be carefully matched between donor and recipient to reduce the risk of rejection.

HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection is a viral illness that progressively attacks and weakens the immune system, making individuals more susceptible to other infections and diseases. The virus primarily infects CD4+ T cells, a type of white blood cell essential for fighting off infections. Over time, as the number of these immune cells declines, the body becomes increasingly vulnerable to opportunistic infections and cancers.

HIV infection has three stages:

1. Acute HIV infection: This is the initial stage that occurs within 2-4 weeks after exposure to the virus. During this period, individuals may experience flu-like symptoms such as fever, fatigue, rash, swollen glands, and muscle aches. The virus replicates rapidly, and the viral load in the body is very high.
2. Chronic HIV infection (Clinical latency): This stage follows the acute infection and can last several years if left untreated. Although individuals may not show any symptoms during this phase, the virus continues to replicate at low levels, and the immune system gradually weakens. The viral load remains relatively stable, but the number of CD4+ T cells declines over time.
3. AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome): This is the most advanced stage of HIV infection, characterized by a severely damaged immune system and numerous opportunistic infections or cancers. At this stage, the CD4+ T cell count drops below 200 cells/mm3 of blood.

It's important to note that with proper antiretroviral therapy (ART), individuals with HIV infection can effectively manage the virus, maintain a healthy immune system, and significantly reduce the risk of transmission to others. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for improving long-term health outcomes and reducing the spread of HIV.

A leukocyte count, also known as a white blood cell (WBC) count, is a laboratory test that measures the number of leukocytes in a sample of blood. Leukocytes are a vital part of the body's immune system and help fight infection and inflammation. A high or low leukocyte count may indicate an underlying medical condition, such as an infection, inflammation, or a bone marrow disorder. The normal range for a leukocyte count in adults is typically between 4,500 and 11,000 cells per microliter (mcL) of blood. However, the normal range can vary slightly depending on the laboratory and the individual's age and sex.

Isogeneic transplantation is a type of transplant where the donor and recipient are genetically identical, meaning they are identical twins or have the same genetic makeup. In this case, the immune system recognizes the transplanted organ or tissue as its own and does not mount an immune response to reject it. This reduces the need for immunosuppressive drugs, which are typically required in other types of transplantation to prevent rejection.

In medical terms, isogeneic transplantation is defined as the transfer of genetic identical tissues or organs between genetically identical individuals, resulting in minimal risk of rejection and no need for immunosuppressive therapy.

Immunoconjugates are biomolecules created by the conjugation (coupling) of an antibody or antibody fragment with a cytotoxic agent, such as a drug, radionuclide, or toxin. This coupling is designed to direct the cytotoxic agent specifically to target cells, usually cancer cells, against which the antibody is directed, thereby increasing the effectiveness and reducing the side effects of the therapy.

The antibody part of the immunoconjugate recognizes and binds to specific antigens (proteins or other molecules) on the surface of the target cells, while the cytotoxic agent part enters the cell and disrupts its function, leading to cell death. The linker between the two parts is designed to be stable in circulation but can release the cytotoxic agent once inside the target cell.

Immunoconjugates are a promising area of research in targeted cancer therapy, as they offer the potential for more precise and less toxic treatments compared to traditional chemotherapy. However, their development and use also pose challenges, such as ensuring that the immunoconjugate binds specifically to the target cells and not to normal cells, optimizing the dose and schedule of treatment, and minimizing the risk of resistance to the therapy.

Immunologic graft enhancement refers to the manipulation of the immune system to increase the acceptance and survival of a transplanted tissue or organ (graft) in the recipient's body. This is achieved by suppressing the immune response that recognizes and attacks the graft as foreign, thereby reducing the risk of rejection.

Various strategies can be used for immunologic graft enhancement, including:

1. Immunosuppressive therapy: The use of medications to inhibit the activity of the immune system and prevent it from attacking the graft. Commonly used drugs include corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, antiproliferative agents, and monoclonal antibodies.
2. Induction therapy: The administration of high doses of immunosuppressive drugs before or immediately after transplantation to suppress the initial immune response and reduce the risk of early rejection.
3. Tolerance induction: The manipulation of the recipient's immune system to promote tolerance to the graft, allowing for long-term acceptance without the need for ongoing immunosuppression. This can be achieved through various methods, such as costimulatory blockade, regulatory T cell therapy, or mixed chimerism.
4. Desensitization: The reduction of antibodies against the graft in sensitized recipients, who have previously been exposed to foreign antigens and developed an immune response. This can be achieved through various methods, such as plasmapheresis, intravenous immunoglobulin therapy, or protein A immunoabsorption.

It is important to note that while these strategies can enhance graft survival and reduce the risk of rejection, they also increase the risk of infection and malignancy due to the suppression of the immune system. Therefore, careful monitoring and management of the recipient's immune status is essential for successful transplantation outcomes.

CD8-positive T-lymphocytes, also known as CD8+ T cells or cytotoxic T cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the adaptive immune system. They are named after the CD8 molecule found on their surface, which is a protein involved in cell signaling and recognition.

CD8+ T cells are primarily responsible for identifying and destroying virus-infected cells or cancerous cells. When activated, they release cytotoxic granules that contain enzymes capable of inducing apoptosis (programmed cell death) in the target cells. They also produce cytokines such as interferon-gamma, which can help coordinate the immune response and activate other immune cells.

CD8+ T cells are generated in the thymus gland and are a type of T cell, which is a lymphocyte that matures in the thymus and plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity. They recognize and respond to specific antigens presented on the surface of infected or cancerous cells in conjunction with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules.

Overall, CD8+ T cells are an essential component of the immune system's defense against viral infections and cancer.

A lymphocyte count is a laboratory test that measures the number of white blood cells called lymphocytes in a sample of blood. Lymphocytes are a vital part of the immune system and help fight off infections and diseases. A normal lymphocyte count ranges from 1,000 to 4,800 cells per microliter (µL) of blood for adults.

An abnormal lymphocyte count can indicate an infection, immune disorder, or blood cancer. A low lymphocyte count is called lymphopenia, while a high lymphocyte count is called lymphocytosis. The cause of an abnormal lymphocyte count should be investigated through further testing and clinical evaluation.

In epidemiology, the incidence of a disease is defined as the number of new cases of that disease within a specific population over a certain period of time. It is typically expressed as a rate, with the number of new cases in the numerator and the size of the population at risk in the denominator. Incidence provides information about the risk of developing a disease during a given time period and can be used to compare disease rates between different populations or to monitor trends in disease occurrence over time.

Dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) is a chemical compound that is often used in laboratory settings for research purposes. It is an aromatic organic compound that contains two nitro groups and a fluorine atom attached to a benzene ring. Dinitrofluorobenzene is primarily known for its ability to act as a hapten, which means it can bind to proteins in the body and stimulate an immune response.

In medical research, DNFB has been used as a contact sensitizer to study the mechanisms of allergic contact dermatitis, a type of skin reaction that occurs when the immune system becomes sensitized to a particular substance and then reacts to it upon subsequent exposure. When applied to the skin, DNFB can cause a red, itchy, and painful rash in individuals who have been previously sensitized to the compound. By studying this reaction, researchers can gain insights into the immune responses that underlie allergic reactions more broadly.

It is important to note that dinitrofluorobenzene is not used as a therapeutic agent in clinical medicine and should only be handled by trained professionals in a controlled laboratory setting due to its potential hazards, including skin and eye irritation, respiratory problems, and potential long-term health effects.

Viral activation, also known as viral reactivation or virus reactivation, refers to the process in which a latent or dormant virus becomes active and starts to replicate within a host cell. This can occur when the immune system is weakened or compromised, allowing the virus to evade the body's natural defenses and cause disease.

In some cases, viral activation can be triggered by certain environmental factors, such as stress, exposure to UV light, or infection with another virus. Once activated, the virus can cause symptoms similar to those seen during the initial infection, or it may lead to new symptoms depending on the specific virus and the host's immune response.

Examples of viruses that can remain dormant in the body and be reactivated include herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). It is important to note that not all viruses can be reactivated, and some may remain dormant in the body indefinitely without causing any harm.

A CD4 lymphocyte count is a laboratory test that measures the number of CD4 T-cells (also known as CD4+ T-cells or helper T-cells) in a sample of blood. CD4 cells are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the body's immune response, particularly in fighting off infections caused by viruses and other pathogens.

CD4 cells express a protein on their surface called the CD4 receptor, which is used by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to infect and destroy these cells. As a result, people with HIV infection or AIDS often have low CD4 lymphocyte counts, which can make them more susceptible to opportunistic infections and other complications.

A normal CD4 lymphocyte count ranges from 500 to 1,200 cells per cubic millimeter of blood (cells/mm3) in healthy adults. A lower than normal CD4 count is often used as a marker for the progression of HIV infection and the development of AIDS. CD4 counts are typically monitored over time to assess the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and to guide clinical decision-making regarding the need for additional interventions, such as prophylaxis against opportunistic infections.

Sunburn is a cutaneous condition characterized by redness, pain, and sometimes swelling of the skin caused by overexposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun or other sources such as tanning beds. The skin may also blister and peel in severe cases. Sunburn is essentially a burn to the skin that can have both immediate and long-term consequences, including increased aging of the skin and an increased risk of skin cancer. It is important to protect the skin from excessive sun exposure by using sunscreen, wearing protective clothing, and seeking shade during peak sunlight hours.

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of antibody, which is a protective protein produced by the immune system in response to foreign substances like bacteria or viruses. IgG is the most abundant type of antibody in human blood, making up about 75-80% of all antibodies. It is found in all body fluids and plays a crucial role in fighting infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and toxins.

IgG has several important functions:

1. Neutralization: IgG can bind to the surface of bacteria or viruses, preventing them from attaching to and infecting human cells.
2. Opsonization: IgG coats the surface of pathogens, making them more recognizable and easier for immune cells like neutrophils and macrophages to phagocytose (engulf and destroy) them.
3. Complement activation: IgG can activate the complement system, a group of proteins that work together to help eliminate pathogens from the body. Activation of the complement system leads to the formation of the membrane attack complex, which creates holes in the cell membranes of bacteria, leading to their lysis (destruction).
4. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC): IgG can bind to immune cells like natural killer (NK) cells and trigger them to release substances that cause target cells (such as virus-infected or cancerous cells) to undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death).
5. Immune complex formation: IgG can form immune complexes with antigens, which can then be removed from the body through various mechanisms, such as phagocytosis by immune cells or excretion in urine.

IgG is a critical component of adaptive immunity and provides long-lasting protection against reinfection with many pathogens. It has four subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) that differ in their structure, function, and distribution in the body.

Photoallergic dermatitis is a type of contact dermatitis that occurs as a result of an allergic reaction to a substance after it has been exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light. This means that when the substance (allergen) comes into contact with the skin and is then exposed to UV light, usually from the sun, an immune response is triggered, leading to an inflammatory reaction in the skin.

The symptoms of photoallergic dermatitis include redness, swelling, itching, and blistering or crusting of the skin. These symptoms typically appear within 24-72 hours after exposure to the allergen and UV light. The rash can occur anywhere on the body but is most commonly found in areas that have been exposed to the sun, such as the face, neck, arms, and hands.

Common allergens that can cause photoallergic dermatitis include certain medications, fragrances, sunscreens, and topical skin products. Once a person has become sensitized to a particular allergen, even small amounts of it can trigger a reaction when exposed to UV light.

Prevention measures for photoallergic dermatitis include avoiding known allergens, wearing protective clothing, and using broad-spectrum sunscreens that protect against both UVA and UVB rays. If a reaction does occur, topical corticosteroids or oral antihistamines may be prescribed to help relieve symptoms.

B-lymphocytes, also known as B-cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the immune system's response to infection. They are responsible for producing antibodies, which are proteins that help to neutralize or destroy pathogens such as bacteria and viruses.

When a B-lymphocyte encounters a pathogen, it becomes activated and begins to divide and differentiate into plasma cells, which produce and secrete large amounts of antibodies specific to the antigens on the surface of the pathogen. These antibodies bind to the pathogen, marking it for destruction by other immune cells such as neutrophils and macrophages.

B-lymphocytes also have a role in presenting antigens to T-lymphocytes, another type of white blood cell involved in the immune response. This helps to stimulate the activation and proliferation of T-lymphocytes, which can then go on to destroy infected cells or help to coordinate the overall immune response.

Overall, B-lymphocytes are an essential part of the adaptive immune system, providing long-lasting immunity to previously encountered pathogens and helping to protect against future infections.

Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a type of cytokine, which are signaling molecules that mediate and regulate immunity, inflammation, and hematopoiesis. Specifically, IL-2 is a growth factor for T cells, a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in the immune response. It is primarily produced by CD4+ T cells (also known as T helper cells) and stimulates the proliferation and differentiation of activated T cells, including effector T cells and regulatory T cells. IL-2 also has roles in the activation and function of other immune cells, such as B cells, natural killer cells, and dendritic cells. Dysregulation of IL-2 production or signaling can contribute to various pathological conditions, including autoimmune diseases, chronic infections, and cancer.

Isoantibodies are antibodies produced by the immune system that recognize and react to antigens (markers) found on the cells or tissues of another individual of the same species. These antigens are typically proteins or carbohydrates present on the surface of red blood cells, but they can also be found on other cell types.

Isoantibodies are formed when an individual is exposed to foreign antigens, usually through blood transfusions, pregnancy, or tissue transplantation. The exposure triggers the immune system to produce specific antibodies against these antigens, which can cause a harmful immune response if the individual receives another transfusion or transplant from the same donor in the future.

There are two main types of isoantibodies:

1. Agglutinins: These are IgM antibodies that cause red blood cells to clump together (agglutinate) when mixed with the corresponding antigen. They develop rapidly after exposure and can cause immediate transfusion reactions or hemolytic disease of the newborn in pregnant women.
2. Hemolysins: These are IgG antibodies that destroy red blood cells by causing their membranes to become more permeable, leading to lysis (bursting) of the cells and release of hemoglobin into the plasma. They take longer to develop but can cause delayed transfusion reactions or hemolytic disease of the newborn in pregnant women.

Isoantibodies are detected through blood tests, such as the crossmatch test, which determines compatibility between a donor's and recipient's blood before transfusions or transplants.

Concanavalin A (Con A) is a type of protein known as a lectin, which is found in the seeds of the plant Canavalia ensiformis, also known as jack bean. It is often used in laboratory settings as a tool to study various biological processes, such as cell division and the immune response, due to its ability to bind specifically to certain sugars on the surface of cells. Con A has been extensively studied for its potential applications in medicine, including as a possible treatment for cancer and viral infections. However, more research is needed before these potential uses can be realized.

Chronic kidney failure, also known as chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 5 or end-stage renal disease (ESRD), is a permanent loss of kidney function that occurs gradually over a period of months to years. It is defined as a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of less than 15 ml/min, which means the kidneys are filtering waste and excess fluids at less than 15% of their normal capacity.

CKD can be caused by various underlying conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, glomerulonephritis, polycystic kidney disease, and recurrent kidney infections. Over time, the damage to the kidneys can lead to a buildup of waste products and fluids in the body, which can cause a range of symptoms including fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, and confusion.

Treatment for chronic kidney failure typically involves managing the underlying condition, making lifestyle changes such as following a healthy diet, and receiving supportive care such as dialysis or a kidney transplant to replace lost kidney function.

"Tumor escape" is not a widely recognized medical term with a specific definition. However, in the context of cancer biology and immunotherapy, "tumor escape" refers to the ability of cancer cells to evade or suppress the immune system's response, allowing the tumor to continue growing and spreading. This can occur through various mechanisms, such as downregulation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules, production of immunosuppressive cytokines, recruitment of regulatory T cells, or induction of apoptosis in immune effector cells. Understanding the mechanisms of tumor escape is crucial for developing more effective cancer treatments and improving patient outcomes.

Chimerism is a medical term that refers to the presence of genetically distinct cell populations within an individual. This phenomenon can occur naturally or as a result of a medical procedure such as a stem cell transplant. In natural chimerism, an individual may have cells with different genetic compositions due to events that occurred during embryonic development, such as the fusion of two fertilized eggs (also known as "twinning") or the exchange of cells between twins in utero.

In the context of a stem cell transplant, chimerism can occur when a donor's stem cells engraft and begin to produce new blood cells in the recipient's body. This can result in the presence of both the recipient's own cells and the donor's cells in the recipient's body. The degree of chimerism can vary, with some individuals showing complete chimerism (where all blood cells are derived from the donor) or mixed chimerism (where both the recipient's and donor's cells coexist).

Monitoring chimerism levels is important in stem cell transplantation to assess the success of the procedure and to detect any potential signs of graft rejection or relapse of the original disease.

Immunomodulation is the process of modifying or regulating the immune system's response. It can involve either stimulating or suppressing various components of the immune system, such as white blood cells, antibodies, or cytokines. This can be achieved through various means, including medications (such as immunosuppressive drugs used in organ transplantation), vaccines, and other therapies.

The goal of immunomodulation is to restore balance to an overactive or underactive immune system, depending on the specific medical condition being treated. It can help to prevent or treat diseases that result from abnormal immune responses, such as autoimmune disorders, allergies, and infections.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Macrophages are a type of white blood cell that are an essential part of the immune system. They are large, specialized cells that engulf and destroy foreign substances, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi, as well as damaged or dead cells. Macrophages are found throughout the body, including in the bloodstream, lymph nodes, spleen, liver, lungs, and connective tissues. They play a critical role in inflammation, immune response, and tissue repair and remodeling.

Macrophages originate from monocytes, which are a type of white blood cell produced in the bone marrow. When monocytes enter the tissues, they differentiate into macrophages, which have a larger size and more specialized functions than monocytes. Macrophages can change their shape and move through tissues to reach sites of infection or injury. They also produce cytokines, chemokines, and other signaling molecules that help coordinate the immune response and recruit other immune cells to the site of infection or injury.

Macrophages have a variety of surface receptors that allow them to recognize and respond to different types of foreign substances and signals from other cells. They can engulf and digest foreign particles, bacteria, and viruses through a process called phagocytosis. Macrophages also play a role in presenting antigens to T cells, which are another type of immune cell that helps coordinate the immune response.

Overall, macrophages are crucial for maintaining tissue homeostasis, defending against infection, and promoting wound healing and tissue repair. Dysregulation of macrophage function has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and chronic inflammatory conditions.

A chronic disease is a long-term medical condition that often progresses slowly over a period of years and requires ongoing management and care. These diseases are typically not fully curable, but symptoms can be managed to improve quality of life. Common chronic diseases include heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). They are often associated with advanced age, although they can also affect children and younger adults. Chronic diseases can have significant impacts on individuals' physical, emotional, and social well-being, as well as on healthcare systems and society at large.

Autoimmune diseases are a group of disorders in which the immune system, which normally protects the body from foreign invaders like bacteria and viruses, mistakenly attacks the body's own cells and tissues. This results in inflammation and damage to various organs and tissues in the body.

In autoimmune diseases, the body produces autoantibodies that target its own proteins or cell receptors, leading to their destruction or malfunction. The exact cause of autoimmune diseases is not fully understood, but it is believed that a combination of genetic and environmental factors contribute to their development.

There are over 80 different types of autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Graves' disease, psoriasis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Symptoms can vary widely depending on the specific autoimmune disease and the organs or tissues affected. Treatment typically involves managing symptoms and suppressing the immune system to prevent further damage.

Blood group incompatibility refers to a situation where the blood type of a donor and a recipient are not compatible, leading to an immune response and destruction of the donated red blood cells. This is because the recipient's immune system recognizes the donor's red blood cells as foreign due to the presence of incompatible antigens on their surface.

The most common type of blood group incompatibility occurs between individuals with different ABO blood types, such as when a person with type O blood receives type A, B, or AB blood. This can lead to agglutination and hemolysis of the donated red blood cells, causing potentially life-threatening complications such as hemolytic transfusion reaction.

Another type of blood group incompatibility occurs between Rh-negative mothers and their Rh-positive fetuses. If a mother's immune system is exposed to her fetus's Rh-positive red blood cells during pregnancy or childbirth, she may develop antibodies against them. This can lead to hemolytic disease of the newborn if the mother becomes pregnant with another Rh-positive fetus in the future.

To prevent these complications, it is essential to ensure that donated blood is compatible with the recipient's blood type before transfusion and that appropriate measures are taken during pregnancy and childbirth to prevent sensitization of Rh-negative mothers to Rh-positive red blood cells.

Kidney disease, also known as nephropathy or renal disease, refers to any functional or structural damage to the kidneys that impairs their ability to filter blood, regulate electrolytes, produce hormones, and maintain fluid balance. This damage can result from a wide range of causes, including diabetes, hypertension, glomerulonephritis, polycystic kidney disease, lupus, infections, drugs, toxins, and congenital or inherited disorders.

Depending on the severity and progression of the kidney damage, kidney diseases can be classified into two main categories: acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). AKI is a sudden and often reversible loss of kidney function that occurs over hours to days, while CKD is a progressive and irreversible decline in kidney function that develops over months or years.

Symptoms of kidney diseases may include edema, proteinuria, hematuria, hypertension, electrolyte imbalances, metabolic acidosis, anemia, and decreased urine output. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause and severity of the disease and may include medications, dietary modifications, dialysis, or kidney transplantation.

A fatal outcome is a term used in medical context to describe a situation where a disease, injury, or illness results in the death of an individual. It is the most severe and unfortunate possible outcome of any medical condition, and is often used as a measure of the severity and prognosis of various diseases and injuries. In clinical trials and research, fatal outcome may be used as an endpoint to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of different treatments or interventions.

Neoplasms are abnormal growths of cells or tissues in the body that serve no physiological function. They can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms are typically slow growing and do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant neoplasms are aggressive, invasive, and can metastasize to distant sites.

Neoplasms occur when there is a dysregulation in the normal process of cell division and differentiation, leading to uncontrolled growth and accumulation of cells. This can result from genetic mutations or other factors such as viral infections, environmental exposures, or hormonal imbalances.

Neoplasms can develop in any organ or tissue of the body and can cause various symptoms depending on their size, location, and type. Treatment options for neoplasms include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and targeted therapy, among others.

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections, also known as infectious mononucleosis or "mono," is a viral infection that most commonly affects adolescents and young adults. The virus is transmitted through saliva and other bodily fluids, and can cause a variety of symptoms including fever, sore throat, swollen lymph nodes, fatigue, and skin rash.

EBV is a member of the herpesvirus family and establishes lifelong latency in infected individuals. After the initial infection, the virus remains dormant in the body and can reactivate later in life, causing symptoms such as fatigue and swollen lymph nodes. In some cases, EBV infection has been associated with the development of certain types of cancer, such as Burkitt's lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

The diagnosis of EBV infections is typically made based on a combination of clinical symptoms and laboratory tests, such as blood tests that detect the presence of EBV antibodies or viral DNA. Treatment is generally supportive and aimed at alleviating symptoms, as there is no specific antiviral therapy for EBV infections.

Medical survival rate is a statistical measure used to determine the percentage of patients who are still alive for a specific period of time after their diagnosis or treatment for a certain condition or disease. It is often expressed as a five-year survival rate, which refers to the proportion of people who are alive five years after their diagnosis. Survival rates can be affected by many factors, including the stage of the disease at diagnosis, the patient's age and overall health, the effectiveness of treatment, and other health conditions that the patient may have. It is important to note that survival rates are statistical estimates and do not necessarily predict an individual patient's prognosis.

Inbred strains of mice are defined as lines of mice that have been brother-sister mated for at least 20 consecutive generations. This results in a high degree of homozygosity, where the mice of an inbred strain are genetically identical to one another, with the exception of spontaneous mutations.

Inbred strains of mice are widely used in biomedical research due to their genetic uniformity and stability, which makes them useful for studying the genetic basis of various traits, diseases, and biological processes. They also provide a consistent and reproducible experimental system, as compared to outbred or genetically heterogeneous populations.

Some commonly used inbred strains of mice include C57BL/6J, BALB/cByJ, DBA/2J, and 129SvEv. Each strain has its own unique genetic background and phenotypic characteristics, which can influence the results of experiments. Therefore, it is important to choose the appropriate inbred strain for a given research question.

Heart-lung transplantation is a surgical procedure where both the heart and lungs of a patient are replaced with those from a deceased donor. This complex and highly specialized surgery is typically considered as a last resort for patients suffering from end-stage lung or heart-lung diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, pulmonary fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or certain forms of congenital heart disease, who have exhausted all other treatment options and face imminent death.

The procedure involves removing the patient's diseased heart and lungs en bloc, followed by implanting the donor's heart and lungs in their place. The surgery requires a skilled multidisciplinary team of cardiothoracic surgeons, anesthesiologists, perfusionists, transplant coordinators, and intensive care specialists.

Following the transplantation, patients require lifelong immunosuppressive therapy to prevent rejection of the transplanted organs. Despite the significant risks associated with this procedure, including infection, bleeding, and rejection, heart-lung transplantation can significantly improve both survival and quality of life for carefully selected patients with advanced heart-lung disease.

Lymph nodes are small, bean-shaped organs that are part of the immune system. They are found throughout the body, especially in the neck, armpits, groin, and abdomen. Lymph nodes filter lymph fluid, which carries waste and unwanted substances such as bacteria, viruses, and cancer cells. They contain white blood cells called lymphocytes that help fight infections and diseases by attacking and destroying the harmful substances found in the lymph fluid. When an infection or disease is present, lymph nodes may swell due to the increased number of immune cells and fluid accumulation as they work to fight off the invaders.

Interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptors are a type of cell surface receptor that bind to and interact with the cytokine interleukin-2. IL-2 is a protein that plays an important role in the immune system, particularly in the activation and proliferation of T cells, a type of white blood cell that helps protect the body from infection and disease.

IL-2 receptors are composed of three subunits: alpha (CD25), beta (CD122), and gamma (CD132). These subunits can combine to form different types of IL-2 receptors, each with different functions. The high-affinity IL-2 receptor is made up of all three subunits and is found on the surface of activated T cells. This type of receptor has a strong binding affinity for IL-2 and plays a crucial role in T cell activation and proliferation.

The intermediate-affinity IL-2 receptor, which consists of the beta and gamma subunits, is found on the surface of resting T cells and natural killer (NK) cells. This type of receptor has a lower binding affinity for IL-2 and plays a role in activating and proliferating these cells.

IL-2 receptors are important targets for immunotherapy, as they play a key role in the regulation of the immune response. Drugs that target IL-2 receptors, such as aldesleukin (Proleukin), have been used to treat certain types of cancer and autoimmune diseases.

"Pneumonia, Pneumocystis" is more commonly referred to as "Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP)." It is a type of pneumonia caused by the microorganism Pneumocystis jirovecii. This organism was previously classified as a protozoan but is now considered a fungus.

PCP is an opportunistic infection, which means that it mainly affects people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS, cancer, transplant recipients, or people taking immunosuppressive medications. The symptoms of PCP can include cough, shortness of breath, fever, and difficulty exercising. It is a serious infection that requires prompt medical treatment, typically with antibiotics.

It's important to note that PCP is not the same as pneumococcal pneumonia, which is caused by the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae. While both conditions are types of pneumonia, they are caused by different organisms and require different treatments.

"CBA" is an abbreviation for a specific strain of inbred mice that were developed at the Cancer Research Institute in London. The "Inbred CBA" mice are genetically identical individuals within the same strain, due to many generations of brother-sister matings. This results in a homozygous population, making them valuable tools for research because they reduce variability and increase reproducibility in experimental outcomes.

The CBA strain is known for its susceptibility to certain diseases, such as autoimmune disorders and cancer, which makes it a popular choice for researchers studying those conditions. Additionally, the CBA strain has been widely used in studies related to transplantation immunology, infectious diseases, and genetic research.

It's important to note that while "Inbred CBA" mice are a well-established and useful tool in biomedical research, they represent only one of many inbred strains available for scientific investigation. Each strain has its own unique characteristics and advantages, depending on the specific research question being asked.

Myeloid cells are a type of immune cell that originate from the bone marrow. They develop from hematopoietic stem cells, which can differentiate into various types of blood cells. Myeloid cells include monocytes, macrophages, granulocytes (such as neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils), dendritic cells, and mast cells. These cells play important roles in the immune system, such as defending against pathogens, modulating inflammation, and participating in tissue repair and remodeling.

Myeloid cell development is a tightly regulated process that involves several stages of differentiation, including the commitment to the myeloid lineage, proliferation, and maturation into specific subtypes. Dysregulation of myeloid cell development or function can contribute to various diseases, such as infections, cancer, and autoimmune disorders.

Immunologic factors refer to the elements of the immune system that contribute to the body's defense against foreign substances, infectious agents, and cancerous cells. These factors include various types of white blood cells (such as lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, and eosinophils), antibodies, complement proteins, cytokines, and other molecules involved in the immune response.

Immunologic factors can be categorized into two main types: innate immunity and adaptive immunity. Innate immunity is the non-specific defense mechanism that provides immediate protection against pathogens through physical barriers (e.g., skin, mucous membranes), chemical barriers (e.g., stomach acid, enzymes), and inflammatory responses. Adaptive immunity, on the other hand, is a specific defense mechanism that develops over time as the immune system learns to recognize and respond to particular pathogens or antigens.

Abnormalities in immunologic factors can lead to various medical conditions, such as autoimmune disorders, immunodeficiency diseases, and allergies. Therefore, understanding immunologic factors is crucial for diagnosing and treating these conditions.

Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by the destruction of insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas, leading to an absolute deficiency of insulin. This results in an inability to regulate blood glucose levels, causing hyperglycemia (high blood sugar). Type 1 diabetes typically presents in childhood or early adulthood, although it can develop at any age. It is usually managed with regular insulin injections or the use of an insulin pump, along with monitoring of blood glucose levels and adjustments to diet and physical activity. Uncontrolled type 1 diabetes can lead to serious complications such as kidney damage, nerve damage, blindness, and cardiovascular disease.

HLA (Human Leukocyte Antigen) antigens are a group of proteins found on the surface of cells in our body. They play a crucial role in the immune system's ability to differentiate between "self" and "non-self." HLA antigens are encoded by a group of genes located on chromosome 6, known as the major histocompatibility complex (MHC).

There are three types of HLA antigens: HLA class I, HLA class II, and HLA class III. HLA class I antigens are found on the surface of almost all cells in the body and help the immune system recognize and destroy virus-infected or cancerous cells. They consist of three components: HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C.

HLA class II antigens are primarily found on the surface of immune cells, such as macrophages, B cells, and dendritic cells. They assist in the presentation of foreign particles (like bacteria and viruses) to CD4+ T cells, which then activate other parts of the immune system. HLA class II antigens include HLA-DP, HLA-DQ, and HLA-DR.

HLA class III antigens consist of various molecules involved in immune responses, such as cytokines and complement components. They are not directly related to antigen presentation.

The genetic diversity of HLA antigens is extensive, with thousands of variations or alleles. This diversity allows for a better ability to recognize and respond to a wide range of pathogens. However, this variation can also lead to compatibility issues in organ transplantation, as the recipient's immune system may recognize the donor's HLA antigens as foreign and attack the transplanted organ.

Natural Killer (NK) cells are a type of lymphocyte, which are large granular innate immune cells that play a crucial role in the host's defense against viral infections and malignant transformations. They do not require prior sensitization to target and destroy abnormal cells, such as virus-infected cells or tumor cells. NK cells recognize their targets through an array of germline-encoded activating and inhibitory receptors that detect the alterations in the cell surface molecules of potential targets. Upon activation, NK cells release cytotoxic granules containing perforins and granzymes to induce target cell apoptosis, and they also produce a variety of cytokines and chemokines to modulate immune responses. Overall, natural killer cells serve as a critical component of the innate immune system, providing rapid and effective responses against infected or malignant cells.

Plasmapheresis is a medical procedure where the liquid portion of the blood (plasma) is separated from the blood cells. The plasma, which may contain harmful substances such as antibodies or toxins, is then removed and replaced with fresh plasma or a plasma substitute. The remaining blood cells are mixed with the new plasma and returned to the body. This process is also known as therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE). It's used to treat various medical conditions including certain autoimmune diseases, poisonings, and neurological disorders.

Liver diseases refer to a wide range of conditions that affect the normal functioning of the liver. The liver is a vital organ responsible for various critical functions such as detoxification, protein synthesis, and production of biochemicals necessary for digestion.

Liver diseases can be categorized into acute and chronic forms. Acute liver disease comes on rapidly and can be caused by factors like viral infections (hepatitis A, B, C, D, E), drug-induced liver injury, or exposure to toxic substances. Chronic liver disease develops slowly over time, often due to long-term exposure to harmful agents or inherent disorders of the liver.

Common examples of liver diseases include hepatitis, cirrhosis (scarring of the liver tissue), fatty liver disease, alcoholic liver disease, autoimmune liver diseases, genetic/hereditary liver disorders (like Wilson's disease and hemochromatosis), and liver cancers. Symptoms may vary widely depending on the type and stage of the disease but could include jaundice, abdominal pain, fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, and weight loss.

Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent progression and potential complications associated with liver diseases.

Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to an infection injures its own tissues and organs. It is characterized by a whole-body inflammatory state (systemic inflammation) that can lead to blood clotting issues, tissue damage, and multiple organ failure.

Sepsis happens when an infection you already have triggers a chain reaction throughout your body. Infections that lead to sepsis most often start in the lungs, urinary tract, skin, or gastrointestinal tract.

Sepsis is a medical emergency. If you suspect sepsis, seek immediate medical attention. Early recognition and treatment of sepsis are crucial to improve outcomes. Treatment usually involves antibiotics, intravenous fluids, and may require oxygen, medication to raise blood pressure, and corticosteroids. In severe cases, surgery may be required to clear the infection.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a type of herpesvirus that can cause infection in humans. It is characterized by the enlargement of infected cells (cytomegaly) and is typically transmitted through close contact with an infected person, such as through saliva, urine, breast milk, or sexual contact.

CMV infection can also be acquired through organ transplantation, blood transfusions, or during pregnancy from mother to fetus. While many people infected with CMV experience no symptoms, it can cause serious complications in individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those undergoing cancer treatment or those who have HIV/AIDS.

In newborns, congenital CMV infection can lead to hearing loss, vision problems, and developmental delays. Pregnant women who become infected with CMV for the first time during pregnancy are at higher risk of transmitting the virus to their unborn child. There is no cure for CMV, but antiviral medications can help manage symptoms and reduce the risk of complications in severe cases.

Monoclonal antibodies are laboratory-produced proteins that mimic the immune system's ability to fight off harmful antigens such as viruses and cancer cells. They are created by fusing a single B cell (the type of white blood cell responsible for producing antibodies) with a tumor cell, resulting in a hybrid cell called a hybridoma. This hybridoma can then be cloned to produce a large number of identical cells, all producing the same antibody, hence "monoclonal."

Humanized monoclonal antibodies are a type of monoclonal antibody that have been genetically engineered to include human components. This is done to reduce the risk of an adverse immune response in patients receiving the treatment. In this process, the variable region of the mouse monoclonal antibody, which contains the antigen-binding site, is grafted onto a human constant region. The resulting humanized monoclonal antibody retains the ability to bind to the target antigen while minimizing the immunogenicity associated with murine (mouse) antibodies.

In summary, "antibodies, monoclonal, humanized" refers to a type of laboratory-produced protein that mimics the immune system's ability to fight off harmful antigens, but with reduced immunogenicity due to the inclusion of human components in their structure.

Glucocorticoids are a class of steroid hormones that are naturally produced in the adrenal gland, or can be synthetically manufactured. They play an essential role in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats, and have significant anti-inflammatory effects. Glucocorticoids suppress immune responses and inflammation by inhibiting the release of inflammatory mediators from various cells, such as mast cells, eosinophils, and lymphocytes. They are frequently used in medical treatment for a wide range of conditions, including allergies, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, dermatological disorders, and certain cancers. Prolonged use or high doses of glucocorticoids can lead to several side effects, such as weight gain, mood changes, osteoporosis, and increased susceptibility to infections.

The thymus gland is an essential organ of the immune system, located in the upper chest, behind the sternum and surrounding the heart. It's primarily active until puberty and begins to shrink in size and activity thereafter. The main function of the thymus gland is the production and maturation of T-lymphocytes (T-cells), which are crucial for cell-mediated immunity, helping to protect the body from infection and cancer.

The thymus gland provides a protected environment where immune cells called pre-T cells develop into mature T cells. During this process, they learn to recognize and respond appropriately to foreign substances while remaining tolerant to self-tissues, which is crucial for preventing autoimmune diseases.

Additionally, the thymus gland produces hormones like thymosin that regulate immune cell activities and contribute to the overall immune response.

Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a naturally occurring protein that is primarily produced by activated macrophages and dendritic cells, which are types of immune cells. It plays a crucial role in the regulation of the immune response, particularly in the development of cell-mediated immunity.

IL-12 is composed of two subunits, p35 and p40, which combine to form a heterodimer. This cytokine stimulates the differentiation and activation of naive T cells into Th1 cells, which are important for fighting intracellular pathogens such as viruses and bacteria. IL-12 also enhances the cytotoxic activity of natural killer (NK) cells and CD8+ T cells, which can directly kill infected or malignant cells.

In addition to its role in the immune response, IL-12 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and psoriasis. As a result, therapeutic strategies targeting IL-12 or its signaling pathways have been explored as potential treatments for these conditions.

Survival analysis is a branch of statistics that deals with the analysis of time to event data. It is used to estimate the time it takes for a certain event of interest to occur, such as death, disease recurrence, or treatment failure. The event of interest is called the "failure" event, and survival analysis estimates the probability of not experiencing the failure event until a certain point in time, also known as the "survival" probability.

Survival analysis can provide important information about the effectiveness of treatments, the prognosis of patients, and the identification of risk factors associated with the event of interest. It can handle censored data, which is common in medical research where some participants may drop out or be lost to follow-up before the event of interest occurs.

Survival analysis typically involves estimating the survival function, which describes the probability of surviving beyond a certain time point, as well as hazard functions, which describe the instantaneous rate of failure at a given time point. Other important concepts in survival analysis include median survival times, restricted mean survival times, and various statistical tests to compare survival curves between groups.

Mononuclear leukocytes are a type of white blood cells (leukocytes) that have a single, large nucleus. They include lymphocytes (B-cells, T-cells, and natural killer cells), monocytes, and dendritic cells. These cells play important roles in the body's immune system, including defending against infection and disease, and participating in immune responses and surveillance. Mononuclear leukocytes can be found in the bloodstream as well as in tissues throughout the body. They are involved in both innate and adaptive immunity, providing specific and nonspecific defense mechanisms to protect the body from harmful pathogens and other threats.

T-lymphocyte subsets refer to distinct populations of T-cells, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity. The two main types of T-lymphocytes are CD4+ and CD8+ cells, which are defined by the presence or absence of specific proteins called cluster differentiation (CD) molecules on their surface.

CD4+ T-cells, also known as helper T-cells, play a crucial role in activating other immune cells, such as B-lymphocytes and macrophages, to mount an immune response against pathogens. They also produce cytokines that help regulate the immune response.

CD8+ T-cells, also known as cytotoxic T-cells, directly kill infected cells or tumor cells by releasing toxic substances such as perforins and granzymes.

The balance between these two subsets of T-cells is critical for maintaining immune homeostasis and mounting effective immune responses against pathogens while avoiding excessive inflammation and autoimmunity. Therefore, the measurement of T-lymphocyte subsets is essential in diagnosing and monitoring various immunological disorders, including HIV infection, cancer, and autoimmune diseases.

Immunologic deficiency syndromes refer to a group of disorders characterized by defective functioning of the immune system, leading to increased susceptibility to infections and malignancies. These deficiencies can be primary (genetic or congenital) or secondary (acquired due to environmental factors, medications, or diseases).

Primary immunodeficiency syndromes (PIDS) are caused by inherited genetic mutations that affect the development and function of immune cells, such as T cells, B cells, and phagocytes. Examples include severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, and X-linked agammaglobulinemia.

Secondary immunodeficiency syndromes can result from various factors, including:

1. HIV/AIDS: Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection leads to the depletion of CD4+ T cells, causing profound immune dysfunction and increased vulnerability to opportunistic infections and malignancies.
2. Medications: Certain medications, such as chemotherapy, immunosuppressive drugs, and long-term corticosteroid use, can impair immune function and increase infection risk.
3. Malnutrition: Deficiencies in essential nutrients like protein, vitamins, and minerals can weaken the immune system and make individuals more susceptible to infections.
4. Aging: The immune system naturally declines with age, leading to an increased incidence of infections and poorer vaccine responses in older adults.
5. Other medical conditions: Chronic diseases such as diabetes, cancer, and chronic kidney or liver disease can also compromise the immune system and contribute to immunodeficiency syndromes.

Immunologic deficiency syndromes require appropriate diagnosis and management strategies, which may include antimicrobial therapy, immunoglobulin replacement, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, or targeted treatments for the underlying cause.

Heterotopic transplantation is a type of organ or tissue transplant where the graft is placed in a different location from where it normally resides while still maintaining its original site. This is often done to supplement the function of the existing organ rather than replacing it. A common example of heterotopic transplantation is a heart transplant, where the donor's heart is placed in a new location in the recipient's body, while the recipient's own heart remains in place but is typically nonfunctional. This allows for the possibility of returning the function of the recipient's heart if the transplanted organ fails.

In heterotopic kidney transplantation, the donor kidney is placed in a different location, usually in the lower abdomen, while the recipient's own kidneys are left in place. This approach can be beneficial for recipients with poor renal function or other medical conditions that make traditional kidney transplantation too risky.

Heterotopic transplantation is also used in liver transplantation, where a portion of the donor liver is placed in a different location, typically in the recipient's abdomen, while the recipient's own liver remains in place. This approach can be useful for recipients with acute liver failure or other conditions that make traditional liver transplantation too risky.

One advantage of heterotopic transplantation is that it allows for the possibility of returning the function of the recipient's organ if the transplanted organ fails, as well as reducing the risk of rejection and improving overall outcomes for the recipient. However, this approach also has some disadvantages, such as increased complexity of the surgical procedure, potential for complications related to the placement of the graft, and the need for ongoing immunosuppression therapy to prevent rejection.

Antibodies, viral are proteins produced by the immune system in response to an infection with a virus. These antibodies are capable of recognizing and binding to specific antigens on the surface of the virus, which helps to neutralize or destroy the virus and prevent its replication. Once produced, these antibodies can provide immunity against future infections with the same virus.

Viral antibodies are typically composed of four polypeptide chains - two heavy chains and two light chains - that are held together by disulfide bonds. The binding site for the antigen is located at the tip of the Y-shaped structure, formed by the variable regions of the heavy and light chains.

There are five classes of antibodies in humans: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Each class has a different function and is distributed differently throughout the body. For example, IgG is the most common type of antibody found in the bloodstream and provides long-term immunity against viruses, while IgA is found primarily in mucous membranes and helps to protect against respiratory and gastrointestinal infections.

In addition to their role in the immune response, viral antibodies can also be used as diagnostic tools to detect the presence of a specific virus in a patient's blood or other bodily fluids.

A dose-response relationship in radiation refers to the correlation between the amount of radiation exposure (dose) and the biological response or adverse health effects observed in exposed individuals. As the level of radiation dose increases, the severity and frequency of the adverse health effects also tend to increase. This relationship is crucial in understanding the risks associated with various levels of radiation exposure and helps inform radiation protection standards and guidelines.

The effects of ionizing radiation can be categorized into two types: deterministic and stochastic. Deterministic effects have a threshold dose below which no effect is observed, and above this threshold, the severity of the effect increases with higher doses. Examples include radiation-induced cataracts or radiation dermatitis. Stochastic effects, on the other hand, do not have a clear threshold and are based on probability; as the dose increases, so does the likelihood of the adverse health effect occurring, such as an increased risk of cancer.

Understanding the dose-response relationship in radiation exposure is essential for setting limits on occupational and public exposure to ionizing radiation, optimizing radiation protection practices, and developing effective medical countermeasures in case of radiation emergencies.

Heterologous transplantation is a type of transplantation where an organ or tissue is transferred from one species to another. This is in contrast to allogeneic transplantation, where the donor and recipient are of the same species, or autologous transplantation, where the donor and recipient are the same individual.

In heterologous transplantation, the immune systems of the donor and recipient are significantly different, which can lead to a strong immune response against the transplanted organ or tissue. This is known as a graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), where the immune cells in the transplanted tissue attack the recipient's body.

Heterologous transplantation is not commonly performed in clinical medicine due to the high risk of rejection and GVHD. However, it may be used in research settings to study the biology of transplantation and to develop new therapies for transplant rejection.

Measles, also known as rubeola, is a highly infectious viral disease that primarily affects the respiratory system. It is caused by the measles virus, which belongs to the family Paramyxoviridae and the genus Morbillivirus. The virus is transmitted through direct contact with infected individuals or through airborne droplets released during coughing and sneezing.

The classic symptoms of measles include:

1. Fever: A high fever (often greater than 104°F or 40°C) usually appears before the onset of the rash, lasting for about 4-7 days.
2. Cough: A persistent cough is common and may become severe.
3. Runny nose: A runny or blocked nose is often present during the early stages of the illness.
4. Red eyes (conjunctivitis): Inflammation of the conjunctiva, the mucous membrane that covers the inner surface of the eyelids and the white part of the eye, can cause redness and irritation.
5. Koplik's spots: These are small, irregular, bluish-white spots with a red base that appear on the inside lining of the cheeks, usually 1-2 days before the rash appears. They are considered pathognomonic for measles, meaning their presence confirms the diagnosis.
6. Rash: The characteristic measles rash typically starts on the face and behind the ears, then spreads downward to the neck, trunk, arms, and legs. It consists of flat red spots that may merge together, forming irregular patches. The rash usually lasts for 5-7 days before fading.

Complications from measles can be severe and include pneumonia, encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), and ear infections. In rare cases, measles can lead to serious long-term complications or even death, particularly in young children, pregnant women, and individuals with weakened immune systems.

Vaccination is an effective way to prevent measles. The measles vaccine is typically administered as part of the Measles, Mumps, and Rubella (MMR) vaccine, which provides immunity against all three diseases.

Phytohemagglutinins (PHA) are a type of lectin, specifically a mitogen, found in certain plants such as red kidney beans, white kidney beans, and butter beans. They have the ability to agglutinate erythrocytes (red blood cells) and stimulate the proliferation of lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell). PHA is often used in medical research and diagnostics as a means to study immune system function, particularly the activation and proliferation of T-cells. It's also used in some immunological assays. However, it should be noted that ingesting large amounts of raw or undercooked beans containing high levels of PHA can cause adverse gastrointestinal symptoms due to their ability to interact with the cells lining the digestive tract.

Antiviral agents are a class of medications that are designed to treat infections caused by viruses. Unlike antibiotics, which target bacteria, antiviral agents interfere with the replication and infection mechanisms of viruses, either by inhibiting their ability to replicate or by modulating the host's immune response to the virus.

Antiviral agents are used to treat a variety of viral infections, including influenza, herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, hepatitis B and C, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections.

These medications can be administered orally, intravenously, or topically, depending on the type of viral infection being treated. Some antiviral agents are also used for prophylaxis, or prevention, of certain viral infections.

It is important to note that antiviral agents are not effective against all types of viruses and may have significant side effects. Therefore, it is essential to consult with a healthcare professional before starting any antiviral therapy.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "sunlight" is not a term with a specific medical definition. However, sunlight does have various implications in the field of medicine. It is the light that comes from the sun, which is a star at the center of our solar system. Sunlight is essential for the production of vitamin D in humans, and it can also have effects on mood and sleep patterns due to its influence on circadian rhythms.

In a medical context, sunlight is often discussed in relation to its potential health benefits and risks. For instance, moderate sun exposure can help increase vitamin D levels, which are important for bone health, immune function, and other bodily processes. However, excessive sun exposure can lead to harmful effects, such as sunburn, premature skin aging, and an increased risk of skin cancer.

It's essential to balance the benefits and risks of sunlight exposure by practicing safe sun habits, such as wearing protective clothing, using a broad-spectrum sunscreen with an SPF of at least 30, seeking shade during peak sunlight hours, and avoiding intentional tanning.

Langerhans cells are specialized dendritic cells that are found in the epithelium, including the skin (where they are named after Paul Langerhans who first described them in 1868) and mucous membranes. They play a crucial role in the immune system as antigen-presenting cells, contributing to the initiation of immune responses.

These cells contain Birbeck granules, unique organelles that are involved in the transportation of antigens from the cell surface to the lysosomes for processing and presentation to T-cells. Langerhans cells also produce cytokines, which help regulate immune responses and attract other immune cells to the site of infection or injury.

It is important to note that although Langerhans cells are a part of the immune system, they can sometimes contribute to the development of certain skin disorders, such as allergic contact dermatitis and some forms of cancer, like Langerhans cell histiocytosis.

Extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) is a medical treatment that involves the separation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, which are then exposed to photoactivation. This process is repeated in multiple sessions and is used primarily in the management of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL), as well as for the prevention of organ rejection in transplant patients. The exposure to photoactivation leads to the induction of apoptosis, or programmed cell death, in the affected cells, which can help to reduce inflammation and modulate the immune response. ECP is typically administered in an outpatient setting and has been shown to be a safe and effective treatment option for many patients with CTCL.

Hepatitis C is a liver infection caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). It's primarily spread through contact with contaminated blood, often through sharing needles or other equipment to inject drugs. For some people, hepatitis C is a short-term illness but for most — about 75-85% — it becomes a long-term, chronic infection that can lead to serious health problems like liver damage, liver failure, and even liver cancer. The virus can infect and inflame the liver, causing symptoms like jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), abdominal pain, fatigue, and dark urine. Many people with hepatitis C don't have any symptoms, so they might not know they have the infection until they experience complications. There are effective treatments available for hepatitis C, including antiviral medications that can cure the infection in most people. Regular testing is important to diagnose and treat hepatitis C early, before it causes serious health problems.

A "knockout" mouse is a genetically engineered mouse in which one or more genes have been deleted or "knocked out" using molecular biology techniques. This allows researchers to study the function of specific genes and their role in various biological processes, as well as potential associations with human diseases. The mice are generated by introducing targeted DNA modifications into embryonic stem cells, which are then used to create a live animal. Knockout mice have been widely used in biomedical research to investigate gene function, disease mechanisms, and potential therapeutic targets.

A dose-response relationship in immunology refers to the quantitative relationship between the dose or amount of an antigen (a substance that triggers an immune response) and the magnitude or strength of the resulting immune response. Generally, as the dose of an antigen increases, the intensity and/or duration of the immune response also increase, up to a certain point. This relationship helps in determining the optimal dosage for vaccines and immunotherapies, ensuring sufficient immune activation while minimizing potential adverse effects.

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare and serious demyelinating disease of the central nervous system that affects the white matter of the brain. It's caused by the reactivation of the John Cunningham virus (JCV) in immunocompromised individuals, such as those with HIV/AIDS, organ transplants, or hematologic malignancies.

In PML, the JCV infects and destroys the oligodendrocytes, which are the cells responsible for producing myelin, the fatty substance that insulates and protects nerve fibers. This results in multiple areas of focal demyelination throughout the brain, leading to progressive neurological symptoms such as cognitive decline, motor weakness, vision loss, and speech difficulties.

PML is a medical emergency, and prompt diagnosis and treatment of the underlying immunodeficiency are crucial for improving outcomes. Unfortunately, there is no specific treatment for PML itself, but restoring immune function can help slow or stop the progression of the disease.

Creatinine is a waste product that's produced by your muscles and removed from your body by your kidneys. Creatinine is a breakdown product of creatine, a compound found in meat and fish, as well as in the muscles of vertebrates, including humans.

In healthy individuals, the kidneys filter out most of the creatinine and eliminate it through urine. However, when the kidneys are not functioning properly, creatinine levels in the blood can rise. Therefore, measuring the amount of creatinine in the blood or urine is a common way to test how well the kidneys are working. High creatinine levels in the blood may indicate kidney damage or kidney disease.

Postoperative care refers to the comprehensive medical treatment and nursing attention provided to a patient following a surgical procedure. The goal of postoperative care is to facilitate the patient's recovery, prevent complications, manage pain, ensure proper healing of the incision site, and maintain overall health and well-being until the patient can resume their normal activities.

This type of care includes monitoring vital signs, managing pain through medication or other techniques, ensuring adequate hydration and nutrition, helping the patient with breathing exercises to prevent lung complications, encouraging mobility to prevent blood clots, monitoring for signs of infection or other complications, administering prescribed medications, providing wound care, and educating the patient about postoperative care instructions.

The duration of postoperative care can vary depending on the type and complexity of the surgical procedure, as well as the individual patient's needs and overall health status. It may be provided in a hospital setting, an outpatient surgery center, or in the patient's home, depending on the level of care required.

Autoimmune hepatitis is a chronic (long-term) disease in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks the liver, leading to inflammation and damage. This results in decreased liver function over time if not treated. The exact cause of autoimmune hepatitis is unknown, but it is believed to be associated with genetic factors and exposure to certain environmental triggers, such as viral infections or medications.

There are two main types of autoimmune hepatitis:

1. Type 1 (classic) autoimmune hepatitis: This form can affect both adults and children, and it is more common in women than men. People with this type may also have other autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis, thyroid disease, or ulcerative colitis.
2. Type 2 autoimmune hepatitis: This form primarily affects children and young women. It is less common than type 1 and tends to be more severe. People with this type may also have other autoimmune disorders, such as celiac disease or chronic candidiasis.

Symptoms of autoimmune hepatitis can vary widely, from mild to severe. They may include fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, joint pain, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), dark urine, and light-colored stools.

Diagnosis typically involves blood tests, imaging studies, and sometimes a liver biopsy to assess the extent of damage. Treatment usually includes medications that suppress the immune system, such as corticosteroids and immunosuppressants, which can help reduce inflammation and slow or stop liver damage. In some cases, lifestyle changes and supportive care may also be necessary.

Influenza A Virus: According to the World Health Organization (WHO), Influenza A virus is an orthomyxovirus that causes respiratory illness in humans and many other animal species. It can be found in birds, pigs, horses, and humans. The viral genome consists of eight single-stranded RNA segments enclosed within a lipid membrane derived from the host cell. Two surface glycoproteins, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), are used to classify Influenza A virus into subtypes based on antigenic properties. There are 18 different HA subtypes and 11 NA subtypes, but only H1N1, H2N2, and H3N2 have caused widespread human disease since the 1900s.

Influenza A viruses can be further divided into strains based on differences in their internal proteins. The most common cause of seasonal flu epidemics in humans is Influenza A (H3N2) and Influenza A (H1N1) pdm09, the latter of which caused the 2009 pandemic. Wild aquatic birds are the natural hosts for a large variety of influenza A viruses, and they are also responsible for the emergence of new subtypes.

These viruses can occasionally cause outbreaks in domestic poultry and, more rarely, in humans. Avian influenza A (H5N1), avian influenza A (H7N9), and avian influenza A (H1N1) are some examples of zoonotic influenza viruses that have caused severe disease and death in humans. However, sustained human-to-human transmission has not been observed with these subtypes, except for the 2009 H1N1 pandemic strain, which was a reassortant virus containing genes from both avian and swine influenza A viruses.

"Rats, Inbred BN" are a strain of laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) that have been inbred for many generations to maintain a high level of genetic consistency and uniformity within the strain. The "BN" designation refers to the place where they were first developed, Bratislava, Czechoslovakia (now Slovakia).

These rats are often used in biomedical research because their genetic homogeneity makes them useful for studying the effects of specific genes or environmental factors on health and disease. They have been widely used as a model organism to study various physiological and pathophysiological processes, including hypertension, kidney function, immunology, and neuroscience.

Inbred BN rats are known for their low renin-angiotensin system activity, which makes them a useful model for studying hypertension and related disorders. They also have a unique sensitivity to dietary protein, making them a valuable tool for studying the relationship between diet and kidney function.

Overall, Inbred BN rats are an important tool in biomedical research, providing researchers with a consistent and well-characterized model organism for studying various aspects of human health and disease.

Suppressor factors, immunologic, refer to substances that can suppress or decrease the immune response. They were first described in the 1970s and are produced by certain cells of the immune system, such as T cells. Suppressor factors help to maintain immune homeostasis and prevent overactive immune responses that can lead to autoimmune diseases or chronic inflammation.

Immunologic suppressor factors can inhibit the activation and proliferation of various immune cells, including T cells, B cells, and natural killer (NK) cells. They can also suppress the production of cytokines, which are signaling molecules that help regulate the immune response. Suppressor factors have been studied in the context of various diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and transplant rejection.

However, the concept of immunologic suppressor factors has been controversial, and their precise mechanisms of action are not fully understood. Some researchers have questioned whether they truly exist as distinct entities or whether they represent a heterogeneous group of regulatory molecules with diverse functions. Nonetheless, the study of immunologic suppressor factors remains an active area of research, as understanding how they work could lead to new therapies for a variety of diseases.

Herpesviridae infections refer to diseases caused by the Herpesviridae family of double-stranded DNA viruses, which include herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7), and human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8). These viruses can cause a variety of clinical manifestations, ranging from mild skin lesions to severe systemic diseases.

After the initial infection, these viruses typically become latent in various tissues and may reactivate later in life, causing recurrent symptoms. The clinical presentation of Herpesviridae infections depends on the specific virus and the immune status of the host. Common manifestations include oral or genital ulcers (HSV-1 and HSV-2), chickenpox and shingles (VZV), mononucleosis (CMV), roseola (HHV-6), and Kaposi's sarcoma (HHV-8).

Preventive measures include avoiding close contact with infected individuals during the active phase of the infection, practicing safe sex, and avoiding sharing personal items that may come into contact with infectious lesions. Antiviral medications are available to treat Herpesviridae infections and reduce the severity and duration of symptoms.

Benign mucous membrane pemphigoid (BMMP) is a type of autoimmune blistering disorder that primarily affects the mucous membranes. It is also known as cicatricial pemphigoid or oral pemphigoid. In this condition, the immune system produces antibodies against proteins called BP230 and BP180, which are found in the basement membrane zone of the mucous membranes and skin. This leads to the separation of the epidermis from the dermis, resulting in blisters and erosions.

The term "benign" is used to describe this condition because it typically has a better prognosis compared to other types of pemphigoid, such as bullous pemphigoid or pemphigus vulgaris. However, the term can be misleading as BMMP can still cause significant morbidity and have serious complications, particularly when it affects vital organs like the eyes or respiratory tract.

BMMP commonly involves the mucous membranes of the mouth, nose, throat, genitals, and anus. The skin is less frequently affected, but when it is, the lesions are usually limited to the areas around the eyes, nose, and mouth. The blisters and erosions can cause pain, discomfort, and difficulty with eating, speaking, swallowing, or breathing, depending on the location of the lesions.

The diagnosis of BMMP is typically made based on clinical presentation, histopathology, direct immunofluorescence (DIF), and indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) tests. Treatment usually involves systemic corticosteroids and other immunosuppressive medications to control the blistering and prevent complications. In severe cases, intravenous immunoglobulin or rituximab may be used.

Xeroderma Pigmentosum Group A Protein, also known as XPA protein, is a crucial component of the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway in humans. The NER pathway is responsible for repairing damaged DNA, including DNA that has been damaged by ultraviolet (UV) light.

XPA protein plays a central role in the NER process by serving as a scaffold that helps to coordinate and regulate the activity of other NER proteins. XPA protein binds directly to the damaged DNA site, helping to recruit and position other NER proteins for efficient repair.

Mutations in the XPA gene can lead to Xeroderma Pigmentosum (XP), a rare genetic disorder characterized by extreme sensitivity to UV light. Individuals with XP are prone to developing skin cancer and other forms of cancer at an early age due to their inability to repair DNA damage caused by UV light.

AIDS-related opportunistic infections (AROIs) are infections that occur more frequently or are more severe in people with weakened immune systems, such as those with advanced HIV infection or AIDS. These infections take advantage of a weakened immune system and can affect various organs and systems in the body.

Common examples of AROIs include:

1. Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), caused by the fungus Pneumocystis jirovecii
2. Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection, caused by a type of bacteria called mycobacteria
3. Candidiasis, a fungal infection that can affect various parts of the body, including the mouth, esophagus, and genitals
4. Toxoplasmosis, caused by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii
5. Cryptococcosis, a fungal infection that affects the lungs and central nervous system
6. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, caused by a type of herpes virus
7. Tuberculosis (TB), caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis
8. Cryptosporidiosis, a parasitic infection that affects the intestines
9. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a viral infection that affects the brain

Preventing and treating AROIs is an important part of managing HIV/AIDS, as they can cause significant illness and even death in people with weakened immune systems. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is used to treat HIV infection and prevent the progression of HIV to AIDS, which can help reduce the risk of opportunistic infections. In addition, medications to prevent specific opportunistic infections may be prescribed for people with advanced HIV or AIDS.

Cell transplantation is the process of transferring living cells from one part of the body to another or from one individual to another. In medicine, cell transplantation is often used as a treatment for various diseases and conditions, including neurodegenerative disorders, diabetes, and certain types of cancer. The goal of cell transplantation is to replace damaged or dysfunctional cells with healthy ones, thereby restoring normal function to the affected area.

In the context of medical research, cell transplantation may involve the use of stem cells, which are immature cells that have the ability to develop into many different types of specialized cells. Stem cell transplantation has shown promise in the treatment of a variety of conditions, including spinal cord injuries, stroke, and heart disease.

It is important to note that cell transplantation carries certain risks, such as immune rejection and infection. As such, it is typically reserved for cases where other treatments have failed or are unlikely to be effective.

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a chronic, life-threatening condition caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). AIDS is the most advanced stage of HIV infection, characterized by the significant weakening of the immune system, making the person more susceptible to various opportunistic infections and cancers.

The medical definition of AIDS includes specific criteria based on CD4+ T-cell count or the presence of certain opportunistic infections and diseases. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), a person with HIV is diagnosed with AIDS when:

1. The CD4+ T-cell count falls below 200 cells per cubic millimeter of blood (mm3) - a normal range is typically between 500 and 1,600 cells/mm3.
2. They develop one or more opportunistic infections or cancers that are indicative of advanced HIV disease, regardless of their CD4+ T-cell count.

Some examples of these opportunistic infections and cancers include:

* Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP)
* Candidiasis (thrush) affecting the esophagus, trachea, or lungs
* Cryptococcal meningitis
* Toxoplasmosis of the brain
* Cytomegalovirus disease
* Kaposi's sarcoma
* Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
* Invasive cervical cancer

It is important to note that with appropriate antiretroviral therapy (ART), people living with HIV can maintain their CD4+ T-cell counts, suppress viral replication, and prevent the progression to AIDS. Early diagnosis and consistent treatment are crucial for managing HIV and improving life expectancy and quality of life.

Anti-inflammatory agents are a class of drugs or substances that reduce inflammation in the body. They work by inhibiting the production of inflammatory mediators, such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes, which are released during an immune response and contribute to symptoms like pain, swelling, redness, and warmth.

There are two main types of anti-inflammatory agents: steroidal and nonsteroidal. Steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (SAIDs) include corticosteroids, which mimic the effects of hormones produced by the adrenal gland. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a larger group that includes both prescription and over-the-counter medications, such as aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, and celecoxib.

While both types of anti-inflammatory agents can be effective in reducing inflammation and relieving symptoms, they differ in their mechanisms of action, side effects, and potential risks. Long-term use of NSAIDs, for example, can increase the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding, kidney damage, and cardiovascular events. Corticosteroids can have significant side effects as well, particularly with long-term use, including weight gain, mood changes, and increased susceptibility to infections.

It's important to use anti-inflammatory agents only as directed by a healthcare provider, and to be aware of potential risks and interactions with other medications or health conditions.

Ganciclovir is an antiviral medication used to prevent and treat cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections, particularly in individuals who have undergone organ transplants or have weakened immune systems due to conditions like HIV/AIDS. It works by inhibiting the replication of the virus, thereby reducing its ability to cause damage to the body's cells and tissues.

The medical definition of Ganciclovir is:

A synthetic nucleoside analogue with antiviral activity against herpesviruses, including cytomegalovirus (CMV). Ganciclovir is converted intracellularly to its active form, ganciclovir triphosphate, which inhibits viral DNA polymerase and subsequently prevents viral replication. It is primarily used for the prevention and treatment of CMV infections in immunocompromised patients, such as those who have undergone organ transplants or have HIV/AIDS. Ganciclovir is available in various formulations, including oral capsules, intravenous solution, and ocular implants.

Monoclonal murine-derived antibodies are a type of laboratory-produced antibody that is identical in structure, having been derived from a single clone of cells. These antibodies are created using mouse cells and are therefore composed entirely of mouse immune proteins. They are designed to bind specifically to a particular target protein or antigen, making them useful tools for research, diagnostic testing, and therapeutic applications.

Monoclonal antibodies offer several advantages over polyclonal antibodies (which are derived from multiple clones of cells and can recognize multiple epitopes on an antigen). Monoclonal antibodies have a consistent and uniform structure, making them more reliable for research and diagnostic purposes. They also have higher specificity and affinity for their target antigens, allowing for more sensitive detection and measurement.

However, there are some limitations to using monoclonal murine-derived antibodies in therapeutic applications. Because they are composed entirely of mouse proteins, they can elicit an immune response in humans, leading to the production of human anti-mouse antibodies (HAMA) that can neutralize their effectiveness. To overcome this limitation, researchers have developed chimeric and humanized monoclonal antibodies that incorporate human protein sequences, reducing the risk of an immune response.

An animal model in medicine refers to the use of non-human animals in experiments to understand, predict, and test responses and effects of various biological and chemical interactions that may also occur in humans. These models are used when studying complex systems or processes that cannot be easily replicated or studied in human subjects, such as genetic manipulation or exposure to harmful substances. The choice of animal model depends on the specific research question being asked and the similarities between the animal's and human's biological and physiological responses. Examples of commonly used animal models include mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and non-human primates.

Viral load refers to the amount or quantity of virus (like HIV, Hepatitis C, SARS-CoV-2) present in an individual's blood or bodily fluids. It is often expressed as the number of virus copies per milliliter of blood or fluid. Monitoring viral load is important in managing and treating certain viral infections, as a higher viral load may indicate increased infectivity, disease progression, or response to treatment.

Forkhead transcription factors (FOX) are a family of proteins that play crucial roles in the regulation of gene expression through the process of binding to specific DNA sequences, thereby controlling various biological processes such as cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. These proteins are characterized by a conserved DNA-binding domain, known as the forkhead box or FOX domain, which adopts a winged helix structure that recognizes and binds to the consensus sequence 5'-(G/A)(T/C)AA(C/A)A-3'.

The FOX family is further divided into subfamilies based on the structure of their DNA-binding domains, with each subfamily having distinct functions. For example, FOXP proteins are involved in brain development and function, while FOXO proteins play a key role in regulating cellular responses to stress and metabolism. Dysregulation of forkhead transcription factors has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative disorders.

The postoperative period is the time following a surgical procedure during which the patient's response to the surgery and anesthesia is monitored, and any complications or adverse effects are managed. This period can vary in length depending on the type of surgery and the individual patient's needs, but it typically includes the immediate recovery phase in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) or recovery room, as well as any additional time spent in the hospital for monitoring and management of pain, wound healing, and other aspects of postoperative care.

The goals of postoperative care are to ensure the patient's safety and comfort, promote optimal healing and rehabilitation, and minimize the risk of complications such as infection, bleeding, or other postoperative issues. The specific interventions and treatments provided during this period will depend on a variety of factors, including the type and extent of surgery performed, the patient's overall health and medical history, and any individualized care plans developed in consultation with the patient and their healthcare team.

A "Drug Administration Schedule" refers to the plan for when and how a medication should be given to a patient. It includes details such as the dose, frequency (how often it should be taken), route (how it should be administered, such as orally, intravenously, etc.), and duration (how long it should be taken) of the medication. This schedule is often created and prescribed by healthcare professionals, such as doctors or pharmacists, to ensure that the medication is taken safely and effectively. It may also include instructions for missed doses or changes in the dosage.

Medical Definition of "Herpesvirus 4, Human" (Epstein-Barr Virus)

"Herpesvirus 4, Human," also known as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), is a member of the Herpesviridae family and is one of the most common human viruses. It is primarily transmitted through saliva and is often referred to as the "kissing disease."

EBV is the causative agent of infectious mononucleosis (IM), also known as glandular fever, which is characterized by symptoms such as fatigue, sore throat, fever, and swollen lymph nodes. The virus can also cause other diseases, including certain types of cancer, such as Burkitt's lymphoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

Once a person becomes infected with EBV, the virus remains in the body for the rest of their life, residing in certain white blood cells called B lymphocytes. In most people, the virus remains dormant and does not cause any further symptoms. However, in some individuals, the virus may reactivate, leading to recurrent or persistent symptoms.

EBV infection is diagnosed through various tests, including blood tests that detect antibodies against the virus or direct detection of the virus itself through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. There is no cure for EBV infection, and treatment is generally supportive, focusing on relieving symptoms and managing complications. Prevention measures include practicing good hygiene, avoiding close contact with infected individuals, and not sharing personal items such as toothbrushes or drinking glasses.

Viral diseases are illnesses caused by the infection and replication of viruses in host organisms. These infectious agents are obligate parasites, meaning they rely on the cells of other living organisms to survive and reproduce. Viruses can infect various types of hosts, including animals, plants, and microorganisms, causing a wide range of diseases with varying symptoms and severity.

Once a virus enters a host cell, it takes over the cell's machinery to produce new viral particles, often leading to cell damage or death. The immune system recognizes the viral components as foreign and mounts an immune response to eliminate the infection. This response can result in inflammation, fever, and other symptoms associated with viral diseases.

Examples of well-known viral diseases include:

1. Influenza (flu) - caused by influenza A, B, or C viruses
2. Common cold - usually caused by rhinoviruses or coronaviruses
3. HIV/AIDS - caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
4. Measles - caused by measles morbillivirus
5. Hepatitis B and C - caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), respectively
6. Herpes simplex - caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) or type 2 (HSV-2)
7. Chickenpox and shingles - both caused by varicella-zoster virus (VZV)
8. Rabies - caused by rabies lyssavirus
9. Ebola - caused by ebolaviruses
10. COVID-19 - caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)

Prevention and treatment strategies for viral diseases may include vaccination, antiviral medications, and supportive care to manage symptoms while the immune system fights off the infection.

Viremia is a medical term that refers to the presence of viruses in the bloodstream. It occurs when a virus successfully infects a host and replicates within the body's cells, releasing new viral particles into the blood. This condition can lead to various clinical manifestations depending on the specific virus involved and the immune response of the infected individual. Some viral infections result in asymptomatic viremia, while others can cause severe illness or even life-threatening conditions. The detection of viremia is crucial for diagnosing certain viral infections and monitoring disease progression or treatment effectiveness.

Hematologic neoplasms, also known as hematological malignancies, are a group of diseases characterized by the uncontrolled growth and accumulation of abnormal blood cells or bone marrow cells. These disorders can originate from the myeloid or lymphoid cell lines, which give rise to various types of blood cells, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.

Hematologic neoplasms can be broadly classified into three categories:

1. Leukemias: These are cancers that primarily affect the bone marrow and blood-forming tissues. They result in an overproduction of abnormal white blood cells, which interfere with the normal functioning of the blood and immune system. There are several types of leukemia, including acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML).
2. Lymphomas: These are cancers that develop from the lymphatic system, which is a part of the immune system responsible for fighting infections. Lymphomas can affect lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, and other organs. The two main types of lymphoma are Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).
3. Myelomas: These are cancers that arise from the plasma cells, a type of white blood cell responsible for producing antibodies. Multiple myeloma is the most common type of myeloma, characterized by an excessive proliferation of malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow, leading to the production of abnormal amounts of monoclonal immunoglobulins (M proteins) and bone destruction.

Hematologic neoplasms can have various symptoms, such as fatigue, weakness, frequent infections, easy bruising or bleeding, weight loss, swollen lymph nodes, and bone pain. The diagnosis typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, imaging studies, and sometimes bone marrow biopsy. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the disease and may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, stem cell transplantation, or a combination of these approaches.

Burns are injuries to tissues caused by heat, electricity, chemicals, friction, or radiation. They are classified based on their severity:

1. First-degree burns (superficial burns) affect only the outer layer of skin (epidermis), causing redness, pain, and swelling.
2. Second-degree burns (partial-thickness burns) damage both the epidermis and the underlying layer of skin (dermis). They result in redness, pain, swelling, and blistering.
3. Third-degree burns (full-thickness burns) destroy the entire depth of the skin and can also damage underlying muscles, tendons, and bones. These burns appear white or blackened and charred, and they may be painless due to destroyed nerve endings.

Immediate medical attention is required for second-degree and third-degree burns, as well as for large area first-degree burns, to prevent infection, manage pain, and ensure proper healing. Treatment options include wound care, antibiotics, pain management, and possibly skin grafting or surgery in severe cases.

Antibody-producing cells, also known as plasma cells, are a type of white blood cell that is responsible for producing and secreting antibodies in response to a foreign substance or antigen. These cells are derived from B lymphocytes, which become activated upon encountering an antigen and differentiate into plasma cells.

Once activated, plasma cells can produce large amounts of specific antibodies that bind to the antigen, marking it for destruction by other immune cells. Antibody-producing cells play a crucial role in the body's humoral immune response, which helps protect against infection and disease.

Skin manifestations refer to visible changes on the skin that can indicate an underlying medical condition or disease process. These changes can include rashes, lesions, discoloration, eruptions, blisters, hives, and other abnormalities. The appearance, distribution, and pattern of these manifestations can provide important clues for healthcare professionals to diagnose and manage the underlying condition.

Skin manifestations can be caused by a wide range of factors, including infections, inflammatory conditions, allergic reactions, genetic disorders, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. In some cases, skin manifestations may be the primary symptom of a medical condition, while in other cases, they may be a secondary effect of medication or treatment.

It is important to note that while skin manifestations can provide valuable diagnostic information, they should always be evaluated in the context of the patient's overall medical history and presentation. A thorough physical examination and appropriate diagnostic tests are often necessary to confirm a diagnosis and develop an effective treatment plan.

Mycoses are a group of diseases caused by fungal infections. These infections can affect various parts of the body, including the skin, nails, hair, lungs, and internal organs. The severity of mycoses can range from superficial, mild infections to systemic, life-threatening conditions, depending on the type of fungus and the immune status of the infected individual. Some common types of mycoses include candidiasis, dermatophytosis, histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, and aspergillosis. Treatment typically involves antifungal medications, which can be topical or systemic, depending on the location and severity of the infection.

Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a cytokine, a type of small signaling protein involved in immune response and inflammation. It is primarily produced by activated macrophages, although other cell types such as T-cells, natural killer cells, and mast cells can also produce it.

TNF-α plays a crucial role in the body's defense against infection and tissue injury by mediating inflammatory responses, activating immune cells, and inducing apoptosis (programmed cell death) in certain types of cells. It does this by binding to its receptors, TNFR1 and TNFR2, which are found on the surface of many cell types.

In addition to its role in the immune response, TNF-α has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and psoriasis, as well as cancer, where it can promote tumor growth and metastasis.

Therapeutic agents that target TNF-α, such as infliximab, adalimumab, and etanercept, have been developed to treat these conditions. However, these drugs can also increase the risk of infections and other side effects, so their use must be carefully monitored.

Monocytes are a type of white blood cell that are part of the immune system. They are large cells with a round or oval shape and a nucleus that is typically indented or horseshoe-shaped. Monocytes are produced in the bone marrow and then circulate in the bloodstream, where they can differentiate into other types of immune cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells.

Monocytes play an important role in the body's defense against infection and tissue damage. They are able to engulf and digest foreign particles, microorganisms, and dead or damaged cells, which helps to clear them from the body. Monocytes also produce cytokines, which are signaling molecules that help to coordinate the immune response.

Elevated levels of monocytes in the bloodstream can be a sign of an ongoing infection, inflammation, or other medical conditions such as cancer or autoimmune disorders.

"Pneumocystis" is a genus of fungi that are commonly found in the lungs of many mammals, including humans. The most well-known and studied species within this genus is "Pneumocystis jirovecii," which was previously known as "Pneumocystis carinii." This organism can cause a serious lung infection known as Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or who are undergoing immunosuppressive therapy.

It's worth noting that while "Pneumocystis" was once classified as a protozoan, it is now considered to be a fungus based on its genetic and biochemical characteristics.

Avian leukosis is a group of viral diseases that primarily affect chickens and other birds. It is caused by retroviruses known as avian leukosis viruses (ALVs) and leads to a variety of clinical signs, including immunosuppression, growth retardation, and the development of tumors in various organs. The disease can be transmitted both horizontally (through direct contact with infected birds or their secretions) and vertically (from infected hens to their offspring through the egg).

There are several subgroups of ALVs, each associated with specific types of tumors and clinical manifestations. For example:

1. ALV-J (Japanese strain): This subgroup is responsible for myelocytomatosis, a condition characterized by the proliferation of immature blood cells in the bone marrow, leading to anemia, leukopenia, and enlarged spleens and livers.
2. ALV-A, ALV-B, and ALV-C (American strains): These subgroups are associated with various types of lymphoid tumors, such as B-cell and T-cell lymphomas, which can affect the bursa of Fabricius, thymus, spleen, and other organs.
3. ALV-E (European strain): This subgroup is linked to erythroblastosis, a condition in which there is an excessive proliferation of red blood cell precursors, resulting in the formation of tumors in the bone marrow and other organs.

Avian leukosis poses significant economic challenges for the poultry industry due to its impact on growth, feed conversion efficiency, and mortality rates. Additionally, some countries have regulations in place to prevent the spread of avian leukosis viruses through the trade of infected birds or their products. Prevention measures include strict biosecurity protocols, vaccination programs, and rigorous screening and eradication strategies for infected flocks.

The Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit (IL-2Rα), also known as CD25, is a protein that is expressed on the surface of certain immune cells, such as activated T-cells and B-cells. It is a subunit of the interleukin-2 receptor, which plays a crucial role in the activation and regulation of the immune response. The IL-2Rα binds to interleukin-2 (IL-2) with high affinity, forming a complex that initiates intracellular signaling pathways involved in T-cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. IL-2Rα is also a target for immunosuppressive therapies used to prevent rejection of transplanted organs and to treat autoimmune diseases.

Cell proliferation is the process by which cells increase in number, typically through the process of cell division. In the context of biology and medicine, it refers to the reproduction of cells that makes up living tissue, allowing growth, maintenance, and repair. It involves several stages including the transition from a phase of quiescence (G0 phase) to an active phase (G1 phase), DNA replication in the S phase, and mitosis or M phase, where the cell divides into two daughter cells.

Abnormal or uncontrolled cell proliferation is a characteristic feature of many diseases, including cancer, where deregulated cell cycle control leads to excessive and unregulated growth of cells, forming tumors that can invade surrounding tissues and metastasize to distant sites in the body.

CTLA-4 (Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Associated Protein 4) antigen is a type of protein found on the surface of activated T cells, which are a type of white blood cell in the immune system. CTLA-4 plays an important role in regulating the immune response by functioning as a negative regulator of T cell activation.

CTLA-4 binds to CD80 and CD86 molecules on the surface of antigen-presenting cells, which are cells that display foreign antigens to T cells and activate them. By binding to these molecules, CTLA-4 inhibits T cell activation and helps prevent an overactive immune response.

CTLA-4 is a target for cancer immunotherapy because blocking its function can enhance the anti-tumor immune response. Certain drugs called checkpoint inhibitors work by blocking CTLA-4, allowing T cells to remain active and attack tumor cells more effectively.

Antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the presence of a foreign substance, such as a bacterium or virus. They are capable of identifying and binding to specific antigens (foreign substances) on the surface of these invaders, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Antibodies are also known as immunoglobulins and come in several different types, including IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM, each with a unique function in the immune response. They are composed of four polypeptide chains, two heavy chains and two light chains, that are held together by disulfide bonds. The variable regions of the heavy and light chains form the antigen-binding site, which is specific to a particular antigen.

The liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and above the stomach. It plays a vital role in several bodily functions, including:

1. Metabolism: The liver helps to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins from the food we eat into energy and nutrients that our bodies can use.
2. Detoxification: The liver detoxifies harmful substances in the body by breaking them down into less toxic forms or excreting them through bile.
3. Synthesis: The liver synthesizes important proteins, such as albumin and clotting factors, that are necessary for proper bodily function.
4. Storage: The liver stores glucose, vitamins, and minerals that can be released when the body needs them.
5. Bile production: The liver produces bile, a digestive juice that helps to break down fats in the small intestine.
6. Immune function: The liver plays a role in the immune system by filtering out bacteria and other harmful substances from the blood.

Overall, the liver is an essential organ that plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being.

An antigen is a substance (usually a protein) that is recognized as foreign by the immune system and stimulates an immune response, leading to the production of antibodies or activation of T-cells. Antigens can be derived from various sources, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, and tumor cells. They can also come from non-living substances such as pollen, dust mites, or chemicals.

Antigens contain epitopes, which are specific regions on the antigen molecule that are recognized by the immune system. The immune system's response to an antigen depends on several factors, including the type of antigen, its size, and its location in the body.

In general, antigens can be classified into two main categories:

1. T-dependent antigens: These require the help of T-cells to stimulate an immune response. They are typically larger, more complex molecules that contain multiple epitopes capable of binding to both MHC class II molecules on antigen-presenting cells and T-cell receptors on CD4+ T-cells.
2. T-independent antigens: These do not require the help of T-cells to stimulate an immune response. They are usually smaller, simpler molecules that contain repetitive epitopes capable of cross-linking B-cell receptors and activating them directly.

Understanding antigens and their properties is crucial for developing vaccines, diagnostic tests, and immunotherapies.

Transgenic mice are genetically modified rodents that have incorporated foreign DNA (exogenous DNA) into their own genome. This is typically done through the use of recombinant DNA technology, where a specific gene or genetic sequence of interest is isolated and then introduced into the mouse embryo. The resulting transgenic mice can then express the protein encoded by the foreign gene, allowing researchers to study its function in a living organism.

The process of creating transgenic mice usually involves microinjecting the exogenous DNA into the pronucleus of a fertilized egg, which is then implanted into a surrogate mother. The offspring that result from this procedure are screened for the presence of the foreign DNA, and those that carry the desired genetic modification are used to establish a transgenic mouse line.

Transgenic mice have been widely used in biomedical research to model human diseases, study gene function, and test new therapies. They provide a valuable tool for understanding complex biological processes and developing new treatments for a variety of medical conditions.

Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a type of cancer that causes abnormal growths in the skin, lymph nodes, or other organs. It is caused by the Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), also known as human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8). There are several forms of KS, including:

1. Classic KS: This form primarily affects older men of Mediterranean, Middle Eastern, or Ashkenazi Jewish descent. It tends to progress slowly and mainly involves the skin.
2. Endemic KS: Found in parts of Africa, this form predominantly affects children and young adults, regardless of their HIV status.
3. Immunosuppression-associated KS: This form is more aggressive and occurs in people with weakened immune systems due to organ transplantation or other causes.
4. Epidemic KS (AIDS-related KS): This is the most common form of KS, seen primarily in people with HIV/AIDS. The widespread use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has significantly reduced its incidence.

KS lesions can appear as red, purple, or brown spots on the skin and may also affect internal organs such as the lungs, lymph nodes, or gastrointestinal tract. Symptoms vary depending on the location of the lesions but often include fever, fatigue, weight loss, and swelling in the legs or abdomen. Treatment options depend on the extent and severity of the disease and may involve local therapies (e.g., radiation, topical treatments), systemic therapies (e.g., chemotherapy, immunotherapy), or a combination of these approaches.

Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is a tropical parasitic disease caused by the protozoan *Trypanosoma cruzi*. It is primarily transmitted to humans through the feces of triatomine bugs (also called "kissing bugs"), which defecate on the skin of people while they are sleeping. The disease can also be spread through contaminated food or drink, during blood transfusions, from mother to baby during pregnancy or childbirth, and through organ transplantation.

The acute phase of Chagas disease can cause symptoms such as fever, fatigue, body aches, headache, rash, loss of appetite, diarrhea, and vomiting. However, many people do not experience any symptoms during the acute phase. After several weeks or months, most people enter the chronic phase of the disease, which can last for decades or even a lifetime. During this phase, many people do not have any symptoms, but about 20-30% of infected individuals will develop serious cardiac or digestive complications, such as heart failure, arrhythmias, or difficulty swallowing.

Chagas disease is primarily found in Latin America, where it is estimated that around 6-7 million people are infected with the parasite. However, due to increased travel and migration, cases of Chagas disease have been reported in other parts of the world, including North America, Europe, and Asia. There is no vaccine for Chagas disease, but medications are available to treat the infection during the acute phase and to manage symptoms during the chronic phase.

Myocarditis is an inflammation of the myocardium, which is the middle layer of the heart wall. The myocardium is composed of cardiac muscle cells and is responsible for the heart's pumping function. Myocarditis can be caused by various infectious and non-infectious agents, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, autoimmune diseases, toxins, and drugs.

In myocarditis, the inflammation can damage the cardiac muscle cells, leading to decreased heart function, arrhythmias (irregular heart rhythms), and in severe cases, heart failure or even sudden death. Symptoms of myocarditis may include chest pain, shortness of breath, fatigue, palpitations, and swelling in the legs, ankles, or abdomen.

The diagnosis of myocarditis is often based on a combination of clinical presentation, laboratory tests, electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and endomyocardial biopsy. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and severity of the disease and may include medications to support heart function, reduce inflammation, control arrhythmias, and prevent further damage to the heart muscle. In some cases, hospitalization and intensive care may be necessary.

Aspergillosis is a medical condition that is caused by the infection of the Aspergillus fungi. This fungus is commonly found in decaying organic matter, such as leaf litter and compost piles, and can also be found in some indoor environments like air conditioning systems and old buildings with water damage.

There are several types of aspergillosis, including:

1. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA): This type of aspergillosis occurs when a person's immune system overreacts to the Aspergillus fungi, causing inflammation in the airways and lungs. ABPA is often seen in people with asthma or cystic fibrosis.
2. Invasive aspergillosis: This is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition that occurs when the Aspergillus fungi invade the bloodstream and spread to other organs, such as the brain, heart, or kidneys. Invasive aspergillosis typically affects people with weakened immune systems, such as those undergoing chemotherapy or organ transplantation.
3. Aspergilloma: Also known as a "fungus ball," an aspergilloma is a growth of the Aspergillus fungi that forms in a preexisting lung cavity, such as one caused by previous lung disease or injury. While an aspergilloma itself is not typically harmful, it can cause symptoms like coughing up blood or chest pain if it grows too large or becomes infected.

Symptoms of aspergillosis can vary depending on the type and severity of the infection. Treatment may include antifungal medications, surgery to remove the fungal growth, or management of underlying conditions that increase the risk of infection.

The tumor microenvironment (TME) is a complex and dynamic setting that consists of various cellular and non-cellular components, which interact with each other and contribute to the growth, progression, and dissemination of cancer. The TME includes:

1. Cancer cells: These are the malignant cells that grow uncontrollably, invade surrounding tissues, and can spread to distant organs.
2. Stromal cells: These are non-cancerous cells present within the tumor, including fibroblasts, immune cells, adipocytes, and endothelial cells. They play a crucial role in supporting the growth of cancer cells by providing structural and nutritional support, modulating the immune response, and promoting angiogenesis (the formation of new blood vessels).
3. Extracellular matrix (ECM): This is the non-cellular component of the TME, consisting of a network of proteins, glycoproteins, and polysaccharides that provide structural support and regulate cell behavior. The ECM can be remodeled by both cancer and stromal cells, leading to changes in tissue stiffness, architecture, and signaling pathways.
4. Soluble factors: These include various cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and metabolites that are secreted by both cancer and stromal cells. They can act as signaling molecules, influencing cell behavior, survival, proliferation, and migration.
5. Blood vessels: The formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) within the TME is essential for providing nutrients and oxygen to support the growth of cancer cells. The vasculature in the TME is often disorganized, leading to hypoxic (low oxygen) regions and altered drug delivery.
6. Immune cells: The TME contains various immune cell populations, such as tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), dendritic cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and different subsets of T lymphocytes. These cells can either promote or inhibit the growth and progression of cancer, depending on their phenotype and activation status.
7. Niche: A specific microenvironment within the TME that supports the survival and function of cancer stem cells (CSCs) or tumor-initiating cells. The niche is often characterized by unique cellular components, signaling molecules, and physical properties that contribute to the maintenance and propagation of CSCs.

Understanding the complex interactions between these various components in the TME can provide valuable insights into cancer biology and help inform the development of novel therapeutic strategies.

Cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, also known as CD8+ T cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in the cell-mediated immune system. They are responsible for identifying and destroying virus-infected cells and cancer cells. When a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte recognizes a specific antigen presented on the surface of an infected or malignant cell, it becomes activated and releases toxic substances such as perforins and granzymes, which can create pores in the target cell's membrane and induce apoptosis (programmed cell death). This process helps to eliminate the infected or malignant cells and prevent the spread of infection or cancer.

CD3 antigens are a group of proteins found on the surface of T-cells, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in the immune response. The CD3 antigens are composed of several different subunits (ε, δ, γ, and α) that associate to form the CD3 complex, which is involved in T-cell activation and signal transduction.

The CD3 complex is associated with the T-cell receptor (TCR), which recognizes and binds to specific antigens presented by antigen-presenting cells. When the TCR binds to an antigen, it triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that lead to T-cell activation and the initiation of an immune response.

CD3 antigens are important targets for immunotherapy in some diseases, such as certain types of cancer. For example, monoclonal antibodies that target CD3 have been developed to activate T-cells and enhance their ability to recognize and destroy tumor cells. However, CD3-targeted therapies can also cause side effects, such as cytokine release syndrome, which can be serious or life-threatening in some cases.

Stem cell transplantation is a medical procedure where stem cells, which are immature and unspecialized cells with the ability to differentiate into various specialized cell types, are introduced into a patient. The main purpose of this procedure is to restore the function of damaged or destroyed tissues or organs, particularly in conditions that affect the blood and immune systems, such as leukemia, lymphoma, aplastic anemia, and inherited metabolic disorders.

There are two primary types of stem cell transplantation: autologous and allogeneic. In autologous transplantation, the patient's own stem cells are collected, stored, and then reinfused back into their body after high-dose chemotherapy or radiation therapy to destroy the diseased cells. In allogeneic transplantation, stem cells are obtained from a donor (related or unrelated) whose human leukocyte antigen (HLA) type closely matches that of the recipient.

The process involves several steps: first, the patient undergoes conditioning therapy to suppress their immune system and make space for the new stem cells. Then, the harvested stem cells are infused into the patient's bloodstream, where they migrate to the bone marrow and begin to differentiate and produce new blood cells. This procedure requires close monitoring and supportive care to manage potential complications such as infections, graft-versus-host disease, and organ damage.

Nephritis is a medical term that refers to inflammation of the kidneys, specifically affecting the glomeruli - the tiny filtering units inside the kidneys. The condition can cause damage to the glomeruli, leading to impaired kidney function and the leakage of protein and blood into the urine.

Nephritis can result from a variety of causes, including infections, autoimmune disorders, and exposure to certain medications or toxins. Depending on the severity and underlying cause, nephritis may be treated with medications, dietary modifications, or other therapies aimed at reducing inflammation and preserving kidney function. In severe cases, hospitalization and more intensive treatments may be necessary.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Dogs" is not a medical term or condition. It is the common name for a domesticated carnivore of the family Canidae, specifically the genus Canis, which includes wolves, foxes, and other extant and extinct species of mammals. Dogs are often kept as pets and companions, and they have been bred in a wide variety of forms and sizes for different purposes, such as hunting, herding, guarding, assisting police and military forces, and providing companionship and emotional support.

If you meant to ask about a specific medical condition or term related to dogs, please provide more context so I can give you an accurate answer.

An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is a type of analytical biochemistry assay used to detect and quantify the presence of a substance, typically a protein or peptide, in a liquid sample. It takes its name from the enzyme-linked antibodies used in the assay.

In an ELISA, the sample is added to a well containing a surface that has been treated to capture the target substance. If the target substance is present in the sample, it will bind to the surface. Next, an enzyme-linked antibody specific to the target substance is added. This antibody will bind to the captured target substance if it is present. After washing away any unbound material, a substrate for the enzyme is added. If the enzyme is present due to its linkage to the antibody, it will catalyze a reaction that produces a detectable signal, such as a color change or fluorescence. The intensity of this signal is proportional to the amount of target substance present in the sample, allowing for quantification.

ELISAs are widely used in research and clinical settings to detect and measure various substances, including hormones, viruses, and bacteria. They offer high sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility, making them a reliable choice for many applications.

Lymphocyte subsets refer to distinct populations of white blood cells called lymphocytes, which are crucial components of the adaptive immune system. There are two main types of lymphocytes: T cells and B cells, and each type has several subsets based on their surface receptors, functions, and activation status.

1. T cell subsets: These include CD4+ T helper cells (Th cells), CD8+ cytotoxic T cells (Tc cells), regulatory T cells (Tregs), and memory T cells. Th cells are further divided into Th1, Th2, Th17, and Tfh cells based on their cytokine production profiles and functions.
* CD4+ T helper cells (Th cells) play a central role in orchestrating the immune response by producing various cytokines that activate other immune cells.
* CD8+ cytotoxic T cells (Tc cells) directly kill virus-infected or malignant cells upon recognition of specific antigens presented on their surface.
* Regulatory T cells (Tregs) suppress the activation and proliferation of other immune cells to maintain self-tolerance and prevent autoimmunity.
* Memory T cells are long-lived cells that remain in the body after an initial infection or immunization, providing rapid protection upon subsequent encounters with the same pathogen.
2. B cell subsets: These include naïve B cells, memory B cells, and plasma cells. Upon activation by antigens, B cells differentiate into antibody-secreting plasma cells that produce specific antibodies to neutralize or eliminate pathogens.
* Naïve B cells are resting cells that have not yet encountered their specific antigen.
* Memory B cells are long-lived cells generated after initial antigen exposure, which can quickly differentiate into antibody-secreting plasma cells upon re-exposure to the same antigen.
* Plasma cells are terminally differentiated B cells that secrete large amounts of specific antibodies.

Analyzing lymphocyte subsets is essential for understanding immune system function and dysfunction, as well as monitoring the effectiveness of immunotherapies and vaccinations.

Immunophenotyping is a medical laboratory technique used to identify and classify cells, usually in the context of hematologic (blood) disorders and malignancies (cancers), based on their surface or intracellular expression of various proteins and antigens. This technique utilizes specific antibodies tagged with fluorochromes, which bind to the target antigens on the cell surface or within the cells. The labeled cells are then analyzed using flow cytometry, allowing for the detection and quantification of multiple antigenic markers simultaneously.

Immunophenotyping helps in understanding the distribution of different cell types, their subsets, and activation status, which can be crucial in diagnosing various hematological disorders, immunodeficiencies, and distinguishing between different types of leukemias, lymphomas, and other malignancies. Additionally, it can also be used to monitor the progression of diseases, evaluate the effectiveness of treatments, and detect minimal residual disease (MRD) during follow-up care.

A reoperation is a surgical procedure that is performed again on a patient who has already undergone a previous operation for the same or related condition. Reoperations may be required due to various reasons, such as inadequate initial treatment, disease recurrence, infection, or complications from the first surgery. The nature and complexity of a reoperation can vary widely depending on the specific circumstances, but it often carries higher risks and potential complications compared to the original operation.

The ABO blood-group system is a classification system used in blood transfusion medicine to determine the compatibility of donated blood with a recipient's blood. It is based on the presence or absence of two antigens, A and B, on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs), as well as the corresponding antibodies present in the plasma.

There are four main blood types in the ABO system:

1. Type A: These individuals have A antigens on their RBCs and anti-B antibodies in their plasma.
2. Type B: They have B antigens on their RBCs and anti-A antibodies in their plasma.
3. Type AB: They have both A and B antigens on their RBCs but no natural antibodies against either A or B antigens.
4. Type O: They do not have any A or B antigens on their RBCs, but they have both anti-A and anti-B antibodies in their plasma.

Transfusing blood from a donor with incompatible ABO antigens can lead to an immune response, causing the destruction of donated RBCs and potentially life-threatening complications such as acute hemolytic transfusion reaction. Therefore, it is crucial to match the ABO blood type between donors and recipients before performing a blood transfusion.

Disease progression is the worsening or advancement of a medical condition over time. It refers to the natural course of a disease, including its development, the severity of symptoms and complications, and the impact on the patient's overall health and quality of life. Understanding disease progression is important for developing appropriate treatment plans, monitoring response to therapy, and predicting outcomes.

The rate of disease progression can vary widely depending on the type of medical condition, individual patient factors, and the effectiveness of treatment. Some diseases may progress rapidly over a short period of time, while others may progress more slowly over many years. In some cases, disease progression may be slowed or even halted with appropriate medical interventions, while in other cases, the progression may be inevitable and irreversible.

In clinical practice, healthcare providers closely monitor disease progression through regular assessments, imaging studies, and laboratory tests. This information is used to guide treatment decisions and adjust care plans as needed to optimize patient outcomes and improve quality of life.

Retroviridae infections refer to diseases caused by retroviruses, which are a type of virus that integrates its genetic material into the DNA of the host cell. This allows the virus to co-opt the cell's own machinery to produce new viral particles and infect other cells.

Some well-known retroviruses include human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes AIDS, and human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV), which can cause certain types of cancer and neurological disorders.

Retroviral infections can have a range of clinical manifestations depending on the specific virus and the host's immune response. HIV infection, for example, is characterized by progressive immunodeficiency that makes the infected individual susceptible to a wide range of opportunistic infections and cancers. HTLV infection, on the other hand, can cause adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma or tropical spastic paraparesis, a neurological disorder.

Prevention and treatment strategies for retroviral infections depend on the specific virus but may include antiretroviral therapy (ART), vaccination, and behavioral modifications to reduce transmission risk.

Vasculitis is a group of disorders characterized by inflammation of the blood vessels, which can cause changes in the vessel walls including thickening, narrowing, or weakening. These changes can restrict blood flow, leading to organ and tissue damage. The specific symptoms and severity of vasculitis depend on the size and location of the affected blood vessels and the extent of inflammation. Vasculitis can affect any organ system in the body, and its causes can vary, including infections, autoimmune disorders, or exposure to certain medications or chemicals.

Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) are a group of specialized cells in the immune system that play a critical role in initiating and regulating immune responses. They have the ability to engulf, process, and present antigens (molecules derived from pathogens or other foreign substances) on their surface in conjunction with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. This presentation of antigens allows APCs to activate T cells, which are crucial for adaptive immunity.

There are several types of APCs, including:

1. Dendritic cells (DCs): These are the most potent and professional APCs, found in various tissues throughout the body. DCs can capture antigens from their environment, process them, and migrate to lymphoid organs where they present antigens to T cells.
2. Macrophages: These large phagocytic cells are found in many tissues and play a role in both innate and adaptive immunity. They can engulf and digest pathogens, then present processed antigens on their MHC class II molecules to activate CD4+ T helper cells.
3. B cells: These are primarily responsible for humoral immune responses by producing antibodies against antigens. When activated, B cells can also function as APCs and present antigens on their MHC class II molecules to CD4+ T cells.

The interaction between APCs and T cells is critical for the development of an effective immune response against pathogens or other foreign substances. This process helps ensure that the immune system can recognize and eliminate threats while minimizing damage to healthy tissues.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Immunologic cytotoxicity refers to the damage or destruction of cells that occurs as a result of an immune response. This process involves the activation of immune cells, such as cytotoxic T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, which release toxic substances, such as perforins and granzymes, that can kill target cells.

In addition, antibodies produced by B cells can also contribute to immunologic cytotoxicity by binding to antigens on the surface of target cells and triggering complement-mediated lysis or antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) by activating immune effector cells.

Immunologic cytotoxicity plays an important role in the body's defense against viral infections, cancer cells, and other foreign substances. However, it can also contribute to tissue damage and autoimmune diseases if the immune system mistakenly targets healthy cells or tissues.

Prognosis is a medical term that refers to the prediction of the likely outcome or course of a disease, including the chances of recovery or recurrence, based on the patient's symptoms, medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests. It is an important aspect of clinical decision-making and patient communication, as it helps doctors and patients make informed decisions about treatment options, set realistic expectations, and plan for future care.

Prognosis can be expressed in various ways, such as percentages, categories (e.g., good, fair, poor), or survival rates, depending on the nature of the disease and the available evidence. However, it is important to note that prognosis is not an exact science and may vary depending on individual factors, such as age, overall health status, and response to treatment. Therefore, it should be used as a guide rather than a definitive forecast.

Propylene glycol is not a medical term, but rather a chemical compound. Medically, it is classified as a humectant, which means it helps retain moisture. It is used in various pharmaceutical and cosmetic products as a solvent, preservative, and moisturizer. In medical settings, it can be found in topical creams, oral and injectable medications, and intravenous (IV) fluids.

The chemical definition of propylene glycol is:

Propylene glycol (IUPAC name: propan-1,2-diol) is a synthetic organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)CH2OH. It is a viscous, colorless, and nearly odorless liquid that is miscible with water, acetone, and chloroform. Propylene glycol is used as an antifreeze when mixed with water, as a solvent in the production of polymers, and as a moisturizer in various pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. It has a sweet taste and is considered generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use as a food additive.

"Pneumocystis infection" is most commonly caused by the microorganism Pneumocystis jirovecii, which can lead to a serious lung infection known as pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP). This infection primarily affects individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS, cancer, or organ transplant recipients.

The microorganism that causes Pneumocystis infections was previously classified as a protozoan but is now considered a fungus. It exists in the environment and can be found in the lungs of healthy individuals without causing illness. However, in people with compromised immune systems, it can replicate and cause pneumonia, which can be life-threatening if not treated promptly.

Symptoms of PCP include cough, shortness of breath, fever, and difficulty breathing. Diagnosis typically involves microscopic examination of respiratory samples, such as sputum or lung fluid, to detect the presence of the organism. Treatment usually consists of antimicrobial medications, such as trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), pentamidine, or atovaquone. Preventive measures, such as prophylaxis with TMP-SMX or other medications, may be recommended for individuals at high risk of developing PCP.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

Apoptosis is a programmed and controlled cell death process that occurs in multicellular organisms. It is a natural process that helps maintain tissue homeostasis by eliminating damaged, infected, or unwanted cells. During apoptosis, the cell undergoes a series of morphological changes, including cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation, and fragmentation into membrane-bound vesicles called apoptotic bodies. These bodies are then recognized and engulfed by neighboring cells or phagocytic cells, preventing an inflammatory response. Apoptosis is regulated by a complex network of intracellular signaling pathways that involve proteins such as caspases, Bcl-2 family members, and inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs).

Plasma exchange, also known as plasmapheresis, is a medical procedure where the liquid portion of the blood (plasma) is separated from the blood cells. The plasma, which may contain harmful substances such as antibodies, clotting factors, or toxins, is then removed and replaced with fresh plasma or a plasma substitute. This process helps to remove the harmful substances from the blood and allows the body to replenish its own plasma with normal components. Plasma exchange is used in the treatment of various medical conditions including autoimmune diseases, poisonings, and certain types of kidney diseases.

The Kaplan-Meier estimate is a statistical method used to calculate the survival probability over time in a population. It is commonly used in medical research to analyze time-to-event data, such as the time until a patient experiences a specific event like disease progression or death. The Kaplan-Meier estimate takes into account censored data, which occurs when some individuals are lost to follow-up before experiencing the event of interest.

The method involves constructing a survival curve that shows the proportion of subjects still surviving at different time points. At each time point, the survival probability is calculated as the product of the conditional probabilities of surviving from one time point to the next. The Kaplan-Meier estimate provides an unbiased and consistent estimator of the survival function, even when censoring is present.

In summary, the Kaplan-Meier estimate is a crucial tool in medical research for analyzing time-to-event data and estimating survival probabilities over time while accounting for censored observations.

Immunoglobulins (Igs), also known as antibodies, are glycoprotein molecules produced by the immune system's B cells in response to the presence of foreign substances, such as bacteria, viruses, and toxins. These Y-shaped proteins play a crucial role in identifying and neutralizing pathogens and other antigens, thereby protecting the body against infection and disease.

Immunoglobulins are composed of four polypeptide chains: two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains, held together by disulfide bonds. The variable regions of these chains form the antigen-binding sites, which recognize and bind to specific epitopes on antigens. Based on their heavy chain type, immunoglobulins are classified into five main isotypes or classes: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Each class has distinct functions in the immune response, such as providing protection in different body fluids and tissues, mediating hypersensitivity reactions, and aiding in the development of immunological memory.

In medical settings, immunoglobulins can be administered therapeutically to provide passive immunity against certain diseases or to treat immune deficiencies, autoimmune disorders, and other conditions that may benefit from immunomodulation.

Autoimmunity is a medical condition in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys healthy tissues within the body. In normal function, the immune system recognizes and fights off foreign substances such as bacteria, viruses, and toxins. However, when autoimmunity occurs, the immune system identifies self-molecules or tissues as foreign and produces an immune response against them.

This misguided response can lead to chronic inflammation, tissue damage, and impaired organ function. Autoimmune diseases can affect various parts of the body, including the joints, skin, glands, muscles, and blood vessels. Some common examples of autoimmune diseases are rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and Graves' disease.

The exact cause of autoimmunity is not fully understood, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors that trigger an abnormal immune response in susceptible individuals. Treatment for autoimmune diseases typically involves managing symptoms, reducing inflammation, and suppressing the immune system's overactive response using medications such as corticosteroids, immunosuppressants, and biologics.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

Adoptive transfer is a medical procedure in which immune cells are transferred from a donor to a recipient with the aim of providing immunity or treating a disease, such as cancer. This technique is often used in the field of immunotherapy and involves isolating specific immune cells (like T-cells) from the donor, expanding their numbers in the laboratory, and then infusing them into the patient. The transferred cells are expected to recognize and attack the target cells, such as malignant or infected cells, leading to a therapeutic effect. This process requires careful matching of donor and recipient to minimize the risk of rejection and graft-versus-host disease.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

Drug substitution, also known as medication substitution, refers to the practice of replacing a prescribed medication with a different one that is therapeutically equivalent or similar. This may be done for various reasons such as:

* Cost: The substitute drug may be less expensive than the original medication.
* Availability: The substitute drug may be more readily available than the original medication.
* Adverse effects: The substitute drug may have fewer or less severe side effects than the original medication.
* Drug interactions: The substitute drug may have fewer or no interactions with other medications that the patient is taking.
* Efficacy: The substitute drug may be equally or more effective than the original medication.

It's important to note that any changes to a patient's medication regimen should be made in consultation with their healthcare provider, as substituting medications can have potential risks and benefits. Additionally, some states have laws and regulations that govern when and how drug substitution can be done.

A lung is a pair of spongy, elastic organs in the chest that work together to enable breathing. They are responsible for taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide through the process of respiration. The left lung has two lobes, while the right lung has three lobes. The lungs are protected by the ribcage and are covered by a double-layered membrane called the pleura. The trachea divides into two bronchi, which further divide into smaller bronchioles, leading to millions of tiny air sacs called alveoli, where the exchange of gases occurs.

"Macaca fascicularis" is the scientific name for the crab-eating macaque, also known as the long-tailed macaque. It's a species of monkey that is native to Southeast Asia. They are called "crab-eating" macaques because they are known to eat crabs and other crustaceans. These monkeys are omnivorous and their diet also includes fruits, seeds, insects, and occasionally smaller vertebrates.

Crab-eating macaques are highly adaptable and can be found in a wide range of habitats, including forests, grasslands, and wetlands. They are also known to live in close proximity to human settlements and are often considered pests due to their tendency to raid crops and steal food from humans.

These monkeys are social animals and live in large groups called troops. They have a complex social structure with a clear hierarchy and dominant males. Crab-eating macaques are also known for their intelligence and problem-solving abilities.

In medical research, crab-eating macaques are often used as animal models due to their close genetic relationship to humans. They are used in studies related to infectious diseases, neuroscience, and reproductive biology, among others.

Innate immunity, also known as non-specific immunity or natural immunity, is the inherent defense mechanism that provides immediate protection against potentially harmful pathogens (like bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites) without the need for prior exposure. This type of immunity is present from birth and does not adapt to specific threats over time.

Innate immune responses involve various mechanisms such as:

1. Physical barriers: Skin and mucous membranes prevent pathogens from entering the body.
2. Chemical barriers: Enzymes, stomach acid, and lysozyme in tears, saliva, and sweat help to destroy or inhibit the growth of microorganisms.
3. Cellular responses: Phagocytic cells (neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages) recognize and engulf foreign particles and pathogens, while natural killer (NK) cells target and eliminate virus-infected or cancerous cells.
4. Inflammatory response: When an infection occurs, the innate immune system triggers inflammation to increase blood flow, recruit immune cells, and remove damaged tissue.
5. Complement system: A group of proteins that work together to recognize and destroy pathogens directly or enhance phagocytosis by coating them with complement components (opsonization).

Innate immunity plays a crucial role in initiating the adaptive immune response, which is specific to particular pathogens and provides long-term protection through memory cells. Both innate and adaptive immunity work together to maintain overall immune homeostasis and protect the body from infections and diseases.

Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-β) is a type of cytokine, which is a cell signaling protein involved in the regulation of various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). TGF-β plays a critical role in embryonic development, tissue homeostasis, and wound healing. It also has been implicated in several pathological conditions such as fibrosis, cancer, and autoimmune diseases.

TGF-β exists in multiple isoforms (TGF-β1, TGF-β2, and TGF-β3) that are produced by many different cell types, including immune cells, epithelial cells, and fibroblasts. The protein is synthesized as a precursor molecule, which is cleaved to release the active TGF-β peptide. Once activated, TGF-β binds to its receptors on the cell surface, leading to the activation of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate gene expression and cell behavior.

In summary, Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-β) is a multifunctional cytokine involved in various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, embryonic development, tissue homeostasis, and wound healing. It has been implicated in several pathological conditions such as fibrosis, cancer, and autoimmune diseases.

CD4 antigens, also known as CD4 proteins or CD4 molecules, are a type of cell surface receptor found on certain immune cells, including T-helper cells and monocytes. They play a critical role in the immune response by binding to class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules on the surface of antigen-presenting cells and helping to activate T-cells. CD4 antigens are also the primary target of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes AIDS, leading to the destruction of CD4-positive T-cells and a weakened immune system.

Bovine trypanosomiasis, also known as Nagana, is a parasitic disease that affects cattle and other animals. It is caused by various species of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma, which are transmitted through the bite of tsetse flies (Glossina spp.).

The disease is characterized by fever, anemia, weight loss, decreased milk production, abortion in pregnant animals, and eventually death if left untreated. The parasites invade the bloodstream and lymphatic system, causing damage to various organs and tissues.

Bovine trypanosomiasis is a major constraint to livestock production in sub-Saharan Africa, where it affects millions of animals and causes significant economic losses to farmers and pastoralists. Control measures include the use of trypanocidal drugs, insecticide-treated cattle, and the reduction or elimination of tsetse fly populations through various methods such as trapping and habitat modification.

Viral DNA refers to the genetic material present in viruses that consist of DNA as their core component. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is one of the two types of nucleic acids that are responsible for storing and transmitting genetic information in living organisms. Viruses are infectious agents much smaller than bacteria that can only replicate inside the cells of other organisms, called hosts.

Viral DNA can be double-stranded (dsDNA) or single-stranded (ssDNA), depending on the type of virus. Double-stranded DNA viruses have a genome made up of two complementary strands of DNA, while single-stranded DNA viruses contain only one strand of DNA.

Examples of dsDNA viruses include Adenoviruses, Herpesviruses, and Poxviruses, while ssDNA viruses include Parvoviruses and Circoviruses. Viral DNA plays a crucial role in the replication cycle of the virus, encoding for various proteins necessary for its multiplication and survival within the host cell.

T-lymphocytes, also known as T-cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the immune response. They help to protect the body from infection and disease by identifying and attacking foreign substances such as viruses and bacteria.

Helper-inducer T-lymphocytes, also known as CD4+ T-cells or Th0 cells, are a specific subset of T-lymphocytes that help to coordinate the immune response. They do this by activating other immune cells, such as B-lymphocytes (which produce antibodies) and cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (which directly attack infected cells). Helper-inducer T-lymphocytes also release cytokines, which are signaling molecules that help to regulate the immune response.

Helper-inducer T-lymphocytes can differentiate into different subsets of T-cells, depending on the type of cytokines they are exposed to. For example, they can differentiate into Th1 cells, which produce cytokines that help to activate cytotoxic T-lymphocytes and macrophages; or Th2 cells, which produce cytokines that help to activate B-lymphocytes and eosinophils.

It is important to note that helper-inducer T-lymphocytes play a crucial role in the immune response, and dysfunction of these cells can lead to immunodeficiency or autoimmune disorders.

A lymphocyte transfusion is not a standard medical practice. However, the term "lymphocyte transfusion" generally refers to the infusion of lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell, from a donor to a recipient. This procedure is rarely performed and primarily used in research or experimental settings, such as in the context of adoptive immunotherapy for cancer treatment.

In adoptive immunotherapy, T lymphocytes (a subtype of lymphocytes) are collected from the patient or a donor, activated, expanded in the laboratory, and then reinfused into the patient to enhance their immune response against cancer cells. This is not a common procedure and should only be performed under the guidance of experienced medical professionals in specialized centers.

It's important to note that lymphocyte transfusions are different from stem cell or bone marrow transplants, which involve the infusion of hematopoietic stem cells to reconstitute the recipient's entire blood and immune system.

Polydnaviridae is a family of viruses that have a unique relationship with parasitic wasps in the order Hymenoptera. These viruses are double-stranded DNA viruses that are integrated into the genome of their wasp hosts and are transmitted vertically from one generation to the next through the eggs.

Polydnaviruses (PDVs) have a complex structure, consisting of multiple circular DNA molecules encapsidated in enveloped particles. They do not replicate in the wasp host but instead are produced in the calyx cells of the wasp's ovary and incorporated into the venom that is injected into the caterpillar or other insect host during oviposition.

Once inside the host, PDVs alter the host's immune system to prevent encapsulation and destruction of the wasp egg, allowing the wasp larva to develop within the host. The PDV genome also encodes various proteins that can manipulate the host's physiology and development, providing nutrients for the developing wasp larvae.

Overall, Polydnaviridae is a fascinating example of a virus-insect symbiosis that has evolved over millions of years to benefit both the wasp and the virus.

CD40 ligand (CD40L or CD154) is a type II transmembrane protein and a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily. It is primarily expressed on activated CD4+ T cells, but can also be found on other immune cells such as activated B cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells.

CD40 ligand binds to its receptor, CD40, which is mainly expressed on the surface of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) such as B cells, dendritic cells, and macrophages. The interaction between CD40L and CD40 plays a crucial role in the activation and regulation of the immune response.

CD40L-CD40 signaling is essential for T cell-dependent B cell activation, antibody production, and class switching. It also contributes to the activation and maturation of dendritic cells, promoting their ability to stimulate T cell responses. Dysregulation of CD40L-CD40 signaling has been implicated in various autoimmune diseases, transplant rejection, and cancer.

Histocompatibility antigens, also known as human leukocyte antigens (HLAs), are proteins found on the surface of most cells in the body. They play a critical role in the immune system's ability to differentiate between "self" and "non-self" cells. Histocompatibility antigens are encoded by a group of genes called the major histocompatibility complex (MHC).

There are two main types of histocompatibility antigens: class I and class II. Class I antigens are found on almost all nucleated cells, while class II antigens are primarily expressed on immune cells such as B cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells. These antigens present pieces of proteins (peptides) from both inside and outside the cell to T-cells, a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in the immune response.

When foreign peptides are presented to T-cells by histocompatibility antigens, it triggers an immune response aimed at eliminating the threat. This is why histocompatibility antigens are so important in organ transplantation - if the donor's and recipient's antigens do not match closely enough, the recipient's immune system may recognize the transplanted organ as foreign and attack it.

Understanding the role of histocompatibility antigens has been crucial in developing techniques for matching donors and recipients in organ transplantation, as well as in diagnosing and treating various autoimmune diseases and cancers.

Coculture techniques refer to a type of experimental setup in which two or more different types of cells or organisms are grown and studied together in a shared culture medium. This method allows researchers to examine the interactions between different cell types or species under controlled conditions, and to study how these interactions may influence various biological processes such as growth, gene expression, metabolism, and signal transduction.

Coculture techniques can be used to investigate a wide range of biological phenomena, including the effects of host-microbe interactions on human health and disease, the impact of different cell types on tissue development and homeostasis, and the role of microbial communities in shaping ecosystems. These techniques can also be used to test the efficacy and safety of new drugs or therapies by examining their effects on cells grown in coculture with other relevant cell types.

There are several different ways to establish cocultures, depending on the specific research question and experimental goals. Some common methods include:

1. Mixed cultures: In this approach, two or more cell types are simply mixed together in a culture dish or flask and allowed to grow and interact freely.
2. Cell-layer cultures: Here, one cell type is grown on a porous membrane or other support structure, while the second cell type is grown on top of it, forming a layered coculture.
3. Conditioned media cultures: In this case, one cell type is grown to confluence and its culture medium is collected and then used to grow a second cell type. This allows the second cell type to be exposed to any factors secreted by the first cell type into the medium.
4. Microfluidic cocultures: These involve growing cells in microfabricated channels or chambers, which allow for precise control over the spatial arrangement and flow of nutrients, waste products, and signaling molecules between different cell types.

Overall, coculture techniques provide a powerful tool for studying complex biological systems and gaining insights into the mechanisms that underlie various physiological and pathological processes.

Liver cirrhosis is a chronic, progressive disease characterized by the replacement of normal liver tissue with scarred (fibrotic) tissue, leading to loss of function. The scarring is caused by long-term damage from various sources such as hepatitis, alcohol abuse, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and other causes. As the disease advances, it can lead to complications like portal hypertension, fluid accumulation in the abdomen (ascites), impaired brain function (hepatic encephalopathy), and increased risk of liver cancer. It is generally irreversible, but early detection and treatment of underlying causes may help slow down its progression.

Immunization is defined medically as the process where an individual is made immune or resistant to an infectious disease, typically through the administration of a vaccine. The vaccine stimulates the body's own immune system to recognize and fight off the specific disease-causing organism, thereby preventing or reducing the severity of future infections with that organism.

Immunization can be achieved actively, where the person is given a vaccine to trigger an immune response, or passively, where antibodies are transferred to the person through immunoglobulin therapy. Immunizations are an important part of preventive healthcare and have been successful in controlling and eliminating many infectious diseases worldwide.

Clinical trials are research studies that involve human participants and are designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of new medical treatments, drugs, devices, or behavioral interventions. The purpose of clinical trials is to determine whether a new intervention is safe, effective, and beneficial for patients, as well as to compare it with currently available treatments. Clinical trials follow a series of phases, each with specific goals and criteria, before a new intervention can be approved by regulatory authorities for widespread use.

Clinical trials are conducted according to a protocol, which is a detailed plan that outlines the study's objectives, design, methodology, statistical analysis, and ethical considerations. The protocol is developed and reviewed by a team of medical experts, statisticians, and ethicists, and it must be approved by an institutional review board (IRB) before the trial can begin.

Participation in clinical trials is voluntary, and participants must provide informed consent before enrolling in the study. Informed consent involves providing potential participants with detailed information about the study's purpose, procedures, risks, benefits, and alternatives, as well as their rights as research subjects. Participants can withdraw from the study at any time without penalty or loss of benefits to which they are entitled.

Clinical trials are essential for advancing medical knowledge and improving patient care. They help researchers identify new treatments, diagnostic tools, and prevention strategies that can benefit patients and improve public health. However, clinical trials also pose potential risks to participants, including adverse effects from experimental interventions, time commitment, and inconvenience. Therefore, it is important for researchers to carefully design and conduct clinical trials to minimize risks and ensure that the benefits outweigh the risks.

Lymphoma is a type of cancer that originates from the white blood cells called lymphocytes, which are part of the immune system. These cells are found in various parts of the body such as the lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, and other organs. Lymphoma can be classified into two main types: Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).

HL is characterized by the presence of a specific type of abnormal lymphocyte called Reed-Sternberg cells, while NHL includes a diverse group of lymphomas that lack these cells. The symptoms of lymphoma may include swollen lymph nodes, fever, night sweats, weight loss, and fatigue.

The exact cause of lymphoma is not known, but it is believed to result from genetic mutations in the lymphocytes that lead to uncontrolled cell growth and division. Exposure to certain viruses, chemicals, and radiation may increase the risk of developing lymphoma. Treatment options for lymphoma depend on various factors such as the type and stage of the disease, age, and overall health of the patient. Common treatments include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, and stem cell transplantation.

African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness, is a vector-borne parasitic disease caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma brucei. It is transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected tsetse fly (Glossina spp.). The disease has two stages: an early hemolymphatic stage characterized by fever, swollen lymph nodes, and skin rashes; and a late neurological stage characterized by sleep disturbances, personality changes, and motor abnormalities. If left untreated, it can be fatal. The disease is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa, where an estimated 65 million people are at risk of infection.

Grape seed extract is not a medical term, but I can provide you with a general description and uses based on scientific and medical understanding.

Grape seed extract (GSE) is a dietary supplement derived from the ground-up seeds of grapes. It contains several bioactive compounds, including proanthocyanidins, which are potent antioxidants. GSE has been studied for its potential health benefits, such as:

1. Anti-inflammatory effects: GSE may help reduce inflammation by inhibiting the production of certain inflammatory molecules.
2. Cardiovascular health: Some research suggests that GSE could improve cardiovascular health by reducing blood pressure, increasing blood flow, and preventing platelet aggregation.
3. Antioxidant properties: The high antioxidant content in GSE helps protect cells from damage caused by free radicals.
4. Skin health: Topical application of GSE has been shown to improve skin hydration, elasticity, and reduce the appearance of wrinkles.
5. Neuroprotection: Preclinical studies indicate that GSE may have neuroprotective effects, potentially helping protect against age-related cognitive decline and neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's.

However, it is essential to note that while some research shows promising results, more high-quality clinical trials are needed to confirm these potential health benefits and establish appropriate dosages. Always consult a healthcare professional before starting any new supplement regimen.

Drug monitoring, also known as therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM), is a medical practice that involves testing blood or other bodily fluids to determine the concentration of a particular medication. This information is used to ensure that the patient is receiving an appropriate dosage and to help guide adjustments in medication therapy. It can be especially important for medications with a narrow therapeutic index, meaning that there is a small range between the effective dose and a toxic dose.

The goal of drug monitoring is to optimize medication effectiveness while minimizing potential side effects. This may involve measuring the concentration of a drug at various times after dosing to determine how quickly it is being metabolized or eliminated from the body, as well as to assess compliance with the prescribed treatment regimen.

Drug monitoring can be performed using a variety of methods, including immunoassays, chromatography, and mass spectrometry. The specific method used will depend on the drug being monitored and the level of sensitivity required. Results from drug monitoring tests are typically interpreted in conjunction with other clinical information, such as the patient's age, weight, renal function, liver function, and overall health status.

Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are large molecules found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. They consist of a hydrophilic polysaccharide called the O-antigen, a core oligosaccharide, and a lipid portion known as Lipid A. The Lipid A component is responsible for the endotoxic activity of LPS, which can trigger a powerful immune response in animals, including humans. This response can lead to symptoms such as fever, inflammation, and septic shock, especially when large amounts of LPS are introduced into the bloodstream.

The "Graft vs Tumor Effect" is a term used in the field of transplantation medicine, particularly in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). It refers to the anti-tumor activity exhibited by donor immune cells (graft) against residual malignant cells (tumor) in the recipient's body.

After HSCT, the donor's immune system is reconstituted in the recipient's body. If the donor and recipient are not identical, there may be differences in their major and minor histocompatibility antigens, which can lead to a graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) where the donor's immune cells attack the recipient's tissues. However, these same donor immune cells can also recognize and target any residual tumor cells in the recipient's body, leading to a graft vs tumor effect.

This effect can contribute to the elimination of residual malignant cells and reduce the risk of relapse, particularly in hematological malignancies such as leukemia and lymphoma. However, it is important to balance this effect with the risk of GVHD, which can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Therefore, strategies such as donor selection, graft manipulation, and immunosuppressive therapy are used to optimize the graft vs tumor effect while minimizing GVHD.

Carcinoma, basal cell is a type of skin cancer that arises from the basal cells, which are located in the lower part of the epidermis (the outermost layer of the skin). It is also known as basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and is the most common form of skin cancer.

BCC typically appears as a small, shiny, pearly bump or nodule on the skin, often in sun-exposed areas such as the face, ears, neck, hands, and arms. It may also appear as a scar-like area that is white, yellow, or waxy. BCCs are usually slow growing and rarely spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body. However, they can be locally invasive and destroy surrounding tissue if left untreated.

The exact cause of BCC is not known, but it is thought to be related to a combination of genetic and environmental factors, including exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun or tanning beds. People with fair skin, light hair, and blue or green eyes are at increased risk of developing BCC.

Treatment for BCC typically involves surgical removal of the tumor, along with a margin of healthy tissue. Other treatment options may include radiation therapy, topical chemotherapy, or photodynamic therapy. Prevention measures include protecting your skin from UV radiation by wearing protective clothing, using sunscreen, and avoiding tanning beds.

Topical administration refers to a route of administering a medication or treatment directly to a specific area of the body, such as the skin, mucous membranes, or eyes. This method allows the drug to be applied directly to the site where it is needed, which can increase its effectiveness and reduce potential side effects compared to systemic administration (taking the medication by mouth or injecting it into a vein or muscle).

Topical medications come in various forms, including creams, ointments, gels, lotions, solutions, sprays, and patches. They may be used to treat localized conditions such as skin infections, rashes, inflammation, or pain, or to deliver medication to the eyes or mucous membranes for local or systemic effects.

When applying topical medications, it is important to follow the instructions carefully to ensure proper absorption and avoid irritation or other adverse reactions. This may include cleaning the area before application, covering the treated area with a dressing, or avoiding exposure to sunlight or water after application, depending on the specific medication and its intended use.

Immunologic surveillance is the concept that the immune system plays a critical role in monitoring and defending the body against the development of malignancies or cancers. The immune cells, particularly T-cells and natural killer (NK) cells, are constantly scanning the body for any abnormal changes in cells, such as mutations or viral infections, that could lead to cancer.

Once these abnormal cells are detected, the immune system mounts an immune response to eliminate them, preventing their proliferation and progression into full-blown cancers. This process of immunologic surveillance is a critical component of the body's defense mechanisms against cancer and helps to maintain tissue homeostasis and prevent tumorigenesis.

However, in some cases, cancer cells may evade or suppress the immune system's surveillance mechanisms, leading to the development and progression of malignancies. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of immunologic surveillance is crucial for developing novel cancer therapies that harness the power of the immune system to fight against cancer.

Lymphopenia is a term used in medicine to describe an abnormally low count of lymphocytes, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the body's immune system. Lymphocytes help fight off infections and diseases by producing antibodies and attacking infected cells.

A normal lymphocyte count ranges from 1,000 to 4,800 cells per microliter (cells/μL) of blood in adults. A lymphocyte count lower than 1,000 cells/μL is generally considered lymphopenia.

Several factors can cause lymphopenia, including viral infections, certain medications, autoimmune disorders, and cancer. It's important to note that a low lymphocyte count alone may not indicate a specific medical condition, and further testing may be necessary to determine the underlying cause. If left untreated, lymphopenia can increase the risk of infections and other complications.

Actuarial analysis is a process used in the field of actuarial science to evaluate and manage risk, typically for financial or insurance purposes. It involves the use of statistical modeling, mathematical calculations, and data analysis to estimate the probability and potential financial impact of various events or outcomes.

In a medical context, actuarial analysis may be used to assess the risks and costs associated with different health conditions, treatments, or patient populations. For example, an actuary might use data on morbidity rates, mortality rates, and healthcare utilization patterns to estimate the expected costs of providing coverage to a group of patients with a particular medical condition.

Actuarial analysis can help healthcare organizations, insurers, and policymakers make informed decisions about resource allocation, pricing, and risk management. It can also be used to develop predictive models that identify high-risk populations or forecast future trends in healthcare utilization and costs.

Picryl Chloride, also known as 2,4,6-Trinitrophenyl Chloride, is not a medical term. It is a chemical compound with the formula C6H2Cl3O6. It is a yellow crystalline solid that is used in organic synthesis and as a reagent for detecting nucleophiles.

Picryl Chloride is highly reactive and can cause severe burns and eye damage. It is also an explosive compound, and should be handled with care. It is not typically used in medical contexts, but may come up in discussions of chemical safety or laboratory procedures.

"Miniature Swine" is not a medical term per se, but it is commonly used in the field of biomedical research to refer to certain breeds or types of pigs that are smaller in size compared to traditional farm pigs. These miniature swine are often used as animal models for human diseases due to their similarities with humans in terms of anatomy, genetics, and physiology. Examples of commonly used miniature swine include the Yucatan, Sinclair, and Göttingen breeds. It is important to note that while these animals are often called "miniature," they can still weigh between 50-200 pounds depending on the specific breed or age.

Distemper is a highly contagious viral disease that primarily affects dogs, but can also infect other animals such as cats, ferrets, and raccoons. It is caused by a paramyxovirus and is characterized by respiratory, gastrointestinal, and neurological symptoms.

The respiratory symptoms of distemper include coughing, sneezing, and nasal discharge. Gastrointestinal symptoms may include vomiting and diarrhea. Neurological symptoms can include seizures, twitching, and paralysis. Distemper is often fatal, especially in puppies and young dogs that have not been vaccinated.

The virus is spread through direct contact with infected animals or their bodily fluids, such as saliva and urine. It can also be spread through the air, making it highly contagious in areas where large numbers of unvaccinated animals are housed together, such as animal shelters and kennels.

Prevention is key in protecting against distemper, and vaccination is recommended for all dogs. Puppies should receive their first distemper vaccine at six to eight weeks of age, followed by booster shots every three to four weeks until they are 16 weeks old. Adult dogs should receive a distemper booster shot every one to three years, depending on their risk of exposure.

Cortisone is a type of corticosteroid hormone that is produced naturally in the body by the adrenal gland. It is released in response to stress and helps to regulate metabolism, reduce inflammation, and suppress the immune system. Cortisone can also be synthetically produced and is often used as a medication to treat a variety of conditions such as arthritis, asthma, and skin disorders. It works by mimicking the effects of the natural hormone in the body and reducing inflammation and suppressing the immune system. Cortisone can be administered through various routes, including oral, injectable, topical, and inhalational.

Mitogens are substances that stimulate mitosis, or cell division, in particular, the proliferation of cells derived from the immune system. They are often proteins or glycoproteins found on the surface of certain bacteria, viruses, and other cells, which can bind to receptors on the surface of immune cells and trigger a signal transduction pathway that leads to cell division.

Mitogens are commonly used in laboratory research to study the growth and behavior of immune cells, as well as to assess the function of the immune system. For example, mitogens can be added to cultures of lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) to stimulate their proliferation and measure their response to various stimuli.

Examples of mitogens include phytohemagglutinin (PHA), concanavalin A (ConA), and pokeweed mitogen (PWM). It's important to note that while mitogens can be useful tools in research, they can also have harmful effects if they are introduced into the body in large quantities or inappropriately, as they can stimulate an overactive immune response.

A biological marker, often referred to as a biomarker, is a measurable indicator that reflects the presence or severity of a disease state, or a response to a therapeutic intervention. Biomarkers can be found in various materials such as blood, tissues, or bodily fluids, and they can take many forms, including molecular, histologic, radiographic, or physiological measurements.

In the context of medical research and clinical practice, biomarkers are used for a variety of purposes, such as:

1. Diagnosis: Biomarkers can help diagnose a disease by indicating the presence or absence of a particular condition. For example, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a biomarker used to detect prostate cancer.
2. Monitoring: Biomarkers can be used to monitor the progression or regression of a disease over time. For instance, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels are monitored in diabetes patients to assess long-term blood glucose control.
3. Predicting: Biomarkers can help predict the likelihood of developing a particular disease or the risk of a negative outcome. For example, the presence of certain genetic mutations can indicate an increased risk for breast cancer.
4. Response to treatment: Biomarkers can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a specific treatment by measuring changes in the biomarker levels before and after the intervention. This is particularly useful in personalized medicine, where treatments are tailored to individual patients based on their unique biomarker profiles.

It's important to note that for a biomarker to be considered clinically valid and useful, it must undergo rigorous validation through well-designed studies, including demonstrating sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, and clinical relevance.

The Bursa of Fabricius is a lymphoid organ located in the cloaca of birds. It plays a crucial role in the development of the bird's immune system, specifically in the maturation and differentiation of B cells, which are a type of white blood cell responsible for producing antibodies to fight off infections.

The Bursa of Fabricius is named after the Italian anatomist Hieronymus Fabricius (1537-1619), who first described it in 1621. It is a sac-like structure that is lined with epithelial cells and contains lymphoid follicles, which are clusters of B cells at various stages of development.

In chickens, the Bursa of Fabricius begins to develop around the 5th day of incubation and reaches its maximum size by the time the bird is about 3 weeks old. After this point, it gradually involutes and disappears by the time the bird reaches adulthood.

It's worth noting that the Bursa of Fabricius has no direct equivalent in mammals, including humans. While mammals also have lymphoid organs such as the spleen, lymph nodes, and tonsils, these organs serve different functions and are not directly involved in the maturation of B cells.

Passive immunization is a type of temporary immunity that is transferred to an individual through the injection of antibodies produced outside of the body, rather than through the active production of antibodies in the body in response to vaccination or infection. This can be done through the administration of preformed antibodies, such as immune globulins, which contain a mixture of antibodies that provide immediate protection against specific diseases.

Passive immunization is often used in situations where individuals have been exposed to a disease and do not have time to develop their own active immune response, or in cases where individuals are unable to produce an adequate immune response due to certain medical conditions. It can also be used as a short-term measure to provide protection until an individual can receive a vaccination that will confer long-term immunity.

Passive immunization provides immediate protection against disease, but the protection is typically short-lived, lasting only a few weeks or months. This is because the transferred antibodies are gradually broken down and eliminated by the body over time. In contrast, active immunization confers long-term immunity through the production of memory cells that can mount a rapid and effective immune response upon re-exposure to the same pathogen in the future.

Experimental neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that are induced and studied in a controlled laboratory setting, typically in animals or cell cultures. These studies are conducted to understand the fundamental mechanisms of cancer development, progression, and potential treatment strategies. By manipulating various factors such as genetic mutations, environmental exposures, and pharmacological interventions, researchers can gain valuable insights into the complex processes underlying neoplasm formation and identify novel targets for cancer therapy. It is important to note that experimental neoplasms may not always accurately represent human cancers, and further research is needed to translate these findings into clinically relevant applications.

A genetic vector is a vehicle, often a plasmid or a virus, that is used to introduce foreign DNA into a host cell as part of genetic engineering or gene therapy techniques. The vector contains the desired gene or genes, along with regulatory elements such as promoters and enhancers, which are needed for the expression of the gene in the target cells.

The choice of vector depends on several factors, including the size of the DNA to be inserted, the type of cell to be targeted, and the efficiency of uptake and expression required. Commonly used vectors include plasmids, adenoviruses, retroviruses, and lentiviruses.

Plasmids are small circular DNA molecules that can replicate independently in bacteria. They are often used as cloning vectors to amplify and manipulate DNA fragments. Adenoviruses are double-stranded DNA viruses that infect a wide range of host cells, including human cells. They are commonly used as gene therapy vectors because they can efficiently transfer genes into both dividing and non-dividing cells.

Retroviruses and lentiviruses are RNA viruses that integrate their genetic material into the host cell's genome. This allows for stable expression of the transgene over time. Lentiviruses, a subclass of retroviruses, have the advantage of being able to infect non-dividing cells, making them useful for gene therapy applications in post-mitotic tissues such as neurons and muscle cells.

Overall, genetic vectors play a crucial role in modern molecular biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study gene function, develop new therapies, and modify organisms for various purposes.

Inflammation is a complex biological response of tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. It is characterized by the following signs: rubor (redness), tumor (swelling), calor (heat), dolor (pain), and functio laesa (loss of function). The process involves the activation of the immune system, recruitment of white blood cells, and release of inflammatory mediators, which contribute to the elimination of the injurious stimuli and initiation of the healing process. However, uncontrolled or chronic inflammation can also lead to tissue damage and diseases.

Bacterial infections are caused by the invasion and multiplication of bacteria in or on tissues of the body. These infections can range from mild, like a common cold, to severe, such as pneumonia, meningitis, or sepsis. The symptoms of a bacterial infection depend on the type of bacteria invading the body and the area of the body that is affected.

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that can live in many different environments, including in the human body. While some bacteria are beneficial to humans and help with digestion or protect against harmful pathogens, others can cause illness and disease. When bacteria invade the body, they can release toxins and other harmful substances that damage tissues and trigger an immune response.

Bacterial infections can be treated with antibiotics, which work by killing or inhibiting the growth of bacteria. However, it is important to note that misuse or overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, making treatment more difficult. It is also essential to complete the full course of antibiotics as prescribed, even if symptoms improve, to ensure that all bacteria are eliminated and reduce the risk of recurrence or development of antibiotic resistance.

Autologous transplantation is a medical procedure where cells, tissues, or organs are removed from a person, stored and then returned back to the same individual at a later time. This is different from allogeneic transplantation where the tissue or organ is obtained from another donor. The term "autologous" is derived from the Greek words "auto" meaning self and "logos" meaning study.

In autologous transplantation, the patient's own cells or tissues are used to replace or repair damaged or diseased ones. This reduces the risk of rejection and eliminates the need for immunosuppressive drugs, which are required in allogeneic transplants to prevent the body from attacking the foreign tissue.

Examples of autologous transplantation include:

* Autologous bone marrow or stem cell transplantation, where stem cells are removed from the patient's blood or bone marrow, stored and then reinfused back into the same individual after high-dose chemotherapy or radiation therapy to treat cancer.
* Autologous skin grafting, where a piece of skin is taken from one part of the body and transplanted to another area on the same person.
* Autologous chondrocyte implantation, where cartilage cells are harvested from the patient's own knee, cultured in a laboratory and then implanted back into the knee to repair damaged cartilage.

"Swine" is a common term used to refer to even-toed ungulates of the family Suidae, including domestic pigs and wild boars. However, in a medical context, "swine" often appears in the phrase "swine flu," which is a strain of influenza virus that typically infects pigs but can also cause illness in humans. The 2009 H1N1 pandemic was caused by a new strain of swine-origin influenza A virus, which was commonly referred to as "swine flu." It's important to note that this virus is not transmitted through eating cooked pork products; it spreads from person to person, mainly through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes.

HIV seronegativity is a term used to describe a person who has tested negative for HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) antibodies in their blood. This means that the individual does not show evidence of current or past infection with HIV, which can cause AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). However, it's important to note that there is a window period after initial infection during which a person may test negative for HIV antibodies, even though they are indeed infected. This window period typically lasts between 2-6 weeks but can extend up to 3 months in some cases. Therefore, if someone believes they have been exposed to HIV, they should consider getting tested again after this window period has passed.

The Islets of Langerhans are clusters of specialized cells within the pancreas, an organ located behind the stomach. These islets are named after Paul Langerhans, who first identified them in 1869. They constitute around 1-2% of the total mass of the pancreas and are distributed throughout its substance.

The Islets of Langerhans contain several types of cells, including:

1. Alpha (α) cells: These produce and release glucagon, a hormone that helps to regulate blood sugar levels by promoting the conversion of glycogen to glucose in the liver when blood sugar levels are low.
2. Beta (β) cells: These produce and release insulin, a hormone that promotes the uptake and utilization of glucose by cells throughout the body, thereby lowering blood sugar levels.
3. Delta (δ) cells: These produce and release somatostatin, a hormone that inhibits the release of both insulin and glucagon and helps regulate their secretion in response to changing blood sugar levels.
4. PP cells (gamma or γ cells): These produce and release pancreatic polypeptide, which plays a role in regulating digestive enzyme secretion and gastrointestinal motility.

Dysfunction of the Islets of Langerhans can lead to various endocrine disorders, such as diabetes mellitus, where insulin-producing beta cells are damaged or destroyed, leading to impaired blood sugar regulation.

The CD4-CD8 ratio is a measurement of the relative numbers of two types of immune cells, CD4+ T cells (also known as helper T cells) and CD8+ T cells (also known as cytotoxic T cells), in the blood. The CD4-CD8 ratio is commonly used as a marker of immune function and health.

CD4+ T cells play an important role in the immune response by helping to coordinate the activity of other immune cells, producing chemical signals that activate them, and producing antibodies. CD8+ T cells are responsible for directly killing infected cells and tumor cells.

A normal CD4-CD8 ratio is typically between 1.0 and 3.0. A lower ratio may indicate an impaired immune system, such as in cases of HIV infection or other immunodeficiency disorders. A higher ratio may be seen in some viral infections, autoimmune diseases, or cancer. It's important to note that the CD4-CD8 ratio should be interpreted in conjunction with other laboratory and clinical findings for a more accurate assessment of immune function.

Immunologic monitoring refers to the regular and systematic surveillance and evaluation of a patient's immune system response, particularly in the context of medical treatment or disease progression. This may involve measuring various immunological parameters such as levels of immune cells, antibodies, cytokines, and other markers of immune function.

The goal of immunologic monitoring is to assess the effectiveness of treatments that modulate the immune system, such as immunotherapy for cancer or immunosuppressive therapy for autoimmune diseases. It can also help detect any adverse effects or complications related to the treatment, such as immune-related toxicities or infections. Additionally, immunologic monitoring may provide insights into the underlying mechanisms of disease and inform personalized treatment strategies.

Autoantibodies are defined as antibodies that are produced by the immune system and target the body's own cells, tissues, or organs. These antibodies mistakenly identify certain proteins or molecules in the body as foreign invaders and attack them, leading to an autoimmune response. Autoantibodies can be found in various autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and thyroiditis. The presence of autoantibodies can also be used as a diagnostic marker for certain conditions.

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), also known as kala-azar, is a systemic protozoan disease caused by the Leishmania donovani complex. It is the most severe form of leishmaniasis and is characterized by fever, weight loss, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, and pancytopenia. If left untreated, it can be fatal in over 95% of cases within 2 years of onset of symptoms. It is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected female sandflies (Phlebotomus spp. or Lutzomyia spp.). The parasites enter the skin and are taken up by macrophages, where they transform into amastigotes and spread to internal organs such as the spleen, liver, and bone marrow. Diagnosis is typically made through demonstration of the parasite in tissue samples or through serological tests. Treatment options include antimonial drugs, amphotericin B, miltefosine, and paromomycin. Prevention measures include vector control, early detection and treatment, and protection against sandfly bites.

Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) is an Old World arenavirus that primarily infects rodents, particularly the house mouse (Mus musculus). The virus is harbored in these mice without causing any apparent disease, but they can shed the virus in their urine, droppings, and saliva.

Humans can contract LCMV through close contact with infected rodents or their excreta, inhalation of aerosolized virus, or ingestion of contaminated food or water. In humans, LCMV infection can cause a mild to severe illness called lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM), which primarily affects the meninges (the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord) and, less frequently, the brain and spinal cord itself.

The incubation period for LCMV infection is typically 1-2 weeks, after which symptoms may appear. Initial symptoms include fever, malaise, headache, muscle aches, and nausea. In some cases, the illness may progress to involve the meninges (meningitis), resulting in neck stiffness, light sensitivity, and altered mental status. In rare instances, LCMV infection can lead to encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) or myelitis (inflammation of the spinal cord), causing more severe neurological symptoms such as seizures, paralysis, or long-term neurological damage.

Most individuals who contract LCMV recover completely within a few weeks to months; however, immunocompromised individuals are at risk for developing severe and potentially fatal complications from the infection. Pregnant women infected with LCMV may also face an increased risk of miscarriage or fetal abnormalities.

Prevention measures include avoiding contact with rodents, especially house mice, and their excreta, maintaining good hygiene, and using appropriate personal protective equipment when handling potentially contaminated materials. There is no specific treatment for LCMV infection; management typically involves supportive care to alleviate symptoms and address complications as they arise.

Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to amplify and detect specific DNA sequences. This technique is particularly useful for the detection and quantification of RNA viruses, as well as for the analysis of gene expression.

The process involves two main steps: reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In the first step, reverse transcriptase enzyme is used to convert RNA into complementary DNA (cDNA) by reading the template provided by the RNA molecule. This cDNA then serves as a template for the PCR amplification step.

In the second step, the PCR reaction uses two primers that flank the target DNA sequence and a thermostable polymerase enzyme to repeatedly copy the targeted cDNA sequence. The reaction mixture is heated and cooled in cycles, allowing the primers to anneal to the template, and the polymerase to extend the new strand. This results in exponential amplification of the target DNA sequence, making it possible to detect even small amounts of RNA or cDNA.

RT-PCR is a sensitive and specific technique that has many applications in medical research and diagnostics, including the detection of viruses such as HIV, hepatitis C virus, and SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19). It can also be used to study gene expression, identify genetic mutations, and diagnose genetic disorders.

Herpes zoster, also known as shingles, is a viral infection that causes a painful rash. It's caused by the varicella-zoster virus, which also causes chickenpox. After you recover from chickenpox, the virus lies dormant in your nerve cells and can reactivate later in life as herpes zoster.

The hallmark symptom of herpes zoster is a unilateral, vesicular rash that occurs in a dermatomal distribution, which means it follows the path of a specific nerve. The rash usually affects one side of the body and can wrap around either the left or right side of your torso.

Before the rash appears, you may experience symptoms such as pain, tingling, or itching in the area where the rash will develop. Other possible symptoms include fever, headache, fatigue, and muscle weakness. The rash typically scabs over and heals within two to four weeks, but some people may continue to experience pain in the affected area for months or even years after the rash has healed. This is known as postherpetic neuralgia (PHN).

Herpes zoster is most common in older adults and people with weakened immune systems, although anyone who has had chickenpox can develop the condition. It's important to seek medical attention if you suspect you have herpes zoster, as early treatment with antiviral medications can help reduce the severity and duration of the rash and lower your risk of developing complications such as PHN.

Friend murine leukemia virus (F-MuLV) is a type of retrovirus that specifically infects mice. It was first discovered by Charlotte Friend in the 1950s and has since been widely used as a model system to study retroviral pathogenesis, oncogenesis, and immune responses.

F-MuLV is a complex retrovirus that contains several accessory genes, including gag, pol, env, and others. The virus can cause leukemia and other malignancies in susceptible mice, particularly when it is transmitted from mother to offspring through the milk.

The virus is also known to induce immunosuppression, which makes infected mice more susceptible to other infections and diseases. F-MuLV has been used extensively in laboratory research to investigate various aspects of retroviral biology, including viral entry, replication, gene expression, and host immune responses.

It is important to note that Friend murine leukemia virus only infects mice and is not known to cause any disease in humans or other animals.

Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a test used to check how well the kidneys are working. Specifically, it estimates how much blood passes through the glomeruli each minute. The glomeruli are the tiny fibers in the kidneys that filter waste from the blood. A lower GFR number means that the kidneys aren't working properly and may indicate kidney disease.

The GFR is typically calculated using a formula that takes into account the patient's serum creatinine level, age, sex, and race. The most commonly used formula is the CKD-EPI (Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration) equation. A normal GFR is usually above 90 mL/min/1.73m2, but this can vary depending on the individual's age and other factors.

Immunologic memory, also known as adaptive immunity, refers to the ability of the immune system to recognize and mount a more rapid and effective response upon subsequent exposure to a pathogen or antigen that it has encountered before. This is a key feature of the vertebrate immune system and allows for long-term protection against infectious diseases.

Immunologic memory is mediated by specialized cells called memory T cells and B cells, which are produced during the initial response to an infection or immunization. These cells persist in the body after the pathogen has been cleared and can quickly respond to future encounters with the same or similar antigens. This rapid response leads to a more effective and efficient elimination of the pathogen, resulting in fewer symptoms and reduced severity of disease.

Immunologic memory is the basis for vaccines, which work by exposing the immune system to a harmless form of a pathogen or its components, inducing an initial response and generating memory cells that provide long-term protection against future infections.

Vidarabine is an antiviral medication used to treat herpes simplex infections, particularly severe cases such as herpes encephalitis (inflammation of the brain caused by the herpes simplex virus). It works by interfering with the DNA replication of the virus.

In medical terms, vidarabine is a nucleoside analogue that is phosphorylated intracellularly to the active form, vidarabine triphosphate. This compound inhibits viral DNA polymerase and incorporates into viral DNA, causing termination of viral DNA synthesis.

Vidarabine was previously used as an injectable medication but has largely been replaced by more modern antiviral drugs such as acyclovir due to its greater efficacy and lower toxicity.

Leukocyte transfusion, also known as white blood cell (WBC) transfusion, involves the intravenous administration of leukocytes (white blood cells) from a donor to a recipient. This procedure is typically used in patients with severe immunodeficiency or those undergoing bone marrow transplantation, where they are unable to produce sufficient white blood cells to fight off infections.

Leukocyte transfusions can help boost the recipient's immune system and provide them with temporary protection against infections. However, this procedure carries some risks, including febrile non-hemolytic transfusion reactions, allergic reactions, transmission of infectious diseases, and the potential for transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GVHD). Therefore, leukocyte transfusions are usually reserved for specific clinical situations where the benefits outweigh the risks.

The JC (John Cunningham) virus, also known as human polyomavirus 2 (HPyV-2), is a type of double-stranded DNA virus that belongs to the Polyomaviridae family. It is named after the initials of the patient in whom it was first identified.

JC virus is a ubiquitous virus, meaning that it is commonly found in the general population worldwide. Most people get infected with JC virus during childhood and do not experience any symptoms. After the initial infection, the virus remains dormant in the kidneys and other organs of the body.

However, in individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or who have undergone organ transplantation, JC virus can reactivate and cause a serious brain infection called progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). PML is a rare but often fatal disease that affects the white matter of the brain, causing cognitive decline, weakness, and paralysis.

There is currently no cure for PML, and treatment is focused on managing the underlying immune deficiency and controlling the symptoms of the disease.

C-peptide is a byproduct that is produced when the hormone insulin is generated in the body. Insulin is a hormone that helps regulate blood sugar levels, and it is produced in the pancreas by specialized cells called beta cells. When these cells produce insulin, they also generate C-peptide as a part of the same process.

C-peptide is often used as a marker to measure the body's insulin production. By measuring C-peptide levels in the blood, healthcare providers can get an idea of how much insulin the body is producing on its own. This can be helpful in diagnosing and monitoring conditions such as diabetes, which is characterized by impaired insulin production or function.

It's worth noting that C-peptide is not typically used as a treatment for any medical conditions. Instead, it is primarily used as a diagnostic tool to help healthcare providers better understand their patients' health status and make informed treatment decisions.

Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is a type of antibody that is primarily found in the blood and lymph fluid. It is the first antibody to be produced in response to an initial exposure to an antigen, making it an important part of the body's primary immune response. IgM antibodies are large molecules that are composed of five basic units, giving them a pentameric structure. They are primarily found on the surface of B cells as membrane-bound immunoglobulins (mlgM), where they function as receptors for antigens. Once an mlgM receptor binds to an antigen, it triggers the activation and differentiation of the B cell into a plasma cell that produces and secretes large amounts of soluble IgM antibodies.

IgM antibodies are particularly effective at agglutination (clumping) and complement activation, which makes them important in the early stages of an immune response to help clear pathogens from the bloodstream. However, they are not as stable or long-lived as other types of antibodies, such as IgG, and their levels tend to decline after the initial immune response has occurred.

In summary, Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is a type of antibody that plays a crucial role in the primary immune response to antigens by agglutination and complement activation. It is primarily found in the blood and lymph fluid, and it is produced by B cells after they are activated by an antigen.

Cell division is the process by which a single eukaryotic cell (a cell with a true nucleus) divides into two identical daughter cells. This complex process involves several stages, including replication of DNA, separation of chromosomes, and division of the cytoplasm. There are two main types of cell division: mitosis and meiosis.

Mitosis is the type of cell division that results in two genetically identical daughter cells. It is a fundamental process for growth, development, and tissue repair in multicellular organisms. The stages of mitosis include prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase, followed by cytokinesis, which divides the cytoplasm.

Meiosis, on the other hand, is a type of cell division that occurs in the gonads (ovaries and testes) during the production of gametes (sex cells). Meiosis results in four genetically unique daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. This process is essential for sexual reproduction and genetic diversity. The stages of meiosis include meiosis I and meiosis II, which are further divided into prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.

In summary, cell division is the process by which a single cell divides into two daughter cells, either through mitosis or meiosis. This process is critical for growth, development, tissue repair, and sexual reproduction in multicellular organisms.

I'm having a bit of difficulty understanding the specific term you're asking about, as "Rats, Inbred ACI" doesn't seem to be a standardized nomenclature in the field of medical or biological sciences. However, I can provide some information that might help you understand this term better.

"Inbred" refers to a strain of animals that have been produced by mating individuals that are closely related over many generations. This results in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci, meaning that the same allele (version of a gene) is present on both copies of the chromosome.

"ACI" is an abbreviation for August Copenhagen Irish, which is a strain of laboratory rats that were developed in the 1920s by crossing several different rat stocks. The ACI rat strain is known for its low incidence of spontaneous tumors and other diseases, making it a popular choice for biomedical research.

Therefore, "Inbred ACI" likely refers to a specific strain of laboratory rats that are genetically identical to each other due to inbreeding, and which belong to the ACI rat strain. However, I would recommend consulting the original source or contacting an expert in the field to confirm this interpretation.

Antifungal agents are a type of medication used to treat and prevent fungal infections. These agents work by targeting and disrupting the growth of fungi, which include yeasts, molds, and other types of fungi that can cause illness in humans.

There are several different classes of antifungal agents, including:

1. Azoles: These agents work by inhibiting the synthesis of ergosterol, a key component of fungal cell membranes. Examples of azole antifungals include fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole.
2. Echinocandins: These agents target the fungal cell wall, disrupting its synthesis and leading to fungal cell death. Examples of echinocandins include caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin.
3. Polyenes: These agents bind to ergosterol in the fungal cell membrane, creating pores that lead to fungal cell death. Examples of polyene antifungals include amphotericin B and nystatin.
4. Allylamines: These agents inhibit squalene epoxidase, a key enzyme in ergosterol synthesis. Examples of allylamine antifungals include terbinafine and naftifine.
5. Griseofulvin: This agent disrupts fungal cell division by binding to tubulin, a protein involved in fungal cell mitosis.

Antifungal agents can be administered topically, orally, or intravenously, depending on the severity and location of the infection. It is important to use antifungal agents only as directed by a healthcare professional, as misuse or overuse can lead to resistance and make treatment more difficult.

Membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN) is a kidney disorder that leads to the inflammation and damage of the glomeruli, which are the tiny blood vessels in the kidneys responsible for filtering waste and excess fluids from the blood. In MGN, the membrane that surrounds the glomerular capillaries becomes thickened and damaged due to the deposit of immune complexes, primarily composed of antibodies and antigens.

The onset of membranous glomerulonephritis can be either primary (idiopathic) or secondary to various underlying conditions such as autoimmune diseases (like systemic lupus erythematosus), infections (hepatitis B or C, syphilis, endocarditis), medications, or malignancies.

The symptoms of membranous glomerulonephritis may include:

1. Proteinuria - the presence of excess protein, specifically albumin, in the urine. This can lead to nephrotic syndrome, characterized by heavy protein loss in urine, edema (swelling), hypoalbuminemia (low blood albumin levels), and hyperlipidemia (high blood lipid levels).
2. Hematuria - the presence of red blood cells in the urine, which can be visible or microscopic.
3. Hypertension - high blood pressure.
4. Edema - swelling in various body parts due to fluid retention.
5. Nephrotic range proteinuria (protein loss greater than 3.5 grams per day) and/or nephritic syndrome (a combination of hematuria, proteinuria, hypertension, and kidney dysfunction) can be observed in some cases.

The diagnosis of membranous glomerulonephritis typically involves a thorough medical history, physical examination, urinalysis, blood tests, and imaging studies. A definitive diagnosis often requires a kidney biopsy to assess the glomerular structure and the nature of the immune complex deposits. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and severity of the disease and may include corticosteroids, immunosuppressants, blood pressure management, and supportive care for symptoms like edema and proteinuria.

Virus replication is the process by which a virus produces copies or reproduces itself inside a host cell. This involves several steps:

1. Attachment: The virus attaches to a specific receptor on the surface of the host cell.
2. Penetration: The viral genetic material enters the host cell, either by invagination of the cell membrane or endocytosis.
3. Uncoating: The viral genetic material is released from its protective coat (capsid) inside the host cell.
4. Replication: The viral genetic material uses the host cell's machinery to produce new viral components, such as proteins and nucleic acids.
5. Assembly: The newly synthesized viral components are assembled into new virus particles.
6. Release: The newly formed viruses are released from the host cell, often through lysis (breaking) of the cell membrane or by budding off the cell membrane.

The specific mechanisms and details of virus replication can vary depending on the type of virus. Some viruses, such as DNA viruses, use the host cell's DNA polymerase to replicate their genetic material, while others, such as RNA viruses, use their own RNA-dependent RNA polymerase or reverse transcriptase enzymes. Understanding the process of virus replication is important for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

Gynostemma is not a medical term itself, but it's the name of a plant species also known as Gynostemma pentaphyllum. This plant, native to parts of Asia, has been used in traditional medicine for various purposes, including promoting longevity and treating various health conditions such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer.

The main active component in Gynostemma is a group of substances called saponins, specifically gypenosides. These compounds have been studied for their potential health benefits, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immune-boosting effects. However, more research is needed to fully understand the medicinal properties and safety of Gynostemma.

It's important to note that while some natural products containing Gynostemma are marketed for various health purposes, they should not be used as a substitute for medical treatment or consultation with a healthcare professional.

Hemorrhagic fever, American is a group of viral diseases that are transmitted to humans by infected ticks, mosquitoes or rodents. The most common types of American hemorrhagic fevers include:

1. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS): It is caused by Sin Nombre virus and is transmitted to humans through inhalation of aerosolized urine, droppings or saliva of infected rodents.
2. Colorado Tick Fever (CTF): It is caused by a Coltivirus and is transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected tick.
3. Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis (VEE): It is caused by an Alphavirus and is transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected mosquito.
4. Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE) and Western Equine Encephalitis (WEE): They are also caused by Alphaviruses and are transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected mosquito.

These diseases are called hemorrhagic fevers because they are characterized by bleeding disorders, high fever, muscle and joint pain, headache, and fatigue. In severe cases, they can lead to shock, organ failure, and death. There are no specific treatments for these diseases, but early detection and supportive care can improve outcomes. Prevention measures include avoiding contact with rodents, using insect repellent, and wearing protective clothing in areas where the diseases are common.

Multivariate analysis is a statistical method used to examine the relationship between multiple independent variables and a dependent variable. It allows for the simultaneous examination of the effects of two or more independent variables on an outcome, while controlling for the effects of other variables in the model. This technique can be used to identify patterns, associations, and interactions among multiple variables, and is commonly used in medical research to understand complex health outcomes and disease processes. Examples of multivariate analysis methods include multiple regression, factor analysis, cluster analysis, and discriminant analysis.

Lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM) is a viral infectious disease caused by the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). The infection primarily affects the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord (meninges), as well as the cerebrospinal fluid, brain, and spinal cord tissue. It is transmitted to humans through close contact with infected rodents, particularly the house mouse (Mus musculus) or its urine, feces, saliva, or nesting materials.

The symptoms of LCM can vary widely but often include fever, severe headache, stiff neck, sensitivity to light, and sometimes vomiting. In some cases, it may also cause muscle aches, joint pain, and rash. A more severe form of the disease can affect the brain and spinal cord, causing confusion, seizures, or even long-term neurological damage.

LCM is typically diagnosed based on symptoms, laboratory tests, and detection of LCMV in cerebrospinal fluid or blood. Treatment usually involves supportive care to manage symptoms, as there is no specific antiviral therapy available for this infection. Most people with LCM recover completely within a few weeks, but severe cases may require hospitalization and intensive care support.

Preventive measures include avoiding contact with rodents, especially their urine, feces, and saliva, and maintaining good hygiene practices such as washing hands thoroughly after handling animals or being in areas where rodents might be present.

Histocompatibility antigens Class II are a group of cell surface proteins that play a crucial role in the immune system's response to foreign substances. They are expressed on the surface of various cells, including immune cells such as B lymphocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, and activated T lymphocytes.

Class II histocompatibility antigens are encoded by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II genes, which are located on chromosome 6 in humans. These antigens are composed of two non-covalently associated polypeptide chains, an alpha (α) and a beta (β) chain, which form a heterodimer. There are three main types of Class II histocompatibility antigens, known as HLA-DP, HLA-DQ, and HLA-DR.

Class II histocompatibility antigens present peptide antigens to CD4+ T helper cells, which then activate other immune cells, such as B cells and macrophages, to mount an immune response against the presented antigen. Because of their role in initiating an immune response, Class II histocompatibility antigens are important in transplantation medicine, where mismatches between donor and recipient can lead to rejection of the transplanted organ or tissue.

Fungal lung diseases, also known as fungal pneumonia or mycoses, refer to a group of respiratory disorders caused by the infection of fungi in the lungs. These fungi are commonly found in the environment, such as soil, decaying organic matter, and contaminated materials. People can develop lung diseases from fungi after inhaling spores or particles that contain fungi.

There are several types of fungal lung diseases, including:

1. Aspergillosis: This is caused by the Aspergillus fungus and can affect people with weakened immune systems. It can cause allergic reactions, lung infections, or invasive aspergillosis, which can spread to other organs.
2. Cryptococcosis: This is caused by the Cryptococcus fungus and is usually found in soil contaminated with bird droppings. It can cause pneumonia, meningitis, or skin lesions.
3. Histoplasmosis: This is caused by the Histoplasma capsulatum fungus and is commonly found in the Ohio and Mississippi River valleys. It can cause flu-like symptoms, lung infections, or disseminated histoplasmosis, which can spread to other organs.
4. Blastomycosis: This is caused by the Blastomyces dermatitidis fungus and is commonly found in the southeastern and south-central United States. It can cause pneumonia, skin lesions, or disseminated blastomycosis, which can spread to other organs.
5. Coccidioidomycosis: This is caused by the Coccidioides immitis fungus and is commonly found in the southwestern United States. It can cause flu-like symptoms, lung infections, or disseminated coccidioidomycosis, which can spread to other organs.

Fungal lung diseases can range from mild to severe, depending on the type of fungus and the person's immune system. Treatment may include antifungal medications, surgery, or supportive care. Prevention measures include avoiding exposure to contaminated soil or dust, wearing protective masks in high-risk areas, and promptly seeking medical attention if symptoms develop.

CD11b, also known as integrin αM or Mac-1, is not an antigen itself but a protein that forms part of a family of cell surface receptors called integrins. These integrins play a crucial role in various biological processes, including cell adhesion, migration, and signaling.

CD11b combines with CD18 (integrin β2) to form the heterodimeric integrin αMβ2, also known as Mac-1 or CR3 (complement receptor 3). This integrin is primarily expressed on the surface of myeloid cells, such as monocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils.

As an integral part of the immune system, CD11b/CD18 recognizes and binds to various ligands, including:

1. Icosahedral bacterial components like lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and peptidoglycans
2. Fragments of complement component C3b (iC3b)
3. Fibrinogen and other extracellular matrix proteins
4. Certain immune cell receptors, such as ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule 1)

The binding of CD11b/CD18 to these ligands triggers various intracellular signaling pathways that regulate the immune response and inflammation. In this context, antigens are substances (usually proteins or polysaccharides) found on the surface of cells, viruses, or bacteria that can be recognized by the immune system. CD11b/CD18 plays a role in recognizing and responding to these antigens during an immune response.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "pilot projects" is not a medical term per se. Instead, it is a general term used in various fields, including healthcare and medicine, to describe a small-scale initiative that is implemented on a temporary basis to evaluate its feasibility, effectiveness, or impact before deciding whether to expand or continue it.

In the context of healthcare, pilot projects might involve testing new treatment protocols, implementing innovative care models, or introducing technology solutions in a limited setting to assess their potential benefits and drawbacks. The results of these projects can help inform decisions about broader implementation and provide valuable insights for improving the quality and efficiency of healthcare services.

Adenoviridae infections refer to diseases caused by members of the Adenoviridae family of viruses, which are non-enveloped, double-stranded DNA viruses. These viruses can infect a wide range of hosts, including humans, animals, and birds. In humans, adenovirus infections can cause a variety of symptoms, depending on the specific type of virus and the age and immune status of the infected individual.

Common manifestations of adenovirus infections in humans include:

1. Respiratory illness: Adenoviruses are a common cause of respiratory tract infections, such as bronchitis, pneumonia, and croup. They can also cause conjunctivitis (pink eye) and pharyngoconjunctival fever.
2. Gastrointestinal illness: Some types of adenoviruses can cause diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain, particularly in children and immunocompromised individuals.
3. Genitourinary illness: Adenoviruses have been associated with urinary tract infections, hemorrhagic cystitis, and nephritis.
4. Eye infections: Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis is a severe form of conjunctivitis caused by certain adenovirus types.
5. Central nervous system infections: Adenoviruses have been linked to meningitis, encephalitis, and other neurological disorders, although these are rare.

Transmission of adenoviruses typically occurs through respiratory droplets, contaminated surfaces, or contaminated water. Preventive measures include good hygiene practices, such as handwashing and avoiding close contact with infected individuals. There is no specific treatment for adenovirus infections, but supportive care can help alleviate symptoms. In severe cases or in immunocompromised patients, antiviral therapy may be considered.

Dexamethasone is a type of corticosteroid medication, which is a synthetic version of a natural hormone produced by the adrenal glands. It is often used to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system in a variety of medical conditions, including allergies, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, and certain skin conditions.

Dexamethasone works by binding to specific receptors in cells, which triggers a range of anti-inflammatory effects. These include reducing the production of chemicals that cause inflammation, suppressing the activity of immune cells, and stabilizing cell membranes.

In addition to its anti-inflammatory effects, dexamethasone can also be used to treat other medical conditions, such as certain types of cancer, brain swelling, and adrenal insufficiency. It is available in a variety of forms, including tablets, liquids, creams, and injectable solutions.

Like all medications, dexamethasone can have side effects, particularly if used for long periods of time or at high doses. These may include mood changes, increased appetite, weight gain, acne, thinning skin, easy bruising, and an increased risk of infections. It is important to follow the instructions of a healthcare provider when taking dexamethasone to minimize the risk of side effects.

Neoplasm transplantation is not a recognized or established medical procedure in the field of oncology. The term "neoplasm" refers to an abnormal growth of cells, which can be benign or malignant (cancerous). "Transplantation" typically refers to the surgical transfer of living cells, tissues, or organs from one part of the body to another or between individuals.

The concept of neoplasm transplantation may imply the transfer of cancerous cells or tissues from a donor to a recipient, which is not a standard practice due to ethical considerations and the potential harm it could cause to the recipient. In some rare instances, researchers might use laboratory animals to study the transmission and growth of human cancer cells, but this is done for scientific research purposes only and under strict regulatory guidelines.

In summary, there is no medical definition for 'Neoplasm Transplantation' as it does not represent a standard or ethical medical practice.

Sclerosing cholangitis is a chronic progressive disease characterized by inflammation and scarring (fibrosis) of the bile ducts, leading to their narrowing or obstruction. This results in impaired bile flow from the liver to the small intestine, which can cause damage to the liver cells and eventually result in cirrhosis and liver failure.

The condition often affects both the intrahepatic (within the liver) and extrahepatic (outside the liver) bile ducts. The exact cause of sclerosing cholangitis is not known, but it is believed to involve an autoimmune response, genetic predisposition, and environmental factors.

Symptoms of sclerosing cholangitis may include jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), itching, abdominal pain, fatigue, weight loss, dark urine, and light-colored stools. The diagnosis is typically made through imaging tests such as magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), which can visualize the bile ducts and detect any abnormalities.

Treatment for sclerosing cholangitis is aimed at managing symptoms, preventing complications, and slowing down the progression of the disease. This may include medications to relieve itching, antibiotics to treat infections, and drugs to reduce inflammation and improve bile flow. In severe cases, a liver transplant may be necessary.

Photosensitivity disorders refer to conditions that cause an abnormal reaction to sunlight or artificial light. This reaction can take the form of various skin changes, such as rashes, inflammation, or pigmentation, and in some cases, it can also lead to systemic symptoms like fatigue, fever, or joint pain.

The two main types of photosensitivity disorders are:

1. Phototoxic reactions: These occur when a substance (such as certain medications, chemicals, or plants) absorbs light energy and transfers it to skin cells, causing damage and inflammation. The reaction typically appears within 24 hours of exposure to the light source and can resemble a sunburn.

2. Photoallergic reactions: These occur when the immune system responds to the combination of light and a particular substance, leading to an allergic response. The reaction may not appear until several days after initial exposure and can cause redness, itching, and blistering.

It is important for individuals with photosensitivity disorders to avoid excessive sun exposure, wear protective clothing, and use broad-spectrum sunscreens with a high SPF rating to minimize the risk of phototoxic or photoallergic reactions.

Viral eye infections are caused by viruses that invade different parts of the eye, leading to inflammation and irritation. Some common types of viral eye infections include conjunctivitis (pink eye), keratitis, and dendritic ulcers. These infections can cause symptoms such as redness, watering, soreness, sensitivity to light, and discharge. In some cases, viral eye infections can also lead to complications like corneal scarring and vision loss if left untreated. They are often highly contagious and can spread through contact with contaminated surfaces or respiratory droplets. Antiviral medications may be used to treat certain types of viral eye infections, but in many cases, the infection will resolve on its own over time. Preventive measures such as good hygiene and avoiding touching the eyes can help reduce the risk of viral eye infections.

Delayed graft function (DGF) is a term used in the medical field, particularly in transplant medicine. It refers to a situation where a transplanted organ, most commonly a kidney, fails to function normally immediately after the transplantation procedure. This failure to function occurs within the first week after the transplant and is usually associated with poor urine output and elevated levels of creatinine in the blood.

DGF can be caused by several factors, including pre-existing conditions in the recipient, such as diabetes or hypertension, poor quality of the donor organ, or complications during the surgery. It may also result from the immune system's reaction to the transplanted organ, known as rejection.

In many cases, DGF can be managed with medical interventions, such as administering medications to help reduce inflammation and improve blood flow to the organ. However, in some instances, it may lead to more severe complications, including acute or chronic rejection of the transplanted organ, which could require additional treatments or even another transplant.

It's important to note that not all cases of DGF lead to long-term complications, and many patients with DGF can still go on to have successful transplants with proper management and care.

Immunological models are simplified representations or simulations of the immune system's structure, function, and interactions with pathogens or other entities. These models can be theoretical (conceptual), mathematical, or computational and are used to understand, explain, and predict immunological phenomena. They help researchers study complex immune processes and responses that cannot be easily observed or manipulated in vivo.

Theoretical immunological models provide conceptual frameworks for understanding immune system behavior, often using diagrams or flowcharts to illustrate interactions between immune components. Mathematical models use mathematical equations to describe immune system dynamics, allowing researchers to simulate and analyze the outcomes of various scenarios. Computational models, also known as in silico models, are created using computer software and can incorporate both theoretical and mathematical concepts to create detailed simulations of immunological processes.

Immunological models are essential tools for advancing our understanding of the immune system and developing new therapies and vaccines. They enable researchers to test hypotheses, explore the implications of different assumptions, and identify areas requiring further investigation.

Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active (HAART) is a medical treatment regimen used to manage HIV infection. It involves the combination of three or more antiretroviral drugs from at least two different classes, aiming to maximally suppress viral replication and prevent the development of drug resistance. The goal of HAART is to reduce the amount of HIV in the body to undetectable levels, preserve immune function, and improve quality of life for people living with HIV. Commonly used antiretroviral classes include nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), protease inhibitors (PIs), integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs), and fusion inhibitors.

CD86 is a type of protein found on the surface of certain immune cells called antigen-presenting cells (APCs), such as dendritic cells, macrophages, and B cells. These proteins are known as co-stimulatory molecules and play an important role in activating T cells, a type of white blood cell that is crucial for adaptive immunity.

When APCs encounter a pathogen or foreign substance, they engulf it, break it down into smaller peptides, and display these peptides on their surface in conjunction with another protein called the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecule. This presentation of antigenic peptides to T cells is not sufficient to activate them fully. Instead, APCs must also provide a co-stimulatory signal through interactions between co-stimulatory molecules like CD86 and receptors on the surface of T cells, such as CD28.

CD86 binds to its receptor CD28 on T cells, providing a critical second signal that promotes T cell activation, proliferation, and differentiation into effector cells. This interaction is essential for the development of an effective immune response against pathogens or foreign substances. In addition to its role in activating T cells, CD86 also helps regulate immune tolerance by contributing to the suppression of self-reactive T cells that could otherwise attack the body's own tissues and cause autoimmune diseases.

Overall, CD86 is an important player in the regulation of the immune response, helping to ensure that T cells are activated appropriately in response to pathogens or foreign substances while also contributing to the maintenance of self-tolerance.

Kidney function tests (KFTs) are a group of diagnostic tests that evaluate how well your kidneys are functioning by measuring the levels of various substances in the blood and urine. The tests typically assess the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), which is an indicator of how efficiently the kidneys filter waste from the blood, as well as the levels of electrolytes, waste products, and proteins in the body.

Some common KFTs include:

1. Serum creatinine: A waste product that's produced by normal muscle breakdown and is excreted by the kidneys. Elevated levels may indicate reduced kidney function.
2. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN): Another waste product that's produced when protein is broken down and excreted by the kidneys. Increased BUN levels can suggest impaired kidney function.
3. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR): A calculation based on serum creatinine, age, sex, and race that estimates the GFR and provides a more precise assessment of kidney function than creatinine alone.
4. Urinalysis: An examination of a urine sample to detect abnormalities such as protein, blood, or bacteria that may indicate kidney disease.
5. Electrolyte levels: Measurement of sodium, potassium, chloride, and bicarbonate in the blood to ensure they're properly balanced, which is essential for normal kidney function.

KFTs are often ordered as part of a routine check-up or when kidney disease is suspected based on symptoms or other diagnostic tests. Regular monitoring of kidney function can help detect and manage kidney disease early, potentially preventing or slowing down its progression.

Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody (ANCA)-Associated Vasculitis (AAV) is a group of autoimmune diseases characterized by inflammation and damage to small blood vessels, particularly capillaries, venules, and arterioles. The condition is named after the presence of ANCAs in the patient's serum, which are autoantibodies that target specific proteins in the neutrophil cytoplasm.

AAV includes several subtypes, including:

1. Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (GPA, formerly known as Wegener's granulomatosis) - a form of AAV that typically affects the respiratory tract and kidneys, characterized by the presence of granulomas (clusters of inflammatory cells).
2. Microscopic Polyangiitis (MPA) - a form of AAV that primarily affects small vessels in various organs, such as the kidneys, lungs, and skin.
3. Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (EGPA, formerly known as Churg-Strauss syndrome) - a form of AAV that involves asthma, allergies, and eosinophilia (an increased number of eosinophils in the blood), along with vasculitis affecting various organs.

The exact cause of ANCA-Associated Vasculitis is not fully understood, but it is believed to involve an interplay between genetic factors, environmental triggers, and dysregulation of the immune system. The condition can lead to a wide range of symptoms depending on which organs are affected, including fever, fatigue, weight loss, joint pain, skin rashes, cough, shortness of breath, nosebleeds, and kidney problems. Treatment typically involves immunosuppressive medications to control inflammation and prevent further damage to the affected organs.

"Cell count" is a medical term that refers to the process of determining the number of cells present in a given volume or sample of fluid or tissue. This can be done through various laboratory methods, such as counting individual cells under a microscope using a specialized grid called a hemocytometer, or using automated cell counters that use light scattering and electrical impedance techniques to count and classify different types of cells.

Cell counts are used in a variety of medical contexts, including hematology (the study of blood and blood-forming tissues), microbiology (the study of microscopic organisms), and pathology (the study of diseases and their causes). For example, a complete blood count (CBC) is a routine laboratory test that includes a white blood cell (WBC) count, red blood cell (RBC) count, hemoglobin level, hematocrit value, and platelet count. Abnormal cell counts can indicate the presence of various medical conditions, such as infections, anemia, or leukemia.

Membrane glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to their polypeptide backbone. They are integral components of biological membranes, spanning the lipid bilayer and playing crucial roles in various cellular processes.

The glycosylation of these proteins occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus during protein folding and trafficking. The attached glycans can vary in structure, length, and composition, which contributes to the diversity of membrane glycoproteins.

Membrane glycoproteins can be classified into two main types based on their orientation within the lipid bilayer:

1. Type I (N-linked): These glycoproteins have a single transmembrane domain and an extracellular N-terminus, where the oligosaccharides are predominantly attached via asparagine residues (Asn-X-Ser/Thr sequon).
2. Type II (C-linked): These glycoproteins possess two transmembrane domains and an intracellular C-terminus, with the oligosaccharides linked to tryptophan residues via a mannose moiety.

Membrane glycoproteins are involved in various cellular functions, such as:

* Cell adhesion and recognition
* Receptor-mediated signal transduction
* Enzymatic catalysis
* Transport of molecules across membranes
* Cell-cell communication
* Immunological responses

Some examples of membrane glycoproteins include cell surface receptors (e.g., growth factor receptors, cytokine receptors), adhesion molecules (e.g., integrins, cadherins), and transporters (e.g., ion channels, ABC transporters).

Erythrocytes, also known as red blood cells (RBCs), are the most common type of blood cell in circulating blood in mammals. They are responsible for transporting oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs.

Erythrocytes are formed in the bone marrow and have a biconcave shape, which allows them to fold and bend easily as they pass through narrow blood vessels. They do not have a nucleus or mitochondria, which makes them more flexible but also limits their ability to reproduce or repair themselves.

In humans, erythrocytes are typically disc-shaped and measure about 7 micrometers in diameter. They contain the protein hemoglobin, which binds to oxygen and gives blood its red color. The lifespan of an erythrocyte is approximately 120 days, after which it is broken down in the liver and spleen.

Abnormalities in erythrocyte count or function can lead to various medical conditions, such as anemia, polycythemia, and sickle cell disease.

CD8 antigens are a type of protein found on the surface of certain immune cells called cytotoxic T lymphocytes or cytotoxic T cells. These cells play a critical role in the adaptive immune response, which is the specific and targeted response of the immune system to foreign substances (antigens) that invade the body.

CD8 antigens help cytotoxic T cells recognize and respond to infected or abnormal cells, such as those that have been infected by a virus or have become cancerous. When a cytotoxic T cell encounters a cell displaying a specific antigen bound to a CD8 molecule, it becomes activated and releases toxic substances that can kill the target cell.

CD8 antigens are also known as cluster of differentiation 8 antigens or CD8 receptors. They belong to a larger family of proteins called major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC class I) molecules, which present antigens to T cells and play a crucial role in the immune system's ability to distinguish between self and non-self.

Signal transduction is the process by which a cell converts an extracellular signal, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter, into an intracellular response. This involves a series of molecular events that transmit the signal from the cell surface to the interior of the cell, ultimately resulting in changes in gene expression, protein activity, or metabolism.

The process typically begins with the binding of the extracellular signal to a receptor located on the cell membrane. This binding event activates the receptor, which then triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling molecules, such as second messengers, protein kinases, and ion channels. These molecules amplify and propagate the signal, ultimately leading to the activation or inhibition of specific cellular responses.

Signal transduction pathways are highly regulated and can be modulated by various factors, including other signaling molecules, post-translational modifications, and feedback mechanisms. Dysregulation of these pathways has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Bone marrow cells are the types of cells found within the bone marrow, which is the spongy tissue inside certain bones in the body. The main function of bone marrow is to produce blood cells. There are two types of bone marrow: red and yellow. Red bone marrow is where most blood cell production takes place, while yellow bone marrow serves as a fat storage site.

The three main types of bone marrow cells are:

1. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs): These are immature cells that can differentiate into any type of blood cell, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. They have the ability to self-renew, meaning they can divide and create more hematopoietic stem cells.
2. Red blood cell progenitors: These are immature cells that will develop into mature red blood cells, also known as erythrocytes. Red blood cells carry oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and carbon dioxide back to the lungs.
3. Myeloid and lymphoid white blood cell progenitors: These are immature cells that will develop into various types of white blood cells, which play a crucial role in the body's immune system by fighting infections and diseases. Myeloid progenitors give rise to granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils), monocytes, and megakaryocytes (which eventually become platelets). Lymphoid progenitors differentiate into B cells, T cells, and natural killer (NK) cells.

Bone marrow cells are essential for maintaining a healthy blood cell count and immune system function. Abnormalities in bone marrow cells can lead to various medical conditions, such as anemia, leukopenia, leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, or thrombocytosis, depending on the specific type of blood cell affected. Additionally, bone marrow cells are often used in transplantation procedures to treat patients with certain types of cancer, such as leukemia and lymphoma, or other hematologic disorders.

Gene transfer techniques, also known as gene therapy, refer to medical procedures where genetic material is introduced into an individual's cells or tissues to treat or prevent diseases. This can be achieved through various methods:

1. **Viral Vectors**: The most common method uses modified viruses, such as adenoviruses, retroviruses, or lentiviruses, to carry the therapeutic gene into the target cells. The virus infects the cell and inserts the new gene into the cell's DNA.

2. **Non-Viral Vectors**: These include methods like electroporation (using electric fields to create pores in the cell membrane), gene guns (shooting gold particles coated with DNA into cells), or liposomes (tiny fatty bubbles that can enclose DNA).

3. **Direct Injection**: In some cases, the therapeutic gene can be directly injected into a specific tissue or organ.

The goal of gene transfer techniques is to supplement or replace a faulty gene with a healthy one, thereby correcting the genetic disorder. However, these techniques are still largely experimental and have their own set of challenges, including potential immune responses, issues with accurate targeting, and risks of mutations or cancer development.

Splenomegaly is a medical term that refers to an enlargement or expansion of the spleen beyond its normal size. The spleen is a vital organ located in the upper left quadrant of the abdomen, behind the stomach and below the diaphragm. It plays a crucial role in filtering the blood, fighting infections, and storing red and white blood cells and platelets.

Splenomegaly can occur due to various underlying medical conditions, including infections, liver diseases, blood disorders, cancer, and inflammatory diseases. The enlarged spleen may put pressure on surrounding organs, causing discomfort or pain in the abdomen, and it may also lead to a decrease in red and white blood cells and platelets, increasing the risk of anemia, infections, and bleeding.

The diagnosis of splenomegaly typically involves a physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, surgery, or other interventions to manage the underlying condition.

"Hairless mice" is a term used to describe strains of laboratory mice that lack a functional fur coat. This condition is also known as "nude mice." The hairlessness in these mice is caused by a genetic mutation that results in the absence or underdevelopment of hair follicles and a weakened immune system.

Hairless mice are often used in scientific research because their impaired immune systems make them more susceptible to certain diseases, allowing researchers to study the progression and treatment of those conditions in a controlled environment. Additionally, their lack of fur makes it easier to observe and monitor skin conditions and wounds. These mice are also used as models for human diseases such as cancer, AIDS, and autoimmune disorders.

Cutaneous tuberculosis (CTB) is a rare form of tuberculosis that affects the skin. It is caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, including M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, and M. africanum. CTB can occur as a primary infection after direct inoculation of the skin with the bacteria, or it can be secondary to a distant focus of infection such as lung or lymph node TB.

The clinical presentation of CTB is varied and can include papules, nodules, pustules, ulcers, plaques, or scaly lesions. The lesions may be painless or painful, and they can be associated with systemic symptoms such as fever, night sweats, and weight loss.

CTB can be diagnosed through a combination of clinical examination, skin biopsy, culture, and PCR testing. Treatment typically involves a prolonged course of multiple antibiotics, often for six to nine months or more. The most commonly used drugs are isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide. Surgical excision may be necessary in some cases.

Prevention measures include early detection and treatment of pulmonary TB, BCG vaccination, and avoiding contact with people with active TB.

Methotrexate is a medication used in the treatment of certain types of cancer and autoimmune diseases. It is an antimetabolite that inhibits the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase, which is necessary for the synthesis of purines and pyrimidines, essential components of DNA and RNA. By blocking this enzyme, methotrexate interferes with cell division and growth, making it effective in treating rapidly dividing cells such as cancer cells.

In addition to its use in cancer treatment, methotrexate is also used to manage autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and inflammatory bowel disease. In these conditions, methotrexate modulates the immune system and reduces inflammation.

It's important to note that methotrexate can have significant side effects and should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider. Regular monitoring of blood counts, liver function, and kidney function is necessary during treatment with methotrexate.

A blood transfusion is a medical procedure in which blood or its components are transferred from one individual (donor) to another (recipient) through a vein. The donated blood can be fresh whole blood, packed red blood cells, platelets, plasma, or cryoprecipitate, depending on the recipient's needs. Blood transfusions are performed to replace lost blood due to severe bleeding, treat anemia, support patients undergoing major surgeries, or manage various medical conditions such as hemophilia, thalassemia, and leukemia. The donated blood must be carefully cross-matched with the recipient's blood type to minimize the risk of transfusion reactions.

Treatment failure is a term used in medicine to describe the situation when a prescribed treatment or intervention is not achieving the desired therapeutic goals or objectives. This may occur due to various reasons, such as:

1. Development of drug resistance by the pathogen or disease being treated.
2. Inadequate dosage or frequency of the medication.
3. Poor adherence or compliance to the treatment regimen by the patient.
4. The presence of underlying conditions or comorbidities that may affect the efficacy of the treatment.
5. The severity or progression of the disease despite appropriate treatment.

When treatment failure occurs, healthcare providers may need to reassess the patient's condition and modify the treatment plan accordingly, which may include adjusting the dosage, changing the medication, adding new medications, or considering alternative treatments.

Ultraviolet (UV) therapy, also known as phototherapy, is a medical treatment that uses ultraviolet light to treat various skin conditions. The UV light can be delivered through natural sunlight or artificial sources, such as specialized lamps or lasers.

In medical settings, controlled doses of UV light are used to target specific areas of the skin. The most common type of UV therapy is narrowband UVB (NB-UVB) phototherapy, which uses a specific wavelength of UVB light to treat conditions such as psoriasis, eczema, vitiligo, and dermatitis.

The goal of UV therapy is to reduce inflammation, slow skin cell growth, and improve the overall appearance of the skin. It is important to note that while UV therapy can be effective in treating certain skin conditions, it also carries risks such as skin aging and an increased risk of skin cancer. Therefore, it should only be administered under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional.

Organ preservation is a medical technique used to maintain the viability and functionality of an organ outside the body for a certain period, typically for transplantation purposes. This process involves cooling the organ to slow down its metabolic activity and prevent tissue damage, while using specialized solutions that help preserve the organ's structure and function. Commonly preserved organs include hearts, livers, kidneys, lungs, and pancreases. The goal of organ preservation is to ensure that the transplanted organ remains in optimal condition until it can be successfully implanted into a recipient.

Myasthenia Gravis is a long-term autoimmune neuromuscular disorder that leads to muscle weakness. It occurs when communication between nerves and muscles is disrupted at the nerve endings, resulting in fewer impulses being transmitted to activate the muscles. This results in muscle weakness and rapid fatigue. The condition can affect any voluntary muscle, but it most commonly affects muscles of the eyes, face, throat, and limbs. Symptoms may include drooping eyelids (ptosis), double vision (diplopia), difficulty swallowing, slurred speech, and weakness in the arms and legs. The severity of symptoms can vary greatly from person to person, ranging from mild to life-threatening.

The disorder is caused by an abnormal immune system response that produces antibodies against the acetylcholine receptors in the postsynaptic membrane of the neuromuscular junction. These antibodies block or destroy the receptors, which leads to a decrease in the number of available receptors for nerve impulses to activate the muscle fibers.

Myasthenia Gravis can be treated with medications that improve communication between nerves and muscles, such as cholinesterase inhibitors, immunosuppressants, and plasmapheresis or intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) to remove the harmful antibodies from the blood. With proper treatment, many people with Myasthenia Gravis can lead normal or nearly normal lives.

Arginase is an enzyme that plays a role in the metabolism of arginine, an amino acid. It works by breaking down arginine into ornithine and urea. This reaction is part of the urea cycle, which helps to rid the body of excess nitrogen waste produced during the metabolism of proteins. Arginase is found in various tissues throughout the body, including the liver, where it plays a key role in the detoxification of ammonia.

Sarcocystosis is a parasitic infection caused by the consumption of raw or undercooked meat containing Sarcocystis cysts. It can also occur in humans through the accidental ingestion of spores that are shed in feces of infected animals. The two main species that infect humans are S. hominis and S. suihominis, with S. hominis being transmitted via cattle and S. suihominis from pigs.

The infection typically occurs without symptoms (asymptomatic) but can sometimes cause mild to severe illness, depending on the species of the parasite and the immune status of the infected person. Symptoms may include muscle pain, weakness, fever, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and headache.

In rare cases, sarcocystosis can affect the central nervous system (neurocysticercosis) and cause neurological symptoms such as seizures, balance problems, and difficulty speaking or swallowing. In severe cases, it can lead to respiratory failure, kidney failure, or even death.

Diagnosis of sarcocystosis is usually made by identifying the parasite in tissue samples (biopsy) or through serological tests that detect antibodies against the parasite. Treatment typically involves supportive care and anti-parasitic medications such as trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, pyrimethamine, or nitazoxanide. Prevention measures include cooking meat thoroughly before consumption and practicing good hygiene when handling raw meat.

An antigen is any substance that can stimulate an immune response, particularly the production of antibodies. Viral antigens are antigens that are found on or produced by viruses. They can be proteins, glycoproteins, or carbohydrates present on the surface or inside the viral particle.

Viral antigens play a crucial role in the immune system's recognition and response to viral infections. When a virus infects a host cell, it may display its antigens on the surface of the infected cell. This allows the immune system to recognize and target the infected cells for destruction, thereby limiting the spread of the virus.

Viral antigens are also important targets for vaccines. Vaccines typically work by introducing a harmless form of a viral antigen to the body, which then stimulates the production of antibodies and memory T-cells that can recognize and respond quickly and effectively to future infections with the actual virus.

It's worth noting that different types of viruses have different antigens, and these antigens can vary between strains of the same virus. This is why there are often different vaccines available for different viral diseases, and why flu vaccines need to be updated every year to account for changes in the circulating influenza virus strains.

Tissue transplantation is a medical procedure where tissues from one part of the body or from another individual's body are removed and implanted in a recipient to replace damaged, diseased, or missing tissues. The tissues may include skin, bone, tendons, ligaments, heart valves, corneas, or even entire organs such as hearts, lungs, livers, and kidneys.

The donor tissue must be compatible with the recipient's body to reduce the risk of rejection, which is the immune system attacking and destroying the transplanted tissue. This often requires matching certain proteins called human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) found on the surface of most cells in the body.

Tissue transplantation can significantly improve a patient's quality of life or, in some cases, save their life. However, it does carry risks such as infection, bleeding, and rejection, which require careful monitoring and management.

Cell differentiation is the process by which a less specialized cell, or stem cell, becomes a more specialized cell type with specific functions and structures. This process involves changes in gene expression, which are regulated by various intracellular signaling pathways and transcription factors. Differentiation results in the development of distinct cell types that make up tissues and organs in multicellular organisms. It is a crucial aspect of embryonic development, tissue repair, and maintenance of homeostasis in the body.

Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation (PBSCT) is a medical procedure that involves the transplantation of stem cells, which are immature cells found in the bone marrow that can develop into different types of blood cells. In PBSCT, these stem cells are collected from the peripheral blood instead of directly from the bone marrow.

The process begins with mobilization, where a growth factor medication is given to the donor to stimulate the release of stem cells from the bone marrow into the peripheral blood. After several days, the donor's blood is then removed through a procedure called apheresis, where the stem cells are separated and collected while the remaining blood components are returned to the donor.

The collected stem cells are then infused into the recipient's bloodstream, where they migrate to the bone marrow and begin to repopulate, leading to the production of new blood cells. This procedure is often used as a treatment for various malignant and non-malignant disorders, such as leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and aplastic anemia.

PBSCT offers several advantages over traditional bone marrow transplantation, including faster engraftment, lower risk of graft failure, and reduced procedure-related morbidity. However, it also has its own set of challenges, such as the potential for increased incidence of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and the need for more stringent HLA matching between donor and recipient.

Dermatomycoses are a group of fungal infections that affect the skin, hair, and nails. These infections are caused by various types of fungi, including dermatophytes, yeasts, and molds. Dermatophyte infections, also known as tinea, are the most common type of dermatomycoses and can affect different areas of the body, such as the scalp (tinea capitis), beard (tinea barbae), body (tinea corporis), feet (tinea pedis or athlete's foot), hands (tinea manuum), and nails (tinea unguium or onychomycosis). Yeast infections, such as those caused by Candida albicans, can lead to conditions like candidal intertrigo, vulvovaginitis, and balanitis. Mold infections are less common but can cause skin disorders like scalded skin syndrome and phaeohyphomycosis. Dermatomycoses are typically treated with topical or oral antifungal medications.

Cytomegalovirus retinitis is a sight-threatening eye infection that affects the retina, which is the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye. It is caused by cytomegalovirus (CMV), a type of herpesvirus that can remain inactive in the body for years after initial infection.

In people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or those who have undergone organ transplantation, CMV can reactivate and cause serious complications. When it infects the retina, it can cause inflammation, hemorrhage, and necrosis (cell death), leading to vision loss.

Symptoms of CMV retinitis may include floaters, blurred vision, blind spots, or loss of peripheral vision. If left untreated, the infection can spread to other parts of the eye and cause further damage. Treatment typically involves antiviral medications that are given intravenously or in the form of eye drops. In some cases, laser surgery may be necessary to prevent the spread of the infection.

Marek's disease is a highly contagious viral infection that primarily affects chickens and other members of the Galliformes order (which includes turkeys, quails, and pheasants). The disease is caused by the alphaherpesvirus known as Gallid herpesvirus 2 or Marek's disease virus (MDV).

The infection primarily targets the chicken's immune system, leading to various clinical manifestations such as:

1. T-cell lymphomas (cancerous growths) in the peripheral nerves, visceral organs, and skin. These tumors can cause paralysis, especially in the legs, and affect the bird's mobility and overall health.
2. Enlarged, pale, or discolored spleens and livers due to the proliferation of infected lymphocytes.
3. Lesions on the feather follicles, skin, and eyes (such as iritis, conjunctivitis, and blindness) caused by viral replication in these areas.
4. Immunosuppression, which makes affected birds more susceptible to secondary bacterial or viral infections, leading to a decline in overall health and production.

Marek's disease is primarily transmitted through the inhalation of dust particles containing infected dander or feather follicle epithelium. The virus can also be spread via contaminated equipment, clothing, and transportation vehicles.

Vaccination is an effective method to control Marek's disease in commercial poultry operations. However, the continuous evolution of more virulent strains poses a challenge for long-term protection and eradication efforts.

CD28 is a co-stimulatory molecule that plays an important role in the activation and regulation of T cells, which are key players in the immune response. It is a type of protein found on the surface of T cells and interacts with other proteins called B7-1 (also known as CD80) and B7-2 (also known as CD86) that are expressed on the surface of antigen-presenting cells (APCs).

When a T cell encounters an APC that is presenting an antigen, the T cell receptor (TCR) on the surface of the T cell recognizes and binds to the antigen. However, this interaction alone is not enough to fully activate the T cell. The engagement of CD28 with B7-1 or B7-2 provides a critical co-stimulatory signal that promotes T cell activation, proliferation, and survival.

CD28 is also an important target for immune checkpoint inhibitors, which are drugs used to treat cancer by blocking the inhibitory signals that prevent T cells from attacking tumor cells. By blocking CD28, these drugs can enhance the anti-tumor response of T cells and improve cancer outcomes.

Genetic therapy, also known as gene therapy, is a medical intervention that involves the use of genetic material, such as DNA or RNA, to treat or prevent diseases. It works by introducing functional genes into cells to replace missing or faulty ones caused by genetic disorders or mutations. The introduced gene is incorporated into the recipient's genome, allowing for the production of a therapeutic protein that can help manage the disease symptoms or even cure the condition.

There are several approaches to genetic therapy, including:

1. Replacing a faulty gene with a healthy one
2. Inactivating or "silencing" a dysfunctional gene causing a disease
3. Introducing a new gene into the body to help fight off a disease, such as cancer

Genetic therapy holds great promise for treating various genetic disorders, including cystic fibrosis, muscular dystrophy, hemophilia, and certain types of cancer. However, it is still an evolving field with many challenges, such as efficient gene delivery, potential immune responses, and ensuring the safety and long-term effectiveness of the therapy.

HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) is a species of lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time, HIV infection can lead to AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome). This virus attacks the immune system, specifically the CD4 cells, also known as T cells, which are a type of white blood cell that helps coordinate the body's immune response. As HIV destroys these cells, the body becomes more vulnerable to other infections and diseases. It is primarily spread through bodily fluids like blood, semen, vaginal fluids, and breast milk.

It's important to note that while there is no cure for HIV, with proper medical care, HIV can be controlled. Treatment for HIV is called antiretroviral therapy (ART). If taken as prescribed, this medicine reduces the amount of HIV in the body to a very low level, which keeps the immune system working and prevents illness. This treatment also greatly reduces the risk of transmission.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Rabbits" is a common name used to refer to the Lagomorpha species, particularly members of the family Leporidae. They are small mammals known for their long ears, strong legs, and quick reproduction.

However, if you're referring to "rabbits" in a medical context, there is a term called "rabbit syndrome," which is a rare movement disorder characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements of the fingers, resembling those of a rabbit chewing. It is also known as "finger-chewing chorea." This condition is usually associated with certain medications, particularly antipsychotics, and typically resolves when the medication is stopped or adjusted.

Renal insufficiency, also known as kidney failure, is a medical condition in which the kidneys are unable to properly filter waste products and excess fluids from the blood. This results in a buildup of these substances in the body, which can cause a variety of symptoms such as weakness, shortness of breath, and fluid retention. Renal insufficiency can be acute, meaning it comes on suddenly, or chronic, meaning it develops over time. It is typically diagnosed through blood tests, urine tests, and imaging studies. Treatment may include medications to control symptoms, dietary changes, and in severe cases, dialysis or a kidney transplant.

Thymectomy is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of the thymus gland. The thymus gland is a part of the immune system located in the upper chest, behind the sternum (breastbone), and above the heart. It is responsible for producing white blood cells called T-lymphocytes, which help fight infections.

Thymectomy is often performed as a treatment option for patients with certain medical conditions, such as:

* Myasthenia gravis: an autoimmune disorder that causes muscle weakness and fatigue. In some cases, the thymus gland may contain abnormal cells that contribute to the development of myasthenia gravis. Removing the thymus gland can help improve symptoms in some patients with this condition.
* Thymomas: tumors that develop in the thymus gland. While most thymomas are benign (non-cancerous), some can be malignant (cancerous) and may require surgical removal.
* Myasthenic syndrome: a group of disorders characterized by muscle weakness and fatigue, similar to myasthenia gravis. In some cases, the thymus gland may be abnormal and contribute to the development of these conditions. Removing the thymus gland can help improve symptoms in some patients.

Thymectomy can be performed using various surgical approaches, including open surgery (through a large incision in the chest), video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS, using small incisions and a camera to guide the procedure), or robotic-assisted surgery (using a robot to perform the procedure through small incisions). The choice of surgical approach depends on several factors, including the size and location of the thymus gland, the patient's overall health, and the surgeon's expertise.

CD40 is a type of protein known as a tumor necrosis factor receptor that is found on the surface of various cells in the body, including B cells, dendritic cells, and activated T cells. It plays an important role in the immune system by interacting with another protein called CD154 (also known as CD40 ligand) to activate immune responses.

CD40 antigens are molecules that can stimulate an immune response when introduced into the body because they are recognized as foreign substances by the immune system. They may be used in vaccines or other immunotherapies to induce an immune response against specific targets, such as cancer cells or infectious agents.

CD40 antigens can also be found on some types of tumor cells, and activating CD40 with CD154 has been shown to enhance the anti-tumor immune response in preclinical models. Therefore, CD40 agonists are being investigated as potential cancer therapies.

In summary, CD40 antigens are proteins that can stimulate an immune response and are involved in activating immune cells. They have potential applications in vaccines, immunotherapies, and cancer treatments.

"Macaca mulatta" is the scientific name for the Rhesus macaque, a species of monkey that is native to South, Central, and Southeast Asia. They are often used in biomedical research due to their genetic similarity to humans.

Buruli ulcer is a neglected tropical disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium ulcerans. It mainly affects the skin and occasionally the bones and joints. The infection typically begins with a painless nodule or papule that may progress to a large, painful ulcer with undermined edges if left untreated. In severe cases, it can lead to permanent disfigurement and disability. Buruli ulcer is primarily found in rural areas of West and Central Africa, but also occurs in other parts of the world including Australia, Asia, and South America. It is transmitted through contact with contaminated water or soil, although the exact mode of transmission is not fully understood. Early diagnosis and treatment with antibiotics can cure the disease and prevent complications.

Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive type of skin cancer that originates from the uncontrolled growth of Merkel cells, which are specialized nerve cells found in the top layer of the skin (epidermis). These cells are responsible for touch sensation. MCC typically presents as a painless, firm, rapidly growing nodule or mass, often on sun-exposed areas such as the head, neck, and arms of older adults.

The primary risk factors for Merkel cell carcinoma include:

1. Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from sunlight or tanning beds
2. Advanced age (most commonly occurs in people over 50)
3. A weakened immune system due to conditions like HIV/AIDS, organ transplantation, or long-term use of immunosuppressive medications
4. History of other types of skin cancer, such as melanoma or basal cell carcinoma
5. Fair skin and light eye color

MCC is considered an aggressive cancer because it can spread quickly to nearby lymph nodes and other parts of the body (metastasize). The major prognostic factor for MCC is the presence or absence of lymph node involvement at the time of diagnosis. Early detection and treatment are crucial for improving outcomes.

Standard treatments for Merkel cell carcinoma include surgical excision, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Immunotherapy with drugs like avelumab has also shown promising results in treating advanced stages of MCC. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor for recurrence or metastasis.

Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are a type of immune cell that have migrated from the bloodstream into a tumor. They are primarily composed of T cells, B cells, and natural killer (NK) cells. TILs can be found in various types of solid tumors, and their presence and composition have been shown to correlate with patient prognosis and response to certain therapies.

TILs play a crucial role in the immune response against cancer, as they are able to recognize and kill cancer cells. They can also release cytokines and chemokines that attract other immune cells to the tumor site, enhancing the anti-tumor immune response. However, tumors can develop mechanisms to evade or suppress the immune response, including the suppression of TILs.

TILs have emerged as a promising target for cancer immunotherapy, with adoptive cell transfer (ACT) being one of the most widely studied approaches. In ACT, TILs are isolated from a patient's tumor, expanded in the laboratory, and then reinfused back into the patient to enhance their anti-tumor immune response. This approach has shown promising results in clinical trials for several types of cancer, including melanoma and cervical cancer.

Lymphoid tissue is a specialized type of connective tissue that is involved in the immune function of the body. It is composed of lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell), which are responsible for producing antibodies and destroying infected or cancerous cells. Lymphoid tissue can be found throughout the body, but it is particularly concentrated in certain areas such as the lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils, and Peyer's patches in the small intestine.

Lymphoid tissue provides a site for the activation, proliferation, and differentiation of lymphocytes, which are critical components of the adaptive immune response. It also serves as a filter for foreign particles, such as bacteria and viruses, that may enter the body through various routes. The lymphatic system, which includes lymphoid tissue, helps to maintain the health and integrity of the body by protecting it from infection and disease.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

Trypanosoma cruzi is a protozoan parasite that causes Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis. It's transmitted to humans and other mammals through the feces of triatomine bugs, often called "kissing bugs." The parasite can also be spread through contaminated food, drink, or from mother to baby during pregnancy or birth.

The life cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi involves two main forms: the infective metacyclic trypomastigote that is found in the bug's feces and the replicative intracellular amastigote that resides within host cells. The metacyclic trypomastigotes enter the host through mucous membranes or skin lesions, where they invade various types of cells and differentiate into amastigotes. These amastigotes multiply by binary fission and then differentiate back into trypomastigotes, which are released into the bloodstream when the host cell ruptures. The circulating trypomastigotes can then infect other cells or be taken up by another triatomine bug during a blood meal, continuing the life cycle.

Clinical manifestations of Chagas disease range from an acute phase with non-specific symptoms like fever, swelling, and fatigue to a chronic phase characterized by cardiac and gastrointestinal complications, which can develop decades after the initial infection. Early detection and treatment of Chagas disease are crucial for preventing long-term health consequences.

Risk assessment in the medical context refers to the process of identifying, evaluating, and prioritizing risks to patients, healthcare workers, or the community related to healthcare delivery. It involves determining the likelihood and potential impact of adverse events or hazards, such as infectious diseases, medication errors, or medical devices failures, and implementing measures to mitigate or manage those risks. The goal of risk assessment is to promote safe and high-quality care by identifying areas for improvement and taking action to minimize harm.

AIDS-related lymphoma (ARL) is a type of cancer that affects the lymphatic system and is associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). It is caused by the infection of the lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell, with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which weakens the immune system and makes individuals more susceptible to developing lymphoma.

There are two main types of AIDS-related lymphomas: diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and Burkitt lymphoma (BL). DLBCL is the most common type and tends to grow rapidly, while BL is a more aggressive form that can also spread quickly.

Symptoms of AIDS-related lymphoma may include swollen lymph nodes, fever, night sweats, fatigue, weight loss, and decreased appetite. Diagnosis typically involves a biopsy of the affected lymph node or other tissue, followed by various imaging tests to determine the extent of the disease.

Treatment for AIDS-related lymphoma usually involves a combination of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and/or immunotherapy, along with antiretroviral therapy (ART) to manage HIV infection. The prognosis for ARL varies depending on several factors, including the type and stage of the disease, the patient's overall health, and their response to treatment.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

HIV seropositivity is a term used to describe a positive result on an HIV antibody test. This means that the individual has developed antibodies against the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), indicating that they have been infected with the virus. However, it's important to note that this does not necessarily mean that the person has AIDS, as there can be a long period between HIV infection and the development of AIDS.

Immunologic adjuvants are substances that are added to a vaccine to enhance the body's immune response to the antigens contained in the vaccine. They work by stimulating the immune system and promoting the production of antibodies and activating immune cells, such as T-cells and macrophages, which help to provide a stronger and more sustained immune response to the vaccine.

Immunologic adjuvants can be derived from various sources, including bacteria, viruses, and chemicals. Some common examples include aluminum salts (alum), oil-in-water emulsions (such as MF59), and bacterial components (such as lipopolysaccharide or LPS).

The use of immunologic adjuvants in vaccines can help to improve the efficacy of the vaccine, particularly for vaccines that contain weak or poorly immunogenic antigens. They can also help to reduce the amount of antigen needed in a vaccine, which can be beneficial for vaccines that are difficult or expensive to produce.

It's important to note that while adjuvants can enhance the immune response to a vaccine, they can also increase the risk of adverse reactions, such as inflammation and pain at the injection site. Therefore, the use of immunologic adjuvants must be carefully balanced against their potential benefits and risks.

Tissue and organ procurement is the process of obtaining viable tissues and organs from deceased or living donors for the purpose of transplantation, research, or education. This procedure is performed by trained medical professionals in a sterile environment, adhering to strict medical standards and ethical guidelines. The tissues and organs that can be procured include hearts, lungs, livers, kidneys, pancreases, intestines, corneas, skin, bones, tendons, and heart valves. The process involves a thorough medical evaluation of the donor, as well as consent from the donor or their next of kin. After procurement, the tissues and organs are preserved and transported to recipients in need.

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Ellner JJ, Daniel TM (February 1979). "Immunosuppression by mycobacterial arabinomannan". Clinical and Experimental Immunology ...
Immunosuppression is sometimes used. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend pneumococcal, meningococcal, and ...
Heise ER (February 1982). "Diseases associated with immunosuppression". Environmental Health Perspectives. 43: 9-19. doi: ...
"Stress-mechanisms of immunosuppression." Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 30.1:89-109. 1996. Keeler, C. L., et al. " ...
Other bacteria are opportunistic pathogens and cause disease mainly in people with immunosuppression or cystic fibrosis. ... Heise E (1982). "Diseases associated with immunosuppression". Environ Health Perspect. 43: 9-19. doi:10.2307/3429162. JSTOR ...
January 2006). "Ultraviolet immunosuppression: Mechanisms and consequences". Dermatologic Clinics. 24 (1): 19-25. doi:10.1016/j ... immunosuppression, and eye damage, such as cataracts. The scale was developed by Canadian scientists in 1992, and then adopted ...
Usually, treatment will involve immunosuppression. Drugs used include: Cyclosporin A Tacrolimus Sirolimus Rituximab Currently, ...
Persons with immunosuppression (e.g., AIDS or organ transplant patients) are at higher risk for this cancer and may benefit ... Emergence of a painless lump that expands rapidly, especially among persons over age 50 or persons with immunosuppression, ...
... immunosuppression, Pneumocystis jirovecii...and the third man". Nature Reviews. Microbiology. 5 (12): 967. doi:10.1038/ ...
2005) "Immunosuppression threat" World Poultry. 21(2):18-22. Beach RH, Poulos C, Pattanayak SK (2007). "Farm economics of bird ... New studies show that stress is the number one cause of immunosuppression in birds. Stressors leave birds more susceptible to ...
First trachea transplant without immunosuppression , Eureka! Science News Anthony Hollander - University of Liverpool Webpage ...
Immunosuppression In rodents and fish. The LD50 of dioxin also varies wildly between species with the most notable disparity ...
Another risk factor is immunosuppression; most commonly, this includes allogeneic stem cell transplantation, prolonged ... there must be a degree of immunosuppression. The microbiological criteria are similar to those of invasive aspergillosis but ...
Ptak W, Gershon RK (1975). "Immunosuppression effected by macrophage surfaces". Journal of Immunology. 115 (5): 1346-50. doi: ...
"Intensive immunosuppression in progressive multiple sclerosis. A randomized, three-arm study of high-dose intravenous ...
Immunosuppression BK virus Behcet's Disease Discovery and development of mTOR inhibitors Treatment methods for preventing organ ... Prolonged use of opioids may cause immunosuppression of both innate and adaptive immunity. Decrease in proliferation as well as ... Muromonab-CD3 can cause excessive immunosuppression. Although CD3 antibodies act more specifically than polyclonal antibodies, ... April 2009). "Conversion from calcineurin inhibitor to mycophenolate mofetil-based immunosuppression changes the frequency and ...
Immunosuppression is a reduction of the activation or efficacy of the immune system. Some portions of the immune system itself ... A person who is undergoing immunosuppression, or whose immune system is weak for some other reasons (such as chemotherapy or ... Non-deliberate immunosuppression can occur in, for example, ataxia-telangiectasia, complement deficiencies, many types of ... "Immunosuppression: Overview, History, Drugs". 2017-01-06. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) "NCI ...
"Instead of global immunosuppression, DLL4/Notch inhibition provided specific protection from GI-aGVHD, an effect not observed ... "This unique approach could allow us to thread the needle between efficacy and the downsides of global immunosuppression caused ...
immunosuppression. A treatment induced reduction in the bodys defence mechanisms. Deliberate immunosuppression is a necessary ...
"Sirolimus-tacrolimus combination immunosuppression." Lancet Vol. 355 Iss. 9201 (2000) Available at: http://works.bepress.com/ ...
Immunosuppression. Therapy with corticosteroids (eg, prednisone) and cyclophosphamide is aimed at eliminating ongoing antibody ... While only 2 of 8 patients in the plasma exchange group were dialysis dependent versus 6 of 9 in the immunosuppression only ... Long-term outcome of anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody disease treated with plasma exchange and immunosuppression. Ann ...
... and the mice were injected with cyclophosphamide to establish an immunosuppression model except for those in the common group. ... Polysaccharides on an Immunosuppression Model Induced by Cyclophosphamide. Wen-ting Fei. ,1Na Yue. ,2Ai-min Li. ,3Shu-hui Yu. , ... Sixty mice were divided into five groups, and the mice were injected with cyclophosphamide to establish an immunosuppression ... In this study, we investigated the immunomodulatory effects and mechanisms of Maca polysaccharides in an immunosuppression ...
Smart battles: immunosuppression versus immunomodulation in the inflammatory RMDs. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 2020;79:991 ...
Implications for pancreatic cancer-driven immunosuppression Oncoimmunology. 2013 Jun 1;2(6):e24441. doi: 10.4161/onci.24441. ...
... adults meet criteria for drug-induced immunosuppression, of whom 67.7 percent receive oral corticosteroids, according to a ... The researchers found that 2.8 percent of the participants met the criteria for drug-induced immunosuppression during the ... Malignant neoplasms, immune-mediated conditions, and inflammatory skin conditions were the most common immunosuppression- ... adults meet criteria for drug-induced immunosuppression, of whom 67.7 percent receive oral corticosteroids, according to a ...
The BRITE platform provides an opportunity to overcome immunosuppression affecting some therapeutic antibodies that are ... mediated immunosuppression. Oncology Letters 23, no. 1 (2022): 2. https://doi.org/10.3892/ol.2021.13120 ... mediated immunosuppression. Oncology Letters, 23, 2. https://doi.org/10.3892/ol.2021.13120 ...
Sequential same donor αβdepleted-HSCT from an HLA-partially matched donor allowing immunosuppression free kidney transplant. ... Sequential same donor αβdepleted-HSCT/KT can 1) eliminate the need for lifelong immunosuppression, 2) reduce the need for a 2nd ... Sequential same donor αβdepleted-HSCT from an HLA-partially matched donor allowing immunosuppression free kidney transplant. ... we eliminate the risk of kidney rejection and the need of lifelong immunosuppression. Therefore, the likelihood of a second ...
Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia prophylaxis in non-HIV infected patients on immunosuppression; a regional cross-sectional ... Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia prophylaxis in non-HIV infected patients on immunosuppression; a regional cross-sectional ... Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia prophylaxis in non-HIV infected patients on immunosuppression; a regional cross-sectional ... Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia prophylaxis in non-HIV infected patients on immunosuppression; a regional cross-sectional ...
ผู้เขียน หัวข้อ: Take non-randomized trypanosomes or, goes immunosuppression? (อ่าน 608 ครั้ง) ... Take non-randomized trypanosomes or, goes immunosuppression? « เมื่อ: ตุลา
Effect of reduced immunosuppression after kidney transplant failure on risk of cancer: population based retrospective cohort ...
The degree of cytopenia was directly related to the degree of immunosuppression and clinical AIDS status. No relationship was ... 15]. The degree of thrombocytopenia was also directly related to the degree of immunosupression, in agreement with Jost et al ... Patients with features of AIDS (WHO clinical stage IV) or severe immunosuppression (CD4 count , 200 cells/µL) had lower ... 16] and a multicentre AIDS cohort study showing that anaemia was directly related to the degree of immunosupression [16]. ...
Molecular pathways mediating immunosuppression in response to prolonged intensive physical training, low-energy availability, ... In summary, this study elucidated a number of molecular pathways presumably explaining immunosuppression in individuals going ... Molecular pathways mediating immunosuppression in response to prolonged intensive physical training, low-energy availability, ... leading to substantial fat mass loss affects the immune system and immunosuppression in previously normal weight individuals. ...
However, whether PKM2 can promote head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) progression and immunosuppression re... ... PKM2 promotes galectin-9-mediated immunosuppression through lactate secretion. As galectin-9 was known as an immunosuppression ... Interferon-alpha promotes immunosuppression through IFNAR1/STAT1 signalling in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Br J ... To analyze whether lactate induced by PKM2 upregulation had an effect on immunosuppression, both PKM2 and galectin‑9 were ...
Immunosuppression mediated by MICCop was investigated in vivo by daily assessment of clinical signs of paralysis and in in ... Autoantigen-specific immunosuppression with tolerogenic peripheral blood cells prevents relapses in a mouse model of relapsing- ... Autoantigen-specific immunosuppression with tolerogenic peripheral blood cells prevents relapses in a mouse model of relapsing- ...
Dive into the research topics of Immunosuppression for autoimmune retinopathy. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Immunosuppression. Recommendations for rabies pre- and postexposure prophylaxis for persons with immunosuppression have not ... For persons with immunosuppression, rabies PEP should be administered using all 5 doses of vaccine on days 0, 3, 7, 14, and 28. ... for persons with immunosuppression, rabies PEP should be administered using a 5-dose vaccine regimen (i.e., 1 dose of vaccine ...
Immunosuppression. Limited benefit may be observed using immunosuppression with cytotoxic agents. Azathioprine (150 mg/d) or ...
Regulatory T (Treg) cells are key mediators of tumor-associated immunosuppression, and a surge of studies in various types of ... To demonstrate that the detrimental effect of GDF15 on HCC is relevant to Treg cell-mediated immunosuppression, we first ... Of course, there must be other molecules related to the immunosuppression of HCC, which are worthy of further study. ... GDF15 induces immunosuppression via CD48 on regulatory T cells in hepatocellular carcinoma ...
Immunosuppression. The aim of transplantation research is to allow the recipient to accept the graft permanently with no ... Immunosuppression is, however, much more effective and less dangerous than it used to be, and advances with chemical ...
Category: Immunosuppression, Emotional and Behavioral Support, Supported by American Legion Child Welfare Foundation Grant, ... Category: Medical Complications and Future Medical Needs, Immunosuppression, Emotional and Behavioral Support, Supported by ... Category: Medical Complications and Future Medical Needs, Immunosuppression, Supported by American Legion Child Welfare ... Category: Medical Complications and Future Medical Needs, Immunosuppression, Supported by American Legion Child Welfare ...
Immunosuppression To ask the Secretary of State for Health and Social Care, what recent discussions he has had with patient ... Immunosuppression: Coronavirus To ask the Secretary of State for Health and Social Care, what guidance his Department plans to ... Immunosuppression: Coronavirus To ask the Secretary of State for Health and Social Care, whether revised covid-19 guidance will ... Immunosuppression: Coronavirus To ask Her Majestys Government when they will publish updated and detailed (1) guidance, and (2 ...
Immunosuppression. Most studies used immunocompromised mice to test antimicrobial efficacy of small molecule antibiotics. The ...
Immunosuppression [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. *Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis effects, including growth ... Immunosuppression [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. *Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis effects, including growth ... Immunosuppression. Persons who are using drugs, such as corticosteroids, that suppress the immune system are more susceptible ... Immunosuppression. Warn patients who are on immunosuppressant doses of corticosteroids to avoid exposure to chickenpox or ...
Immunosuppression. The specific mechanisms by which immunosuppression leads to SCC development are poorly understood, but ... Regardless of the reason for immunosuppression, cSCC that arises in the setting of immunosuppression exhibits a more aggressive ... Immunosuppression is also increasingly recognized as a risk factor for the development of skin cancer; this is true of ... Ultraviolet immunosuppression: mechanisms and consequences. Dermatol Clin. 2006 Jan. 24(1):19-25. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ...
5.4 Immunosuppression. The impact of treatment with KINERET on active and/or chronic infections and the development of ... decreased ability of your body to fight infections (immunosuppression). It is not known if treatment with medicines that cause ... immunosuppression, like Kineret, affect your risk of getting cancer. * low white blood cell count (neutropenia). Kineret may ...
  • The degree of cytopenia was directly related to the degree of immunosuppression and clinical AIDS status. (who.int)
  • Collectively, these studies emphasise the degree of immunosuppression that occurs in sepsis, and explain why many previous sepsis trials which were directed at blocking inflammatory mediators or pathogen recognition signalling pathways failed. (qxmd.com)
  • We will develop and apply computational tools to integrate the complex datasets generated by our Center in order to identify candidate mediators of tumor-immune interactions that induce immunosuppression for functional validation. (stanford.edu)
  • ligands are required for balancing anti- and pro-inflammation cascades in vivo by regulating myelopoiesis, MDSC expansion and immunosuppression. (grantome.com)
  • Of therapeutic relevance, the authors showed that propranolol, a commonly prescribed β-blocker, can reduce MDSC immunosuppression and enhance the effect of other cancer therapies. (cun.es)
  • axis in myeloid cells controls MDSCs development, homeostasis, immunosuppression and lung tumorigenesis. (grantome.com)
  • Immunosuppression in sepsis: a novel understanding of the disorder and a new therapeutic approach. (qxmd.com)
  • Regulatory T (Treg) cells are key mediators of HCC-associated immunosuppression. (bmj.com)
  • Moreover, we will develop and apply new approaches to integrate the spatial information from high dimensional single cell in situ images from Project 2 with the gene expression datasets to further refine our inferences of candidate mediators of immunosuppression. (stanford.edu)
  • Non-deliberate immunosuppression can occur in, for example, ataxia-telangiectasia, complement deficiencies, many types of cancer, and certain chronic infections such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). (wikipedia.org)
  • Our same donor sequential αβdepleted-HSCT kidney transplantation strategy addresses the urgent unmet medical need to abrogate the need for post-kidney transplant lifelong immunosuppression, the risk of chronic rejection, and, ultimately, the need for repeated transplantation. (ca.gov)
  • Chronic inflammation and immunosupression contribute to lung cancer formation. (grantome.com)
  • An analysis of 10-year follow-up data showed that immunosuppression may not be enough to prevent chronic kidney disease (CKD) in patients with lupus nephritis. (consultant360.com)
  • Indeed, ablation of the lal gene resulted in systemic increase of MDSCs and immunosuppression of T cell proliferation/function in LAL knockout (lal-/-) mice. (grantome.com)
  • The initial inflammatory response is followed by systemic immunosuppression, referred to as stroke-induced immunosuppression (SIIS), leading to severe complications in stroke patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This early activation phase is followed by systemic immunosuppression, referred to as stroke-induced immunosuppression (SIIS) that is manifested within days of focal stroke by a reduction in T cell activation and a profound loss of T and B cells [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The datasets and computational resources developed by our Project, and Center at large, will not only enable use to deeply explore the role of lymph nodes in tumor-mediated immunosuppression, but will also provide the community with powerful resources for understanding systemic influences on the forces governing metastatic dissemination. (stanford.edu)
  • Selective immunosuppression of tumour necrosis factor-alpha in rheumatoid arthritis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Iatrogenic Immunosuppression and Cutaneous Malignancy" by Jennifer L. DePry, Kurtis B. Reed et al. (kansascity.edu)
  • WEDNESDAY, June 2, 2021 (HealthDay News) - Overall, 2.8 percent of a national cohort of commercially insured U.S. adults meet criteria for drug-induced immunosuppression, of whom 67.7 percent receive oral corticosteroids, according to a research letter published online May 20 in JAMA Network Open . (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Targeting PARP11 to avert immunosuppression and improve CAR T therapy in solid tumors. (bvsalud.org)
  • Sixty mice were divided into five groups, and the mice were injected with cyclophosphamide to establish an immunosuppression model except for those in the common group. (hindawi.com)
  • Malignant neoplasms, immune-mediated conditions, and inflammatory skin conditions were the most common immunosuppression-associated diagnosis categories (73.8, 68.8, and 38.8 percent, respectively). (physiciansweekly.com)
  • People in remission from cancer who require immunosuppression are not more likely to experience a recurrence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumor-induced immunosuppression is a common obstacle for cancer treatment. (cun.es)
  • Although treatments improve patient outcomes, individuals with immunosuppression subsequently may have an increased risk of skin cancer, including squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and malignant melanoma. (kansascity.edu)
  • Our findings demonstrate that PKM2 promotes tumor progression and galectin-9-mediated immunosuppression via NF-κB signaling inhibition in HNSCC, which bridges metabolism and immunosuppression. (researchsquare.com)
  • Immunosuppression is a reduction of the activation or efficacy of the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some portions of the immune system itself have immunosuppressive effects on other parts of the immune system, and immunosuppression may occur as an adverse reaction to treatment of other conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • A person who is undergoing immunosuppression, or whose immune system is weak for some other reasons (such as chemotherapy or HIV), is said to be immunocompromised. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunodeficiency is also a potential adverse effect of many immunosuppressant drugs, in this sense, the scope of the term immunosuppression in general includes both beneficial and potential adverse effects of decreasing the function of the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main aim of our study was to assess how energy deprivation (i.e., "semi-starvation") leading to substantial fat mass loss affects the immune system and immunosuppression in previously normal weight individuals. (jyu.fi)
  • While only 2 of 8 patients in the plasma exchange group were dialysis dependent versus 6 of 9 in the immunosuppression only group, the authors concluded that renal function and the degree of crescentic involvement on renal biopsy were better predictors of outcome than was the therapeutic intervention selected. (medscape.com)
  • Beth I. Wallace, M.D., from the University of Michigan Medical School in Ann Arbor, and colleagues conducted a cross-sectional study using direct pharmaceutical claims to describe the prevalence of drug-induced immunosuppression among 3,169,441 continuously enrolled patients. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Sequential same donor αβdepleted-HSCT/KT can 1) eliminate the need for lifelong immunosuppression, 2) reduce the need for a 2nd KT, and 3) cure the underlying disease, resulting in improved lives of patients, decreased societal costs and enormous socio-economic benefit to California. (ca.gov)
  • Mycobacterial T cell responses in HIV-infected patients with advanced immunosuppression. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Some of the largest patient populations with iatrogenic immunosuppression include patients who have received solid-organ transplants or who have rheumatoid arthritis or psoriasis. (kansascity.edu)
  • Deliberate immunosuppression is a necessary part of the bone marrow transplant procedure to prevent graft-versus-host disease and graft rejection. (leukaemia.org.au)
  • Immunosuppression mediated by MICCop was investigated in vivo by daily assessment of clinical signs of paralysis and in in vitro restimulation assays of peripheral immune cells. (uni-koeln.de)
  • The unwanted effect in non-deliberate immunosuppression is immunodeficiency that results in increased susceptibility to pathogens, such as bacteria and viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The team confirmed that the Notch pathway involvement in GVHD was conserved across species, and demonstrated in their animal models that just a single dose of the DLL4-blocking antibody given immediately before stem cell transplantation greatly increased survival and prevented signs of GVHD in the intestines, but without causing global immunosuppression. (genengnews.com)
  • However, whether PKM2 can promote head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) progression and immunosuppression remains unknown. (researchsquare.com)
  • with the establishment of a full donor lymphoid engraftment, we eliminate the risk of kidney rejection and the need of lifelong immunosuppression. (ca.gov)
  • In summary, this study elucidated a number of molecular pathways presumably explaining immunosuppression in individuals going through prolonged periods of intense training with low-energy availability. (jyu.fi)
  • We used hybridoma technology to generate monoclonal antibody to block GDF15 and evaluate its effects on HCC-associated immunosuppression. (bmj.com)
  • Neetens, A & Mortelmans, J 1975, ' Experimental brucei trypanosomiasis: immunosuppression of the blood-aqueous barrier ', Experimental Eye Research , vol. 20, pp. 109-120. (itg.be)
  • Dr. Joseph Murray of Brigham and Women's Hospital was given the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1990 for work on immunosuppression. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, deliberately induced immunosuppression is performed to prevent the body from rejecting an organ transplant. (wikipedia.org)