The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.
Remembrance of information for a few seconds to hours.
Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Remembrance of information from 3 or more years previously.
Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.
Type of declarative memory, consisting of personal memory in contrast to general knowledge.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The largest lymphatic vessel that passes through the chest and drains into the SUBCLAVIAN VEIN.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A method to identify and enumerate cells that are synthesizing ANTIBODIES against ANTIGENS or HAPTENS conjugated to sheep RED BLOOD CELLS. The sheep red blood cells surrounding cells secreting antibody are lysed by added COMPLEMENT producing a clear zone of HEMOLYSIS. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 3rd ed)
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Serum globulins that migrate to the gamma region (most positively charged) upon ELECTROPHORESIS. At one time, gamma-globulins came to be used as a synonym for immunoglobulins since most immunoglobulins are gamma globulins and conversely most gamma globulins are immunoglobulins. But since some immunoglobulins exhibit an alpha or beta electrophoretic mobility, that usage is in decline.
The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.
Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A type of H. influenzae isolated most frequently from biotype I. Prior to vaccine availability, it was a leading cause of childhood meningitis.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily found on most T-LYMPHOCYTES. Activation of the receptor by CD70 ANTIGEN results in the increased proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA. It is a commensal and pathogen only of humans, and can be carried asymptomatically in the NASOPHARYNX. When found in cerebrospinal fluid it is the causative agent of cerebrospinal meningitis (MENINGITIS, MENINGOCOCCAL). It is also found in venereal discharges and blood. There are at least 13 serogroups based on antigenic differences in the capsular polysaccharides; the ones causing most meningitis infections being A, B, C, Y, and W-135. Each serogroup can be further classified by serotype, serosubtype, and immunotype.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
The persistence to perform a learned behavior (facts or experiences) after an interval has elapsed in which there has been no performance or practice of the behavior.
The knowledge or perception that someone or something present has been previously encountered.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
The activated center of a lymphoid follicle in secondary lymphoid tissue where B-LYMPHOCYTES are stimulated by antigens and helper T cells (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER) are stimulated to generate memory cells.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.
Protection from an infectious disease agent that is mediated by B- and T- LYMPHOCYTES following exposure to specific antigen, and characterized by IMMUNOLOGIC MEMORY. It can result from either previous infection with that agent or vaccination (IMMUNITY, ACTIVE), or transfer of antibody or lymphocytes from an immune donor (IMMUNIZATION, PASSIVE).
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infections with STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
A classification of B-lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Infections with bacteria of the species NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.
The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.
The principle that items experienced together enter into a connection, so that one tends to reinstate the other.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Pathologic partial or complete loss of the ability to recall past experiences (AMNESIA, RETROGRADE) or to form new memories (AMNESIA, ANTEROGRADE). This condition may be of organic or psychologic origin. Organic forms of amnesia are usually associated with dysfunction of the DIENCEPHALON or HIPPOCAMPUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp426-7)
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Learning to respond verbally to a verbal stimulus cue.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
Reactions of an individual or groups of individuals with relation to the immediate surrounding area including the animate or inanimate objects within that area.
Specialized forms of antibody-producing B-LYMPHOCYTES. They synthesize and secrete immunoglobulin. They are found only in lymphoid organs and at sites of immune responses and normally do not circulate in the blood or lymph. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989, p169 & Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p20)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.
Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.
The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.
The active mental process of keeping out and ejecting, banishing from consciousness, ideas or impulses that are unacceptable to it.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
Loss of the ability to recall information that had been previously encoded in memory prior to a specified or approximate point in time. This process may be organic or psychogenic in origin. Organic forms may be associated with CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENTS; SEIZURES; DEMENTIA; and a wide variety of other conditions that impair cerebral function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp426-9)
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
A persistent increase in synaptic efficacy, usually induced by appropriate activation of the same synapses. The phenomenological properties of long-term potentiation suggest that it may be a cellular mechanism of learning and memory.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.
Learning in which the subject must respond with one word or syllable when presented with another word or syllable.
The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.
Prominent lobed neuropils found in ANNELIDA and all ARTHROPODS except crustaceans. They are thought to be involved in olfactory learning and memory.
The life of a person written by himself or herself. (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)
The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.
A set of cognitive functions that controls complex, goal-directed thought and behavior. Executive function involves multiple domains, such as CONCEPT FORMATION, goal management, cognitive flexibility, INHIBITION control, and WORKING MEMORY. Impaired executive function is seen in a range of disorders, e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA; and ADHD.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.
Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Loss of the ability to form new memories beyond a certain point in time. This condition may be organic or psychogenic in origin. Organically induced anterograde amnesia may follow CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; SEIZURES; ANOXIA; and other conditions which adversely affect neural structures associated with memory formation (e.g., the HIPPOCAMPUS; FORNIX (BRAIN); MAMMILLARY BODIES; and ANTERIOR THALAMIC NUCLEI). (From Memory 1997 Jan-Mar;5(1-2):49-71)
An alkaloid from SOLANACEAE, especially DATURA and SCOPOLIA. Scopolamine and its quaternary derivatives act as antimuscarinics like ATROPINE, but may have more central nervous system effects. Among the many uses are as an anesthetic premedication, in URINARY INCONTINENCE, in MOTION SICKNESS, as an antispasmodic, and as a mydriatic and cycloplegic.
A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)
The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without REINFORCEMENT to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure.
Induction of a stress reaction in experimental subjects by means of an electrical shock; applies to either convulsive or non-convulsive states.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
A functional relationship between psychological phenomena of such nature that the presence of one tends to evoke the other; also, the process by which such a relationship is established.
The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.

Lymph node germinal centers form in the absence of follicular dendritic cell networks. (1/5750)

Follicular dendritic cell networks are said to be pivotal to both the formation of germinal centers (GCs) and their functions in generating antigen-specific antibody affinity maturation and B cell memory. We report that lymphotoxin beta-deficient mice form GC cell clusters in the gross anatomical location expected of GCs, despite the complete absence of follicular dendritic cell networks. Furthermore, antigen-specific GC generation was at first relatively normal, but these GCs then rapidly regressed and GC-phase antibody affinity maturation was reduced. Lymphotoxin beta-deficient mice also showed substantial B cell memory in their mesenteric lymph nodes. This memory antibody response was of relatively low affinity for antigen at week 4 after challenge, but by week 10 after challenge was comparable to wild-type, indicating that affinity maturation had failed in the GC phase but developed later.  (+info)

Selective recruitment of CCR4-bearing Th2 cells toward antigen-presenting cells by the CC chemokines thymus and activation-regulated chemokine and macrophage-derived chemokine. (2/5750)

Helper T cells are classified into Th1 and Th2 subsets based on their profiles of cytokine production. Th1 cells are involved in cell-mediated immunity, whereas Th2 cells induce humoral responses. Selective recruitment of these two subsets depends on specific adhesion molecules and specific chemoattractants. Here, we demonstrate that the T cell-directed CC chemokine thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) was abundantly produced by monocytes treated with granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or IL-3, especially in the presence of IL-4 and by dendritic cells derived from monocytes cultured with GM-CSF + IL-4. The receptor for TARC and another macrophage/dendritic cell-derived CC chemokine macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) is CCR4, a G protein-coupled receptor. CCR4 was found to be expressed on approximately 20% of adult peripheral blood effector/memory CD4+ T cells. T cells attracted by TARC and MDC generated cell lines predominantly producing Th2-type cytokines, IL-4 and IL-5. Fractionated CCR4+ cells but not CCR4- cells also selectively gave rise to Th2-type cell lines. When naive CD4+ T cells from adult peripheral blood were polarized in vitro, Th2-type cells selectively expressed CCR4 and vigorously migrated toward TARC and MDC. Taken together, CCR4 is selectively expressed on Th2-type T cells and antigen-presenting cells may recruit Th2 cells expressing CCR4 by producing TARC and MDC in Th2-dominant conditions.  (+info)

Cytotoxic T-cell responses in mice infected with influenza and vaccinia viruses vary in magnitude with H-2 genotype. (3/5750)

Secondary effector T-cell populations generated by cross-priming with heterologous influenza A viruses operate only in H-2K or H-2D compatible situations, when assayed on SV40-transformed target cells infected with a range of influenza A viruses. The H2-Kb allele is associated with a total failure in the generation of influenza-immune cytotoxic T cells, though this is not seen for the primary response to vaccinia virus. In both influenza and vaccinia development of effector T cells operating at H-2Db is greatly depressed in B10.A(2R) (kkkddb) and B10.A(4R) (kkbbbb), but not in B10 (bbbbbb), mice. However, there is no defect in viral antigen expression at either H-2Kk or H-2Db in B10.A(2R) target cells. This apparently reflects some inadequacy in the stimulator environment, as (A/J X B6) F1 T cells can be induced to respond at H-2Db when exposed to vaccinia virus in an irradiated B6 but not in a B10.A(4R) recipient. The present report, together with the accompanying paper by Zinkernagel and colleagues, records the first rigorous demonstration of both a nonresponder situation and a probable Ir-gene effect for conventional infectious viruses. Possible implications for the evolution of H-2 polymorphism and mechanisms of Ir gene function are discussed.  (+info)

Core 2-containing O-glycans on CD43 are preferentially expressed in the memory subset of human CD4 T cells. (4/5750)

Human CD4 T cells can be divided into two functionally distinct subsets: a CD45RO+ memory subset and a CD45RA+ naive subset. In an attempt to identify novel cell surface molecules on these cells, we have developed a mAb, anti-1D4. The antigen defined by anti-1D4 was preferentially expressed on the memory subset of freshly isolated peripheral CD4 T cells and 1D4+ CD4 T cells functionally corresponded to memory T cells. Retrovirus-mediated expression cloning revealed that the 1 D4 antigen is human CD43. Transfection of CHO-leu cells, which stably express human CD43, with core 2 beta-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (C2GnT) conferred expression of the 1D4 antigen and mRNA of C2GnT was detected by RT-PCR only in 1D4+ T cells but not in 1D4- T cells, implying that the 1 D4 antigen is composed of core 2-containing O-glycans on CD43. Reactivity with anti-1 D4 was completely abolished when cells were treated with neuraminidase, while them remained weak binding of anti-T305, a previously described mAb which also reacts with CD43 modified with core 2-containing O-glycans. Moreover, anti-1D4 markedly reacted with NIH-3T3 cells expressing human CD43 and low levels of endogenous C2GnT, whereas anti-T305 reacted slightly. These results indicate that the 1D4 antigen is distinct from the epitope defined by anti-T305 and anti-1D4 is a more sensitive probe to detect core 2-containing O-glycans than anti-T305. Taken together, our results indicate that core 2-containing O-glycans, whose expression can easily be detected with anti-1D4, are preferentially expressed in the CD45RO+ memory subset of CD4 T cells.  (+info)

Enhanced cytotoxic T cell activity in IL-4-deficient mice. (5/5750)

CD8+ effectors are critical components of type 1 responses against viral infections as well as for antiviral vaccines. IL-4 plays a clear role as an inhibitor of CD4+ Th1 cells; however, its role in CD8+ T cell regulation appears to be more complex. Thus, IL-4 may augment CD8+ T cell growth, but also limit effector function. Moreover, abundant IL-4 is inhibitory for viral clearance, but the lack of IL-4 appears not to affect CTL-mediated immunity. This report investigates these disparate roles of IL-4 in CD8+ T lymphocyte regulation by comparing T cell responses specific for a single HIV-IIIIB gp120-derived epitope in BALB/c mice deficient in IL-4 to those in wild-type controls. CTL activation was monitored during the acute and memory phases following immunization with recombinant vaccinia virus. Similar frequencies of gp120-specific CTL precursors in splenocytes from both groups indicated that IL-4 plays no significant role in either CTL priming or the establishment of memory. However, cytolytic activity in cultures derived from IL-4-deficient mice developed earlier and was strikingly enhanced following in vitro restimulation, an effect exhibited by both primary and memory T cells. Secretion of IL-2 and IFN-gamma by CD8+ T cells from IL-4-deficient mice was also elevated, reflecting their enhanced activation. Thus, IL-4 appears to limit the activation, expansion, and differentiation of CD8+ T cells with high cytolytic potential.  (+info)

Linear differentiation of cytotoxic effectors into memory T lymphocytes. (6/5750)

A central question in immunology is the origin of long-lived T cell memory that confers protection against recurrent infection. The differentiation of naive T cell receptor transgenic CD8+ cells into effector cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and memory CD8+ cells was studied. Memory CD8+ cells that were generated after strong antigenic stimulation were the progeny of cytotoxic effectors and retained antigen-specific cytolytic activity 10 weeks after adoptive transfer to antigen-free recipient mice. Thus, potential vaccines based on CTL memory will require the differentiation of naive cells into post-effector memory T cells.  (+info)

Functional differences between memory and naive CD8 T cells. (7/5750)

To determine how murine memory and naive T cells differ, we generated large numbers of long-lived memory CD8(+) T cells and compared them to naive cells expressing the same antigen-specific receptor (T cell receptor; TCR). Although both populations expressed similar levels of TCR and CD8, on antigen stimulation in vitro memory T cells down-regulated their TCR faster and more extensively and secreted IFN-gamma and IL-2 faster than naive T cells. Memory cells were also larger, and when freshly isolated from mice they contained perforin and killed target cells without having to be restimulated. They further differed from naive cells in requiring IL-15 for proliferation and in having a greater tendency to undergo apoptosis in vitro. On antigen stimulation in vivo, however, they proliferated more rapidly than naive cells. These findings suggest that, unlike naive T cells, CD8 memory T cells are intrinsically programmed to rapidly express their effector functions in vivo without having to undergo clonal expansion and differentiation.  (+info)

Postthymic development of CD28-CD8+ T cell subset: age-associated expansion and shift from memory to naive phenotype. (8/5750)

During human aging, one of the major changes in the T cell repertoire is a dramatic expansion of T cells with the atypical CD28-CD8+ phenotype. In this study, we show that this increase is a consequence not only of an expansion in the CD28-CD8+ population but also of a decrease in the number of CD28+CD8+ T cells. The decrease in circulating CD28+CD8+ T cells is dramatically accelerated after the age of 50 and is not accompanied by an equivalent reduction in the CD28+CD8+ subset. Our findings confirm that aging leads to an accumulation of CD45RO+ T cells within the CD28+CD8+ subset as previously observed. Surprisingly, we found an increase in CD45RA+ expression with age in the CD28-CD8+ subset. Immune-phenotyping for activation markers, measurement of telomere DNA content, and cytokine production analysis indicate that the large majority of CD28-CD8+ T cells are Ag-experienced, despite their CD45RA+ phenotype. Our study further demonstrates that the poor proliferative response displayed by CD28-CD8+ T cells is not a consequence of telomere shortening. Also, analysis of cytokine production at the single cell level revealed that the proportions of IFN-gamma +, IL-4+, and IL-10+ T cells are considerably higher among the CD28-CD8+ than the CD28+CD8+ subset. In summary, these data explain the presence of CD45RA+ T cells in the elderly, shed light on the phylogenetic origin of CD28-CD8+ T cells, and suggest a role for these cells in the immune senescence process.  (+info)

How vaccines control the development of antigen-specific effector and memory T helper cells is central to protective immunity but remains poorly understood. Here we found that protein vaccination selected high-affinity, CXCR5+ICOS(hi) follicular B-helper T cells (T(FH) cells) that developed in draining lymphoid tissue to regulate B cell responses. In the memory phase, reservoirs of antigen-specific CXCR5+ICOS(lo) T(FH) cells persisted with less effector activity but accelerated antigen-recall ability. This new compartment of memory T(FH) cells was retained in draining lymphoid sites with antigen-specific memory B cells, persistent complexes of peptide and major histocompatibility complex class II and continued expression of CD69. Thus, protein vaccination promotes B cell immunity by selecting high-affinity effector T(FH) cells and creating lymphoid reservoirs of antigen-specific memory T(FH) cells in vivo ...
Background: Multiple infections with diverse enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) strains lead to broad spectrum protection against ETEC diarrhea. However, the precise mechanism of protection against ETEC infection is still unknown. Therefore, memory B cell responses and affinity maturation of antibodies to the specific ETEC antigens might be important to understand the mechanism of protection. Methodology In this study, we investigated the heat labile toxin B subunit (LTB) and colonization factor antigens (CFA/I and CS6) specific IgA and IgG memory B cell responses in Bangladeshi adults (n = 52) who were infected with ETEC. We also investigated the avidity of IgA and IgG antibodies that developed after infection to these antigens. Principal Findings Patients infected with ETEC expressing LT or LT+heat stable toxin (ST) and CFA/I group or CS6 colonization factors developed LTB, CFA/I or CS6 specific memory B cell responses at day 30 after infection. Similarly, these patients developed high avidity IgA ...
A successful T cell immune response has two major products: effector T cells which directly or indirectly remove the antigens, and memory T cells, which allow a faster and more efficient recall response when challenged by related antigens. An important issue is whether costimulatory molecules on the antigen-presenting cells are involved in determining whether T cells will differentiate into effector or memory cells after antigenic stimulation. To address this issue, we have produced mice with targeted mutations of either the heat-stable antigen (HSA), or both HSA and CD28. We show that CD28/B7 and HSA provide two alternative costimulatory pathways for induction of immunological memory to influenza virus. Furthermore, our results revealed that B7 is essential for the generation of effector T cells from either naive or memory T cells, while HSA is not necessary for the generation of effector T cells. Our results demonstrate that the induction of memory T cells and effector T cells can utilize ...
BACKGROUND: The frequency of protective antiviral memory B cells after hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination is unknown. METHODS: A novel 2-step immunomagnetic protocol to assess the ex vivo frequency of protective HBV surface antigen (HBsAg)-specific memory B cells was used. RESULTS: HBsAg-specific memory B cells were detected in vaccinated individuals, although at very low frequency (median, 0.2% of CD19(+) cells [range, 0%-4% of CD19(+) cells]). No correlation existed between the frequency of HBsAg-specific memory B cells and the corresponding serum antibody titer or B cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot findings. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate sustained B cell-mediated protection against HBV despite waning antibody titers, which is consistent with clinical observations.
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Many vaccination strategies and immune cell therapies aim at increasing the numbers of memory T cells reactive to protective antigens. However, the differentiation lineage and therefore the optimal generation conditions of CD4 memory cells remain controversial. Linear and divergent differentiation models have been proposed, suggesting CD4 memory T cell development from naive precursors either with or without an effector-stage intermediate, respectively. Here, we address this question by using newly available techniques for the identification and isolation of effector T cells secreting effector cytokines. In adoptive cell transfers into normal, nonlymphopenic mice, we show that long-lived virus-specific memory T cells can efficiently be generated from purified interferon gamma-secreting T helper (Th) type 1 and interleukin (IL)-4- or IL-10-secreting Th2 effectors primed in vitro or in vivo. Importantly, such effector-derived memory T cells were functional in viral challenge infections. They proliferated
in one of my server buffer pool size is set to 6GB. when i dump high end data on the database, say 2gb data, the mysql resident memory usage shoots up to 8GB which can be seen in TOP command. but after completion of this data insertion even after hrs of waiting, the resident memory usage doesnt drop down. it will be stuck at 8GB.. however now if i reduce the buffer pool size from 6GB to 2 gb the resident memory drops down.. this is not the best practise... is there any solution how to de allocate this resident memory after the completion of mysql processes?? and also what is the relation between this memory and buffer pool size... any help will be deeply appreciated.. thanks ...
The pool of memory T cells is regulated by homeostatic mechanisms to persist for prolonged periods at a relatively steady overall size. Recent work has shown that two members of the common gamma chain (gammac) family of cytokines, interleukin-7 (IL-7) and IL-15, govern homeostasis of memory T cells. These two cytokines work in conjunction to support memory T-cell survival and intermittent background proliferation. Normal animals contain significant numbers of spontaneously arising memory-phenotype (MP) cells, though whether these cells are representative of true antigen-specific memory T cells is unclear. Nevertheless, it appears that the two types of memory cells do not display identical homeostatic requirements. For antigen-specific memory CD8+ T cells, IL-7 is primarily important for survival while IL-15 is crucial for their background proliferation. For memory CD4+ T cells, IL-7 has an important role, whereas the influence of IL-15 is still unclear.
Although mouse studies have demonstrated the presence of an effector memory population in nonlymphoid tissues, the phenotype of human CD8+ T cells present in such compartments has not been characterized. Because of the relatively large number of CD8+ T cells present in breast milk, we were able to characterize the phenotype of this cell population in HIV-infected and uninfected lactating women. CMV, influenza virus, EBV, and HIV-specific CD8+ T cells as measured by the IFN-γ ELISPOT and MHC class I tetramer staining were all present at greater frequencies in breast milk as compared with blood. Furthermore, a greater percentage of the breast milk CD8+ T cells expressed the intestinal homing receptor, CD103, and the mucosal homing receptor CCR9. Breast milk T cells were predominantly CD45RO+HLADR+ and expressed low levels of CD45RA, CD62L, and CCR7 consistent with an effector memory population. Conversely, T cells derived from blood were mainly characterized as central memory cells (CCR7 ...
What are the decisive factors that determine which effector cells survive to become long-lived memory cells and which cells die during the contraction phase? We have characterized the transcriptome of effector and memory T cells and identified genetic pathways and several transcription factors that regulate this life or death decision in activated T cells. Our work has helped to outline a model of effector T cell differentiation wherein a small subset of T cells develop into memory precursor cells that are more fit to persist following the first infection than the majority of effector cells. These memory precursor cells develop into long-lived memory T cells that protect against re-infection. Several types of memory T cells, which differ by their phenotypes, functions and anatomical locations, are produced to create a sophisticated, multi-layered defense system. Conceptually, the memory T cells are divided into three subsets: (1) Tissue resident memory T (TRM) cells, which locally reside in ...
Donna L. Farber (Columbia University Medical Center), recently provided her own definition of immunological memory: I would define immunological memory on the basis of three main criteria. First, memory immune cells should be long-lived and maintained independently of stimulation or persistence of antigen, either through homeostatic turnover or long-term stable maintenance. Second, memory immune cells should be specific for a particular antigen or epitope. Third, a memory immune cell should be intrinsically changed by the previous encounter with antigen; for example, be functionally enhanced and respond more quickly and effectively to repeat encounters with a specific pathogen and/or antigen. Memory T cells and B cells certainly fulfil these criteria, but it could be extended to other types of immune cells, such as natural killer (NK) cells.. But, what are the molecular mechanisms required for the establishment and maintenance of immunological memory? Results from a new study, which focuses on ...
Definition of Immunological memory in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Immunological memory? Meaning of Immunological memory as a legal term. What does Immunological memory mean in law?
Memory/effector T cells traffic efficiently through extralymphoid tissues, entering from the blood and leaving via the afferent lymph. During inflammation, T cell traffic into the affected tissue dramatically increases; however, the dynamics and mechanisms of T cell exit from inflamed tissues are poorly characterized. In this study, we show, using both a mouse and a sheep model, that large numbers of lymphocytes leave the chronically inflamed skin. Many T cells capable of producing IFN-γ and IL-17 also entered the draining afferent lymph, demonstrating that memory/effector T cells egress from sites of inflammation. Whereas efficient egress from acutely inflamed skin required lymphocyte-expressed CCR7, chronic inflammation promoted significant CCR7-independent exit as well. Lymphocyte exit at late time points of inflammation was sensitive to pertussis toxin but was only partially affected by the drug FTY720, implying the contribution of alternative chemoattractant receptors other than spingosine ...
We have previously shown that CD4+ T cells are required to optimally expand viral-specific memory CD8+ CTL responses using a human dendritic cell-T cell-based coculture system. OX40 (CD134), a 50-kDa transmembrane protein of the TNFR family, is expressed primarily on activated CD4+ T cells. In murine models, the OX40/OX40L pathway has been shown to play a critical costimulatory role in dendritic cell/T cell interactions that may be important in promoting long-lived CD4+ T cells, which subsequently can help CD8+ T cell responses. The current study examined whether OX40 ligation on ex vivo CD4+ T cells can enhance their ability to help virus-specific CTL responses in HIV-1-infected and -uninfected individuals. OX40 ligation of CD4+ T cells by human OX40L-IgG1 enhanced the ex vivo expansion of HIV-1-specific and EBV-specific CTL from HIV-1-infected and -uninfected individuals, respectively. The mechanism whereby OX40 ligation enhanced help of CTL was independent of the induction of cytokines such ...
Cross-reactive cells are oligoclonal T memory cell expansions. (A) Cross-reactive CD8+ T cells display a restricted BV repertoire. Naive (top) or A/NT/60/68-pri
Activated naive B cells that seed a GC and undergo SHM, Ig isotype switching, and selection by a specific Ag can differentiate into memory B cells or plasma cells. It is generally accepted that the processes of SHM and isotype switching are markers of memory B cells. In human tonsils, memory B cells were historically identified by the loss of IgD together with other markers such as CD38 (5, 10, 11, 17). The case for using IgD and CD38 to separate memory (IgD−CD38−) from naive (IgD+CD38−) and GC (IgD−CD38+) B cells was supported by the finding that the majority of tonsil IgD+ cells expressed unmutated IgV region genes, while those expressed by IgD− cells were mutated (5, 11, 25, 26). Studies using these markers demonstrated that although both naive and memory B cells were in a quiescent state, memory cells exhibited enhanced responses compared to naive B cells in vitro (10, 17, 18, 19, 20). Together, these articles established a scheme to identify human memory B cells.. However, ...
The presence of IL-10-producing memory cells in humans has been known for a long time, but their function and phenotype has remained unclear. In this study, we showed that human CCR6+ memory T cells secrete IL-10 efficiently in response to suboptimal TCR stimulation, whereas they produce immunostimulatory cytokines at higher levels of stimulation. These different activation thresholds allow autoreactive CCR6+ memory T cells to secrete suppressive IL-10 in response to autologous DCs, whereas they produce IFN-γ, IL-2, and CD40L upon strong activation, as can be provided by a recall antigen. Thus, memory T cells that cross react with antigens presented by autologous mDCs could have a context-dependent function and inhibit autoreactivity in the steady state, but contribute to recall responses upon infections or vaccinations.. IL-10 production by T cells inhibits autoimmunity and immunopathology, and the induction of IL-10-producing capacities in mouse Th cells requires TGF-β (Maynard et al., ...
The contribution of intrinsic defects in B and/or T cell function or impaired T-B cell interaction towards poor recall and neo-antigen vaccine responses in HIV-1 infection are not fully understood. Using CVID as a model for B cell maturation, we show patients with untreated HIV-1 infection have increased transitional and tissue like B cells and reduced IgM memory and class switched memory B cell proportions. Loss of IgM memory B cells is associated with progressive HIV-1. Antiretroviral therapy reduces transitional and tissue like B cell percentages but does not restore IgM memory or class switched memory proportions. Most HIV-1 patients on ART have reduced antibody levels post tetanus and pneumococcal vaccination. IgM memory B cell depletion associates with poor post vaccine IgM pneumococcal titres in HIV-1 suggesting loss of IgM memory B cells may be a risk factor for invasive pneumococcal disease. CVID patients with lung disease had lower memory B cells and a trend towards a loss of IgM ...
The Central Memory CD4+ T Cell Isolation Kit was developed for the isolation of central memory CD4+ T cells from human PBMCs in a two-step procedure.Central memory CD4+ T cells are isolated based on the expression of CD197 (CCR7) and the absence of CD45RA on these cells. - Italia
The Central Memory CD4+ T Cell Isolation Kit was developed for the isolation of central memory CD4+ T cells from human PBMCs in a two-step procedure.Central memory CD4+ T cells are isolated based on the expression of CD197 (CCR7) and the absence of CD45RA on these cells. | USA
Alveolar resident memory T cells (T(RM)) comprise a currently uncharacterized mixture of cell subpopulations. The CD3(+)CD161(+) T cell subpopulation resides in the liver, intestine and skin, but it has the capacity for tissue migration; however, the presence of resident CD3(+)CD161(+) T cells in th …
Intellicyt Corporation®, Part of the Sartorius Group. 5700 Pasadena Ave. NE, Albuquerque, NM 87113. A critical process in bio-manufacturing of adoptive cell therapies such chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T and tumor infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) therapies is the ex vivo expansion of T cells. Recent clinical studies show a correlation between in vivo expansion and persistence of infused T cells and patient outcomes. Additional studies show that a subset of functional memory T cells including T memory stem cells (Tscm), central memory T cells (Tcm) and other less differentiated T cell subsets are responsible for the majority of in vivo expansion and persistence leading to increased anti-tumor responses. This suggests that ex vivo protocols generating higher percentages of Tscm and Tcm in the total cell product will lead to significant clinical improvements in adoptive cell therapies. To address the need to monitor T cell phenotype and function for improved ex vivo expansion protocols and other ...
Whether memory T lymphocytes are derived directly from effector T cells or via a separately controlled pathway has long been debated. Here we present evidence that, after adoptive transfer, a large fraction of in vitro-derived effector CD4+ T cells have the potential to become memory T cells and that this transition can occur without further division. This data supports a linear pathway from effector to memory cells and suggests that most properties of memory cells are predetermined during effector generation. We suggest, therefore, that evaluation of vaccine efficacy in the induction of memory CD4+ T cells should focus on the effector stage.
The authors have demonstrated compartment differences between T cell immunity in the bronchoalveolar space and the periphery. These include a predominant presence of effector memory T cells and regulatory CD4+ T cells in BAL, and a higher percentage frequency of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells against influenza virus, S pneumoniae and M tuberculosis in BAL compared to peripheral blood. Our data has also demonstrated that HIV-infected individuals have impaired pulmonary CD4+ T cell immunity, which is characterised by lower proportions of total CD4+ T cells and impaired antigen-specific BAL CD4+ T cell response to influenza virus and M tuberculosis antigens.. Consistent with previous observations,21 we noticed that BAL CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were predominantly of effector memory phenotype irrespective of HIV status, while peripheral blood T cell phenotypes were distributed among naive, central memory, effector memory and terminal effector. Effector memory T cells migrate to the lung following antigen ...
These are some of the tests used to measure memory T-cell responses. While the presence of memory T-cells specific for a particular infection (e.g. CMV) ...
Transplant recipients can be sensitized against allo-HLA antigens by previous transplantation, blood transfusion, or pregnancy. While there is growing awareness that multiple components of the immune system can act as effectors of the alloresponse, the role of infectious pathogen exposure in triggering sensitization and allograft rejection has remained a matter of much debate. Here, we describe that exposure to pathogens may enhance the immune response to allogeneic HLA antigens via different pathways. The potential role of allo-HLA cross-reactivity of virus-specific memory T cells, activation of innate immunity leading to a more efficient induction of the adaptive alloimmune response by antigen-presenting cells, and bystander activation of existing memory B cell activation will be discussed in this review ...
Many strategies have been proposed to induce tolerance to transplanted tissue in rodents; however, few if any have shown equal efficacy when tested in nonhuman primate transplant models. We hypothesized that a critical distinction between specific pathogen-free mice and nonhuman primates or human patients is their acquired immune history. Here, we show that a heterologous immune response - specifically, virally induced alloreactive memory - is a potent barrier to tolerance induction. A critical threshold of memory T cells is needed to promote rejection, and CD8+ central memory T cells are primarily responsible. Finally, treatment with deoxyspergualin, an inhibitor of NF-κB translocation, together with costimulation blockade, synergistically impairs memory T cell activation and promotes antigen-specific tolerance of memory. These data offer a potential explanation for the difficulty encountered when inducing tolerance in nonhuman primates and human patients and provide insight into the ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Cross-Reactive Peptides in Memory T Cell Memory CTL: Potential Role of Peptide Antigens Is Sufficient to Activate A Single Specific Amino Acid Residue in by Riccardo Gavioli et al.
Memory T cells generated from acute infection or vaccination have the potential to provide the host with life-long immunity against re-infection. Protection by memory T cells is achieved through their acquired ability to persist at anatomical sites of the primary infection as well as maintaining a heightened ability to recall effector functions. The maintenance of CD8 and CD4 T cell function in a state of readiness is key to life-long immunity and manifest through changes in transcriptional regulation. Yet, the ability to identify poised transcriptional programs at the maintenance stage of the response is lacking from most transcriptional profiling studies of memory T cells. Epigenetic profiling allows for the assessment of transcriptionally poised (promoters that are readily accessible for transcription) states of antigen-specific T cells without manipulation of the activation state of the cell. Here we review recent studies that have examined epigenetic programs of effector and memory T cell ...
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In type 1 diabetes, cytotoxic CD8+ T cells with specificity for β cell autoantigens are found in the pancreatic islets, where they are implicated in the destruction of insulin-secreting β cells. In contrast, the disease relevance of β cell-reactive CD8+ T cells that are detectable in the circulation, and their relationship to β cell function, are not known. Here, we tracked multiple, circulating β cell-reactive CD8+ T cell subsets and measured β cell function longitudinally for 2 years, starting immediately after diagnosis of type 1 diabetes. We found that change in β cell-specific effector memory CD8+ T cells expressing CD57 was positively correlated with C-peptide change in subjects below 12 years of age. Autoreactive CD57+ effector memory CD8+ T cells bore the signature of enhanced effector function (higher expression of granzyme B, killer-specific protein of 37 kDa, and CD16, and reduced expression of CD28) compared with their CD57- counterparts, and network association modeling ...
Abstract:. Populations of memory T lymphocytes and memory plasma cells residing in epithelial tissues and in the bone marrow provide first-line protection and longterm memory to prevailing antigenic challenges of the environment. We have now also identified memory B lymphocytes of the bone marrow as a population distinct from their splenic counterparts in terms of repertoire and phenotype. Apparently the resident memory lymphocytes are not maintained by homeostatic proliferation. For memory plasma cells of the bone marrow, we could demonstrate that they are maintained individually by stromal cells. Their survival is dependent on cell contact to the stromal cell, inducing PI3K signaling, and on the cytokines April or BAFF from their environment, inducing NFkB signaling. In synergy, both signaling pathways in plasma cells upregulate expression of the vital transcription factor IRF4 and prevent caspase-induced apoptosis.. Memory T and B lymphocytes of the bone are maintained individually on stromal ...
Treatment of invasive adenovirus (Ad) disease in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (SCT) recipients with capsid protein hexon-specific donor T cells is under investigation. We propose that cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) targeted to the late protein hexon may be inefficient in vivo because the early Ad protein E3-19K downregulates HLA class I antigens in infected cells. In this study, CD8+ T cells targeted to highly conserved HLA A2-restricted epitopes from the early regulatory protein DNA polymerase (P-977) and late protein hexon (H-892) were compared in peripheral blood (PB) and tonsils of naturally infected adults. In tonsils, epitope-specific pentamers detected a significantly higher frequency of P-977+CD8+ T cells compared to H-892+CD8+ T cells; this trend was reversed in PB. Tonsil epitope-specific CD8+ T cells expressed IFN-γ and IL-2 but not perforin or TNF-α, whereas PB T cells were positive for IFN-γ, TNF-α, and perforin. Tonsil epitope-specific T cells expressed lymphoid homing marker CCR7 and
There are two main options for using these antibodies - giving them directly to patients already infected with a pathogen or using vaccines to prevent infection in the first place and perhaps one day eradicating the disease.. A number of hurdles remain for vaccine development. During HIV infection, the best antibodies can take as long as a year after infection to develop their power. Acquired immunity to malaria takes multiple infections and many years to develop, leaving young children in particular at risk of dying. It is not yet known whether we can design vaccines to speed up the process.. Immunity also works because immune memory cells are faster and better at fighting an infection before it can damage the body.. Unfortunately, HIV, malaria and hepatitis C can all exhaust immune memory cells; they fight for so long they effectively retire. Its unclear whether a vaccine for HIV will make effective immune memory cells, or whether exhausted memory cells may stop vaccines working ...
Modified mRNA vaccines have developed into an effective and well-tolerated vaccine platform that offers scalable and precise antigen production. Nevertheless, the immunological events leading to strong antibody responses elicited by mRNA vaccines are largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that protective levels of antibodies to hemagglutinin (HA) were induced after two immunizations of modified non-replicating mRNA encoding Influenza H10 encapsulated in lipid nanoparticles (LNP) in non-human primates. While both intradermal (ID) and intramuscular (IM) administration induced protective titers, ID delivery generated this response more rapidly. Circulating H10-specific memory B cells expanded after each immunization, along with a transient appearance of plasmablasts. The memory B cell pool waned over time but remained detectable throughout the 25-week study. Following prime immunization, H10-specific plasma cells were found in the bone marrow and persisted over time. Germinal centers were formed in
TY - JOUR. T1 - Increased frequency of cytotoxic CXCR5+effector memory CD8+T cells during natural control of HIV-1 infection. AU - Adams, P.. AU - Iserentant, G.. AU - Servais, J-Y. AU - Pannus, P.. AU - Rutsaert, S.. AU - Van Frankehuijsen, M.. AU - De Wit, S.. AU - Allard, S. D.. AU - Messiaen, P.. AU - Moutschen, M.. AU - Aerts, J. L.. AU - Vandekerckhove, L.. AU - Vanham, G.. AU - Devaux, C.. N1 - NPP. PY - 2019. Y1 - 2019. M3 - Conference abstract in journal. VL - 20. SP - 42. EP - 43. JO - HIV Medicine. JF - HIV Medicine. SN - 1464-2662. ER - ...
of research plan for MERIT extension. Memory T cell populations with a history of repeated antigen exposure will be generated in humans due to recurring infecti...
PubMedID: 26100671 | Tumor-Specific Effector CD8+ T Cells That Can Establish Immunological Memory in Humans after Adoptive Transfer Are Marked by Expression of IL7 Receptor and c-myc. | Cancer Research | 8/15/2015
T cells are the main orchestrators of protective immunity in the stomach; however, limited information on the presence and function of the gastric T subsets is available mainly due to the difficulty in recovering high numbers of viable cells from human gastric biopsies. To overcome this shortcoming we optimized a cell isolation method that yielded high numbers of viable lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMC) from gastric biopsies. Classic memory T (TM) subsets were identified in gastric LPMC and compared to peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) obtained from children, adults and the elderly using an optimized 14 color flow cytometry panel. A dominant effector memory (TEM) phenotype was observed in gastric LPMC CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in all age groups. We then evaluated whether these cells represented a population of gastric tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells by assessing expression of CD103 and CD69. The vast majority of gastric LPMC CD8+ T cells either co-expressed CD103/CD69 (|70%) or expressed
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Looking for online definition of memory lymphocyte in the Medical Dictionary? memory lymphocyte explanation free. What is memory lymphocyte? Meaning of memory lymphocyte medical term. What does memory lymphocyte mean?
Persistent autoantibody production in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) suggests the existence of autoreactive humoral immunological memory, but the frequency of self-reactive memory B cells in SLE has not been determined. Under normal circumstances, autoantibodies including antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) are frequently expressed by newly generated B cells in the bone marrow, but these autoreactive B cells are tightly regulated at two checkpoints for self-tolerance, in the bone marrow and the periphery, before maturation into naïve immunocompetent B cells. In contrast, SLE is associated with a failure to establish B cell tolerance at the two checkpoints leading to high numbers of autoreactive naïve B cells in the periphery. The aim of this study was to determine the molecular features and reactivities of IgG memory B cell antibodies expressed in SLE. A single-cell PCR based strategy was applied that allowed the cloning of the Ig heavy and Ig light chain genes of a single purified ...
Memory T cells can be divided into central memory T cell (T(CM) cell) and effector memory T cell (T(EM) cell) subsets based on homing characteristics and effector functions. Whether T(EM) and T(CM) cells represent interconnected or distinct lineages is unclear, although the present paradigm suggests that T(EM) and T(CM) cells follow a linear differentiation pathway from naive T cells to effector T cells to T(EM) cells to T(CM) cells. We show here that naive T cell precursor frequency profoundly influenced the pathway along which CD8+ memory T cells developed. At low precursor frequency, those T(EM) cells generated represented a stable cell lineage that failed to further differentiate into T(CM) cells. These findings do not adhere to the present dogma regarding memory T cell generation and provide a means for identifying factors controlling memory T cell lineage commitment.
Stimulation by antigen through the B cell receptor (BCR) followed by cognate T cell help drives proliferation and differentiation of antigen-specific naı̈ve B lymphocytes into memory B cells and plasma cells (1, 2). Memory B cells carrying somatically mutated immunoglobulin (Ig) genes survive in secondary lymphoid organs in the absence of antigen (3) and mediate secondary immune responses upon rechallenge. In contrast, plasma cells are terminally differentiated, nondividing cells that home to spleen and bone marrow and are the main source of antibody, which they secrete at a high rate. Mouse plasma cells can be long-lived and are able to sustain antibody production for several months in the absence of memory B cells or antigen (4, 5). However, it is less likely that long-lived plasma cells produced during an immune response will maintain a constant supply of specific antibody over a human life-span, because even long-lived plasma cells would eventually need to be replenished over a human ...
by Barbara Stranger, Hu X, Kim H, Raj T, Brennan PJ, Trynka G, Teslovich N, Slowikowski K, Chen WM, Onengut S, Baecher-Allan C, De Jager PL, Rich SS, Stranger BE, Brenner MB, Raychaudhuri S. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and subsequent dense-genotyping of associated loci identified over a hundred single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variants associated with the risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), type 1 diabetes (T1D), and celiac disease (CeD). Immunological and genetic studies suggest a role for CD4-positive effector memory T (CD+ TEM) cells in the pathogenesis of these diseases. To elucidate mechanisms of autoimmune disease alleles, we investigated molecular phenotypes in CD4+ effector memory T cells potentially affected by these variants. In a cohort of genotyped healthy individuals, we isolated high purity CD4+ TEM cells from peripheral blood, then assayed relative abundance, proliferation upon T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation, and the transcription of 215 genes within disease loci ...
Respiratory immunization is an attractive way to generate systemic and mucosal protective memory responses that are required for preventing mucosally transmitted infections. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms for controlling memory T cell responses remain incompletely understood. In this study, we investigated the role of respiratory macrophage (MΦ) in regulating CD4 T cell responses to recombinant adenovirus-based (rAd) vaccines. We demonstrated that rAd intranasal (i.n.) vaccination induced migration and accumulation of respiratory MΦ and circulatory monocytes in the mediastinal lymph nodes and lung parenchyma. Under the influence of respiratory MΦ CD4 T cells exhibited slow proliferation kinetics and an increased tendency of generating central memory, as opposed to effector memory, CD4 T cell responses in vitro and in vivo. Correspondingly, depletion of MΦ using clodronate-containing liposome prior to i.n. immunization significantly enhanced CD4 T cell proliferation and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lipopolysaccharide induces apoptotic cell death of B memory cells and regulates B cell memory in antigen-nonspecific manner. AU - Yokochi, T.. AU - Kato, Y.. AU - Sugiyama, T.. AU - Koide, N.. AU - Morikawa, A.. AU - Jiang, G. Z.. AU - Kawai, M.. AU - Yoshida, T.. AU - Fukada, M.. AU - Takahashi, K.. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supportedin partb y a grantf rom the Ministry of Education,S ciencea nd Culture of Japan. We are gratefult o Makoto Narusef or the technicaal ssistancien laserf low cytometrya ndc ell sorting.. PY - 1996/8. Y1 - 1996/8. N2 - Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was administered into sheep red blood cells (SRBC)-primed mice, and the effect of LPS on SRBC-specific memory cells was investigated. Spleen cells from SRBC-primed mice which were injected with LPS exhibited much lower in vitro secondary plaque-forming cells (PFC) responses to SRBC than those from untreated SRBC-primed mice. The in vitro anti-SRBC response of the spleen cells to LPS was also ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sustained CD8+ T cell memory inflation after infection with a single-cycle Cytomegalovirus. AU - Snyder, Christopher M.. AU - Cho, Kathy S.. AU - Bonnett, Elizabeth L.. AU - Allan, Jane E.. AU - Hill, Ann B.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2012 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2011/10. Y1 - 2011/10. N2 - Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a β-herpesvirus that establishes a lifelong latent or persistent infection. A hallmark of chronic CMV infection is the lifelong persistence of large numbers of virus-specific CD8+ effector/effector memory T cells, a phenomenon called memory inflation. How the virus continuously stimulates these T cells without being eradicated remains an enigma. The prevailing view is that CMV establishes a low grade smoldering infection characterized by tiny bursts of productive infection which are rapidly extinguished, leaving no detectable virus but replenishing the latent pool and leaving the immune system in a highly charged state. However, since abortive ...
The evolution of the HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response in patients receiving potent combination therapy has been well documented in adult patients. However, no study reported whether baseline HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response is linked to treatment outcome. The aims of this study were to investigate both the impact of baseline memory cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) on treatment outcome and the effect of potent therapy on memory HIV-specific CTL in HIV-1-infected pediatric patients. The study group comprised 30 children who started a first-line combination treatment including at least three drugs from two different classes and were longitudinally followed during treatment. Their memory HIV-specific responses were measured at baseline and during treatment, as well as their plasma viremia and CD4+ levels. The intensity of memory Gag-specific CTL and the breadth of the CTL response at the beginning of treatment were significantly correlated with lower plasma viral load during treatment, independently of
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
Understanding the molecular mechanisms of immunological memory assumes importance in vaccine design. We had earlier hypothesized a mechanism for the maintenance of immunological memory through the operation of a network of idiotypic and anti-idiotypic antibodies (Ab2). Peptides derived from an internal image carrying anti-idiotypic antibody are hypothesized to facilitate the perpetuation of antigen specific T cell memory through similarity in peptide-MHC binding as that of the antigenic peptide. In the present work, the existence of such peptidomimics of the antigen in the Ab2 variable region and their similarity of MHC-I binding was examined by bioinformatics approaches. The analysis employing three known viral antigens and one tumor-associated antigen shows that peptidomimics from Ab2 variable regions have structurally similar MHC-I binding patterns as compared to antigenic peptides, indicating a structural basis for memory perpetuation. (C)) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.. ...
We investigated the association of circulating B‐cell subsets with the occurrence of secondary cardiovascular events in severe carotid atherosclerotic patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy. We found that high levels of (un)switched memory cells were independently associated with the freedom of recurrent cardiovascular events, suggesting that patients with high numbers of (un)switched B cells are protected against secondary cardiovascular manifestations.. Patients with autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus and common variable immunodeficiency, have an increased risk of developing CVD. Production of (auto)antibodies by B lymphocytes is a hallmark of autoimmune disease and autoantibody formation is also evident in atherosclerotic patients. SLE patients have reduced levels of both switched and unswitched memory cells,19 and decreased levels of unswitched memory cells are associated with increased levels of SLE autoantibodies.19 Furthermore, in patients with common variable ...
Cytomegalovirus vectors are promising delivery vehicles for vaccine strategies that aim to elicit effector CD8+ T cells. To determine how the route of immunization affects CD8+ T cell responses in the lungs of mice vaccinated with a murine cytomegalovirus vector expressing the respiratory syncytial virus matrix (M) protein, we infected CB6F1 mice via the intranasal or intraperitoneal route and evaluated the M-specific CD8+ T cell response at early and late time points. We found that intranasal vaccination generated robust and durable tissue-resident effector and effector memory CD8+ T cell populations that were undetectable after intraperitoneal vaccination. The generation of these antigen-experienced cells by intranasal vaccination resulted in earlier T cell responses, interferon gamma secretion, and viral clearance after respiratory syncytial virus challenge. Collectively, these findings validate a novel approach to vaccination that emphasizes the route of delivery as a key determinant of ...
One possibility, however, was that IgM+ memory cells switched immunoglobulin isotype after challenge and contributed to the swIg+ progeny. This possibility was difficult to assess as long as swIg+ memory cells were present at the time of challenge. Therefore, the secondary response was tested in mice that were primed with PE 450 days earlier and contained 100,000 PE-specific IgM+ and scarcely any swIg+ memory cells. These mice generated very few swIg+ cells of any kind after challenge, which indicated that the IgM+ memory cells did not undergo isotype switching. The IgM+ memory cells increased only twofold after challenge (Fig. 4B), in contrast to the robust primary response of naïve IgM+ cells to intraperitoneal injection of PE, which generated many IgM+ and swIg+ germinal center and memory cells (Fig. 4C).. Several lines of evidence suggested that the poor secondary response of IgM+ memory cells was related to anti-PE immunoglobulin present during challenge. Injection of hyperimmune serum ...
The human lung harbors a large population of resident memory T cells (Trm cells). These cells are perfectly positioned to mediate rapid protection against respiratory pathogens such as influenza virus, a highly contagious respiratory pathogen that continues to be a major public health burden. Animal models show that influenza-specific lung CD8+ Trm cells are indispensable for crossprotection against pulmonary infection with different influenza virus strains. However, it is not known whether influenza-specific CD8+ Trm cells present within the human lung have the same critical role in modulating the course of the disease. Here, we showed that human lung contains a population of CD8+ Trm cells that are highly proliferative and have polyfunctional progeny. We observed that different influenza virus-specific CD8+ T cell specificities differentiated into Trm cells with varying efficiencies and that the size of the influenza-specific CD8+ T cell population persisting in the lung directly correlated ...
The human lung harbors a large population of resident memory T cells (Trm cells). These cells are perfectly positioned to mediate rapid protection against respiratory pathogens such as influenza virus, a highly contagious respiratory pathogen that continues to be a major public health burden. Animal models show that influenza-specific lung CD8+ Trm cells are indispensable for crossprotection against pulmonary infection with different influenza virus strains. However, it is not known whether influenza-specific CD8+ Trm cells present within the human lung have the same critical role in modulating the course of the disease. Here, we showed that human lung contains a population of CD8+ Trm cells that are highly proliferative and have polyfunctional progeny. We observed that different influenza virus-specific CD8+ T cell specificities differentiated into Trm cells with varying efficiencies and that the size of the influenza-specific CD8+ T cell population persisting in the lung directly correlated ...
The human lung harbors a large population of resident memory T cells (Trm cells). These cells are perfectly positioned to mediate rapid protection against respiratory pathogens such as influenza virus, a highly contagious respiratory pathogen that continues to be a major public health burden. Animal models show that influenza-specific lung CD8+ Trm cells are indispensable for crossprotection against pulmonary infection with different influenza virus strains. However, it is not known whether influenza-specific CD8+ Trm cells present within the human lung have the same critical role in modulating the course of the disease. Here, we showed that human lung contains a population of CD8+ Trm cells that are highly proliferative and have polyfunctional progeny. We observed that different influenza virus-specific CD8+ T cell specificities differentiated into Trm cells with varying efficiencies and that the size of the influenza-specific CD8+ T cell population persisting in the lung directly correlated ...
The human lung harbors a large population of resident memory T cells (Trm cells). These cells are perfectly positioned to mediate rapid protection against respiratory pathogens such as influenza virus, a highly contagious respiratory pathogen that continues to be a major public health burden. Animal models show that influenza-specific lung CD8+ Trm cells are indispensable for crossprotection against pulmonary infection with different influenza virus strains. However, it is not known whether influenza-specific CD8+ Trm cells present within the human lung have the same critical role in modulating the course of the disease. Here, we showed that human lung contains a population of CD8+ Trm cells that are highly proliferative and have polyfunctional progeny. We observed that different influenza virus-specific CD8+ T cell specificities differentiated into Trm cells with varying efficiencies and that the size of the influenza-specific CD8+ T cell population persisting in the lung directly correlated ...
Upon activation, naive CD8 T cells undergo a program of proliferation and differentiation that results in the acquisition of effector functions. Optimal T cell activation requires the integration of multiple signals including cross-linking of the T cell receptor (signal 1), co-stimulation (signal 2) and soluble factors such as cytokines (signal 3). Once a CD8 T cell has received these three signals they differentiate into an effector cell, which are able to control infection by directly killing the infected cell. Once the infection is cleared, these effector cells contract by controlled cell death and a long-lived population of memory cells remain. These potent memory cells are the defining feature of adaptive immunity as they offer protection for the life of the host due to their unique capabilities to survive in the absence of antigen and respond rapidly to secondary challenge. Therefore, effective CD8 T cell memory is the goal of cell-mediated vaccination strategies. While it is well ...
A new study by investigators from the Harvard-affiliated Massachusetts General Hospital and the Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard may have located HIVs hiding place, in a small group of T cells with stem-like properties.
How these resident memory T cells are generated was unknown, and their importance with regard to how our immune system remembers infection and how it prevents against re-infection is being studied intensively. Now, a study by a Brigham and Womens Hospital (BWH) research team led by Xiaodong Jiang, PhD, research scientist and Thomas S. Kupper, MD, Chair of the BWH Department of Dermatology, and the Thomas B. Fitzpatrick Professor of Dermatology at Harvard, has used a model involving a vaccinia virus infection of the skin to answer important questions about how these newly discovered cells protect us. The study will be electronically published on February 29, 2012 in Nature.. Jiang and Kupper used skin infection with vaccinia virus to study the relative roles of central memory T cells (T cells that circulate in the bloodstream) and resident memory T cells in protective immunity. What they found was that after infection, disease-specific T cells were rapidly recruited not only to the infected ...
SEMICON USA showed how standards have been used to keep semiconductor manufacturing ongoing even with employees working remotely. Micron spoke about challenges for denser DRAM and Applied Materials talked about advantages of MRAM . SEMICON Shanghai gave insights on memory developments in China.
A semiconductor device includes a non-volatile memory, such as an electrically erasable programmable read only memory (EEPROM) array of memory cells. The memory is arranged as an array of cells in rows and columns. Each column of the array is located within an isolated well, common to the cells in the column but isolated from other wells of other columns. The array is programmed by pulsing potentials to each column, with isolation of results for each column. In one embodiment, the memory cells are devoid of floating gate devices and use a non-conductive charge storage layer to store charges. In another embodiment, the memory cells store charges in nanocrystals.
Despite widespread use of the bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine, tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of global mortality from a single infectious agent (Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Mtb). Here, over two independent Mtb challenge studies, we demonstrate that subcutaneous vaccination of rhesus macaques (RMs) with rhesus cytomegalovirus vectors encoding Mtb antigen inserts (hereafter referred to as RhCMV/TB)-which elicit and maintain highly effector-differentiated, circulating and tissue-resident Mtb-specific CD4+ and CD8+ memory T cell responses-can reduce the overall (pulmonary and extrapulmonary) extent of Mtb infection and disease by 68%, as compared to that in unvaccinated controls, after intrabronchial challenge with the Erdman strain of Mtb at ∼1 year after the first vaccination ...
Collectively, our data indicate that targeting Ags to CD180 induces rapid activation of Ag-specific B cells, leading to significant IgG production within 7 d. Remarkably, a single injection of Ag-αCD180 without any additional adjuvant also led to the development of both Ab affinity maturation and immunological memory (Fig. 3). Furthermore, although severely impaired, Ag-specific IgG production and responses to secondary immunizations were retained in CD40 KO mice (Fig. 3 H), even though CD40 KO mice did not make Ag-specific IgG or develop memory Ab-producing cells in response to Ag in alum, as reported previously (Kawabe et al., 1994). The Ab responses induced required the Ags to be attached to anti-CD180 and could be induced to both haptens and protein Ags.. Why is this mode of immunization so effective in rapidly raising IgG Ab responses? Previous studies showed that i.p. inoculation of high doses of αCD180 could induce increases in plasma cells (500 µg) and polyclonal Ig production (250 ...
The mental faculty that allows us to retain information as well as recall experiences from a long time ago is known as memory. the human memory is a highly. Here, we show that human memory b lymphocytes. proliferate and differentiate into plasma cells in response to polyclonal stimuli, .. It is more accurate to speak of human memories rather than of human memory, since people have several distinctly different types. The human memory and cognition lab uses empirical, computational, and developmental approaches to understand how memory works in humans. Turn the cards, test your memory see whether you can match them in correct pairs. instructions to play. there are pairs of images hidden in this applet. Try remember where the images are f youre about to go crazy pictures in this game are from poisons icons. return to game index. How is your memory for faces? back to games back to memory games back to face recognition. ame developed by kien caoxuan. When you are considering face, try to imprint it ...
The studies described introduce a novel concept, namely, that a psychophysiological stress response is natures fundamental survival mechanism that could be therapeutically harnessed to augment immune function during vaccination, wound healing, or infection. We report the novel finding that short-term stressors experienced at the time of primary immunization can induce long-lasting increases in immunological memory that may be mediated by increased numbers of memory T cells.. These studies are important because they are specifically designed to model naturally experienced temporal relationships between stressor and antigen exposure. For example, when a gazelle escapes from a charging lion, the gazelle is acutely stressed during the attack, after which it is exposed to antigens and pathogens that enter wounds that are likely to arise during the stressful chase and frantic scuffle that enable the gazelle to escape. Similarly, when a child sees a nurse approaching with a vaccine-loaded syringe, it ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A class I transgene reveals regulatory events on chromosome 1 marking peripheral T cell differentiation and memory. AU - Sloma, Cari Roark. AU - Hansen, Michael J.. AU - MacDougall, Audrey A.. AU - Van Keulen, Virginia P.. AU - Jenkins, Robert Brian. AU - Pease, Larry R. PY - 2005/6/15. Y1 - 2005/6/15. N2 - T cells respond to external signals by altering patterns of gene expression. Our characterization of a transgenic mouse revealed a genetic locus that is specifically regulated in T cells. Elucidation of the factors controlling the expression of the marker transgene may reveal basic regulatory mechanisms used by T cells as they differentiate from naive to primed/memory T cells. Although endogenous MHC class I K q expression is normal in these animals, expression of the K b transgene differentiates naive from primed/memory T cells. K bHigh T cells bear the phenotypic and functional properties of primed/memory T cells, while K bLow T cells have naive phenotypes. The transition ...
Results Twenty patients were included. Nine were treated by etanercept (ETN), 9 by certolizumab pegol and 2 by adalimumab. The percentage of B cells significantly increased under TNFi from (median [IQR 25-75]) 4.6 (3.5-6.7) to 7.6 (5.2-9.9) % of lymphocytes. No change was observed in the different subtypes of B cells. However, in patients treated with ETN, IgD-CD27- double negative memory B cells significantly increased from 4.6 (2.5-5.4) to 7.7 (6.2-11.0)(p=0.03). The variation of those double negative B cells were significantly different from those observed with monoclonal antibodies (+1.6 [0.0-5.4] vs 0.3 [-1.3-1.8]% of B cells, p=0.02). No change of T, NK, NKT cells was observed in either group. EULAR responders at 3 months had significantly higher percentage of CD27+ memory B cells at baseline (32.9 [25.2-40.6] vs 19.5 [12.3-19.6]% of B cells, respectively; p=0.02), especially IgD+CD27+ pre-switch memory B cells (19.3 [9.8-21.8] vs 5.9 [4.9-9.4]% of B cells, respectively; p=0.02). Since ...
BACKGROUND: High levels of ex vivo CD4 T-cell death and the accumulation of highly differentiated and/or immunosenescent T cells have been associated with poor CD4 T-cell recovery in treated HIV-infected individuals. However, the relationship between cell death and T-cell differentiation is still unclear. METHODS: We have analyzed cell death, immunosenescence and differentiation parameters in HAART-treated subjects (VL |50 copies/mL for more than 2 years) with CD4 T-cell count |350 cells/μL (immunodiscordant, n = 23) or |400 cells/μL (immunoconcordant, n = 33). We included 11 healthy individuals as reference. RESULTS: As expected, suboptimal CD4 T-cell recovery was associated with low frequencies of naïve cells, high frequencies of transitional and effector memory cells and a subsequent low ratio of central/transitional memory cells in the CD4 compartment. These alterations correlated with spontaneous CD4 T-cell death. A deeper analysis of cell death in CD4 T-cell subsets showed increased cell death
The potential impact of this CD4+ memory proliferative collapse on peripheral tissues was revealed by another series of observations. First, as explained in Results, both the kinetics of BrdU labeling of blood, lymph node, and BAL T cells, and the pattern of Ki-67 expression by these labeled cells, firmly establish that the pulmonary tissue-air interface of SIV-infected normal progressors is constantly being seeded by recently divided CD4+ memory T cells, originating elsewhere (likely organized lymphoid tissues). Thus, SIV infection increases CD4+ memory T cell proliferation in peripheral lymphoid tissues, producing progeny that directly disperse to extralymphoid effector sites. Because there is both a paucity of Ki-67high T cells and minimal immediate BrdU uptake by T cells in BALs, these cells do not appear to further proliferate in these sites, but given the rapid decline in BrdU labeling observed in our BAL samples (Fig. 7), likely die in situ, only to be continuously replaced by subsequent ...
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as well as in ex vivo patient-derived cells. Employing the kick and kill approach to TN and TCM cells in our in vitro primary cell model revealed that although TN cells contained significantly less HIV-1 DNA than TCM cells, following reactivation, they produced as much, if not more, virus than TCM cells when normalized for infection frequency. This finding was also observed using ex vivo cells from 4 of 7 donors. Furthermore, we found that similar levels of replication-competent virus were recovered from TN and TCM cells when corrected for infection frequency. These findings suggest that quantifying HIV-1 DNA alone may not be predictive of the size of the inducible latent reservoir in different CD4+ T cell subsets. Furthermore, although TN cells constitute only a fraction of the HIV-1 DNA reservoir, they may contribute significantly to viral rebound following treatment interruption or failure. Thus, a greater attention should be given to the latent viral reservoir in TN cells in HIV-1-infected ...
A programming voltage is applied to a first word line coupled to a control gate of a selected ferroelectric memory cell in an array of ferroelectric memory cells. A gate/source voltage equal to the programming voltage is sufficient to reverse polarity of each memory cell. A ground potential is applied to a first program line coupled to a first source/drain region of the selected memory cell and to a first bit line coupled to a second source/drain region of the selected memory cell. A fraction of the programming voltage is applied to other word lines coupled to control gates of non-selected memory cells not associated with the first word line, other program lines coupled to first source/drain regions of non-selected memory cells not associated with the first program line, and other bit lines coupled to second source/drain regions of non-selected memory cells not associated with the first bit line.
Original citation: J. Clin. Invest.112:286-297 (2003). doi:10.1172/JCI18025.. Citation for this corrigendum: J. Clin. Invest.113:1069 (2004). doi:10.1172/JCI18025E1.. The legends for Figures 6 and 7 contained inaccuracies, and the correct versions appear below. The conclusions of the article are unaffected.. Figure 6 BAFF increases the generation of ISC from activated memory B cells. (a and b) Memory B cells were preactivated with CD40L and IL-2/IL-10 for 4 days and then recultured with (a) media (black bars), or (b) IL-2/IL-10 alone (black bars) or in the presence of CD40L (white bars) or BAFF (gray bars). Each value represents the mean Ig secretion ± SEM of five (a) or seven (b) experiments using cells from different donors. *P , 0.05; **P , 0.01. (c) Secondary B cell cultures were performed in the absence (black bars) or presence (white bars) of soluble TACI-Ig (20 μg/ml). The values represent the mean IgA ± SD of duplicate samples. (d) Memory B cells were preactivated with ...
Richard Jefferys, TAG. Recent research involving SIV-infected macaques has suggested that the early loss of a particular type of memory CD4 T cell (known as a central memory T cell or Tcm) may be a key predictor of the subsequent pace of disease progression. Tcm are a long-lived subset of memory T cells that can proliferate robustly in response to antigen. Tcm proliferation generates a fleet of T cells belonging to a shorter-lived subset called effector memory (Tem) cells. Tem are generally viewed as first-responders that can rapidly execute anti-pathogen functions, while Tcm provide a stem-cell like renewal source for new Tem if their numbers need to be bolstered. Studies in HIV-infected people have consistently shown a loss of Tcm and increase in Tem (which equates to a decrease in long-lived resting T cells and an increase in short-lived activated T cells), but whether changes in the numbers of different T cell subsets during early infection can predict disease progression has not been ...
A memory includes a first resistive memory cell, a current source configured to provide an input current indicating a desired resistance level for the first memory cell, and a current mirror that mirrors the input current to provide an output current. The memory includes a first switching circuit configured to pass the output current to the first memory cell with the first memory cell not at the desired resistance level, and block the output current from the first memory cell in response to the first memory cell achieving the desired resistance level.
It is known that when naive CD4 T cells recognize an antigen and are activated, they differentiate into 2 subsets having distinct properties of TH1 and TH2 and they are both heterogeneous populations of effector/memory cells [12]. Heterogeneity is a particularly prominent feature of the effector/memory CD4+ T-cell population, which induces subsets capable of producing polarized patterns of cytokines that serve specialized functions and have profound effects on the quality of the immune response [13]. It has recently been learned that, in a new helper T-cell population having characteristics different from TH1 and TH2, IL-23, which is structurally and functionally similar to IL-12, is deeply involved in promotion of differentiation into Th-17 cells that specifically produce IL-17 without producing IFN-γ, IL-4, or IL-13 and also in induction of inflammation and some immunity to infections [14].. Recent studies have suggested that human heterogeneous populations of effector/memory cells display ...
CT-011 is a humanized immunoglobulin G 1 (IgG1) kappa recombinant monoclonal antibody against PD-1 receptor that blocks the interaction of PD-L1 with PD-1. CT-011 specifically binds to an epitope that is shared between the murine and the human PD-1 receptors on activated T cells, B cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and myeloid cells (CD14+ cells) and primarily functions in effector/memory T lymphocytes and in NK cells. In a functional bioassay, CT-011 was demonstrated to block the activity of PD-1 and to operate on CD4+CD45RO+ effector/memory T lymphocytes leading to attenuation of apoptotic processes ...
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Non-specific immunity results in no immunologic memory. There are mechanical, chemical, and biological factors affecting the ...
2 Immunologic mechanisms of rejection *2.1 Immunization. *2.2 Immune memory. *2.3 Cellular immunity ... Immune memory[edit]. When memory helper T cells' CD4 receptors bind to the MHC class II molecules which are expressed on the ... Immunologic mechanisms of rejection[edit]. Rejection is an adaptive immune response via cellular immunity (mediated by killer T ... The memory helper T cell subsequently produces clones that, as effector cells, secrete immune signalling molecules (cytokines) ...
MacDonald, Noni E. (1998). "Induction of Immunologic Memory by Conjugated vs Plain Meningococcal C Polysaccharide Vaccine in ...
... is a lack of immunity, or immunologic memory, to a disease because the person has not been vaccinated. There are ... West, D. J.; Calandra, G. B. (1996). "Vaccine induced immunologic memory for hepatitis B surface antigen: implications for ...
... is an immunologic adjuvant that uses a derivative of shark liver oil called squalene. It is Novartis' proprietary adjuvant ... that is added to influenza vaccines to help stimulate the human body's immune response through production of CD4 memory cells. ...
... the body does not have time to sufficiently develop immunological memory against the disease, and memory cells will not persist ... "Immunologic Reactions". National Academies Press (US). Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) University of the Sciences in ... In these cases, a booster dose is required to "boost" the memory B and T cell count back up again. In the case of the polio ... After a primary response of the immune system against a vaccination, memory T helper cells and B cells persist at a fairly ...
Neuropsychiatric symptoms and potential immunologic mechanisms". Brain, Behavior, and Immunity. 87: 34-39. doi:10.1016/j.bbi. ... Memory at PhilPapers Memory at the Indiana Philosophy Ontology Project Memory on In Our Time at the BBC Memory-related ... Under declarative memory resides semantic and episodic memory. Semantic memory refers to memory that is encoded with specific ... recover memories Method of loci Mnemonic major system Photographic memory Politics of memory Prenatal memory Procedural memory ...
During pregnancy, immunologic suppression occurs which induces tolerance to the presence of the fetus. Without this suppression ... Women in this phase experience low energy, poor memory, impaired concentration, carelessness, dry skin, cold intolerance, and ...
... vaccine as T cells stimulate a more vigorous immune response and also promote a more rapid and long-lasting immunologic memory ...
They also require no immunologic memory, they are secreted and effective against outside chemical threats as soon as they are ...
Zicker, S.C.; Jewell, D.; Yamka, R.; Milgram, N. (2012). "Evaluation of cognitive learning, memory, psychomotor, immunologic, ... In addition to prevention of free radical damage, this higher level of vitamin E greatly increases the number of memory CD4+ ... as demonstrated by increases in memory and learning ability. Other benefits of n-3 and DHA include promotion of neurogenesis, ...
... a primary goal is to determine how T cell memory is induced both in natural infection and by immunization. McElrath and her ... Their studies span a wide array of immunologic investigations in persons who experience unusual control of HIV-1 infection, ...
Through their role in the development of T cell immunologic memory, which depends upon the expansion of the number and function ... IL-2/IL2R also promotes the differentiation of T cells into effector T cells and into memory T cells when the initial T cells ... primarily on memory T cells and NK cells; and all three receptor chains form a complex that binds IL-2 with high affinity (Kd ...
Through its role in the development of T cell immunologic memory, which depends upon the expansion of the number and function ... IL-2 also promotes the differentiation of T cells into effector T cells and into memory T cells when the initial T cell is also ... Dimeric IL-2R is expressed by memory CD8+ T cells and NK cells, whereas regulatory T cells and activated T cells express high ... IL-2/S4B6 immune complexes have high stimulatory activity for NK cells and memory CD8+ T cells and they could thus replace the ...
Immunologic adjuvants are substances, administered in conjunction with a vaccine, that stimulate the immune system and increase ... which is added to influenza vaccines to help stimulate the human body's immune response through production of CD4 memory cells ...
... stem memory TSCM cells, and virtual memory T cells. The single unifying theme for all memory T cell subtypes is that they are ... T helper cells (TH cells) assist other white blood cells in immunologic processes, including maturation of B cells into plasma ... Memory T cell subtypes: *Central memory T cells (TCM cells) express CD45RO, C-C chemokine receptor type 7 (CCR7), and L- ... Although CD8 virtual memory T cells were the first to be described,[10] it is now known that CD4 virtual memory cells also ...
... as it makes use of the additional time by upregulating the production of B and T cells needed for greater immunological memory ... "An immunologic adjuvant is defined as any substance that acts to accelerate, prolong, or enhance antigen-specific immune ... Sasaki S, Okuda K (2000). "The Use of Conventional Immunologic Adjuvants in DNA Vaccine Preparations". In Lowrie DB, Whalen RG ...
"Immunologic correlates of protection against rotavirus challenge after intramuscular immunization of mice" (PDF). J Virol. 71 ... "Relative importance of rotavirus-specific effector and memory B cell responses in protection against challenge". Journal of ... "Induction of rotavirus- specific memory B cells in gut-associated lymphoid tissue after intramuscular immunization". Journal ...
Contribution of thymus-derived cells and antibody-forming cell precursors to immunological memory". J Exp Med. 134 (1): 66-82. ... Miller J. F. (26 June 1964). "The thymus and the development of immunologic responsiveness". Science. 144 (3626): 1544-51. ...
... by skewing the immune response that memory Th cells coordinate when their memory recall is triggered upon secondary exposure to ... the epitope can be recognized by immunologic structures like T-cell receptors (TCRs). The molecular region which binds to the ... polarizes into either a memory Th cell or an effector Th cell of phenotype either type 1 (Th1), type 2 (Th2), type 17 (Th17), ...
Part of them is kept in organism as memory cells and these cells could be a reason for "cross-reactivity" - immune response ... 84(10):1215-9 - according to Sánchez-Fueyo A, Strom TB (2011), Immunologic basis of graft rejection and tolerance following ... IL-2 is crucial for memory CD8+ T cell development. These cells may represent a serious problem after the transplantation. As ... Immunologic basis of graft rejection and tolerance following transplantation of liver or other solid organs. Gastroenterology ...
New members and novel functions". Immunologic Research. 17 (3): 313-27. doi:10.1007/BF02786454. PMID 9638475. S2CID 19901365. ... is expressed at higher levels on memory than on naive human T cells but induces a similar calcium mobilization on both subsets ...
Immunologic Research. 31 (2): 151-9. doi:10.1385/ir:31:2:151. PMID 15778512. S2CID 21256040. Sui H, Fan ZZ, Li Q (April 2012 ... "ABCB1 transporter discriminates human resting naive B cells from cycling transitional and memory B cells". European Journal of ...
... central memory, effector memory, and ultimately terminally differentiated effector T cell populations. CD8+ T cells ... Thus Cish represents a new class of T-cell intrinsic immunologic checkpoints with the potential to radically enhance adoptive ... Human T memory stem cells express a gene program that enables them to proliferate extensively and differentiate into other T ... "A human memory T cell subset with stem cell-like properties". Nature Medicine. 17 (10): 1290-7. doi:10.1038/nm.2446. PMC ...
Immunological memory can be in the form of either passive short-term memory or active long-term memory. The immune system is ... Rus H, Cudrici C, Niculescu F (2005). "The role of the complement system in innate immunity". Immunologic Research. 33 (2): 103 ... Long-term active memory is acquired following infection by activation of B and T cells. Active immunity can also be generated ... Gabrielli S, Ortolani C, Del Zotto G, Luchetti F, Canonico B, Buccella F, Artico M, Papa S, Zamai L (2016). "The Memories of NK ...
The Dawsons showed that NO derived from neuronal NO synthase and immunologic NO synthase leads to degeneration of dopamine ... learning and memory. Variants in Thorase were found to be linked to schizophrenia and expression of these variants in mice lead ...
These T cells are believed to be the main immunologic mechanism to fight malaria in liver. In 2014 Sanaria promoted an ... and are primarily situated in the liver because of the persistence of parasite antigens and retained as tissue memory cells. ... and immunologic associates of protection". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 200 (3): 337-46. doi:10.1086/600120. PMID ...
"ABCB1 transporter discriminates human resting naive B cells from cycling transitional and memory B cells". European Journal of ... Immunologic Research. 31 (2): 151-9. doi:10.1385/ir:31:2:151. PMID 15778512.. ...
A neurologic syndrome called Lyme encephalopathy is associated with subtle memory and cognitive difficulties, insomnia, a ... this is more common after infection by certain Borrelia strains in people with certain genetic and immunologic characteristics. ... memory disturbances, malaise, radicular pain, sleep disturbances, muscle pains, and concentration disturbances. Lingering ... memory, visuospatial ability, complex cognition, and emotional status. White matter disease may have a greater potential for ...
The antigen cannot elicit the immune response without the help of an immunologic adjuvant.[3] Similarly, the adjuvant component ... which are intentionally administered to a recipient to induce the memory function of adaptive immune system toward the antigens ...
It is based on the fact that effector and memory (antigen-experienced) T cell are less dependent on costimulatory signals and ... "Immunologic Research. 50 (1): 39-48. doi:10.1007/s12026-011-8204-3. PMC 3107861. PMID 21365321.. ...
It is important to recognize, however, that stimulants act not only on working memory function, but also on general levels of ... Commonly used tests include chromatography, immunologic assay, and mass spectrometry.[129] See also[edit]. *Antipsychotics ... At abused (relatively high) doses, stimulants can interfere with working memory and cognitive control, as will be discussed ... Neuropsychological studies have detected deficits in attention, working memory, and decision-making in chronic METH addicts ... ...
Memory T cell proliferation in cow's milk allergy after CD25+ regulatory T cell removal suggests a role for casein-specific ... Immunologic self-tolerance maintained by activated T cells expressing IL-2 receptor alpha-chains (CD25). Breakdown of a single ... Tumor emergence is sensed by self-specific CD44hi memory Tregs that create a dominant tolerogenic environment for tumors in ... CD4+ naturally anergic and suppressive T cells as a key function of the thymus in maintaining immunologic self-tolerance. „J ...
Mackay LK, Gebhardt T., Tissue-resident memory T cells: local guards of the thymus., Eur J Immunol. september 2013;43(9):2259- ... immunologic and safety evaluations in 12 patients, BLOOD, 1. august 2003, 102. köide, number 3, (vaadatud 16.09.2014) ... immunologic and safety evaluations in 12 patients, BLOOD, 1. august 2003, 102. köide, number 3, 2003 ...
Cognitive symptoms are mainly from deficits in attention, memory, and reaction time. The deficits are in the range of 0.5 to ... Aoki T, Usuda Y, Miyakoshi H, Tamura K, Herberman RB (1987). "Low natural killer syndrome: clinical and immunologic features". ... Simple and complex information processing speed, and functions entailing working memory over long time periods were moderately ... and memory and concentration problems are enumerated. Other useful topics mentioned that patients and doctors might discuss ...
Memory B cells with increased CD27+/IgD-are less susceptible to immunosuppression. CD27-/IgD- memory B cells are associated ... Immunologic disorder: Positive anti-Smith, anti-ds DNA, antiphospholipid antibody, or false positive serological test for ... Simplest classification tree: SLE is diagnosed if a person has an immunologic disorder (anti-DNA antibody, anti-Smith antibody ... which promote the maturation of autoantibody-producing plasma cells and B memory cells. In the presence of autoreactive T cells ...
Hsiao K, Chapman P, Nilsen S, et al. (Oktoba 1996). "Correlative memory deficits, Abeta elevation, and amyloid plaques in ... Solomon B (Juni 2007). "Clinical immunologic approaches for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease". Expert Opin Investig Drugs ... Carlesimo GA, Oscar-Berman M (Juni 1992). "Memory deficits in Alzheimer's patients: a comprehensive review". Neuropsychol Rev 3 ... Jelicic M, Bonebakker AE, Bonke B (1995). "Implicit memory performance of patients with Alzheimer's disease: a brief review". ...
1992). "Immunologic Markers of Clinical Evolution in Children Recently Infected with Leishmania donovani chagasi". J. Infect. ... Memory T cells may be depleted in VL patient PBMC.[63][64] Since IL-10 is known to suppress innate and acquired immunity and ...
Older memories of the person's life (episodic memory), facts learned (semantic memory), and implicit memory (the memory of the ... Solomon B (June 2007). "Clinical immunologic approaches for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease". Expert Opinion on ... memory problems worsen, and the person may fail to recognise close relatives.[29] Long-term memory, which was previously intact ... or impairments in semantic memory (memory of meanings, and concept relationships) can also be symptomatic of the early stages ...
Hsiao K, Chapman P, Nilsen S, Eckman C, Harigaya Y, Younkin S, Yang F, Cole G (1996). «Correlative Memory Deficits, Abeta ... Solomon B (2007). «Clinical Immunologic Approaches for the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease». Expert Opinion on Investigational ... Jelicic M, Bonebakker AE, Bonke B (1995). «Implicit Memory Performance of Patients with Alzheimer's Disease: A Brief Review». ... Carlesimo GA, Oscar-Berman M (1992). «Memory Deficits in Alzheimer's Patients: A Comprehensive Review». Neuropsychology Review ...
Sun PD (2003). "Structure and function of natural-killer-cell receptors". Immunologic Research. 27 (2-3): 539-48. doi:10.1385/ ... and CD98 and ligation to ICs leads to generation of effector memory cells.[47] CD16a signaling is mediated by phosphorylation ...
Bhushan A, Covey LR (2002). "CD40:CD40L interactions in X-linked and non-X-linked hyper-IgM syndromes". Immunologic Research. ... as well as their differentiation to plasma cells and memory B cells. The end-result is a B cell that is able to mass-produce ...
June 20-24, 1990). "Natural history of HIV infection in a cohort of homosexual and bisexual men: clinical and immunologic ... Florida was renamed Kimberly Bergalis Memorial Park in her memory.[15] ...
Correlative memory deficits, Abeta elevation, and amyloid plaques in transgenic mice. „Science". 274 (5284), s. 99-102, 10 1996 ... Solomon B. Clinical immunologic approaches for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. „Expert Opin Investig Drugs". 16 (6), s. ... Meditation effects on cognitive function and cerebral blood flow in subjects with memory loss: a preliminary study. „Journal of ... Memories of Tomorrow (Ashita no Kioku) (2006), na podstawie książki Hiroshiego Ogiwary o tym samym tytule[255], Daleko od niej ...
正常老化(英语:Memory and ageing)而非阿茲海默症造成的影響. *有時會遗忘東西 ... Solomon B. Clinical Immunologic Approaches for the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease. Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs. ... Heritability of different forms of memory in the Late Onset Alzheimer's Disease Family Study.. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. ... Hsiao K, Chapman P, Nilsen S. Correlative Memory Deficits, Abeta Elevation, and Amyloid Plaques in Transgenic Mice.
"This immunologic evidence may help explain the epidemiologic studies indicating that children living along major trucking ... "Working and Episodic Memory in HIV Infection, Alcoholism, and Their Comorbidity: Baseline and 1-Year Follow-Up Examinations" ... Importantly, diesel fuel particles appear to have even greater immunologic effects in the presence of environmental allergens ...
Shen, Howard (2008). Illustrated Pharmacology Memory Cards: PharMnemonics. Minireview. p. 13. ISBN 1-59541-101-1.. ... Immunologic: Higher risk of allergic reaction in those with sulfa allergies.[12] ...
Gaslini, to equip it with the most modern health facilities, in memory of their daughter Giannina, who died very young, in ... More specifically he worked on hepatitis, and eventually designed an innovative immunologic approach to treat such pathologies ... in the painful memory of her precocious maternal feeling, it arose and matured in my soul in the distant 1917, in the middle of ...
Kyle, Robert A.; Shampo, Marc A. (April 2003). "Peter Medawar--discoverer of immunologic tolerance". Mayo Clin. Proc. 78 (4): ... in memory of John Wilkins, John Desmond Bernal and Peter Medawar. The winner delivers the Wilkins-Bernal-Medawar Lecture. ...
... memory B cell - memory T cell - Mendelian inheritance - Metabolic pathway - metabolism - metabotropic glutamate receptor - ... immunologic receptor - immunology - In vivo - infrared spectroscopy - inhibin - inhibitor - inhibitory gi G-protein - Inorganic ...
Vaccines pose a very small immunologic load compared to the pathogens naturally encountered by a child in a typical year; ... State Health Commissioner Howard Zucker stated that this was the worst outbreak of measles in his recent memory. In January ... Aluminum compounds are used as immunologic adjuvants to increase the effectiveness of many vaccines. The aluminum in vaccines ... it may reduce the perceived risk of disease as cultural memories of the effects of that disease fade. At this point, parents ...
Immunologic Memory (Supp. of ATN 024). The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study ... Correlates of HBV-Specific B Cell Memory Following Vaccination in HIV-Infected Adolescents and HIV-Uninfected Adolescents: A ...
Booster Vaccinations: Can Immunologic Memory Outpace Disease Pathogenesis? Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ... Immunologic memory in Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine failure. Arch Dis Child.2003;88 (5):379- 383. ... A decrease in antibody despite persistence of immunologic memory was associated with a decline in vaccine effectiveness.44-46 ... The production of memory B and T cells is of clear importance, but the likelihood that a memory response will be fast enough in ...
... 19.04.2006 ... Memory cells are key to vaccine strategies being studied for infectious agents such as HIV. But the CD8+ T cells can only ... After they fight the initial infection, some of these CD8+ T cells remain in the circulation as memory cells, primed to fight ... The result was a marked impairment of memory cell generation. These new findings not only provide insight into the fundamental ...
Analysis of memory B cell responses and isolation of novel monoclonal antibodies with neutralizing breadth from HIV-1-infected ... Very low affinity B cells form germinal centers, become memory B cells, and participate in secondary immune responses when ... selection necessary for the generation of high affinity memory B lymphocytes. Despite the antigen dependence of this reaction, ...
"Immunologic Memory" by people in this website by year, and whether "Immunologic Memory" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Immunologic Memory" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Immunologic Memory" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Immunologic Memory". ...
Pretransplant Frequency of Donor-Specific, IFN-γ-Producing Lymphocytes Is a Manifestation of Immunologic Memory and Correlates ... Pretransplant Frequency of Donor-Specific, IFN-γ-Producing Lymphocytes Is a Manifestation of Immunologic Memory and Correlates ... Pretransplant Frequency of Donor-Specific, IFN-γ-Producing Lymphocytes Is a Manifestation of Immunologic Memory and Correlates ... Pretransplant Frequency of Donor-Specific, IFN-γ-Producing Lymphocytes Is a Manifestation of Immunologic Memory and Correlates ...
Short-term stress experienced at time of immunization induces a long-lasting increase in immunologic memory. Firdaus S. Dhabhar ... We identify a key immunologic mechanism, namely, an acute stress-induced increase in effector and memory helper T cells at the ... Short-term stress experienced at time of immunization induces a long-lasting increase in immunologic memory ... Short-term stress experienced at time of immunization induces a long-lasting increase in immunologic memory ...
Persistent parasites and immunologic memory in cutaneous leishmaniasis: implications for vaccine designs and vaccination ... maintenance and loss of anti-Leishmania memory responses and highlights the role of persistent parasites and regulatory T cells ...
Primordial Cell-Mediated Immunity and Memory. * Characteristics of Cell-Mediated Immunity and Memory in Annelids ...
This has been known for decades - but the structure of this cellular immunologic memory has previously proven impossible to pin ... memory cells form that the body uses to remember the pathogen. ... In terms of its function and effect, immunologic memory is well ... This has been known for decades - but the structure of this cellular immunologic memory has previously proven impossible to pin ... Vaccines are a prime example of how immunologic memory can protect us from infectious diseases. ...
Immunologic Memory. A primary immune response happens the first time that the body encounters a specific antigen. It takes ... A third characteristic is memory. After an antigen is cleared from the body, immunological memory allows an antigen to be ... Memory B cells are also produced and are involved in the protection of the body upon a second exposure to the pathogen at ... Memory B cells are also produced and are involved in the protection of the body upon a second exposure to the pathogen at ...
Immunologic memory to metabolic cycling. Hasty, Alyssa H. / Veterans Health Administration. NIH 2020. I01 VA. Immunologic ... Immunologic memory to metabolic cycling. Hasty, Alyssa H. / Veterans Health Administration. NIH 2017. I01 VA. Turnover of ... Immunologic memory to metabolic cycling Hasty, Alyssa H. Veterans Health Administration, Nashville, TN, United States ... 2018) Links between Immunologic Memory and Metabolic Cycling. J Immunol 200:3681-3689 ...
Immunologic Memory (C4). Organizer(s) Robert A. Seder, Susan L. Swain, Rafi Ahmed and Antonio Lanzavecchia ... Effector and Memory CD4 T Cell Protection in Influenza. Tania H. Watts, University of Toronto, Canada Short Talk: A Critical ... Regulation of Memory CD4+ T cell Selection and Homeostasis. Robert A. Seder, NIAID, National Institutes of Health, USA The ... Transcriptional Control in Memory for B and T Lymphocytes Susan L. Swain, University of Massachusetts Medical School, USA ...
We therefore assessed the use of glycoconjugate vaccines as an alternative method of demonstrating immunologic memory. METHODS ... Administration of glycoconjugate vaccines provides an important alternative method of demonstrating immunologic memory, ... vaccines have traditionally used an immune challenge with a plain polysaccharide vaccine to demonstrate immunologic memory. ... Plain polysaccharide vaccines are poorly immunogenic in children and can induce subsequent immunologic hyporesponsiveness. ...
Immunologic memory depends on the presence of persistent populations of memory cells that accumulate as an animal ages. These ... Immunologic Memory. The effectiveness of adaptive immunity is largely a result of its ability to recognize antigens encountered ... Cell-mediated memory may also be due to the development of very long-lived populations of memory T cells. The effectiveness of ... Most effector T cells die within a few days once they are no longer needed, but a few survive to become long-lived memory cells ...
Links between Immunologic Memory and Metabolic Cycling. Matthew A. Cottam, Hana A. Itani, Arch A. Beasley and Alyssa H. Hasty. ... The Latent Reservoir for HIV-1: How Immunologic Memory and Clonal Expansion Contribute to HIV-1 Persistence. Alexandra J. ... Human IgM+CD27+ B Cells: Memory B Cells or Memory B Cells?. Stuart G. Tangye and Kim L. Good. J Immunol 2007 179: 13-19 ... Hidden Memories: Frontline Memory T Cells and Early Pathogen Interception. David Masopust and Louis J. Picker. J Immunol 2012 ...
MCC vaccine is immunogenic and primes for immunologic memory in preterm infants. The decreased memory responses in these ... METHODS: Immunogenicity and induction of immunologic memory by as MCC vaccine was assessed in premature infants; 62 preterm and ... This study is the first to describe both persistence of antibody and evidence for induction of immune memory using ... MCC vaccine is immunogenic and primes for immunologic memory in preterm infants. The decreased memory responses in these ...
LATENCY AND IMMUNOLOGIC MEMORY. HIV-1 latency is a consequence of the normal physiology of CD4+ T lymphocytes (Fig. 1). At any ... The combined effects of a long life span and proliferative renewal provide lifelong immunologic memory of many infectious ... Most effector cells eventually die, but a fraction revert to a resting memory state. The memory pool is maintained by the long ... immunologic memory. The dependence of viral gene expression on host factors that are inactive in resting T cells means that ...
Immunologic Memory * Conclusion * Chapter 3. Two Effector Mechanisms of the Adaptive Immune Response * Introduction ... The text helps beginning students in biomedical disciplines understand the basis of immunologic knowledge, while also helping ... Includes fundamental insights on immunologic tolerance, interactions of lymphocytes with antigen TCR and BCR, and the ... including fundamental insights on immunologic tolerance, interactions of lymphocytes with antigen TCR and BCR, the generation ...
Patients Favorites for Pain Support, Sleep, Memory, Digestion and more CHRONIC FATIGUE SYNDROME & ME. Patients Favorites for ... Immunologic reactivity against Borrelia burgdorferi in patients with motor neuron disease.. *. [ Not Yet Rated ] [ Discuss This ...
Immunologic: allergy, edema head/neck.. Musculoskeletal: muscle weakness.. Nervous System: vertigo, insomnia, memory impairment ... There have been rare postmarketing reports of cognitive impairment (e.g., memory loss, forgetfulness, amnesia, memory ...
Many infections are cleared rapidly by the immune system leaving the host with protective memory B and T cell memory. However, ... The impact of these microorganisms immunological memory is only just starting to be evaluated. The goals of this meeting are to ... Immunological memory develops differently during these protracted infections. Prolonged host-pathogen interactions, chronic ... the impact of prolonged host-microbe interactions on immunological memory and 3) how the application of cutting edge approaches ...
In the cured individuals who responded to SLA, effector memory (CD45RA-CCR7-) CD4+ T cells were the ones producing IFN-gamma. ... Furthermore, in cured individuals which maintains Leishmania-specific IFN-gamma production, effector memory CD4+ T cells were ... The frequency of memory CD4+ T cell populations was determined by FACS. Here we show that the majority of CL and ML patients ... central memory) and CD45RA-CCR7- (effector memory). While effector memory CD4+ T cells can be found in blood and rapidly ...
Immunologic: allergy, edema head/neck.. Musculoskeletal: muscle weakness.. Nervous System: vertigo, insomnia, memory impairment ... There have been rare postmarketing reports of cognitive impairment (e.g., memory loss, forgetfulness, amnesia, memory ...
Development of immunologic memory * 53. Basics of Vaccination in Poultry Requirements for Good Immune Response Good nutrition ...
the immunologic. Open. Absence of. memory. recruiting. toxicity. to the HER2-ICD. ... T cells are required for secondary expansion and memory in CD. 8. +. T lymphocytes," Nature, vol. 421, no. 6925, pp. 852-856, ... V. M. Fazio, F. Ria, E. Franco et al., "Immune response at birth, long-term immune memory and 2 years follow-up after in-utero ... populations and blood samples are examined for the presence of memory markers to demonstrate the development of HER2 ICD memory ...
Immunologic Memory * Interleukin-15 / immunology* * Interleukin-2 / immunology* * Interleukin-7 / immunology* * Killer Cells, ...
Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes. Immune System Diseases. Central Nervous System Stimulants. Physiological Effects of Drugs. ... Placebo in the Treatment of Memory Loss Due to HIV. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of ... At baseline, all subjects get tests of memory and brain function; then they are split into two groups. One group on this study ... A subset of patients with HIV-associated memory loss have a defect in the speed with which they learn and process information. ...
Quantifying memory CD8 T cells reveals regionalization of immunosurveillance. Cell 2016;161:737-49. ... Clinical and Immunologic Biomarkers for Histologic Regression of High-Grade Cervical Dysplasia and Clearance of HPV16 and HPV18 ... A single human papillomavirus vaccine dose improves B cell memory in previously infected subjects. EBiomedicine 2016;10:55-64. ... Clinical and Immunologic Biomarkers for Histologic Regression of High-Grade Cervical Dysplasia and Clearance of HPV16 and HPV18 ...
  • This immunoenhancement is mediated by an increase in numbers of memory and effector helper T cells in sentinel lymph nodes at the time of primary immunization. (physiology.org)
  • We used depleting anti-CD4 mAb to analyze the role of CD4 + T cells for memory CD8 + T cell responses after secondary infection of mice with the intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes , or after boost immunization by specific peptide or DNA vaccination. (rupress.org)
  • Here we analyzed the role of CD4 + T cells in the formation of memory CD8 + T cell responses after secondary L. monocytogenes infection, or after boost immunization with the peptide LLO 91-99 or a DNA vaccine containing the gene for listeriolysin. (rupress.org)
  • Depletion of CD4 + T cells significantly enhanced memory CD8 + T cell responses, particularly after peptide and DNA immunization. (rupress.org)
  • Immunologic assays revealed evidence of the induction of peripheral blood T-cell reactivity to both KLH and tumor lysates after immunization, particularly in children. (moffitt.org)
  • 2 Many efficacious immunization strategies that induce rapid and robust/durable memory CD8 + T cell responses have either employed a multiple-dose regimen (ie, prime-boost) or treated animals with adoptively transferred DCs pulsed in vitro with antigen. (dovepress.com)
  • The existence of such hypervariable proteins has led to speculation that they could constitute part of a system that would allow immune memory, or at least immune specificity, in invertebrates. (biologists.org)
  • Persistence of vaccine-induced antibodies usually goes well beyond the time when they should have decayed to undetectable levels because of ongoing "natural" boosting or other immunologic mechanisms. (aappublications.org)
  • Hence a thorough understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms regulating adaptive memory immunity will have potentially important clinical application. (keystonesymposia.org)
  • The goals of this meeting are to discuss: 1) cutting edge research on the mechanisms of optimal immunological memory, 2) the impact of prolonged host-microbe interactions on immunological memory and 3) how the application of cutting edge approaches to studying these issues can help generated better vaccines and immunotherapies. (rochester.edu)
  • This comprehensive, up-to-date text will be of interest to graduate students,post-doctoral fellows, basic and clinical immunologists, microbiologists and infectious disease physicians, and any physician treating diseases in which immunologic mechanisms play a role. (google.co.in)
  • Immunologic testing failed to confirm findings from earlier uncontrolled studies, militating against proposed immunologic mechanisms. (annals.org)
  • Sadd and Schmid-Hempel, 2006 ), so far any mechanisms that point to the existence of immune memory in any invertebrate have not been presented. (biologists.org)
  • The mechanisms that regulate B cell memory and the rapid recall response to antigen remain poorly defined. (rupress.org)
  • In this review I will present information on what is known about B-cell and T-cell immune memory and innate immunity and the pace of pathogenesis for the diseases we are currently preventing with vaccination, and I will examine the dynamic nature of the situation as changes in natural boosting occur. (aappublications.org)
  • Trained immunity: A program of innate immune memory in health and disease. (umassmed.edu)
  • We demonstrate that this approach detects cytokine production at single cell resolution and detects production of IFN-γ only when there is defined immunologic priming, thus representing a measure of primed donor-specific immunity. (jimmunol.org)
  • Researchers from the University of Basel and University Hospital Basel have now identified a microanatomical region in memory cells that enables them to work rapidly in the first few hours of an immune response, as they report in the journal Immunity. (myscience.org)
  • Innate immunity does not induce immunologic memory. (medscape.com)
  • Adaptive immunity induces immunologic memory and can directly kill tumor cells or recruit other effectors through cytokine production. (medscape.com)
  • The results showed that PMBL exerts a therapeutic and preventing effect in acute and recurrent infections of the upper respiratory tract and that this effect correlated with the activation and enhancement of both IgM memory B lymphocytes (CD24+/CD27+ cells) and IL2 receptor-expressing lymphocytes (CD25+ cells) involved either in humoral or cellular immunity. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Non-specific immunity results in no immunologic memory. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, we identify new cellular components of B cell memory and propose a model for long-term protective immunity that is regulated by a complex balance of committed memory B cells with subspecialized immune function. (rupress.org)
  • and (d) replenishment of the memory B cell compartment after Ag rechallenge is critical for long-term protective immunity. (rupress.org)
  • 1 Although naturally occurring infections are often effective at inducing long-lived CD8 + T cell memory, commonly used adjuvants such as alum, oil-in-water emulsions, or innate immune stimulating Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands have not proven as successful for the induction of cell-mediated immunity (CMI). (dovepress.com)
  • Early measurements suggested that in uninfected humans, memory cells die or divide with a half-life ( t 1/2 ) of 6 months while naïve cells have an even longer intermitotic half-life ( 32 , 34 ). (asm.org)
  • Plain polysaccharide vaccines are poorly immunogenic in children and can induce subsequent immunologic hyporesponsiveness. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The end goal is to improve upon existing immune-based therapies to induce long-lived, highly functional anti-tumor memory T cells that promote durable cancer remission. (utah.edu)
  • Analysis of memory B cell responses and isolation of novel monoclonal antibodies with neutralizing breadth from HIV-1-infected individuals. (duke.edu)
  • Very low affinity B cells form germinal centers, become memory B cells, and participate in secondary immune responses when higher affinity competition is reduced. (duke.edu)
  • This review focuses on current understanding of the factors that regulate the development, maintenance and loss of anti-Leishmania memory responses and highlights the role of persistent parasites and regulatory T cells in this process. (ovid.com)
  • The decreased memory responses in these preterm infants in conjunction with waning clinical efficacy data for all U.K. infants suggest a role for a routine booster dose of vaccine in all infants receiving MCC, especially those born preterm. (ox.ac.uk)
  • They persist as memory cells, with an altered pattern of gene expression enabling long-term survival and rapid responses to the Ag in the future (for a review of immunologic memory, see reference 27 ). (asm.org)
  • It is well established that immunologic memory generated early in life can be maintained into old age and mediate robust anamnestic antibody responses. (bus2226w16.com)
  • Consequently, these analyses indicate that certain immunologic responses associate with successful resolution of HPV-induced premalignancy, with particular emphasis on the upregulation of perforin in the immunotherapy-induced immune response. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A key hallmark of protective T cell responses is the long-lived (in many cases life-long) persistence of memory T cells after the pathogen is cleared. (utah.edu)
  • Priming is the process of subliminally arousing specific responses from memory and shows that not all memory is consciously activated, whereas procedural memory is the slow and gradual learning of skills that often occurs without conscious attention to learning. (wikipedia.org)
  • The high-affinity IL-2 receptor was dispensable for memory CD8+ T cell responses, whereas signaling through CD122 as a component of the high-affinity IL-15 receptor was critical for costimulation-independent memory CD8+ T cell recall, distinguishing specific roles for IL-2 and IL-15 in T cell activation. (jci.org)
  • Initially, they promote the generation of a CD8 + T cell responses and later they restrain the strength of the CD8 + T cell memory response. (rupress.org)
  • During primary responses, CD4 + T cells promote the generation and accumulation of specific CD8 + T cells, during memory responses, CD4 + CD25 + T cells restrict the strength of the response. (rupress.org)
  • The DCs, characterized as immature by phenotypic marker profiling, yielded both immunologic and very modest clinical responses. (moffitt.org)
  • These B220 + memory B cells can express mutated Ag receptors and are found in late primary and secondary responses ( 9 )( 10 )( 11 )( 32 )( 33 )( 34 ). (rupress.org)
  • Together, these results suggest that the use of a polyanhydride-based nanovaccine can be an effective approach to inducing antigen-specific CD8 + T cell memory by providing antigen delivery and DC activation while avoiding overt inflammatory responses typically associated with traditional adjuvants. (dovepress.com)
  • Given the importance of inducing long-lasting increases in immunologic memory during vaccination, we suggest that the neuroendocrine stress response is nature's adjuvant that could be psychologically and/or pharmacologically manipulated to safely increase vaccine efficacy. (physiology.org)
  • With every infection or vaccination, memory cells form that the body uses to remember the pathogen. (myscience.org)
  • Although nearly 42% of them were not seroprotected, but most of boosted subjects (87.3%) retained robust immunologic memory and rapidly retained a protective anti-HBs antibody titer of at least 10 IU/L after booster vaccination . (bvsalud.org)
  • Results Memory space B cell reactions after main vaccination To examine the impact of age on the generation of memory space B cells inside a main immune response, the frequencies of antigen-specific memory space B cells were assessed in 21 aged (60C80?years) and 12 small (20C31?years) individuals before, and 1?month after, main TBE vaccination. (bus2226w16.com)
  • Open up in another window Fig. 1 Analysis of the quantity and frequency of TBEV-specific memory B cells after principal TBE vaccination. (bus2226w16.com)
  • The development of immunologic memory is a fundamental process in response to vaccination and is critical for protection from secondary exposure to viral pathogens. (frontiersin.org)
  • Memory cells are key to vaccine strategies being studied for infectious agents such as HIV. (innovations-report.com)
  • Vaccine-elicited memory CD4+ T cell expansion is impaired in the lungs during tuberculosis. (umassmed.edu)
  • Demonstration of immunologic memory using serogroup C meningococcal glycoconjugate vaccine. (ox.ac.uk)
  • BACKGROUND: Studies of glycoconjugate vaccines have traditionally used an immune challenge with a plain polysaccharide vaccine to demonstrate immunologic memory. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Immunogenicity and immunologic memory of meningococcal C conjugate vaccine in premature infants. (ox.ac.uk)
  • This study is the first to describe both persistence of antibody and evidence for induction of immune memory using meningococcal C conjugate (MCC) vaccine in preterm infants. (ox.ac.uk)
  • CONCLUSIONS: MCC vaccine is immunogenic and primes for immunologic memory in preterm infants. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Long-term antibody response and immunologic memory in children immunized with hepatitis B vaccine at birth. (bvsalud.org)
  • We have found that healthy volunteers who lose protective MenC antibody levels one year after receipt of glycoconjugate vaccine exhibit no detectable cellular defect in polyclonal B- or T-cell activation, proliferation or the B-memory pool. (nih.gov)
  • Here, a prophylactic vaccine regimen designed as a single-dose polyanhydride nanovaccine encapsulating antigen is evaluated for the induction of CD8 + T cell memory in a model system where antigen-specific protection is restricted to CD8 + T cells. (dovepress.com)
  • Netea MG, Latz E, Mills KH, O'Neill LA. Innate immune memory: a paradigm shift in understanding host defense. (umassmed.edu)
  • The production of memory B and T cells is of clear importance, but the likelihood that a memory response will be fast enough in the absence of a protective circulating antibody level likely depends on the pace of pathogenesis of a specific organism. (aappublications.org)
  • After they fight the initial infection, some of these CD8+ T cells remain in the circulation as memory cells, primed to fight if the host is re-infected with the same pathogen. (innovations-report.com)
  • But the CD8+ T cells can only become effective, long-lived memory cells after they encounter certain other cells in the lymph node that can activate them. (innovations-report.com)
  • Transient expression of ZBTB32 in anti-viral CD8+ T cells limits the magnitude of the effector response and the generation of memory. (umassmed.edu)
  • A Higher Activation Threshold of Memory CD8+ T Cells Has a Fitness Cost That Is Modified by TCR Affinity during Tuberculosis. (umassmed.edu)
  • Moreover, for recipients of both living and cadaver renal allografts, the pretransplant frequency of donor-specific memory cells correlated with the posttransplant risk of developing acute rejection episodes. (jimmunol.org)
  • The human immune repertoire is constantly being shaped through exposure to environmental Ags, resulting in generation of memory T cells primed to respond rapidly upon re-exposure to the inciting stimulus ( 5 , 6 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • As primed memory cells have lower activation thresholds than their naive counterparts ( 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 ), their presence before transplantation may increase the risk of a poor outcome after placement of the allograft. (jimmunol.org)
  • Primed memory T cells can be discriminated from naive T cells by their ability to rapidly produce cytokines in short-term assays ( 18 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Naive cells produce low amounts of IL-2 alone upon initial stimulation (although they will differentiate to produce other cytokines over several days), while precommitted memory cells rapidly produce IL-2 and other cytokines, including IFN-γ, IL-4, and/or IL-5 ( 18 , 19 , 20 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • These connections enable the memory CD8 T-cells to protect us quickly from infections. (myscience.org)
  • An international group of researchers led by Professor Christoph Hess from the Department of Biomedicine at the University of Basel and University Hospital Basel have now found a structure that accounts for the rapid immunologic memory of particular immune cells (CD8 + memory T cells): these important memory cells form multiple connections between mitochondria - the powerhouses of cells - and the endoplasmic reticulum, the site of protein production. (myscience.org)
  • The memory cells concentrate all the signal transmission molecules and enzymes necessary for a rapid immune response here - and so are prepared when the organism is once again exposed to the disease-causing pathogen. (myscience.org)
  • This is because some of the cloned T C cells and B cells produced during a primary immune response develop into memory cells. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Interestingly, the accumulation of T cells in obese AT appears to be antigen-driven and is also characterized by the formation of memory cells. (grantome.com)
  • The other subpopulation is composed of B cells that develop into memory B cells and persist in lymphoid tissues for months or years. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • When an animal encounters an antigen for a second time, these memory B cells respond rapidly, producing large numbers of plasma cells (and more memory cells). (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Subsequent exposure to a microbe leads in turn to the accumulation of more memory cells, resulting in better protection and virtually guaranteeing that the organism will never be able to cause disease in that animal. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Nevertheless, HIV-1 can establish latent infection in resting memory CD4 + T cells ( 8 , 9 ). (asm.org)
  • The remaining cells are memory cells that have previously responded to an Ag (Fig. 1 ). (asm.org)
  • The remainder are memory cells (green) that have previously responded to Ag. (asm.org)
  • Most effector cells eventually die, but a fraction revert to a resting memory state. (asm.org)
  • The memory pool is maintained by the long life span of the cells and a gradual process of proliferative renewal. (asm.org)
  • The naïve population is replenished with newly generated T cells from the thymus even in adults ( 13 ), while the memory pool is maintained by a process of Ag-independent proliferative renewal in which memory cells occasionally go through the cell cycle in response to cytokines (Fig. 1 ). (asm.org)
  • In the cured individuals who responded to SLA, effector memory (CD45RA - CCR7 - ) CD4+ T cells were the ones producing IFN-gamma. (springer.com)
  • Furthermore, in cured individuals which maintains Leishmania -specific IFN-gamma production, effector memory CD4+ T cells were the main source of this cytokine. (springer.com)
  • The phenotypical and functional characterization of memory T cells, revealed that memory CD4+ T cells constitute a heterogeneous population: CD45RA - CCR7 + (central memory) and CD45RA - CCR7 - (effector memory). (springer.com)
  • Researchers already had found that the virus hides in memory T-cells -- the immune system cells that are assigned to recognize a new invader and then remember it in case it ever attacks again, making it easier for the body to respond next time. (cnn.com)
  • AIDS experts hope a way can be found to activate these memory T-cells and thus expose the virus hiding in them to HAART. (cnn.com)
  • The researchers did calculations to see if the HIV-infected memory T-cells would last this long and found they probably would. (cnn.com)
  • For determining frequencies of TBEV-specific memory space B cells, identical numbers of purified CD19+B cells were subjected to limiting-dilution analysis. (bus2226w16.com)
  • Number?1c relates the number of TBEV-specific memory space B cells to the total number of CD19+B cells, revealing a significant reduction in the elderly. (bus2226w16.com)
  • Naïve and memory T cells enter lymphoid and non-lymphoid organs in comparable numbers, but selectively accumulate in lymphoid tissues over time, 2). (nih.gov)
  • Mature B cells are capable of making antibodies and developing memory, a feature in which the B cell will rapidly recognize and respond to an infectious agent the next time it is encountered. (encyclopedia.com)
  • We discuss the testable proposition that this elicitation of protective memory is a consequence either of 'unsaturated' threshold levels of recirculating immunoeffector CD8+ cells or of CD4 cell activation by nonviable sporozoites. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The frequency of IgM memory B cells and the expression of the activation marker CD25 in peripheral blood lymphocytes were measured using the flow cytometric method before the start and at days 30 and 90 of the treatment cycle. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Memory T cells are largely heterogeneous. (open.ac.uk)
  • FACS-sorted memory T cell subsets exposed to TCR activation indicated that IRF8 is upregulated rapidly in all T cells, but its expression is rapidly lost, hence suggesting a role during the early stages of effector T cell programming. (open.ac.uk)
  • IRF8 silencing in human CD8+ T cells, followed by transcriptomic analysis, revealed a down regulation of effector related genes, accompanied by the upregulation of key memory TFs ( FOXO1, MYB, TCF7 ). (open.ac.uk)
  • Adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy benefits from early differentiated memory T cells capable to persist in the long term and to generate anti-tumour effectors. (open.ac.uk)
  • I found that cellular antioxidant capacity is higher in human CD8+ T naïve (T N ) cells compared to more differentiated memory T cell subsets. (open.ac.uk)
  • I expanded human CD8+ T N cells in vitro in the presence of ROS scavenger N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) and found that limiting global ROS metabolism during T N cell activation hindered effector differentiation and enabled the generation of stem-like memory T cell precursors. (open.ac.uk)
  • I thus define a novel mechanism to generate potent T cell memory based on limiting ROS metabolism and propose to use NAC as suitable strategy to expand T cells for ACT immunotherapy. (open.ac.uk)
  • Because memory T cells are present at elevated frequencies and recognize the pathogen quickly, they are able to provide rapid protection upon encountering the same pathogen a second time. (utah.edu)
  • The research focus of the Williams laboratory is to understand the nature of T cell intrinsic signals, such as the T-cell receptor, and T cell extrinsic signals, such as inflammation, in promoting the ability of T cells to acquire the functions that allow them to eradicate pathogens and form long-lived immunological memory. (utah.edu)
  • Here, we report a novel role for the immune checkpoint ligand B7-H1 in the accumulation of tissue-resident memory CD8 + T-cells (T RM ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Although there is a substantial reduction of the effector CD8 + T-cell population, the CD8 + T-cells that remain persist and become long-term memory CD8 + T-cells (T M ). Upon re-exposure to pathogens, T M respond with increased potency and efficiency and rapidly clear secondary infections. (frontiersin.org)
  • CD8 + central memory cells (T CM ) and effector memory cells (T EM ) remain within the lymphoid organs or in circulation and provide a rapid response that is activated upon antigen re-exposure ( 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • In contrast, tissue resident memory CD8 + T-cells (T RM ) remain at sites of previous infection and provide tissue-specific protection from secondary exposure ( 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Perhaps most significantly, there will be T cells displaying the characteristics of memory. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • When memory helper T cells' CD4 receptors bind to the MHC class II molecules which are expressed on the surfaces of the target cells of the graft tissue, the memory helper T cells' T cell receptors (TCRs) can recognize their target antigen that is presented by the MHC class II molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, antiviral protection by memory CTL may be rather short-lived since it is based on activated T cells continuously stimulated by persisting antigen . (curehunter.com)
  • IL-10-producing Tr1 cells promote tolerance but their contributions to tolerogenic memory are unclear. (elifesciences.org)
  • CD90.1+Foxp3-IL-10+ Tr1 cells arise from memory cells and rejoin the tissue-resident memory T-cell pool after cessation of IL-10 production. (elifesciences.org)
  • However, neither transfer nor depletion of former Tr1 cells influences either Tr1 numbers or the inflammatory response during subsequent allergen memory re-challenge weeks later. (elifesciences.org)
  • Together these data suggest that naturally-arising Tr1 cells do not necessarily give rise to more Tr1 upon allergen re-challenge or contribute to tolerogenic memory. (elifesciences.org)
  • In particular, the contribution of antigen-specific Tr1 cells to tolerogenic memory is unclear. (elifesciences.org)
  • Using these animals, we have analyzed the population frequencies and cytokine production profiles of Tr1-like cells in multiple tissues at various stages of allergic airway inflammation including sensitization, challenge, resolution, and memory. (elifesciences.org)
  • Unidirectional development of CD8+ central memory T cells into protective Listeria-specific effector memory T cells. (curehunter.com)
  • Three distinct subsets of antigen -experienced CD8(+) T cells have been identified so far: short-living effector T cells (T(EC)) and two long-living subsets, described as central (T(CM)) and effector memory (T(EM)) T cells. (curehunter.com)
  • HIV's resting place is the immune system's memory CD4 T cells, which have the ability to recognize foreign bacteria and viruses from previous encounters. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Here we found this lack of progression was associated with selective preservation of two critical subsets of memory CD4+ T cells, central memory (TCM) and stem-cell memory (TSCM) cells. (prolekare.cz)
  • Compared to HIV-infected putative progressors, VNPs had higher proliferation of these indispensable subsets of memory cells. (prolekare.cz)
  • In addition, the long-lived CD4+ TCM and TSCM cells in VNPs had decreased HIV infection compared to the less critical effector memory CD4+ T cells, which indicates a possible mechanism by which VNPs maintain their CD4+ T cell pool after several years of infection, and remain free from AIDS progression. (prolekare.cz)
  • In particular, a striking feature in LTNPs which is associated with protection from disease progression is maintenance of long-lived CD4+ central memory T cells (T CM ) which are essential for long-term immunological memory [11] - [13] . (prolekare.cz)
  • Since 2001, various lines of research have converged to support the hypothesis that the persistence of immune memory arises from a reservoir of immune cells with stem-cell-like potential. (bio-medicine.org)
  • This first strict test of the stem cell hypothesis of immune memory was based on mapping the fates of individual T cells and their descendants over several generations. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The researchers first established that a high potential for expansion and differentiation in a defined subpopulation, called "central memory T cells," does not depend exclusively on any special source such as bone marrow, lymph nodes, or spleen. (bio-medicine.org)
  • This supported but did not yet prove the idea that certain central memory T cells are, effectively, adult stem cells. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Further experiments, using and comparing both memory T cells and so-called naive T cells that is, mature immune cells that have not yet encountered their antigen enabled the scientists to home in on stem-cell-like characteristics and eliminate other possible explanations. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Step by step, the results strengthened the case that the persistence of immune memory depends on the "stemness" of the subpopulation of T cells termed central memory T cells: Individual central memory T cells proved to be "multipotent," meaning that they can generate diverse types of offspring to fight an infection and to remember the antagonist. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Further, these individual T cells self-renew into secondary memory T cells that are, again, multipotent at the single-cell level. (bio-medicine.org)
  • And finally, individual descendants of secondary memory T cells are capable of fully restoring the capacity for a normal immune response. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Based on expression of CD138 and B220, we reveal a unique and major subtype of antigen-specific memory B cells (B220 − CD138 − ) that are distinct from antibody-secreting B cells (B220 +/ −CD138 + ) and B220 + CD138 − memory B cells. (rupress.org)
  • 95% of antigen-specific memory B cells that migrate to the bone marrow. (rupress.org)
  • Upon adoptive transfer, B220 − memory B cells proliferate to a lesser degree but produce greater amounts of antibody than their B220 + counterparts. (rupress.org)
  • The pattern of cellular differentiation after transfer indicates that B220 − memory B cells act as stable self-replenishing intermediates that arise from B220 + memory B cells and produce antibody-secreting cells on rechallenge with antigen. (rupress.org)
  • Nevertheless, positively selected Ag-specific B cells that successfully exit the GC reaction constitute the beginnings of the long-lived memory B cell compartment. (rupress.org)
  • Affinity-matured memory B cells are maintained in vivo in at least two different forms: memory response precursors and long-lived Ab-secreting B cells ( 4 ). (rupress.org)
  • Memory response precursors are typically defined as IgM − IgD − B220 + Ag-binding B cells that do not secrete Ab until rechallenge with Ag ( 13 )( 30 )( 31 ). (rupress.org)
  • Long-lived Ab-secreting B cells ( 35 )( 36 )( 37 ) can also be considered part of the memory B cell compartment ( 38 )( 39 )( 40 ). (rupress.org)
  • The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus. (umassmed.edu)
  • This month he started recruiting participants for a six-year study that will use drugs to delete the immunological memory of heart patients whose own antibodies would otherwise fight off a donated heart. (spokesman.com)
  • By suppressing their immunologic memory, he suppresses the antibodies hurting their hearts. (spokesman.com)
  • These favorable outcomes were associated with induction of a tumor antigen-specific memory immune response. (aacrjournals.org)
  • With infectious diseases for which the pace of pathogenesis is less rapid, some individuals will contract infection before the memory response is fully activated and implemented. (aappublications.org)
  • Further analyses show that the early stress-induced increase in T cell memory may stimulate the robust increase in infiltrating lymphocyte and macrophage numbers observed months later at a novel site of antigen reexposure. (physiology.org)
  • Immunologic measures included autoantibody titers, lymphocyte surface markers, and interleukin-1 generation by monocytes. (annals.org)
  • After an antigen is cleared from the body, immunological memory allows an antigen to be recognized and removed more quickly if encountered again. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Immunological memory can provide potent protection from infectious disease. (rochester.edu)
  • Immunological memory develops differently during these protracted infections. (rochester.edu)
  • The impact of these microorganisms immunological memory is only just starting to be evaluated. (rochester.edu)
  • Immunological memory is the ability of the immune system to respond fast and better upon antigen exposure than the first exposure to the same antigen. (springer.com)
  • Bone marrow in immunologic memory and transfer of delayed hypersensi- tivity to mice. (jax.org)
  • Immunoprotection in mice susceptible to waning memory against the pre-erythrocytic stages of malaria after validated immunisation with irradiated sporozoites of Plasmodium berghei. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Here, we identify clinical and immunologic characteristics that either predicted or correlated with therapeutic benefit from VGX-3100 to identify parameters that might guide clinical decision-making for this disease. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Both clinical and immunologic endpoints have shown new promise to the field. (moffitt.org)
  • Vaccines are a prime example of how immunologic memory can protect us from infectious diseases. (myscience.org)
  • We therefore assessed the use of glycoconjugate vaccines as an alternative method of demonstrating immunologic memory. (ox.ac.uk)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Administration of glycoconjugate vaccines provides an important alternative method of demonstrating immunologic memory, avoiding the use of plain polysaccharide vaccines that are potentially deleterious in children. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Continued massage treatments can also enhance a client's immunologic and neuroendocrine function. (massagemag.com)
  • With infectious diseases for which the pace of pathogenesis is slow, immune memory should be sufficient to prevent disease. (aappublications.org)
  • At these contact sites, the rapid immune memory response is literally "orchestrated", say the researchers. (myscience.org)
  • Immune memory has a critical role in mediating protection against infections as well as potentiating allergic and autoimmune diseases. (keystonesymposia.org)
  • Although there are some intriguing data suggesting the possibility of an immune memory or immune priming in invertebrates (e.g. (biologists.org)
  • Immunologic Memory" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (umassmed.edu)
  • Many infections are cleared rapidly by the immune system leaving the host with protective memory B and T cell memory. (rochester.edu)
  • immunologic memory the capacity of the immune system to respond more rapidly and strongly to a subsequent antigenic challenge than to the first exposure. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In terms of its function and effect, immunologic memory is well understood - an individual remains healthy despite being exposed to the pathogen. (myscience.org)
  • A ) Longitudinal analysis of CD3 + T cell frequencies did not reveal significant differences in CD4 + or CD8 + subsets, nor were there significant changes in memory subsets between belatacept (black squares) and belatacept+αCD122 (gray circles) treated animals. (jci.org)
  • B ) Comparison of pretransplant CD8 + memory subsets did not discriminate between animals which rejected on combination therapy (C1 and C2) versus those which rejected after withdrawal of anti-CD122 (C3) versus animals with prolonged survival (C4 and C5). (jci.org)
  • An increase ("positive memory") or decrease ("negative memory") in the response of the immune system to an antigen after prior exposure. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The memory B cell response is typically characterized by the accelerated appearance of Ag-specific Ab in response to specific rechallenge with Ag ( 1 )( 2 )( 3 ). (rupress.org)
  • The combined effects of a long life span and proliferative renewal provide lifelong immunologic memory of many infectious agents. (asm.org)
  • Germinal centers (GCs) are the sites of antigen-driven V(D)J gene hypermutation and selection necessary for the generation of high affinity memory B lymphocytes. (duke.edu)
  • The basis of antiviral protection by memory cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) was investigated in vivo and in vitro using lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing the LCMV- glycoprotein (vacc-GP) or - nucleoprotein (vacc-NP). (curehunter.com)
  • In this manner, GCs regulate Ag-specific clonal maturation and subsequent entry into the long-lived memory B cell compartment ( 12 )( 13 ). (rupress.org)
  • In addition to analysis of the total B-cell population we also examined any differences in the CD27+ memory population alone, again we did not see any significant differences between the SBA low and high groups, in B-cell proliferation or activation marker expression (Figure S1). (nih.gov)
  • My results showed that Irf8 deficiency led to a faster transition towards memory phenotype after the acute phase. (open.ac.uk)
  • Antivirally protective cytotoxic T cell memory to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus is governed by persisting antigen. (curehunter.com)
  • The widely replicating LCMV with a tendency to persist induced solid long-term protective memory. (curehunter.com)
  • A subset of patients with HIV-associated memory loss have a defect in the speed with which they learn and process information. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This has been known for decades - but the structure of this cellular immunologic memory has previously proven impossible to pin down. (myscience.org)
  • However, the specific cellular structures that enable immunologic memory were previously unknown. (myscience.org)
  • Although the systemic phenomenon of B cell memory is readily demonstrated in vivo, the nature and extent of cellular heterogeneity in the Ag-specific memory B cell compartment remains poorly resolved. (rupress.org)
  • Allergic reactions require a period of sensitization during which the immunologic reaction develops. (petplace.com)
  • B cell memory is induced upon primary Ag challenge and is thought to be a product of the GC reaction ( 5 )( 6 )( 7 )( 8 ). (rupress.org)
  • He later moved on to post-doctoral work in the laboratory of Dr. Michael Bevan at the University of Washington, where he studied the role of Interleukin-2 in promoting the differentiation and function of long-lived T cell memory. (utah.edu)
  • Booster Vaccinations: Can Immunologic Memory Outpace Disease Pathogenesis? (aappublications.org)
  • Immunologic reactivity against Borrelia burgdorferi in patients with motor neuron disease. (prohealth.com)
  • The immune system has evolved to recognize and respond to threats to health, and to provide life-long memory that prevents recurrent disease. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Methods: We evaluated the stability of MCI subtypes and risk of dementia over 4 biennial assessments as part of an ongoing prospective cohort study, the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study. (medworm.com)
  • A detailed understanding of the mechanism underlying immunologic memory, however, has remained elusive. (bio-medicine.org)