Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Tissue Array Analysis: The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Mice, Inbred C57BLParaffin Embedding: The infiltrating of tissue specimens with paraffin, as a supporting substance, to prepare for sectioning with a microtome.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Receptor, erbB-2: A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Tissue Fixation: The technique of using FIXATIVES in the preparation of cytologic, histologic, or pathologic specimens for the purpose of maintaining the existing form and structure of all the constituent elements.In Situ Nick-End Labeling: An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A: The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.Keratins: A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Receptors, Progesterone: Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast: An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Receptors, Estrogen: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein: An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Endometrium: The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.S100 Proteins: A family of highly acidic calcium-binding proteins found in large concentration in the brain and believed to be glial in origin. They are also found in other organs in the body. They have in common the EF-hand motif (EF HAND MOTIFS) found on a number of calcium binding proteins. The name of this family derives from the property of being soluble in a 100% saturated ammonium sulfate solution.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Genes, erbB-2: The erbB-2 gene is a proto-oncogene that codes for the erbB-2 receptor (RECEPTOR, ERBB-2), a protein with structural features similar to the epidermal growth factor receptor. Its name originates from the viral oncogene homolog (v-erbB) which is a truncated form of the chicken erbB gene found in the avian erythroblastosis virus. Overexpression and amplification of the gene is associated with a significant number of adenocarcinomas. The human c-erbB-2 gene is located at 17q21.2.Colon: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Synovial Membrane: The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Vimentin: An intermediate filament protein found in most differentiating cells, in cells grown in tissue culture, and in certain fully differentiated cells. Its insolubility suggests that it serves a structural function in the cytoplasm. MW 52,000.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Mice, Inbred BALB CGene Amplification: A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.Hematoxylin: A dye obtained from the heartwood of logwood (Haematoxylon campechianum Linn., Leguminosae) used as a stain in microscopy and in the manufacture of ink.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Adenoma: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Cyclooxygenase 2: An inducibly-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes and INFLAMMATION. It is the target of COX2 INHIBITORS.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Microdissection: The performance of dissections with the aid of a microscope.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.S100 Calcium Binding Protein G: A calbindin protein found in many mammalian tissues, including the UTERUS, PLACENTA, BONE, PITUITARY GLAND, and KIDNEYS. In intestinal ENTEROCYTES it mediates intracellular calcium transport from apical to basolateral membranes via calcium binding at two EF-HAND MOTIFS. Expression is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Matrix Metalloproteinase 9: An endopeptidase that is structurally similar to MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 2. It degrades GELATIN types I and V; COLLAGEN TYPE IV; and COLLAGEN TYPE V.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Neoplasm Grading: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the level of CELL DIFFERENTIATION in neoplasms as increasing ANAPLASIA correlates with the aggressiveness of the neoplasm.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Calbindin 2: A calbindin protein that is differentially expressed in distinct populations of NEURONS throughout the vertebrate and invertebrate NERVOUS SYSTEM, and modulates intrinsic neuronal excitability and influences LONG-TERM POTENTIATION. It is also found in LUNG, TESTIS, OVARY, KIDNEY, and BREAST, and is expressed in many tumor types found in these tissues. It is often used as an immunohistochemical marker for MESOTHELIOMA.Precancerous Conditions: Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Nerve Tissue ProteinsPhenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2: Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Fixatives: Agents employed in the preparation of histologic or pathologic specimens for the purpose of maintaining the existing form and structure of all of the constituent elements. Great numbers of different agents are used; some are also decalcifying and hardening agents. They must quickly kill and coagulate living tissue.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Endometrial Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of ENDOMETRIUM, the mucous lining of the UTERUS. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. Their classification and grading are based on the various cell types and the percent of undifferentiated cells.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Esophageal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Stromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit: A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for STEM CELL FACTOR. This interaction is crucial for the development of hematopoietic, gonadal, and pigment stem cells. Genetic mutations that disrupt the expression of PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT are associated with PIEBALDISM, while overexpression or constitutive activation of the c-kit protein-tyrosine kinase is associated with tumorigenesis.Gastric Mucosa: Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.Matrix Metalloproteinase 2: A secreted endopeptidase homologous with INTERSTITIAL COLLAGENASE, but which possesses an additional fibronectin-like domain.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Cadherins: Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Keratin-7: A type II keratin found associated with KERATIN-19 in ductal epithelia and gastrointestinal epithelia.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Eosine Yellowish-(YS): A versatile red dye used in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, textiles, etc., and as tissue stain, vital stain, and counterstain with HEMATOXYLIN. It is also used in special culture media.RNA, Neoplasm: RNA present in neoplastic tissue.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Placenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).Mouth Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Formaldehyde: A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)beta Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Fibrosis: Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous: A malignant cystic or semicystic neoplasm. It often occurs in the ovary and usually bilaterally. The external surface is usually covered with papillary excrescences. Microscopically, the papillary patterns are predominantly epithelial overgrowths with differentiated and undifferentiated papillary serous cystadenocarcinoma cells. Psammoma bodies may be present. The tumor generally adheres to surrounding structures and produces ascites. (From Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972, p185)RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Conjunctiva: The mucous membrane that covers the posterior surface of the eyelids and the anterior pericorneal surface of the eyeball.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Prostate: A gland in males that surrounds the neck of the URINARY BLADDER and the URETHRA. It secretes a substance that liquefies coagulated semen. It is situated in the pelvic cavity behind the lower part of the PUBIC SYMPHYSIS, above the deep layer of the triangular ligament, and rests upon the RECTUM.Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II: A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Calbindins: Calcium-binding proteins that are found in DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES, INTESTINES, BRAIN, and other tissues where they bind, buffer and transport cytoplasmic calcium. Calbindins possess a variable number of EF-HAND MOTIFS which contain calcium-binding sites. Some isoforms are regulated by VITAMIN D.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Kidney Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.

Level of retinoblastoma protein expression correlates with p16 (MTS-1/INK4A/CDKN2) status in bladder cancer. (1/66693)

Recent studies have shown that patients whose bladder cancer exhibit overexpression of RB protein as measured by immunohistochemical analysis do equally poorly as those with loss of RB function. We hypothesized that loss of p16 protein function could be related to RB overexpression, since p16 can induce transcriptional downregulation of RB and its loss may lead to aberrant RB regulation. Conversely, loss of RB function has been associated with high p16 protein expression in several other tumor types. In the present study RB negative bladder tumors also exhibited strong nuclear p16 staining while each tumor with strong, homogeneous RB nuclear staining were p16 negative, supporting our hypothesis. To expand on these immunohistochemical studies additional cases were selected in which the status of the p16 encoding gene had been determined at the molecular level. Absent p16 and high RB protein expression was found in the tumors having loss of heterozygosity within 9p21 and a structural change (mutation or deletion) of the remaining p16 encoding gene allele, confirming the staining results. These results strongly support the hypothesis that the RB nuclear overexpression recently associated with poor prognosis in bladder cancer is also associated with loss of p16 function and implies that loss of p16 function could be equally deleterious as RB loss in bladder and likely other cancers.  (+info)

Decreased expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Par-4 in renal cell carcinoma. (2/66693)

Par-4 is a widely expressed leucine zipper protein that confers sensitization to apoptosis induced by exogenous insults. Because the expression of genes that promote apoptosis may be down-regulated during tumorigenesis, we sought to examine the expression of Par-4 in human tumors. We present here evidence that Par-4 protein levels were severely decreased in human renal cell carcinoma specimens relative to normal tubular cells. Replenishment of Par-4 protein levels in renal cell carcinoma cell lines conferred sensitivity to apoptosis. Because apoptosis may serve as a defense mechanism against malignant transformation or progression, decreased expression of Par-4 may contribute to the pathophysiology of renal cell carcinoma.  (+info)

Expression of Bcl-2 protein is decreased in colorectal adenocarcinomas with microsatellite instability. (3/66693)

Bcl-2 is known to inhibit apoptosis and is thought to play a role in colorectal tumour development. Studies of the promoter region of bcl-2 have indicated the presence of a p53 responsive element which downregulates bcl-2 expression. Since p53 is commonly mutated in colorectal cancers, but rarely in those tumours showing microsatellite instability (MSI), the aim of this study was to examine the relationship of bcl-2 protein expression to MSI, as well as to other clinicopathological and molecular variables, in colorectal adenocarcinomas. Expression of bcl-2 was analysed by immunohistochemistry in 71 colorectal cancers which had been previously assigned to three classes depending upon their levels of MSI. MSI-high tumours demonstrated instability in three or more of six microsatellite markers tested, MSI-low tumours in one or two of six, and MSI-null in none of six. Bcl-2 expression in tumours was quantified independently by two pathologists and assigned to one of five categories, with respect to the number of cells which showed positive staining: 0, up to 5%; 1, 6-25%; 2, 26-50%; 3, 51-75%; and 4, > or =76%. Bcl-2 negative tumours were defined as those with a score of 0. Bcl-2 protein expression was tested for association with clinicopathological stage, differentiation level, tumour site, age, sex, survival, evidence of p53 inactivation and MSI level. A significant association was found between bcl-2 expression and patient survival (P = 0.012, Gehan Wilcoxon test). Further, a significant reciprocal relationship was found between bcl-2 expression and the presence of MSI (P = 0.012, Wilcoxon rank sum test). We conclude that bcl-2 expressing colorectal cancers are more likely to be MSI-null, and to be associated with improved patient survival.  (+info)

Immune responses to all ErbB family receptors detectable in serum of cancer patients. (4/66693)

Employing NIH3T3 transfectants with individual human ErbB receptor coding sequences as recombinant antigen sources, we detected by immunoblot analysis specific immunoreactivity against all four ErbB receptors among 13 of 41 sera obtained from patients with different types of epithelial malignancies. Overall, serum positivity was most frequently directed against ErbB2 followed by EGFR, ErbB3 and ErbB4. Specificity patterns comprised tumor patients with unique serum reactivity against ErbB2 or ErbB4. Moreover, approximately half of the positive sera exhibited concomitant reactivity with multiple ErbB receptors including EGFR and ErbB2, EGFR and ErbB4, ErbB2 and ErbB3 or EGFR, ErbB2 and ErbB3. Serum reactivity was confirmed for the respective ErbB receptors expressed by human tumor cells and corroborated on receptor-specific immunoprecipitates. Positive sera contained ErbB-specific antibodies of the IgG isotype. Representative immunohistochemical analysis of tumor tissues suggested overexpression of ErbB receptors for which serum antibodies were detectable in five of six patients. These findings implicate multiple ErbB receptors including ErbB3 and ErbB4 in addition to EGFR and ErbB2 in primary human cancer. Heterogeneity of natural ErbB-specific responses in cancer patients warrants their evaluation in light of immunotherapeutic approaches targeting these receptors.  (+info)

Detailed methylation analysis of the glutathione S-transferase pi (GSTP1) gene in prostate cancer. (5/66693)

Glutathione-S-Transferases (GSTs) comprise a family of isoenzymes that provide protection to mammalian cells against electrophilic metabolites of carcinogens and reactive oxygen species. Previous studies have shown that the CpG-rich promoter region of the pi-class gene GSTP1 is methylated at single restriction sites in the majority of prostate cancers. In order to understand the nature of abnormal methylation of the GSTP1 gene in prostate cancer we undertook a detailed analysis of methylation at 131 CpG sites spanning the promoter and body of the gene. Our results show that DNA methylation is not confined to specific CpG sites in the promoter region of the GSTP1 gene but is extensive throughout the CpG island in prostate cancer cells. Furthermore we found that both alleles are abnormally methylated in this region. In normal prostate tissue, the entire CpG island was unmethylated, but extensive methylation was found outside the island in the body of the gene. Loss of GSTP1 expression correlated with DNA methylation of the CpG island in both prostate cancer cell lines and cancer tissues whereas methylation outside the CpG island in normal prostate tissue appeared to have no effect on gene expression.  (+info)

The disulfide-bonded loop of chromogranin B mediates membrane binding and directs sorting from the trans-Golgi network to secretory granules. (6/66693)

The disulfide-bonded loop of chromogranin B (CgB), a regulated secretory protein with widespread distribution in neuroendocrine cells, is known to be essential for the sorting of CgB from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to immature secretory granules. Here we show that this loop, when fused to the constitutively secreted protein alpha1-antitrypsin (AT), is sufficient to direct the fusion protein to secretory granules. Importantly, the sorting efficiency of the AT reporter protein bearing two loops (E2/3-AT-E2/3) is much higher compared with that of AT with a single disulfide-bonded loop. In contrast to endogenous CgB, E2/3-AT-E2/3 does not undergo Ca2+/pH-dependent aggregation in the TGN. Furthermore, the disulfide-bonded loop of CgB mediates membrane binding in the TGN and does so with 5-fold higher efficiency if two loops are present on the reporter protein. The latter finding supports the concept that under physiological conditions, aggregates of CgB are the sorted units of cargo which have multiple loops on their surface leading to high membrane binding and sorting efficiency of CgB in the TGN.  (+info)

A cytomegalovirus glycoprotein re-routes MHC class I complexes to lysosomes for degradation. (7/66693)

Mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) early gene expression interferes with the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC class I) pathway of antigen presentation. Here we identify a 48 kDa type I transmembrane glycoprotein encoded by the MCMV early gene m06, which tightly binds to properly folded beta2-microglobulin (beta2m)-associated MHC class I molecules in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This association is mediated by the lumenal/transmembrane part of the protein. gp48-MHC class I complexes are transported out of the ER, pass the Golgi, but instead of being expressed on the cell surface, they are redirected to the endocytic route and rapidly degraded in a Lamp-1(+) compartment. As a result, m06-expressing cells are impaired in presenting antigenic peptides to CD8(+) T cells. The cytoplasmic tail of gp48 contains two di-leucine motifs. Mutation of the membrane-proximal di-leucine motif of gp48 restored surface expression of MHC class I, while mutation of the distal one had no effect. The results establish a novel viral mechanism for downregulation of MHC class I molecules by directly binding surface-destined MHC complexes and exploiting the cellular di-leucine sorting machinery for lysosomal degradation.  (+info)

Expression of extracellular matrix proteins in cervical squamous cell carcinoma--a clinicopathological study. (8/66693)

AIM: To evaluate the intracellular and peritumoral expression of matrix proteins in squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix using immunohistochemistry. METHODS: 71 squamous cell carcinomas and 10 controls were stained for laminin, fibronectin, and collagen IV. Cytoplasmic staining in tumour cells and peritumoral deposition of matrix proteins were evaluated. The association between staining results and patient age, tumour stage, histological grade, and survival was studied. RESULTS: Positive cytoplasmic staining for laminin, fibronectin, and collagen IV was observed in 17 (23.9%), 27 (38%), and 10 (14.1%) cases, respectively. Staining for laminin was most pronounced in the invasive front of tumour islands, while for fibronectin and collagen IV it appeared to be diffuse. Peritumoral staining for laminin and collagen IV was detected in 12 cases (16.9%). Early stage (Ia1-Ia2) tumours were uniformly negative for all three proteins. Cytoplasmic staining for laminin correlated with positive staining for fibronectin and collagen IV, and with the presence of a peritumoral deposition of collagen IV and laminin. There was no correlation with any of the three markers between staining results and patient age, stage, grade, or survival. CONCLUSIONS: Expression of extracellular matrix proteins in some cervical squamous cell carcinomas might reflect the enhanced ability of these tumours to modify the peritumoral stroma. This ability seems to be absent in early stage tumours. The correlation between intracytoplasmic and peritumoral expression of matrix proteins supports the evidence of their synthesis by tumour cells. However, this property did not correlate with disease outcome in this study.  (+info)

Thesis, English, Pathological and Immunohistochemical Studies on The Effect of Synthetic Glucocorticoids Compounds on Rabbits for El Alem Maha Mohammed
Hiramoto, R; Jurandowski, J; Bernecky, J; and Pressman, D, "Immunohistochemical identification of tissue culture cells." (1961). Subject Strain Bibliography 1961. 1057 ...
Rocklands Immunohistochemistry Studies (IHC) provide confidential high-quality target localization data through wide services. Option to outsource IHC.
In general there exist two possibilities to obtain quantitatively information in immunohistochemical work: (1) Titration of an antibody of defined specificity and concentration on different antigenic substrates. (2) The measurement of the specific s
Dr. Bloom has more than 30 years of clinical experience and has been an early adopter of precision medicine. He is a renowned researcher and lecturer in pathology, cancer, telemedicine, and informatics.. Dr. Bloom recently joined Invicro as the CMO of advanced pathology and advanced genomic services. Prior to Invicro, he served as the President and head of oncology and immunotherapy at Human Longevity Inc., Chief Medical Officer of In Vitro Diagnostics at GE Healthcare, senior medical director at US Labs and director of laboratory operations at Rush Medical Center. Dr. Bloom has held a series of academic position as including Clinical Professor of Pathology at USC and CIO at Rush Cancer Center.. ...
The diagnosis of SPT is made based on the clinical presentation, location of tumor, histological findings, and immunohistochemical staining. SPTs express positive immunohistochemical staining for vimentin, CD56, alpha-1-antitrypsin and neuron-specific enolase. Epithelial markers (keratins) may be focal or weakly positive. Synaptophysin is commonly positive in SPTs; however, chromogranin is usually negative. Immunohistochemical staining for Amylase/Lipase/Trypsin are negative, as well as those for pancreatic hormones. There may be positive immunohistochemical staining for CD10, Beta- catenin, CD117 (c-kit), Progesterone receptor, and the beta form of estrogen receptor. SPTs are considered to be tumors of low malignant potential and more than 80% of SPTs are cured by surgical resection. However, metastases may be seen in a small percentage of patients. When metastasis occurs, it is usually to the liver or peritoneum. Patient follow-up: The patient underwent a brain biopsy. Histologic examination ...
41 colon cancer patients were tested for MMR status using immunohistochemistry between March 2013 and October 2014 (18 months). 31 of the 41 patients were resected high risk Dukes B colon cancer patients. 24 of the 31 patients (77%) were under the age of 75 and were considered for adjuvant chemotherapy. 3 of the 24 patients (13%) were found to have dMMR. 2 of the 3 dMMR patients did not proceed to have adjuvant treatment. 13 of the 24 patients (54%), including 1 dMMR patient, were commenced on adjuvant chemotherapy.. 7 of the 31 high risk Dukes B patients (23%) were over the age of 75. None of the over-75 patients were given chemotherapy. 4 of them (57%) were found to have dMMR. All dMMR patients had right sided colon cancer.. The overall prevalence of dMMR in high risk Dukes B patients was 23%. The cost of an MMR protein immunohistochemistry was under £50, whereas a 6 month course of Capecitabine chemotherapy, including all non-drug clinical costs, could amount up to £3500.. The other 10 ...
Immunocytochemical Expression of BAX and BAK Proteins in Cervical Smears of Women Positive for HPV Types: A Study of 120 Cases
MEDINA BUENO, Gonzalo Arturo. Clinical and prognostic characteristics of the molecular subtypes of breast cancer determined by immunohistochemistry. Arequipa, Peru. Rev. perú. med. exp. salud publica [online]. 2017, vol.34, n.3, pp.472-477. ISSN 1726-4634. http://dx.doi.org/10.17843/rpmesp.2017.343.2530.. The objective of this study was to determine the clinical and prognostic characteristics of breast carcinomas according to the molecular subtype using immunohistochemical markers. The study included 280 women with unilateral breast cancer enrolled from 2009 to 2012. The carcinomas were classified into four subtypes based on immunohistochemical findings: luminal A, luminal B, HER2, and triple negative. The Kaplan-Meier test was used to determine the effect of histological type and molecular subtype on overall survival. Our results indicated that the most common breast carcinoma subtype was luminal A (105 cases, 37.5%), followed by luminal B (88 cases, 31.4%), HER2 (46 cases, 16.4%), and triple ...
The tumor cells were arranged in organoid clusters or sheets and composed of round to polygonal cells with central round nucleus, abundant eosinophilic or clear cytoplasm and distinct cell membrane (IMAGES 1, 2). Myxoid matrix was also present between the tumor cells (IMAGE 3). The tumor had increased cellularity with nuclear pleomorphism and significant mitotic activity (IMAGES 4, 5). Immunohistochemical stains showed an unusual pattern of staining for CD117 (c-kit) (IMAGE 6). Instead of cytoplasmic staining as typically seen in GIST, there was predominantly nuclear staining. CD34 (IMAGE 7), smooth muscle specific actin (IMAGE 8) and S-100 (IMAGE 9) were immunostain negative. Atypical staining for CD117 and absence of positive immunohistochemical staining for CD34 in the present tumor tissue prevent a definitive diagnosis of GIST at this time. Loss of positive staining for these characteristic GIST markers could be consistent with tumor dedifferentiation over time associated with recurrence. ...
Pathological tissue is excised with a beam from a laser that is coupled through a flexible, optical waveguide to a collimator that reduces the beam cross-sectional area by variable, controlled amounts. A transparent bore or a graphite cannule couples the beam exiting the collimator to the tissue to vaporize same. An electrically responsive deflector gyrates the reduced cross-sectional area beam about a bore sight axis aligned with the cannula bore so that the excised tissue has a frusto-conical volume. To excise different, displaced tissue regions, a position servo system moves the cannula so the bore sight axis moves in a plane at right angles to a plane on the exterior surface containing the pathological tissue.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Morphometric and morphologic evaluation of pulmonary lesions in beagle dogs chronically exposed to high ambient levels of air pollutants. AU - Hyde, D.. AU - Orthoefer, J.. AU - Dungworth, D.. AU - Tyler, W.. AU - Carter, R.. AU - Lum, H.. PY - 1978. Y1 - 1978. N2 - Beagle dogs (104) comprising one control and seven treatment groups were exposed 16 hours daily for 68 months to filtered air, raw or photochemically reacted auto exhaust, oxides of sulfur or nitrogen, or their combinations. After a further 32 to 36 months in clean air, morphologic examination of lungs by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy revealed two important exposure-related lesions. They were enlargement of air spaces in proximal acinar regions, with and without increases in the number and size of interalveolar pores, and hyperplasia of nonciliated bronchiolar cells. Proximal enlargement of air spaces was most severe, both subjectively and morphometrically, in ...
The 116 DLBCL analyzed in our study were diagnosed according to the histopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics described in the WHO classification and additionally according to novel gene expression features recently defined by our group.10. Forty-three of our 116 cases of DLBCL had a genomic gain of BCL2 and MALT1 and one case revealed an amplification of MALT1 together with a normal BCL2 gene status (together 38%), while 72 cases (62%) had normal copy numbers of the BCL2 and MALT1 genes not considering changes in ploidy. Interestingly, gain of the BCL2 gene was invariably associated with gain of the MALT1 gene in our series. Moreover, the presence of a 18q21/MALT1 gain correlated with upregulation of genes located on 18q including MALT1 at the RNA level, independently of the ABC or GCB gene expression signature, and was strongly associated with over-expression of BCL2 protein. We found a significant accumulation of cases with a 18q21/MALT1 gain among those with an ABC signature ...
Subject: HA antibodies From: jesuspla Date: Thu, 6 Apr 1995 10:39:10 In article ,jesuspla.1.000AA770 at eucmvx.sim.ucm.es, , jesuspla at eucmvx.sim.ucm.es writes: ,Does anyone know how to get anti-hemaglutinin antibodies to localize protein ,in the cell ?. Are they comercial ? If you want to use epitope tagging for immunolocalisation anti-HA antibodies are the ones to avoid. HA-tagged proteins can be immunolocalised but only if they are horrifically overexpressed in COS or 293 cells for example. A reasonable level of expression will not be visible above the high background. It is of course possible that we have received poor lots of mAb! We routinely use HA tags for immunoprecipitation of the protein of interest and VSVG or MYC tags for immunolocalisation, both of which work well. Fergus McKenzie, McKenzie at naxos.unice.fr Universite de Nice, France ...
Background and aims: The putative stem cell marker CD24 is a small, heavily glycosylated, cell surface molecule which was originally associated with tumour metastasis. Recently it has been reported to be upregulated and of prognostic importance in colorectal tumours. The study aims to study the prognostic value of CD24 in a large series of colorectal cancer (CRC).. Methods: CD24 protein expression was examined by immunohistochemistry. A total of 10 whole tissue sections (WTS) of adenoma and 345 CRCs arranged as tissue microarrays (TMAs) were evaluated. For comparison with non-neoplastic tissue, 10 WTS containing tumour with associated non-neoplastic tissue were also studied.. Results: None of the samples of normal tissue (adjacent to tumour) showed CD24 expression. In the tumours, CD24 expression was seen on the luminal surface of the cells, within the cytoplasm and, unexpectedly, also within the nucleus. Positive immunostaining was seen in 9/10 (90%) adenomas and 313/345 (91%) of CRCs. Weak ...
Alexander E. Kalyuzhny statement that immunohistochemical detection of labile, low abundance and short-lived signal transduction molecules appears to be a very challenging task actually captures the same reader’s feeling. Each of us daily using immunohistochemical protocols to reveal targets either useful for research or diagnostic aims will surely wonder by which tricky techniques it is possible to overcome the preservation and unmasking of those labile antigens involved in signal transduction. Well, by seventheen chapters grouped in five parts Prof. Alexander E. Kalyuzhny is presenting an invaluable technical and methodological source of hints to satisfy our needs: to overcome troubleshottings if we are already in the field or to orientate those entering the field ...
To identify type I- (I-CF) and type III-collagen fibrils (III-CF) and chondroitin 4/6 sulphate (CS) within human pre-dentine by means of a correlative analysis under field emission in-lens-scanning electron microscopy (FEI-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Human-extracted...read more ...
Antibodies can be generated by injecting animals with antigens, and then collecting serum after the immune response has taken place. If the antibodies are labeled with an easily detectable molecule (a fluorescent dye, an enzyme, etc.), they become powerful detection reagents for the antigen. This system has been exploited to generate exceptionally specific and sensitive "stains" which are used in histology as well as other disciplines.. Immunohistochemistry/cytology is the use of antibodies in light microscopy and EM. The basic process depends upon selecting an antibody sufficiently specific to bind an antigen in situ. The antibody/antigen conjugate is then identified using a variety of signal generating molecules triggered either by the antibody/antigen interaction or by secondary processes. The signal generators can be precipitating dyes, fluorescent molecules or electron dense (ultrastructural tag) materials for electron microscopy (EM).. The first report of an immunohistochemistry technique ...
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive breast cancer subtype with high recurrences and mortality rate, for which no therapies besides chemotherapy are available to date. Lacking specific markers for an effective targeted therapy, TNBCs continue to represent the most important challenge for clinical oncologists. Here, we investigated the expression of CDCP1, a transmembrane non-catalytic receptor reportedly associated with poor prognosis in some solid tumors (e.g., lung and pancreatic cancer), and its association with tumor aggressiveness in a cohort of 115 human TNBC primary specimens obtained from women surgically treated in our Institute from the beginning of 2002 to the end of 2006 and selected based on immunohistochemical (IHC) criteria (,1% cell positivity for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and HER2 expression classified as 0 or 1+). CDCP1 was overexpressed in 56.5% of human primary TNBCs. FISH analysis of 75 TNBCs for which material was available delineated four ...
Structural Organization in Animals and Plants-Plant Tissues - Morphology, Anatomy and Functions: Questions 277-284 of 446. Get to the point NEET (NTA-National Eligibility cum Medical Entrance Test) Biology questions for your exams.
Structural Organization in Animals and Plants-Animal Tissues - Morphology, Anatomy and Functions - Mainly Cockroach: Questions 1-8 of 8. Get to the point KVPY (Kishore Vaigyanik Protsahan Yojana) Stream-SA (Class 11) Biology questions for your exams.
A common method for studying the involvement of catabolic pathways in the degradation of particular proteins is to pharmacologically inhibit the pathways, and examine-by Western blots or quantitative immunohistochemistry, for example-how these manipulations affect total quantities of the proteins in question. Unfortunately, these methods are incapable of separating the effects of such inhibitors on protein degradation from effects on protein synthesis. These processes are more readily discernible in pulse‐chase experiments based on radioactive amino acids; this approach, however, is not free from confounds either: On the one hand, the slow turnover rates of synaptic proteins require relatively long labeling periods. On the other, labeling is typically associated with substantial (ten‐ to hundredfold) reductions in (labeled) amino acid concentrations, raising the risk of inducing macroautophagy (see, e.g. Sutter et al, 2013). In contrast, the methods used here do not suffer from either of ...
(EMAILWIRE.COM, April 03, 2018 ) Browse 181 market data tables and 44 figures spread through 225 pages and in-depth TOC on Immunohistochemistry Market https://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/immunohistochemistry-market-121632939.html Early buyers will receive 10% customization on this...
Click here to view our tutorial videos on immunohistochemical staining, nucleic acid labeling, and much more aiding you and your research.
... : Immunohistochemistry of grafts in the rat striatum. Double immunohistochemical detection of grafted human cells (HCM-immunoreactivity in green) and of microglial cell detected (Iba1-immunoreactivity in red) in the striatum of implanted rats. Cell nuclei stained with DAPI (in blue). Following the implantation, rats were treated with saline 7A-7C, with tacrolimus only 7D-7F, with tacrolimus and prednisolone 7G-7I or with cyclosporine and prednisolone 7J-7L. Scale bar: A, B, D, E, G, H, J ,K=600 μm, C, F, I, L=300 μm ...
QC Dots Cancer Array (CA) control slides are blank, charged microscope slides pre-spotted with selected tumor and normal cells that serve as a quality control for immunohistochemical procedures. Tissue can be mounted directly on the slide underneath the cell dots. QC Cancer Array (CA) Control Slides offer unrivaled flexibility and value - over 200 common clinical antibodies have been validated using CA Slides.. Read more ...
Purpose: The level of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and HER2 aids in the determination of prognosis and treatment of breast cancer. Immunohistochemistry is currently the predominant method for assessment, but differences in methods and interpretation can substantially affect the accuracy, resulting in misclassification. Here, we investigated the association of microarray-based mRNA expression levels compared with immunohistochemistry.. Experimental Design: Microarray mRNA quantification of ER, PR, and HER2 was done by the developed TargetPrint test and compared with immunohistochemical assessment for breast tumors from 636 patients. Immunohistochemistry was done in a central laboratory and in an independent reference laboratory according to American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists guidelines for 100 cases. For HER2 immunohistochemistry 2+ cases, additional chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) was used to determine the final ...
Cornfield D B, Schwartz G F, Shen R, McDade T, Kovatich A. (1996, May). Histologic and Immunohistochemical Features of Ductal Carcinoma In Situ of the Breast Recurring After Wide Excision Alone. Presentation presented at: 32nd annual Meeting of the American Soc Clinical Oncol, Philadelphia, PA.. ...
Citoxlab has experience with a wide variety of compounds and has a team of pathologists dedicated to running TCR and immunohistochemistry studies.
Scoring results PRB experiment 1. Results from manual scoring of PRB immunohistochemistry results in stroma (upper panel), luminal epithelium (LE, middle panel)
the expression of AR from five age groups [postnatal 1(neonatal), 10, 25, 45 and 60 days (adult) of age] was examined using immunohistochemistry method. The results were as follows: ① There was AR expression in leydig cells in neonatal voles and the expression of AR decreased at postnatal 10 days and 25days. AR expression reached its peak at postnatal 45 days and then decreased in adults( ...
Hi. Ive been working with Vectastain Elite ABC kit for a month. First, I didnt get any signal in a positive human sample. This sample must to show some signal but my negative is very clean (beautiful) with 4 minutes of staining. So I decided test the kit with a positive control. Im using rat (a know sample) as my positive and the same sample as negative control without primary antibody. I suppose see signal only in my positive control but I got signal in both. I can see diffuse brown in my negative and my positive. Im using DAB to stain. I start with 6 minutes and jump to 4 minutes but I cant see any difference ...
心脏疾病的细胞基础上的现有知识大多依赖于对动物模型的研究。在这里,我们描述和验证了一种新的方法从人心肌小型手术样品得到单一可行的心肌细胞。人心肌细胞可用于电生理学研究和药物测试。...
Words you can make out of immunohistochemistry. Anagrams of immunohistochemistry. Words made after you unscramble immunohistochemistry.
Opal™ is a practical workflow for the simultaneous detection of up to six tissue biomarkers plus nuclear counterstain within a single image. The method is similar to standard immunohistochemistry (IHC) and is accessible to many laboratories where standard IHC method development is performed.
A 53-year-old man presented with a large soft tissue mass in the chest wall. Tumor infiltration into the lung was demonstrated on CT scan. The resected tumor (16 x 14 x 8 cm) was received with a portion of lung. The cut surface showed a poorly demarcated tan-pink tumor with focal areas of necrosis and multifocal extension to surgical margins. Tumor cells were CD34(+), bcl-2(+), CD99(+) and focally smooth muscle actin(+) and were CD31(-), desmin(-), calretinin(-) and cytokeratin(-).. The master list with the correct ...
H-score value of apoptosis and proliferation of endometriosis (EMs) lesions in a rat model of malignant transformation, expressed as mean ± SEM. *Compared wi
Students are encouraged to target genes of interest using CRISPR technology and then analyze phenotypes using the diverse array of assays available in Xenopus. Specifically, techniques covered include microinjection, and various molecular manipulations including, CRISPR knockouts, morpholino based depletions, transgenics, and mRNA overexpression. In addition, students can combine these techniques with explant and transplant methods to simplify or test tissue level interactions. To visualize subcellular and intercellular activities, we will introduce a variety of imaging methods including time-lapse, fluorescent and confocal microscopy. Additional methods include mRNA in situ hybridization and protein immunohistochemistry as well as basic bioinformatic techniques for gene comparison and functional analysis. Biochemical approaches such as proteomics and mass spectrometry will also be discussed. ...
Opal™ is a practical workflow for simultaneous detection of up to 6 tissue biomarkers plus nuclear counterstain, within a single image. The method is similar to standard immunohistochemistry and is accessible to many laboratories where standard IHC method development is performed.
Background: There is limited information on changes in PD-L1 expression levels over time in melanoma.. Methods: PD-L1 expression was measured in melanoma tumor samples collected at different time points from the same patient using a prototype immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay with the 22C3 antibody. PD-L1 positivity was defined as staining in ≥1% of cells. The concordance of PD-L1 expression in paired samples was analyzed by treating the IHC proportion score as a continuous variable or classifying staining as positive or negative.. Results: 48 patients were included. Median age was 65 years (range, 23-85), 73% were male, and 60% had stage I-IIIA disease. All first samples and 85% of second samples were surgical samples. The median interval between sample collection dates was 25.3 months (range, 3.1-203.5). There was no statistically significant correlation of the PD-L1 IHC proportional score between paired samples (Pearson correlation coefficient, 0.13). 40% of patients had an increased ...
Dhamia K. Suker, Adnan I. AL- Badran, Emad K. Abbas, Saad Abudl baqi Abdullah, Immunohistochemistry Analysis for Interleukin-6 Expression from the Tumor Tissue, International Journal of Sciences 03(2017):14-24 DOI: 10.18483/ijSci. ...
Top performende anti-Human Dynactin 1 Antikörper für Immunohistochemistry (Formalin-fixed Sections) (IHC (f)) vergleichen & kaufen.
New Free Dark Report White Paper Innovation in Immunohistochemistry (IHC) Staining: Single Piece Flow IHC Slide Processing. Get this free white paper PDF on single piece flow IHC slide procession now!
... (IHC) is the process of localizing proteins in cells of a tissue section by exploiting the principle of antibodies binding to specific antigens. Due to the differences between antigens and their corresponding antibodies, protocols for IHC vary widely. At Wax-it, our expert staff will efficiently develop such protocols to bring you results of the highest quality.. Our areas of expertise in IHC include:. ...
Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a method for studying the localization of antigens in tissue sections using antibodies. Find out more in our guide to IHC.
About the cover: Expression of Oatp1a4 at the BBB: double immunostaining of Oatp1a4 with P-gp in brain sections from wild-type and Oatp1a4(-/-) mice. See the article by Ose et al. on page 168 of this issue. ...
Display x u2(x). The integral, or the area under the curve, of this function from x= -0.5 to 0.5 is the expectation value of the position operator x. The expectation value is interpreted as the average value of x after many measurements. Positive areas are denoted by the blue fill and negative areas by the yellow fill. What are the expectation values of x for the first 6 energy levels? Explain your result. Return to Section 1. In Section 1, what are the expectation values of x for the first 6 energy levels? Why are they different from your Section 2 results ...
IHC is used by public or private organizations to check localization and distribution of specific cellular components within the cells.
Review tips and techniques on how to get the best out of your IHC experiments with our resident specialists, including sample preparation, immunostaining protocol, suggestions for alternative
The simpler procedure, which uses a single tagged secondary antibody, can often be used (8). Animals are best perfusion fixed with PAF (9 see Chapter 45). The
Extremely adaptable: Sporty womens large-sized backpack made from bluesign® certified primary materials, which can be configured for different typ...
Work with LifeSpan to design a custom immunohistochemistry to address your specific biological question. Outsource the entire localization process without having to worry about finding and characterizing target specific antibodies, sourcing and validating difficult-to-find tissues, and having the ability to interpret the resulting immunostaining in relation to complex human pathologies ...
Work with LifeSpan to design a custom immunohistochemistry to address your specific biological question. Outsource the entire localization process without having to worry about finding and characterizing target specific antibodies, sourcing and validating difficult-to-find tissues, and having the ability to interpret the resulting immunostaining in relation to complex human pathologies ...
Immunohistochemistry Protocol (Frozen) - Specific for Product: 4060: easy to follow directions describing the step by step experimental procedure.
TIPRL兔多克隆抗体(ab70795)可与小鼠, 人样本反应并经WB, IP, IHC实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
UQCRC1兔多克隆抗体(ab125882)可与人样本反应并经WB, IHC实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
TY - JOUR. T1 - A novel immunohistochemical score to predict early mortality in acute myeloid leukemia patients based on indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase expression. AU - Mangaonkar, Abhishek. AU - Mondal, Ashis Kumar. AU - Fulzule, Sadanand. AU - Pundkar, Chetan. AU - Park, Eun Jeong. AU - Jillella, Anand. AU - Kota, Vamsi. AU - Xu, Hongyan. AU - Savage, Natasha M.. AU - Shi, Huidong. AU - Munn, David. AU - Kolhe, Ravindra. PY - 2017/12/1. Y1 - 2017/12/1. N2 - Indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase-1 (IDO-1) is an enzyme in the kynurenine pathway which augments tumor-induced immune tolerance. Previous studies in childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have shown a negative correlation of IDO-1 mRNA expression with outcomes. The aim of our study was to develop a practical and objective immunohistochemical technique to quantify IDO-1 expression on diagnostic bone marrow biopsies of AML patients in order to facilitate its use in routine clinical practice. IDO-1 mRNA was extracted from diagnostic bone marrow ...
Microangiopathies may cause ischemic brain lesions and are of fundamental importance in vascular dementia. Risk factors include high age, hypertension, diabetes and Alzheimers disease. In addition, recent studies have focused on autosomal dominant types of arteriopathy causing leukoencephalopathy,psychiatric disturbances, stroke and dementia (CADASIL). This thesis concerns various collagens andbasal lamina components which are deposited in vascular walls of cases presenting cerebral microangiopathy. In addition, endothelin-like immunoreactivity has been studied in CADASIL cases andsome other brain diseases.. CADASIL cases described by Sourander and Wålinder (1977) were re-investigated. Those with longduration of the disease presented marked expression of fibrillary collagen types I, Ill, V and VI and of thebasal lamina components, collagen type IV and laminin. Deposits appeared also in non-familial casespresenting hyalinosis and in cases with the Binswanger type of leukoencephalopathy. Media ...
Development and validation of an immunohistochemistry assay to assess glucocorticoid receptor expression for clinical trials of mifepristone in breast cancer Gabrielle M Baker,1 Tiffany Murphy,2 Thaddeus Block,3,4 Dat Nguyen,3 Frank J Lynch2 1Department of Pathology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA; 2QualTek Molecular Laboratories, Newtown, PA, USA; 3Corcept Therapeutics, Menlo Park, CA, USA; 4Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA Background: Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activity has been associated with chemotherapy resistance and poor outcomes in patients with triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). The aim of this study was to develop an immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay to assess GR expression in archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human invasive breast carcinoma samples. Methods: An optimized GR assay protocol was developed using rabbit monoclonal antibody to GR clone D8H2. Precision and reproducibility of the GR IHC assay was
Potassium channels are key determinants of neuronal excitability. We recently identified KChIPs as a family of calcium binding proteins that coassociate and colocalize with Kv4 family potassium channels in mammalian brain (An et al. [2000] Nature 403:553). Here, we used light microscopic immunohistochemistry and multilabel immunofluorescence labeling, together with transmission electron microscopic immunohistochemistry, to examine the subcellular distribution of KChIPs and Kv4 channels in adult rat cerebellum. Light microscopic immunohistochemistry was performed on 40-μm free-floating sections using a diaminobenzidine labeling procedure. Multilabel immunofluorescence staining was performed on free-floating sections and on 1-μm ultrathin cryosections. Electron microscopic immunohistochemistry was performed using an immunoperoxidase pre-embedding labeling procedure. By light microscopy, immunoperoxidase labeling showed that Kv4.2, Kv4.3, and KChIPs 1, 3, and 4 (but not KChIP2) were expressed at ...
Maturation of neurotransmission in the developing rat cochlea: immunohistochemical evidence from differential expression of synaptophysin and synaptobrevin 2
Honda Hiroshi , Ohi Yasushi , Umekita Yoshihisa , TAKASAKI Takashi , KURIWAKI Kazumi , OHYABU Ikuya , YOSHIOKA Takako , YOSHIDA Aichi , TAGUCHI Syuhei , NINOMIYA Kenjirou , AKIBA Suminori , NOMURA Satoru , SAGARA Yoshiatu , YOSHIDA Hiroki Pathology international 49(3), 198-202, 1999-03-01 医中誌Web 参考文献50件 ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Evdokia Dimitriadis, Andrew M Sharkey, Yee Lee Tan, Lois A Salamonsen, J Robert A Sherwin].
Cytological, histological, and immunohistochemical findings of pulmonary carcinomas with basaloid features | John P. Crapanzano; Kristina Loukeris; Alain C. Borczuk; Anjali Saqi | download | BookSC. Download books for free. Find books
TY - JOUR. T1 - A harántcsíkolt izom rosttípusainak jellemzése sarcoplasmaticus reticulum (SR) Ca2+-ATP-áz és myoglobin immunhisztokémiával.. AU - Krenács, T.. AU - Molnár, E.. AU - Dobó, E.. AU - Dux, L.. PY - 1989/4/1. Y1 - 1989/4/1. N2 - By the immunohistochemical demonstration of SR calcium ATPase and myoglobin a fibre classification method was developed. Fast fibres showed intense, while slow fibres weak SR calcium ATPase reactivity. Immunohistochemical reaction of myoglobin characterized the oxidative metabolic state of fibres similar to the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) reaction. By means of SR calcium ATPase and myoglobin immunohistochemistry fibres were classified as slow oxidative (SO), fast oxidative glycolytic (FOG) and fast glycolytic (Fg) groups. The SR calcium ATPase activity of the different fibres varied in the FG greater than FOG greater than SO order, while myoglobin immunoreactivity in the FOG greater than SO greater than FG order. Both proteins studied preserved ...
Hyperactivation of the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway, caused by mutations in such components as β-catenin and APC, is one of the most frequent signaling abnormalities in several human cancers including colorectal carcinomas (15), melanomas (16), hepatoblastomas (17), medulloblastomas (18), prostatic carcinomas (19), and uterine and ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinomas (10, 20-22). In breast cancer, however, evidence of comparable mutations is surprisingly lacking (23). In contrast, there is strong evidence, based on immunohistochemical analyses, that the Wnt/β-catenin pathway is activated (23-25). Importantly, aberrant β-catenin expression in breast cancer is associated with poor clinical outcome (23-26). Metaplastic carcinomas have never been analyzed for Wnt pathway gene mutations.. Because breast carcinoma arises from glandular epithelium, it usually exhibits the features of an adenocarcinoma. However, in some cases, part or all of the neoplastic cells differentiate into a nonglandular ...
Cusimano N., Bogner J., Mayo S. , et al. 2011. Relationships within the Araceae: comparison of morphological patterns with molecular phylogenies. American Journal of ...
Monoclonal Anti-Bovine Osteocalcin Antibody (Clones OC4-30,OCG2, OCG3 and OCG4) is raised against bovine osteocalcin and recognizes both bovine and human osteocalcins. Clone OC4-30 is specific for position 17 gamma-carboxylated osteocalcin and does not recognize decarboxylated osteocalcin. Osteocalcin epitopes used to generate Clones OCG2, OCG3 and OCG4 are amino acids 45-49, amino acids 21-31 and amino acids 4-9, respectively. This collection of osteocalcin antibody clones facilitates osteocalcin immunohistochemistry studies which can also be performed on paraffin-embedded tissues (as described in the Resources). In addition to cross-reactivity with bovine and human osteocalcin, clones OCG4-30, OCG3 and OCG4 are also capable of recognizing osteocalcin in several other species as listed. For species-specific osteocalcin detection, Takara Bio offers additional osteocalcin antibody products. ...
Monoclonal Anti-Bovine Osteocalcin Antibody (Clones OC4-30,OCG2, OCG3 and OCG4) is raised against bovine osteocalcin and recognizes both bovine and human osteocalcins. Clone OC4-30 is specific for position 17 gamma-carboxylated osteocalcin and does not recognize decarboxylated osteocalcin. Osteocalcin epitopes used to generate Clones OCG2, OCG3 and OCG4 are amino acids 45-49, amino acids 21-31 and amino acids 4-9, respectively. This collection of osteocalcin antibody clones facilitates osteocalcin immunohistochemistry studies which can also be performed on paraffin-embedded tissues (as described in the Resources). In addition to cross-reactivity with bovine and human osteocalcin, clones OCG4-30, OCG3 and OCG4 are also capable of recognizing osteocalcin in several other species as listed. For species-specific osteocalcin detection, Takara Bio offers additional osteocalcin antibody products. ...
This studys initial objective was to assess pancreatic β-cell numbers and physiology during immune-mediated islet destruction by following the insulin-positive-to-glucagon-positive cell ratios and other parameters made possible by advanced flow cytometry techniques. We were surprised to observe that the relative frequency of the two endocrine subsets consistently pointed to an unexpected depletion of α-cells, along with the expected β-cell loss at diabetes onset. It is important to point out that because the flow technique lacks an internal reference standard, one cannot accurately determine the absolute number of α- or β-cells in the pancreas, only their relative proportion. We therefore turned to immunofluorescence microscopy and quantitative immunohistochemistry, supported by qRT-PCR, to provide additional, overlapping, and independent techniques. As discussed in our results, all studies supported our initial conclusion that while β-cells are being depleted during autoimmune diabetes, ...
Previous immunohistochemical studies targeting the receptor tyrosine kinase (c-Kit) have demonstrated an apparent reduction in the number of gastrointestinal pacemaker cells--the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC)--in horses with intestinal motility disorders. This study compared the level of transcription of the c-kit gene encoding this receptor in horses with and without such motility disorders. Transcription levels of this gene were also compared to the density of ICC immunohistochemically positive for the c-Kit antigen. Intestinal samples were collected from 18 horses with intestinal disease and from 15 control animals. Following gene extraction and identification, real-time quantitative analysis of c-kit and a control gene, ACTB (β-actin), was carried out on all samples and the density of the c-Kit-positive ICC compared. There was a significant reduction in c-Kit immunoreactivity in the ICC of horses with large intestinal obstructive disorders relative to controls but no significant ...
Rhcg has a complex subcellular localization. Studies in the human, rat, and mouse kidney demonstrate that Rhcg-expressing cells exhibit both apical and basolateral Rhcg immunoreactivity, with the exception of the non-A, non-B intercalated cell, which has only apical Rhcg (17, 41, 53, 90, 91). Immunogold electron microscopy in both the rat and mouse kidney demonstrated that apical Rhcg is present in both the apical plasma membrane and subapical vesicles and that basolateral Rhcg is present in the basolateral plasma membrane (53, 91). Basolateral expression can be substantial; in the rat OMCD in the inner stripe, basolateral Rhcg is ∼25% of total cellular expression in intercalated cells and ∼40% in principal cells (91). Although initial studies in both the rat and mouse kidney did not identify basolateral Rhcg expression, more recent studies using improved immunohistochemistry techniques and a panel of anti-Rhcg antibodies confirmed basolateral Rhcg expression and demonstrated substantial ...
Organs after animal sacrifice at various levels. Our multi-disciplinary team who have video or animation content and organization. The purpose of respiration was a food allergy. Incretin Safety: What is the arachnoid. This membrane can be described as the ratio of 1:2:1 (generalized formula CnH2nOn, where n is at your fingertips. MORE Gastro Blog Learn about DNA testing laboratory. PreventionGenetics provides patients and their families from certified diabetes educators, dietitians, and social viagra pill workers and other perishable liquids. Lisa Bramen was a shambles. I am blessed to be able to interpret laboratory results Health Advocate Participate in and out of date. We collect facts on the Dartmouth-Hitchcock Advanced Response Team (DART), and will publish: Original articles of interest as well as extensive computer modeling. The calculated conduction band to the standard staining techniques, specific immunohistochemical stainings and stainings for special examination arrangements.. Focus ...
P16 is a widely used immunohistochemical marker. It can be expressed in other neoplasms and in several normal human tissues. It can play an important role gynecological malignancy and is a surrogate marker for HSILs (high-grade squamous intraepi...
The expression of the locomotor rhythm requires an intrinsic excitatory drive from interneurons within the locomotor circuits (Grillner, 2003; Roberts et al., 2008; Grillner and Jessell, 2009). However, the molecular identity of the interneurons sufficient to initiate the rhythmic activity of these circuits is still unclear. We used optogenetics to selectively activate a molecularly defined class of interneurons. Our results show that light activation of V2a interneurons selectively expressing ChR2 is sufficient to generate locomotor activity in zebrafish. The selective expression of ChR2 in V2a interneurons was determined immunohistochemically, morphologically, and electrophysiologically. Light stimulation induced a ChR2-induced current, resulting in activation of these interneurons followed by synaptic responses arising from activation of neighboring interneurons. Optogenetic stimulation of V2a interneurons in spinalized preparations was sufficient to induce rhythmic swimming activity ...
The SDH gene is located inside the mitochondria of the cell. It is instrumental in converting nutrients to the energy needed by the body. A deficiency of the SDH enzyme results in an accumulation of succinate during the energy conversion cycle. A build-up of succinate causes aberrant build-up of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), a situation referred to as pseudohypoxia. The downstream consequences include an accumulation of the growth factors VEGF and EGFR, leading to the oncogenic problem. SDH-deficiency can be likened to having broken brakes on a car.. Wildtype GIST Clinic patients fall into three categories.. 1. The first group classification stains SDH-positive on immunohistochemistry (SDH IHC+), meaning that the SDH protein is present. Tumor samples of the patients in this group present with a mixed cell histology, meaning that there is a lot of variation in the look of the cells. The primary tumors can originate in the stomach, the duodenum, or the intestine. These patients tend to be ...
Bcl-2 expression is altered with ovarian tumor progression: an immunohistochemical evaluation. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Hi. Coming to the histonet for help again. One of my pathologists (Neal Goldstein, MD), will be presenting at the NSH S/C in Rhode Island at the Saturday Plenary Session on Immunohistochemistry, hosted by the Soc. of Applied IHC. He would like to gear his talk on Antigen Preservation in Unstained Tissue Sections towards the people who will be attending. He is talking about QC/QA of antigen preservation. Ive answered his questions the best I can to help him, but there are a couple that have me stumped. PLEASE RESPOND DIRECTLY TO ME, NOT HISTONET. Ill give a summary to histonet. [email protected] 1. What methods are being used by what percent of users for staining IHC? Dr. Goldstein would like to know what percent of people/labs are using: A. Vantana autostainer B. Dako or Biogenex autostainer C. Kits D. home made system (e.g. conc. primary and secondary that the lab titers out) (Im assuming C & D are staining by hand.) Does any Technical rep happen to know? Even a gut level feeling ...
Histonetters, Can anyone help with a concise definition of sensitivity and specificity as it relates to immunohistochemical reactions. Thanks and regards, Laurie. Mr. Laurie Reilly School of Veterinary & Biomedical Sciences James Cook University Townsville Queensland 4811 Australia Phone 07 4781 4468 Fax 07 4779 1526 _______________________________________________ Histonet mailing list [email protected] http://lists.utsouthwestern.edu/mailman/listinfo/histonet ...
Results. Serum levels of cell-free DNA, myeloperoxidase (MPO)-DNA complex, and α-defensin were significantly increased in patients with AOSD compared to HC. Serum levels of the NET molecules, cell-free DNA, MPO-DNA, and α-defensin were correlated with several disease activity markers for AOSD. In followup of patients with AOSD after treatment with corticosteroid, the levels of cell-free DNA and α-defensin decreased significantly. On immunohistochemistry, neutrophil elastase-positive and MPO-positive inflammatory cells were detected in skin and LN of patients with AOSD, and were expressed in fiber form in the lesions. The serum from patients with active AOSD induced NETosis in neutrophils from HC. NET molecules induced interleukin 1β production in monocytes, representing a novel mechanism in the pathogenesis of AOSD. ...
DFA testing is an immunohistochemistry technique that uses a specific antibody to identify the presence of viral antigens. The antibody is tagged with fluorescent agent and forms an antigen-antibody complex with HSV antigens present within a tissue or smear specimen. The process can be performed with cytologic preparations, such as the Tzanck smear, as well as virally inoculated cell cultures. In addition, DFA may be employed to serotype the HSV infection. Because DFA testing is rapid, sensitive, inexpensive, and virally selective, it often is used to substantiate clinical suspicion and determine serotype.. A punch, shave, or wedge tissue biopsy also may be used to detect the presence of HSV infection and is especially helpful when a suspicious lesion is old or atypical. The biopsied cells are observed microscopically to detect degenerative cytopathologic changes commonly associated with the infection. The degenerative changes present in cells infected with HSV1 and HSV2 also are observed in ...
Immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) treatment has recently become a first-line therapy for many non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Unfortunately, most NSCLC patients are refractory to ICI monotherapy, and initial attempts to address this issue with secondary therapeutics have proven unsuccessful. To identify entities precluding CD8+ T cell accumulation in this process, we performed unbiased analyses on flow cytometry, gene expression, and multiplexed immunohistochemical data from a NSCLC patient cohort. The results revealed the presence of a myeloid-rich subgroup, which was devoid of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Of all myeloid cell types assessed, neutrophils were the most highly associated with the myeloid phenotype. Additionally, the ratio of CD8+ T cells to neutrophils (CD8/PMN) within the tumor mass optimally distinguished between active and myeloid cases. This ratio was also capable of showing the separation of patients responsive to ICI therapy from those with stable or progressive ...
Summary of CCR10 expression in human tissue. Most normal tissues displayed weak to moderate cytoplasmic immunoreactivity. Cortical cells of adrenal gland and smooth muscle cells demonstrated strong cytoplasmic staining.
Supplies: Immunostain Technical Only Envelope (T693). Specimen Type: Tissue. Container/Tube: Immunostain Technical Only Envelope (T693). Preferred: 2 unstained positively charged glass slide (25- x 75- x 1-mm) per test ordered; sections 4-microns thick.. Acceptable: Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue block. Additional Information:. 1. Information on accessing digital images of IHC stains and the manual requisition form can be accessed through this website: www.mayomedicallaboratories.com/test-info/ihc/index.html. 2. Clients ordering stains using a manual requisition form will not have access to digital images.. 3. Clients wishing to access digital images must place the order for IHC stains electronically. Information regarding digital imaging can be accessed through this website: www.mayomedicallaboratories.com/test-info/ihc/faq.html. ...
Supplies: Immunostain Technical Only Envelope (T693). Specimen Type: Tissue. Container/Tube: Immunostain Technical Only Envelope (T693). Preferred: 2 unstained positively charged glass slide (25- x 75- x 1-mm) per test ordered; sections 4-microns thick.. Acceptable: Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue block. Additional Information:. 1. Information on accessing digital images of IHC stains and the manual requisition form can be accessed through this website: www.mayomedicallaboratories.com/test-info/ihc/index.html. 2. Clients ordering stains using a manual requisition form will not have access to digital images.. 3. Clients wishing to access digital images must place the order for IHC stains electronically. Information regarding digital imaging can be accessed through this website: www.mayomedicallaboratories.com/test-info/ihc/faq.html. ...
Supplies: Immunostain Technical Only Envelope (T693). Specimen Type: Tissue. Container/Tube: Immunostain Technical Only Envelope (T693). Preferred: 2 unstained positively charged glass slide (25- x 75- x 1-mm) per test ordered; sections 4-microns thick.. Acceptable: Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue block. Additional Information:. 1. Information on accessing digital images of IHC stains and the manual requisition form can be accessed through this website: www.mayomedicallaboratories.com/test-info/ihc/index.html. 2. Clients ordering stains using a manual requisition form will not have access to digital images.. 3. Clients wishing to access digital images must place the order for IHC stains electronically. Information regarding digital imaging can be accessed through this website: www.mayomedicallaboratories.com/test-info/ihc/faq.html. ...
Supplies: Immunostain Technical Only Envelope (T693). Specimen Type: Tissue. Container/Tube: Immunostain Technical Only Envelope (T693). Preferred: 2 unstained positively charged glass slide (25- x 75- x 1-mm) per test ordered; sections 4-microns thick.. Acceptable: Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue block. Additional Information:. 1. Information on accessing digital images of IHC stains and the manual requisition form can be accessed through this website: www.mayomedicallaboratories.com/test-info/ihc/index.html. 2. Clients ordering stains using a manual requisition form will not have access to digital images.. 3. Clients wishing to access digital images must place the order for IHC stains electronically. Information regarding digital imaging can be accessed through this website: www.mayomedicallaboratories.com/test-info/ihc/faq.html. ...
BioLegend provides a variety of reagents for microscopy use, including immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry assays. Whether you want directly conjugated antibodies (with fluors like Brilliant Violet 421™, Alexa Fluor® 488, Alexa Fluor® 594, Alexa Fluor® 647), secondary reagents, nuclear counterstains, or cell tracking dyes, BioLegend has you covered.
Schwannoma is a relatively uncommon, slowly growing lesion that is most commonly encountered in the nerve sheath. The mobile portion of the tongue is the most common site, followed by the palate, floor of mouth, buccal mucosa, lips, and jaws. The present case report refere a 13-year-old boy with a tongue mass that did not interfere with the speech. The histopathology and immunohistochemistry study of the excised lesion showed a Schwannoma of the tongue ...
The present invention discloses a method for targeting maytansinoids to a selected cell population, the method comprising contacting a cell population or tissue suspected of containing the selected cell population with a cell-binding agent maytansinoid conjugate, wherein one or more maytansinoids is covalently linked to the cell-binding agent via a non-cleavable linker and the cell-binding agent binds to cells of the selected cell population.
The present invention discloses a method for targeting maytansinoids to a selected cell population, the method comprising contacting a cell population or tissue suspected of containing the selected cell population with a cell-binding agent maytansinoid conjugate, wherein one or more maytansinoids is covalently linked to the cell-binding agent via a non-cleavable linker and the cell-binding agent binds to cells of the selected cell population.
The cytologic features of dysplasia and carcinoma of the stomach are still poorly defined. In a series of 90 cases, a precise correlation could be made between smears and histologic data. Cytology was sensitive enough to allow characterization of: (1) active repair/regeneration, associated, in a number of cases, with intestinal metaplasia (slight dysplasia); the cellular atypia is minimal; (2) true dysplasia (formerly moderate and severe); this preneoplastic state is characterized by cellular atypia within clusters; and (3) true carcinomas (intestinal or diffuse type); classic criteria for malignancy are present, with a prominent lack of cell cohesiveness, though distinction from dysplasia may be very difficult ...
Pathological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical observations of adenoma of retinal pigment epithelium.: The ultrastructural and immunohistochemical charac
Tris-EDTA is used to dilute and store nucleic acid samples. Tris-EDTA-based solutions break protein cross-links and can therefore unmask antigens and epitopes in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue sections. Treatment with TE Buffer enhances the staining intensity of antibodies in the immuno-histochemical detection of certain proteins.
Our knowledge of the fine structure of the Human Spiral Ganglion (HSG) is still inadequate and new treatment techniques for deafness using electric stimulation, call for further information and studies on the neuronal elements of the human cochlea. This thesis presents results of analyses of human cochlear tissue and specimens obtained during neurosurgical transpetrosal removal of life-threatening meningeomas. The use of surgical biopsies produced a well-preserved material suitable for ultrastructural and immunohistochemical studies on the human inner ear. The SG was studied with respect to fine structure, using TEM technique and the immunostaining pattern of synaptophysin, which is an integral membrane protein of neuronal synaptic vesicles. The immunostaining patterns of the tight junctional protein ZO-1 and the gap junctional proteins Cx26 and Cx43 in the human cochlea were also studied. The ultrastructural morphology revealed an absence of myelination pattern in the HSG, thus differing from ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Immunocytochemical expression of human muscle cell p75 neurotrophin receptor is down-regulated by cyclic adenosine 3,5-monophosphate. AU - Baron, Pierluigi. AU - Scarpini, Elio. AU - Pizzul, Silvia. AU - Zotti, Fabrizio. AU - Conti, Giancarlo. AU - Pleasure, David E. AU - Scarlato, Guglielmo. PY - 1997/10/3. Y1 - 1997/10/3. N2 - To investigate whether the immunocytochemical expression of low affinity neurotrophin receptor (p75) in human muscle is modulated by increased levels of intracellular cyclic adenosine 3,5-monophoshate (cAMP), human cultured myogenic cells were treated with cAMP analogues dibutyryl cAMP (dbcAMP 0.5-1 mM) and 8-bromo cAMP (1 mM) or the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin (10- 100 μM). Cultures were processed for indirect immunofluorescence microscopy using an anti-human p75 mAb. The treatment of cultured muscle cells with cAMP analogues or forskolin for two days induced a decrease of immunoreactivity for p75 and a reduction of both myotube formation ...
Background: Squamous cell carcinoma accounts for 1% of primary thyroid malignancies and is characterized by a rapidly unfavorable outcome. Case presentation: A 64-year-old woman presented with a painless mass in the left neck, coexisting with thyroid goiter. Total thyroidectomy with lymphadenectomy was performed and a primary thyroid squamous cell cancer was confirmed histologically after excluding any other possible primary malignancies. The tumors immunohistochemical profile was explored using a large panel of antibodies. The tumor featured a positive immunoreaction to cytokeratins 7-19 and to squamous cell carcinoma antigen. Low-molecular-weight cytokeratins 5- 6 and epithelial membrane antigen were also expressed. The neoplasms proliferative index (Mib1) was 60%. No immunostaining was detected for cytokeratins 10-20, thyroglobulin, TTF-1, CD5, galectin-3 or p53. Conclusions: This case of primary thyroid squamous cell carcinoma immunohistochemically profiled using a large panel of ...
Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is a rare malignancy of mesenchymal origin. The true incidence of GIST has historically been underestimated as these tumors were commonly misclassified as leiomyomas, leiomyosarcomas, and leiomyoblastomas.1 The term gastric stromal tumor was first proposed in 1983 to describe gastric wall tumors that lacked the ultrastructural features of smooth muscle cells and the immunohistochemical characteristics of Schwann cells.2 Mazur and Clark2 examined 28 gastric wall tumors that were originally classified by light microscopy as leiomyomas or leiomyosarcomas and, using electron microscopy, determined that some of these tumors lacked features expected in cells derived from smooth muscle. Additionally, using immunohistochemistry to identify the neuroectoderm marker S-100, they found that the majority of tumors failed to show evidence of a nerve sheath origin. They postulated that this subset of tumors that did not appear from a smooth muscle origin or peripheral ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Whole-exome sequencing of metaplastic breast carcinoma indicates monoclonality with associated ductal carcinoma component. AU - Avigdor, Bracha Erlanger. AU - Beierl, Katie. AU - Gocke, Christopher. AU - Zabransky, Daniel J.. AU - Cravero, Karen. AU - Kyker-Snowman, Kelly. AU - Button, Berry. AU - Chu, David. AU - Croessmann, Sarah. AU - Cochran, Rory L.. AU - Connolly, Roisin. AU - Park, Ben H.. AU - Wheelan, Sarah. AU - Cimino-Mathews, Ashley M. PY - 2017/8/15. Y1 - 2017/8/15. N2 - Purpose: Although most human cancers display a single histology, there are unusual cases where two or more distinct tissue types present within a primary tumor. One such example is metaplastic breast carcinoma, a rare but aggressive cancer with a heterogeneous histology, including squamous, chondroid, and spindle cells. Metaplastic carcinomas often contain an admixed conventional ductal invasive or in situ mammary carcinoma component, and are typically triple-negative for estrogen receptor, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Immunohistochemical diagnosis of typhus rickettsioses using an anti- lipopolysaccharide monoclonal antibody. AU - Walker, David H.. AU - Feng, Hui Min. AU - Ladner, Stephen. AU - Billings, Adrian N.. AU - Zaki, Sherif R.. AU - Wear, Douglas J.. AU - Hightower, Barbara. PY - 1997/10/1. Y1 - 1997/10/1. N2 - A monoclonal antibody directed against an epitope on the lipopolysaccharide of typhus-group rickettsiae was developed for the purpose of detecting this heat-stable, proteinase-resistant antigen in formalin- fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. Rickettsia prowazekii organisms were identified in endothelium and macrophages in sections of the brains of three Egyptian men who died of epidemic louse-borne typhus in Cairo during World War II and in the brain from a recent case of typhus fever acquired in Burundi. R. typhi organisms were identified in endothelial cells from a fatal case of murine typhus and in experimentally infected mice. This approach is applicable not only to the study ...
Background and objective: Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma (CCRCC) is the most common adult renal neoplasm. Staging and grading of RCC are important predictors of survival. Fuhrman nuclear grading is widely used for CCRCC, the subjective nature of which has prompted more objective methods to evaluate nuclear features. Furthermore, Ki-67, a reliable marker of cellular proliferation may provide another variable for assessment of the biological behavior of RCC. The aim of this research was to study nuclear morphometry and Fuhrman nuclear grading of clear cell RCC, and to assess their relationship with the Ki-67 index. Methods: Hematoxylin and eosin slides of forty cases of CCRCC were retrieved and studied for pathologic variables, including Fuhrman nuclear grade, pathological tumor and node stage. Nuclear morphometric analysis was performed using computer-assisted image analysis. The relationship between Fuhrman nuclear grading, pathologic stage, tumor size, nuclear morphometry and proliferative index were
BACKGROUND/AIMS Fascin is an actin-bundling protein that is important in cell motility. Fascin expression has been shown to have a potential role in tumor progression for some epithelial tumors. However, there are only a few studies related to its expression in mesenchymal tumors. We investigated fascin expression in gastrointestinal stromal tumors. METHODS Thirty gastrointestinal stromal tumors, which were very low (n=6), low (n=2), moderate (n=4), and high (n=18) risk, constituted our series. Immunohistochemical expression of fascin was studied in all cases. RESULTS Immunoreactivity was observed in only five cases, all of which were in the high-risk group. The remaining cases (25/30) showed no immunoreactivity, and the difference did not seem statistically important (p=0.261). Fascin expression was stronger in epithelioid cells than spindle-shaped cells (p=0.003). In addition, gastrointestinal stromal tumors in the small bowel showed higher fascin expression than those in the other localizations
Immunohistochemistry[edit]. The tumor cells in Burkitt lymphoma generally strongly express markers of B cell differentiation ( ...
... Staining Protocol. *. Burnett R, Guichard Y, Barale E (1997). "Immunohistochemistry for light microscopy ... Immunohistochemistry is also used for protein profiling in the most common forms of human cancer.[19][20] ... Immunohistochemistry is used to determine patients who may benefit from therapeutic antibodies such as Erbitux (cetuximab).[18] ... Immunohistochemistry can be used to assess which tumors are likely to respond to therapy, by detecting the presence or elevated ...
Immunohistochemistry. [20]. Prostate cancer. Over-expression. 33%. Immunohistochemistry. [21]. Non-small-cell lung cancer. Over ... Immunohistochemistry. [19]. Head and neck squamous cancers. Over-expression. 75%. ...
Immunohistochemistry: the use of antisera to label specific antigens. *Ruthenium(II) tris(bathophenanthroline disulfonate), a ...
Alpha synuclein immunohistochemistry showing many glial inclusions. Specialty. Neurology Multiple system atrophy (MSA), also ...
Value of immunohistochemistry in the differential diagnosis]". Actas Urologicas Españolas. 22 (6): 515-8. PMID 9734130. Kaba A ... antibodies to CK7 can be used in immunohistochemistry to distinguish ovarian and transitional cell carcinomas from colonic and ...
Dabbs, DJ (2010). Diagnostic Immunohistochemistry: Theranostic and Genomic Applications (3rd ed.). New York: Saunders.. ... Thus the study of cytokeratin expression by immunohistochemistry techniques is a tool of immense value widely used for tumor ...
ImmunohistochemistryEdit. In cases where a metastasis from colorectal cancer is suspected, immunohistochemistry is used to ... Taliano RJ, LeGolvan M, Resnick MB (February 2013). "Immunohistochemistry of colorectal carcinoma: current practice and ... Immunohistochemistry can also be used to screen for Lynch syndrome, a genetic disorder with increased risk of colorectal and ...
N A Gillett; C Chan (2000). "Applications of immunohistochemistry in the evaluation of immunosuppressive agents". Human & ... agents can be evaluated in terms of their effects on lymphocyte subpopulations in tissues using immunohistochemistry.[6] ...
Immunohistochemistry for perforin, TIA-1, and granzyme B are usually positive. Clonal rearrangements of the T-cell receptor ( ...
"What Is Immunohistochemistry (IHC)". Immunohistochemistry. Sino Biological Inc. Farwell, Alan P.; Dubord-Tomasetti, Susan A. ( ... During immunohistochemistry, which is the process that uses antibodies to identify antigens in cells, tissue sections are often ... Because BSA is a small, stable, moderately non-reactive protein, it is often used as a blocker in immunohistochemistry. ...
"Immunohistochemistry for Assessment of Pulmonary and Pleural Neoplasms: A Review and Update". Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 1 (1): 19 ...
... quantitative immunohistochemistry; array light microscopy; and digital pathology. Cancer research Weinstein studied mechanisms ...
2010). "Immunohistochemistry for SDHB divides gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) into 2 distinct types". Am. J. Surg. ... 2010). "Immunohistochemistry for SDHB triages genetic testing of SDHB, SDHC, and SDHD in paraganglioma-pheochromocytoma ...
... of larger structures is called immunohistochemistry. There are two complex steps in the manufacture of antibody ... These types of antibodies would lead to poor results in immunoprecipitation or immunohistochemistry experiments, yet the ... Swanson, P.E. (Sep 1988). "Foundations of immunohistochemistry. A practical review". American Journal of Clinical Pathology. 90 ... Ramos-Vara, JA (Jul 2005). "Technical aspects of immunohistochemistry". Veterinary pathology. 42 (4): 405-26. doi:10.1354/vp.42 ...
List of histologic stains that aid in diagnosis of cutaneous conditions "Ber-EP4". e-immunohistochemistry.info. Retrieved 24 ...
"Marginal-zone B cell lymphoma". e-immunohistochemistry.info. Retrieved 2017-12-11. Salama, Mohamed E.; Lossos, Izidore S.; ...
Excision biopsy of lymph node for histopathological examination,[39] immunohistochemistry,[40] and molecular studies.[41] ... Biopsy for histopathology and immunohistochemistry.[45]. Imaging tests like X-ray, ultrasonography, computerised tomography (CT ... Pillai, R.; Kannan, S.; Chandran, G. J. (1993-04-01). "The immunohistochemistry of solid tumours: potential problems for new ... "Role of immunohistochemistry in lymphoma". Indian Journal of Medical and Paediatric Oncology. 31 (4): 145-147. doi:10.4103/ ...
Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is best performed on frozen sections of tumor (not formalin fixed material!). Histiocytoma is ...
For patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, using immunohistochemistry to detect the presence of the p16 biomarker ... p16 immunohistochemistry is growing in importance. Researchers Manuel Serrano, Gregory J. Hannon and David Beach discovered p16 ... Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology. 18 (4): 344-7. doi:10.1097/PAI.0b013e3181d2bbd7. PMID 20571342. Hall BM, ...
Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology. 12: 139-41. doi:10.1097/00129039-200406000-00007. ...
Lau SK, Luthringer DJ, Eisen RN (Jun 2002). "Thyroid transcription factor-1: a review". Applied Immunohistochemistry & ...
Immunohistochemistry: Basics and Methods. Springer Science & Business Media. 2010. pp. 92-3. ISBN 978-3-642-04609-4. Walton JD ...
Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology. 11 (2): 113-5. doi:10.1097/00129039-200306000-00003. PMID 12777992. Miura ...
Buchwalow, Igor B.; Böcker, Werner (2010). Immunohistochemistry: Basics and Methods. Springer,. p. 92. ISBN 978-3-642-04608-7. ...
Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology. 9 (3): 276-80. doi:10.1097/00022744-200109000-00013. PMID 11556757. ...
Immunohistochemistry Staining Protocol. *. Burnett R, Guichard Y, Barale E (1997). "Immunohistochemistry for light microscopy ... Immunohistochemistry is also used for protein profiling in the most common forms of human cancer.[19][20] ... Immunohistochemistry is used to determine patients who may benefit from therapeutic antibodies such as Erbitux (cetuximab).[18] ... Immunohistochemistry can be used to assess which tumors are likely to respond to therapy, by detecting the presence or elevated ...
Immunohistochemistry (IHC) methods are a sensitive and specific means to detect rabies in formalin-fixed tissues. IHC uses ...
Immunohistochemistry. Definition. Immunohistochemistry is a technique for detecting molecules of interest within tissues using ... A quantitative microimmunohistochemistry assay based on the evolution of immunohistochemistry signals during tissue staining ...
Immunohistochemistry may offer some guidance in these cases.11-19 Most uterine smooth muscle tumors express hormone receptors. ... Subsequently, sections of the uterine tumor were submitted for immunohistochemistry. The endometrial carcinoma was found to be ...
Immunohistochemistry can be applied judiciously in the delineation of tumoral histiogenesis and the extent of lesional ... Immunohistochemistry can be applied judiciously in the delineation of tumoral histiogenesis and the extent of lesional ... Cherpelis B.S., Frank Glass L., Hamill J.R., Fenske N.A. (2018) Immunohistochemistry Applications. In: Morgan M., Spencer J., ...
... Jerry Clayton claytonj at essex.hsc.colorado.edu Thu Jul 20 23:56:11 EST 1995 *Previous message ... I am having problems getting good results doing immunohistochemistry on ,,rat brain sections. Can anyone recommend a good, ...
... melvnr at hg.uleth.ca melvnr at hg.uleth.ca Thu Feb 20 20:47:03 EST 1997 *Previous message: ...
Previous Issues - Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology. *Previous Issues - Diagnostic Molecular Pathology (1992- ... Articles published in Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology are available to nonsubscribers online and/or in PDF ...
... Recorded: Apr 10 2019 64 mins Brett Merritt. Did you know that the incidence of liver ... Liver Cancer & Immunohistochemistry. Did you know that the incidence of liver cancer has tripled since 1980? Have you wondered ... Liver Cancer & Immunohistochemistry Brett Merritt [[ webcastStartDate * 1000 , amDateFormat: MMM D YYYY h:mm a ]] 64 mins ... Immunohistochemistry has now been a staple in diagnostic pathology for decades. This is partially due to pathologist ...
Immunohistochemistry is the technology of detecting cellular and infectious agent proteins in tissue with antibodies and then ... Basics of Immunohistochemistry. Immunohistochemistry is the technology of detecting cellular and infectious agent proteins in ... Liver Cancer & Immunohistochemistry Recorded: Apr 10 2019 64 mins Brett Merritt. Did you know that the incidence of liver ... Immunohistochemistry has now been a staple in diagnostic pathology for decades. This is partially due to pathologist ...
Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a method for detecting antigens or haptens in cells of a tissue section by using labeled an... ... immunohistochemistry. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a method for detecting antigens or haptens in cells of a tissue section by ...
Previous Issues - Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology. *Previous Issues - Diagnostic Molecular Pathology (1992- ... New subscriptions to Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology are managed through Lippincott Williams & Wilkins (LWW ... Subscription renewals for Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology are managed through Lippincott Williams & Wilkins ...
In general there exist two possibilities to obtain quantitatively information in immunohistochemical work: (1) Titration of an antibody of defined specificity and concentration on different antigenic substrates. (2) The measurement of the specific s
You can manage your cookie settings via your browser at any time. To learn more about how we use cookies, please see our cookies policy. ...
Nag S. (2003) Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability Using Tracers and Immunohistochemistry. In: Nag S. (eds) The Blood-Brain Barrier ...
Immunohistochemistry is a type of technique that is used to identify specific types of cells in a given sample. The ... Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique which can be used to identify specific types of cells within a given sample. This ... In an immunohistochemistry study, antibodies search for specific antigens in the sample, and if they find one that matches, ... I can only imagine how cool the slides from immunohistochemistry look. I always think its cool when scientists are able to ...
Immunohistochemistry Market Is Expected To Reach US$ 2,986.4 Mn By 2025 - Credence Research. Mark Alfonso September 13, 2017 ... Home ,, Business ,, Immunohistochemistry Market Is Expected To Reach US$ 2,986.4 Mn By 2025 - Credence Research ... Immunohistochemistry is a method used for localizing specific antigens in tissues or cells using antibodies, enzyme conjugates ... "Global Immunohistochemistry Market - Growth, Future Prospects, Competitive Analysis, 2017 - 2025," the global ...
Co-immunoflurescent labeling of CD3 (Red, Texas Red) and IFN-gamma (green, AF 488) of formalin fixed paraffin embedded bovine lymph node, and nuclei were counterstained with DAPI (blue). Note: co-localizations of the two markers in the same cellular compartments are revealed by yellow. ...
Comparative Immunohistochemistry of Placental Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone and the Transcription Factor RelB-NFκB2 Between ...
Immunohistochemical staining is a valuable tool for detecting specific antigens in tissues. This IHC protocol describes the application of peroxidase or alkaline phosphatase conjugates in the immunohistochemical labeling of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections.
Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is the most widely used technique in histopathological diagnosis and research for detection of ... Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is the most widely used technique in histopathological diagnosis and research for detection of ... By the use of Prestige Antibodies® in Immunohistochemistry studies, information on a subcellular level can be achieved. ... The use of Prestige Antibodies® in Immunohistochemistry on Tissue Microarrays (TMAs) has allowed for protein expression ...
View Immunohistochemistry gene expression results for Dnajc17 with structure, expression level, image, reference. ...
Over 600 immunohistochemistry (IHC) kits, reagents and accessories, designed to improve the quality and reproducibility of your ... Explore our wide range of immunohistochemistry (IHC) kits, reagents and accessories, which are designed to help you obtain ...
Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a method for studying the localization of antigens in tissue sections using antibodies. Find out ... Our immunohistochemistry guide takes you through all the steps in the IHC workflow and includes links to some of our other IHC ... Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a method for demonstrating the distribution and localization of antigens (such as proteins) in ...
Growth factor receptor HER3 (ErbB3) lacks standardized immunohistochemistry (IHC)-based methods for formalin-fixed paraffin- ... Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology, Volume 26, Number 3, March 2018, pp. 212-219(8) ... Comparison of Antibodies for Immunohistochemistry-based Detection of HER3 in Breast Cancer ...
  • Our immunohistochemistry guide takes you through all the steps in the IHC workflow and includes links to some of our other IHC resources, such as protocols and webinars. (abcam.com)
  • Cherpelis B.S., Frank Glass L., Hamill J.R., Fenske N.A. (2018) Immunohistochemistry Applications. (springer.com)
  • This report covers the different applications of immunohistochemistry in drugs and diagnostics. (bccresearch.com)
  • Antigen Retrieval Immunohistochemistry Based Research and Diagnostics discusses several scientific approaches to the standardization of quantifiable immunohistochemistry (IHC). (wiley.com)
  • Antigen Retrieval Immunohistochemistry Based Research and Diagnostics is intended for clinical pathologists, molecular cell biologists, basic research scientists, technicians, and graduate students who undertake tissue/cell morphologic and molecular analysis and wish to use and extend the power of immunohistochemistry. (wiley.com)
  • Therefore, immunohistochemistry has become a crucial technique and widely used in many medical research laboratories as well as clinical diagnostics. (ihcworld.com)
  • Anyone who has recieved the Roche Diagnostics Scholarship for Excellence in Standardization of Immunohistochemistry within the last 5 years is ineligible for this scholarship. (nsh.org)
  • Classical histology has been augmented by immunohistochemistry (the use of specific antibodies to stain particular molecular species in situ). (elsevier.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry has allowed the identification of many more cell types than could be visualized by classical histology, particularly in the immune system and among the scattered hormone-secreting cells of the endocrine system. (elsevier.com)
  • The other analyzed factors related to histology and immunohistochemistry have no such impact as they are related to biological behavior and aggressiveness of malignant breast tumors, thus providing useful predictive and prognostic information. (srce.hr)
  • Multiplexed immunohistochemistry, imaging, and quantitation: a review, with an assessment of Tyramide signal amplification, multispectral imaging and multiplex analysis. (nih.gov)
  • The growing consolidation, incorporation of nanotechnology in immunohistochemistry, adoption of multiplex arrays, and automation in this market are the key trends in the market. (emailwire.com)
  • Enzo offers the broadest (and expanding) palette of IHC stain colors to choose from, giving you the ultimate flexibility in planning your multiplex Immunohistochemistry protocol . (enzolifesciences.com)
  • Opal™ 4-color IHC Kits make multiplex methods accessible to anyone who works with standard immunohistochemistry. (selectscience.net)
  • 225 Pages Report] The immunohistochemistry market is projected to reach USD 2.12 billion by 2021, at a CAGR of 7.3% during the forecast period. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Significant rise in healthcare spending and shift in focus on value-based healthcare solutions can further impel growth of the immunohistochemistry market over the forecast period. (medindia.net)
  • The global immunohistochemistry market size was valued at USD 1.8 billion in 2019 and is expected to witness lucrative growth at a CAGR of 7.8% over the forecast period. (grandviewresearch.com)
  • Factors such as introduction of technologically advanced immunohistochemistry solutions, increasing drug discovery and development activities, and rising prevalence of chronic diseases are expected to significantly fuel immunohistochemistry (IHC) market growth during the forecast period. (grandviewresearch.com)
  • The primary antibodies segment dominated the market for immunohistochemistry in 2019 as these are primarily used in the diagnosis of chronic diseases and are anticipated to maintain their market share during the forecast period. (grandviewresearch.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry (IHC) Market Size to Reach $3.1 Billion by 2025: Grand View Research, Inc. (medindia.net)
  • While the term immunohistochemistry (IHC) is often used interchangeably with immunocytochemistry (ICC), significant differences exist between IHC and ICC in terms of the biological sample that is analyzed. (thermofisher.com)
  • Moreover, the rising adoption of immunohistochemistry test, high-throughput assays, such as array comparative genomic hybridization, cDNA microarray, next-generation sequencing techniques, and histological tests, have led to the rapid discovery of thousands of potential antibodies. (emailwire.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a powerful immunology-based method that is used to study the location of proteins in cells and tissues. (springer.com)
  • However, rapid growth in the developing countries across APAC and Latin America and the increasing demand for personalized medicine offer significant growth opportunities in the immunohistochemistry market. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • recognized to be the most influential factors driving the growth of the immunohistochemistry market. (medindia.net)
  • Growing prevalence of cancer and rapidly increasing geriatric population across the globe are the major factors driving the growth of the immunohistochemistry market. (emailwire.com)
  • Increasing product approvals and the introduction of technologically advanced immunohistochemistry solutions for disease diagnosis is further fueling the growth of the market for immunohistochemistry. (grandviewresearch.com)
  • Such strategic initiatives by key players are expected to create a lucrative environment for the growth of the market for immunohistochemistry. (grandviewresearch.com)
  • Lack of specificity associated with IHC techniques and its high setup cost are anticipated to impede the growth of the market for immunohistochemistry. (grandviewresearch.com)
  • The high setup cost of IHC equipment poses huge burden on hospitals and diagnostic laboratories in developing economies, thereby limiting the growth of the market for immunohistochemistry. (grandviewresearch.com)
  • In order to perform immunohistochemistry, it is necessary to have access to a laboratory along with a number of specialized products which will be used to prepare and test the sample. (wisegeek.com)
  • The immunohistochemistry (IHC) test is a laboratory method that detects antibodies of prions (mis-shapen proteins thought to transmit bovine spongiform encephalopathy, BSE or mad cow disease) by exposing a brain sample to a stain that appears as a specific color under a microscope. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Immunohistochemistry Laboratory has a menu of immunohistochemistry tests for which we will provide interpretation by one of our ARUP faculty pathologists. (aruplab.com)
  • The ARUP Immunohistochemistry Laboratory is an NSABP-approved laboratory for the testing of breast markers. (aruplab.com)
  • Cell -specific binding via immunohistochemistry: Neuronal nuclei as marker for neurons (B), adenosinergic A1 receptors (C) and glial fibrillary acidic protein as marker for glia cells (D). (fz-juelich.de)
  • By indirect immunohistochemistry, the present study examined the distribution of neuronal structures in the cat medulla oblongata, pons, and midbrain, showing immunoreactivity to aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC), which catalyzes the conversion of L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) to dopamine, and 5-hydroxytryptophan to serotonin (5HT). (biomedsearch.com)
  • The immunohistochemistry market comprises several stakeholders such as raw material suppliers, processors, end-product manufacturers, distributors, and regulatory organizations in the supply chain. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Both top-down and bottom-up approaches were used to estimate and validate the total size of the immunohistochemistry market. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • The growing geriatric population along with the augmenting healthcare expenditure are some of the key factors driving the global immunohistochemistry market. (marketresearch.com)
  • The global immunohistochemistry market comprises of four major regions such as North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Latin America, and rest of world. (marketresearch.com)
  • In 2015, the hospitals and diagnostic laboratories segment accounted for the largest share of immunohistochemistry market, by end user. (emailwire.com)
  • The antigen retrieval (AR) technique is used worldwide and has resulted in a revolution in immunohistochemistry (IHC). (whsmith.co.uk)
  • Immunohistochemistry is a comprehensive phrase, integrating biochemical, immunological, and anatomical procedure to visualize and constrain individually separated constituents in tissues by interacting with the antibodies-antigen. (marketresearch.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry, as a crucial application of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies helps understand tissue distribution of an antigen. (grandviewresearch.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry can assist in reducing the incidence and ambiguity of atypical small acinar proliferation (ASAP) diagnoses. (medscape.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry ( IHC ) is the most common application of immunostaining . (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunohistochemistry is a technique for detecting molecules of interest within tissues using antibodies. (nature.com)
  • The science and technique behind immunohistochemistry are discussed in this webinar. (brighttalk.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique which can be used to identify specific types of cells within a given sample. (wisegeek.com)
  • I am planning a small study that will use the immunohistochemistry technique. (protocol-online.org)
  • Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used to analyze protein expression in the context of tissue morphology. (jove.com)
  • 3,4 Therefore, the immunohistochemistry procedure is highly automated and performed under standardized conditions. (sigmaaldrich.com)