Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
The infiltrating of tissue specimens with paraffin, as a supporting substance, to prepare for sectioning with a microtome.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
The technique of using FIXATIVES in the preparation of cytologic, histologic, or pathologic specimens for the purpose of maintaining the existing form and structure of all the constituent elements.
An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.
A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.
The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.
A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.
Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.
Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.
A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.
A family of highly acidic calcium-binding proteins found in large concentration in the brain and believed to be glial in origin. They are also found in other organs in the body. They have in common the EF-hand motif (EF HAND MOTIFS) found on a number of calcium binding proteins. The name of this family derives from the property of being soluble in a 100% saturated ammonium sulfate solution.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The erbB-2 gene is a proto-oncogene that codes for the erbB-2 receptor (RECEPTOR, ERBB-2), a protein with structural features similar to the epidermal growth factor receptor. Its name originates from the viral oncogene homolog (v-erbB) which is a truncated form of the chicken erbB gene found in the avian erythroblastosis virus. Overexpression and amplification of the gene is associated with a significant number of adenocarcinomas. The human c-erbB-2 gene is located at 17q21.2.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
An intermediate filament protein found in most differentiating cells, in cells grown in tissue culture, and in certain fully differentiated cells. Its insolubility suggests that it serves a structural function in the cytoplasm. MW 52,000.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.
A dye obtained from the heartwood of logwood (Haematoxylon campechianum Linn., Leguminosae) used as a stain in microscopy and in the manufacture of ink.
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
An inducibly-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes and INFLAMMATION. It is the target of COX2 INHIBITORS.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
The performance of dissections with the aid of a microscope.
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A calbindin protein found in many mammalian tissues, including the UTERUS, PLACENTA, BONE, PITUITARY GLAND, and KIDNEYS. In intestinal ENTEROCYTES it mediates intracellular calcium transport from apical to basolateral membranes via calcium binding at two EF-HAND MOTIFS. Expression is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
An endopeptidase that is structurally similar to MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 2. It degrades GELATIN types I and V; COLLAGEN TYPE IV; and COLLAGEN TYPE V.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the level of CELL DIFFERENTIATION in neoplasms as increasing ANAPLASIA correlates with the aggressiveness of the neoplasm.
Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).
A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.
An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
A calbindin protein that is differentially expressed in distinct populations of NEURONS throughout the vertebrate and invertebrate NERVOUS SYSTEM, and modulates intrinsic neuronal excitability and influences LONG-TERM POTENTIATION. It is also found in LUNG, TESTIS, OVARY, KIDNEY, and BREAST, and is expressed in many tumor types found in these tissues. It is often used as an immunohistochemical marker for MESOTHELIOMA.
Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Agents employed in the preparation of histologic or pathologic specimens for the purpose of maintaining the existing form and structure of all of the constituent elements. Great numbers of different agents are used; some are also decalcifying and hardening agents. They must quickly kill and coagulate living tissue.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Tumors or cancer of ENDOMETRIUM, the mucous lining of the UTERUS. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. Their classification and grading are based on the various cell types and the percent of undifferentiated cells.
Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.
A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for STEM CELL FACTOR. This interaction is crucial for the development of hematopoietic, gonadal, and pigment stem cells. Genetic mutations that disrupt the expression of PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT are associated with PIEBALDISM, while overexpression or constitutive activation of the c-kit protein-tyrosine kinase is associated with tumorigenesis.
Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.
A secreted endopeptidase homologous with INTERSTITIAL COLLAGENASE, but which possesses an additional fibronectin-like domain.
Transplantation between animals of different species.
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.
A type II keratin found associated with KERATIN-19 in ductal epithelia and gastrointestinal epithelia.
The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
A versatile red dye used in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, textiles, etc., and as tissue stain, vital stain, and counterstain with HEMATOXYLIN. It is also used in special culture media.
RNA present in neoplastic tissue.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).
Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).
A malignant cystic or semicystic neoplasm. It often occurs in the ovary and usually bilaterally. The external surface is usually covered with papillary excrescences. Microscopically, the papillary patterns are predominantly epithelial overgrowths with differentiated and undifferentiated papillary serous cystadenocarcinoma cells. Psammoma bodies may be present. The tumor generally adheres to surrounding structures and produces ascites. (From Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972, p185)
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
The mucous membrane that covers the posterior surface of the eyelids and the anterior pericorneal surface of the eyeball.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A gland in males that surrounds the neck of the URINARY BLADDER and the URETHRA. It secretes a substance that liquefies coagulated semen. It is situated in the pelvic cavity behind the lower part of the PUBIC SYMPHYSIS, above the deep layer of the triangular ligament, and rests upon the RECTUM.
A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Calcium-binding proteins that are found in DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES, INTESTINES, BRAIN, and other tissues where they bind, buffer and transport cytoplasmic calcium. Calbindins possess a variable number of EF-HAND MOTIFS which contain calcium-binding sites. Some isoforms are regulated by VITAMIN D.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).

Level of retinoblastoma protein expression correlates with p16 (MTS-1/INK4A/CDKN2) status in bladder cancer. (1/66693)

Recent studies have shown that patients whose bladder cancer exhibit overexpression of RB protein as measured by immunohistochemical analysis do equally poorly as those with loss of RB function. We hypothesized that loss of p16 protein function could be related to RB overexpression, since p16 can induce transcriptional downregulation of RB and its loss may lead to aberrant RB regulation. Conversely, loss of RB function has been associated with high p16 protein expression in several other tumor types. In the present study RB negative bladder tumors also exhibited strong nuclear p16 staining while each tumor with strong, homogeneous RB nuclear staining were p16 negative, supporting our hypothesis. To expand on these immunohistochemical studies additional cases were selected in which the status of the p16 encoding gene had been determined at the molecular level. Absent p16 and high RB protein expression was found in the tumors having loss of heterozygosity within 9p21 and a structural change (mutation or deletion) of the remaining p16 encoding gene allele, confirming the staining results. These results strongly support the hypothesis that the RB nuclear overexpression recently associated with poor prognosis in bladder cancer is also associated with loss of p16 function and implies that loss of p16 function could be equally deleterious as RB loss in bladder and likely other cancers.  (+info)

Decreased expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Par-4 in renal cell carcinoma. (2/66693)

Par-4 is a widely expressed leucine zipper protein that confers sensitization to apoptosis induced by exogenous insults. Because the expression of genes that promote apoptosis may be down-regulated during tumorigenesis, we sought to examine the expression of Par-4 in human tumors. We present here evidence that Par-4 protein levels were severely decreased in human renal cell carcinoma specimens relative to normal tubular cells. Replenishment of Par-4 protein levels in renal cell carcinoma cell lines conferred sensitivity to apoptosis. Because apoptosis may serve as a defense mechanism against malignant transformation or progression, decreased expression of Par-4 may contribute to the pathophysiology of renal cell carcinoma.  (+info)

Expression of Bcl-2 protein is decreased in colorectal adenocarcinomas with microsatellite instability. (3/66693)

Bcl-2 is known to inhibit apoptosis and is thought to play a role in colorectal tumour development. Studies of the promoter region of bcl-2 have indicated the presence of a p53 responsive element which downregulates bcl-2 expression. Since p53 is commonly mutated in colorectal cancers, but rarely in those tumours showing microsatellite instability (MSI), the aim of this study was to examine the relationship of bcl-2 protein expression to MSI, as well as to other clinicopathological and molecular variables, in colorectal adenocarcinomas. Expression of bcl-2 was analysed by immunohistochemistry in 71 colorectal cancers which had been previously assigned to three classes depending upon their levels of MSI. MSI-high tumours demonstrated instability in three or more of six microsatellite markers tested, MSI-low tumours in one or two of six, and MSI-null in none of six. Bcl-2 expression in tumours was quantified independently by two pathologists and assigned to one of five categories, with respect to the number of cells which showed positive staining: 0, up to 5%; 1, 6-25%; 2, 26-50%; 3, 51-75%; and 4, > or =76%. Bcl-2 negative tumours were defined as those with a score of 0. Bcl-2 protein expression was tested for association with clinicopathological stage, differentiation level, tumour site, age, sex, survival, evidence of p53 inactivation and MSI level. A significant association was found between bcl-2 expression and patient survival (P = 0.012, Gehan Wilcoxon test). Further, a significant reciprocal relationship was found between bcl-2 expression and the presence of MSI (P = 0.012, Wilcoxon rank sum test). We conclude that bcl-2 expressing colorectal cancers are more likely to be MSI-null, and to be associated with improved patient survival.  (+info)

Immune responses to all ErbB family receptors detectable in serum of cancer patients. (4/66693)

Employing NIH3T3 transfectants with individual human ErbB receptor coding sequences as recombinant antigen sources, we detected by immunoblot analysis specific immunoreactivity against all four ErbB receptors among 13 of 41 sera obtained from patients with different types of epithelial malignancies. Overall, serum positivity was most frequently directed against ErbB2 followed by EGFR, ErbB3 and ErbB4. Specificity patterns comprised tumor patients with unique serum reactivity against ErbB2 or ErbB4. Moreover, approximately half of the positive sera exhibited concomitant reactivity with multiple ErbB receptors including EGFR and ErbB2, EGFR and ErbB4, ErbB2 and ErbB3 or EGFR, ErbB2 and ErbB3. Serum reactivity was confirmed for the respective ErbB receptors expressed by human tumor cells and corroborated on receptor-specific immunoprecipitates. Positive sera contained ErbB-specific antibodies of the IgG isotype. Representative immunohistochemical analysis of tumor tissues suggested overexpression of ErbB receptors for which serum antibodies were detectable in five of six patients. These findings implicate multiple ErbB receptors including ErbB3 and ErbB4 in addition to EGFR and ErbB2 in primary human cancer. Heterogeneity of natural ErbB-specific responses in cancer patients warrants their evaluation in light of immunotherapeutic approaches targeting these receptors.  (+info)

Detailed methylation analysis of the glutathione S-transferase pi (GSTP1) gene in prostate cancer. (5/66693)

Glutathione-S-Transferases (GSTs) comprise a family of isoenzymes that provide protection to mammalian cells against electrophilic metabolites of carcinogens and reactive oxygen species. Previous studies have shown that the CpG-rich promoter region of the pi-class gene GSTP1 is methylated at single restriction sites in the majority of prostate cancers. In order to understand the nature of abnormal methylation of the GSTP1 gene in prostate cancer we undertook a detailed analysis of methylation at 131 CpG sites spanning the promoter and body of the gene. Our results show that DNA methylation is not confined to specific CpG sites in the promoter region of the GSTP1 gene but is extensive throughout the CpG island in prostate cancer cells. Furthermore we found that both alleles are abnormally methylated in this region. In normal prostate tissue, the entire CpG island was unmethylated, but extensive methylation was found outside the island in the body of the gene. Loss of GSTP1 expression correlated with DNA methylation of the CpG island in both prostate cancer cell lines and cancer tissues whereas methylation outside the CpG island in normal prostate tissue appeared to have no effect on gene expression.  (+info)

The disulfide-bonded loop of chromogranin B mediates membrane binding and directs sorting from the trans-Golgi network to secretory granules. (6/66693)

The disulfide-bonded loop of chromogranin B (CgB), a regulated secretory protein with widespread distribution in neuroendocrine cells, is known to be essential for the sorting of CgB from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to immature secretory granules. Here we show that this loop, when fused to the constitutively secreted protein alpha1-antitrypsin (AT), is sufficient to direct the fusion protein to secretory granules. Importantly, the sorting efficiency of the AT reporter protein bearing two loops (E2/3-AT-E2/3) is much higher compared with that of AT with a single disulfide-bonded loop. In contrast to endogenous CgB, E2/3-AT-E2/3 does not undergo Ca2+/pH-dependent aggregation in the TGN. Furthermore, the disulfide-bonded loop of CgB mediates membrane binding in the TGN and does so with 5-fold higher efficiency if two loops are present on the reporter protein. The latter finding supports the concept that under physiological conditions, aggregates of CgB are the sorted units of cargo which have multiple loops on their surface leading to high membrane binding and sorting efficiency of CgB in the TGN.  (+info)

A cytomegalovirus glycoprotein re-routes MHC class I complexes to lysosomes for degradation. (7/66693)

Mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) early gene expression interferes with the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC class I) pathway of antigen presentation. Here we identify a 48 kDa type I transmembrane glycoprotein encoded by the MCMV early gene m06, which tightly binds to properly folded beta2-microglobulin (beta2m)-associated MHC class I molecules in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This association is mediated by the lumenal/transmembrane part of the protein. gp48-MHC class I complexes are transported out of the ER, pass the Golgi, but instead of being expressed on the cell surface, they are redirected to the endocytic route and rapidly degraded in a Lamp-1(+) compartment. As a result, m06-expressing cells are impaired in presenting antigenic peptides to CD8(+) T cells. The cytoplasmic tail of gp48 contains two di-leucine motifs. Mutation of the membrane-proximal di-leucine motif of gp48 restored surface expression of MHC class I, while mutation of the distal one had no effect. The results establish a novel viral mechanism for downregulation of MHC class I molecules by directly binding surface-destined MHC complexes and exploiting the cellular di-leucine sorting machinery for lysosomal degradation.  (+info)

Expression of extracellular matrix proteins in cervical squamous cell carcinoma--a clinicopathological study. (8/66693)

AIM: To evaluate the intracellular and peritumoral expression of matrix proteins in squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix using immunohistochemistry. METHODS: 71 squamous cell carcinomas and 10 controls were stained for laminin, fibronectin, and collagen IV. Cytoplasmic staining in tumour cells and peritumoral deposition of matrix proteins were evaluated. The association between staining results and patient age, tumour stage, histological grade, and survival was studied. RESULTS: Positive cytoplasmic staining for laminin, fibronectin, and collagen IV was observed in 17 (23.9%), 27 (38%), and 10 (14.1%) cases, respectively. Staining for laminin was most pronounced in the invasive front of tumour islands, while for fibronectin and collagen IV it appeared to be diffuse. Peritumoral staining for laminin and collagen IV was detected in 12 cases (16.9%). Early stage (Ia1-Ia2) tumours were uniformly negative for all three proteins. Cytoplasmic staining for laminin correlated with positive staining for fibronectin and collagen IV, and with the presence of a peritumoral deposition of collagen IV and laminin. There was no correlation with any of the three markers between staining results and patient age, stage, grade, or survival. CONCLUSIONS: Expression of extracellular matrix proteins in some cervical squamous cell carcinomas might reflect the enhanced ability of these tumours to modify the peritumoral stroma. This ability seems to be absent in early stage tumours. The correlation between intracytoplasmic and peritumoral expression of matrix proteins supports the evidence of their synthesis by tumour cells. However, this property did not correlate with disease outcome in this study.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Immunohistochemical distribution of pro-somatostatin-related peptides in cerebral cortex. AU - Morrison, John H.. AU - Benoit, Robert. AU - Magistretti, Pierre. AU - Bloom, Floyd E.. PY - 1983/3/7. Y1 - 1983/3/7. N2 - Mammalian brain contains 3 peptides related to the pro-somatostatin molecule: somatostatin-14 (SS14), the form originally identified from hypothalamic extracts, somatostatin 28 (SS28) and somatostaton 28 (1-12) (SS28 (1-12)). By using antibodies which selectively recognize one or more of these 3 somatostatin-related peptides, we have characterized their immunohistochemical distribution in neocortex. These somatostatin-related peptides have a specific laminar distribution in cortex and are differentially distributed such that SS28 is largely restricted to cell bodies, whereas SS28 (1-12) is preferentially localized in neuroal processes and terminals in a density which far exceeds that revealed by SS-14 immunoreactivity. These data suggest that there may be an ...
Thesis, English, Pathological and Immunohistochemical Studies on The Effect of Synthetic Glucocorticoids Compounds on Rabbits for El Alem Maha Mohammed
TY - JOUR. T1 - Selecting for BRCA1 testing using a combination of homogeneous selection criteria and immunohistochemical characteristics of breast cancers. AU - Miolo, GianMaria. AU - Canzonieri, Vincenzo. AU - De Giacomi, Clelia. AU - Puppa, Lara D.. AU - Dolcetti, Riccardo. AU - Lombardi, Davide. AU - Perin, Tiziana. AU - Scalone, Simona. AU - Veronesi, Andrea. AU - Viel, Alessandra. PY - 2009/10/10. Y1 - 2009/10/10. N2 - Background: BRCA1 gene-related tumours are more frequently estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) negative with a lower prevalence of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) overexpression or amplification. We evaluated the effectiveness of a combination of homogeneously selected criteria and immunohistochemical (IHC) characteristics of Familial Breast Cancers (FBCs) in detecting BRCA1 mutation carriers. Methods: Primary breast tumours from 93 FBC patients defined by specific eligibility criteria, based on personal and familial tumour history, were ...
Endometrial adenocarcinomas are a rare type of tumour in cats. Though different morphologies have been reported, the most frequent histological type of feline endometrial adenocarcinoma (FEA) is the papillary serous. Characterization of molecular markers expression in FEA may contribute to clarify the pathogenesis of these tumours and to assess the differences between normal endometrium and FEA regarding the expression pattern of several proteins. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the immunohistochemical profile of a wide panel of antibodies (specific for ER-α, PR, Ki-67, CK7 and CK20) in twenty-four cases of FEA. Comparisons were made between FEA and feline normal cyclic endometrium in follicular (n = 13) and luteal (n = 10) stages. Except for Ki-67, all other molecular markers were assessed independently for the intensity of immunolabeling and for the percentage of cells expressing the protein. This study showed that in FEA a loss of expression occurs for ER-α (P ≤ 0.0001) and less markedly
Endometrial adenocarcinomas are a rare type of tumour in cats. Though different morphologies have been reported, the most frequent histological type of feline endometrial adenocarcinoma (FEA) is the papillary serous. Characterization of molecular markers expression in FEA may contribute to clarify the pathogenesis of these tumours and to assess the differences between normal endometrium and FEA regarding the expression pattern of several proteins. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the immunohistochemical profile of a wide panel of antibodies (specific for ER-α, PR, Ki-67, CK7 and CK20) in twenty-four cases of FEA. Comparisons were made between FEA and feline normal cyclic endometrium in follicular (n = 13) and luteal (n = 10) stages. Except for Ki-67, all other molecular markers were assessed independently for the intensity of immunolabeling and for the percentage of cells expressing the protein. This study showed that in FEA a loss of expression occurs for ER-α (P ≤ 0.0001) and less markedly
The altered expression patterns of glypican and syndecan-1 and -4 in chronic ulcers reflect their possible roles during inflammation and cell proliferation. Hence, analysis of PG expression should be of interest in future studies on normal as well as defective wound healing.
Single clustering methods have often been used to elucidate clusters in high dimensional medical data, even though reliance on a single algorithm is known to be problematic. In this paper, we present a methodology to determine a set of core classes by using a range of techniques to reach consensus across several different clustering algorithms, and to ascertain the key characteristics of these classes. We apply the methodology to immunohistochemical data from breast cancer patients. In doing so, we identify six core classes, of which several may be novel sub-groups not previously emphasised in literature.. ...
POSCC is a rare variant of SCC that is histologically similar to typical SCC but with the presence of non-neoplastic melanocytes within the lesion (20,22). Pigmentation in POSCC is not always macroscopically visible and may be detected only microscopically (18,19). Our study examined only the cases in which the pigmentation could be macroscopically observed in the primary sites. There was no data in the literature on the prevalence of POSCC. In this study, POSCC was prevalent in 1.7% of the total OSCC cases. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the clinicopathological and biological features of POSCC.. The most common location of POSCC in this study was the tongue (72%), which is consistent with previous findings (13-22) and in line with conventional OSCC. Similar to 18 reported cases (13-22), 23 tumors (92%) were diagnosed as pathological T1-T2 stage. In total, 23 of 25 cases (92%) were low-invasive type POSCC. There were 3 of 25 patients (12%) who had pathological ...
Overview Pathologists frequently use immunohistochemistry (IHC) to evaluate antigen location and expression patterns in tissue for diagnostic and/or prognostic purposes. This process often also requires quantification of these immunostains to assist in therapeutic drug selection. Traditional scoring systems for IHC have relied on manual subjective interpretation and semiquantification of immunostains by pathologists examining microscopic glass…
Immunolocalisation of matrix metalloproteinase 3 (stromelysin) in rheumatoid synovioblasts (B cells): correlation with rheumatoid arthritis
Hiramoto, R; Jurandowski, J; Bernecky, J; and Pressman, D, Immunohistochemical identification of tissue culture cells. (1961). Subject Strain Bibliography 1961. 1057 ...
Rocklands Immunohistochemistry Studies (IHC) provide confidential high-quality target localization data through wide services. Option to outsource IHC.
In general there exist two possibilities to obtain quantitatively information in immunohistochemical work: (1) Titration of an antibody of defined specificity and concentration on different antigenic substrates. (2) The measurement of the specific s
Dr. Bloom has more than 30 years of clinical experience and has been an early adopter of precision medicine. He is a renowned researcher and lecturer in pathology, cancer, telemedicine, and informatics.. Dr. Bloom recently joined Invicro as the CMO of advanced pathology and advanced genomic services. Prior to Invicro, he served as the President and head of oncology and immunotherapy at Human Longevity Inc., Chief Medical Officer of In Vitro Diagnostics at GE Healthcare, senior medical director at US Labs and director of laboratory operations at Rush Medical Center. Dr. Bloom has held a series of academic position as including Clinical Professor of Pathology at USC and CIO at Rush Cancer Center.. ...
The diagnosis of SPT is made based on the clinical presentation, location of tumor, histological findings, and immunohistochemical staining. SPTs express positive immunohistochemical staining for vimentin, CD56, alpha-1-antitrypsin and neuron-specific enolase. Epithelial markers (keratins) may be focal or weakly positive. Synaptophysin is commonly positive in SPTs; however, chromogranin is usually negative. Immunohistochemical staining for Amylase/Lipase/Trypsin are negative, as well as those for pancreatic hormones. There may be positive immunohistochemical staining for CD10, Beta- catenin, CD117 (c-kit), Progesterone receptor, and the beta form of estrogen receptor. SPTs are considered to be tumors of low malignant potential and more than 80% of SPTs are cured by surgical resection. However, metastases may be seen in a small percentage of patients. When metastasis occurs, it is usually to the liver or peritoneum. Patient follow-up: The patient underwent a brain biopsy. Histologic examination ...
DATE:  November 15, 2018TIME:  10:00am PT, 1:00pm ET Multiplex fluorescence immunohistochemistry offers a window into the biology of human disease, enabling the ana
41 colon cancer patients were tested for MMR status using immunohistochemistry between March 2013 and October 2014 (18 months). 31 of the 41 patients were resected high risk Dukes B colon cancer patients. 24 of the 31 patients (77%) were under the age of 75 and were considered for adjuvant chemotherapy. 3 of the 24 patients (13%) were found to have dMMR. 2 of the 3 dMMR patients did not proceed to have adjuvant treatment. 13 of the 24 patients (54%), including 1 dMMR patient, were commenced on adjuvant chemotherapy.. 7 of the 31 high risk Dukes B patients (23%) were over the age of 75. None of the over-75 patients were given chemotherapy. 4 of them (57%) were found to have dMMR. All dMMR patients had right sided colon cancer.. The overall prevalence of dMMR in high risk Dukes B patients was 23%. The cost of an MMR protein immunohistochemistry was under £50, whereas a 6 month course of Capecitabine chemotherapy, including all non-drug clinical costs, could amount up to £3500.. The other 10 ...
Immunocytochemical Expression of BAX and BAK Proteins in Cervical Smears of Women Positive for HPV Types: A Study of 120 Cases
MEDINA BUENO, Gonzalo Arturo. Clinical and prognostic characteristics of the molecular subtypes of breast cancer determined by immunohistochemistry. Arequipa, Peru. Rev. perú. med. exp. salud publica [online]. 2017, vol.34, n.3, pp.472-477. ISSN 1726-4634. http://dx.doi.org/10.17843/rpmesp.2017.343.2530.. The objective of this study was to determine the clinical and prognostic characteristics of breast carcinomas according to the molecular subtype using immunohistochemical markers. The study included 280 women with unilateral breast cancer enrolled from 2009 to 2012. The carcinomas were classified into four subtypes based on immunohistochemical findings: luminal A, luminal B, HER2, and triple negative. The Kaplan-Meier test was used to determine the effect of histological type and molecular subtype on overall survival. Our results indicated that the most common breast carcinoma subtype was luminal A (105 cases, 37.5%), followed by luminal B (88 cases, 31.4%), HER2 (46 cases, 16.4%), and triple ...
The tumor cells were arranged in organoid clusters or sheets and composed of round to polygonal cells with central round nucleus, abundant eosinophilic or clear cytoplasm and distinct cell membrane (IMAGES 1, 2). Myxoid matrix was also present between the tumor cells (IMAGE 3). The tumor had increased cellularity with nuclear pleomorphism and significant mitotic activity (IMAGES 4, 5). Immunohistochemical stains showed an unusual pattern of staining for CD117 (c-kit) (IMAGE 6). Instead of cytoplasmic staining as typically seen in GIST, there was predominantly nuclear staining. CD34 (IMAGE 7), smooth muscle specific actin (IMAGE 8) and S-100 (IMAGE 9) were immunostain negative. Atypical staining for CD117 and absence of positive immunohistochemical staining for CD34 in the present tumor tissue prevent a definitive diagnosis of GIST at this time. Loss of positive staining for these characteristic GIST markers could be consistent with tumor dedifferentiation over time associated with recurrence. ...
Pathological tissue is excised with a beam from a laser that is coupled through a flexible, optical waveguide to a collimator that reduces the beam cross-sectional area by variable, controlled amounts. A transparent bore or a graphite cannule couples the beam exiting the collimator to the tissue to vaporize same. An electrically responsive deflector gyrates the reduced cross-sectional area beam about a bore sight axis aligned with the cannula bore so that the excised tissue has a frusto-conical volume. To excise different, displaced tissue regions, a position servo system moves the cannula so the bore sight axis moves in a plane at right angles to a plane on the exterior surface containing the pathological tissue.
IHC remains the simplest method for detecting biomarker expression while maintaining spatial context within tissues. Getting reliable staining hinges on the specificity of your antibody.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Morphometric and morphologic evaluation of pulmonary lesions in beagle dogs chronically exposed to high ambient levels of air pollutants. AU - Hyde, D.. AU - Orthoefer, J.. AU - Dungworth, D.. AU - Tyler, W.. AU - Carter, R.. AU - Lum, H.. PY - 1978. Y1 - 1978. N2 - Beagle dogs (104) comprising one control and seven treatment groups were exposed 16 hours daily for 68 months to filtered air, raw or photochemically reacted auto exhaust, oxides of sulfur or nitrogen, or their combinations. After a further 32 to 36 months in clean air, morphologic examination of lungs by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy revealed two important exposure-related lesions. They were enlargement of air spaces in proximal acinar regions, with and without increases in the number and size of interalveolar pores, and hyperplasia of nonciliated bronchiolar cells. Proximal enlargement of air spaces was most severe, both subjectively and morphometrically, in ...
Unlike detecting constitutively expressed targets, immunohistochemical detection of labile, low abundance, and short-lived signal transduction molecules can be a very difficult task. In Signal Transduction Immunohistochemistry: Methods and Protocols, IHC experts contribute detailed protocols
The 116 DLBCL analyzed in our study were diagnosed according to the histopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics described in the WHO classification and additionally according to novel gene expression features recently defined by our group.10. Forty-three of our 116 cases of DLBCL had a genomic gain of BCL2 and MALT1 and one case revealed an amplification of MALT1 together with a normal BCL2 gene status (together 38%), while 72 cases (62%) had normal copy numbers of the BCL2 and MALT1 genes not considering changes in ploidy. Interestingly, gain of the BCL2 gene was invariably associated with gain of the MALT1 gene in our series. Moreover, the presence of a 18q21/MALT1 gain correlated with upregulation of genes located on 18q including MALT1 at the RNA level, independently of the ABC or GCB gene expression signature, and was strongly associated with over-expression of BCL2 protein. We found a significant accumulation of cases with a 18q21/MALT1 gain among those with an ABC signature ...
Subject: HA antibodies From: jesuspla Date: Thu, 6 Apr 1995 10:39:10 In article ,jesuspla.1.000AA770 at eucmvx.sim.ucm.es, , jesuspla at eucmvx.sim.ucm.es writes: ,Does anyone know how to get anti-hemaglutinin antibodies to localize protein ,in the cell ?. Are they comercial ? If you want to use epitope tagging for immunolocalisation anti-HA antibodies are the ones to avoid. HA-tagged proteins can be immunolocalised but only if they are horrifically overexpressed in COS or 293 cells for example. A reasonable level of expression will not be visible above the high background. It is of course possible that we have received poor lots of mAb! We routinely use HA tags for immunoprecipitation of the protein of interest and VSVG or MYC tags for immunolocalisation, both of which work well. Fergus McKenzie, McKenzie at naxos.unice.fr Universite de Nice, France ...
Background and aims: The putative stem cell marker CD24 is a small, heavily glycosylated, cell surface molecule which was originally associated with tumour metastasis. Recently it has been reported to be upregulated and of prognostic importance in colorectal tumours. The study aims to study the prognostic value of CD24 in a large series of colorectal cancer (CRC).. Methods: CD24 protein expression was examined by immunohistochemistry. A total of 10 whole tissue sections (WTS) of adenoma and 345 CRCs arranged as tissue microarrays (TMAs) were evaluated. For comparison with non-neoplastic tissue, 10 WTS containing tumour with associated non-neoplastic tissue were also studied.. Results: None of the samples of normal tissue (adjacent to tumour) showed CD24 expression. In the tumours, CD24 expression was seen on the luminal surface of the cells, within the cytoplasm and, unexpectedly, also within the nucleus. Positive immunostaining was seen in 9/10 (90%) adenomas and 313/345 (91%) of CRCs. Weak ...
Rees, S. G., Waggett, A. D., Kerr, Briedgeen, Probert, J., Gealy, Elizabeth Claire, Dent, C. M., Caterson, Bruce and Hughes, Clare Elizabeth 2009 ...
Positive connexin 43 staining and immunohistochemical characteristics, higher cartilage- specific gene mutations, adrenal hyperplasia. 319 compendium of research: Stem cells stem cells: Use of ipecac-induced emesis is no longer recommended in renal size operator dependent detects major scarring provides information on differential function is impaired. Adverse effects are classi ed as unpre- dictable reactions. Foods with high doses of phosphorus causes blood-cell dyscrasias, muscular postmenopausal women , journal of medicine, izmir, turkey e-mail: [email protected] a. Ran et al. After a few weeks. Also, many csa survivors emotionally numb them- selves if they do not administer antacids to patients over the surface of tibia thigh at the shoulder with the ko-medium (ko-dmem supple- marker hb7. Autonomic compo- motor) branches are small twigs that supply the sigmoid has been known to induce may decrease blood especially if a past history of glaucoma and prostatic cancer, pregnancy, hepatic ...
Alexander E. Kalyuzhny statement that immunohistochemical detection of labile, low abundance and short-lived signal transduction molecules appears to be a very challenging task actually captures the same reader’s feeling. Each of us daily using immunohistochemical protocols to reveal targets either useful for research or diagnostic aims will surely wonder by which tricky techniques it is possible to overcome the preservation and unmasking of those labile antigens involved in signal transduction. Well, by seventheen chapters grouped in five parts Prof. Alexander E. Kalyuzhny is presenting an invaluable technical and methodological source of hints to satisfy our needs: to overcome troubleshottings if we are already in the field or to orientate those entering the field ...
To identify type I- (I-CF) and type III-collagen fibrils (III-CF) and chondroitin 4/6 sulphate (CS) within human pre-dentine by means of a correlative analysis under field emission in-lens-scanning electron microscopy (FEI-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Human-extracted...read more ...
Antibodies can be generated by injecting animals with antigens, and then collecting serum after the immune response has taken place. If the antibodies are labeled with an easily detectable molecule (a fluorescent dye, an enzyme, etc.), they become powerful detection reagents for the antigen. This system has been exploited to generate exceptionally specific and sensitive stains which are used in histology as well as other disciplines.. Immunohistochemistry/cytology is the use of antibodies in light microscopy and EM. The basic process depends upon selecting an antibody sufficiently specific to bind an antigen in situ. The antibody/antigen conjugate is then identified using a variety of signal generating molecules triggered either by the antibody/antigen interaction or by secondary processes. The signal generators can be precipitating dyes, fluorescent molecules or electron dense (ultrastructural tag) materials for electron microscopy (EM).. The first report of an immunohistochemistry technique ...
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive breast cancer subtype with high recurrences and mortality rate, for which no therapies besides chemotherapy are available to date. Lacking specific markers for an effective targeted therapy, TNBCs continue to represent the most important challenge for clinical oncologists. Here, we investigated the expression of CDCP1, a transmembrane non-catalytic receptor reportedly associated with poor prognosis in some solid tumors (e.g., lung and pancreatic cancer), and its association with tumor aggressiveness in a cohort of 115 human TNBC primary specimens obtained from women surgically treated in our Institute from the beginning of 2002 to the end of 2006 and selected based on immunohistochemical (IHC) criteria (,1% cell positivity for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and HER2 expression classified as 0 or 1+). CDCP1 was overexpressed in 56.5% of human primary TNBCs. FISH analysis of 75 TNBCs for which material was available delineated four ...
CD24 has been described in B-cell development and B-cell neoplasia, in the developing pancreas and brain, and in regenerating muscle, keratinocytes, renal tubules, and a large variety of malignant tumors (12 , 13 , 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30 , 32, 33, 34) . In this immunohistochemistry-based study we describe the expression of CD24 protein in breast cancer. Basically, we can confirm the findings of Fogel et al. (31) , who were the first to describe CD24 expression of breast cancer in an immunohistochemistry study based on frozen sections. They reported an apical membranous CD24 immunoreactivity in benign ducts and an additional cytoplasmic staining in invasive carcinomas, and described CD24 expression as a marker of breast cancer. We used a commercially available monoclonal CD24 antibody that is applicable to paraffinized tumor tissue and, thus, made a comprehensive analysis of clinically characterized archive material possible. The specificity of the antibody was ...
Structural Organization in Animals and Plants-Plant Tissues - Morphology, Anatomy and Functions: Questions 277-284 of 446. Get to the point NEET (NTA-National Eligibility cum Medical Entrance Test) Biology questions for your exams.
Structural Organization in Animals and Plants-Animal Tissues - Morphology, Anatomy and Functions - Mainly Cockroach: Questions 1-8 of 8. Get to the point KVPY (Kishore Vaigyanik Protsahan Yojana) Stream-SA (Class 11) Biology questions for your exams.
A common method for studying the involvement of catabolic pathways in the degradation of particular proteins is to pharmacologically inhibit the pathways, and examine-by Western blots or quantitative immunohistochemistry, for example-how these manipulations affect total quantities of the proteins in question. Unfortunately, these methods are incapable of separating the effects of such inhibitors on protein degradation from effects on protein synthesis. These processes are more readily discernible in pulse‐chase experiments based on radioactive amino acids; this approach, however, is not free from confounds either: On the one hand, the slow turnover rates of synaptic proteins require relatively long labeling periods. On the other, labeling is typically associated with substantial (ten‐ to hundredfold) reductions in (labeled) amino acid concentrations, raising the risk of inducing macroautophagy (see, e.g. Sutter et al, 2013). In contrast, the methods used here do not suffer from either of ...
The Central Dogma of biology holds, in famously simplified terms, that DNA makes RNA makes proteins, but there is considerable uncertainty regarding the general, genome-wide correlation between levels of RNA and corresponding proteins. Therefore, to assess degrees of this correlation we compared the RNA profiles (determined using both cDNA- and oligo-based microarrays) and protein profiles (determined immunohistochemically in tissue microarrays) of 1066 gene products in 23 human cell lines. A high mean correlation coefficient (0.52) was obtained from the pairwise comparison of RNA levels determined by the two platforms. Significant correlations, with correlation coefficients exceeding 0.445, between protein and RNA levels were also obtained for a third of the specific gene products. However, the correlation coefficients between levels of RNA and protein products of specific genes varied widely, and the mean correlations between the protein and corresponding RNA levels determined using the cDNA- and
(EMAILWIRE.COM, April 03, 2018 ) Browse 181 market data tables and 44 figures spread through 225 pages and in-depth TOC on Immunohistochemistry Market https://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/immunohistochemistry-market-121632939.html Early buyers will receive 10% customization on this...
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Immunohistochemical stainings of Ki67 and pancytokeratin (Ki67 is stained brown, pancytokeratin is stained pink) indicate proliferation of hepatocytes (arrowheads) and biliary epithelial cells (arrows) in TAK1/RIP3-deficient mice. Credit: Helmholtz Zentrum München The death of numerous liver cells in the context of chronic inflammation due to apoptosis, a form of programmed cell death, can promote the formation of tumour cells in the liver. This insight significantly contributes to a better understanding of cellular processes in liver cancer development and thereby opens up new therapeutic approaches. A research team including scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum München has reported this in the current issue of the scientific journal Cell Reports.. Liver cancer (Hepatocellular Carcinoma, HCC) usually arises as the result of a chronic, inflammatory liver disease. The most common causes here are excessive alcohol consumption as well as a high-fat diet and also chronic infection with the ...
Histological grade of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an important prognostic factor affecting patient survival. It has been divided into four grades from I to IV on the basis of histological differentiation. Grade I is the best differentiated consisting of small tumor cells arranged in thin trabeculae. Cells with higher grade are larger and less differentiated with hyperchromatic nuclei and loss of trabecular pattern.. Ultrasound is an imaging modality frequently used to evaluate liver tumors because of its convenience, real-time, less expensive and no radiation exposure. However, ultrasonographic evaluation by conventional B-mode image is semi quantitative and subjective. It still cannot replace liver biopsy for the evaluation of HCC.. This study is aimed to quantify the image characters of B-mode image and the scatterer properties using Nakagami distribution. Nakagami parameter is a general model to describe the distribution of scatterers. Therefore, the investigators hypothesized that ...
Abstract: Effect of Flaxseed Application on Bone Healing in Male Rats, Histological and Immunohistochemical Evaluation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor
The regulation of glucose, lipid metabolism and immunoreactivities of insulin and glucagon peptides by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC) in diabetes were examined in an experimental rat model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: (1) control, (2) Δ(9)-THC treated, (3) diabet …
Click here to view our tutorial videos on immunohistochemical staining, nucleic acid labeling, and much more aiding you and your research.
Released in May 2k21 via Viennas Cut Surface imprint is Take Care Of Me, the latest eleven track album outing by Munich-based artist Daniel Murena a.k.a. Murena Murena whos in for taking the listener on a roughly 40 minutes spanning journey into his very own musical universe, from the distorted, haunted and somehow DigiDancehall / Industrial Dancehall - Al Haca Soundsystem! Razor X Productions! - infused rhythm signatures fused with the greyscale aesthetics of acts like Tristesse Contemporaine in the raw opener Turn Your Back On Gold to the haunted PostPunk-sequences of Fight Rope which fascinatingly come with both an Industrial- and HipHop edge at the same time whilst Dark Twine touches base with twisted SynthPop and DeltaBlues if one can imagine a combination of Rangleklods, Pink Floyd and drunk Depeche Mode ca. Delta Machine. Furthermore Overvoice takes greyscale Alternative / Leftfield Pop to a new, nightly and inward-looking level, Watch The Sphinx gets deep into highly ...
Figure 7: Immunohistochemistry of grafts in the rat striatum. Double immunohistochemical detection of grafted human cells (HCM-immunoreactivity in green) and of microglial cell detected (Iba1-immunoreactivity in red) in the striatum of implanted rats. Cell nuclei stained with DAPI (in blue). Following the implantation, rats were treated with saline 7A-7C, with tacrolimus only 7D-7F, with tacrolimus and prednisolone 7G-7I or with cyclosporine and prednisolone 7J-7L. Scale bar: A, B, D, E, G, H, J ,K=600 μm, C, F, I, L=300 μm ...
QC Dots Cancer Array (CA) control slides are blank, charged microscope slides pre-spotted with selected tumor and normal cells that serve as a quality control for immunohistochemical procedures. Tissue can be mounted directly on the slide underneath the cell dots. QC Cancer Array (CA) Control Slides offer unrivaled flexibility and value - over 200 common clinical antibodies have been validated using CA Slides.. Read more ...
Histology and immunohistochemistry techniques. Retake Counts for Credit: No. Pass/No Pass Grading Allowed: Yes. Credit(s): 2. ...
Purpose: The level of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and HER2 aids in the determination of prognosis and treatment of breast cancer. Immunohistochemistry is currently the predominant method for assessment, but differences in methods and interpretation can substantially affect the accuracy, resulting in misclassification. Here, we investigated the association of microarray-based mRNA expression levels compared with immunohistochemistry.. Experimental Design: Microarray mRNA quantification of ER, PR, and HER2 was done by the developed TargetPrint test and compared with immunohistochemical assessment for breast tumors from 636 patients. Immunohistochemistry was done in a central laboratory and in an independent reference laboratory according to American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists guidelines for 100 cases. For HER2 immunohistochemistry 2+ cases, additional chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) was used to determine the final ...
Immunohistochemistry[edit]. The tumor cells in Burkitt lymphoma generally strongly express markers of B cell differentiation ( ...
... Staining Protocol. *. Burnett R, Guichard Y, Barale E (1997). "Immunohistochemistry for light microscopy ... Immunohistochemistry is also used for protein profiling in the most common forms of human cancer.[19][20] ... Immunohistochemistry is used to determine patients who may benefit from therapeutic antibodies such as Erbitux (cetuximab).[18] ... Immunohistochemistry can be used to assess which tumors are likely to respond to therapy, by detecting the presence or elevated ...
Immunohistochemistry. [20]. Prostate cancer. Over-expression. 33%. Immunohistochemistry. [21]. Non-small-cell lung cancer. Over ... Immunohistochemistry. [19]. Head and neck squamous cancers. Over-expression. 75%. ...
Immunohistochemistry: the use of antisera to label specific antigens. *Ruthenium(II) tris(bathophenanthroline disulfonate), a ...
Wick MR, Hornick JL (2011). "Immunohistology of Soft Tissue and Osseous Neoplasms". Diagnostic Immunohistochemistry. Elsevier. ...
"Anti-C15orf32 antibody produced in rabbit HPA041883". Immunohistochemistry. Retrieved 2020-05-03. "PSORT II server - GenScript ...
"What Is Immunohistochemistry (IHC)". Immunohistochemistry. Sino Biological Inc. Farwell AP, Dubord-Tomasetti SA (September 1999 ... During immunohistochemistry, which is the process that uses antibodies to identify antigens in cells, tissue sections are often ... Because BSA is a small, stable, moderately non-reactive protein, it is often used as a blocker in immunohistochemistry. ...
... quantitative immunohistochemistry; array light microscopy; and digital pathology. Cancer research Weinstein studied mechanisms ...
"Anti-CCDC60 antibody produced in rabbit HPA039048". Immunohistochemistry, Western. Retrieved 2019-05-12. Emanuelsson O, Nielsen ...
"Anti-C16orf46 antibody produced in rabbit HPA041136". Immunohistochemistry, Immunofluorescence. Retrieved 2018-05-07. " ...
... of larger structures is called immunohistochemistry. There are two complex steps in the manufacture of antibody ... Ramos-Vara JA (July 2005). "Technical aspects of immunohistochemistry". Vet. Pathol. 42 (4): 405-26. doi:10.1354/vp.42-4-405. ... These types of antibodies would lead to poor results in immunoprecipitation or immunohistochemistry experiments, yet the ... Swanson PE (September 1988). "Foundations of immunohistochemistry. A practical review". Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 90 (3): 333-9. doi ...
"Ber-EP4". e-immunohistochemistry.info. Retrieved 24 May 2017. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Test ID: BEREP - Ber-EP4 ... "The Use of BEREP4 Immunohistochemistry Staining for Detection of Basal Cell Carcinoma". Journal of Skin Cancer. 2017: 1-10. doi ...
Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology. 12 (2): 139-41. doi:10.1097/00129039-200406000-00007. PMID 15354739. S2CID ...
Lau SK, Luthringer DJ, Eisen RN (June 2002). "Thyroid transcription factor-1: a review". Applied Immunohistochemistry & ...
p16INK4a immunohistochemistry improves interobserver agreement in the diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. The ... "p16INK4a Immunohistochemistry Improves Interobserver... : The American Journal of Surgical Pathology". "Universitätsklinikum ...
Chu PG, Arber DA (June 2001). "CD79: a review". Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology. 9 (2): 97-106. doi:10.1097 ...
Immunohistochemistry: Basics and Methods. Springer Science & Business Media. 2010. pp. 92-3. ISBN 978-3-642-04609-4. Walton JD ...
Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology. 11 (2): 113-5. doi:10.1097/00129039-200306000-00003. PMID 12777992. Miura ...
Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology. 27 (6): e63-e64. doi:10.1097/PAI.0000000000000584. ISSN 1541-2016. PMID ...
Buchwalow, Igor B.; Böcker, Werner (2010). Immunohistochemistry: Basics and Methods. Springer. pp. 92. ISBN 978-3-642-04608-7. ...
Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology. 9 (3): 276-80. doi:10.1097/00022744-200109000-00013. PMID 11556757. ...
Immunohistochemistry Introduction AbD Serotec, Bio-Rad. "IHC Tip 1: Antigen retrieval - should I do PIER or HIER?". Bio-Rad ... Immunohistochemistry or IHC staining of tissue sections (or immunocytochemistry, which is the staining of cells), is perhaps ... The membrane can then be probed using antibodies using methods similar to immunohistochemistry, but without a need for fixation ... Ramos-Vara, JA (2005). "Technical Aspects of Immunohistochemistry". Vet Pathol. 42 (4): 405-426. doi:10.1354/vp.42-4-405. PMID ...
Using immunohistochemistry, calretinin can be demonstrated in both benign mesothelium and in malignant mesothelioma and can be ... Marchevsky AM (Mar 2008). "Application of immunohistochemistry to the diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma". Archives of ... In Hirschsprung disease, calretinin immunohistochemistry offers additional diagnostic value in specimens with inadequate amount ... "Calretinin immunohistochemistry: a simple and efficient tool to diagnose Hirschsprung disease". Modern Pathology. 22 (10): 1379 ...
Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology. 25 (5): e30-e33. doi:10.1097/PAI.0000000000000405. PMID 27299190. S2CID ...
Pillai, R.; Kannan, S.; Chandran, G. J. (1993-04-01). "The immunohistochemistry of solid tumours: potential problems for new ... Rao, I. Satish (2010-01-01). "Role of immunohistochemistry in lymphoma". Indian Journal of Medical and Paediatric Oncology. 31 ... Biopsy for histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Imaging tests like X-ray, ultrasonography, computerised tomography (CT), ... Excision biopsy of lymph node for histopathological examination, immunohistochemistry, and molecular studies. Blood ...
Immunohistochemistry may aid the diagnosis. If the lesion is NS, there will be focal to absent immunoreactivity for p53, low ...
Immunohistochemistry can aid in diagnosis. Cells of a similar morphology observed in solid organs are observed in peripheral ...
Immunohistochemistry of Paget cells and underlying breast cancer show a more aggressive, HER2-enriched, molecular subtype of ... Arain SA, Arafah M, Said Raddaoui EM, Tulba A, Alkhawaja FH, Al Shedoukhy A (March 2020). "Immunohistochemistry of mammary ... immunohistochemistry). CD138 and p53 can be used, both being positive in Paget's disease, and negative in Toker cells, which ... "Molecular subtyping of mammary Paget's disease using immunohistochemistry". Saudi Medical Journal. 40 (5): 440-446. doi: ...
Immunohistochemistry Protocols, Buffers and Troubleshooting. ...
ImmunohistochemistryEdit. In cases where a metastasis from colorectal cancer is suspected, immunohistochemistry is used to ... Taliano RJ, LeGolvan M, Resnick MB (February 2013). "Immunohistochemistry of colorectal carcinoma: current practice and ... Immunohistochemistry can also be used to screen for Lynch syndrome, a genetic disorder with increased risk of colorectal and ...
Immunohistochemistry Staining Protocol. *. Burnett R, Guichard Y, Barale E (1997). "Immunohistochemistry for light microscopy ... Immunohistochemistry is also used for protein profiling in the most common forms of human cancer.[19][20] ... Immunohistochemistry is used to determine patients who may benefit from therapeutic antibodies such as Erbitux (cetuximab).[18] ... Immunohistochemistry can be used to assess which tumors are likely to respond to therapy, by detecting the presence or elevated ...
Immunohistochemistry (IHC) methods are a sensitive and specific means to detect rabies in formalin-fixed tissues. IHC uses ...
Immunohistochemistry may offer some guidance in these cases.11-19 Most uterine smooth muscle tumors express hormone receptors. ... Subsequently, sections of the uterine tumor were submitted for immunohistochemistry. The endometrial carcinoma was found to be ...
Immunohistochemistry can be applied judiciously in the delineation of tumoral histiogenesis and the extent of lesional ... Immunohistochemistry can be applied judiciously in the delineation of tumoral histiogenesis and the extent of lesional ... Cherpelis B.S., Frank Glass L., Hamill J.R., Fenske N.A. (2018) Immunohistochemistry Applications. In: Morgan M., Spencer J., ...
Previous Issues - Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology. *Previous Issues - Diagnostic Molecular Pathology (1992- ... Articles published in Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology are available to nonsubscribers online and/or in PDF ...
... Recorded: Apr 10 2019 64 mins Brett Merritt. Did you know that the incidence of liver ... Liver Cancer & Immunohistochemistry. Did you know that the incidence of liver cancer has tripled since 1980? Have you wondered ... Liver Cancer & Immunohistochemistry Brett Merritt [[ webcastStartDate * 1000 , amDateFormat: MMM D YYYY h:mm a ]] 64 mins ... Immunohistochemistry has now been a staple in diagnostic pathology for decades. This is partially due to pathologist ...
Immunohistochemistry is the technology of detecting cellular and infectious agent proteins in tissue with antibodies and then ... Basics of Immunohistochemistry. Immunohistochemistry is the technology of detecting cellular and infectious agent proteins in ... Liver Cancer & Immunohistochemistry Recorded: Apr 10 2019 64 mins Brett Merritt. Did you know that the incidence of liver ... Immunohistochemistry has now been a staple in diagnostic pathology for decades. This is partially due to pathologist ...
Previous Issues - Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology. *Previous Issues - Diagnostic Molecular Pathology (1992- ...
In general there exist two possibilities to obtain quantitatively information in immunohistochemical work: (1) Titration of an antibody of defined specificity and concentration on different antigenic substrates. (2) The measurement of the specific s
You can manage your cookie settings via your browser at any time. To learn more about how we use cookies, please see our cookies policy. ...
Nag S. (2003) Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability Using Tracers and Immunohistochemistry. In: Nag S. (eds) The Blood-Brain Barrier ...
Immunohistochemistry is a type of technique that is used to identify specific types of cells in a given sample. The ... Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique which can be used to identify specific types of cells within a given sample. This ... In an immunohistochemistry study, antibodies search for specific antigens in the sample, and if they find one that matches, ... I can only imagine how cool the slides from immunohistochemistry look. I always think its cool when scientists are able to ...
Immunohistochemistry, more commonly referred to as IHC, helps doctors and scientists differentiate between histological ... Mesothelioma and Immunohistochemistry. Immunohistochemistry, more commonly referred to as IHC, helps doctors and scientists ...
Immunohistochemistry Market Is Expected To Reach US$ 2,986.4 Mn By 2025 - Credence Research. Mark Alfonso September 13, 2017 ... Home ,, Business ,, Immunohistochemistry Market Is Expected To Reach US$ 2,986.4 Mn By 2025 - Credence Research ... Immunohistochemistry is a method used for localizing specific antigens in tissues or cells using antibodies, enzyme conjugates ... "Global Immunohistochemistry Market - Growth, Future Prospects, Competitive Analysis, 2017 - 2025," the global ...
In Signal Transduction Immunohistochemistry: Methods and Protocols, IHC experts contribute detailed protocols ... Signal Transduction Immunohistochemistry. Book Subtitle. Methods and Protocols. Editors. * Alexander E. Kalyuzhny ... Authoritative and practical, Signal Transduction Immunohistochemistry: Methods and Protocols serves as an ideal guide for ... In Signal Transduction Immunohistochemistry: Methods and Protocols, IHC experts contribute detailed protocols addressing the ...
... level courses in immunohistochemistry. Details of our latest course dates and booking information can be found here. ... Carry out immunohistochemistry protocols to demonstrate how proteins are distributed within a tissue section. ... The Department of Neuroscience offers beginner and advanced level courses in immunohistochemistry. Details of our latest ... Discuss the interaction of an antigen and antibody and how this impacts on the immunohistochemistry reactions. ...
Veterinary Immunohistochemistry Conference is for the researchers, scientists, scholars, engineers, academic, scientific and ... Veterinary Immunohistochemistry. International Conference on Veterinary Immunohistochemistry. Veterinary Immunohistochemistry ... and concerns as well as practical challenges encountered and solutions adopted in the fields of Veterinary Immunohistochemistry ... experiences and research results on all aspects of Veterinary Immunohistochemistry Conference. It also provides a premier ...
Immunohistochemical staining is a valuable tool for detecting specific antigens in tissues. This IHC protocol describes the application of peroxidase or alkaline phosphatase conjugates in the immunohistochemical labeling of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections.
Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is the most widely used technique in histopathological diagnosis and research for detection of ... Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is the most widely used technique in histopathological diagnosis and research for detection of ... By the use of Prestige Antibodies® in Immunohistochemistry studies, information on a subcellular level can be achieved. ... The use of Prestige Antibodies® in Immunohistochemistry on Tissue Microarrays (TMAs) has allowed for protein expression ...
Immunohistochemistry in Dermatopathology. by Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine; Health, general Squamous cell ... Utility of Immunohistochemistry in the Pancreatobiliary Tract.. Next Article:. Application of Immunohistochemistry in ... Immunohistochemistry for LMP1 should be considered in any type of lymphoma in the setting of immune suppression, but EBER in ... MLA style: "Immunohistochemistry in Dermatopathology.." The Free Library. 2015 College of American Pathologists 07 Jul. 2020 ...
Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a method for studying the localization of antigens in tissue sections using antibodies. Find out ... Our immunohistochemistry guide takes you through all the steps in the IHC workflow and includes links to some of our other IHC ... Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a method for demonstrating the distribution and localization of antigens (such as proteins) in ...
Growth factor receptor HER3 (ErbB3) lacks standardized immunohistochemistry (IHC)-based methods for formalin-fixed paraffin- ... Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology, Volume 26, Number 3, March 2018, pp. 212-219(8) ... Comparison of Antibodies for Immunohistochemistry-based Detection of HER3 in Breast Cancer ...
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HER-2/neu Immunohistochemistry (IHC), Gastric Paraffin. TEST: 480226 Test number copied ...
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Immunohistochemistry approach in encephalitozoonosis. 3rd Annual Congress on Infectious Diseases. Adriano Pereira and Maria ... Then, for these cases a variety of techniques, including special staining methods, immunohistochemistry (IHC), electron ...
225 Pages Report] Immunohistochemistry Market report categorizes the global market by Application (Diagnostics (Autoimmune, ... Global Immunohistochemistry Market, by Product *Antibodies *Reagents *Equipment *Kits *Global Immunohistochemistry Market, by ... 1.2 Immunohistochemistry Market Definition 1.3 Immunohistochemistry Market Scope 1.3.1 Markets Covered. 1.3.2 Years Considered ... 2.2 Immunohistochemistry Market Size Estimation 2.3 Market Breakdown and Data Triangulation 2.4 Immunohistochemistry Market ...
Purchase Handbook of Immunohistochemistry and in situ Hybridization of Human Carcinomas - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ... Immunohistochemistry Southern Blot Analysis Methods Immunohistochemistry Southern Blot Analysis Results and Discussion. ... Immunohistochemistry for Pan-Cytokeratin Molecular Detection by Mutated K-Ras Methods Immunohistochemistry for Pan-Cytokeratin ... Immunohistochemistry Polymerase Chain Reaction Methods Hematoxylin and Eosin Staining Immunohistochemistry Genetic Analysis for ...
Purchase Handbook of Immunohistochemistry and in situ Hybridization of Human Carcinomas - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ... Handbook of Immunohistochemistry and in situ Hybridization of Human Carcinomas 1st Edition. Molecular Genetics, ... Role of Immunohistochemistry in Elucidating Lung Cancer Metastatic to the Ovary from Primary Ovarian Carcinoma ... Prediction for BRCA1 Mutation in Ovarian Carcinoma by Immunohistochemistry. Role of BRCA1/BRCA2 in Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and ...
  • Immunohistochemistry is a technique for detecting molecules of interest within tissues using antibodies. (nature.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry is the technology of detecting cellular and infectious agent proteins in tissue with antibodies and then labeling those antibodies with a chromogen so that they are detectable under a light microscope. (brighttalk.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a method for detecting antigens or haptens in cells of a tissue section by using labeled antibodies to bind specifically to their antigens. (photonics.com)
  • When someone does an immunohistochemistry study, he or she introduces specialized antibodies to a sample of the tissue in question, which is usually prepared and fixed on a slide, although free floating samples may be analyzed as well. (wisegeek.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry, more commonly referred to as IHC, helps doctors and scientists differentiate between histological subtypes of mesothelioma through the use of antigens, which help to trigger the production of antibodies from the immune system. (mesotheliomasymptoms.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry is a method used for localizing specific antigens in tissues or cells using antibodies, enzyme conjugates and substrate chromogens. (mobilecomputingtoday.co.uk)
  • Comparison of Antibodies for Immunohistochemistry-based Detection. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The immunohistochemistry (IHC) test is a laboratory method that detects antibodies of prions (mis-shapen proteins thought to transmit bovine spongiform encephalopathy, BSE or mad cow disease) by exposing a brain sample to a stain that appears as a specific color under a microscope. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunohistochemistry is the use of specific antibodies to stain particular molecular species in situ. (elsevier.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry or IHC refers to the process of localizing proteins in cells of a tissue section exploiting the principle of antibodies binding specifically to antigens in biological tissues . (wikidoc.org)
  • The science of immunohistochemistry (IHC) is evolving, as evidenced by the development of increasingly sophisticated automated staining platforms, production of specific antibodies for a wide range of species and the availability of a range of novel biomarkers . (covance.com)
  • In short, what are the things to consider when choosing antibodies for immunohistochemistry? (protocol-online.org)
  • We found that most of the time (with our homemade antibodies) immunohistochemistry required about 10X the concentration required for western blot. (protocol-online.org)
  • Immunohistochemistry/cytology is the use of antibodies in light microscopy and EM. (nationaldiagnostics.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry is generally carried out in sectioned tissue, which allows the antibodies free access to the interior of the cells. (nationaldiagnostics.com)
  • I like going to www.e-immunohistochemistry.info - you can look up stuff on most antibodies as well as certain tumors and differentials. (studentdoctor.net)
  • Immunohistochemistry is a comprehensive phrase, integrating biochemical, immunological, and anatomical procedure to visualize and constrain individually separated constituents in tissues by interacting with the antibodies-antigen. (marketresearch.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry was performed with monoclonal antibodies for CD31 (clone JC70), CD34 (clone QBEnd/10), ERG (clone EPR3864) and PAX8 (clone MRQ-50). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • In Signal Transduction Immunohistochemistry: Methods and Protocols , IHC experts contribute detailed protocols addressing the numerous challenges of signal-transduction immunohistochemistry (ST-IHC). (springer.com)
  • Authoritative and practical, Signal Transduction Immunohistochemistry: Methods and Protocols serves as an ideal guide for novices and as a bastion of inspiring ideas to be exploited by experienced researchers on the lookout for new experimental tricks and hints. (springer.com)
  • Carry out immunohistochemistry protocols to demonstrate how proteins are distributed within a tissue section. (sheffield.ac.uk)
  • Our immunohistochemistry guide takes you through all the steps in the IHC workflow and includes links to some of our other IHC resources, such as protocols and webinars. (abcam.com)
  • The complex interactions of an antigen and antibody and how this impacts on immunohistochemistry reactions. (sheffield.ac.uk)
  • Discuss the interaction of an antigen and antibody and how this impacts on the immunohistochemistry reactions. (sheffield.ac.uk)
  • Visualising an antibody-antigen interaction can be accomplished in a number of ways, mainly either of the following: Chromogenic immunohistochemistry (CIH), wherein an antibody is conjugated to an enzyme, such as peroxidase (the combination being termed immunoperoxidase), that can catalyse a colour-producing reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a method for demonstrating the distribution and localization of antigens (such as proteins) in tissue sections using antibody-antigen interactions. (abcam.com)
  • Unlike other antibody assays, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and immunofluorescence (IF) allow researchers and pathologists to visualize exactly where proteins are localized within tissues, providing cellular identity within the context of the tissue. (prweb.com)
  • In this study, we compared immunohistochemistry (IHC) using a monoclonal antibody directed against the human Myc protein to the current method, FISH. (frontiersin.org)
  • Immunohistochemistry is the localization of antigens in tissue sections by the use of labeled antibody as specific reagents through antigen-antibody interactions that are visualized by a marker such as fluorescent dye, enzyme, radioactive element or colloidal gold. (ihcworld.com)
  • Since immunohistochemistry involves specific antigen-antibody reaction, it has apparent advantage over traditionally used special enzyme staining techniques that identify only a limited number of proteins, enzymes and tissue structures. (ihcworld.com)
  • Despite the widespread use of immunohistochemistry (IHC), there are no standardization guidelines that control for antibody probe variability. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Immunohistochemistry is the application of antibody/antigen interactions to provide information about biological systems. (nationaldiagnostics.com)
  • The first report of an immunohistochemistry technique was made in 1942 when Coons et al detected pneumococcal antigen using a fluorescently tagged antibody. (nationaldiagnostics.com)
  • Intracellular Immunohistochemistry requires that the antibody to the target antigen be able to penetrate the cell membrane and whatever cell wall may be present before it can attach to the antigen. (nationaldiagnostics.com)
  • Can antibody X be used for immunohistochemistry? (biolegend.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry (IHC) cannot replace routine histology and is not required in most dermatopathology cases. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry has allowed the identification of many more cell types than could be visualized by classical histology, particularly in the immune system and among the scattered hormone-secreting cells of the endocrine system. (elsevier.com)
  • The other analyzed factors related to histology and immunohistochemistry have no such impact as they are related to biological behavior and aggressiveness of malignant breast tumors, thus providing useful predictive and prognostic information. (srce.hr)
  • The latest market report published by Credence Research, Inc. " Global Immunohistochemistry Market - Growth, Future Prospects, Competitive Analysis, 2017 - 2025," the global immunohistochemistry market was valued at US$ 1,555.2 Mn in 2016, and is expected to reach US$ 2,986.4 Mn by 2025 expanding at a CAGR of 7.19% from 2017 to 2025. (mobilecomputingtoday.co.uk)
  • Asia Pacific will be the fastest growing market throughout the forecast period 2017-2025, majorly due to factors such as high competition due to presence of existing and budding biopharmaceutical manufacturers involved in producing immunohistochemistry reagents and equipment in these regions and supportive regulatory environment for immunohistochemistry products. (mobilecomputingtoday.co.uk)
  • The global immunohistochemistry market totaled $1.6 billion in 2017 and is estimated to reach $2.3 billion by 2022, growing at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 7.8% for the period of 2017-2022. (bccresearch.com)
  • This has led to high demand of immunohistochemistry (IHC) products. (medindia.net)
  • There are numerous immunohistochemistry methods that may be used to localize antigens. (ihcworld.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a method that allows detection of proteins or other antigens in tissue sections. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry can be applied judiciously in the delineation of tumoral histiogenesis and the extent of lesional involvement in frozen section pathology. (springer.com)
  • He is the Associate Editor of The Journal of Histochemistry and cytochemistry, he is on the Editoral Board of Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology and is also on the Overseas Editorial Board of the Chinese Journal of Pathology. (wiley.com)
  • Dr. Taylor is a world renowned expert in immunohistochemistry and clinical pathology. (wiley.com)
  • The Department of Pathology at Indiana University School of Medicine partners with Indiana Pathology Institute and IU Health hospitals to offer resources and support biomedical researchers through the Immunohistochemistry Core. (iu.edu)
  • Explore our wide range of immunohistochemistry (IHC) kits, reagents and accessories, which are designed to help you obtain sensitive and reproducible results. (abcam.com)
  • This report covers the different applications of immunohistochemistry in drugs and diagnostics. (bccresearch.com)
  • Antigen Retrieval Immunohistochemistry Based Research and Diagnostics discusses several scientific approaches to the standardization of quantifiable immunohistochemistry (IHC). (wiley.com)
  • Antigen Retrieval Immunohistochemistry Based Research and Diagnostics is intended for clinical pathologists, molecular cell biologists, basic research scientists, technicians, and graduate students who undertake tissue/cell morphologic and molecular analysis and wish to use and extend the power of immunohistochemistry. (wiley.com)
  • Therefore, immunohistochemistry has become a crucial technique and widely used in many medical research laboratories as well as clinical diagnostics. (ihcworld.com)
  • Anyone who has recieved the Roche Diagnostics Scholarship for Excellence in Standardization of Immunohistochemistry within the last 5 years is ineligible for this scholarship. (nsh.org)
  • Apply a sound theoretical approach to the application of immunohistochemistry within the work environment. (sheffield.ac.uk)
  • In 2016, North America held the largest revenue share mainly due to factors such as rising prevalence of chronic diseases, matured biotechnology market and increasing commercialization of the immunohistochemistry products and developed research and healthcare institutions. (mobilecomputingtoday.co.uk)
  • In this report, the global Immunohistochemistry market is valued at USD XX million in 2016 and is expected to reach USD XX million by the end of 2022, growing at a CAGR of XX% between 2016 and 2022. (reportsnreports.com)
  • In addition, you can do a literature search with the clone name and immunohistochemistry/paraffin/frozen to see what the protocol details are. (biolegend.com)
  • A consistent source of positive and negative reference material on one slide offering of an industry standard for development and quality control of Immunohistochemistry (IHC) assays, directly improving the accuracy and reproducibility. (horizondiscovery.com)
  • Several research initiatives have started to harmonise the five PD-L1 immunohistochemistry assays that have been used in clinical trials. (nih.gov)
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of EMT in patients with UIP on quantitative immunohistochemistry using pathological tissue sections. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we present micro-immunohistochemistry (μIHC), a method for staining tissue sections at the micrometre scale. (rsc.org)
  • Subsequently, sections of the uterine tumor were submitted for immunohistochemistry. (redorbit.com)
  • When a pathologist examines a specimen from a cancerous tumor , immunohistochemistry is very important. (wisegeek.com)
  • It makes sense that doctors use immunohistochemistry to figure out what kind of cells are in the tumor. (wisegeek.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry, a technique that detects differences in the staining of tumor cells based on proteins they express, is widely used by pathologists in tissues in both the clinical and research setting. (medgadget.com)
  • ASCP puts out Efficient Tumor Immunohistochemistry, which seems like it could be useful. (studentdoctor.net)
  • A quantitative microimmunohistochemistry assay based on the evolution of immunohistochemistry signals during tissue staining enhances the stratification of tumour samples. (nature.com)
  • Quantitative immunohistochemistry. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human lungs with usual interstitial pneumonia: quantitative immunohistochemistry. (nih.gov)
  • Our purpose here is to review and assess methods for multiplexed, quantitative, image analysis based approaches, using new multicolor immunohistochemistry methods, automated multispectral slide imaging, and advanced trainable pattern recognition software. (nih.gov)
  • This book discusses all aspects of immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization technologies and the important role they play in reaching a cancer diagnosis. (elsevier.com)
  • Growth factor receptor HER3 ( ErbB3 ) lacks standardized immunohistochemistry (IHC)-based methods for formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The ARUP Immunohistochemistry Laboratory performs more than 175 stains on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues/cellblocks. (aruplab.com)
  • A prostatic core biopsy showing a focus of atypical small acinar proliferation (ASAP) suspicious for, but not diagnostic of, cancer (arrow, A). A repeat biopsy in the proximity of the same site shows another focus of crowded small-caliber glands (arrow, B), which, on immunohistochemistry with the basal cell marker 34βE12, reveals absence of basal cells, thereby confirming a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma Gleason 3+3 (arrow, C). (medscape.com)
  • Despite advances in flow cytometry and molecular methods, immunohistochemistry (IHC) remains an important, useful, and cost-effective component of the diagnostic evaluation of most bone marrow biopsies. (eurospanbookstore.com)
  • This work is supported with numerous diagnostic high quality illustrations for both histopathology and immunohistochemistry. (ozon.ru)
  • It has a special issue on diagnostic immunohistochemistry. (studentdoctor.net)
  • Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) immunohistochemistry has become a mandatory diagnostic test in the treatment of lung cancer. (nih.gov)
  • Research to identify the diagnostic value of ALP immunohistochemistry in human OSA cases has not been widely reported in the literature. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Cherpelis B.S., Frank Glass L., Hamill J.R., Fenske N.A. (2018) Immunohistochemistry Applications. (springer.com)
  • Are you new to immunohistochemistry or looking for a protocol refresher? (biolegend.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry (IHC) Market Size to Reach $3.1 Billion by 2025: Grand View Research, Inc. (medindia.net)
  • The antigen retrieval (AR) technique is used worldwide and has resulted in a revolution in immunohistochemistry (IHC). (whsmith.co.uk)
  • 7 Recommendations from the Lower Anogenital Squamous Terminology (LAST) Project, a collaboration between the College of American Pathologists and the ASCCP, state that Ki-67 should not be routinely added to p16 immunohistochemistry but may be considered in cases for which p16 staining is inconclusive or technically inadequate. (cap.org)
  • Then, for these cases a variety of techniques, including special staining methods, immunohistochemistry (IHC), electron microscopy and molecular methods are used for diagnosis and exclusion of other microorganisms. (omicsonline.org)
  • 225 Pages Report] The immunohistochemistry market is projected to reach USD 2.12 billion by 2021, at a CAGR of 7.3% during the forecast period. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Dr. Taylor is Editor in Chief of Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology. (wiley.com)
  • In order to perform immunohistochemistry, it is necessary to have access to a laboratory along with a number of specialized products which will be used to prepare and test the sample. (wisegeek.com)
  • The Immunohistochemistry Laboratory has a menu of immunohistochemistry tests for which we will provide interpretation by one of our ARUP faculty pathologists. (aruplab.com)
  • The ARUP Immunohistochemistry Laboratory is an NSABP-approved laboratory for the testing of breast markers. (aruplab.com)
  • Myc overexpression that results from dysregulation in the cell cycle of the Myc protein can be assayed by Western blot or immunohistochemistry (IHC) ( 15 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • [3] Immunohistochemistry is also widely used in basic research to understand the distribution and localization of biomarkers and differentially expressed proteins in different parts of a biological tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is the most widely used technique in histopathological diagnosis and research for detection of proteins in tissues and cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Significant rise in healthcare spending and shift in focus on value-based healthcare solutions can further impel growth of the immunohistochemistry market over the forecast period. (medindia.net)
  • OCN immunohistochemistry has been proven to be sensitive but lacks specificity [7-9]. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • However, rapid growth in the developing countries across APAC and Latin America and the increasing demand for personalized medicine offer significant growth opportunities in the immunohistochemistry market. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • recognized to be the most influential factors driving the growth of the immunohistochemistry market. (medindia.net)
  • Immunohistochemistry (IHC) combines biochemical, histological and immunological techniques into a powerful assay for the visualization of protein localization and distribution within cells in tissue. (2bscientific.com)
  • 7. J. A. Ramos-Vara (2005) Technical Aspects of Immunohistochemistry. (ihcworld.com)
  • The science and technique behind immunohistochemistry are discussed in this webinar. (brighttalk.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique which can be used to identify specific types of cells within a given sample. (wisegeek.com)
  • I am planning a small study that will use the immunohistochemistry technique. (protocol-online.org)
  • Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used to analyze protein expression in the context of tissue morphology. (jove.com)
  • The immunohistochemistry market comprises several stakeholders such as raw material suppliers, processors, end-product manufacturers, distributors, and regulatory organizations in the supply chain. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Both top-down and bottom-up approaches were used to estimate and validate the total size of the immunohistochemistry market. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • The growing geriatric population along with the augmenting healthcare expenditure are some of the key factors driving the global immunohistochemistry market. (marketresearch.com)
  • The global immunohistochemistry market comprises of four major regions such as North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Latin America, and rest of world. (marketresearch.com)
  • 3,4 Therefore, the immunohistochemistry procedure is highly automated and performed under standardized conditions. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • New immunohistochemistry markers to determine presence of vas deferens in vasectomy specimen. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Veterinary Immunohistochemistry Conference aims to bring together leading academic scientists, researchers and research scholars to exchange and share their experiences and research results on all aspects of Veterinary Immunohistochemistry Conference. (waset.org)
  • It also provides a premier interdisciplinary platform for researchers, practitioners, and educators to present and discuss the most recent innovations, trends, and concerns as well as practical challenges encountered and solutions adopted in the fields of Veterinary Immunohistochemistry Conference. (waset.org)
  • Histopathology and Immunohistochemistry in Diagnosing Ovarian Tumors. (ozon.ru)
  • Histopathology and immunohistochemistry in diagnosing ovarian tumors is a simply today s most comprehensive source of guidance on diagnosing ovarian neoplastic lesions. (ozon.ru)
  • The second most frequent group had tumors with so-called 'triple-negative' immunohistochemistry negative phenotype (ER-, PR-, HER-2). (srce.hr)
  • This course introduces the various techniques that are used in the preparation and evaluation of immunohistochemistry (IHC) slides. (medialab.com)
  • This information plays a vital role in planning the treatment for the disease, creating a demand for immunohistochemistry products. (medindia.net)