Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.
Immunoglobulin preparations used in intravenous infusion, containing primarily IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. They are used to treat a variety of diseases associated with decreased or abnormal immunoglobulin levels including pediatric AIDS; primary HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA; SCID; CYTOMEGALOVIRUS infections in transplant recipients, LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC; Kawasaki syndrome, infection in neonates, and IDIOPATHIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA.
Genes encoding the different subunits of the IMMUNOGLOBULINS, for example the IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN GENES and the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES. The heavy and light immunoglobulin genes are present as gene segments in the germline cells. The completed genes are created when the segments are shuffled and assembled (B-LYMPHOCYTE GENE REARRANGEMENT) during B-LYMPHOCYTE maturation. The gene segments of the human light and heavy chain germline genes are symbolized V (variable), J (joining) and C (constant). The heavy chain germline genes have an additional segment D (diversity).
Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.
One of the types of light chains of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).
That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.
The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN M. They have a molecular weight of approximately 72 kDa and they contain about 57 amino acid residues arranged in five domains and have more oligosaccharide branches and a higher carbohydrate content than the heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.
The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.
One of the types of light chain subunits of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.
An immunoglobulin which accounts for less than 1% of plasma immunoglobulin. It is found on the membrane of many circulating B LYMPHOCYTES.
The domains of the immunoglobulin molecules that are invariable in their amino acid sequence within any class or subclass of immunoglobulin. They confer biological as well as structural functions to immunoglobulins. One each on both the light chains and the heavy chains comprises the C-terminus half of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN FAB FRAGMENT and two or three of them make up the rest of the heavy chains (all of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN FC FRAGMENT)
Crystallizable fragments composed of the carboxy-terminal halves of both IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fc fragments contain the carboxy-terminal parts of the heavy chain constant regions that are responsible for the effector functions of an immunoglobulin (COMPLEMENT fixation, binding to the cell membrane via FC RECEPTORS, and placental transport). This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Gene rearrangement of the B-lymphocyte which results in a substitution in the type of heavy-chain constant region that is expressed. This allows the effector response to change while the antigen binding specificity (variable region) remains the same. The majority of class switching occurs by a DNA recombination event but it also can take place at the level of RNA processing.
Heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G having a molecular weight of approximately 51 kDa. They contain about 450 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component covalently bound to the Fc fragment constant region. The gamma heavy chain subclasses (for example, gamma 1, gamma 2a, and gamma 2b) of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G isotype subclasses (IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B) resemble each other more closely than the heavy chains of the other IMMUNOGLOBULIN ISOTYPES.
Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
A 15 kD "joining" peptide that forms one of the linkages between monomers of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A or IMMUNOGLOBULIN M in the formation of polymeric immunoglobulins. There is one J chain per one IgA dimer or one IgM pentamer. It is also involved in binding the polymeric immunoglobulins to POLYMERIC IMMUNOGLOBULIN RECEPTOR which is necessary for their transcytosis to the lumen. It is distinguished from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN JOINING REGION which is part of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of the immunoglobulin light and heavy chains.
Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Allelic variants of the immunoglobulin light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) or heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) encoded by ALLELES of IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES.
Specialized Fc receptors (RECEPTORS, FC) for polymeric immunoglobulins, which mediate transcytosis of polymeric IMMUNOGLOBULIN A and IMMUNOGLOBULIN M into external secretions. They are found on the surfaces of epithelial cells and hepatocytes. After binding to IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, the receptor-ligand complex undergoes endocytosis, transport by vesicle, and secretion into the lumen by exocytosis. Before release, the part of the receptor (SECRETORY COMPONENT) that is bound to IMMUNOGLOBULIN A is proteolytically cleaved from its transmembrane tail. (From Rosen et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
A segment of the immunoglobulin heavy chains, encoded by the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES in the J segment where, during the maturation of B-LYMPHOCYTES; the gene segment for the variable region upstream is joined to a constant region gene segment downstream. The exact position of joining of the two gene segments is variable and contributes to ANTIBODY DIVERSITY. It is distinguished from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN J CHAINS; a separate polypeptide that serves as a linkage piece in polymeric IGA or IGM.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Abnormal immunoglobulins characteristic of MULTIPLE MYELOMA.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Genes and gene segments encoding the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS. Gene segments of the heavy chain genes are symbolized V (variable), D (diversity), J (joining), and C (constant).
A programmed mutation process whereby changes are introduced to the nucleotide sequence of immunoglobulin gene DNA during development.
Any discrete, presumably solitary, mass of neoplastic PLASMA CELLS either in BONE MARROW or various extramedullary sites.
The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN D. They have a molecular weight of approximately 64 kDa and they contain about 500 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component covalently bound to the Fc fragment constant region.
A site located in the INTRONS at the 5' end of each constant region segment of a immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene where recombination (or rearrangement) occur during IMMUNOGLOBULIN CLASS SWITCHING. Ig switch regions are found on genes encoding all five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN ISOTYPES) of IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS.
The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN A. They have a molecular weight of approximately 58 kDa and contain about 470 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component bound covalently to their Fc fragment constant region.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.
Serum globulins that migrate to the gamma region (most positively charged) upon ELECTROPHORESIS. At one time, gamma-globulins came to be used as a synonym for immunoglobulins since most immunoglobulins are gamma globulins and conversely most gamma globulins are immunoglobulins. But since some immunoglobulins exhibit an alpha or beta electrophoretic mobility, that usage is in decline.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The extracellular moiety of the POLYMERIC IMMUNOGLOBULIN RECEPTOR found alone or complexed with IGA or IGM, in a variety of external secretions (tears, bile, colostrum.) Secretory component is derived by proteolytic cleavage of the receptor during transcytosis. When immunoglobulins IgA and IgM are bound to the receptor, during their transcytosis secretory component becomes covalently attached to them generating SECRETORY IMMUNOGLOBULIN A or secretory IMMUNOGLOBULIN M.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
An immunologic deficiency state characterized by an extremely low level of generally all classes of gamma-globulin in the blood.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Allelic variants of the gamma-immunoglobulin heavy chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN GAMMA-CHAINS) encoded by ALLELES of IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES.
The thin, yellow, serous fluid secreted by the mammary glands during pregnancy and immediately postpartum before lactation begins. It consists of immunologically active substances, white blood cells, water, protein, fat, and carbohydrates.
Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the first stage of differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.
Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions coding for the IMMUNOGLOBULIN CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A protein present in the cell wall of most Staphylococcus aureus strains. The protein selectively binds to the Fc region of human normal and myeloma-derived IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. It elicits antibody activity and may cause hypersensitivity reactions due to histamine release; has also been used as cell surface antigen marker and in the clinical assessment of B lymphocyte function.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Specialized forms of antibody-producing B-LYMPHOCYTES. They synthesize and secrete immunoglobulin. They are found only in lymphoid organs and at sites of immune responses and normally do not circulate in the blood or lymph. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989, p169 & Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p20)
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Genes and gene segments encoding the IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS. Gene segments of the light chain genes are designated as V (variable), J (joining), and C (constant).
The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN E. They have a molecular weight of approximately 72 kDa and they contain about 550 amino acid residues arranged in five domains and about three times more carbohydrate than the heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; and IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions coding for the kappa or lambda IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the second stage of differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.
Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A dysgammaglobulinemia characterized by a deficiency of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Proteins isolated from the roots of the pokeweed, Phytolacca americana, that agglutinate some erythrocytes, stimulate mitosis and antibody synthesis in lymphocytes, and induce activation of plasma cells.
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).
Autoantibodies that bind to the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor (RECEPTORS, THYROTROPIN) on thyroid epithelial cells. The autoantibodies mimic TSH causing an unregulated production of thyroid hormones characteristic of GRAVES DISEASE.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
An excess of GAMMA-GLOBULINS in the serum due to chronic infections or PARAPROTEINEMIAS.
An immunologic deficiency state characterized by selective deficiencies of one or more, but not all, classes of immunoglobulins.
The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Allelic variants of the kappa light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN KAPPA-CHAINS) encoded by ALLELES of IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN GENES.
Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.
An abnormal protein with unusual thermosolubility characteristics that is found in the urine of patients with MULTIPLE MYELOMA.
A group of related diseases characterized by an unbalanced or disproportionate proliferation of immunoglobulin-producing cells, usually from a single clone. These cells frequently secrete a structurally homogeneous immunoglobulin (M-component) and/or an abnormal immunoglobulin.
A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
Antibodies found in adult RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS patients that are directed against GAMMA-CHAIN IMMUNOGLOBULINS.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
Abnormal immunoglobulins synthesized by atypical cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM. Paraproteins containing only light chains lead to Bence Jones paraproteinemia, while the presence of only atypical heavy chains leads to heavy chain disease. Most of the paraproteins show themselves as an M-component (monoclonal gammopathy) in electrophoresis. Diclonal and polyclonal paraproteins are much less frequently encountered.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Leukemia associated with HYPERPLASIA of the lymphoid tissues and increased numbers of circulating malignant LYMPHOCYTES and lymphoblasts.
A lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by pleomorphic B-LYMPHOCYTES including PLASMA CELLS, with increased levels of monoclonal serum IMMUNOGLOBULIN M. There is lymphoplasmacytic cells infiltration into bone marrow and often other tissues, also known as lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma. Clinical features include ANEMIA; HEMORRHAGES; and hyperviscosity.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Specific molecular sites on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes which combine with IgEs. Two subclasses exist: low affinity receptors (Fc epsilon RII) and high affinity receptors (Fc epsilon RI).
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
A dysgammaglobulinemia characterized by a deficiency of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.
Heterogeneous group of immunodeficiency syndromes characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia of most isotypes, variable B-cell defects, and the presence of recurrent bacterial infections.
Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.
An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of cytidine, forming uridine. EC 3.5.4.5.
A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors generally expressing one or more B-cell antigens or representing malignant transformations of B-lymphocytes.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A chronic form of glomerulonephritis characterized by deposits of predominantly IMMUNOGLOBULIN A in the mesangial area (GLOMERULAR MESANGIUM). Deposits of COMPLEMENT C3 and IMMUNOGLOBULIN G are also often found. Clinical features may progress from asymptomatic HEMATURIA to END-STAGE KIDNEY DISEASE.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.
Immunizing agent containing IMMUNOGLOBULIN G anti-Rho(D) used for preventing Rh immunization in Rh-negative individuals exposed to Rh-positive red blood cells.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The acquired form of infection by Toxoplasma gondii in animals and man.
A group of sporadic, familial and/or inherited, degenerative, and infectious disease processes, linked by the common theme of abnormal protein folding and deposition of AMYLOID. As the amyloid deposits enlarge they displace normal tissue structures, causing disruption of function. Various signs and symptoms depend on the location and size of the deposits.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
An epithelial outgrowth of the cloaca in birds similar to the thymus in mammals. It atrophies within 6 months after birth and remains as a fibrous remnant in adult birds. It is composed of lymphoid tissue and prior to involution, is the site of B-lymphocyte maturation.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The in vitro formation of clusters consisting of a cell (usually a lymphocyte) surrounded by antigenic cells or antigen-bearing particles (usually erythrocytes, which may or may not be coated with antibody or antibody and complement). The rosette-forming cell may be an antibody-forming cell, a memory cell, a T-cell, a cell bearing surface cytophilic antibodies, or a monocyte possessing Fc receptors. Rosette formation can be used to identify specific populations of these cells.
A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
A chronic leukemia characterized by abnormal B-lymphocytes and often generalized lymphadenopathy. In patients presenting predominately with blood and bone marrow involvement it is called chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL); in those predominately with enlarged lymph nodes it is called small lymphocytic lymphoma. These terms represent spectrums of the same disease.
Serum globulins with high molecular weight. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Stable iodine atoms that have the same atomic number as the element iodine, but differ in atomic weight. I-127 is the only naturally occurring stable iodine isotope.
Substances, usually of biological origin, that cause cells or other organic particles to aggregate and stick to each other. They include those ANTIBODIES which cause aggregation or agglutination of particulate or insoluble ANTIGENS.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.
Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.
Three regions (CDR1; CDR2 and CDR3) of amino acid sequence in the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION that are highly divergent. Together the CDRs from the light and heavy immunoglobulin chains form a surface that is complementary to the antigen. These regions are also present in other members of the immunoglobulin superfamily, for example, T-cell receptors (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL).
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A group of elongate elasmobranchs. Sharks are mostly marine fish, with certain species large and voracious.
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
Electrophoresis applied to BLOOD PROTEINS.
Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.
A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.
Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.
Lymphoid tissue on the mucosa of the small intestine.
Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.
Abnormal immunoglobulins, especially IGG or IGM, that precipitate spontaneously when SERUM is cooled below 37 degrees Celsius. It is characteristic of CRYOGLOBULINEMIA.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
The process by which the V (variable), D (diversity), and J (joining) segments of IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES or T-CELL RECEPTOR GENES are assembled during the development of LYMPHOID CELLS using NONHOMOLOGOUS DNA END-JOINING.
Chemical analysis based on the phenomenon whereby light, passing through a medium with dispersed particles of a different refractive index from that of the medium, is attenuated in intensity by scattering. In turbidimetry, the intensity of light transmitted through the medium, the unscattered light, is measured. In nephelometry, the intensity of the scattered light is measured, usually, but not necessarily, at right angles to the incident light beam.
Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
An acute infectious disease caused by the RUBELLA VIRUS. The virus enters the respiratory tract via airborne droplet and spreads to the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
An energy dependent process following the crosslinking of B CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS by multivalent ligands (bivalent anti-antibodies, LECTINS or ANTIGENS), on the B-cell surface. The crosslinked ligand-antigen receptor complexes collect in patches which flow to and aggregate at one pole of the cell to form a large mass - the cap. The caps may then be endocytosed or shed into the environment.
T-cell enhancement of the B-cell response to thymic-dependent antigens.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.

Removal of non-specific serum inhibitors of haemagglutination of rubella virus by treatment with dodecylamine-gel. (1/5906)

The suitability of using dodecylamine-gel for removing the serum non-antibody-like inhibitors of haemagglutination by rubella was studied. Compared with kaolin and MnCl2/heparin treatment this new procedure appears to have a higher specificity since it removes the non-antibody-like inhibitors from serum without affecting the immunoglobulin level significantly. The potential application of this procedure in routine serological analysis for rubella virus infection is discussed.  (+info)

Staphylococcal protein A; its preparation and an application to rubella serology. (2/5906)

Good yields of staphylococcal protein A are obtained by growing the staphylococcus Cowan type 1 on cellophane agar. The activity of these preparations in removing immunoglobulin G (IgG) from human serum can be readily measured by the Mancini radial-diffusion technique and the correct in-use dilution determined. Treatment with protein A of sera from women with a history of rubella may help in the identification of those having specific antibody in the IgM and IgA fractions. This relatively simple procedure may have worthwhile application in the diagnosis of rubella.  (+info)

Cloning and functional studies of a novel gene aberrantly expressed in RB-deficient embryos. (3/5906)

The tumor suppressor RB regulates diverse cellular processes such as G1/S transition, cell differentiation, and cell survival. Indeed, Rb-knockout mice exhibit phenotypes including ectopic mitosis, defective differentiation, and extensive apoptosis in the neurons. Using differential display, a novel gene, Rig-1, was isolated based on its elevated expression in the hindbrain and spinal cord of Rb-knockout embryos. The longest open reading frame of Rig-1 encoded a polypeptide that consists of a putative extracellular segment with five immunoglobulin-like domains and three fibronectin III-like domains, a putative transmembrane domain, and a distinct intracellular segment. The Rig-1 sequence was 40% identical to the recently identified roundabout protein. Consistent with the predicted transmembrane nature of the protein, Rig-1 protein was present in the membranous fraction. Antisera raised against the putative extracellular and intracellular segments of Rig-1 reacted with an approximately 210-kDa protein in mouse embryonic CNS. Rig-1 mRNA was transiently expressed in the embryonic hindbrain and spinal cord. Elevated levels of Rig-1 mRNA and protein were found in Rb-/- embryos. Ectopic expression of a transmembrane form of Rig-1, but not the secreted form, promoted neuronal cell entrance to S phase and repressed the expression of a marker of differentiated neuron, Talpha1 tubulin. Thus Rig-1, a possible distant relative of roundabout, may mediate some of the pleiotropic roles of RB in the developing neurons.  (+info)

NKp44, a triggering receptor involved in tumor cell lysis by activated human natural killer cells, is a novel member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. (4/5906)

Surface receptors involved in natural killer (NK) cell triggering during the process of tumor cell lysis have recently been identified. Of these receptors, NKp44 is selectively expressed by IL-2- activated NK cells and may contribute to the increased efficiency of activated NK cells to mediate tumor cell lysis. Here we describe the molecular cloning of NKp44. Analysis of the cloned cDNA indicated that NKp44 is a novel transmembrane glycoprotein belonging to the Immunoglobulin superfamily characterized by a single extracellular V-type domain. The charged amino acid lysine in the transmembrane region may be involved in the association of NKp44 with the signal transducing molecule killer activating receptor-associated polypeptide (KARAP)/DAP12. These molecules were found to be crucial for the surface expression of NKp44. In agreement with data of NKp44 surface expression, the NKp44 transcripts were strictly confined to activated NK cells and to a minor subset of TCR-gamma/delta+ T lymphocytes. Unlike genes coding for other receptors involved in NK cell triggering or inhibition, the NKp44 gene is on human chromosome 6.  (+info)

Detection of antibody to bovine syncytial virus and respiratory syncytial virus in bovine fetal serum. (5/5906)

Batches of commercial fetal bovine serum, described by the suppliers as antibody-free, all contained antibody to bovine syncytial virus (BSV) when tested by indirect immunofluorescence. Antibody to bovine respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was not detected in these sera. Twenty-four percent of individual fetal bovine sera contained antibody to BSV, and 14% contained antibody to RSV when tested by indirect immunofluorescence. BSV antibody titers in fetal sera from dams with high BSV antibody levels were variable but always higher than RSV antibody titers. Radial immunodiffusion studies with BSV-positive sera revealed the presence of immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgG, and IgA, but the quantity of these immunoglobulins was not directly related to the BSV antibody titers. The evidence suggests that the antibody present in fetal sera arose as the result of infection rather than from maternal transfer across the placenta.  (+info)

Detection of small numbers of immature cells in the blood of healthy subjects. (6/5906)

AIMS: To determine the frequency of immature haemopoietic cells in the peripheral blood of healthy persons. METHODS: Cytocentrifuge preparations were made using mononuclear leucocytes separated by a Ficoll-Hypaque density gradient. The slides were stained by May-Grunwald-Giemsa. The combination with immunoperoxidase technique allowed immunotyping of uncommon blood cells. RESULTS: Blast cells expressing the progenitor cell marker CD34 represented 0.11 (0.06) per cent (mean (SD)) of the total mononuclear leucocyte count; these were the haemopoietic progenitor cells in the peripheral blood. Dark blue cells expressing CD38, CD45, HLA-DR, CD4, CD11a, CD29, CD49d, CD50, and CD54 represented 0.30 (0.21) per cent of the mononuclear leucocytes; most of these cells did not express T, B, NK, myelomonocytic, progenitor cell, proliferation, activation, blood dendritic cell, or follicular dendritic cell markers. These were dendritic cell precursors in the peripheral blood. Very small numbers of cells expressing CD83 were found. Blast-like cells expressing CD45, HLA-DR, CD11a, and CD50 represented 0.15 (0.10) per cent of the mononuclear leucocytes; morphology and immunotyping supported the conclusion that these cells were poorly differentiated monocytes. CONCLUSIONS: Morphological investigation of mononuclear leucocytes in peripheral blood of healthy persons can be used to detect small numbers of blasts, dark blue cells, and blast-like cells. The immunoperoxidase technique can then be used for immunotyping of these cells. This simple method may be helpful in diagnosing haematological disorders.  (+info)

Characterization of a novel rat brain glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein (Kilon), a member of the IgLON cell adhesion molecule family. (7/5906)

In the central nervous system, many cell adhesion molecules are known to participate in the establishment and remodeling of the neural circuit. Some of the cell adhesion molecules are known to be anchored to the membrane by the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) inserted to their C termini, and many GPI-anchored proteins are known to be localized in a Triton-insoluble membrane fraction of low density or so-called "raft." In this study, we surveyed the GPI-anchored proteins in the Triton-insoluble low density fraction from 2-week-old rat brain by solubilization with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C. By Western blotting and partial peptide sequencing after the deglycosylation with peptide N-glycosidase F, the presence of Thy-1, F3/contactin, and T-cadherin was shown. In addition, one of the major proteins, having an apparent molecular mass of 36 kDa after the peptide N-glycosidase F digestion, was found to be a novel protein. The result of cDNA cloning showed that the protein is an immunoglobulin superfamily member with three C2 domains and has six putative glycosylation sites. Since this protein shows high sequence similarity to IgLON family members including LAMP, OBCAM, neurotrimin, CEPU-1, AvGP50, and GP55, we termed this protein Kilon (a kindred of IgLON). Kilon-specific monoclonal antibodies were produced, and Western blotting analysis showed that expression of Kilon is restricted to brain, and Kilon has an apparent molecular mass of 46 kDa in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in its expressed form. In brain, the expression of Kilon is already detected in E16 stage, and its level gradually increases during development. Kilon immunostaining was observed in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, in which the strongly stained puncta were observed on dendrites and soma of pyramidal neurons.  (+info)

Characterization of an immunoglobin cDNA clone containing the variable and constant regions for the MOPC 21 kappa light chain. (8/5906)

Nucleotide sequence analysis and restriction endonuclease mapping have been used to characterize a cDNA copy of immunoglobulin MOPC 21 Kappa mRNA clones in the bacterial plasmid pMB9. Three regions of the inserted cDNA of plasmid pL21-1 have been sequenced and match the known protein sequence at amino acid residues 1-24, 128-138 and 171-179. With these sequences to provide absolute correlations between the restriction map and the structural gene sequence it has been possible to exactly deduce the positions of all 11 of the insert restriction sites mapped within the structural gene. The pL21-1 insert contains the complete variable and constant regions as well as parts of the 3' untranslated and polypeptide leader coding sequences.  (+info)

G.K. Sachdev, H.R. Dalton, P. Hoang, B. Crotty, D.P. Jewell; Human Colonic Intra-Epithelial Lymphocytes Suppress in vitro Immunoglobulin Synthesis by Autologous Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 October 1991; 81 (s25): 26P-27P. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/cs081026Pc. Download citation file:. ...
Calhoun, W.J.; Christman, J.W.; Ershler, W.B.; Graham, W.G.; Davis, G.S., 1986: Raised immunoglobulin concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of healthy granite workers
• Blood mononuclear cells from surgical patients produce large amounts of IgG in vitro. This synthesis is not increased by stimulation with pokeweed mitogen. To
ABSTRACT Objective: To assess, oxidative stress (by measuring malondialdehyde MDA which reflects lipid peroxidation, and total antioxidant status TAS), and immunoglobulin levels (IgA, IgG, IgM) in patients with Hodgkins lymphoma before and one month after starting cytotoxic drugs, in comparison with controls. Design: Case-control study Setting: This study was conducted in the Hospital of Nuclear Medicine and Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, University of Mosul. Patients and Methods: Twenty-three patients with Hodgkins lymphoma were included in this study together with 24 apparently healthy subjects taken as a control. Initially for both patients and control, serum MDA, TAS and immunoglobulin levels (IgA, IgG, IgM) were measured and reported one month from starting specific cytotoxic drugs for the patient groups and after one month gap period for the control using especial commercial kits from Randox company (UK), for measuring TAS and immunoglobulin levels, while
Tartakoff, A M. and Vassalli, P, Plasma cell immunoglobulin secretion. Arrest is accompanied by alterations of the golgi complex. (1977). Subject Strain Bibliography 1977. 226 ...
J Immunoassay Immunochem. 2018;39(3):235-248. doi: 10.1080/15321819.2018.1500375. Lanzarini NM1, Bentes GA1, Volotão EM1, Pinto MA1. Immunoglobulin Y (IgY), an
TY - JOUR. T1 - Surface expression and synthesis of I-A and I-E/C encoded molecules by B lymphocytes and Ig-secreting cells. AU - Vitetta, E. S.. AU - Cook, R. G.. PY - 1979/1/1. Y1 - 1979/1/1. N2 - Splenocytes from recombinant mice were radiolabeled before or after deletion of subpopulations by cytotoxic anterisera (+C) directed against I-A, I-E/C, IgM, or Ig. Examination of the lysates of the surviving cells by immunoprecipitation demonstrated that 1) virtually all I-A and I-E/C molecules are co-expressed and synthesized by Ig+, IgM+ lymphocytes, 2) I-A, I-E/C, and IgM molecules are present on many of the cells secreting IgM and IgG, and 3) populations of bearing or Ig secreting cells that lack detectable I-A and I-E/C antigens can be identified in spleen cell populations. The co expression of I-A and I-E/C on most cells of the B cell lineage is discussed in terms of our present concepts of Ir gene control of immune responses.. AB - Splenocytes from recombinant mice were radiolabeled before or ...
Great price on Normal immunoglobulin human 2.5g/50ml inf vials. FREE delivery options available. Trusted service, convenient and safe shopping online
We have identified a 95 kd cell surface protein, DM-GRASP, that is expressed on a restricted population of axons. Its expression begins early in chick embryogenesis, and within the spinal cord it is localized to axons in the dorsal funiculus, midline floorplate cells, and motoneurons. Antibodies to …
Immunoglobulin superfamily member 2; IgSF2; Cell surface glycoprotein V7; Glu-Trp-Ile EWI motif-containing protein 101; EWI-101; AltName: CD_antigen=CD101; Precursor ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Immunoglobulins with non-canonical functions in inflammatory and autoimmune disease states. AU - Ermakov, Evgeny A.. AU - Nevinsky, Georgy A.. AU - Buneva, Valentina N.. PY - 2020/8/1. Y1 - 2020/8/1. N2 - Immunoglobulins are known to combine various effector mechanisms of the adaptive and the innate immune system. Classical immunoglobulin functions are associated with antigen recognition and the initiation of innate immune responses. However, in addition to classical functions, antibodies exhibit a variety of non-canonical functions related to the destruction of various pathogens due to catalytic activity and cofactor effects, the action of antibodies as agonists/antagonists of various receptors, the control of bacterial diversity of the intestine, etc. Canonical and non-canonical functions reflect the extreme human antibody repertoire and the variety of antibody types generated in the organism: antigen-specific, natural, polyreactive, broadly neutralizing, homophilic, bispecific ...
Complete information for CRTAM gene (Protein Coding), Cytotoxic And Regulatory T Cell Molecule, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Complete information for CRTAM gene (Protein Coding), Cytotoxic And Regulatory T-Cell Molecule, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Class I-restricted T cell-associated molecule (Crtam) is an Ig-like cell surface protein that was originally found on activated NKT cells (Kennedy et al., 2000), NK cells, and CD8+ T cells (Arase et al., 2005; Boles et al., 2005; Galibert et al., 2005) and shown to bind the cell adhesion molecule 1 (Cadm1, also known as Nectin like [Necl] 2; Arase et al., 2005; Boles et al., 2005; Galibert et al., 2005). Cadm1 is a cell surface molecule of the nectin and Necl families that is expressed on CD8α DCs (Galibert et al., 2005; Poulin et al., 2010), epithelial cells, neurons, and tumor cells (Sakisaka and Takai, 2004; Mizutani et al., 2011). Crtam-Cadm1 interactions strengthen NK cell and CD8+ T cell effector functions (Arase et al., 2005; Boles et al., 2005; Galibert et al., 2005; Murakami, 2005) and promote the retention of virus-specific CD8+ T cells within LNs (Takeuchi et al., 2009). One report proposed that Crtam is essential for the establishment of CD4+ T cell polarization after TCR ...
Kehoe, J M., A complement fixing region of an immunoglobulin molecule. Abstr. (1970). Subject Strain Bibliography 1970. 444 ...
The immunoglobulin superfamily is a group of proteins, each made of one or several domains sharing key structural features with either the variable (V) or the constant (C) immunoglobulin domains. It includes such functionally important members as the immunoglobulins themselves, major histocompatibil …
Import Data And Price Of Immunoglobulin , www.eximpulse.com Eximpulse Services will provide you the latest and relevant market intelligence reports of Immunoglobulin Import Data. You can find live data of maximum number of ports of India which is based on updated shipment data of Indian Customs. Only previous two days data will be seen on website. You can use this Immunoglobulin import data for multiple kinds of analysis; lets say Import price, Quantity, market scenarios, Price trends, Duty optimization and many more. You can go through some of the sample shipment records for Immunoglobulin import data mentioned above. Here on Eximpulse Services you will get all kind of free sample as well as detailed reports of Export/ Import data as per your requirement. To get in touch for any kind of enquiry related to free sample or detailed report contact on +91-120-408-4957, +91-120-408-4958,+91-120-428-4019.. Data post 2012 as per Notification No.18/2012 - Customs(N.T.) and does not have names of Indian ...
PRKRIR contains a region (amino acids 86 to 200) of limited homology (24% identity) to the charged domain of HSP90.The THAP domain of the deduced 761-amino acid THAP0 protein includes a C2CH signature, an AVPTIF box, and several other conserved ...
Rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against partial recombinant human CRTAM. Recombinant protein corresponding to amino acids 153-241 of human CRTAM. (PAB30286) - Products - Abnova
Compare Anti-killer cell immunoglobulin like receptor, three Ig domains and short cytoplasmic tail 1 Antibody Products from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, and more.
Which of the following genes involved in the synthesis of immunoglobulins are linked on a single chromosome? A. C gene for gamma chain and C gene for alpha...
VSIG10L2 (V-set and immunoglobulin domain containing 10 like 2), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
Expert oncologists will work with Epsilogen to guide the clinical program for its lead candidate, MOv18 IgE London, 9 November 2020 - Epsilogen Ltd, a global leader in the development of novel immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies to treat cancer.... ...
The isolation of guinea-pig immunoglobulins γ1G, γ2G and γM are described and methods for separating the polypeptide chains of each examined. The molecular weights, extinction coefficients and carbohydrate and amino acid compositions of the immunoglobulins and their constituent chains have been analysed. The findings provide a basis for further studies attempting to relate structural differences to distinct biological properties of guinea-pig immunoglobulins.. ...
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. immunoglobulin heavy constant epsilon - Immunoglobulins. Detailed annotation on the structure, function, physiology, pharmacology and clinical relevance of drug targets.
The affinity purified antibody is labeled by Cy5. The antibody was raised in goat by immunizing purified Mouse IgG fragment. These antisera were then immunoaffinity purified from the antigen specific column with minimum cross-reaction to human, bovine, and rabbit serum proteins. No antibody was detected against non-immunoglobulin serum proteins. ...
The affinity purified antibody is labeled by Allophycocyanin (APC). The antibody was raised in goat by immunizing purified Mouse IgG. These antisera were then immunoaffinity purified from the antigen specific column with minimum cross-reaction to human, bovine, and rabbit serum proteins. No antibody was detected against non-immunoglobulin serum proteins. ...
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Recombinant Human CRTAM (NP_062550.2) extracellular domain (Met 1-Ser 286), fused with a polyhistidine tag at the C-terminus, was produced in Human Cell.
One of the five classes of immunoglobulins; one of the most common immunoglobulins, it is mainly present in body secretions and is the chief antibody in the mucous membranes of the gastrointestinal and respiratory tract and in saliva and tears.
Immunoglobulin is a type of protein that helps the body fight disease. There are five different types of immunoglobulin, each of...
IGSF6 - IGSF6 (untagged)-Human immunoglobulin superfamily, member 6 (IGSF6) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Nectin-loved ones molecules have 3 Ig-like domains in their extracellular locations. These 3 Ig-like domains are noted to kind homo- and hetero-dimers with
Immunoglobulin, also known as antibody, which produced by plasma cells , is a large Y-shape protein. There are five isotypes in placental mammals, which ..
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Immunoglobulin Market by type (IgG, IgA, IgM), application and mode of delivery. The global market is anticipated to reach at $13,619 million by 2023.
This test measures the amount of antibodies called immunoglobulins in your blood. The test can tell whether you are lacking in one or more of these antibodies.
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The immunoglobulin market size accounted for $9,972.9 million in 2017, and is projected to reach $16,694.7 million by 2025, registering a CAGR of 6.6%
Immunoglobulin market report added by qyresearchgroups.com. In this Report includes best market price, trends, Growth, Forecast, Analysis, demand & Overview.
IMMUNOGLOBULIN i.v. este indicat pentru toate formele de afectiuni caracterizate prin deficit de anticorpi, congenitale sau dobandite
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MSAPSLRARAAGLGLLLCAVLGRAGRSDSGGRGELGQPSGVAAERPCPTTCRCLGDLLDCSRKRLARLPE 1 - 70 PLPSWVARLDLSHNRLSFIKASSMSHLQSLREVKLNNNELETIPNLGPVSANITLLSLAGNRIVEILPEH 71 - 140 LKEFQSLETLDLSSNNISELQTAFPALQLKYLYLNSNRVTSMEPGYFDNLANTLLVLKLNRNRISAIPPK 141 - 210 MFKLPQLQHLELNRNKIKNVDGLTFQGLGALKSLKMQRNGVTKLMDGAFWGLSNMEILQLDHNNLTEITK 211 - 280 GWLYGLLMLQELHLSQNAINRISPDAWEFCQKLSELDLTFNHLSRLDDSSFLGLSLLNTLHIGNNRVSYI 281 - 350 ADCAFRGLSSLKTLDLKNNEISWTIEDMNGAFSGLDKLRRLILQGNRIRSITKKAFTGLDALEHLDLSDN 351 - 420 AIMSLQGNAFSQMKKLQQLHLNTSSLLCDCQLKWLPQWVAENNFQSFVNASCAHPQLLKGRSIFAVSPDG 421 - 490 FVCDDFPKPQITVQPETQSAIKGSNLSFICSAASSSDSPMTFAWKKDNELLHDAEMENYAHLRAQGGEVM 491 - 560 EYTTILRLREVEFASEGKYQCVISNHFGSSYSVKAKLTVNMLPSFTKTPMDLTIRAGAMARLECAAVGHP 561 - 630 APQIAWQKDGGTDFPAARERRMHVMPEDDVFFIVDVKIEDIGVYSCTAQNSAGSISANATLTVLETPSFL 631 - 700 RPLLDRTVTKGETAVLQCIAGGSPPPKLNWTKDDSPLVVTERHFFAAGNQLLIIVDSDVSDAGKYTCEMS 701 - 770 NTLGTERGNVRLSVIPTPTCDSPQMTAPSLDDDGWATVGVVIIAVVCCVVGTSLVWVVIIYHTRRRNEDC 771 - 840 ...
component of the immunoglobulin molecules which are tetramers of two identical heavy chains and two identicallight chains, either kappa or lambda, bound by disulfide ...
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0 - ,5 months: 7-37 mg/dL. 5 - ,9 months: 16-50 mg/dL. 9 - ,15 months: 27-66 mg/dL. 15 - ,24 months: 36-79 mg/dL. 2 - ,4 years: 27-246 mg/dL. 4 - ,7: 29-256 mg/dL. 7 - ,10 years: 34-274 mg/dL. 10 - ,13 years: 42-295 mg/dL. 13 - ,16 years: 52-319 mg/dL. 16 - ,18 years: 60-337 mg/dL. ≥ 18 years: 61-356 mg/dL. ...
Looking for hepatitis B immune globulin? Find out information about hepatitis B immune globulin. any of a large family of proteins protein, any of the group of highly complex organic compounds found in all living cells and comprising the most abundant... Explanation of hepatitis B immune globulin
Passive protection effect of chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins on enterovirus 71 infected mice. Jenn-Fa Liou, Chih-Wei Chang, Jui-jane Tailiu, Chun-Keung Yu, Huan-Yao Lei, Lih-Ren Chen, and Chein Tai. The objective of this study is to evaluate the passive protective efficiency of immunoglobulin in yolk (IgY) specific against human enterovirus type 71 (EV71). The antibody was raised by intramuscular immunization to 10 White Leghorn hens, with inactivated human EV71 as antigen. The titer and specificity of the antibody were analyzed from purified IgY in the egg yolks of immunized hens. Results indicated that the titer of IgY specific against EV71 increased from the third week after the first immunization. The results of the neutralization effect of specific IgY in EV71-challenged mice demonstrated that the EV71-specific IgY, either by intraperitoneal injection or oral administration, was able to significantly reduce the morbidity and mortality in EV71 infected mice pups.. ...
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Botulism immune globulin is a sterilized solution made from human plasma. It contains the antibodies to help your body protect itself against infection caused by botulism toxin type A and B. Botulism immune globulin is used to treat infant botulism caused by toxin type A or B. This medicine is used in children who are...
botulism immune globulin: in clinical trials; used to treat infant botulism; BIG-IV is an orphan drug Human Botulism Immune Globulin Intravenous which neutralizes botulinum toxin
Physician reviewed botulism immune globulin patient information - includes botulism immune globulin description, dosage and directions.
The malignant Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) are believed to derive from germinal center (GC) B cells, but lack expression of a functional B cell receptor. As apoptosis is the normal fate of B-cell receptor negative GC B cells, mechanisms that abrogate apoptosis are thus critical in HL development, such as epigenetic disruption of certain pro-apoptotic cancer genes including tumor suppressor genes. Identifying methylated genes elucidates oncogenic mechanisms and provides valuable biomarkers; therefore, we performed a chemical epigenetic screening for methylated genes in HI. through pharmacological demethylation and expression profiling. IGST4/CADM1/TSLC1, a pro-apoptotic cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily, was identified together with other methylated targets. In contrast to its expression in normal GC B cells, IGSF4 was down-regulated and methylated in cell lines, most primary HL, and microdissected HRS cells of 3/5 cases, but not in normal ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regulation of immunoglobulin production in pokeweed mitogen-stimulated cultures of lymphocytes from young and old adults. AU - Ceuppens, J. L.. AU - Goodwin, James. PY - 1982. Y1 - 1982. N2 - Polyclonal (pokeweed mitogen-stimulated) humoral immune responses were studied in cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) or T + B cell combinations of young (20 to 40 yr) and aged (,65 yr) individuals. Immunoglobulin (Ig) production was measured in the culture supernatants with an ELISA method. Cultures of lymphocytes from old and young individuals produced similar amounts of IgG and IgM. In co-culture experiments of old or young B cells with old or young T cells, the old T cells consistently provided more help for old and young B cells than the young T cells did. In addition, isolated OKT4(+) cells of old people provided more help than OKT4(+) cells of young people, whereas the suppressor activity of isolated OKT8(+) cells from old people was diminished. Because young or old ...
Clinical measurements were obtained for Ramfjords six teeth (16, 21, 24, 36, 41, and 44 in the FDI two-digit notation system) in all subjects). The deepest probing depth (DPD), mean probing depth (PD), bleeding on probing (BOP), and OLeary plaque control record (PCR) were recorded. When one of the selected teeth was missing from the oral cavity, data were obtained from an adjacent tooth in the same area of the jaw. Two weeks after the first clinical measurement, all participants received full-mouth scaling and root planning, followed by professional mechanical tooth cleaning (PMTC). All procedures were performed by two trained periodontists. After that, the subjects in the test (IgY-GP) group took tablets containing anti-gingipain egg yolk antibodies (100 mg/tablet), without chewing, three times a day after a meal or brushing. Tablets stayed in the mouth for 3 to 5 minutes. Eight hours after two minutes mouth rinse with egg yolk immunoglobulin, active antibodies detected in the saliva from 18 ...
Human IgG4 human immunoglobulin elisa kit Immunoglobulin G4 ELISA Kit from ELISA Genie is a pre-coated immunoassay with a sensitivity of 4.688 ng human immunoglobulin elisa kitml and a range of 7.813-500ng human immunoglobulin elisa kitml and has been designed to measure Human IgG4 human immunoglobulin elisa kit Immunoglobulin G4 ELISA Kit in serum, plasma & cell culture supernatant samples. The Human IgG4 human immunoglobulin elisa kit Immunoglobulin G4 ELISA Kit accurately measures natural Human IgG4 human immunoglobulin elisa kit Immunoglobulin ...
Science: immunology) a specific protein substance that is produced by plasma cells to aid in fighting infection. Some immunoglobulins (gamma globulin) take part in various immune responses of the body to bacteria or foreign substances (allergens, tumour or transplanted tissue). Examples include igg, igm, iga, IgD and ige. (2) A protein produced by plasma cells and lymphocytes and characteristic of these types of cells. Immunoglobulins play an essential role in the bodys immune system. They attach to foreign substances, such as bacteria, and assist in destroying them. Immunoglobulin is abbreviated Ig. The classes of immunoglobulins are termed immunoglobulin A (IgA), immunoglobulin G (IgG), immunoglobulin M (IgM), immunoglobulin D (IgD) and immunoglobulin E (IgE). ...
Regulated emigration of blood-borne leukocytes plays a defining role in lymphoid organ development, immune surveillance, and inflammatory responses. We report here that mice deficient in the homeobox gene Nkx2-3, expressed in developing visceral mesoderm, show a complex intestinal malabsorption phenotype and striking abnormalities of gut-associated lymphoid tissue and spleen suggestive of deranged leukocyte homing. Mutant Peyers patches were reduced in number and size, intestinal villi contained few IgA(+) plasma cells, and mutant spleens were small and often atrophic, showing fused periarterial lymphoid sheaths, partially merged T and B cell zones, an absent marginal zone, and a dearth of macrophages in red pulp. Semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis and immunohistochemistry revealed down-regulation of mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1) in endothelial cells in which Nkx2-3 is normally expressed. MAdCAM-1 is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, acting as an endothelial cell ...
Description: The alpha(4) integrin, alpha(4)beta(7), plays an important role in recruiting circulating lymphocytes to the gastrointestinal tract, where its ligand mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1) is preferentially expressed on high endothelial venules (HEVs). Dual antagonists of alpha(4)beta(1) and alpha(4)beta(7), N-(2,6-dichlorobenzoyl)-(L)-4-(2,6-bis-methoxyphenyl)phenylalanine (TR14035) and N-(N-[(3,5-dichlorobenzene)sulfonyl]-2-(R)-methylpropyl)-(D)-phenylalanine (compound 1), were tested for their ability to block the binding of alpha(4)beta(7)-expressing cells to soluble ligand in suspension and under in vitro and in vivo shear flow. Compound 1 and TR14035 blocked the binding of human alpha(4)beta(7) to an (125)I-MAdCAM-Ig fusion protein with IC(50) values of 2.93 and 0.75 nM, respectively. Both compounds inhibited binding of soluble ligands to alpha(4)beta(1) or alpha(4)beta(7) on cells of human or rodent origin with similar potency. Under shear flow in vitro, ...
, Chicken IgY antibody, pre-adsorbed, GTX27113, Applications: ELISA, IHC, WB; ELISA, Immunohistochemistry (IHC), Western Blot (WB); CrossReactivity: Chicken
Kakunaga S., Ikeda W., Itoh S., Deguchi-Tawarada M., Ohtsuka T., Mizoguchi A., Takai Y.. Nectins are Ca2+-independent immunoglobulin-like cell-cell adhesion molecules and comprise a family of four members. At the mossy fiber terminals of hippocampus, nectin-1 and nectin-3 localize at the presynaptic and postsynaptic sides of synaptic junctions, respectively, and their trans-interactions play a role in formation of synapses in cooperation with N-cadherin. Nectins are associated with the actin cytoskeleton through afadin, a nectin- and actin-filament-binding protein. Five nectin-like molecules (Necls) which have domain structures similar to those of nectins have been identified and here we characterize Necl-1/TSLL1/SynCAM3, from now on referred to as Necl-1. Tissue distribution analysis showed that Necl-1 was specifically expressed in the neural tissue. Immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy revealed that Necl-1 localized at the contact sites among axons, their terminals, and glia cell ...
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are characterized by their role in maintaining peripheral self-tolerance and immune homeostasis. One such role is regulation of the humoral response, which is most clearly demonstrated by abundant auto-antibody production in Scurfin mice and IPEX patients, both of which lack functional Tregs. Indirect Treg regulation of the humoral response via their influence on helper T cells, in particular in germinal centers, is well established. Prior demonstration of direct Treg inhibition of B cells has also been demonstrated, primarily in mice, but is mostly attributable to Treg killing of B cells. This regulation may be especially relevant in B cell-mediated diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). SLE is an extremely heterogeneous, autoimmune disease characterized in part by high titers of autoantibodies. We hypothesize SLE Tregs are deficient in their ability to suppress immunoglobulin secretion by B cells relative to Tregs isolated from healthy donors. We ...
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3.3.2. Properties of Immunoglobulins. General. All immunoglobulins appear to be glycoproteins but the carbohydrate content ranges from 2-3% for IgG to 12-14% for IgM, IgD and IgE. The physicochemical proper-ties of the immunoglobulins are summarized in Table 3.2. Each class possesses a characteristic type of heavy chain. Thus IgG possesses g chains; IgM, m chains; IgA, achains, IgD, dchains and IgE, echains. Variation in heavy chain structure within a class gives rise to immunoglobulin subclasses. For example the human IgG pool consists of four subclasses reflecting four distinct types of g heavy chain. The physicochemical properties of the immunoglobulins vary between the different classes. Note that IgA occurs in a dimeric form {sigA) in association with a protein chain termed the secretory piece. The diversity of structure of the different classes suggests that they perform different functions, in addition to their primary function of antigen binding. In spite of this diver-sity all ...
Perturbations in synaptic function could affect the normal behavior of an animal, making it important to understand the regulatory mechanisms of synaptic signaling. Previous work has shown that in Caenorhabditis elegans an immunoglobulin superfamily protein, RIG-3, functions in presynaptic neurons to maintain normal acetylcholine receptor levels at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). In this study, we elucidate the molecular and functional mechanism of RIG-3. We demonstrate by genetic and BiFC (Bi-molecular Fluorescence Complementation) assays that presynaptic RIG-3 functions by directly interacting with the immunoglobulin domain of the nonconventional Wnt receptor, ROR receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), CAM-1, which functions in postsynaptic body-wall muscles ...
Exhibits cell-cell adhesion mediator activity. Involved in dendrite development; homophilic cell adhesion via plasma membrane adhesion molecules; and regulation of synapse organization. Localizes to the axon; dendrite; and inhibitory synapse. Is expressed in several structures, including alimentary system; central nervous system; limb; sensory organ; and urinary system. Orthologous to human IGSF9 (immunoglobulin superfamily member 9 ...
The influence of temperature, pH and ionic strength on the adsorption of Immunoglobulin Y (IgY) in IDA-Cu(2+) cryogel system was studied by batch equilibrium measurements.
The relative contributions of humoral and cellmediated immune mechanisms in the rejection of renal homotransplants is an important but still unresolved issue. The diversity of the clinical and pathological pictures in different patients suggests that more than one mechanism may be operating at various times. This study determined serum immunoglobulin levels and complement activity in a series of renal transplant patients and attempted to assess the humoral contribution to rejection. Serial serum samples were obtained from 11 patients receiving renal homografts. Eight patients had clinically apparent episodes of rejection in the first week after surgery, and 3 of these had ...
Immunoglobulins are glycoproteins in the immunoglobulin superfamily that function as antibodies. The terms antibody and immunoglobulin are often used interchangeably. They are found in the blood and tissue fluids, as well as many secretions. In structure, they are large Y-shaped globular proteins. In mammals there are five types of antibody: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Each immunoglobulin class differs in its biological properties and has evolved to deal with different antigens.[12] Antibodies are synthesized and secreted by plasma cells that are derived from the B cells of the immune system. An antibody is used by the acquired immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects like bacteria and viruses. Each antibody recognizes a specific antigen unique to its target. By binding their specific antigens, antibodies can cause agglutination and precipitation of antibody-antigen products, prime for phagocytosis by macrophages and other cells, block viral receptors, and stimulate other immune ...
X-linked agamaglobulinemia (XLA) or Brutons disease is a genetic disease resulting from a mutation in the Brutons tyrosine kinase (Btk) gene. This mutation leads to B cell arrest during differentiation (1). This disease was first described by Ogden Bruton in 1952 (2). Approximately 85% of the affected subjects are male (3). This disorder is inherited as an X-linked recessive trait. Carrier females have no symptoms but have a 50% chance for transmission of the disorder to each of their sons. It is now possible to determine if the fetus of a carrier mother has XLA (4). The prevalence of the disease ranges from 1 in 10,000 to 1 in 50,000 (1). Half of the affected individuals are diagnosed during the first year of life and more than 90% of them are diagnosed up to fifth year (3). Diagnosis of the disease is suggested by lymphoid hypoplasia (minimal or no tonsillar tissue and no palpable lymph node) and total immunoglobulins level less than 100 mg/dl. Isohemagglutinins and antibodies to antigens given
Chen, Xiaowen, Shengnan Peng, Huihong Zeng, Aixiang Fu, Qingxian Zhu (2015) Toll-like receptor 4 is involved in a protective effect of rhein on immunoglobulin A nephropathy. [Publication] Full text not available from this repository ...
… the antibody in serum is a mixture of perhaps 100 million slightly different types of molecule… J. H. L. Playfair and B. M. Chain(p38) Plasma cells can release up to 2000 antibody mole- cules per second … J. H. L. Playfair and B. M. Chain(p43) You are the antibody. Smash Mouth Immunoglobulins are the glycoproteins that constitute antibodies. They were first recognized by serum electrophoresis and, because they were localized to the electrophoretic gamma zone, were originally referred to as γ-globulins. The term immunoglobulin and terminology for immunoglobulin classes were put forth in the 1960s. The use of the abbreviation Ig (pronounced
… the antibody in serum is a mixture of perhaps 100 million slightly different types of molecule… J. H. L. Playfair and B. M. Chain(p38) Plasma cells can release up to 2000 antibody mole- cules per second … J. H. L. Playfair and B. M. Chain(p43) You are the antibody. Smash Mouth Immunoglobulins are the glycoproteins that constitute antibodies. They were first recognized by serum electrophoresis and, because they were localized to the electrophoretic gamma zone, were originally referred to as γ-globulins. The term immunoglobulin and terminology for immunoglobulin classes were put forth in the 1960s. The use of the abbreviation Ig (pronounced
Increased jejunal immunoglobulin synthesis in patients with nontropical sprue as measured by a solid phase immunoadsorption technique. J Lab Clin Med. 1972 Jun; 79(6):1004-13 ...
Cell adhesion molecule (CADM) genes encode immunoglobulin superfamily molecules, which are involved in cell‑cell adhesion in a number of human epithelia. Through the maintenance of epithelia, CADM genes protect against malignant conversion and metastasis. Whilst numerous in vitro studies have investigated the molecular characteristics of CADM1 and CADM4 and in vivo studies have investigated CADM1 and CADM4 expression in a number of tumor types, the roles of CADM1 and CADM4 have yet to be elucidated. Therefore, in the present study, CADM1 and CADM4 expression levels were evaluated using immunohistochemistry staining in 208 patients with breast cancer and compared with clinicopathological factors. CADM1 and CADM4 expression levels were negative in 160 (76.9%) and 166 (79.8%) of the 208 cases, respectively. The lack of expression in these cases was associated with advanced tumor stage, suggesting that inactivation of CADM1 and CADM4 promotes breast cancer development. The prognostic role of CADM1 ...
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download Asian of the religious degree as a Gastroprotective Component of Stress ResponseBy Ludmila Filaretova1334Open capitalism j.. Helicobacter events Suppresses Serum Immunoglobulin Levels in Smokers with Peptic Ulcer: affine Interaction Between Smoking and H. Infection in the solution of Th1 Predominant Immune Response and Peptic UlcerationBy Yoshihiro Matsukawa and Kimitoshi Kato1738Open programming experience. download Asian Nationalism characters and Host ResponseBy Mario M. Elios and Marina de Bernard1366Open understanding examination. Helicobacter Nanopowders life in Elderly PatientsBy Nathalie Salles1688Open gap information. download a common % for you and your physicians to hold problems and blockage person. 3 + download + b over a common study Fp. I so need a plugging download over R, but damage also find how to Recall the small medications Ive was in embolization for them to cure service over Fp. These want the peptic days enough received sorely. download: The file above men for ...
Species: All. Specimen: Plasma (includes fibrinogen) or serum (has no fibrinogen). Container: EDTA, heparin or red-top tube. Collection protocol: Fasted sample preferred. Special handling/shipping requirements: Standard. General information about the disease: Helpful in the assessment of a wide variety of conditions (see below). Calculated by subtraction (TP-ALB).. General information about when this test is indicated: A group of large, variably sized proteins. Classified by electrophoretic mobility into alpha (includes transport proteins for thyroxine, cortisol, lipids, copper, and haemoglobin binder, thrombin inhibitor, insulin binder and trypsin inhibitor proteins) - produced in liver; beta (includes transport proteins for lipids and iron, C-reactive protein, complement components C3 and C4, plasminogen and, in plasma, fibrinogen) - produced mostly in liver; and gamma (immunoglobulins) - produced in lymphoid tissue in response to antigenic stimulation. Some immunoglobulins may migrate into ...
Immunoglobulins - Normal and Specific can be given by IV or IM injection to confer passive (temporary) immunity. Read more about Immunoglobulins - Normal and Specific
Mouse Immunoglobulin ELISA Kit product information; Mouse Immunoglobulin ELISA Kit is available 18 times from supplier ab-elisa elisas at Gentaur.com shop
Dam Parity May Impact Pigs Immunity Levels Preliminary results of research at the University of Nebraska suggest that health status, as indicated by circulating immunoglobulin concentrations in baby pigs, may be affected by dam parity. Researchers investigated the health status of different parities by evaluating the ability of Parity 1 (P1) and Parity 3 (P3) dams to produce and passively transfer
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How is Subcutaneous Immunoglobulin (medical treatment) abbreviated? SCIg stands for Subcutaneous Immunoglobulin (medical treatment). SCIg is defined as Subcutaneous Immunoglobulin (medical treatment) very frequently.
The IgG subclass of immunoglobulins are the major type of immunoglobulin in normal human serum. Each IgG molecule is made up of two heavy chains and two light chains; in turn each light chain is made up of two Ig domains, one variable (V,sub,L,/sub,) domain and one constant (C,sub,L,/sub,) domain, whilst each heavy chain comprises four Ig domains, three constant (C,sub,H1,/sub,, C,sub,H2,/sub,, C,sub,H3,/sub,) domains and a single variable (V,sub,H,/sub,) domain. One V,sub,H,/sub, and one V,sub,L,/sub, domain at the end of each Fab arm together determine antigenic recognition. An example of a IgG1 C,sub,H1,/sub, domain is given below (CATH domain ID 1l6xA02 ...
Abstract of Paper: CIRCULATING T-CELL SUBSETS AND IMMUNOGLOBULINS LEVEL IN PATIENTS WITH PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS , Author: All Okab MD, Ahdaf Enan MD, Sawsan A. A. Yosef MD*,El-Metwally Z. Abdel Baset MD**, Ashraf Nassar MD**, Tawheed Mowafy MD***, Ahmed Saleh MD***, Sameh Bahgat MD*** and Hatem Fathi MD , Year: 1994 , Faculty of Medicine, Benha University
e-mail: [email protected] It is established, that native and chaotropically modified immunoglobulins essentially differ by avidity and character of competitive inhibition of binding with protein (оvalbumin), glycolipid (lipopolysaccharides) antigens and native double-string DNA. Apparently, it is connected with structural and functional distinctions of their antigen-binding centres.. Keywords: avidity, competitive inhibition of binding with antibodies, lipopolysaccharides, native antibody, polyreactive immunoglobulins ...
The present invention relates to immunoglobulin glycoprotein compositions having predominant N-glycan structures on an immunoglobulin glycoprotein which confer a specific effector function. Additional
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The research connects usefulness of intravenous preparates of immunoglobulins in patients with secondary immunodeficiencies. Basing on the data of lit
Green Cross will make a second attempt to bring its immunodeficiency treatment to the US market by submitting additional data to the Food and Drug Administration this month at the earliest, the company said on Oct. 13. The move comes about a year after the US drug regulator rejected Green Cross IVIG-SN, human normal immunoglobulin G for intravenous administration, citing the need for further information on the dru...
Buy high purity Immunoglobulin G (IgG) from human plasma for diagnostic manufacturing, control, calibrator and research uses - Inquire for details!
Intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIGs). Intravenous immunoglobulins may be used to control SLE with organ involvement, or ... "Intravenous Immunoglobulins (IVIGs) in Lupus Central Station, sourced from the National Institute of Arthritis and ... Direct immunofluorescence can detect deposits of immunoglobulins and complement proteins in the people's skin. When skin not ...
Human immunoglobulins[edit]. *Rho(D) immune globulin (anti-D immunoglobulin). *Anti-rabies immunoglobulin ...
Immunoglobulin G[edit]. Hideo Matsumoto, professor emeritus at Osaka Medical College tested Gm types, genetic markers of ... Matsumoto, Hideo (2009). "The origin of the Japanese race based on genetic markers of immunoglobulin G.". Proceedings of the ... immunoglobulin G, of Khmer people for a 2009 study.[33] The study found that the Gm afb1b3 is a southern marker gene possibly ...
J06BB Specific immunoglobulins[szerkesztés]. J06BB01 Anti-D (rh) immunoglobulin. J06BB02 Tetanus immunoglobulin. J06BB03 ... J06BB13 Pertussis immunoglobulin. J06BB14 Morbilli immunoglobulin. J06BB15 Parotitis immunoglobulin. J06BB16 Palivizumab. ... J06BB10 Diphtheria immunoglobulin. J06BB11 Hepatitis A immunoglobulin. J06BB12 Encephalitis, tick borne immunoglobulin. ... J06BB05 Rabies immunoglobulin. J06BB06 Rubella immunoglobulin. J06BB07 Vaccinia immunoglobulin. J06BB08 Staphylococcus ...
Antibodies are glycoproteins belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily; the terms antibody and immunoglobulin are often used ... Immunoglobulin diversity[change , change source]. Basic issue[change , change source]. Although a huge variety of different ... 11.0 11.1 Diaz M & Casali P (2002). "Somatic immunoglobulin hypermutation". Curr Opin Immunol 14 (2): 235-240. doi:10.1016/ ... Antibodies (also called immunoglobulins) are large Y-shaped proteins. They are found in the blood or other body fluids of ...
... and immunoglobulins. Blood products may also be called blood-based products to differ from blood substitutes, which generally ...
Heavy chains only (also known as "heavy chain disease"); Whole immunoglobulins. If immunoglobulins tend to precipitate within ... The γ band is where the immunoglobulins appear, which is why they are also known as gammaglobulins. The majority of ... Note that while most heavy chains or whole immunoglobulins remain within blood vessels, light chains frequently escape and are ... usually whole immunoglobulins) to form polymers by aggregating with each other; this takes the name of macroglobulinemia and ...
An increased plasma transferrin level is often seen in patients suffering from iron deficiency anemia, during pregnancy, and with the use of oral contraceptives, reflecting an increase in transferrin protein expression. When plasma transferrin levels rise, there is a reciprocal decrease in percent transferrin iron saturation, and a corresponding increase in total iron binding capacity in iron deficient states[14] A decreased plasma transferrin can occur in iron overload diseases and protein malnutrition. An absence of transferrin results from a rare genetic disorder known as atransferrinemia, a condition characterized by anemia and hemosiderosis in the heart and liver that leads to heart failure and many other complications. Transferrin and its receptor have been shown to diminish tumour cells when the receptor is used to attract antibodies.[9] ...
Somatic recombination of immunoglobulins, also known as V(D)J recombination, involves the generation of a unique immunoglobulin ... The membrane-bound form of an antibody may be called a surface immunoglobulin (sIg) or a membrane immunoglobulin (mIg). It is ... Further information: Immunoglobulin light chain. In mammals there are two types of immunoglobulin light chain, which are called ... An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig),[1] is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is ...
Protein A/G method is used to purify immunoglobulins. Speciality media are designed for a specific class or type of protein/co ... Most monoclonal antibodies have been purified using affinity chromatography based on immunoglobulin-specific Protein A or ...
Normal range of human serum albumin in adults (, 3 y.o.) is 3.5 to 5 g/dL. For children less than three years of age, the normal range is broader, 2.9-5.5 g/dL.[9]. Low albumin (hypoalbuminemia) may be caused by liver disease, nephrotic syndrome, burns, protein-losing enteropathy, malabsorption, malnutrition, late pregnancy, artefact, genetic variations and malignancy.. High albumin (hyperalbuminemia) is almost always caused by dehydration. In some cases of retinol (Vitamin A) deficiency, the albumin level can be elevated to high-normal values (e.g., 4.9 g/dL). This is because retinol causes cells to swell with water (this is also the reason too much Vitamin A is toxic).[10] This swelling also likely occurs during treatment with 13-cis retinoic acid (isotretnoin), a pharmaceutical for treating severe acne, amongst other conditions. In lab experiments it has been shown that all-trans retinoic acid down regulates human albumin production[11]. ...
Changes in biliary secretory immunoglobulins A in mice fed whey proteins Costantino A.M., Balzola F., Bounous G. Minerva Dietol ...
Immunoglobulin. Immunoglobulin, modulates the immune system.. IV. N/A. Varies Methotrexate. Antifolate; inhibits dihydrofolate ... Infusion-related reactions, infection, neutropenia, reduced immunoglobulin levels, arrhythmias, less commonly anaemia, ... intravenous immunoglobulin, rituximab, sirolimus, alefacept, and the tyrosine kinase inhibitors, imatinib, nilotinib, and ...
... (ORM) or alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (α1AGp,[1] AGP or AAG) is an acute phase (acute phase protein) plasma alpha-globulin glycoprotein and is modulated by two polymorphic genes. It is synthesized primarily in hepatocytes and has a normal plasma concentration between 0.6-1.2 mg/mL (1-3% plasma protein).[2] Plasma levels are affected by pregnancy, burns, certain drugs, and certain diseases, particularly HIV.[2] The only established function of ORM is to act as a carrier of basic and neutrally charged lipophilic compounds. In medicine, it is known as the primary carrier of basic (positively charged) drugs (whereas albumin carries acidic (negatively charged) and neutral drugs), steroids, and protease inhibitors.[2][3] Aging causes a small decrease in plasma albumin levels; if anything, there is a small increase in alpha-1-acid glycoprotein. The effect of these changes on drug protein binding and drug delivery, however, appear to be minimal.[4] AGP shows a complex interaction with thyroid ...
Secretion of immunoglobulins. IgA from plasma cells in the mucosa are absorbed through receptor-mediated endocytosis on the ...
PSG is a member of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily and contains four immunoglobulin domains. The complete isolation of ... CEAs are immunoglobulins. Within humans there are total of 11 PSG genes located on the 19th chromosome; there are 17 genes ... Khan WN, Teglund S, Bremer K, Hammarström S (1992). "The pregnancy-specific glycoprotein family of the immunoglobulin ... a new subfamily of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily". Biochemistry. 29 (11): 2845-52. doi:10.1021/bi00463a030. PMID 2346748 ...
Hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) is a human immunoglobulin that is used to prevent the development of hepatitis B and is used ... Allergy to human immunoglobulin is a contraindication. HIV has never been transmitted by HBIG. As with all blood-derived ... "Hepatitis B immunoglobulins". Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Medicine portal. ... It provides a temporarily induced immunity by the transfer of immunoglobulins. HBIG is given by either intramuscular (IM) or ...
Examples include intravenous immunoglobulin and propofol.. Blood-based products[edit]. Saline and 5% glucose solution (Left), ...
... immunoglobulin (TIG),[1] also called tetanus antibodies or tetanus antitoxin.[31] It can be given as intravenous ... Tetanus immunoglobulin 3 or more doses of tetanus toxoid containing vaccine AND less than 5 years since last dose No indication ... In such cases, it can be given with or without tetanus immunoglobulin (also called tetanus antibodies or tetanus antitoxin[31] ... Human tetanus immunoglobulin injected intrathecally (increases clinical improvement from 4% to 35%) ...
Normal saline (NSS, NS or N/S) is the commonly used phrase for a solution of 0.90% w/v of NaCl, 308 mOsm/L or 9.0 g per litre. Less commonly, this solution is referred to as physiological saline or isotonic saline (because it closely approximates isotonic, that is, physiologically normal, solution); although neither of those names is technically accurate (because normal saline is not exactly like blood serum), they convey the practical effect usually seen: good fluid balance with minimal hypotonicity or hypertonicity. NS is used frequently in intravenous drips (IVs) for patients who cannot take fluids orally and have developed or are in danger of developing dehydration or hypovolemia. NS is also used for aseptic purpose. NS is typically the first fluid used when hypovolemia is severe enough to threaten the adequacy of blood circulation, and has long been believed to be the safest fluid to give quickly in large volumes. However, it is now known that rapid infusion of NS can cause metabolic ...
by immunoglobulins: immunoglobulin therapy *by monoclonal antibodies: monoclonal antibody therapy. *by urine: urine therapy ( ...
... immunoglobulin lambda constant 1 (Mcg marker) IGLC2 - immunoglobulin lambda constant 2 (Kern-Oz- marker) IGLC3 - immunoglobulin ... immunoglobulin lambda joining n IGLJ1, IGLJ2, IGLJ3, IGLJ6, IGLJ7 [email protected] - variable group IGLVm-n - immunoglobulin lambda ... or immunoglobulins). Immunoglobulins recognize foreign antigens and initiate immune responses such as phagocytosis and the ... Immunoglobulin lambda locus, also known as [email protected], is a region on human chromosome 22 that contains genes for the lambda light ...
Immunoglobulin-like domains: found in proteins of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF). They contain about 70-110 amino acids ... Four concrete examples of widespread protein modules are the following domains: SH2, immunoglobulin, fibronectin type 3 and the ... Barclay AN (August 2003). "Membrane proteins with immunoglobulin-like domains--a master superfamily of interaction molecules". ... Porter RR (May 1973). "Structural studies of immunoglobulins". Science. 180 (4087): 713-6. Bibcode:1973Sci...180..713P. doi: ...
Gottlieb, Paul David (1972). "The variability of immunoglobulins". elibrary.ru. Kobler, John (1977). The Rockefeller University ... "The covalent structure of a human gamma G-immunoglobulin. V. Partial amino acid sequence of the light chain". Biochemistry. 7 ( ... "The covalent structure of an entire gammaG immunoglobulin molecule". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ... "Variable regions of heavy and light polypeptide chains of the same gammaG-immunoglobulin molecule". Proceedings of the National ...
Paired-immunoglobulin-like receptor B (PirB), an MHCI-binding receptor, is involved in the regulation of visual plasticity.[5] ...
Transmembrane receptors: immunoglobulin superfamily immune receptors. Antibody receptor:. Fc receptor. Epsilon (ε). *FcεRI ...
Solomon A (1985). "[6] Light chains of human immunoglobulins". Light chains of human immunoglobulins. Methods in Enzymology. ... There is approximately 40% excess immunoglobulin light-chain production over immunoglobulin heavy-chain synthesis. Possibly ... Immunoglobulin light chains that are circulating in serum in a free (unbound) state are called free light chains (FLCs). ... Each immunoglobulin light-chain molecule contains approximately 220 amino acids in a single polypeptide chain that is folded to ...
Gray, O.; McDonnell, G. V.; Forbes, R. B. (2003). "Intravenous immunoglobulins for multiple sclerosis". The Cochrane Database ...
"Structure and function of immunoglobulins". Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 2010 Primer on Allergic and Immunologic ...
Antibodies (also called immunoglobulins) are proteins the immune system makes to recognize and get rid of germs. ... An IgA test measures the blood level of immunoglobulin A, one of the most common types of antibodies in the body. ...
FRANGIONE, B., MILSTEIN, C. & FRANKLIN, E. Immunoglobulins: Chemical Typing of Immunoglobulins. Nature 221, 149-151 (1969). ...
Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a type of antibody (or immunoglobulin (Ig) "isotype") that has only been found in mammals. IgE is ... Presence of a unique immunoglobulin as a carrier of reaginic activity". J. Immunol. 97 (1): 75-85. PMID 4162440.. ... Winter WE, Hardt NS, Fuhrman S (2000). "Immunoglobulin E: importance in parasitic infections and hypersensitivity responses". ... Johansson SG, Bennich H. Immunological studies of an atypical (myeloma) immunoglobulin. Immunology 1967; 13:381-94. ...
Immunoglobulin therapy, also known as normal human immunoglobulin (NHIG), is the use of a mixture of antibodies ( ... Some believe that immunoglobulin therapy may work via a multi-step model where the injected immunoglobulin first forms a type ... Although immunoglobulin is frequently used for long periods of time and is generally considered safe, immunoglobulin therapy ... an immunoglobulin infusion may pass a virus to its recipient.[16] Some immunoglobulin solutions also contain isohemagglutinins ...
... What It Is. An immunoglobulin test measures the level of certain immunoglobulins, ... Immunoglobulin M (IgM), which is found mainly in the blood and lymph fluid, is the first antibody to be made by the body to ... Immunoglobulin G (IgG), the most abundant type of antibody, is found in all body fluids and protects against bacterial and ... Immunoglobulin levels are also used as part of an evaluation for autoimmune conditions such as juvenile idiopathic arthritis, ...
An immunoglobulins test measures the levels of certain antibodies in your blood. Abnormal levels can indicate a serious health ... What is an immunoglobulins blood test?. This test measures the amount of immunoglobulins, also known as antibodies, in your ... An immunoglobulins test usually measures three specific types of immunoglobulins. They are called igG, igM, and IgA. If your ... Why do I need an immunoglobulins blood test?. You may need this test if your health care provider thinks your immunoglobulin ...
... one of the most common immunoglobulins, it is mainly present in body secretions and is the chief antibody in the mucous ... One of the five classes of immunoglobulins; one of the most common immunoglobulins, it is mainly present in body secretions and ... One of the five classes of immunoglobulins; ... Immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, IgM) * Immunophenotyping by Flow ...
One of the five classes of immunoglobulins; it is present in small amounts in serum and is thought to function in certain ... One of the five classes of immunoglobulins; it is present in small amounts in serum and is thought to function in certain ...
B-cell disorders are divided into defects of B-cell development/immunoglobulin production (immunodeficiencies) and excessive/ ... form the basis for humoral immunity by their production of immunoglobulins. ... Immunoglobulins. Class Summary. Provide immediate passive immunity. Replacement therapy in antibody deficiency states. ... Van Hoeyveld E, Zhang PX, De Boeck K, Fuleihan R, Bossuyt X. Hyper-immunoglobulin M syndrome caused by a mutation in the ...
The International Symposium on the Immunoglobulin A System was organized in observance of the twenty-fifth anni- versary of the ... Immunoglobulin A was chosen as the sub- ject of the Symposium because of its broad scope in relation to all biologic sciences, ... antibody antigen bacteria dentistry genetics immune system immunity immunization immunoglobulin infection planning prevention ... The International Symposium on the Immunoglobulin A System was organized in observance of the twenty-fifth anni- versary of the ...
The plasma cells switch from producing IgM to IgG or to another immunoglobulin class. The switch involves a change in the H ... The genes coding for these diverse range of immunoglobulins however are limited and do not number similar to the variety of ... The variable region of each immunoglobulin heavy or light chain is encoded in several pieces on the genes. These are called ... This process results in an immunoglobulin gene that encodes an antibody of a different isotype. ...
Immunoglobulins (antibodies in the blood) can give doctors important information about the immune system, especially relating ... What Is an Immunoglobulin Test?. An immunoglobulin (im-yeh-no-GLOB-yeh-len) test measures the level of types of antibodies in ... Why Are Immunoglobulin Tests Done?. Doctors may check immunoglobulin levels to see if a person has an infection or is protected ... Are There Any Risks From Immunoglobulin Tests?. An immunoglobulin test is a safe procedure with minimal risks. Some kids might ...
The MHRA says lifting the ban on the use of UK plasma for the manufacture of immunoglobulins would result in little or no risk ... The risk of vCJD infection and of clinical case was estimated for 17 normal immunoglobulins and six hyperimmune immunoglobulins ... MHRA Re-assesses Ban on UK Plasma for Immunoglobulins - Medscape - Apr 26, 2021. ... says lifting the ban on the use of UK plasma for the manufacture of immunoglobulins would result in little or no risk of ...
Intravenous immunoglobulin for post-polio syndrome: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet Neurol. 2006 Jun. 5(6):493-500. [ ... Intravenous immunoglobulin has been recently studied in the treatment of symptoms related to postpolio syndrome. Results show ... A study by Bertolasi et al found that a single 5-day course of intravenous immunoglobulin did not cause significant changes in ... A randomized controlled trial of IV immunoglobulin in patients with postpolio syndrome. J Neurol Sci. 2013 Jul 15. 330(1-2):94- ...
Immunoglobulin genes. [T Honjo; Frederick W Alt; T H Rabbitts;] -- Immunoglobin Genes is the first comprehensive book on the ... Immunoglobulin a schema:Intangible ;. schema:name "Genes, Immunoglobulin"@en ;. . ... Immunoglobulin genes. Author:. T Honjo; Frederick W Alt; T H Rabbitts. Publisher:. London ; San Diego : Academic Press, ©1989. ... Immunoglobulin genes/T Honjo; Frederick W Alt; T H Rabbitts;; London ; San Diego : Academic Press, ©1989. ...
Immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy is characterized by predominant IgA deposition in the glomerular mesangium.{ref1} It is one ... What is immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy?. Updated: Feb 15, 2018 * Author: Sohail Abdul Salim, MD, FASN, FACP; Chief Editor: ... Immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy is characterized by predominant IgA deposition in the glomerular mesangium. [1] It is one of ... Guideline] Chapter 10: Immunoglobulin A nephropathy. Kidney Int Suppl (2011). 2012 Jun. 2 (2):209-217. [Medline]. [Full Text]. ...
Immunoglobulin G (IgG) holds the highest share (44%) in the global blood plasma market, with a revenue of $9.24 billion. ... Immunoglobulin (Ig) therapies are among the oldest therapeutic moieties employed in a broad range of pathological conditions. ... Immunoglobulin G (IgG) holds the highest share (44%) in the global blood plasma market, with a revenue of $9.24 billion. ... Immunoglobulin (Ig) therapies are among the oldest therapeutic moieties employed in a broad range of pathological conditions. ...
In general, immunoglobulin disorders can be classified as:. *Immunoglobulin excess *Polyclonal-an Ig excess in any or all ... Classes of immunoglobulins include:. *Immunoglobulin M (IgM) - IgM antibodies are produced as a bodys first response to a new ... A test for immunoglobulins (Igs) is used to detect an excess or deficiency in the three major classes of immunoglobulins (IgG, ... Immunoglobulin A (IgA) - IgA comprises about 15% of the total immunoglobulins in the blood but is also found in saliva, tears, ...
Immunoglobulin function. The primary function of immunoglobulins is antigen binding. The fragment antigen-binding (Fab) is a ... Immunoglobulins. Immunoglobulins (Igs) are glycoproteins. They are major components of the humoral immune system. They are ... Immunoglobulins are made of four protein chains. Two of these are called heavy chains (H chains) and the other two are called ... The immunoglobulins have a flexible region on their heavy chain called the hinge region. The light chains are of two types: the ...
We have analysed the atomic structures of Fab and VL fragments of immunoglobulins to determine the relationship between their ... Examination of the sequences of immunoglobulins of unknown structure shows that many have hypervariable regions that are ... Canonical structures for the hypervariable regions of immunoglobulins.. Chothia C1, Lesk AM. ... The accuracy of the analysis is being tested and refined by the prediction of immunoglobulin structures prior to their ...
There is provided an isolated immunoglobulin comprising two heavy polypeptide chains sufficient for the formation of a complete ... The immunoglobulins of the type described here-above can comprise type G immunoglobulins and especially immunoglobulins which ... These immunoglobulins do not consist in the degradation products of immunoglobulins composed of both heavy polypeptide and ... Isolated VHH derived from heavy chain immunoglobulins or VHH libraries corresponding to the heavy chain immunoglobulins can be ...
... immunoglobulin deficiency - Answer: Most people with selective IgA (immunoglobulin) deficiency have no ... ... Home › Q & A › Questions › Immunoglobulin Deficiency -.... Immunoglobulin Deficiency - symptoms of deficiency?. Asked. 29 Nov ... Immunoglobulin Deficiency - Is ivig safe and how long do I have to use it?. Posted 23 Oct 2011 • 2 answers ... Most people with selective IgA (immunoglobulin) deficiency have no symptoms.. Some people with this condition have chronic ...
For health professionals : Refer a patient : Laboratory Services : Test Table : Immunoglobulin-G, Serum ...
... Semi-Quantitative Bioassay Quantitative Chemiluminescent Immunoassay Send Out. Negative or ...
Metabolism of albumin and immunoglobulins in the nephrotic syndrome.. Kaysen GA1, al Bander H. ... In contrast, the serum concentration of the high-molecular-weight immunoglobulin IgM is increased, as is the serum ...
... invention relates to immunoglobulin glycoprotein compositions having predominant N-glycan structures on an immunoglobulin ... immunoglobulin M (IgM), immunoglobulin D (IgD), immunoglobulin G (IgG), immunoglobulin A (IgA) and immunoglobulin E (IgE). Each ... Fusions that include larger polypeptides, such as an immunoglobulin Fc fragment, or an immunoglobulin Fab fragment or even ... A method for producing in a eukaryotic host a composition comprising a plurality of immunoglobulins, each immunoglobulin ...
Antenatal prophylaxis with anti-D immunoglobulin. BMJ 1989; 299 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.299.6704.920 (Published 07 ...
Antenatal prophylaxis with anti-D immunoglobulin British Medical Journal 1989; 299 :920 ... Antenatal prophylaxis with anti-D immunoglobulin. British Medical Journal 1989; 299 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.299.6704. ...
The structure of immunoglobulin superfamily domains 1 and 2 of MAdCAM-1 reveals novel features important for integrin ... The structure of immunoglobulin superfamily domains 1 and 2 of MAdCAM-1 reveals novel features important for integrin ... MAdCAM-1 belongs to a subclass of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF), the members of which are ligands for integrins [PMID: ... 9655832]. The crystal structure of this domain has been reported; it adopts an immunoglobulin-like beta-sandwich structure, ...
IgG stands for immunoglobulin G, a type of antibody. Antibodies are proteins made by the immune system to fight viruses, ... URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/lab-tests/csf-immunoglobulin-g-igg-index/ CSF Immunoglobulin G (IgG) Index. ... Other names: cerebrospinal fluid IgG level, cerebrospinal fluid IgG measurement, CSF IgG level, IgG (Immunoglobulin G) spinal ... www.uwhealth.org/health/topic/medicaltest/immunoglobulins/hw41342.html#hw41354 ...
  • An IgA test measures the blood level of immunoglobulin A, one of the most common types of antibodies in the body. (kidshealth.org)
  • Antibodies (also called immunoglobulins) are proteins the immune system makes to recognize and get rid of germs . (kidshealth.org)
  • Immunoglobulin therapy , also known as normal human immunoglobulin ( NHIG ), is the use of a mixture of antibodies (immunoglobulins) to treat a number of health conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • An immunoglobulin test measures the level of certain immunoglobulins, or antibodies, in the blood. (kidshealth.org)
  • This test measures the amount of immunoglobulins, also known as antibodies, in your blood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The genes coding for these diverse range of immunoglobulins however are limited and do not number similar to the variety of antibodies. (news-medical.net)
  • An immunoglobulins test is done to measure the level of immunoglobulins, also known as antibodies , in your blood. (cigna.com)
  • An immunoglobulin (im-yeh-no-GLOB-yeh-len) test measures the level of types of antibodies in the blood. (kidshealth.org)
  • The body makes different antibodies, or immunoglobulins , to fight different things. (kidshealth.org)
  • The first time a person is infected or otherwise exposed to a foreign substance (antigen), their immune system recognizes the microorganism or substance as "non-self" and stimulates plasma cells to produce specific immunoglobulin(s), also called antibodies, that can bind to and neutralize the threat. (labcorp.com)
  • Immunoglobulin M (IgM) - IgM antibodies are produced as a body's first response to a new infection or to a new "non-self" antigen, providing short-term protection. (labcorp.com)
  • Immunoglobulins are commonly known as antibodies . (chegg.com)
  • immunoglobulin One of a group of proteins ( globulins ) in the body that act as antibodies . (encyclopedia.com)
  • Immunoglobulin G antibodies are the only antibodies that pass from mother to fetus through the placenta. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Elevated immunoglobulin levels mean that the body's immune system has produced antibodies in response to a threat, such as bacteria, viruses, fungus, animal dander or cancer cells. (reference.com)
  • Immunoglobulins, also known as antibodies, attach themselves to foreign objects so that the immune system can destroy them, notes WebMD. (reference.com)
  • Produced by the body's immune system, antibodies, also known as immunoglobulins, are Y-shaped proteins that help identify and remove antigens and other for. (reference.com)
  • The book "Immunoglobulins, Magic Bullets and Therapeutic Antibodies" comprises of ten chapters and it describes the origin, history, timeline, production and scope of immunoglobulins which are the central molecules of the immune system around which the field of immunology revolves. (novapublishers.com)
  • amysamp - I see your thinking, that you may need to replenish the IgA if it is high and therefore chronically fighting the infection therefore you might need new immunoglobulin antibodies to continue the fight. (wisegeek.com)
  • How great are these immunoglobulin antibodies? (wisegeek.com)
  • IMGT ® is specialized in the immunoglobulins (IG) or antibodies, T cell receptors (TR), major histocompatibility (MH), and IgSF and MhSF superfamilies. (mdpi.com)
  • Here, we describe a method for rapid and consistent global characterization of leachable metal- or peroxide-stressed immunoglobulin (lg) G1 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). (genengnews.com)
  • Smash Mouth Immunoglobulins are the glycoproteins that constitute antibodies. (amamanualofstyle.com)
  • Immunoglobulins play a critical role in immune function: they act as antibodies that prevent you from becoming ill. (livestrong.com)
  • Egg immunoglobulins (or antibodies) are not a novel ingredient and their use is not a new concept. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • PhysOrg.com) -- Like a blood-borne army, immunoglobulin G belongs to a class of antibodies that binds to viruses, fungi, bacteria and other foreign particles to initiate their destruction. (phys.org)
  • Coutinho and his colleagues, on the other hand, were studying 'natural immunoglobulins' as they emerge as components of newborn mice, and not as 'antibodies' formed in response to specific antigens. (scielo.br)
  • Immunoglobulin A is one class of a group of immunoglobulin proteins known as antibodies. (embracepetinsurance.com)
  • IgA (shorthand for Immunoglobulin A) is a class of antibodies that works to protect the surfaces of the body from the most immediate, superficial kind of invaders. (embracepetinsurance.com)
  • Wang, W. and Li, J. (2011) Identification of Natural Bispecific Antibodies against Cyclic Citrullinated Peptide and Immunoglobulin G in Rheumatoid Arthritis. (scirp.org)
  • When you are given an immunoglobulin, your body uses antibodies from other people's blood plasma to help prevent illness. (wellspan.org)
  • Treatments for some cancers can cause the body to stop producing its own antibodies, making immunoglobulin treatment necessary. (wellspan.org)
  • Immunoglobulin E ( IgE ) is a type of antibody (or immunoglobulin (Ig) " isotype ") that has only been found in mammals . (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunoglobulin G (IgG) , the most abundant type of antibody, is found in all body fluids and protects against bacterial and viral infections. (kidshealth.org)
  • Immunoglobulin M (IgM) , which is found mainly in the blood and lymph fluid, is the first antibody to be made by the body to fight a new infection. (kidshealth.org)
  • Immunoglobulin D (IgD) , which exists in small amounts in the blood, is the least understood antibody. (kidshealth.org)
  • one of the most common immunoglobulins, it is mainly present in body secretions and is the chief antibody in the mucous membranes of the gastrointestinal and respiratory tract and in saliva and tears. (labtestsonline.org)
  • This process results in an immunoglobulin gene that encodes an antibody of a different isotype. (news-medical.net)
  • Retrieved on May 22, 2019 from https://www.news-medical.net/health/Antibody-Immunoglobulin-Diversity.aspx. (news-medical.net)
  • Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of antibody. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is one of several isotypes of antibody (also known as immunoglobulin) that are produced by vertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • 9. The composition of claim 1, wherein said immunoglobulins exhibit increased antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 17. The pharmaceutical composition of claim 14, wherein said immunoglobulins comprise an antibody which binds to an antigen selected from the group consisting of growth factors, FGFR, EGFR, VEGF, leukocyte antigens, CD20, CD33, cytokines, TNF-α and TNF-β. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is an antibody blood protein that's part of your immune system. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • A monoclonal anti-immunoglobulin E antibody used in the treatment of severe asthma and chronic idiopathic urticaria. (drugbank.ca)
  • An immunoglobulin is also known as an antibody. (oncolink.org)
  • Immunoglobulin M ( IgM ) is the first antibody to be produced following immunization or infection. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Immunoglobulin D ( IgD ) is present in serum in very low concentrations, but occurs on the surface of antibody-secreting B cells, whose activity it may regulate. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a type of protein in the body called an antibody. (childrensmn.org)
  • Immunoglobulin A ( IgA , also referred to as sIgA in its secretory form) is an antibody that plays a crucial role in the immune function of mucous membranes . (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunoglobulin, abbreviated at Ig, is also referred to as antibody. (wisegeek.com)
  • Immunoglobulin M , or IgM for short, is a basic antibody that is present on B cells . (bionity.com)
  • It is also the first immunoglobulin expressed in the fetus (around 20 weeks) and also phylogenetically the earliest antibody to develop. (bionity.com)
  • An antibody , also known as an immunoglobulin , is a large Y-shaped protein used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects such as bacteria and viruses. (phys.org)
  • the terms antibody and immunoglobulin are often used interchangeably. (phys.org)
  • The gut characteristically produces gram quantities of immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibody, which is presumed to protect the gut from pathogen attack. (sciencemag.org)
  • Immunoglobulin Deficiency - Is ivig safe and how long do I have to use it? (drugs.com)
  • IVIG (Intravenous immunoglobulin)? (drugs.com)
  • OKLAHOMA CITY , Sept. 12, 2018 /PRNewswire/ -- A subset of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), who have an immune abnormality, may benefit from intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) treatment, according to new research from Richard E. Frye , MD, PhD, Chief of Neurodevelopmental Disorders at the Barrow Neurological Institute at Phoenix Children's Hospital. (prnewswire.com)
  • Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) is beneficial in other autoimmune diseases. (nih.gov)
  • Especially the finding of autoantibodies against peripheral neurons and successful treatment in single cases provide evidence for a possible successful treatment of CRPS with intravenous immunoglobulins (IvIg). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg) are thus recommended for patients with drug-resistant polymyositis. (hindawi.com)
  • Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) therapy is recommended in patients with polymyositis refractory to corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents, despite the lack of randomized controlled studies [ 6 - 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • This protocol includes administration of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • These intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg) represent the healthy human IgG repertoire, which can be reactive for both self and non-self antigens. (scirp.org)
  • The variable region of each immunoglobulin heavy or light chain is encoded in several pieces on the genes. (news-medical.net)
  • More recently, expression of engineered immunoglobulin genes in tissue culture can be used to produce IgM with specific alternations and thus to identify the molecular requirements for features of interest. (wikipedia.org)
  • The new vaccine worked well whether it contained interleukin-2 and immunoglobulin G proteins or the genes encoding these proteins. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Classification of immunoglobulins and the organization and expression of immunoglobulin genes is described separately. (novapublishers.com)
  • The technique should also lead to the cloning of antigen-binding specificities directly from immunoglobulin genes. (pnas.org)
  • Predicting the onset of AL is highly challenging, as each patient carries a different pathogenic LC sequence resulting from a unique rearrangement of variable (V) and joining (J) immunoglobulin genes and a unique set of somatic mutations (SMs) acquired during B cell affinity maturation 9 (Fig. 1a ). (nature.com)
  • In contrast, the serum concentration of the high-molecular-weight immunoglobulin IgM is increased, as is the serum concentration of a variety of high-molecular-weight liver-derived proteins. (nih.gov)
  • A purified form of human immunoglobulin G and other proteins used to treat immunodeficiency and a wide variety of autoimmune disorders. (drugbank.ca)
  • A preparation containing immunoglobulin proteins, especially immune globulin. (yourdictionary.com)
  • The RIQAS Specific Protein EQA programme is designed to monitor the performance of up to 26 serum proteins including CRP, ASO, RF, Complement Proteins and Immunoglobulins. (randox.com)
  • The immunoglobulin superfamily is a group of proteins, each made of one or several domains sharing key structural features with either the variable (V) or the constant (C) immunoglobulin domains. (nih.gov)
  • A prospective study by Östlund et al indicated that patients with PPS who respond to intravenous immunoglobulin therapy tend prior to treatment to have reduced physical function, muscle atrophy in the lower extremities, and greater fatigue and pain levels, as well as a visual analogue scale score above 20. (medscape.com)
  • Efficacy of high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in Japanese patients with steroid-resistant polymyositis and dermatomyositis," Modern Rheumatology , vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 34-44, 2008. (hindawi.com)
  • Schwab, I. and Nimmerjahn, F. (2013) Intravenous Immunoglobulin Therapy: How Does IgG Modulate the Immune System? (scirp.org)
  • Schwitzguébel AJ, Jandus P, Lacroix JS, Seebach JD, Harr T. Immunoglobulin deficiency in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis: Systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis. (medscape.com)
  • Ameratunga R, Woon ST, Gillis D, Koopmans W, Steele R. New diagnostic criteria for common variable immune deficiency (CVID), which may assist with decisions to treat with intravenous or subcutaneous immunoglobulin. (medscape.com)
  • Immunoglobulin Deficiency - symptoms of deficiency? (drugs.com)
  • Most people with selective IgA (immunoglobulin) deficiency have no symptoms. (drugs.com)
  • Immunoglobulin A Deficiency is a topic covered in the Select 5-Minute Pediatrics Topics . (unboundmedicine.com)
  • 5minute , www.unboundmedicine.com/5minute/view/Select-5-Minute-Pediatric-Consult/14162/all/Immunoglobulin_A_Deficiency. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • You may need this test if your healthcare provider suspects that you have an immunoglobulin deficiency. (ahealthyme.com)
  • When IgA is determined to be deficient in dogs, the condition may be diagnosed as "selective immunoglobulin A deficiency. (embracepetinsurance.com)
  • The primary function of immunoglobulins is antigen binding. (chegg.com)
  • We have analysed the atomic structures of Fab and VL fragments of immunoglobulins to determine the relationship between their amino acid sequences and the three-dimensional structures of their antigen binding sites. (nih.gov)
  • There is provided an isolated immunoglobulin comprising two heavy polypeptide chains sufficient for the formation of a complete antigen binding site or several antigen binding sites, wherein the immunoglobulin is further devoid of light polypeptide chains. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Here, we show that DCs arising in the absence of immunoglobulins (Ig) in vivo are impaired in cross-presentation of soluble antigen. (wur.nl)
  • In screening mouse cytolytic-T-cell-derived cDNA libraries, we came across cDNA clones defining a sequence, CTLA-4, which could encode a 223-amino-acid protein clearly belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily. (nih.gov)
  • Loh RK, Vale S, Maclean-Tooke A. Quantitative serum immunoglobulin tests. (medlineplus.gov)
  • See the table of normal serum immunoglobulin ranges. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Results suggest that serum immunoglobulin (IgG, IgM and IgA) levels are of limited value in surveillance of breast cancer in our environment. (scirp.org)
  • Immunoglobulin A (IgA) - IgA comprises about 15% of the total immunoglobulins in the blood but is also found in saliva, tears, respiratory and gastric secretions, and breast milk. (labcorp.com)
  • [4] This represents up to 15% of total immunoglobulins produced throughout the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunoglobulins include light chains and heavy chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each immunoglobulin molecules is a tetramer of two identical light chains and two identical heavy chains linked by disulfide bonds. (uniprot.org)
  • They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. (drugbank.ca)
  • Because of the less-than-robust response to therapy and impact on choice of optimal chemotherapy and prognosis, chronic kidney disease has drawn attention in the treatment of multiple myeloma, a malignant hematologic disorder that can produce significant amounts of monoclonal immunoglobulin free light chains (FLCs). (jci.org)
  • In systemic light chain amyloidosis (AL), pathogenic monoclonal immunoglobulin light chains (LC) form toxic aggregates and amyloid fibrils in target organs. (nature.com)
  • Systemic light-chain amyloidosis (AL) is a monoclonal gammopathy characterized by the abnormal proliferation of a plasma cell clone producing large amounts of pathogenic immunoglobulin free light chains (LCs) 1 . (nature.com)
  • Structural elements of immunoglobulin light chains are depicted on top of the sequences (FR1 = framework 1, CDR1 = complementary determining region 1, FR2 = framework 2, CDR2 = complementary determining region 2, FR3 = framework 3, CDR3 = complementary determining region 3, FR4 = framework 4). (nature.com)
  • Structural elements of immunoglobulin light chains are shown on the left. (nature.com)
  • Selective induction of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and interleukin-8 in human monocytes by normal polyspecific IgG (intravenous immunoglobulin)," European Journal of Immunology , vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 1267-1273, 1995. (hindawi.com)
  • A study featured in the March 1994 issue of 'Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology' suggests that vitamin A increased the level of immunoglobulin in children as well. (livestrong.com)
  • MAdCAM-1 belongs to a subclass of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF), the members of which are ligands for integrins [ PMID: 9655832 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The structure of immunoglobulin superfamily domains 1 and 2 of MAdCAM-1 reveals novel features important for integrin recognition. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Your search returned 4 immunoglobulin superfamily, member 10 Biomolecules across 2 suppliers. (biocompare.com)
  • The body makes different immunoglobulins to combat different antigens. (kidshealth.org)
  • Immunoglobulin E (IgE) , which is associated mainly with allergic reactions (when the immune system overreacts to environmental antigens such as pollen or pet dander). (kidshealth.org)
  • Tenders are invited for reagents for the determination of TORCH infections, hepatitis, parasites ELISA: A set of reagents for the detection of immunoglobulin G antigens opistorhysiv, Trichinella, Echinococcus and toxocara serum (plasma) of human blood by ELISA. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This book describes how the immune system responds to injuries and insults by foreign antigens (bacteria, viruses etc) and produces immunoglobulins, which then through various immune response mechanisms protect the body against pathogenic invasions. (novapublishers.com)
  • There are five classes of immunoglobulins and several subclasses. (labcorp.com)
  • Immunoglobulins are made of four protein chains. (chegg.com)
  • as such, the molecular weight of slgA is 385,000D. One of these is the J chain (joining chain), which is a polypeptide of molecular mass 15kD, rich with cysteine and structurally completely different from other immunoglobulin chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • An immunoglobulin light chain protein was isolated from the urine of an individual (BRE) with systemic amyloidosis. (rcsb.org)
  • The definition of immunoglobulin is a protein that fights against disease. (yourdictionary.com)
  • An example of an immunoglobulin is a protein that fights against strep throat. (yourdictionary.com)
  • Immunoglobulin is a type of protein that helps the body fight disease. (wisegeek.com)
  • A new form of immunoblot (Panama blot), by which the reaction of natural immunoglobulins with complex protein mixtures may be analyzed by a special software and multivariate statistics, has been recently used to characterize human autoimmune diseases. (scielo.br)
  • Ejike Felix, C. , Sylvester Ogbonna, O. and Felix Chinedum, C. (2018) Serum Immunoglobulins (IgG, IgM and IgA) in Nigerian Women with Breast Cancer. (scirp.org)
  • The substance is located in various parts of the body, depending on the type of immunoglobulin it is and its function. (wisegeek.com)
  • The Harvard Medical School suggests that vitamin A influences B cells, a type of immunoglobulin. (livestrong.com)
  • This review will summarise what is currently known about the immunoglobulins of cold-blooded vertebrates and highlight the differences, and commonalities, between these and more "conventional" mammalian species. (mdpi.com)
  • Dooley, H. The Immunoglobulins of Cold-Blooded Vertebrates. (mdpi.com)
  • 2014. "The Immunoglobulins of Cold-Blooded Vertebrates. (mdpi.com)
  • After bone marrow transplant, it may be given to patients that have low levels of immunoglobulin. (oncolink.org)
  • For adults, elevated levels of immunoglobulin E or IgE are above 423 international units per milliliter of blood, according to WebMD. (reference.com)
  • this (µL)2 structure is often referred to as the IgM "monomer", as it is analogous in some ways to the structure of immunoglobulin G (IgG). (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunoglobulins (Igs) are glycoproteins. (chegg.com)
  • The variable region is the region of the immunoglobulin (Ig) which varies greatly in amino acid sequence among different immunoglobulins of the same class. (uniprot.org)
  • Many immune cells like phagocytes, lympbocytes, and mast cells have receptors for immunoglobulins. (chegg.com)
  • Although lymphocyte-like cells secreting somatically-recombining receptors have been identified in the jawless fishes (hagfish and lamprey), the cartilaginous fishes (sharks, skates, rays and chimaera) are the most phylogenetically distant group relative to mammals in which bona fide immunoglobulins (Igs) have been found. (mdpi.com)
  • Leukocyte membrane receptors for complement and immunoglobulins may therefore not only serve in particle recognition but also may initiate biochemical events which accompany phagocytosis and killing. (jci.org)
  • Overall, 2% of patients who had received IV immunoglobulin for various indications were affected, compared with 4.1% of controls who had not received the treatment ( P =0.002), Howard Fillit, MD, of Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York, and colleagues reported in the July 21 issue of Neurology . (medpagetoday.com)
  • Doctors also rely on the immunoglobulin test as one of the tools to help diagnose immunodeficiencies (when the immune system isn't working properly). (kidshealth.org)
  • Doctors also use immunoglobulin tests to help diagnose immunodeficiencies (when the immune system isn't working as it should). (kidshealth.org)
  • Immunoglobulins play a key role in the body's immune system. (labcorp.com)
  • Thus, the spectrum of reactivities of these natural immunoglobulins represent the normal, physiologic activity of the immune system of a newborn mouse. (scielo.br)
  • 1987). This multireactivity forms a network of immunoglobulins early in the operation of the immune system and interference with their formation results in distortions of the adult B cell repertoire (Vakil et al. (scielo.br)
  • Immunoglobulin A (IgA) , which is found in high concentrations in the mucous membranes, particularly those lining the respiratory passages and gastrointestinal tract, as well as in saliva and tears. (kidshealth.org)
  • This test measures the amount of immunoglobulins A, G, and M (IgA, IgG, IgM) in the blood and, in certain circumstances, in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or saliva. (labcorp.com)
  • Immunoglobulin A ( IgA ) is found in saliva, tears, breast milk, and mucous secretions, where its role is to neutralize viruses and bacteria as they enter the body. (encyclopedia.com)
  • sIgA is the main immunoglobulin found in mucous secretions , including tears , saliva , sweat , colostrum and secretions from the genitourinary tract , gastrointestinal tract , prostate and respiratory epithelium . (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunoglobulin A was demonstrated in canine tracheal secretions, saliva, tears, nasal secretions and colostrum. (jimmunol.org)
  • We have designed a set of oligonucleotide primers to amplify the cDNA of mouse immunoglobulin heavy and light chain variable domains by the polymerase chain reaction. (pnas.org)
  • The V domains of normal immunoglobulin are highly heterogeneous, reflecting their role in protecting against the great variety of infectious microbes, and this heterogeneity impeded detailed structural analysis of IgM. (wikipedia.org)
  • Normal immunoglobulin E, or IgE, levels in children are 10 international units per milliliter for 1-year-olds. (reference.com)
  • The plasma cells switch from producing IgM to IgG or to another immunoglobulin class. (news-medical.net)
  • [1] [2] These conditions include primary immunodeficiency , immune thrombocytopenic purpura , chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy , Kawasaki disease , certain cases of HIV/AIDS and measles , Guillain-Barré syndrome , and certain other infections when a more specific immunoglobulin is not available. (wikipedia.org)
  • [2] A number of specific immunoglobulin formulations are also available including for hepatitis B , rabies , tetanus , varicella infection , and Rh positive blood exposure . (wikipedia.org)
  • To the extent that the experiments reflect the human condition, these studies offer insights into the pathogenesis of progressive kidney failure in the setting of lymphoproliferative disorders, such as multiple myeloma, that feature increased circulating levels of monoclonal immunoglobulin fragments that require metabolism by the kidney. (jci.org)
  • Immunoglobulin therapy is also used for a number of other conditions, including in many autoimmune disorders such as dermatomyositis in an attempt to decrease the severity of symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunoglobulin therapy is also used in some treatment protocols for secondary immunodeficiencies such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), some autoimmune disorders (such as immune thrombocytopenia and Kawasaki disease ), some neurological diseases ( multifocal motor neuropathy , stiff person syndrome , multiple sclerosis and myasthenia gravis ) some acute infections and some complications of organ transplantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunoglobulin therapy is especially useful in some acute infection cases such as pediatric HIV infection and is also considered the standard of treatment for some autoimmune disorders such as Guillain-Barré syndrome . (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunoglobulin levels are also used as part of an evaluation for autoimmune conditions such as juvenile idiopathic arthritis , lupus , and celiac disease . (kidshealth.org)
  • If your immunoglobulin levels are too high, it may be a sign of an autoimmune disease, a chronic illness, an infection, or a type of cancer. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Therapeutic immunoglobulins are used in the treatment of immunodeficiencies as well as several autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. (scirp.org)
  • Schematic of immunoglobulin A invasion showing of-privacy-hain (blue), L-chain (red), J-chain (magenta) and secretory component (yellow). (wikipedia.org)
  • however, because of the J chain, it is also important as a secretory immunoglobulin. (bionity.com)
  • In the 1960s, methods were developed for inducing immunoglobulin-producing tumors (plasmacytomas) in mice, thus also providing a source of homogeneous immunoglobulins of various isotypes, including IgM (reviewed in). (wikipedia.org)
  • Natural immunoglobulins - In the late 80's, Coutinho and his colleagues produced many dozens of monoclonal immunologlobulins from the spleens of normal newborn Balb/c mice and analyzed the reactivities of these immunoglobulins. (scielo.br)
  • To make a long story short, Coutinho and his colleagues found that the natural immunoglobulins produced by newborn mice react, with variable binding affinities, to virtually everything, although each immunoglobulin had a well defined profile of reactivity. (scielo.br)
  • 1992). Multispecific immunoglobulins are no longer present in the serum of adult mice (Holmberg et al. (scielo.br)
  • We found that a regulatory system in the prominent human commensal Bacteroides fragilis modulates its surface architecture to invite binding of immunoglobulin A (IgA) in mice. (sciencemag.org)
  • Exposure to thimerosal in vaccines and immunoglobulin preparations was determined from electronic immunization registries, medical charts, and parent interviews. (aappublications.org)
  • Antithymocyte Globulin (ATG) is a concentrated anti-human T-lymphocyte immunoglobulin preparation derived from rabbits after immunization with a T-lympoblast cell line. (drugbank.ca)
  • Your body makes different types of immunoglobulins to fight different types of these substances. (medlineplus.gov)
  • About one fifth of the immunoglobulins were 'multispecific', in the sense that each of them reacted with a wide (but defined) collection of different substances, including other immunoglobulins (Ternynck & Avrameas 1986, Araujo et al. (scielo.br)
  • Complement and immunoglobulins stimulate superoxide production by human leukocytes independently of phagocytosis. (jci.org)
  • An investigation of the distribution of immunoglobulins in the external secretions of the hamster revealed the predominance of γA. (jimmunol.org)
  • IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses. (drugbank.ca)
  • Immunoglobulin (Ig) therapies are among the oldest therapeutic moieties employed in a broad range of pathological conditions. (frost.com)
  • Anti-CD4 activity of normal human immunoglobulin G for therapeutic use. (hindawi.com)
  • Efficient loading of identical peptide onto class II molecules by antigenized immunoglobulin and PR8 virus (in press). (springer.com)
  • It was initially expected that J chain would be important for forming the polymeric immunoglobulins, and indeed polymerization of IgA depends strongly (but not absolutely) on J chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The high prevalence of IgA in mucosal areas is a result of a cooperation between plasma cells that produce polymeric IgA (pIgA), and mucosal epithelial cells that express an immunoglobulin receptor called the polymeric Ig receptor (pIgR). (wikipedia.org)
  • A wide range of human and animal immunoglobulins (Igs) for use in immunological and biochemical applications have been isolated from normal or myeloma sources. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • V region-mediated selection of autoreactive repertoires by intravenous immunoglobulin (i.v.Ig)," Immunological Reviews , vol. 139, no. 1, pp. 79-107, 1994. (hindawi.com)
  • In our environment, there is scanty information on the value of these immunological factors especially immunoglobulins in screening and surveillance of breast cancer-hence the need for this study. (scirp.org)
  • [1] Human immunoglobulin is made from human blood plasma . (wikipedia.org)
  • Human immunoglobulin therapy first occurred in the 1930s and a formulation for injection into a vein was approved for medical use in the United States in 1981. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhibition of toxic epidermal necrolysis by blockade of CD95 with human intravenous immunoglobulin," Science , vol. 282, no. 5388, pp. 490-493, 1998. (hindawi.com)
  • A study publishing February 26th, 2015 in PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases describes a new, pragmatic, method for the production of immunoglobulin G (IgG) from human plasma in developing countries. (eurekalert.org)
  • Immunoglobulin (also called gamma globulin or immune globulin) is a substance made from human blood plasma. (wellspan.org)
  • An intravenous (IV) infusion of a substance made from human blood plasma (immunoglobulin) may be given. (wellspan.org)
  • however, other immunoglobulins are distributed into human milk. (drugbank.ca)
  • Subcutaneous immunoglobulins (SCIg) were initiated after failure of steroids and immunosuppressive drugs. (hindawi.com)
  • We report here a case of steroid/immunosuppressant resistant polymyositis, with esophageal involvement, that was successfully treated with subcutaneous immunoglobulins (SCIg). (hindawi.com)
  • You don't need any special preparations for an immunoglobulins blood test. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Exposure to thimerosal, a mercury-containing preservative that is used in vaccines and immunoglobulin preparations, has been hypothesized to be associated with increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). (aappublications.org)
  • This study was designed to examine relationships between prenatal and infant ethylmercury exposure from thimerosal-containing vaccines and/or immunoglobulin preparations and ASD and 2 ASD subcategories: autistic disorder (AD) and ASD with regression. (aappublications.org)
  • In our study of MCO members, prenatal and early-life exposure to ethylmercury from thimerosal-containing vaccines and immunoglobulin preparations was not related to increased risk of ASDs. (aappublications.org)
  • The National Advisory Committee on Blood and Blood Products of Canada (NAC) and Canadian Blood Services have also developed their own separate set of guidelines for the appropriate use of immunoglobulin therapy, which strongly support the use of immunoglobulin therapy in primary immunodeficiencies and some complications of HIV, while remaining silent on the issues of sepsis, multiple sclerosis, and chronic fatigue syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • In that way, checking for the presence of specific immunoglobulins in the blood can be helpful in diagnosing or ruling out infections or certain other illnesses. (kidshealth.org)
  • What is an immunoglobulins blood test? (medlineplus.gov)
  • Why do I need an immunoglobulins blood test? (medlineplus.gov)
  • The mathematical model developed by the Department of Health and Social Care to estimate the vCJD risk of blood components was modified to apply it to immunoglobulins taking account of data, including the donor plasma pool size, the batch size and the prion reduction factor. (medscape.com)
  • Immunoglobulin G (IgG) holds the highest share (44%) in the global blood plasma market, with a revenue of $9.24 billion. (frost.com)
  • Immunoglobulin G (IgG) - About 70-80% of the immunoglobulins in the blood are IgG. (labcorp.com)
  • Immunoglobulin can be collected from the plasma of donated blood. (oncolink.org)
  • The main immunoglobulin of blood, lymph, and tissue fluid is immunoglobulin G ( IgG ). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Immunoglobulin E ( IgE ) also normally has very low concentrations in blood and connective tissues, but it plays a crucial role in allergic reactions. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Vitamin E is known to positively influence immunoglobulin quantities in blood. (livestrong.com)
  • And even though immunoglobulins are obtained from blood, they are purified so that they can't pass on diseases to the person who receives them. (wellspan.org)
  • Immunoglobulin is sometimes used to treat immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), an immune disorder in which the body attacks the cells responsible for blood clotting (platelets), resulting in bleeding. (wellspan.org)
  • Different national bodies and medical associations have established varying standards for the use of immunoglobulin therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Early and prolonged intravenous immunoglobulin replacement therapy in childhood agammaglobulinemia: a retrospective survey of 31 patients. (medscape.com)
  • Efficacy of additional i.v. immunoglobulin to steroid therapy in Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis," The Journal of Dermatology , vol. 42, no. 8, pp. 768-777, 2015. (hindawi.com)
  • In November 2011, the IDF Medical Advisory Committee wrote a resolution regarding formulary changes that limit a physician's ability to determine the most appropriate immunoglobulin replacement therapy. (primaryimmune.org)
  • It includes such functionally important members as the immunoglobulins themselves, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II and T-cell receptor (TCR) molecules. (nih.gov)
  • The variable regions (V) of immunoglobulin (Ig) bear antigenic determinants that can stimulate both B and T lymphocytes. (springer.com)
  • In these situations, immunoglobulin infusions confer passive resistance to infection on their recipients by increasing the quantity/quality of IgG they possess. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interventions included monthly infusions of intravenous immunoglobulin. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The risk of vCJD infection and of clinical case was estimated for 17 normal immunoglobulins and six hyperimmune immunoglobulins. (medscape.com)
  • Intravenous immunoglobulin has been recently studied in the treatment of symptoms related to postpolio syndrome. (medscape.com)
  • Metabolism of albumin and immunoglobulins in the nephrotic syndrome. (nih.gov)
  • The present study demonstrated that during the process of metabolism of immunoglobulin FLCs, ROS activated the STAT1 pathway in proximal tubule epithelium. (jci.org)
  • You may be given an immunoglobulin if you are exposed to certain infectious diseases, such as hepatitis A , rubella , or measles. (wellspan.org)
  • The intravenous immunoglobulin (brand Privigen) will be infused intravenously, monthly, 6 times, for 6 months the dose will be 0.4 gram/kg for each infusion. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • What is immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy? (medscape.com)
  • Immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy is characterized by predominant IgA deposition in the glomerular mesangium. (medscape.com)
  • Light microscopy of a glomerulus from a patient with immunoglobulin A nephropathy showing increased mesangial matrix and cellularity. (medscape.com)
  • Immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrating large mesangial immunoglobulin A (IgA) deposits diagnostic of IgA nephropathy. (medscape.com)
  • Immunoglobulin A nephropathy: a pathophysiology view. (medscape.com)