Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Sharks: A group of elongate elasmobranchs. Sharks are mostly marine fish, with certain species large and voracious.Immunoglobulin Isotypes: The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Immunoglobulin D: An immunoglobulin which accounts for less than 1% of plasma immunoglobulin. It is found on the membrane of many circulating B LYMPHOCYTES.Strongyloidea: A superfamily of strongyles or roundworms which are parasites in the intestinal tract of equines, pigs, rodents, and primates (including man). It includes the genera Cyasthostomum, Ransomus, Globocephalus, OESOPHAGOSTOMUM, and STRONGYLUS.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains: The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Genes, Immunoglobulin: Genes encoding the different subunits of the IMMUNOGLOBULINS, for example the IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN GENES and the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES. The heavy and light immunoglobulin genes are present as gene segments in the germline cells. The completed genes are created when the segments are shuffled and assembled (B-LYMPHOCYTE GENE REARRANGEMENT) during B-LYMPHOCYTE maturation. The gene segments of the human light and heavy chain germline genes are symbolized V (variable), J (joining) and C (constant). The heavy chain germline genes have an additional segment D (diversity).Immunoglobulins, Intravenous: Immunoglobulin preparations used in intravenous infusion, containing primarily IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. They are used to treat a variety of diseases associated with decreased or abnormal immunoglobulin levels including pediatric AIDS; primary HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA; SCID; CYTOMEGALOVIRUS infections in transplant recipients, LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC; Kawasaki syndrome, infection in neonates, and IDIOPATHIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA.Immunoglobulin Light Chains: Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Immunoglobulin kappa-Chains: One of the types of light chains of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.Immunoglobulin Variable Region: That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Immunoglobulin mu-Chains: The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN M. They have a molecular weight of approximately 72 kDa and they contain about 57 amino acid residues arranged in five domains and have more oligosaccharide branches and a higher carbohydrate content than the heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.Immunoglobulin A, Secretory: The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Immunoglobulin lambda-Chains: One of the types of light chain subunits of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.Immunoglobulin Constant Regions: The domains of the immunoglobulin molecules that are invariable in their amino acid sequence within any class or subclass of immunoglobulin. They confer biological as well as structural functions to immunoglobulins. One each on both the light chains and the heavy chains comprises the C-terminus half of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN FAB FRAGMENT and two or three of them make up the rest of the heavy chains (all of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN FC FRAGMENT)Immunoglobulin Class Switching: Gene rearrangement of the B-lymphocyte which results in a substitution in the type of heavy-chain constant region that is expressed. This allows the effector response to change while the antigen binding specificity (variable region) remains the same. The majority of class switching occurs by a DNA recombination event but it also can take place at the level of RNA processing.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Immunoglobulin Allotypes: Allelic variants of the immunoglobulin light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) or heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) encoded by ALLELES of IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES.Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments: Crystallizable fragments composed of the carboxy-terminal halves of both IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fc fragments contain the carboxy-terminal parts of the heavy chain constant regions that are responsible for the effector functions of an immunoglobulin (COMPLEMENT fixation, binding to the cell membrane via FC RECEPTORS, and placental transport). This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments: Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Immunoglobulin gamma-Chains: Heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G having a molecular weight of approximately 51 kDa. They contain about 450 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component covalently bound to the Fc fragment constant region. The gamma heavy chain subclasses (for example, gamma 1, gamma 2a, and gamma 2b) of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G isotype subclasses (IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B) resemble each other more closely than the heavy chains of the other IMMUNOGLOBULIN ISOTYPES.Immunoglobulin Joining Region: A segment of the immunoglobulin heavy chains, encoded by the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES in the J segment where, during the maturation of B-LYMPHOCYTES; the gene segment for the variable region upstream is joined to a constant region gene segment downstream. The exact position of joining of the two gene segments is variable and contributes to ANTIBODY DIVERSITY. It is distinguished from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN J CHAINS; a separate polypeptide that serves as a linkage piece in polymeric IGA or IGM.Mice, Inbred BALB CAmino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Immunoglobulin J-Chains: A 15 kD "joining" peptide that forms one of the linkages between monomers of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A or IMMUNOGLOBULIN M in the formation of polymeric immunoglobulins. There is one J chain per one IgA dimer or one IgM pentamer. It is also involved in binding the polymeric immunoglobulins to POLYMERIC IMMUNOGLOBULIN RECEPTOR which is necessary for their transcytosis to the lumen. It is distinguished from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN JOINING REGION which is part of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of the immunoglobulin light and heavy chains.Immunoglobulin Fragments: Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Duffy Blood-Group System: A blood group consisting mainly of the antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b), determined by allelic genes, the frequency of which varies profoundly in different human groups; amorphic genes are common.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Receptors, Polymeric Immunoglobulin: Specialized Fc receptors (RECEPTORS, FC) for polymeric immunoglobulins, which mediate transcytosis of polymeric IMMUNOGLOBULIN A and IMMUNOGLOBULIN M into external secretions. They are found on the surfaces of epithelial cells and hepatocytes. After binding to IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, the receptor-ligand complex undergoes endocytosis, transport by vesicle, and secretion into the lumen by exocytosis. Before release, the part of the receptor (SECRETORY COMPONENT) that is bound to IMMUNOGLOBULIN A is proteolytically cleaved from its transmembrane tail. (From Rosen et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Immunoglobulin alpha-Chains: The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN A. They have a molecular weight of approximately 58 kDa and contain about 470 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component bound covalently to their Fc fragment constant region.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Immunoglobulin delta-Chains: The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN D. They have a molecular weight of approximately 64 kDa and they contain about 500 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component covalently bound to the Fc fragment constant region.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.Gene Rearrangement, B-Lymphocyte: Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions coding for the IMMUNOGLOBULIN CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Mice, Inbred C57BLImmunoglobulin Switch Region: A site located in the INTRONS at the 5' end of each constant region segment of a immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene where recombination (or rearrangement) occur during IMMUNOGLOBULIN CLASS SWITCHING. Ig switch regions are found on genes encoding all five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN ISOTYPES) of IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Immunoglobulin Idiotypes: Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Receptors, Fc: Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Somatic Hypermutation, Immunoglobulin: A programmed mutation process whereby changes are introduced to the nucleotide sequence of immunoglobulin gene DNA during development.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Myeloma Proteins: Abnormal immunoglobulins characteristic of MULTIPLE MYELOMA.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Agammaglobulinemia: An immunologic deficiency state characterized by an extremely low level of generally all classes of gamma-globulin in the blood.ZAP-70 Protein-Tyrosine Kinase: A protein tyrosine kinase that is required for T-CELL development and T-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTOR function.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Genes, Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain: Genes and gene segments encoding the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS. Gene segments of the heavy chain genes are symbolized V (variable), D (diversity), J (joining), and C (constant).Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Plasmacytoma: Any discrete, presumably solitary, mass of neoplastic PLASMA CELLS either in BONE MARROW or various extramedullary sites.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Gene Rearrangement, B-Lymphocyte, Heavy Chain: Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the first stage of differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.gamma-Globulins: Serum globulins that migrate to the gamma region (most positively charged) upon ELECTROPHORESIS. At one time, gamma-globulins came to be used as a synonym for immunoglobulins since most immunoglobulins are gamma globulins and conversely most gamma globulins are immunoglobulins. But since some immunoglobulins exhibit an alpha or beta electrophoretic mobility, that usage is in decline.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)V(D)J Recombination: The process by which the V (variable), D (diversity), and J (joining) segments of IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES or T-CELL RECEPTOR GENES are assembled during the development of LYMPHOID CELLS using NONHOMOLOGOUS DNA END-JOINING.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 2: A lectin and cell adhesion molecule found in B-LYMPHOCYTES. It interacts with SIALIC ACIDS and mediates signaling from B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS.Gene Rearrangement: The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Receptors, IgG: Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).Immunoglobulin Gm Allotypes: Allelic variants of the gamma-immunoglobulin heavy chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN GAMMA-CHAINS) encoded by ALLELES of IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Secretory Component: The extracellular moiety of the POLYMERIC IMMUNOGLOBULIN RECEPTOR found alone or complexed with IGA or IGM, in a variety of external secretions (tears, bile, colostrum.) Secretory component is derived by proteolytic cleavage of the receptor during transcytosis. When immunoglobulins IgA and IgM are bound to the receptor, during their transcytosis secretory component becomes covalently attached to them generating SECRETORY IMMUNOGLOBULIN A or secretory IMMUNOGLOBULIN M.Gene Rearrangement, B-Lymphocyte, Light Chain: Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions coding for the kappa or lambda IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the second stage of differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.

*Primary immunodeficiency

... one or more isotypes of immunoglobulin are decreased or don't function properly. These proteins, generated by plasma cells, ... selective immunoglobulin A deficiency Specific antibody deficiency to specific antigens with normal B cell and normal Ig ... IL-12 and IL-23 β1 chain deficiency IL-12p40 deficiency Interferon γ receptor 1 deficiency Interferon γ receptor 2 deficiency ... immunoglobulin replacement therapy in the form of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) or subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIG) may ...

*Immunoglobulin heavy chain

The resulting antibodies are designated IgW (also called IgX or IgNARC) and IgNAR ('immunoglobulin new antigen receptor'). The ... "Lineage-restricted retention of a primitive immunoglobulin heavy chain isotype within the Dipnoi reveals an evolutionary ... The immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) is the large polypeptide subunit of an antibody (immunoglobulin). A typical antibody is ... There are five types of mammalian immunoglobulin heavy chain: γ, δ, α, μ and ε. They define classes of immunoglobulins: IgG, ...

*B-cell receptor

The B-cell receptor is composed of two parts: A membrane-bound immunoglobulin molecule of one isotype (IgD, IgM, IgA, IgG, or ... When a B cell is activated by its first encounter with an antigen that binds to its receptor (its "cognate antigen"), the cell ... The B-cell receptor or BCR is a transmembrane receptor protein located on the outer surface of B cells. The receptor's binding ... The B cell receptor (BCR) has two crucial functions upon interaction with the antigen. One function is signal transduction, ...

*Antibody

The co-expression of both of these immunoglobulin isotypes renders the B cell ready to respond to antigen. B cell activation ... The Fc receptors are isotype-specific, which gives greater flexibility to the immune system, invoking only the appropriate ... Immature B cells, which have never been exposed to an antigen, express only the IgM isotype in a cell surface bound form. The B ... Each Fc region of a particular antibody isotype is able to bind to its specific Fc Receptor (except for IgD, which is ...

*CD79A

Venkitaraman AR, Williams GT, Dariavach P, Neuberger MS (Aug 1991). "The B-cell antigen receptor of the five immunoglobulin ... complete cDNA sequence and its expression in B cells bearing membrane Ig of various isotypes". Journal of Immunology. 148 (2): ... "The direct recruitment of BLNK to immunoglobulin alpha couples the B-cell antigen receptor to distal signaling pathways". ... "Antigen receptor tail clue". Nature. 338 (6214): 383-4. doi:10.1038/338383b0. PMID 2927501. Cambier JC (Oct 1995). "Antigen and ...

*Immunoglobulin class switching

... , also known as isotype switching, isotypic commutation or class-switch recombination (CSR), is a ... class switching does not affect antigen specificity. Instead, the antibody retains affinity for the same antigens, but can ... Class switching occurs after activation of a mature B cell via its membrane-bound antibody molecule (or B cell receptor) to ... "Interleukin-10 induces immunoglobulin G isotype switch recombination in human CD40-activated naive B lymphocytes". The Journal ...

*Immunoglobulin light chain

... immunoglobulin new antigen receptor). IgNAR is believed to have never had an associated light chain, contrary to the ... Das S, Nikolaidis N, Klein J, Nei M (2008). "Evolutionary redefinition of immunoglobulin light chain isotypes in tetrapods ... Greenberg, A. S.; Avila, D.; Hughes, M.; Hughes, A.; McKinney, E. C.; Flajnik, M. F. (1995-03-09). "A new antigen receptor gene ... The immunoglobulin light chain is the small polypeptide subunit of an antibody (immunoglobulin). A typical antibody is composed ...

*Immunoglobulin A

... and mucosal epithelial cells that express an immunoglobulin receptor called the polymeric Ig receptor (pIgR). pIgA is released ... Polysaccharide antigens tend to induce more IgA2 than protein antigens.[10]. Both IgA1 and IgA2 can be in membrane-bound form.[ ... IgA exists in two isotypes, IgA1 and IgA2. They are both heavily glycosylated proteins.[8] While IgA1 predominates in serum (~ ... It binds to the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor on the basolateral surface of epithelial cells, and is taken up into the cell ...

*Antibody

The co-expression of both of these immunoglobulin isotypes renders the B cell ready to respond to antigen.[18] B cell ... Functions mainly as an antigen receptor on B cells that have not been exposed to antigens.[16] It has been shown to activate ... Antibody-antigen interactionsEdit. The antibody's paratope interacts with the antigen's epitope. An antigen usually contains ... IgE's Fab paratope binds to allergic antigen, for example house dust mite particles, while its Fc region binds to Fc receptor ε ...

*Isotype (immunology)

... enzyme and only occurs after the B cell binds an antigen through its B cell receptor, and is further activated through ... In immunology, the immunoglobulin (Ig) isotype (class) is encoded by the constant region segments of the immunoglobulin gene ... Immunoglobulin Isotypes at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Overview at University of South ... The expression of a specific isotype determines the function of an antibody via the specific binding to Fc receptor molecules ...

*Immunoglobulin A

... and mucosal epithelial cells that express an immunoglobulin receptor called the polymeric Ig receptor (pIgR). pIgA is released ... Polysaccharide antigens tend to induce more IgA2 than protein antigens. Both IgA1 and IgA2 can be in membrane-bound form. (see ... IgA exists in two isotypes, IgA1 and IgA2. They are both heavily glycosylated proteins. While IgA1 predominates in serum (~80 ... It binds to the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor on the basolateral surface of epithelial cells, and is taken up into the cell ...

*Immunoglobulin M

That is, depending on the type of antigen and the isotype of the antibody, the effect can be suppression or enhancement of the ... The immunoglobulin C domains interact with other physiological components, eg cellular immunoglobulin receptors and the ... different V domains bind different antigens, i.e., binding of antigen by immunoglobulin is antigen specific. Inasmuch as the V ... Immunodeficiency with hyper-immunoglobulin M Immunoglobulin M deficiency "Immunoglobulin M". The American Heritage Dictionary ...

*Basophil activation

Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a class of antibody (or immunoglobulin "isotype") that has only been found in mammals. It plays an ... There are receptors (FcεR) for the constant region of IgE, the Fc region, on several types of cells, including Mast cells and ... The CD63 marker is an FITC labeled antigen which can bind to an CD63 protein and is used to sort the cells via FACS( ... Innate immune system Allergy B cell Fc receptor Böhm I et al. Pilot study on basophil activation induced by contrast medium. ...

*Immunoglobulin E

IgE can upregulate the expression of both types of Fcε receptors. FcεRI is expressed on mast cells, basophils, and the antigen- ... Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a type of antibody (or immunoglobulin (Ig) "isotype") that has only been found in mammals. IgE is ... Receptors[edit]. IgE primes the IgE-mediated allergic response by binding to Fc receptors found on the surface of mast cells ... Degranulation processes 1 - antigen; 2 - IgE antibody; 3 - FcεRI receptor; 4 - preformed mediators (histamine, proteases, ...

*Immunoglobulin E

... receptor FcεRII, or CD23. CD23 may also allow facilitated antigen presentation, an IgE-dependent mechanism whereby B cells ... Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a type of antibody (or immunoglobulin (Ig) "isotype") that has only been found in mammals. IgE is ... There are two types of Fcε receptors: FcεRI (type I Fcε receptor), the high-affinity IgE receptor FcεRII (type II Fcε receptor ... also known as CD23, the low-affinity IgE receptor IgE can upregulate the expression of both types of Fcε receptors. FcεRI is ...

*Nicholas Chiorazzi

Distinct sets of stereotyped antigen receptors indicate the limited primary structural diversity in antigen-binding sites of ... Messmer BT, Albesiano E, Messmer D, Chiorazzi N. (2003) The pattern and distribution of immunoglobulin VH gene mutations in ... Molecular examples of in vivo isotype class switching in IgM+ chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells" J Clin Invest 98: 1659-1666 ... Remarkably similar antigen receptors among a subset of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia" J Clin Invest 113: 1008-1016 ...

*CD79B

The B lymphocyte antigen receptor is a multimeric complex that includes the antigen-specific component, surface immunoglobulin ... is identical in B cell and plasma cell lines producing all the human Ig isotypes". J. Immunol. 150 (2): 491-8. PMID 8419481. ... immunoglobulin-associated beta". Reth M (1992). "Antigen receptors on B lymphocytes". Annu. Rev. Immunol. 10: 97-121. doi: ... Müller B, Cooper L, Terhorst C (1995). "Interplay between the human TCR/CD3 epsilon and the B-cell antigen receptor associated ...

*Immunoglobulin G

2001). "Ch3 Antigen Recognition by B-Cell and T-cell Receptors". Immunobiology: The Immune System in Health and Disease (5th ed ... It is the only antibody isotype that has receptors to facilitate passage through the human placenta, thereby providing ... antigens can cause systemic anaphylaxis in mice through classic pathway by cross-linking IgE bound to the mast cell receptor Fc ... Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of antibody. Representing approximately 75% of serum antibodies in humans, IgG is the most ...

*FCER1

... is the high-affinity receptor for the Fc region of immunoglobulin E (IgE), an antibody isotype involved in the allergy disorder ... Crosslinking of the FcεRI via IgE-antigen complexes leads to degranulation of mast cells or basophils and release of ... FcεRI is a tetrameric receptor complex that binds Fc portion of the ε heavy chain of IgE. It consists of one alpha (FcεRIα - ... As a result of its cellular distribution, this receptor plays a major role in controlling allergic responses. FcεRI is also ...

*抗體 - 維基百科,自由的百科全書

抗體(antibody),又稱免疫球蛋白(immunoglobulin,簡稱Ig)[1],是一種主要由漿細胞分泌,被免疫系統用來鑑別與中和外來物質如細菌、病毒等病原體的大型Y形蛋白質,僅被發現存在於脊椎動物的血液等體液中,及

*MHC class I

Paired-immunoglobulin-like receptor B (PirB), an MHCI-binding receptor, is involved in the regulation of visual plasticity.[5] ... It is in this way, the MHC class I-dependent pathway of antigen presentation, that the virus infected cells signal T-cells that ... Genes and isotypes[edit]. *Very polymorphic *HLA-A (HLA-A). *HLA-B (HLA-B) ... The α3-CD8 interaction holds the MHC I molecule in place while the T cell receptor (TCR) on the surface of the cytotoxic T cell ...

*Major histocompatibility complex

Antigen presentation: MHC molecules bind to both T cell receptor and CD4/CD8 co-receptors on T lymphocytes, and the antigen ... MHC proteins have immunoglobulin-like structure. MHC I occurs as an α chain composed of three domains-α1, α2, and α3. The α1 ... MHC class II molecules in humans have five to six isotypes. Classic molecules present peptides to CD4+ lymphocytes. Nonclassic ... MHC interacts with TCR and its co-receptors to optimize binding conditions for the TCR-antigen interaction, in terms of antigen ...

*CD40 (protein)

The protein receptor encoded by this gene is a member of the TNF-receptor superfamily. This receptor has been found to be ... The B cell can present antigens to helper T cells. If an activated T cell recognizes the peptide presented by the B cell, the ... As a result of this net stimulation, the B cell can undergo division, antibody isotype switching, and differentiation to plasma ... Impaired immunoglobulin class switching and germinal center formation". Immunity. 1 (3): 167-178. doi:10.1016/1074-7613(94) ...

*Immunity (medical)

Immunoglobulin therapy continued to be a first line therapy in the treatment of severe respiratory diseases until the 1930s, ... IgG is the only antibody isotype that can pass through the placenta. Passive immunity is also provided through the transfer of ... Maternal antibodies (MatAb) are passed through the placenta to the fetus by an FcRn receptor on placental cells. This occurs ... Artificially acquired active immunity can be induced by a vaccine, a substance that contains antigen. A vaccine stimulates a ...

*Index of immunology articles

... ligand Fas receptor Fc receptor Fc receptor-like molecule FcεRI Fibroblast-like synoviocyte FITkit FluoroSpot Forssman antigen ... D Immunoglobulin E Immunoglobulin G Immunoglobulin heavy chain Immunoglobulin light chain Immunoglobulin M Immunoglobulin Y ... antibody-mediated degradation Intravascular immunity Intrinsic immunity IRGs ISCOM Isoantibodies Isoantigen Isograft Isotype ( ... 4 receptor Interleukin-5 receptor Interleukin-6 receptor Interleukin-7 receptor Interleukin-7 receptor-α Interleukin-8 receptor ...

*Interleukin

Two types of IL-1 receptor, each with three extracellular immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains, limited sequence similarity (28%) ... IL3 is produced by T lymphocytes and T-cell lymphomas only after stimulation with antigens, mitogens, or chemical activators ... have an important function in B-cell responses that involve class switch recombination to the IgG1 and IgE isotypes. ... The receptors can both bind all three forms of IL-1 (IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta and IL-1 receptor antagonist). The crystal ...

*Fragment crystallizable region

... the Fc region of immunoglobulins has been engineered to contain an antigen-binding site. This type of antigen-binding fragment ... is the tail region of an antibody that interacts with cell surface receptors called Fc receptors and some proteins of the ... In IgG, IgA and IgD antibody isotypes, the Fc region is composed of two identical protein fragments, derived from the second ... "Introducing antigen-binding sites in structural loops of immunoglobulin constant domains: Fc fragments with engineered HER2/neu ...
Define Carcharhinus limbatus. Carcharhinus limbatus synonyms, Carcharhinus limbatus pronunciation, Carcharhinus limbatus translation, English dictionary definition of Carcharhinus limbatus. Noun 1. Carcharhinus limbatus - widely distributed shallow-water shark with fins seemingly dipped in ink blacktip shark, sandbar shark requiem shark - any...
Activity onsets of horn sharks, Heterodontus francisci, were studied in the natural environment at Santa Catalina Island, California. The mean of activity onsets of these nocturnal sharks occurred 76 min after sunset which corresponded to an approximate light level of 0.03 lux. During laboratory studies under a fixed LD 12:12 (12 hr light- 12 hr dark) regime, the L phase of which was 8 lux, H. francisci showed anticipation of the D phase. Under 23 days of constant dim light, H. francisci exhibited a drifting circadian rhythm with period lengths, for one individual, of 20.8 hr under 2.0 lux, and 23.0 hr under 0.13 lux. Under 15 days of constant darkness, the sharks showed a high level of aperiodic activity. During laboratory experimental dusk transitions, the light intensity eliciting onset of activity was: 1), proportional to the amount of time sharks spent in the L phase of the LD regime, and 2), independent of the level of Hght duiing the L phase of the LD regime.
Bass, A.J., DAubrey, J.D. and Kistnasamy, N. 1973. Sharks of the east coast of southern Africa. I. The genus Carcharhinus (Carcharhinidae). South African Association for Marine Biological Research. Oceanographic Research Institute. Oceanographic Research Institute. Investigational Reports.. Bentley, N. 1996. Australian overview. The World Trade in Sharks: a Compendium of TRAFFICs regional studies. Volume II, pp. 661-749. TRAFFIC Network, Cambridge, UK.. Cliff, G. and Dudley, S.F.J. 1991. Sharks caught in the protective nets off Natal, South Africa. 5. Java shark Carcharhinus amboinensis (Müller and Henle). South African Journal of Marine Science 11: 443-453.. Compagno, L.J.V. 1984. Sharks of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species to date. Part II (Carcharhiniformes). FAO Fisheries Synopsis, FAO, Rome.. Fourmanoir, P. 1961. Requins de la Côte Ouest de Madagascar. Memoires de LInstitut Scientifique de Madagascar. Série F. Oceanographie. ORSTOM. Tome IV.. Fowler, ...
Shark Liver Oil Complex Softgels 500 mg 100% Pure Norwegian, Supplying Shark Liver Oil Constituents: Alkoxylglycerols and Squalene Sugar, Salt and Starch Free Suggested Use: As a dietary supplement for adults, two (2) softgels daily, preferably at mealtime, or as directed by a healthcare practitioner. Serving Size 2 Softgels Amount Per 2 Softgels Ingredients: Shark Liver Oil (alkoxylglycerols 100 mg [20%]) 500 mg Total Fat 0.5 g (less than 1%) Calories from Fat 5 less than Calories 10 less than Cholesterol 5 mg (2%) Squalene 500 mg To assure freshness and potency, store in a cool, dry place, away from heat, light and moisture. Other Ingredients: Gelatin, Glycerin, Water.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Response to Comments on Structural studies of haemoglobin from pisces species shortfin mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus) at 1.9 Å resolution by P. Ramesh et al. (2013). J. Synchrotron Rad. 20, 843-847. AU - Ramesh, Pandian. AU - Sundaresan, S. S.. AU - Sathya Moorthy, Pon. AU - Balasubramanian, M.. AU - Ponnuswamy, M. N.. PY - 2014/7. Y1 - 2014/7. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84903582799&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84903582799&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1107/S1600577514010285. DO - 10.1107/S1600577514010285. M3 - Letter. C2 - 24971984. AN - SCOPUS:84903582799. VL - 21. JO - Journal of Synchrotron Radiation. JF - Journal of Synchrotron Radiation. SN - 0909-0495. IS - 4. ER - ...
Acuña, E., Cid, L., Pérez, E., Kong, I., Araya, M., Lamilla, J. and Peñailillo, J. 2001. Estudio biológico de tiburones (marrajo dentudo, azulejo y tiburón sardinero) en la zona norte y central de Chile. Informes Técnicos FIP, FIP/IT Nº 2000-23.. Anonymous. 2001. Chapter 07b: Shortfin Mako shark: history of the fishery. Californias living marine resources: A status report. California Department of Fish & Game, Long Beach, California.. Ardizzone, D., Cailliet, G.M., Natanson, L.J., Andrews, A.H., Kerr, L.A. and Brown T.A. 2006. Application of bomb radiocarbon chronologies to shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus) age validation. Environmental Biology of Fishes 77: 355-366.. Bernal, D., Dickson, K.D., Shadwick, R.E. and Graham, J.B. 2001. Analysis of the evolutionary convergence for high performance swimming in lamnid sharks and tunas. Comparative Biochemical Physiology 129: 695-726.. Bonfil, R. 1994. Overview of world elasmobranch fisheries. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 341. FAO, ...
Scientists estimate that humans kill between 70 and 100 million sharks each year and many shark species are on the brink of extinction.** The General Nutrition Center (GNC) is a huge shark cartilage seller, marketing their shark products as a remedy for arthritis with anti-cancer properties. This misleading marketing helps drive the demand for shark products and incentivizes hunters to illegally kill sharks. Furthermore, there is no scientific evidence that shark cartilage promotes joint health or acts as a tumor suppressant.***. GNC, one of the largest health stores in North America can make a significant dent in the demand for shark products like cartilage. Although shark cartilage may be a popular supplement, the market for such products is unsustainable and continued sale of these products will lead to the further endangerment and threat of extinction of many shark species. ****. We strongly urge General Nutrition Center to remove shark cartilage products from its stores, and to explain to ...
Shark liver oil is an oil obtained from the livers of sharks. It has been used for centuries as a folk remedy to promote the healing of wounds and as a remedy for respiratory tract and digestive system problems. It is still promoted as a dietary supplement, and additional claims have been made that it can treat other maladies such as cancer, HIV, radiation illness, swine flu and the common cold. To date, none of these claims has been medically validated and shark liver oil (alone) is not a medication prescribed or utilized by American physicians. However, it is a component of some moisturizing skin lotions, and some hemorrhoid medications. Many fish maintain buoyancy with swim bladders. However sharks lack swim bladders, and maintain their buoyancy instead with large livers that are full of oil. This stored oil may also function as a nutrient when food is scarce. Deep sea sharks are usually targeted for their oil, because the livers of these species can account for up to 5-10% of their total ...
Carcharhinus natator, Carcharias aethlorus, Carcharias ehrenbergi, Carcharias limbatus, Carcharias microps, Carcharias muelleri, Carcharias phorcys, Carcharias pleurotaenia, Gymnorhinus abbreviatus, Gymnorrhinus abbreviatus, Carcharias aethalorus ...
China GMP Certified Refined Shark Liver Oil, Dietary Supplement, Find details about China Cod Liver Oil, Fish Oil from GMP Certified Refined Shark Liver Oil, Dietary Supplement - AnHui Chempro Biochemical Limited
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This public service announcement was produced by The Bahamas National Trust (BNT), in collaboration with Pew Environment Group, in support of a grassroots petition to protect sharks in Bahamian waters. Sharks are in trouble globally, and there are few locations where healthy shark populations still exist. In The Bahamas, a 20 year-old ban on longline fishing gear has left its waters as one of the few places in the world with relatively healthy shark populations. This has paid off for the small island nation. According to The Bahamas Diving Association, diving tourism has contributed up to $800 million to the Bahamian economy since the longline ban. There are, however, no laws there that specifically protect sharks. Pew is currently working with The Bahamas National Trust to gain permanent protections in all of The Bahamas Exclusive Economic Zone, an area encompassing approximately 630,000 square kilometers of ocean. By establishing comprehensive protections for sharks, not only will sharks be ...
First, we applied Tajima relative rate test (RRT) on the sequence alignments of a dataset consisting of approximately 250 genes. Each gene-set was separately aligned and sites with gaps or unknown amino acids were excluded. Each comparison included two ingroups and one outgroup. For each such triplet, we concatenated all the aligned gene-sets that included all three species and performed the Tajima RRT using in-house perl scripts. The relative rates of evolution between coelacanth and other species (lungfish, human, mouse, chicken and dog) were evaluated using each of the three chondrichthyan species as outgroup (Leucoraja erinacea, Callorhinchus milii, Scyliorhinus canicula). Tajima RRT analysis shows that coelacanth is not only evolving significantly slower than any of the tetrapod species used but also more slowly than lungfish (p , 0.05; Supplementary Dataset 6). An only slightly different picture is revealed on the respective analysis between lungfish and tetrapods. Lungfish is evolving ...
A ghoulish mystery is playing out along the shores of San Francisco Bay, where at least 80 leopard sharks - docile spotted animals that dont eat people - have washed up dead in recent weeks.. Scientists suspect the sharks are being killed by a fatal brain infection linked to a fungus that may have been spread by the huge amounts of rain California received this year. The historic storms also reduced the bays salinity in ways that could have weakened the sharks, some researchers say.. Leopard sharks have been found dead on beaches in Foster City, Hayward, San Francisco, Berkeley and other locations. The die-off has probably killed as many as 1,000 since early March, experts say. The animals sink to the bottom of the bay when they die in the open water.. And the deaths show no signs of slowing down.. "They appear to be stranding themselves," said Joshua Porter, a marine biologist with the East Bay Regional Park District. "Park users have pushed them back in the water, but in all reality they are ...
Variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs) belong to the Leucine-rich repeat (LRR) family and mediate adaptive immune responses in the jawless vertebrates, lampreys and hagfish. Boehm, T., McCurley, N., Sutoh, Y., Schorpp, M., Kasahara, M., and Cooper, M.D. (2012). VLR-based adaptive immunity. Annual Review of Immunology 30, 203-220 http://proteopedia.org/wiki/index.php/Variable_lymphocyte_ ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Lectin and alternative complement-activation pathways, including the key complement components MBL, MASP, Bf, C3, and C1q-like proteins, have been described in lampreys (4-7). However, these animals appear to lack Ig-based Abs and many of the components of an Ig-mediated classical complement-activation pathway. Our present study demonstrates that antisera obtained from lampreys immunized with Gram-negative bacteria, RBCs, or NB4 or HeLa cells displayed clear cytolytic effects on the corresponding bacteria or cells, resulting in rapid cell lysis and ultimate disruption of cell wall integrity; however, antisera cannot effectively kill Gram-positive bacteria. This discrepancy may due to the fact that the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria is made up of a dense layer typically composed of numerous rows of peptidoglycan and molecules of lipoteichoic acid, wall teichoic acid, and surface proteins, which can protect them against complement attack (12, 13). Importantly, the cytolytic effect requires ...
... antigen expressed by neuroblastoma tumor cells and treated patients with this disease. extended, low-level persistence in patients, and such persistence was associated with longer survival. This study is registered at www.clinialtrials.gov as #"type":"clinical-trial","attrs":"text":"NCT00085930″,"term_id":"NCT00085930″NCT00085930. Introduction Adoptively transferred T cells Rabbit Polyclonal to ZADH2 can recognize tumor-associated antigens presented in association with MHC molecules on the cell surface. However, many cancer cells and solid tumors have defects in antigen processing and presentation,1,2 including down-regulation of and/or failure to express MHC molecules.3,4 Introducing tumor-specific chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) into adoptively transferred T cells allows them to recognize tumor-associated antigens in an Resminostat hydrochloride manufacture MHC-independent manner while retaining ...
Title:Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cell Based Immunotherapy for Cancer. VOLUME: 13 ISSUE: 5. Author(s):Feng Li, Tengfei Zhang, Ling Cao and Yi Zhang*. Affiliation:Biotherapy Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, Biotherapy Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, Biotherapy Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, Biotherapy Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan. Keywords:Cancer immunotherapy, CAR T cells, hematologic malignancies, solid tumor, cancer cells, leukemia.. Abstract:Cancer immunotherapy, a new weapon against cancers by harnessing the patients own immune system, potentiates an extended remission and possibly a cure for cancer. T cells genetically engineered with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) vectors can specifically target the surface antigen of ...
Tumor immunotherapy with T lymphocytes, which can recognize and destroy malignant cells, has been limited by the ability to isolate and expand T cells restricted to tumor-associated antigens. Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) composed of antibody binding domains connected to domains that activate T cells could overcome tolerance by allowing T cells to respond to cell surface antigens; however, to date, lymphocytes engineered to express CARs have demonstrated minimal in vivo expansion and antitumor effects in clinical trials. We report that CAR T cells that target CD19 and contain a costimulatory domain from CD137 and the T cell receptor ζ chain have potent non-cross-resistant clinical activity after infusion in three of three patients treated with advanced chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The engineered T cells expanded ,1000-fold in vivo, trafficked to bone marrow, and continued to express functional CARs at high levels ...
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy has demonstrated proven efficacy in some hematologic cancers. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of LCAR-B38M, a dual epitope-binding CAR T cell therapy directed against 2 distinct B cell maturation antigen epitopes, in patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) multiple myeloma (MM). This ongoing phase 1, single-arm, open-label, multicenter study enrolled patients (18 to 80 years) with R/R MM. Lymphodepletion was performed using cyclophosphamide 300 mg/m2. LCAR-B38M CAR T cells (median CAR+ T cells, 0.5 × 106 cells/kg [range, 0.07 to 2.1 × 106]) were infused in 3 separate infusions. The primary objective is to evaluate the safety of LCAR-B38M CAR T cells; the secondary objective is to evaluate the antimyeloma response of the treatment based on the general guidelines of the International Myeloma Working Group. At data cutoff, 57 patients had received LCAR-B38M CAR T cells. All patients experienced ≥ 1 adverse ...
Clinical trial for Lymphocytic Leukemia | Acute | Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma | B-Cell | Leukemia | B-Cell Lymphoma | Chronic | Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia | childhood ALL | Lymphoma , CD19/CD22 Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T Cells in Children and Young Adults With Recurrent or Refractory CD19/CD22-expressing B Cell Malignancies
Background T cells engineered to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) have established efficacy in the treatment of B-cell malignancies, but their relevance in solid tumors remains undefined....
The success of adoptive T cell gene transfer for treatment of cancer and HIV is predicated on generating a response that is both durable and safe. We report long-term results from three clinical trials to evaluate gammaretroviral vector-engineered T cells for HIV. The vector encoded a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) composed of CD4 linked to the CD3ζ signaling chain (CD4ζ). CAR T cells were detected in 98% of samples tested for at least 11 years after infusion at frequencies that exceeded average T cell levels after most vaccine approaches. The CD4ζ transgene retained expression and function. There was no evidence of vector-induced immortalization of cells; integration site distributions showed no evidence of persistent clonal expansion or enrichment for integration sites near genes implicated in growth control or transformation. The CD4ζ T cells had stable levels of engraftment, with decay half-lives that exceeded 16 years, in marked contrast to previous trials testing ...
General structure of Chimeric Antigen Receptor T tagged: molecular pathology, cancer, tcr, cd28, til, cancer immunotherapy, immunotherapy, tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, scfv, itam, immune response, cd3, powerpoint, slide
CC Grand Rounds (1) Treating Hematologic Malignancies with Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells and (2) Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)-Targeted T Cell Therapy for Patients with HPV-Associated Cancers
Safety and feasibility of chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in relapsed/ refractory B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma Letter ...
Adaptive immunity. Protein involved in adaptive immunity. Vertebrates can develop a broad and almost infinite repertoire of antigen-specific receptors, which allows vertebrates to recognize almost any potential pathogen or toxin and to mount antigen-specific responses to it. Two types of adaptive immunity systems have evolved in vertebrates in order to generate immune receptor diversity. The jawed vertebrates strategy uses the V(D)JC recombination to achieve combinatorial diversity of immunoglobulin-based B cell receptors and T cell receptors. The jawless vertebrate strategy uses the somatic rearrangements of variable leucine-rich cassettes in the variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs). The hallmarks of an adaptive immune system is the production of antigen-specific recognition receptor by somatic gene rearrangement. The long ...
Recent advances in invertebrate immunology have led to a paradigm shift in our understanding of the ways in which animals respond to immunological challenges. Previously, it was assumed that invertebrate immune response proteins were germ-line encoded and were selected over evolutionary time scales for broad recognition of conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). This was originally based on the assumption that immune diversification only occurred in jawed vertebrates through somatic recombination of the immunoglobulin (Ig) gene family that employed recombination activating gene (RAG)-mediated rearrangements of gene segments. However, recent studies on invertebrates, jawless vertebrates and higher plants have suggested that diversification of immunological responses may occur in all organisms through a variety of mechanisms. Lampreys and hagfish monoallelically express somatically diversified variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs) that contain ...
We have shown that VLRA and VLRB are assembled and transcribed in a mutually exclusive manner in hagfish, indicating that VLRA+ and VLRB+ cells belong to distinct lymphocyte populations, as reported for the sea lamprey (Guo et al, 2009). VLR assembly was primarily monoallelic, but diallelic assembly was observed in some cases. In the case of the Ig and TCR genes, V(D)J recombination is regulated tightly at many levels (Schlissel, 2003; Jung & Alt, 2004; Jung et al, 2006; Krangel, 2009). V(D)J recombination activates the transcription of an antigenreceptor gene by placing the promoter and enhancer elements in close proximity. In hagfish, however, transcription was not linked with the assembled allele of the VLR gene; detection of assembled and germline transcripts in a single lymphocyte was common. It seems that VLRA and VLRB gene loci are activated in a mutually exclusive way regarding transcription and gene assembly, the latter of which is regulated primarily by ...
Cancer Lett. 2012 Mar;316(1):1-5. doi: 10.1016/j.canlet.2011.10.027. Epub 2011 Oct 29. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt; Review
Genetically engineered T Cell Receptors specific against cancer specific antigens, called Chimeric Antigen Receptors (CARs)[194], are extremely promising and several companies, including Juno Therapeutics, Kite Pharma and Novartis are competing to provide the first marketable solution[195]. This competition has reached extents, that it is sometimes called the CAR T-Cell Race[196]. The promise is huge, as immunotherapy often is the last rescue if all current therapies have failed. The FDA recognized this and awarded the first breakthrough therapy designation to the new drug approval (NDA) filling for CTL019, the anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy developed at the University of Pennsylvania on July 1, 2014[197]. CARs will reprogram the human immune system to specifically recognize cancer cell surface markers and launch an immune response against the tumor cells. In most cases, CD8+ Killer T ...
The continuously growing natural killer (NK) cell line NK-92 is highly cytotoxic against malignant cells of various origin without affecting normal human cells. Based on this selectivity, the potential of NK-92 cells for adoptive therapy is currently being investigated in phase I clinical studies. To further enhance the antitumoral activity of NK-92 cells and expand the range of tumor entities suitable for NK-92-based therapies, here by transduction with retroviral vectors we have generated genetically modified NK-92 cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors specific either for the tumor-associated ErbB2 (HER2/neu) antigen or the human Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule (Ep-CAM). Both antigens are overexpressed by many tumors of epithelial origin. The chimeric antigen receptors consist of either the ErbB2 specific scFv(FRP5) antibody fragment or the Ep-CAM specific scFv(MOC31), a flexible hinge region ...
Chimeric antigen receptor T-cells are a novel class of anti-cancer therapy in which autologous or allogeneic T-cells are engineered to express a chimeric antigen receptor targeting a membrane antigen. In Europe, Tisagenlecleucel (KymriahTM) is approved for the treatment of refractory/relapsed Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia in children and young adults as well as relapsed/refractory Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma; Axicabtagene ciloleucel (YescartaTM) is approved for the treatment of relapsed/refractory high-grade B-cell Lymphoma and Primary Mediastinal B-cell Lymphoma. Both agents are genetically engineered autologous T-cells targeting CD19. These practical recommendations, prepared under the auspices of the European Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, relate to patient care and supply chain management under the following headings: patient eligibility, screening laboratory tests and imaging and work-up prior to ...
Abstract. Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are generated by fusing the antigen-binding motif of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) with the signal transduction machinery of the T-cell receptor (TCR). The genetic modification of T lymphocytes with chimeric receptors specific for tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) allows for the redirection towards tumor cells. Clinical experience with CAR-redirected T cells suggests that antitumor efficacy associates with some degree of toxicity, especially when TAA expression is shared with healthy tissues. This situation closely resembles the case of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), wherein allorecognition causes both the graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Suicide gene therapy, i.e. the genetic induction of a conditional suicide phenotype into donor T cells, enables dissociating the GVL effect from GVHD. Applying ...
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults and is uniformly lethal. T-cell-based immunotherapy offers a promising platform for treatment given its potential to specifically target tumor tissue while sparing the normal brain. However, the diffuse and infiltrative nature of these tumors in the brain parenchyma may pose an exceptional hurdle to successful immunotherapy in patients. Areas of invasive tumor are thought to reside behind an intact blood brain barrier, isolating them from effective immunosurveillance and thereby predisposing the development of "immunologically silent" tumor peninsulas. Therefore, it remains unclear if adoptively transferred T cells can migrate to and mediate regression in areas of invasive GBM. One barrier has been the lack of a preclinical mouse model that accurately recapitulates the growth patterns of human GBM in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that D-270 MG xenografts exhibit the classical features of GBM and produce the diffuse and ...
This is a phase 1 dose escalation study designed to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of CAR modified T cells in patients with relapsed and refractory aggressive B-NHL. Three dose levels (5 x 106 19-28z T cells/kg, 1 x 107 19-28z T cells/kg, and 2 x 107 19-28z T cells/kg) are considered for the MTD ...
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a causative agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) can slow down the replication of HIV-1, leading to an improvement in the survival of HIV-1-infected patients. However, drug toxicities and poor drug administration has led to the emergence of a drug-resistant strain. HIV-1 immunotherapy has been continuously developed, but antibody therapy and HIV vaccines take time to improve its efficiency and have limitations. HIV-1-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-based immunotherapy founded on neutralizing antibodies is now being developed. In HIV-1 therapy, anti-HIV chimeric antigen receptors showed promising data in the suppression of HIV-1 replication; however, autologous transfusion is still a problem. This has led to the development of effective peptides and proteins for an alternative HIV-1 treatment. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive ...
Blood. 2009 Jun 18;113(25):6392-402. doi: 10.1182/blood-2009-03-209650. Epub 2009 Apr 17. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt
Patients with some forms of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and multiple myeloma (MM) are not cured with conventional therapy and new approaches are needed. For the last 15 years we have investigated the potential of using a patients own T cells (a type of white blood cell [WBC]) to eradicate the tumor. We have demonstrated the feasibility of this approach in cell culture and animal models of AML and MM. Over the last 5 years we have been preparing to treat patients as part of a Phase I (first in human) clinical trial.. The trial treatment involves collecting the patients own WBCs from the blood by a standard well established and safe process called apheresis. The cells are then cultured in a specialized laboratory (under Good Manufacturing Practice conditions, similar to standards under which pharmaceuticals are produced) over 12 days to convert the cells to specialized tumor-attacking T cells. Early in that culture process the cells are exposed to a virus (that is modified so that it cannot ...
Ashman, R F., "Lymphocyte receptor movement induced by sheep erythrocyte binding." (1973). Subject Strain Bibliography 1973. 1220 ...
Cytogenetic and molecular investigations of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia (ALL) have identified the existence of distinct clinical subgroups. Molecular monitoring of clonal Immunoglobulin and T cell receptor (IG/TR) gene rearrangements has become an important tool in stratification of therapy of ALL. In order to determine whether certain features of the patient-specific rearrangements could hold further prognostic clues or provide information on the cell of origin of ALL, a comprehensive analysis of structural and biological features (V gene usage, coding frame and mutational status and complementarity-determining region -III length) of 473 IG/TR rearrangements identified in 229 adults with ALL was carried out. Distinct variable-gene usage profiles were identified between ALL subgroups, particularly for patients positive for BCR-ABL1 compared to MLL-AFF1 positive leukaemias; suggesting that the former is derived from a more mature B progenitor. ...
A method of inducing an immune response against multiple strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa which comprises administering to a human or animal an amount of mucoid exopolysaccharide from Pseudomonas aer
The recently identified VLRB antibodies of the agnathan sea lamprey use highly variable leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) that assume a solenoid shape to bind antigens. Solved structures of monoclonal VLRB antibodies complexed to the H-trisaccharide or HEL show that antigens bind to variable residues in the beta-sheets located on the concave surface of specific VLRB antibodies. In this study we screened clones of a lamprey VLR cDNA expression library prepared from animals immunized with human CD4+ T cells to identify a monoclonal VLRB antibody (T32) that bound to human T lymphocytes, but not mouse T cells. Modulation of the expression levels of the TCR/CD3 complex by mouse antibodies did not affect VLR T32 binding. Staining of T cells, tonsilar B cells and malignant B-CLL cells with VLRB T32 and a mouse anti-CD5 mAb (clone UCHT2) demonstrated a diagonal co-staining pattern for each population of the test cells. Transfection of the CD5-negative OCI-Ly3 cell line with a human CD5 ...
BACKGROUND. Targeting CD30 with monoclonal antibodies in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) has had profound clinical success. However, adverse events, mainly mediated by the toxin component of the conjugated antibodies, cause treatment discontinuation in many patients. Targeting CD30 with T cells expressing a CD30-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) may reduce the side effects and augment antitumor activity. METHODS. We conducted a phase I dose escalation study in which 9 patients with relapsed/refractory HL or ALCL were infused with autologous T cells that were gene-modified with a retroviral vector to express the CD30-specific CAR (CD30.CAR-Ts) encoding the CD28 costimulatory endodomain. Three dose levels, from 0.2 × 108 to 2 × 108 CD30.CAR-Ts/m2, were infused without a conditioning regimen. All other therapy for malignancy was discontinued at least 4 weeks before CD30.CAR-T infusion. Seven patients had previously experienced disease ...
Common Names: Nurse shark, Common nurse shark, Atlantic nurse shark.. Latin Name: Ginglymostoma cirratum.. Family: Ginglymostomatidae. Identification: Uniformly brown or gray body, paling slightly towards belly. Two dorsal fins of almost equal size close to tail. Head bulbous with small mouth. Mouth has a barbell on each side. Tail narrow with a large upper caudal lobe and no distinct lower lobe.. Size: 5 to 9ft max. 14ft.. Habitat: Found in many environments including reef flats, sandy areas, lagoons, and mangroves. From intertidal to 150ft.. Abundance: This is the most commonly encountered shark on most Caribbean reefs. It can be locally common from Florida to Brazil.. Distribution: On the Atlantic coast of the Americas from Rhode Island to Brazil. Bermuda and the Eastern Atlantic from Senegal to Gabon. Also in the Eastern Pacific from Baja California to Peru.. Behavior: Nocturnal. Sleeps under overhangs of reefs, or in mangroves during the day. Often found sleeping in small groups. At night ...
According to preliminary data from a small phase I study, using chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells to target mesothelin in solid tumors is both feasible and safe. The results were reported by Janos Tanyi, MD, PhD, a gynecologic oncologist at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, at the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting 2015 in Philadelphia, PA, April 18-22.. CAR T-cell therapy involves genetically engineering a patients T cells to recognize and destroy specific antigens on tumor cells-in this case, mesothelin, which is present in a range of tumor types, including gastric and esophageal cancers. Tanyi and his colleagues had previously delivered CAR-encoding DNA to T cells through electroporation, which uses brief electrical pulses to increase cell permeability. However, "CAR expression was very short-lived, with limited antitumor effects," he said, "and patients required multiple infusions to maintain even those ...
Manipulating proliferative, persistent T-cell subsets produces durable antitumor responses. Although adoptive T-cell therapies have yet to be approved by the FDA, this area of cancer immunotherapy is gaining ground "at a torrid pace," says Stanley Riddell, MD, of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Riddell shared his research teams progress in synthesizing and evaluating chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in February.. CAR T-cell therapy involves inserting a synthetic receptor in patients T cells, which then recognize and destroy tumors expressing a specific antigen. So far, researchers have had remarkable success-albeit in small clinical trials-directing this therapy against CD19, which is expressed on the surface of all B cells, including B-cell malignancies like acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). ...
The CD19 CAR Detection Reagent (Biotin) has been developed for the detection of transduced T cells that are engineered to express CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) on the cell surface, which recognize human CD19 antigen. The CD19 CAR Detection Reagent (Biotin) is an antigen based detection reagent conjugated to biotin. It contains a recombinantly expressed fusion protein consisting of the human CD19 extracellular domains and a specifically mutated human IgG1 Fc region. The engineered CD19 CAR T cells can be detected via the recognition of the CD19 protein, and identified by flow cytometry via anti-biotin fluorochromes. The mutated human IgG1 Fc region of the CD19 CAR Detection Reagent abolishes their binding to Fcγ receptors. This allows for background-free analysis and eliminates the need for additional blocking steps, such as using a FcR blocking reagent. - Ireland
University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA. Manipulating human regulatory T cells (Tregs) offers the opportunity to induce tolerance in a clinical setting. However, low numbers of antigen-specific Tregs and Treg instability upon prolonged expansion have hampered the implementation of Treg-based therapies. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) technology has greatly expedited the generation of tumor antigen- specific effector T (Teff) cells. CARs are synthetic receptors comprising an extracellular antigen-binding domain and an intracellular signaling domain. The latter is commonly a fusion of CD28 and CD3z, allowing for potent T cell activation directly downstream of antigen recognition. Adoption of the CAR platform for Treg engineering represents a promising strategy to generate custom-made antigen-specific Tregs for therapy. Yet, there are marked differences in ...
MONDAY, Dec. 11, 2017 (HealthDay News) - Axicabtagene ciloleucel (axi-cel), an autologous anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy and autologous T cells that express a CD19-directed CAR (CTL019) are effective for refractory B-cell lymphomas, according to two studies published online Dec. 10 in the New England Journal of Medicine to coincide with the annual meeting of the American Society of Hematology, held from Dec. 9 to 12 in Atlanta.. Sattva S. Neelapu, M.D., from the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, and colleagues enrolled 111 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma, or transformed follicular lymphoma with refractory disease despite receiving prior therapy. A target dose of 2×106 anti-CD19 CAR T cells/kg body weight was administered to 101 patients. The researchers found that the objective and complete response rates were 82 and 54 percent, respectively. Overall, 42 percent of the patients ...
Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) have been developed as a promising therapy for ALL. This technology uses a single chain variable fragment (scFv) designed to recognize the cell surface marker CD19 as a method of treating ALL. CD19 is a molecule found on all B-cells and can be used as a means of distinguishing the potentially malignant B-cell population in the patient. In this therapy, mice are immunized with the CD19 antigen and produce anti-CD19 antibodies. Hybridomas developed from the mouse spleen cells fused to a myeloma cell line can be developed as a source for the cDNA encoding the CD19 specific antibody.[25] The cDNA is sequenced and the sequence encoding the variable heavy and variable light chains of these antibodies are cloned together using a small peptide linker. This resulting sequence encodes the scFv. This can be cloned into a transgene encoding what will become the endodomain of the CAR. There are varying arrangements of subunits used as ...
In recent years immunotherapy has revolutionised cancer treatment, and many see it as an attractive, albeit expensive, alternative to chemotherapy. Often it shows fewer side effects and, as BMSs trial showed, can significantly lengthen patients lives. Its most notable indications are malignant melanoma and non-small-cell lung cancer.. BMS isnt alone in trialling new drug combinations for cancer treatment. In January, Merck (MRK) reported a successful study in which patients newly diagnosed with non-small cell lung cancer were treated with its immunotherapy drug pembrolizumab (Keytruda) in combination with two chemotherapies. It was granted accelerated approval by the FDA last year, providing that the company conducts additional studies.. Last year the FDA also approved two immunotherapies to treat certain leukaemias and lymphomas. Known as chimeric antigen receptor T therapy (CAR T cell therapy), it involves the removal of immune cells called T-cells and modifying them to ...
As was recently reported in Science Translational Medicine, Renier J. Brentjens, MD, and colleagues at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, found that profound molecular remission was rapidly induced in patients with relapsed B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) using autologous T cells targeting the B-cell CD19 antigen.1 The autologous T cells were modified to express a CD-19-specific CD28/CD3ζ second-generation dual-signaling chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) termed 19-28z (19-18z CAR-modified T cells).. Promising outcomes have been reported using CD19-targeted autologous T cells in patients with low-grade B-cell tumors, but to date there had been no reports of outcomes using CD19-targeted adoptive T-cell therapy in patients with relapsed B-cell ALL, which is more aggressive and associated with a worse prognosis.. Study Details. In the study, five patients with relapsed B-cell ALL who had not previously received allogeneic hematopoietic ...
Lewis B. Silverman, MD. Dana-Farber/Boston Childrens Cancer and Blood Disorders Center has joined a clinical trial of immunotherapy for children with relapsed or treatment-resistant acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Led by Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC), the trial is one of several nationally that are evaluating cancer immunotherapy, a treatment approach - hailed by Science magazine as their Breakthrough of the Year in 2013 - that triggers a patients immune system to attack his or her cancer cells. Dana-Farber/Boston Childrens is the only site in New England to offer this experimental approach for children and adolescents whose ALL has relapsed multiple times or never gone into remission.. The innovative trial starts with a patients own infection-fighting T-cells. These cells are collected and modified using gene therapy techniques to produce a cancer-hunting protein called a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR). Once infused back into the patient, the CAR then ...
Kite Pharma, Inc. is a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company. The Company is focused on the development and commercialization of cancer immunotherapy products to target and kill cancer cells. The Company offers engineered autologous cell therapy, which is an approach to the treatment of cancer. Its therapy involves modifying a patients T cells outside the patients body, or ex vivo, causing the T cells to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs), or T cell receptors (TCRs), and then reinfusing the engineered T cells back into the patient. Its lead product candidate, KTE-C19, is a CAR-based therapy that targets the CD19 antigen, a protein expressed on the cell surface of B-cell lymphomas and leukemias. The Company is conducting a registrational Phase II clinical trial (ZUMA-1) of KTE-C19 in patients with relapsed or refractory aggressive diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), primary mediastinal B cell lymphoma (PMBCL), or transformed ...
Basel, August 27, 2018 Novartis today announced that the European Commission (EC) has approved Kymriah® (tisagenlecleucel, formerly CTL019). The approved indications are for the treatment of pediatric and young adult patients up to 25 years of age with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) that is refractory, in relapse post-transplant or in second or later relapse; and for the treatment of adult patients with relapsed or refractory (r/r) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) after two or more lines of systemic therapy. Kymriah developed in collaboration with the University of Pennsylvania (Penn) is a ground-breaking one-time treatment that uses a patients own T cells to fight cancer, and the only chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR-T) therapy to receive regulatory approval in the EU for these two distinct B-cell malignancies. Kymriah was also the first CAR-T cell therapy ever approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). "The Kymriah approval is a ...
Purpose of review The purpose of this article is to discuss the rationale of targeting CD123 using chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells for the treatment of leukemia. AML patients, these CD123 CARs could redirect patient-derived T cell cytolytic activity against their autologous leukemic blasts. When CD34+ cells from normal cord blood were cocultured with CD123 CAR T cells, normal progenitor colony formation was not abolished, suggesting preservation of normal hematopoietic progenitors from CD123 CAR T cell targeting. In line with our results, Tettamanti et al [29] using cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells expressing a first generation CD123 CAR, a CAR without any costimulatory domain. demonstrated robust cytolytic activity against AML cell lines and primary AML patient samples persistence of the CD123 CAR T cells as previously demonstrated for other CAR products incorporating the similar domains [33]. This will reduce the risk of prolonged cytopenia and further minimize ...
Alan S. Wayne, MD, director of the CCCBD, is the lead principal investigator for this clinical trial that is now open to patients with ALL whose disease is resistant to, or has relapsed following, standard chemotherapy or stem cell transplant. This approach has ushered in a whole new era of cancer immunotherapy, says Wayne, who is also associate director for Pediatric Oncology at the USC Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center and Professor of Pediatrics at the Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California. In this trial, T cells - a primary type of immune cell - are genetically engineered to recognize the CD19 protein on the surface of leukemia cells. In this approach, the patients own T cells are collected and modified in the laboratory to express what is called a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR). The T cells expressing the CAR are then returned to the patient where they can attack and eliminate leukemia cells.. Wayne previously led the development of the predecesor ...
Stephen M. Ansell, MD, PhD, chair of the Lymphoma Group at Mayo Clinic, discusses the possibility of blending immunotherapy agents with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy across lymphoma populations.
In a sweeping success for cancer immunotherapy this year, the U.S. Food & Drug Administration approved the first two treatments that use a patients own genetically engineered cells to combat specific kinds of blood cancer.. Both new drugs are CAR T-cell immunotherapies, created by injecting an individuals T cells with DNA that encodes a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR). The CAR proteins jut from the immune cells surfaces and direct them to seek and destroy tumor cells.. Some 83% of people treated with the first approved CAR-T drug, Kymriah from Novartis, achieved complete remission-no cancer detected-within three months. More than 50% of people treated with the second drug, Kite Pharmas Yescarta, are in complete remission.. "The excitement is justified; it is a validation of the field," says David Epstein, former CEO of Novartis Pharmaceuticals.. Despite the excitement, many challenges remain for CAR-T therapies. To start, both treatments were approved for a small subset of ...
Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) - anti-CD19 Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR)-T cell therapy with defined T-cell subsets for ibrutinib-refractory patients: presentation at the international workshop on CLL (iwCLL) 2017
Basel, July 12, 2017 - Novartis announced today that the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee (ODAC) unanimously (10-0) recommended approval of CTL019 (tisagenlecleucel), an investigational chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR-T) therapy, for the treatment of relapsed or refractory (r/r) pediatric and young adult patients with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). "The panels unanimous recommendation in favor of CTL019 moves us closer to potentially delivering the first-ever commercially approved CAR-T cell therapy to patients in need," said Bruno Strigini, CEO, Novartis Oncology. "Were very proud to be expanding new frontiers in cancer treatment by advancing immunocellular therapy for children and young adults with r/r B-cell ALL and other critically ill patients who have limited options. We look forward to working with the FDA as they complete their review." Acute lymphoblastic leukemia comprises approximately 25% of cancer ...
BACKGROUND. Targeting CD30 with monoclonal antibodies in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) has had profound clinical success. However, adverse events, mainly mediated by the toxin component of the conjugated antibodies, cause treatment discontinuation in many patients. Targeting CD30 with T cells expressing a CD30-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) may reduce the side effects and augment antitumor activity. METHODS. We conducted a phase I dose escalation study in which 9 patients with relapsed/refractory HL or ALCL were infused with autologous T cells that were gene-modified with a retroviral vector to express the CD30-specific CAR (CD30.CAR-Ts) encoding the CD28 costimulatory endodomain. Three dose levels, from 0.2 × 108 to 2 × 108 CD30.CAR-Ts/m2, were infused without a conditioning regimen. All other therapy for malignancy was discontinued at least 4 weeks before CD30.CAR-T infusion. Seven patients had previously experienced disease ...
BACKGROUND. Targeting CD30 with monoclonal antibodies in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) has had profound clinical success. However, adverse events, mainly mediated by the toxin component of the conjugated antibodies, cause treatment discontinuation in many patients. Targeting CD30 with T cells expressing a CD30-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) may reduce the side effects and augment antitumor activity. METHODS. We conducted a phase I dose escalation study in which 9 patients with relapsed/refractory HL or ALCL were infused with autologous T cells that were gene-modified with a retroviral vector to express the CD30-specific CAR (CD30.CAR-Ts) encoding the CD28 costimulatory endodomain. Three dose levels, from 0.2 × 108 to 2 × 108 CD30.CAR-Ts/m2, were infused without a conditioning regimen. All other therapy for malignancy was discontinued at least 4 weeks before CD30.CAR-T infusion. Seven patients had previously experienced disease ...
BACKGROUND. Targeting CD30 with monoclonal antibodies in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) has had profound clinical success. However, adverse events, mainly mediated by the toxin component of the conjugated antibodies, cause treatment discontinuation in many patients. Targeting CD30 with T cells expressing a CD30-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) may reduce the side effects and augment antitumor activity. METHODS. We conducted a phase I dose escalation study in which 9 patients with relapsed/refractory HL or ALCL were infused with autologous T cells that were gene-modified with a retroviral vector to express the CD30-specific CAR (CD30.CAR-Ts) encoding the CD28 costimulatory endodomain. Three dose levels, from 0.2 × 108 to 2 × 108 CD30.CAR-Ts/m2, were infused without a conditioning regimen. All other therapy for malignancy was discontinued at least 4 weeks before CD30.CAR-T infusion. Seven patients had previously experienced disease ...
BACKGROUND. Targeting CD30 with monoclonal antibodies in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) has had profound clinical success. However, adverse events, mainly mediated by the toxin component of the conjugated antibodies, cause treatment discontinuation in many patients. Targeting CD30 with T cells expressing a CD30-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) may reduce the side effects and augment antitumor activity. METHODS. We conducted a phase I dose escalation study in which 9 patients with relapsed/refractory HL or ALCL were infused with autologous T cells that were gene-modified with a retroviral vector to express the CD30-specific CAR (CD30.CAR-Ts) encoding the CD28 costimulatory endodomain. Three dose levels, from 0.2 × 108 to 2 × 108 CD30.CAR-Ts/m2, were infused without a conditioning regimen. All other therapy for malignancy was discontinued at least 4 weeks before CD30.CAR-T infusion. Seven patients had previously experienced disease ...
BACKGROUND. Targeting CD30 with monoclonal antibodies in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) has had profound clinical success. However, adverse events, mainly mediated by the toxin component of the conjugated antibodies, cause treatment discontinuation in many patients. Targeting CD30 with T cells expressing a CD30-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) may reduce the side effects and augment antitumor activity. METHODS. We conducted a phase I dose escalation study in which 9 patients with relapsed/refractory HL or ALCL were infused with autologous T cells that were gene-modified with a retroviral vector to express the CD30-specific CAR (CD30.CAR-Ts) encoding the CD28 costimulatory endodomain. Three dose levels, from 0.2 × 108 to 2 × 108 CD30.CAR-Ts/m2, were infused without a conditioning regimen. All other therapy for malignancy was discontinued at least 4 weeks before CD30.CAR-T infusion. Seven patients had previously experienced disease ...
BACKGROUND. Targeting CD30 with monoclonal antibodies in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) has had profound clinical success. However, adverse events, mainly mediated by the toxin component of the conjugated antibodies, cause treatment discontinuation in many patients. Targeting CD30 with T cells expressing a CD30-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) may reduce the side effects and augment antitumor activity. METHODS. We conducted a phase I dose escalation study in which 9 patients with relapsed/refractory HL or ALCL were infused with autologous T cells that were gene-modified with a retroviral vector to express the CD30-specific CAR (CD30.CAR-Ts) encoding the CD28 costimulatory endodomain. Three dose levels, from 0.2 × 108 to 2 × 108 CD30.CAR-Ts/m2, were infused without a conditioning regimen. All other therapy for malignancy was discontinued at least 4 weeks before CD30.CAR-T infusion. Seven patients had previously experienced disease ...
BACKGROUND. Targeting CD30 with monoclonal antibodies in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) has had profound clinical success. However, adverse events, mainly mediated by the toxin component of the conjugated antibodies, cause treatment discontinuation in many patients. Targeting CD30 with T cells expressing a CD30-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) may reduce the side effects and augment antitumor activity. METHODS. We conducted a phase I dose escalation study in which 9 patients with relapsed/refractory HL or ALCL were infused with autologous T cells that were gene-modified with a retroviral vector to express the CD30-specific CAR (CD30.CAR-Ts) encoding the CD28 costimulatory endodomain. Three dose levels, from 0.2 × 108 to 2 × 108 CD30.CAR-Ts/m2, were infused without a conditioning regimen. All other therapy for malignancy was discontinued at least 4 weeks before CD30.CAR-T infusion. Seven patients had previously experienced disease ...
BACKGROUND. Targeting CD30 with monoclonal antibodies in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) has had profound clinical success. However, adverse events, mainly mediated by the toxin component of the conjugated antibodies, cause treatment discontinuation in many patients. Targeting CD30 with T cells expressing a CD30-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) may reduce the side effects and augment antitumor activity. METHODS. We conducted a phase I dose escalation study in which 9 patients with relapsed/refractory HL or ALCL were infused with autologous T cells that were gene-modified with a retroviral vector to express the CD30-specific CAR (CD30.CAR-Ts) encoding the CD28 costimulatory endodomain. Three dose levels, from 0.2 × 108 to 2 × 108 CD30.CAR-Ts/m2, were infused without a conditioning regimen. All other therapy for malignancy was discontinued at least 4 weeks before CD30.CAR-T infusion. Seven patients had previously experienced disease ...
BACKGROUND. Targeting CD30 with monoclonal antibodies in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) has had profound clinical success. However, adverse events, mainly mediated by the toxin component of the conjugated antibodies, cause treatment discontinuation in many patients. Targeting CD30 with T cells expressing a CD30-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) may reduce the side effects and augment antitumor activity. METHODS. We conducted a phase I dose escalation study in which 9 patients with relapsed/refractory HL or ALCL were infused with autologous T cells that were gene-modified with a retroviral vector to express the CD30-specific CAR (CD30.CAR-Ts) encoding the CD28 costimulatory endodomain. Three dose levels, from 0.2 × 108 to 2 × 108 CD30.CAR-Ts/m2, were infused without a conditioning regimen. All other therapy for malignancy was discontinued at least 4 weeks before CD30.CAR-T infusion. Seven patients had previously experienced disease ...
Intellicyt Corporation®, Part of the Sartorius Group. 5700 Pasadena Ave. NE, Albuquerque, NM 87113. A critical process in bio-manufacturing of adoptive cell therapies such chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T and tumor infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) therapies is the ex vivo expansion of T cells. Recent clinical studies show a correlation between in vivo expansion and persistence of infused T cells and patient outcomes. Additional studies show that a subset of functional memory T cells including T memory stem cells (Tscm), central memory T cells (Tcm) and other less differentiated T cell subsets are responsible for the majority of in vivo expansion and persistence leading to increased anti-tumor responses. This suggests that ex vivo protocols generating higher percentages of Tscm and Tcm in the total cell product will lead to significant clinical improvements in adoptive cell therapies. To address the need to monitor T cell phenotype and function for improved ex vivo expansion ...
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive brain cancer with poor prognosis with traditional treatments such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy, which often leave lasting and pervasive damage to the individual. GBM cells upregulate the surface protein interleukin 13 receptor subunit alpha-2 (IL13Rα2), which can be targeted as a novel immunotherapeutic marker for the immune response to be initiated. In this study, IL13Rα2 is targeted using a first generation chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) that contains an intracellular zeta chain domain. However, a limitation to this approach is that the tumor microenvironment exhausts the T cells that interact with the tumor through a receptor-mediated response. Programmed Death Ligand 1 (PD-L1) is a molecule that is expressed on cancerous cells that binds to the Programmed Death 1 (PD-1) on T cells. When the ligand binds to PD-1 on T cells, there is decreased T cell proliferation, cytokine production, ...
A clinical trial is underway to examine the role of chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy for children and young adults with relapsed or refractory HER-2-positive central nervous system tumors. "[Although] survival rates have improved for pediatric …. Date : 2018-07-20T08:00:00.000 ...
Categories: Medicine, Life Sciences DOI: 10.17160/josha.6.5.565 Languages: English From March 23 to 27 2019 the 45th Annual Meeting of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation 2019 was held in Frankfurt, Germany. Along with the common topics of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) such as improvements in conditioning regimens, treatment of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) and reducing the risk of malignant relapse, a particular emphasis of the meeting was put on the rapidly expanding field of chimeric antigen receptor T cells (CAR T cells). The following article poses a personal selection of recent developments covered at the meeting. ...
Nurse shark definition, any of several sharks of the family Orectolobidae, especially Ginglymostoma cirratum, occurring in shallow waters from Rhode Island to Brazil and the Gulf of California to Ecuador. See more.
Chimpanzees have got orthologs of the six, fixed, functional human genes. cytoplasmic tails. Systematic mutagenesis showed that each substitution contributes changes in cell-surface expression. The combination of residues present in Patr-AL appears unique, but each individual residue is present in other primate MHC class I molecules, notably MHC-E, the most ancient of Gusb the functional human MHC class I molecules. INTRODUCTION The selective pressures imposed by diverse, fast-evolving pathogens cause the MHC class I genes of their mammalian hosts also to evolve rapidly (1). As a consequence there is considerable species-specific character to gene families. Characteristics shared by most mammalian species are highly polymorphic classical MHC class I molecules that engage highly variable types of lymphocyte receptor and conserved non-classical MHC class I molecules that engage conserved types of lymphocyte receptors. Of the six human genes that are functional, and are highly ...
The ability of an organism to modulate its feeding behavior is an important focus of feeding ecology studies. Modulation is the ability to distinctly and consistently alter a behavior to accommodate different stimuli. The goal of this study was to examine the ability of the nurse shark Ginglymostoma cirratum to modulate its food capture behavior with different sizes and types of food items. This was carried out through kinematic and electromyographic analysis. Eight sub-adult specimens of G. cirratum were filmed feeding on two different food types (squid and fish) and sizes (gape size and larger than gape size). Filming consisted of high-speed videography utilizing a low-light digital video system. Kinematic variables related to lower jaw movement, mouth width, and head angle were measured from video footage. Up to twelve muscles in each of six specimens were implanted with bipolar electrodes to measure the onset and duration of motor activity. There were no significant differences between food sizes
Stock video footage A nurse shark in the creek swims away in the current with the camera.. 00:00:14 . From $50. Royalty free. Download now on Pond5 |||
Lymphoid V(D)J recombination: nucleotide insertion at signal joints as well as coding joints.: The coding regions of antigen receptor genes assembled by variabl
The integration of spatial data with knowledge about protein activity is crucial for understanding signal transduction pathways. Herein, we used time‐lapse confocal microscopy for real‐time analysis of the spatial regulation of PKD during physiological conditions of lymphocyte activation and, importantly, integrated localization and catalytic activity data. Antigen receptor signalling initiates at the plasma membrane, but then must be transmitted into the cell interior and the nucleus. The present report identifies PKD as a signalling molecule that functions to amplify and disseminate antigen receptor‐induced signals away from the plasma membrane. The intracellular localization of PKD is regulated dynamically by antigen receptors: the BCR and the FcϵR1 induce the rapid activation and recruitment of PKD to the plasma membrane of B lymphocytes and mast cells. There are several striking features about this ...
Extant cyclostomes are jawless vertebrates and include hagfishes and lampreys. They are the closest extant relatives to jawed vertebrates (often called gnathostomes, which also include jawless...
MalaCards based summary : Car T Cell Therapy-Associated Cytokine Release Syndrome, is also known as chimeric antigen receptor-t cell therapy-associated cytokine release syndrome. Affiliated tissues include t cells and bone ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Eric J Gapud, Baeck-Seung Lee, Grace K Mahowald, Craig H Bassing, Barry P Sleckman].
The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited have entered an exclusive license agreement and research agreement to develop and market chimeric antigen receptor-directed natural killer-cell therapies.. ...
AlbaChem VLR Vinyl Liftoff Letter Remover completely removes heat transfer vinyl letters and residues from most fabrics. The Yorker spout allows for easy application minimizing waste. Highly effective and fast drying. Vinyl Liftoff is the home crafters best friend because it cleans up their mistakes on the spot!. Most powerful residue remover Great for removing tagless Fast Drying Leaves no stains Does not contain any chlorinated solvents
We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click Continue well assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you wont see this message again. Click Find out more for information on how to change your cookie settings ...
Buy, download and read Tumor Immunology ebook online in PDF format for iPhone, iPad, Android, Computer and Mobile readers. Author: Giorgio Parmiani; Michael T. Lotze. ISBN: 9780203301852. Publisher: CRC Press. Recent advances in immunology and molecular biology have resulted in new therapeutic approaches being generated and implemented in cancer clinics. The discovery of new antigens, mechanisms of antigen
So this is a nurse shark that I saw while snorkelling in the Keys. To get this shot I had to freedive down about 15 feet with a disposable underwater camera. I must say, that I find this snorkelling to be quite a lot of fun and if I do it much more I may become addicted. The sheer amount of living creatures of all sorts down there was amazing. If I could spend a few hours out there at a time I think I would get my fix ...
See what Merve Çınar (mervecinar01) has discovered on Pinterest, the worlds biggest collection of everybodys favorite things.
See what Tufan Özpınar (tufanzpnar) has discovered on Pinterest, the worlds biggest collection of everybodys favorite things.
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Již od cyklu Paristory (1967) se Pavel Jasanský (nar. 1938) profiloval jako fotograf s výjimečnou empatií a postřehem. Ten uplatnil i ve volné
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3-(2-Methoxy-benzylidene)-3H-indol-2-ol | C16H13NO2 | CID 672251 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.

Immunogenetic Aspect of B-Cell Antigen Receptor Diversity Generation | IntechOpenImmunogenetic Aspect of B-Cell Antigen Receptor Diversity Generation | IntechOpen

So, this chapter gives a brief overview on immunoglobulin (IG) gene organization and gene rearrangements, as well as the main ... The generation of antigen receptor diversity, and thus of the B-cell repertoire, is the result of very complex immunogenetic ... The B-cell that initially produced the IgM isotype will subsequently produce other immunoglobulin isotypes (IgG, IgE, and IgA ... Most protein antigens induce T-dependent (TD) antigen humoral immune responses (responses to T-independent [TI] antigen are not ...
more infohttps://www.intechopen.com/books/normal-and-malignant-b-cell/immunogenetic-aspect-of-b-cell-antigen-receptor-diversity-generation

Immunology for Life Scientists. 2nd EditionImmunology for Life Scientists. 2nd Edition

2.3.1 The B cell antigen receptor.. Immunoglobulins.. Antibody structure.. Isotypes.. Allotypes. ... 4.1 Antigen processing and presentation by MHC gene products.. 4.1.1 Generation of peptides presented by MHC Class I molecules. ...
more infohttps://www.researchandmarkets.com/reports/2180853/immunology_for_life_scientists_2nd_edition

Keystone Symposia | Scientific Conferences on Biomedical and Life Science TopicsKeystone Symposia | Scientific Conferences on Biomedical and Life Science Topics

Immunoglobulin Isotype-Specific Regulation of B Cell Antigen Receptor Signaling Timothy S. Gomez, Mayo Graduate School, USA The ... Elevated Immunoglobulin Isotypes are a Consequence of Inefficient TCR Signaling Resulting from a slp-76 Hypomorphic Allele. ... Immunogenic versus Tolerogenic Signaling by Antigen Receptors. Amrie C. Grammer, AMPEL BioSolutions LLC, USA Short Talk: ... The molecular nature of the integration of signals will be described for both the adaptive immune systems antigen receptors ...
more infohttp://keystonesymposia.org/index.cfm?e=web.Meeting.Program&meetingid=682

CD158b2 (KIR2DL3) antibodies, human - Primary antibodies - Antibodies - MACS Flow Cytometry - Products - Miltenyi BiotecCD158b2 (KIR2DL3) antibodies, human - Primary antibodies - Antibodies - MACS Flow Cytometry - Products - Miltenyi Biotec

The KIR proteins are categorized by the number of extracellular immunoglobulin domains (2D or 3D) and by the length (long (L) ... This interaction allows the KIR receptors to modulate the killing function of cells bearing them. ... KIR family of receptors are transmembrane glycoproteins and interact with MHC class I molecules. ... Clone REA147 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. ... a killer-cell immunoglobulin-like inhibitory receptor (KIR). ...
more infohttps://www.miltenyibiotec.com/BE-en/products/macs-flow-cytometry/antibodies/primary-antibodies/cd158b2-kir2dl3-antibodies-human-rea147-1-11.html

Isotype Control of B Cell Signaling | Science SignalingIsotype Control of B Cell Signaling | Science Signaling

The B cell receptor (BCR) consists of an antigen-binding membrane immunoglobulin (mIg) associated with the CD79α and CD79β ... Cell lines that express a BCR with the cytoplasmic tail from IgG, the isotype found in memory B cells, are not subject to CD22 ... Naïve B cells express the IgM and IgD isotypes, which have very short cytoplasmic tails and therefore depend on CD79α and CD79β ... Recent research suggests that the ability of the B cell coreceptor CD22 to regulate BCR signaling depends on the isotype of the ...
more infohttp://stke.sciencemag.org/content/2003/184/pe21

PPT - Antibody structure and function PowerPoint presentation | free to download  - id: 20efd9-ZWU2NPPT - Antibody structure and function PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 20efd9-ZWU2N

Most antigens have multiple epitopes (multivalent) Usually carbohydrate or peptide. ... Aggregates formed by interaction of ... Isotype switching *Applications - immunoassays 3. Immunoglobulins membrane-bound and soluble receptors 4. Basic structure of ... Antiserum raised against antigen A reacts also with antigen B. Antigen A and B share epitopes. Antigen A and B have similar ( ... Immunoglobulin classes (isotypes). L-chain k or l 9. Structure of immunoglobulins 10. Structure of immunoglobulins 11. ...
more infohttp://www.powershow.com/view/20efd9-ZWU2N/Antibody_structure_and_function_powerpoint_ppt_presentation

Immunoglobulin heavy chain - WikipediaImmunoglobulin heavy chain - Wikipedia

The resulting antibodies are designated IgW (also called IgX or IgNARC) and IgNAR (immunoglobulin new antigen receptor). The ... "Lineage-restricted retention of a primitive immunoglobulin heavy chain isotype within the Dipnoi reveals an evolutionary ... The immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) is the large polypeptide subunit of an antibody (immunoglobulin). A typical antibody is ... There are five types of mammalian immunoglobulin heavy chain: γ, δ, α, μ and ε. They define classes of immunoglobulins: IgG, ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immunoglobulin_heavy_chain

RCSB PDB - Protein Feature View 









 - Immunoglobulin delta heavy chain - P0DOX3 (IGD HUMAN)RCSB PDB - Protein Feature View - Immunoglobulin delta heavy chain - P0DOX3 (IGD HUMAN)

IgD is the major antigen receptor isotype on the surface of most peripheral B cells, where it is coexpressed with IgM. The ... Thus, each immunoglobulin has two antigen binding sites with remarkable affinity for a particular antigen. The variable domains ... the membrane-bound immunoglobulins serve as receptors which, upon binding of a specific antigen, trigger the clonal expansion ... After the antigen binds to the B cell receptor, the secreted form sIgD is shut off. IgD is a potent inducer of TNF, IL1B, and ...
more infohttp://www.rcsb.org/pdb/protein/P0DOX3

Immunoglobulins drive terminal maturation of splenic dendritic cellsImmunoglobulins drive terminal maturation of splenic dendritic cells

c-type lectin - cross-presentation - antigen presentation - in-vivo - functional maturation - complement receptors - immune- ... Function of DCs could be restored by transfer of Ig irrespective of antigen specificity and isotype. Modulation of cross- ... responses - b-lymphocytes - self-antigens - t-cells Abstract. Nature and physiological status of antigen-presenting cells, such ... Immunoglobulins drive terminal maturation of splenic dendritic cells. Author(s). Zietara, N.; Lyszkiewicz, M.; Puchalka, J.; ...
more infohttp://library.wur.nl/WebQuery/wurpubs/435504

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia and Associated Disorders | Cancer NetworkChronic Lymphocytic Leukemia and Associated Disorders | Cancer Network

Surface immunoglobulin expression (sIg) was weakly expressed in 90% of CLL cases. The most common isotype was IgM plus IgD, ... Musolino C, Di Cesare E, Alonci A, et al: Serum levels of CD8 antigens and soluble interleukin 2 receptors in patients with B ... Korsmayer SJ, Greene WC, Cossman J, et al: Rearrangement and expression of immunoglobulin genes and expression of Tac antigen ... Cooperative Group for the Study of Immunoglobulin in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Intravenous immunoglobulin for the ...
more infohttp://www.cancernetwork.com/articles/chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-and-associated-disorders

Frontiers | Approaches to Interrogating the Human Memory B-Cell and Memory-Derived Antibody Repertoire Following Dengue Virus...Frontiers | Approaches to Interrogating the Human Memory B-Cell and Memory-Derived Antibody Repertoire Following Dengue Virus...

Following differentiation, MBCs remain in peripheral circulation after recovery and are poised to secrete antigen-specific ... antibodies if and when they are re-exposed to their cognate antigen. Consequently, MBCs form the founder population and provide ... Following differentiation, MBCs remain in peripheral circulation after recovery and are poised to secrete antigen-specific ... antibodies if and when they are re-exposed to their cognate antigen. Consequently, MBCs form the founder population and provide ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2019.01276/full

Induction of Th2 Responses and IgE Is Largely Due to Carbohydrates Functioning as Adjuvants on Schistosoma mansoni Egg Antigens...Induction of Th2 Responses and IgE Is Largely Due to Carbohydrates Functioning as Adjuvants on Schistosoma mansoni Egg Antigens...

Lymphokine control of in vivo immunoglobulin isotype selection. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 8: 303. ... The receptor DEC-205 expressed by dendritic cells and thymic epithelial cells is involved in antigen processing. Nature 387: ... might be taken up preferentially by APC via lectin-like receptors such as mannose receptor or mannose-binding lectin receptor ( ... Antigens. SEA was prepared as described previously (15). Periodate oxidation was performed using 10 mM sodium metaperiodate as ...
more infohttps://www.jimmunol.org/content/163/12/6712?ijkey=666fcba013de638ea127962deb00d5f472a0777d&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

IGHD - Immunoglobulin heavy constant delta - Homo sapiens (Human) - IGHD gene & proteinIGHD - Immunoglobulin heavy constant delta - Homo sapiens (Human) - IGHD gene & protein

IgD is the major antigen receptor isotype on the surface of most peripheral B-cells, where it is coexpressed with IgM. The ... Thus, each immunoglobulin has two antigen binding sites with remarkable affinity for a particular antigen. The variable domains ... the membrane-bound immunoglobulins serve as receptors which, upon binding of a specific antigen, trigger the clonal expansion ... After the antigen binds to the B-cell receptor, the secreted form sIgD is shut off. IgD is a potent inducer of TNF, IL1B, and ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P01880-2

The Scaffolding Protein Synapse-Associated Protein 97 Is Required for Enhanced Signaling Through Isotype-Switched IgG Memory B...The Scaffolding Protein Synapse-Associated Protein 97 Is Required for Enhanced Signaling Through Isotype-Switched IgG Memory B...

After their first encounter with a foreign antigen, naïve B cells that have immunoglobulin M (IgM) B cell receptors (BCRs) ... SAP97 accumulated and bound to IgG BCRs in the immunological synapses that formed in response to B cell engagement with antigen ... Protein Synapse-Associated Protein 97 Is Required for Enhanced Signaling Through Isotype-Switched IgG Memory B Cell Receptors ... When these memory B cells reencounter the same antigen, the cell surface IgG BCRs stimulate their rapid differentiation into ...
more infohttps://stke.sciencemag.org/content/5/235/ra54

The origins of vertebrate adaptive immunity.  - PubMed - NCBIThe origins of vertebrate adaptive immunity. - PubMed - NCBI

... immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) and immunoglobulin light chain (IgL)) are shown. The constant region for the Igμ isotype (Cμ) ... After encounter with antigen, B cells further recombine the receptor by somatic hypermutation and class-switch recombination. ... diversify antigen receptor genes. For clarity, some details are simplified or omitted. V (red boxes), D (green boxes) and J ( ... a genetic event that disrupted a V-type immunoglobulin domain formed a site for genetic recombination and subsequent receptor ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20651744

Primary immunodeficiency - WikipediaPrimary immunodeficiency - Wikipedia

... one or more isotypes of immunoglobulin are decreased or dont function properly. These proteins, generated by plasma cells, ... selective immunoglobulin A deficiency Specific antibody deficiency to specific antigens with normal B cell and normal Ig ... IL-12 and IL-23 β1 chain deficiency IL-12p40 deficiency Interferon γ receptor 1 deficiency Interferon γ receptor 2 deficiency ... immunoglobulin replacement therapy in the form of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) or subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIG) may ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Primary_immunodeficiency

immunoglobulin isotypes Protocols and Video...'immunoglobulin isotypes' Protocols and Video...

Development of an in vitro model system for studying the interaction of Equus caballus IgE with its high-affinity receptor Fc ... Generation of Discriminative Human Monoclonal Antibodies from Rare Antigen-Specific B Cells Circulating in Blood, ... Deep Sequencing Analysis of Rearranged Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Gene to Reveal Clonal Evolution Patterns of B Cell Lymphoma ... for the Scalable Detection of Low-affinity Extracellular Receptor-Ligand Interactions, Flow Cytometry-based Assay for the ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/keyword/immunoglobulin+isotypes

Elimination from peripheral lymphoid tissues of self-reactive B lymphocytes recognizing membrane-bound antigens.  - PubMed -...Elimination from peripheral lymphoid tissues of self-reactive B lymphocytes recognizing membrane-bound antigens. - PubMed -...

By modifying the structure of the lysozyme transgene and the isotype of the anti-lysozyme immunoglobulin genes, we demonstrate ... Our findings indicate that the degree of receptor crosslinking can have qualitatively distinct signalling consequences for ... but to recognition of monomeric or oligomeric soluble antigen versus highly multivalent membrane-bound antigen. ... Elimination from peripheral lymphoid tissues of self-reactive B lymphocytes recognizing membrane-bound antigens.. Hartley SB1, ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1944535?dopt=Abstract

Profiling Mouse B-Cell Receptors with SMART TechnologyProfiling Mouse B-Cell Receptors with SMART Technology

... sequence in the hypervariable region of the immunoglobulin. The unique CDR3 sequence in BCRs is critical for dictating antigen ... Output from the MiXCR software for the top two clones shows the V, D, and J alleles and the isotype and subclass as identified ... The SMARTer Mouse BCR IgG H/K/L Profiling Kit is a powerful tool for profiling mouse B-cell receptors. By leveraging SMART ... Profiling Mouse B-Cell Receptors with SMART Technology. *5 RACE-like approach captures complete V(D)J variable regions of BCR ...
more infohttp://www.clontech.com/US/Products/cDNA_Synthesis_and_Library_Construction/NGS_Learning_Resources/Technical_Notes/Mouse_BCR_Profiling?sitex=10020:22372:US&PEBCL1=ByZ6S0OoRSh3F0j3gA3UzGqqTj&PEBCL1_pses=ZGF83DC17DD251EE0613D0BFC00D50AE392409EC89F20AF191A9E80799CB1D1CA726FC3E0C28454EF2912BE2297939006B2F0DE8DE6B2A3A24

Profiling Mouse B-Cell Receptors with SMART TechnologyProfiling Mouse B-Cell Receptors with SMART Technology

... sequence in the hypervariable region of the immunoglobulin. The unique CDR3 sequence in BCRs is critical for dictating antigen ... Output from the MiXCR software for the top two clones shows the V, D, and J alleles and the isotype and subclass as identified ... The SMARTer Mouse BCR IgG H/K/L Profiling Kit is a powerful tool for profiling mouse B-cell receptors. By leveraging SMART ... Profiling Mouse B-Cell Receptors with SMART Technology. *5 RACE-like approach captures complete V(D)J variable regions of BCR ...
more infohttp://www.clontech.com/US/Products/cDNA_Synthesis_and_Library_Construction/NGS_Learning_Resources/Technical_Notes/Mouse_BCR_Profiling?sitex=10020:22372:US&PEBCL1=lU3ZZrMN4ulS3E5aW7KEIoxy7L&PEBCL1_pses=ZGAB93E19422ACD56A49A905AF47DE5A5C1CDD1B1098E068C2FFDD08DAF590F0CDC315E4B045E65DEDC7A87CBBE0C73BDA0F05D783CE2FE9C5

2 Determination of the Immunization Schedule | The Childhood Immunization Schedule and Safety: Stakeholder Concerns, Scientific...2 Determination of the Immunization Schedule | The Childhood Immunization Schedule and Safety: Stakeholder Concerns, Scientific...

primary immunoglobulin generated after immunization, quickly followed by the IgG isotype. To demonstrate the immunogenicity of ... Vaccines containing live, attenuated antigens confer a stronger immune response because the antigen is more similar to that ... and cell surface receptors that it will use to enter the cell (Reddy et al., 2011). For the group of subjects studied, after a ... The immune response is largely dependent upon the properties of the antigen used to develop the vaccine and on the route of ...
more infohttps://www.nap.edu/read/13563/chapter/4

THERAPEUTIC COMPOSITION FOR ATOPIC DERMATITIS - Kuroda, MasahikoTHERAPEUTIC COMPOSITION FOR ATOPIC DERMATITIS - Kuroda, Masahiko

IgE, an isotype of immunoglobulin, is produced by such B cells that have been stimulated with an antigen and then switched into ... two of adjacent IgE molecules bind to the antigen falling between them, via which two adjacent Fcε receptors thus become cross- ... IgE molecules thus produced then bind at their Fc region to Fcε receptors present on the surface of mast cells, which occur in ... Atopy is a diathesis with which production of IgE is readily induced even against those common antigens which generally occur ...
more infohttp://www.freepatentsonline.com/y2009/0246181.html

CD126 (IL-6Rα) - Beckman CoulterCD126 (IL-6Rα) - Beckman Coulter

This antigen is also expressed by epithelial cells. ... The CD126 antigen is the human IL-6 receptor α chain. It is an ... CD126 (IL-6Rα) Antigen. The CD126 antigen is the human IL-6 receptor α chain. It is an integral membrane protein of 80 kDa. In ... It binds to the amino terminal immunoglobulin domain of IL-6Rα. It binds to IL-6/IL-6Rα complexes and IL-6/IL-6R/gp130 ... Isotype: IgG1 Mouse. The M91 antibody recognizes the membrane and soluble form of IL-6Rα chain. ...
more infohttps://www.beckman.com/reagents/coulter-flow-cytometry/antibodies-and-kits/single-color-antibodies/cd126---il-6ra

Innate stimulation of B1a cells enhances the autoreactive IgM repertoire in the NOD mouse: implications for type 1 diabetes |...Innate stimulation of B1a cells enhances the autoreactive IgM repertoire in the NOD mouse: implications for type 1 diabetes |...

These autoreactive immunoglobulins, of the IgG isotype, recognise beta cell antigens and are believed to be bystander products ... In fact, NOD B cell receptor specificity and the capacity of B cells to present antigens to T cells are determinant factors in ... 2b), the main self-antigen of immune-mediated sialitis (Fig. 2c), a pool of antigens that are targets of SLE (Fig. 2d) or a ... Bikah G, Carey J, Ciallella JR, Tarakhovsky A, Bondada S (1996) CD5-mediated negative regulation of antigen receptor-induced ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00125-012-2498-0

SMART: Secondary literature for IL7 domainSMART: Secondary literature for IL7 domain

These mice show an increase in both baseline and antigen-specific immunoglobulin concentrations for all isotypes tested. ... The IL-9 receptor is a member of the hemopoietin receptor superfamily and interacts with the gamma chain of the IL-2 receptor ... Distinct roles for signals relayed through the common cytokine receptor gamma chain and interleukin 7 receptor alpha chain in ... and the proteins share most biological activities and compete for the same cell surface receptor. LT is induced in an antigen- ...
more infohttp://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/show_secondary.cgi?domain=IL7
  • So, this chapter gives a brief overview on immunoglobulin (IG) gene organization and gene rearrangements, as well as the main mechanisms of immunoglobulin repertoire development. (intechopen.com)
  • The immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region (IGH V) gene encodes VH framework regions 1-3 (FR1-3), VH complementarity determining region 1 (CDR1), and VH CDR2, while IGH joining (IGH J) gene encodes VH FR4. (intechopen.com)
  • Mechanism Successful rearrangement of immunoglobulin gene segmentsone allele shuts down the rearrangement process of the other allele. (powershow.com)
  • Somatic hypermutation is initiated by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), which deaminates individual cytidines within the V(D)J exon of the immunoglobulin gene, leading to U:G mismatches (yellow star). (nih.gov)
  • Subsequent error-prone repair results in individual point mutations (yellow dot in the gene and yellow bar in the immunoglobulin molecules), and B cells with higher affinity for the original antigen are selected. (nih.gov)
  • IgE itself appears to have an important role in the regulation of IgE-receptor expression, as indicated by the upregulation of receptors in vitro in the presence of IgE, and the absence of IgE-binding capacity of mast cells in IL-4 gene knockout mice, lacking IgE production. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • [ 8 ] Moreover, an analysis of antigen receptor H chain gene transcripts of B and plasma cells isolated from s-IBM muscle showed evidence of clonal expansion and variation, isotype switching, and somatic hypermutation, indicative of a local antigen-driven humoral response. (medscape.com)
  • The large repertoire of IgM surface receptors is created during early stages of B cell development through rearrangement of heavy chain and light chain immunoglobulin (Ig) variable, diversity, and joining (VDJ) gene segments (10, 19, 27). (antibodyassay.com)
  • 16 ]). Several additional divergent immune gene families, important for characterisation of immune response, have not been investigated in the Tasmanian devil, including cytokine families, immunoglobulins and T-cell receptors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The large and diverse population of antibody paratope is generated by random recombination events of a set of gene segments that encode different antigen-binding sites (or paratopes ), followed by random mutations in this area of the antibody gene, which create further diversity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although interpretation of this work was confounded by the random integration of transgenes, Neuberger capitalized on methodological changes in studying antibody gene mutation developed by Milstein that became standard for the field: first, he scored only mutations in the introns downstream of rearranged V(D)J gene segments, and second, he focused his studies on Peyer's patch B cells activated by diverse antigens present in the flora of the small intestine. (jci.org)
  • We assessed total repertoire metrics of mutation, diversity, VJ gene usage and isotype subclass usage as well as tracking specific BCR sequence clusters. (frontiersin.org)
  • Therapies for these disorders (eg, intravenous immunoglobulin [IVIG], bone marrow transplantation, gene therapy) are very costly and require highly advanced facilities. (medscape.com)
  • Immunoglobulin gene rearrangement begins with heavy-chain gene rearrangement followed by light-chain gene rearrangement. (medscape.com)
  • During class-switch recombination, AID creates U:G mismatches in the highly repetitive switch (S) regions (blue and green ovals) that are upstream of the exons encoding the constant regions of different isotypes. (nih.gov)
  • A murine immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) MAb is currently undergoing phase I evaluation for the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis in patients with AIDS ( 7 ). (asm.org)
  • Anti-CTLA-4 antibody containing the murine immunoglobulin G (IgG)2a constant region exhibits enhanced antitumor activity in subcutaneous established MC38 and CT26 colon adenocarcinoma tumor models compared with anti-CTLA-4 containing the IgG2b constant region. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The novel A*-Zmab-DNA conjugate retained its binding capabilities to a specific class of murine immunoglobulin gamma 1 (IgG1) but not to rabbit IgG. (diva-portal.org)
  • They feature both the need to recognize the antigen and the ability to arouse a faster and stronger response when they encounter their cognate antigen for a second time. (hindawi.com)
  • Cultured lung fibroblasts expressed the chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CCR7 and responded chemotactically to their cognate ligands, stromal cell-derived factor-1α and secondary lymphoid chemokine, respectively. (jci.org)
  • Moreover, stimulation through BCRs containing an IgG cytoplasmic tail causes increased numbers of antigen-specific clones to accumulate. (sciencemag.org)
  • Development of BCRs (Figure 1) is a multistep process in which the progenitor cell undergoes V(D)J recombination in the germline and additional somatic hypermutations (SHM), resulting in a final product with a specific CDR3 (complementarity determining region 3) sequence in the hypervariable region of the immunoglobulin. (clontech.com)
  • Antigen-induced reorganization of nanoclusters of IgM-BCRs and IgD-BCRs regulated BCR signaling in vivo. (thisisms.com)
  • Antigen binding to Fc receptor-bound IgE upon re-exposure to specific allergens results in degranulation and the release of a variety of mediators, such as histamine and cytokines. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Various chemokines, cytokines, and chemokine receptors are upregulated in the inflammatory cell infiltrates, blood vessels, and myofibers in s-IBM. (medscape.com)
  • The B cell receptor (BCR) consists of an antigen-binding membrane immunoglobulin (mIg) associated with the CD79α and CD79β heterodimer. (sciencemag.org)
  • The extracellular location tethering the Ig Fc region to the cell membrane, as well as the differences in sequence and lengths, most likely determine a role in BCR assembly and may be associated with isotype-specific functions. (jimmunol.org)
  • In most cases, with the exception of the μ and the δ isotypes, cysteine residues located within the EMPD contribute to the stabilization of the membrane protein through the formation of interchain disulfide bridges ( 9 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • ab24537 recognises an epitope expressed by the murine low affinity Fc receptors, Fc gamma III (CD16) and Fc gamma II (CD32). (abcam.com)
  • Each tip of the "Y" of an antibody contains a paratope (analogous to a lock) that is specific for one particular epitope (similarly analogous to a key) on an antigen, allowing these two structures to bind together with precision. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adaptive immunity is mediated through numerous genetic and cellular processes that generate favourable somatic variants of antigen-binding receptors under evolutionary selection pressure by pathogens and other factors. (nih.gov)
  • By binding to IgG it initiates cellular responses against pathogens and soluble antigens. (abcam.com)
  • TLRs are a family of receptors that recognize common molecular patterns of microbial pathogens and stimulate innate immune responses. (umd.edu)
  • The variable domains are assembled by a process called V-(D)-J rearrangement and can then be subjected to somatic hypermutations which, after exposure to antigen and selection, allow affinity maturation for a particular antigen (PubMed:20176268, PubMed:17576170). (rcsb.org)
  • DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) introduced in the switch (S) regions are intermediates during immunoglobulin class switch recombination (CSR). (rupress.org)
  • DSBs are also intermediates for V(D)J recombination and class switch recombination (CSR), two physiological processes that are important for the generation of functional antigen receptors. (rupress.org)
  • Activation-induced deaminase (AID) is an enzyme required for class switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM), processes that ensure antibody maturation and expression of different immunoglobulin isotypes. (antibodyassay.com)
  • Over the last several years much has been learned about the biochemical nature of the signaling cascades initiated by interactions of individual receptors with their ligands. (keystonesymposia.org)
  • They recognize their ligands in a non-MHC restricted way and, as part of the innate immunity, are generally considered unable to remember antigens and to increase the magnitude of their response over time [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The absence of known ligands for FCRL4 and Siglec-6 suggests these receptors may regulate BCR signaling through their own constitutive or tonic signaling. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These receptors recognize distinct ligands and trigger the activation of specific intracellular signaling pathways, and thus play an important role in the regulation of immune responses ( 7 - 9 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Although its ligands, if any, are currently unknown, functional analyses of the ITIM-containing intracellular domain of FCRL4 indicated that FCRL4 had a profound negative regulatory effect on B cell receptor (BCR) signaling by inhibiting BCR-mediated calcium mobilization, tyrosine phosphorylation of several intracellular proteins, and activation of MAPK Erk and protein kinase B Akt pathways ( 12 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A hierarchy of T-cell activation by MHC class I-restricted altered peptide ligands has been defined using the T-cell receptor P14 specific for H-2D b in complex with the immunodominant lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus peptide gp33 (KAVYNFATM). (diva-portal.org)
  • There are several signaling pathways that the B-cell receptor can follow through. (wikipedia.org)
  • With these cautions in mind, they describe the various signaling pathways and physiological roles ascribed to the three melatonin receptor types. (labome.org)
  • NEMO is important for activation of the transcription factor NF-kB, which mediates signaling pathways for innate and adaptive immune systems including CD40 and other TNF-receptor family members. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • First immunoglobulin to be synthesized during ontogeny and in the immune response. (powershow.com)
  • The immune response is largely dependent upon the properties of the antigen used to develop the vaccine and on the route of administration. (nap.edu)
  • With the development of the adaptive immune response, comes a phenomenon called immunologic memory, an immune defense that can last a lifetime to provide a future defense if re-exposed to the same antigen. (statpearls.com)
  • IKK/NF-κB Transcription Factor Pathway: CD79 and other proteins, microsignalosomes, go to activate PLC-γ after antigen recognition by the BCR and before it goes to associate into the c-SMAC. (wikipedia.org)
  • The body's defence against harmful stimuli or antigens depends on its recognition of those antigens. (news-medical.net)
  • FCAR, also called Fc alpha RI or CD89, is a variably glycosylated 50‑100 kDa myeloid-specific type I transmembrane (TM) Fc receptor for IgA that is a member of the multichain immune recognition receptor (MIRR) family (1‑3). (rndsystems.com)
  • Thus, where in humans the somatic hypermutation step targets the V(D)J recombination process, the target in cows is on the creation of diverse disulfide bonds and the generation of unique sets of loops which interact with antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The strongest effects were observed with the putative inhibitory receptors Fc receptor-like-4 (FCRL4) and sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin 6 (Siglec-6). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These findings on HIV-associated B cell exhaustion define potential targets for reversing the deleterious effect of inhibitory receptors on immune responses against persistent viral infections. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These features include increased expression of multiple inhibitory receptors, as well as poor proliferative and effector responses to a variety of stimuli. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Although inhibitory receptors are critical for the normal function of the immune system, their persistent expression can result in decreased cell function, anergy, and exhaustion, as has been observed in persistent viral infections and autoimmune diseases ( 4 - 6 , 10 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Given its potent immunoregulatory potential, FCRL4 could possibly be a key inhibitory receptor in the B cell dysfunction associated with persistent HIV viremia. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This review focuses on the role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in lupus and on possibilities to treat lupus using TLR modulating inhibitory oligodeoxynucleotides (INH-ODNs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • ab136585 - Rat monoclonal IgG2b, is suitable for use as an isotype control with this antibody. (abcam.com)
  • Expansion of CD8 + Teffs is observed with both the IgG2a and IgG2b anti-CTLA-4 isotypes, resulting in a superior Teff to Treg ratio for the IgG2a isotype. (aacrjournals.org)