Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
Abnormal immunoglobulins characteristic of MULTIPLE MYELOMA.
The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.
That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.
Genes encoding the different subunits of the IMMUNOGLOBULINS, for example the IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN GENES and the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES. The heavy and light immunoglobulin genes are present as gene segments in the germline cells. The completed genes are created when the segments are shuffled and assembled (B-LYMPHOCYTE GENE REARRANGEMENT) during B-LYMPHOCYTE maturation. The gene segments of the human light and heavy chain germline genes are symbolized V (variable), J (joining) and C (constant). The heavy chain germline genes have an additional segment D (diversity).
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
One of the types of light chains of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.
Immunoglobulin preparations used in intravenous infusion, containing primarily IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. They are used to treat a variety of diseases associated with decreased or abnormal immunoglobulin levels including pediatric AIDS; primary HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA; SCID; CYTOMEGALOVIRUS infections in transplant recipients, LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC; Kawasaki syndrome, infection in neonates, and IDIOPATHIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA.
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
A form of cutaneous tuberculosis. It is seen predominantly in women and typically involves the NASAL MUCOSA; BUCCAL MUCOSA; and conjunctival mucosa.
Allelic variants of the immunoglobulin light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) or heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) encoded by ALLELES of IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.
The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN M. They have a molecular weight of approximately 72 kDa and they contain about 57 amino acid residues arranged in five domains and have more oligosaccharide branches and a higher carbohydrate content than the heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.
Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Antibodies found in adult RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS patients that are directed against GAMMA-CHAIN IMMUNOGLOBULINS.
Any discrete, presumably solitary, mass of neoplastic PLASMA CELLS either in BONE MARROW or various extramedullary sites.
The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.
One of the types of light chain subunits of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.
Inbred BALB/c mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to be genetically identical to each other, making them useful for scientific research and experiments due to their consistent genetic background and predictable responses to various stimuli or treatments.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
An immunoglobulin which accounts for less than 1% of plasma immunoglobulin. It is found on the membrane of many circulating B LYMPHOCYTES.
The domains of the immunoglobulin molecules that are invariable in their amino acid sequence within any class or subclass of immunoglobulin. They confer biological as well as structural functions to immunoglobulins. One each on both the light chains and the heavy chains comprises the C-terminus half of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN FAB FRAGMENT and two or three of them make up the rest of the heavy chains (all of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN FC FRAGMENT)
Crystallizable fragments composed of the carboxy-terminal halves of both IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fc fragments contain the carboxy-terminal parts of the heavy chain constant regions that are responsible for the effector functions of an immunoglobulin (COMPLEMENT fixation, binding to the cell membrane via FC RECEPTORS, and placental transport). This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.
Calcium and magnesium salts used therapeutically in hepatobiliary dysfunction.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Benzene derivatives which are substituted with three nitro groups in any position.
Gene rearrangement of the B-lymphocyte which results in a substitution in the type of heavy-chain constant region that is expressed. This allows the effector response to change while the antigen binding specificity (variable region) remains the same. The majority of class switching occurs by a DNA recombination event but it also can take place at the level of RNA processing.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
Heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G having a molecular weight of approximately 51 kDa. They contain about 450 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component covalently bound to the Fc fragment constant region. The gamma heavy chain subclasses (for example, gamma 1, gamma 2a, and gamma 2b) of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G isotype subclasses (IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B) resemble each other more closely than the heavy chains of the other IMMUNOGLOBULIN ISOTYPES.
A 15 kD "joining" peptide that forms one of the linkages between monomers of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A or IMMUNOGLOBULIN M in the formation of polymeric immunoglobulins. There is one J chain per one IgA dimer or one IgM pentamer. It is also involved in binding the polymeric immunoglobulins to POLYMERIC IMMUNOGLOBULIN RECEPTOR which is necessary for their transcytosis to the lumen. It is distinguished from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN JOINING REGION which is part of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of the immunoglobulin light and heavy chains.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Specialized Fc receptors (RECEPTORS, FC) for polymeric immunoglobulins, which mediate transcytosis of polymeric IMMUNOGLOBULIN A and IMMUNOGLOBULIN M into external secretions. They are found on the surfaces of epithelial cells and hepatocytes. After binding to IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, the receptor-ligand complex undergoes endocytosis, transport by vesicle, and secretion into the lumen by exocytosis. Before release, the part of the receptor (SECRETORY COMPONENT) that is bound to IMMUNOGLOBULIN A is proteolytically cleaved from its transmembrane tail. (From Rosen et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.
A segment of the immunoglobulin heavy chains, encoded by the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES in the J segment where, during the maturation of B-LYMPHOCYTES; the gene segment for the variable region upstream is joined to a constant region gene segment downstream. The exact position of joining of the two gene segments is variable and contributes to ANTIBODY DIVERSITY. It is distinguished from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN J CHAINS; a separate polypeptide that serves as a linkage piece in polymeric IGA or IGM.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
A chronic form of glomerulonephritis characterized by deposits of predominantly IMMUNOGLOBULIN A in the mesangial area (GLOMERULAR MESANGIUM). Deposits of COMPLEMENT C3 and IMMUNOGLOBULIN G are also often found. Clinical features may progress from asymptomatic HEMATURIA to END-STAGE KIDNEY DISEASE.
Inbred strain A mice are genetically identical descendants of a single founder mouse, produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, primarily used in biomedical research for their genetic uniformity and experimental reproducibility.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
Genes and gene segments encoding the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS. Gene segments of the heavy chain genes are symbolized V (variable), D (diversity), J (joining), and C (constant).
A programmed mutation process whereby changes are introduced to the nucleotide sequence of immunoglobulin gene DNA during development.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN D. They have a molecular weight of approximately 64 kDa and they contain about 500 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component covalently bound to the Fc fragment constant region.
A site located in the INTRONS at the 5' end of each constant region segment of a immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene where recombination (or rearrangement) occur during IMMUNOGLOBULIN CLASS SWITCHING. Ig switch regions are found on genes encoding all five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN ISOTYPES) of IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS.
The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN A. They have a molecular weight of approximately 58 kDa and contain about 470 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component bound covalently to their Fc fragment constant region.
A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.
Serum globulins that migrate to the gamma region (most positively charged) upon ELECTROPHORESIS. At one time, gamma-globulins came to be used as a synonym for immunoglobulins since most immunoglobulins are gamma globulins and conversely most gamma globulins are immunoglobulins. But since some immunoglobulins exhibit an alpha or beta electrophoretic mobility, that usage is in decline.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
The extracellular moiety of the POLYMERIC IMMUNOGLOBULIN RECEPTOR found alone or complexed with IGA or IGM, in a variety of external secretions (tears, bile, colostrum.) Secretory component is derived by proteolytic cleavage of the receptor during transcytosis. When immunoglobulins IgA and IgM are bound to the receptor, during their transcytosis secretory component becomes covalently attached to them generating SECRETORY IMMUNOGLOBULIN A or secretory IMMUNOGLOBULIN M.
Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
An immunologic deficiency state characterized by an extremely low level of generally all classes of gamma-globulin in the blood.
Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Allelic variants of the gamma-immunoglobulin heavy chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN GAMMA-CHAINS) encoded by ALLELES of IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES.
The thin, yellow, serous fluid secreted by the mammary glands during pregnancy and immediately postpartum before lactation begins. It consists of immunologically active substances, white blood cells, water, protein, fat, and carbohydrates.
Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).

Idiotype vaccination using dendritic cells after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for multiple myeloma--a feasibility study. (1/883)

The idiotype (Id) determinant on the multiple myeloma (MM) protein can be regarded as a tumor-specific marker. Immunotherapy directed at the MM Id may stem the progression of this disease. We report here on the first 12 MM patients treated at our institution with high-dose therapy and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) followed by Id immunizations. MM patients received PBSCT to eradicate the majority of the disease. PBSCT produced a complete response in 2 patients, a partial response in 9 patients and stable disease in 1 patient. Three to 7 months after high-dose therapy, patients received a series of monthly immunizations that consisted of two intravenous infusions of Id-pulsed autologous dendritic cells (DC) followed by five subcutaneous boosts of Id/keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) administered with adjuvant. Between 1 and 11 x 10(6) DC were obtained by leukapheresis in all patients even after PBSCT. The administration of Id-pulsed DC and Id/KLH vaccines were well tolerated with patients experiencing only minor and transient side effects. Two of 12 patients developed an Id-specific, cellular proliferative immune response and one of three patients studied developed a transient but Id-specific cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) response. Eleven of the 12 patients generated strong KLH-specific cellular proliferative immune responses showing the patients' immunocompetence at the time of vaccination. The two patients who developed a cellular Id-specific immune response remain in complete remission. Of the 12 treated patients, 9 are currently alive after autologous transplantation with a minimum follow-up of 16 months, 2 patients died because of recurrent MM and 1 patient succumbed to acute leukemia. These studies show that patients make strong anti-KLH responses despite recent high-dose therapy and that DC-based Id vaccination is feasible after PBSCT and can induce Id-specific T-cell responses. Further vaccine development is necessary to increase the proportion of patients that make Id-specific immune responses. The clinical benefits of Id vaccination in MM remain to be determined.  (+info)

DNA vaccination against the idiotype of a murine B cell lymphoma: mechanism of tumor protection. (2/883)

Several studies have shown that immunization with DNA, which encodes the idiotypic determinants of a B cell lymphoma, generates tumor-specific immunity. Although induction of antiidiotypic Abs has correlated with tumor protection, the effector mechanisms that contribute to tumor protection have not been clearly identified. This study evaluated the tumor protective effects of humoral and cellular immune mechanisms recruited by idiotype-directed DNA vaccines in the 38C13 murine B cell lymphoma model. Antiidiotypic Abs induced by DNA vaccination supported in vitro complement-mediated cytotoxicity of tumor cells, and simultaneous transfer of tumor cells and hyperimmune sera protected naive animals against tumor growth. However, in vitro stimulation of immune splenocytes with tumor cells failed to induce idiotype-specific cytotoxicity, and following vaccination, depletion of CD4 or CD8 T cell subsets did not compromise protection. Furthermore, protection of naive recipients against tumor challenge could not be demonstrated either by a Winn assay approach or by adoptive transfer of spleen and lymph node cells. Thus, in this experimental model, current evidence suggests that the tumor-protective effects of DNA vaccination can be largely attributed to idiotype-specific humoral immunity.  (+info)

Regulation of NOD mouse autoimmune diabetes by T cells that recognize a TCR CDR3 peptide. (3/883)

NOD mice spontaneously develop type I diabetes resulting from autoimmune destruction of their insulin-producing beta cells. Among the self-antigens targeted by NOD autoimmune T cells is a peptide, p277, from the sequence of the 60 kDa heat shock protein (hsp60). Common to the anti-p277 T cell populations of NOD mice is an idiotope, C9, that spans the CDR3 region of the C9 TCR. We now report: (i) that the C9 idiotope peptide can be presented directly to anti-C9 anti-idiotypic T cells by C9 T cells, (ii) that spontaneous anti-C9 anti-idiotypic T cell activity falls as disease progresses, but immunization can activate the anti-idiotypic T cells to regulate the autoimmune process, (iii) that the anti-idiotypic T cells secrete IFN-gamma, but appear to control the disease by down-regulating the IFN-gamma produced by the pathogenic population of anti-p277 T cells, (iv) that intrathymic administration of the C9 idiotope peptide at 1 week of age can accelerate the disease, and (v) that administering the p277 target peptide can up-regulate the anti-idiotypic T cells and arrest the disease process. Thus, the development of NOD diabetes can be regulated by a balance between anti-idiotypic and anti-target peptide autoimmunity, and anti-idiotypic regulation can lead to changes in the cytokine secretion of the autoimmune T cells involved in the disease process.  (+info)

Cutting edge: proteasome involvement in the degradation of unassembled Ig light chains. (4/883)

Several studies on disposal of nonsecreted Ig L chains have identified the endoplasmic reticulum as the site of degradation. Here, we examine degradation of a nonsecreted Ig L chain, T15L, and an experimentally endoplasmic reticulum-retained secretion-competent L chain, D16L, in the absence of H chains. We demonstrate that 1) degradation is specifically impaired by the proteasome-specific inhibitors carboxybenzyl-leucyl-leucyl-leucine vinyl sulfone (Z-L3VS) and lactacystin, 2) L chain degradation occurs early in the biosynthetic pathway, and 3) degradation does not require vesicular transport. Our findings indicate that previous assertions of L chain disposal within the endoplasmic reticulum must be modified. To our knowledge, we provide the first direct evidence supporting a new paradigm for removal of nonsecreted Ig L chains via dislocation to cytosolic proteasomes.  (+info)

Neonatal exposure to idiotype induces Schistosoma mansoni egg antigen-specific cellular and humoral immune responses. (5/883)

Exposure of neonatal mice to appropriate, cross-reactive Id (CRI) preparations alters immune responsiveness, ameliorates pathology, and prolongs survival of animals upon subsequent Schistosoma mansoni infection. However, because schistosome infections profoundly affect host immunobiology, which responses are effected by neonatal Id exposure alone and which responses are influenced by infection is unclear. To directly examine the schistosome soluble egg Ag (SEA)-specific immune responses altered by CRI exposure, neonatal mice were injected with CRI-expressing (CRI+) SEA-specific Ab preparations, SEA-specific Abs that did not express CRI (CRI-), or normal mouse Ig. At 9 wk of age, only mice that were neonatally exposed to CRI+ anti-SEA Abs displayed significant SEA-specific IgG serum levels and spleen cell proliferative responses. SEA-stimulated spleen cells from these CRI+-exposed mice also produced IFN-gamma, although not at significantly higher levels than mice receiving CRI- Id or normal mouse Ig. If CRI+-exposed mice were also injected with SEA at 8 wk of age, the 9-wk IFN-gamma responses were significantly higher than those of the other neonatal injection groups. The presence of both CRI and anti-CRI in the sera of animals neonatally injected with CRI, but receiving no exposure to S. mansoni Ags or infection, suggested a functional idiotypic network led to these responses. These data demonstrate that appropriate idiotypic exposure induces B and T cell responsiveness to the Ag recognized by the Id and support the hypothesis that neonatal idiotypic exposure can be an important immunoregulatory factor in schistosomiasis.  (+info)

Idiotype vaccination in human myeloma: generation of tumor-specific immune responses after high-dose chemotherapy. (6/883)

Igs contain unique portions, collectively termed idiotypes (Id), that can be recognized by the immune system. Id expressed by tumor cells in B-cell malignancies can be regarded as tumor-specific antigens and a target for vaccine immunotherapy. We have started a vaccination trial in multiple myeloma (MM) using Id-specific proteins conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) as immunogens and low doses of subcutaneous granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or interleukin-2 (IL-2) as immunoadjuvants. Twelve patients who had previously been treated with high-dose chemotherapy followed by peripheral blood progenitor cell (PBPC) transplantation entered this study from August 1995 to January 1998. All patients were in first remission at the time of vaccination. They received subcutaneous injections of Id vaccines and immunoadjuvants in an outpatient setting. The generation of Id-specific T-cell proliferative responses was documented in 2 patients, whereas a positive Id-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction was observed in 8 of the 10 patients studied. DTH specificity was confirmed in 1 patient by investigating the reactivity to synthetic peptides derived from the VDJ sequence of the tumor-specific Ig heavy chain. None of the patients generated soluble immune responses to Id, whereas the generation of soluble and cellular immune responses to KLH was observed in 100% and 80%, respectively. Eleven patients completed the treatment, whereas 1 patient failed to finish owing to progression of disease. Freedom from disease progression (FFDP), measured from the date of first Id/KLH injection to the date of first treatment after vaccination or last follow-up, ranged from 9 to 36 months. These data indicate that the immune competence status of MM patients is still susceptible to specific immunization after high-dose chemotherapy and PBPC transplantation. It remains to be determined whether generation of Id-specific immune responses can reduce the relapse rate of patients with minimal residual disease.  (+info)

scFv multimers of the anti-neuraminidase antibody NC10: length of the linker between VH and VL domains dictates precisely the transition between diabodies and triabodies. (7/883)

Single-chain Fv antibody fragments (scFvs) incorporate a polypeptide linker to tether the VH and VL domains together. An scFv molecule with a linker 5-12 residues long cannot fold into a functional Fv domain and instead associates with a second scFv molecule to form a bivalent dimer (diabody). Direct ligation of VH and VL domains further restricts association and forces three scFv molecules to associate into a trivalent trimer (triabody). We have defined the effect of linker length on scFv association by constructing a series of scFvs from anti-neuraminidase antibody NC10 in which the linker varied from one to four glycine residues. NC10 scFv molecules containing linkers of three and four residues showed a strong preference for dimer formation (diabodies), whereas a linker length of one or two glycine residues prevented the formation of diabodies and directed scFv association into trimers (triabodies). The data suggest a relatively strict transition from dimer (diabody) to trimer (triabody) upon reduction of the linker length from three to two glycine residues. Modelling studies are consistent with three residues as the minimum linker length compatible with diabody formation. Electron microscope images of complexes formed between the NC10 scFv multimers and an anti-idiotype Fab' showed that the dimer was bivalent for antigen binding and the trimer was trivalent.  (+info)

Molecular and idiotypic analyses of the antibody response to Cryptococcus neoformans glucuronoxylomannan-protein conjugate vaccine in autoimmune and nonautoimmune mice. (8/883)

The antibody response to Cryptococcus neoformans capsular glucuronoxylomannan (GXM) in BALB/c mice frequently expresses the 2H1 idiotype (Id) and is restricted in variable gene usage. This study examined the immunogenicity of GXM-protein conjugates, V (variable)-region usage, and 2H1 Id expression in seven mouse strains: BALB/c, C57BL/6, A/J, C3H, NZB, NZW, and (NZB x NZW)F(1) (NZB/W). All mouse strains responded to vaccination with GXM conjugated to tetanus toxoid (TT), the relative magnitude of the antibody response being BALB/c approximately C3H > C57BL/6 approximately NZB approximately NZW approximately NZB/W > A/J. Analysis of serum antibody responses to GXM with polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies to the 2H1 Id revealed significant inter- and intrastrain differences in idiotype expression. Thirteen monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) (two immunoglobulin M [IgM], three IgG3, one IgG1, three IgG2a, two IgG2b, and two IgA) to GXM were generated from one NZB/W mouse and one C3H/He mouse. The MAbs from the NZB/W mouse were all 2H1 Id positive (Id(+)) and structurally similar to those previously generated in BALB/c mice, including the usage of a V(H) from the 7183 family and Vkappa5.1. Administration of both 2H1 Id(+) and Id(-) MAbs from NZB/W and C3H/H3 mice prolonged survival in a mouse model of cryptococcosis. Our results demonstrate (i) that V-region restriction as indicated by the 2H1 Id is a feature of both primary and secondary responses of several mouse strains; and (ii) that there is conservation of V-region usage and length of the third complementarity-determining region in antibodies from three mouse strains. The results suggest that V-region restriction is a result of antibody structural requirements necessary for binding an immunodominant antigen in GXM.  (+info)

Immunoglobulin idiotypes refer to the unique antigenic determinants found on the variable regions of an immunoglobulin (antibody) molecule. These determinants are specific to each individual antibody and can be used to distinguish between different antibodies produced by a single individual or between antibodies produced by different individuals.

The variable region of an antibody is responsible for recognizing and binding to a specific antigen. The amino acid sequence in this region varies between different antibodies, and it is these variations that give rise to the unique idiotypes. Idiotypes can be used as markers to study the immune response, including the clonal selection and affinity maturation of B cells during an immune response.

Immunoglobulin idiotypes are also important in the development of monoclonal antibodies for therapeutic use. By identifying and isolating a specific antibody with the desired idiotype, it is possible to produce large quantities of identical antibodies that can be used to treat various diseases, including cancer and autoimmune disorders.

Immunoglobulins (Igs), also known as antibodies, are glycoprotein molecules produced by the immune system's B cells in response to the presence of foreign substances, such as bacteria, viruses, and toxins. These Y-shaped proteins play a crucial role in identifying and neutralizing pathogens and other antigens, thereby protecting the body against infection and disease.

Immunoglobulins are composed of four polypeptide chains: two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains, held together by disulfide bonds. The variable regions of these chains form the antigen-binding sites, which recognize and bind to specific epitopes on antigens. Based on their heavy chain type, immunoglobulins are classified into five main isotypes or classes: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Each class has distinct functions in the immune response, such as providing protection in different body fluids and tissues, mediating hypersensitivity reactions, and aiding in the development of immunological memory.

In medical settings, immunoglobulins can be administered therapeutically to provide passive immunity against certain diseases or to treat immune deficiencies, autoimmune disorders, and other conditions that may benefit from immunomodulation.

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of antibody, which is a protective protein produced by the immune system in response to foreign substances like bacteria or viruses. IgG is the most abundant type of antibody in human blood, making up about 75-80% of all antibodies. It is found in all body fluids and plays a crucial role in fighting infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and toxins.

IgG has several important functions:

1. Neutralization: IgG can bind to the surface of bacteria or viruses, preventing them from attaching to and infecting human cells.
2. Opsonization: IgG coats the surface of pathogens, making them more recognizable and easier for immune cells like neutrophils and macrophages to phagocytose (engulf and destroy) them.
3. Complement activation: IgG can activate the complement system, a group of proteins that work together to help eliminate pathogens from the body. Activation of the complement system leads to the formation of the membrane attack complex, which creates holes in the cell membranes of bacteria, leading to their lysis (destruction).
4. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC): IgG can bind to immune cells like natural killer (NK) cells and trigger them to release substances that cause target cells (such as virus-infected or cancerous cells) to undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death).
5. Immune complex formation: IgG can form immune complexes with antigens, which can then be removed from the body through various mechanisms, such as phagocytosis by immune cells or excretion in urine.

IgG is a critical component of adaptive immunity and provides long-lasting protection against reinfection with many pathogens. It has four subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) that differ in their structure, function, and distribution in the body.

Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is a type of antibody that is primarily found in the blood and lymph fluid. It is the first antibody to be produced in response to an initial exposure to an antigen, making it an important part of the body's primary immune response. IgM antibodies are large molecules that are composed of five basic units, giving them a pentameric structure. They are primarily found on the surface of B cells as membrane-bound immunoglobulins (mlgM), where they function as receptors for antigens. Once an mlgM receptor binds to an antigen, it triggers the activation and differentiation of the B cell into a plasma cell that produces and secretes large amounts of soluble IgM antibodies.

IgM antibodies are particularly effective at agglutination (clumping) and complement activation, which makes them important in the early stages of an immune response to help clear pathogens from the bloodstream. However, they are not as stable or long-lived as other types of antibodies, such as IgG, and their levels tend to decline after the initial immune response has occurred.

In summary, Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is a type of antibody that plays a crucial role in the primary immune response to antigens by agglutination and complement activation. It is primarily found in the blood and lymph fluid, and it is produced by B cells after they are activated by an antigen.

Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is a type of antibody that plays a crucial role in the immune function of the human body. It is primarily found in external secretions, such as saliva, tears, breast milk, and sweat, as well as in mucous membranes lining the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. IgA exists in two forms: a monomeric form found in serum and a polymeric form found in secretions.

The primary function of IgA is to provide immune protection at mucosal surfaces, which are exposed to various environmental antigens, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and allergens. By doing so, it helps prevent the entry and colonization of pathogens into the body, reducing the risk of infections and inflammation.

IgA functions by binding to antigens present on the surface of pathogens or allergens, forming immune complexes that can neutralize their activity. These complexes are then transported across the epithelial cells lining mucosal surfaces and released into the lumen, where they prevent the adherence and invasion of pathogens.

In summary, Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is a vital antibody that provides immune defense at mucosal surfaces by neutralizing and preventing the entry of harmful antigens into the body.

Anti-idiotypic antibodies are a type of immune protein that recognizes and binds to the unique identifying region (idiotype) of another antibody. These antibodies are produced by the immune system as part of a regulatory feedback mechanism, where they can modulate or inhibit the activity of the original antibody. They have been studied for their potential use in immunotherapy and vaccine development.

Myeloma proteins, also known as monoclonal immunoglobulins or M-proteins, are entire or abnormal immunoglobulin (antibody) molecules produced by a single clone of plasma cells, which are malignant in the case of multiple myeloma and some related disorders. These proteins accumulate in the blood and/or urine and can cause damage to various organs and tissues.

In multiple myeloma, the excessive proliferation of these plasma cells leads to the overproduction of a single type of immunoglobulin or its fragments, which can be detected and quantified in serum and/or urine electrophoresis. The most common types of myeloma proteins are IgG and IgA, followed by light chains (Bence Jones proteins) and, less frequently, IgD and IgM.

The presence and levels of myeloma proteins are important diagnostic markers for multiple myeloma and related disorders, such as monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and Waldenström macroglobulinemia. Regular monitoring of these proteins helps assess the disease's activity, response to treatment, and potential complications like kidney dysfunction or amyloidosis.

Immunoglobulin heavy chains are proteins that make up the framework of antibodies, which are Y-shaped immune proteins. These heavy chains, along with light chains, form the antigen-binding sites of an antibody, which recognize and bind to specific foreign substances (antigens) in order to neutralize or remove them from the body.

The heavy chain is composed of a variable region, which contains the antigen-binding site, and constant regions that determine the class and function of the antibody. There are five classes of immunoglobulins (IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM) that differ in their heavy chain constant regions and therefore have different functions in the immune response.

Immunoglobulin heavy chains are synthesized by B cells, a type of white blood cell involved in the adaptive immune response. The genetic rearrangement of immunoglobulin heavy chain genes during B cell development results in the production of a vast array of different antibodies with unique antigen-binding sites, allowing for the recognition and elimination of a wide variety of pathogens.

Cross reactions, in the context of medical diagnostics and immunology, refer to a situation where an antibody or a immune response directed against one antigen also reacts with a different antigen due to similarities in their molecular structure. This can occur in allergy testing, where a person who is allergic to a particular substance may have a positive test result for a different but related substance because of cross-reactivity between them. For example, some individuals who are allergic to birch pollen may also have symptoms when eating certain fruits, such as apples, due to cross-reactive proteins present in both.

Immunoglobulin light chains are the smaller protein subunits of an immunoglobulin, also known as an antibody. They are composed of two polypeptide chains, called kappa (κ) and lambda (λ), which are produced by B cells during the immune response. Each immunoglobulin molecule contains either two kappa or two lambda light chains, in association with two heavy chains.

Light chains play a crucial role in the antigen-binding site of an antibody, where they contribute to the specificity and affinity of the interaction between the antibody and its target antigen. In addition to their role in immune function, abnormal production or accumulation of light chains can lead to various diseases, such as multiple myeloma and amyloidosis.

The Immunoglobulin (Ig) variable region is the antigen-binding part of an antibody, which is highly variable in its amino acid sequence and therefore specific to a particular epitope (the site on an antigen that is recognized by the antigen-binding site of an antibody). This variability is generated during the process of V(D)J recombination in the maturation of B cells, allowing for a diverse repertoire of antibodies to be produced and recognizing a wide range of potential pathogens.

The variable region is composed of several sub-regions including:

1. The heavy chain variable region (VH)
2. The light chain variable region (VL)
3. The heavy chain joining region (JH)
4. The light chain joining region (JL)

These regions are further divided into framework regions and complementarity-determining regions (CDRs). The CDRs, particularly CDR3, contain the most variability and are primarily responsible for antigen recognition.

Immunoglobulins (Igs), also known as antibodies, are proteins produced by the immune system to recognize and neutralize foreign substances such as pathogens or toxins. They are composed of four polypeptide chains: two heavy chains and two light chains, which are held together by disulfide bonds. The variable regions of the heavy and light chains contain loops that form the antigen-binding site, allowing each Ig molecule to recognize a specific epitope (antigenic determinant) on an antigen.

Genes encoding immunoglobulins are located on chromosome 14 (light chain genes) and chromosomes 22 and 2 (heavy chain genes). The diversity of the immune system is generated through a process called V(D)J recombination, where variable (V), diversity (D), and joining (J) gene segments are randomly selected and assembled to form the variable regions of the heavy and light chains. This results in an enormous number of possible combinations, allowing the immune system to recognize and respond to a vast array of potential threats.

There are five classes of immunoglobulins: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM, each with distinct functions and structures. For example, IgG is the most abundant class in serum and provides long-term protection against pathogens, while IgA is found on mucosal surfaces and helps prevent the entry of pathogens into the body.

Antibody specificity refers to the ability of an antibody to bind to a specific epitope or antigenic determinant on an antigen. Each antibody has a unique structure that allows it to recognize and bind to a specific region of an antigen, typically a small portion of the antigen's surface made up of amino acids or sugar residues. This highly specific binding is mediated by the variable regions of the antibody's heavy and light chains, which form a pocket that recognizes and binds to the epitope.

The specificity of an antibody is determined by its unique complementarity-determining regions (CDRs), which are loops of amino acids located in the variable domains of both the heavy and light chains. The CDRs form a binding site that recognizes and interacts with the epitope on the antigen. The precise fit between the antibody's binding site and the epitope is critical for specificity, as even small changes in the structure of either can prevent binding.

Antibody specificity is important in immune responses because it allows the immune system to distinguish between self and non-self antigens. This helps to prevent autoimmune reactions where the immune system attacks the body's own cells and tissues. Antibody specificity also plays a crucial role in diagnostic tests, such as ELISA assays, where antibodies are used to detect the presence of specific antigens in biological samples.

Immunoglobulin kappa-chains are one of the two types of light chains (the other being lambda-chains) that make up an immunoglobulin molecule, also known as an antibody. These light chains combine with heavy chains to form the antigen-binding site of an antibody, which is responsible for recognizing and binding to specific antigens or foreign substances in the body.

Kappa-chains contain a variable region that differs between different antibodies and contributes to the diversity of the immune system's response to various antigens. They also have a constant region, which is consistent across all kappa-chains. Approximately 60% of all human antibodies contain kappa-chains, while the remaining 40% contain lambda-chains. The relative proportions of kappa and lambda chains can be used in diagnostic tests to identify clonal expansions of B cells, which may indicate a malignancy such as multiple myeloma or lymphoma.

Intravenous Immunoglobulins (IVIG) are a preparation of antibodies, specifically immunoglobulins, that are derived from the plasma of healthy donors. They are administered intravenously to provide passive immunity and help boost the immune system's response in individuals with weakened or compromised immune systems. IVIG can be used for various medical conditions such as primary immunodeficiency disorders, secondary immunodeficiencies, autoimmune diseases, and some infectious diseases. The administration of IVIG can help prevent infections, reduce the severity and frequency of infections, and manage the symptoms of certain autoimmune disorders. It is important to note that while IVIG provides temporary immunity, it does not replace a person's own immune system.

A binding site on an antibody refers to the specific region on the surface of the antibody molecule that can recognize and bind to a specific antigen. Antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the presence of foreign substances called antigens. They have two main functions: to neutralize the harmful effects of antigens and to help eliminate them from the body.

The binding site of an antibody is located at the tips of its Y-shaped structure, formed by the variable regions of the heavy and light chains of the antibody molecule. These regions contain unique amino acid sequences that determine the specificity of the antibody for a particular antigen. The binding site can recognize and bind to a specific epitope or region on the antigen, forming an antigen-antibody complex.

The binding between the antibody and antigen is highly specific and depends on non-covalent interactions such as hydrogen bonds, van der Waals forces, and electrostatic attractions. This interaction plays a crucial role in the immune response, as it allows the immune system to recognize and eliminate pathogens and other foreign substances from the body.

Lupus vulgaris is not related to systemic lupus erythematosus, which is an autoimmune disease. Instead, it's a specific form of cutaneous tuberculosis, a bacterial infection that affects the skin. It's caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria, the same organism responsible for pulmonary tuberculosis and other forms of tuberculosis.

Lupus vulgaris typically occurs in people who have had prior tuberculous infection or those with a weakened immune system. The condition is characterized by slowly growing, reddish-brown or violaceous papules, nodules, and plaques that may ulcerate and form scars. Lesions often have an apple jelly appearance when a glass slide is pressed against them and examined under a dermatoscope.

Lupus vulgaris lesions usually occur on the face, especially the nose, cheeks, and ears, but they can appear on other parts of the body as well. The condition can lead to significant disfigurement if left untreated. Diagnosis typically involves skin biopsy and culture or PCR for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Treatment usually consists of a combination of multiple antituberculous drugs, such as isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide, along with local therapies like surgical excision or laser treatment.

Immunoglobulin allotypes refer to the genetic variations in the constant region of immunoglobulins (antibodies) that are caused by differences in the amino acid sequences. These variations are determined by specific alleles at polymorphic loci on chromosome 14 and 22, which are inherited in a Mendelian fashion.

Immunoglobulin allotypes can be used as markers for ancestry, immune response, and the identification of tissue types in transplantation. They also play a role in the regulation of the immune response and can affect the affinity and specificity of antibodies.

It's important to note that while immunoglobulin allotypes are inherited and do not change over an individual's lifetime, they should not be confused with immunoglobulin isotypes (IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM) which refer to the different classes of antibodies that have distinct structures and functions.

An epitope is a specific region on the surface of an antigen (a molecule that can trigger an immune response) that is recognized by an antibody, B-cell receptor, or T-cell receptor. It is also commonly referred to as an antigenic determinant. Epitopes are typically composed of linear amino acid sequences or conformational structures made up of discontinuous amino acids in the antigen. They play a crucial role in the immune system's ability to differentiate between self and non-self molecules, leading to the targeted destruction of foreign substances like viruses and bacteria. Understanding epitopes is essential for developing vaccines, diagnostic tests, and immunotherapies.

Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a type of antibody that plays a key role in the immune response to parasitic infections and allergies. It is produced by B cells in response to stimulation by antigens, such as pollen, pet dander, or certain foods. Once produced, IgE binds to receptors on the surface of mast cells and basophils, which are immune cells found in tissues and blood respectively. When an individual with IgE antibodies encounters the allergen again, the cross-linking of IgE molecules bound to the FcεRI receptor triggers the release of mediators such as histamine, leukotrienes, prostaglandins, and various cytokines from these cells. These mediators cause the symptoms of an allergic reaction, such as itching, swelling, and redness. IgE also plays a role in protecting against certain parasitic infections by activating eosinophils, which can kill the parasites.

In summary, Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a type of antibody that plays a crucial role in the immune response to allergens and parasitic infections, it binds to receptors on the surface of mast cells and basophils, when an individual with IgE antibodies encounters the allergen again, it triggers the release of mediators from these cells causing the symptoms of an allergic reaction.

B-lymphocytes, also known as B-cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the immune system's response to infection. They are responsible for producing antibodies, which are proteins that help to neutralize or destroy pathogens such as bacteria and viruses.

When a B-lymphocyte encounters a pathogen, it becomes activated and begins to divide and differentiate into plasma cells, which produce and secrete large amounts of antibodies specific to the antigens on the surface of the pathogen. These antibodies bind to the pathogen, marking it for destruction by other immune cells such as neutrophils and macrophages.

B-lymphocytes also have a role in presenting antigens to T-lymphocytes, another type of white blood cell involved in the immune response. This helps to stimulate the activation and proliferation of T-lymphocytes, which can then go on to destroy infected cells or help to coordinate the overall immune response.

Overall, B-lymphocytes are an essential part of the adaptive immune system, providing long-lasting immunity to previously encountered pathogens and helping to protect against future infections.

Immunoglobulin A (IgA), Secretory is a type of antibody that plays a crucial role in the immune function of mucous membranes. These membranes line various body openings, such as the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, and serve to protect the body from potential pathogens by producing mucus.

Secretory IgA (SIgA) is the primary immunoglobulin found in secretions of the mucous membranes, and it is produced by a special type of immune cell called plasma cells located in the lamina propria, a layer of tissue beneath the epithelial cells that line the mucosal surfaces.

SIgA exists as a dimer, consisting of two IgA molecules linked together by a protein called the J chain. This complex is then transported across the epithelial cell layer to the luminal surface, where it becomes associated with another protein called the secretory component (SC). The SC protects the SIgA from degradation by enzymes and helps it maintain its function in the harsh environment of the mucosal surfaces.

SIgA functions by preventing the attachment and entry of pathogens into the body, thereby neutralizing their infectivity. It can also agglutinate (clump together) microorganisms, making them more susceptible to removal by mucociliary clearance or peristalsis. Furthermore, SIgA can modulate immune responses and contribute to the development of oral tolerance, which is important for maintaining immune homeostasis in the gut.

Monoclonal antibodies are a type of antibody that are identical because they are produced by a single clone of cells. They are laboratory-produced molecules that act like human antibodies in the immune system. They can be designed to attach to specific proteins found on the surface of cancer cells, making them useful for targeting and treating cancer. Monoclonal antibodies can also be used as a therapy for other diseases, such as autoimmune disorders and inflammatory conditions.

Monoclonal antibodies are produced by fusing a single type of immune cell, called a B cell, with a tumor cell to create a hybrid cell, or hybridoma. This hybrid cell is then able to replicate indefinitely, producing a large number of identical copies of the original antibody. These antibodies can be further modified and engineered to enhance their ability to bind to specific targets, increase their stability, and improve their effectiveness as therapeutic agents.

Monoclonal antibodies have several mechanisms of action in cancer therapy. They can directly kill cancer cells by binding to them and triggering an immune response. They can also block the signals that promote cancer growth and survival. Additionally, monoclonal antibodies can be used to deliver drugs or radiation directly to cancer cells, increasing the effectiveness of these treatments while minimizing their side effects on healthy tissues.

Monoclonal antibodies have become an important tool in modern medicine, with several approved for use in cancer therapy and other diseases. They are continuing to be studied and developed as a promising approach to treating a wide range of medical conditions.

Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) are a type of autoantibody that target structures found in the nucleus of a cell. These antibodies are produced by the immune system and attack the body's own cells and tissues, leading to inflammation and damage. The presence of ANA is often used as a marker for certain autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), Sjogren's syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, and polymyositis.

ANA can be detected through a blood test called the antinuclear antibody test. A positive result indicates the presence of ANA in the blood, but it does not necessarily mean that a person has an autoimmune disease. Further testing is usually needed to confirm a diagnosis and determine the specific type of autoantibodies present.

It's important to note that ANA can also be found in healthy individuals, particularly as they age. Therefore, the test results should be interpreted in conjunction with other clinical findings and symptoms.

Immunoglobulin mu-chains (IgM) are a type of heavy chain found in immunoglobulins, also known as antibodies. IgM is the first antibody to be produced in response to an initial exposure to an antigen and plays a crucial role in the early stages of the immune response.

IgM antibodies are composed of four monomeric units, each consisting of two heavy chains and two light chains. The heavy chains in IgM are called mu-chains, which have a molecular weight of approximately 72 kDa. Each mu-chain contains five domains: one variable (V) domain at the N-terminus, four constant (C) domains (Cμ1-4), and a membrane-spanning region followed by a short cytoplasmic tail.

IgM antibodies are primarily found on the surface of B cells as part of the B cell receptor (BCR). When a B cell encounters an antigen, the BCR binds to it, triggering a series of intracellular signaling events that lead to B cell activation and differentiation into plasma cells. In response to activation, the B cell begins to secrete IgM antibodies into the bloodstream.

IgM antibodies have several unique features that make them effective in the early stages of an immune response. They are highly efficient at agglutination, or clumping together, of pathogens and antigens, which helps to neutralize them. IgM antibodies also activate the complement system, a group of proteins that work together to destroy pathogens.

Overall, Immunoglobulin mu-chains are an essential component of the immune system, providing early protection against pathogens and initiating the adaptive immune response.

Immunoglobulin (Ig) Fab fragments are the antigen-binding portions of an antibody that result from the digestion of the whole antibody molecule by enzymes such as papain. An antibody, also known as an immunoglobulin, is a Y-shaped protein produced by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign substances like bacteria, viruses, or toxins. The antibody has two identical antigen-binding sites, located at the tips of the two shorter arms, which can bind specifically to a target antigen.

Fab fragments are formed when an antibody is cleaved by papain, resulting in two Fab fragments and one Fc fragment. Each Fab fragment contains one antigen-binding site, composed of a variable region (Fv) and a constant region (C). The Fv region is responsible for the specificity and affinity of the antigen binding, while the C region contributes to the effector functions of the antibody.

Fab fragments are often used in various medical applications, such as immunodiagnostics and targeted therapies, due to their ability to bind specifically to target antigens without triggering an immune response or other effector functions associated with the Fc region.

Autoantibodies are defined as antibodies that are produced by the immune system and target the body's own cells, tissues, or organs. These antibodies mistakenly identify certain proteins or molecules in the body as foreign invaders and attack them, leading to an autoimmune response. Autoantibodies can be found in various autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and thyroiditis. The presence of autoantibodies can also be used as a diagnostic marker for certain conditions.

Rheumatoid factor (RF) is an autoantibody, specifically an immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody, that can be detected in the blood serum of some people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), other inflammatory conditions, and infectious diseases. RF targets the Fc portion of IgG, leading to immune complex formation and subsequent inflammation, which contributes to the pathogenesis of RA. However, not all patients with RA test positive for RF, and its presence does not necessarily confirm a diagnosis of RA. Other conditions can also lead to elevated RF levels, such as infections, liver diseases, and certain malignancies. Therefore, the interpretation of RF results should be considered alongside other clinical, laboratory, and imaging findings for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate management.

A plasmacytoma is a discrete tumor mass that is composed of neoplastic plasma cells, which are a type of white blood cell found in the bone marrow. Plasmacytomas can be solitary (a single tumor) or multiple (many tumors), and they can develop in various locations throughout the body.

Solitary plasmacytoma is a rare cancer that typically affects older adults, and it usually involves a single bone lesion, most commonly found in the vertebrae, ribs, or pelvis. In some cases, solitary plasmacytomas can also occur outside of the bone (extramedullary plasmacytoma), which can affect soft tissues such as the upper respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, or skin.

Multiple myeloma is a more common and aggressive cancer that involves multiple plasmacytomas in the bone marrow, leading to the replacement of normal bone marrow cells with malignant plasma cells. This can result in various symptoms such as bone pain, anemia, infections, and kidney damage.

The diagnosis of plasmacytoma typically involves a combination of imaging studies, biopsy, and laboratory tests to assess the extent of the disease and determine the appropriate treatment plan. Treatment options for solitary plasmacytoma may include surgery or radiation therapy, while multiple myeloma is usually treated with chemotherapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, and/or stem cell transplantation.

Immunoglobulins, also known as antibodies, are proteins produced by the immune system to recognize and neutralize foreign substances like pathogens or antigens. The term "immunoglobulin isotypes" refers to the different classes of immunoglobulins that share a similar structure but have distinct functions and properties.

There are five main isotypes of immunoglobulins in humans, namely IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Each isotype has a unique heavy chain constant region (CH) that determines its effector functions, such as binding to Fc receptors, complement activation, or protection against pathogens.

IgA is primarily found in external secretions like tears, saliva, and breast milk, providing localized immunity at mucosal surfaces. IgD is expressed on the surface of B cells and plays a role in their activation and differentiation. IgE is associated with allergic responses and binds to mast cells and basophils, triggering the release of histamine and other mediators of inflammation.

IgG is the most abundant isotype in serum and has several subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) that differ in their effector functions. IgG can cross the placenta, providing passive immunity to the fetus. IgM is the first antibody produced during an immune response and is primarily found in the bloodstream, where it forms large pentameric complexes that are effective at agglutination and complement activation.

Overall, immunoglobulin isotypes play a crucial role in the adaptive immune response, providing specific and diverse mechanisms for recognizing and neutralizing foreign substances.

Immunoglobulin lambda-chains (Igλ) are one type of light chain found in the immunoglobulins, also known as antibodies. Antibodies are proteins that play a crucial role in the immune system's response to foreign substances, such as bacteria and viruses.

Immunoglobulins are composed of two heavy chains and two light chains, which are interconnected by disulfide bonds. There are two types of light chains: kappa (κ) and lambda (λ). Igλ chains are one type of light chain that can be found in association with heavy chains to form functional antibodies.

Igλ chains contain a variable region, which is responsible for recognizing and binding to specific antigens, and a constant region, which determines the class of the immunoglobulin (e.g., IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, or IgM).

In humans, approximately 60% of all antibodies contain Igλ chains, while the remaining 40% contain Igκ chains. The ratio of Igλ to Igκ chains can vary depending on the type of immunoglobulin and its function in the immune response.

BALB/c is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The strain was developed at the Institute of Cancer Research in London by Henry Baldwin and his colleagues in the 1920s, and it has since become one of the most commonly used inbred strains in the world.

BALB/c mice are characterized by their black coat color, which is determined by a recessive allele at the tyrosinase locus. They are also known for their docile and friendly temperament, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory.

One of the key features of BALB/c mice that makes them useful for research is their susceptibility to certain types of tumors and immune responses. For example, they are highly susceptible to developing mammary tumors, which can be induced by chemical carcinogens or viral infection. They also have a strong Th2-biased immune response, which makes them useful models for studying allergic diseases and asthma.

BALB/c mice are also commonly used in studies of genetics, neuroscience, behavior, and infectious diseases. Because they are an inbred strain, they have a uniform genetic background, which makes it easier to control for genetic factors in experiments. Additionally, because they have been bred in the laboratory for many generations, they are highly standardized and reproducible, making them ideal subjects for scientific research.

Antibody formation, also known as humoral immune response, is the process by which the immune system produces proteins called antibodies in response to the presence of a foreign substance (antigen) in the body. This process involves several steps:

1. Recognition: The antigen is recognized and bound by a type of white blood cell called a B lymphocyte or B cell, which then becomes activated.
2. Differentiation: The activated B cell undergoes differentiation to become a plasma cell, which is a type of cell that produces and secretes large amounts of antibodies.
3. Antibody production: The plasma cells produce and release antibodies, which are proteins made up of four polypeptide chains (two heavy chains and two light chains) arranged in a Y-shape. Each antibody has two binding sites that can recognize and bind to specific regions on the antigen called epitopes.
4. Neutralization or elimination: The antibodies bind to the antigens, neutralizing them or marking them for destruction by other immune cells. This helps to prevent the spread of infection and protect the body from harmful substances.

Antibody formation is an important part of the adaptive immune response, which allows the body to specifically recognize and respond to a wide variety of pathogens and foreign substances.

Immunoglobulin D (IgD) is a type of antibody that is present in the blood and other bodily fluids. It is one of the five classes of immunoglobulins (IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM) found in humans and plays a role in the immune response.

IgD is produced by B cells, a type of white blood cell that is responsible for producing antibodies. It is primarily found on the surface of mature B cells, where it functions as a receptor for antigens (foreign substances that trigger an immune response). When an antigen binds to IgD on the surface of a B cell, it activates the B cell and stimulates it to produce and secrete antibodies specific to that antigen.

IgD is found in relatively low concentrations in the blood compared to other immunoglobulins, and its precise functions are not fully understood. However, it is thought to play a role in the regulation of B cell activation and the immune response. Additionally, some research suggests that IgD may have a direct role in protecting against certain types of infections.

It's worth noting that genetic deficiencies in IgD are not typically associated with any significant immunological abnormalities or increased susceptibility to infection.

Immunoglobulin constant regions are the invariant portions of antibody molecules (immunoglobulins) that are identical in all antibodies of the same isotype. These regions are responsible for effector functions such as complement activation, binding to Fc receptors, and initiating immune responses. They are composed of amino acid sequences that remain unchanged during antigen-driven somatic hypermutation, allowing them to interact with various components of the immune system. The constant regions are found in the heavy chains (CH) and light chains (CL) of an immunoglobulin molecule. In contrast, the variable regions are responsible for recognizing and binding to specific antigens.

Immunoglobulin Fc fragments are the crystallizable fragment of an antibody that is responsible for effector functions such as engagement with Fc receptors on immune cells, activation of the complement system, and neutralization of toxins. The Fc region is located at the tail end of the Y-shaped immunoglobulin molecule, and it is made up of constant regions of the heavy chains of the antibody.

When an antibody binds to its target antigen, the Fc region can interact with other proteins in the immune system, leading to a variety of responses such as phagocytosis, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), and complement activation. These effector functions help to eliminate pathogens and infected cells from the body.

Immunoglobulin Fc fragments can be produced artificially through enzymatic digestion of intact antibodies, resulting in a fragment that retains the ability to interact with Fc receptors and other proteins involved in immune responses. These fragments have potential therapeutic applications in a variety of diseases, including autoimmune disorders, inflammatory conditions, and cancer.

A hybridoma is a type of hybrid cell that is created in a laboratory by fusing a cancer cell (usually a B cell) with a normal immune cell. The resulting hybrid cell combines the ability of the cancer cell to grow and divide indefinitely with the ability of the immune cell to produce antibodies, which are proteins that help the body fight infection.

Hybridomas are commonly used to produce monoclonal antibodies, which are identical copies of a single antibody produced by a single clone of cells. These antibodies can be used for a variety of purposes, including diagnostic tests and treatments for diseases such as cancer and autoimmune disorders.

To create hybridomas, B cells are first isolated from the spleen or blood of an animal that has been immunized with a specific antigen (a substance that triggers an immune response). The B cells are then fused with cancer cells using a chemical agent such as polyethylene glycol. The resulting hybrid cells are called hybridomas and are grown in culture medium, where they can be selected for their ability to produce antibodies specific to the antigen of interest. These antibody-producing hybridomas can then be cloned to produce large quantities of monoclonal antibodies.

An antigen-antibody reaction is a specific immune response that occurs when an antigen (a foreign substance, such as a protein or polysaccharide on the surface of a bacterium or virus) comes into contact with a corresponding antibody (a protective protein produced by the immune system in response to the antigen). The antigen and antibody bind together, forming an antigen-antibody complex. This interaction can neutralize the harmful effects of the antigen, mark it for destruction by other immune cells, or activate complement proteins to help eliminate the antigen from the body. Antigen-antibody reactions are a crucial part of the adaptive immune response and play a key role in the body's defense against infection and disease.

A hapten is a small molecule that can elicit an immune response only when it is attached to a larger carrier protein. On its own, a hapten is too small to be recognized by the immune system as a foreign substance. However, when it binds to a carrier protein, it creates a new antigenic site that can be detected by the immune system. This process is known as haptenization.

Haptens are important in the study of immunology and allergies because they can cause an allergic response when they bind to proteins in the body. For example, certain chemicals found in cosmetics, drugs, or industrial products can act as haptens and trigger an allergic reaction when they come into contact with the skin or mucous membranes. The resulting immune response can cause symptoms such as rash, itching, or inflammation.

Haptens can also be used in the development of vaccines and diagnostic tests, where they are attached to carrier proteins to stimulate an immune response and produce specific antibodies that can be measured or used for therapy.

Phosphorylcholine is not a medical condition or disease, but rather a chemical compound. It is the choline ester of phosphoric acid, and it plays an important role in the structure and function of cell membranes. Phosphorylcholine is also found in certain types of lipoproteins, including low-density lipoprotein (LDL) or "bad" cholesterol.

In the context of medical research and therapy, phosphorylcholine has been studied for its potential role in various diseases, such as atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and other inflammatory conditions. Some studies have suggested that phosphorylcholine may contribute to the development of these diseases by promoting inflammation and immune responses. However, more research is needed to fully understand the role of phosphorylcholine in human health and disease.

An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is a type of analytical biochemistry assay used to detect and quantify the presence of a substance, typically a protein or peptide, in a liquid sample. It takes its name from the enzyme-linked antibodies used in the assay.

In an ELISA, the sample is added to a well containing a surface that has been treated to capture the target substance. If the target substance is present in the sample, it will bind to the surface. Next, an enzyme-linked antibody specific to the target substance is added. This antibody will bind to the captured target substance if it is present. After washing away any unbound material, a substrate for the enzyme is added. If the enzyme is present due to its linkage to the antibody, it will catalyze a reaction that produces a detectable signal, such as a color change or fluorescence. The intensity of this signal is proportional to the amount of target substance present in the sample, allowing for quantification.

ELISAs are widely used in research and clinical settings to detect and measure various substances, including hormones, viruses, and bacteria. They offer high sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility, making them a reliable choice for many applications.

'Immune sera' refers to the serum fraction of blood that contains antibodies produced in response to an antigenic stimulus, such as a vaccine or an infection. These antibodies are proteins known as immunoglobulins, which are secreted by B cells (a type of white blood cell) and can recognize and bind to specific antigens. Immune sera can be collected from an immunized individual and used as a source of passive immunity to protect against infection or disease. It is often used in research and diagnostic settings to identify or measure the presence of specific antigens or antibodies.

Trinitrobenzenes are not typically referred to in the context of medical definitions, as they are chemical compounds that do not have direct relevance to medical fields. However, I can provide you with some general information about trinitrobenzenes.

Trinitrobenzenes are a group of chemical compounds consisting of a benzene ring (a cyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) with three nitro groups (-NO2) attached to it. The most common and well-known compound in this group is 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNB). These compounds are highly explosive and have been used in military and industrial applications for their energetic properties.

In a medical or clinical context, trinitrobenzenes may be encountered only if someone is exposed to these chemicals in an occupational or accidental setting. Exposure can lead to local skin irritation, eye damage, or respiratory issues. Chronic exposure or high-dose acute exposure might cause more severe health problems, including damage to the liver and kidneys. However, trinitrobenzenes are not used as therapeutic agents or diagnostic tools in medicine.

Immunoglobulin class switching, also known as isotype switching or class switch recombination (CSR), is a biological process that occurs in B lymphocytes as part of the adaptive immune response. This mechanism allows a mature B cell to change the type of antibody it produces from one class to another (e.g., from IgM to IgG, IgA, or IgE) while keeping the same antigen-binding specificity.

During immunoglobulin class switching, the constant region genes of the heavy chain undergo a DNA recombination event, which results in the deletion of the original constant region exons and the addition of new constant region exons downstream. This switch allows the B cell to express different effector functions through the production of antibodies with distinct constant regions, tailoring the immune response to eliminate pathogens more effectively. The process is regulated by various cytokines and signals from T cells and is critical for mounting an effective humoral immune response.

An antigen-antibody complex is a type of immune complex that forms when an antibody binds to a specific antigen. An antigen is any substance that triggers an immune response, while an antibody is a protein produced by the immune system to neutralize or destroy foreign substances like antigens.

When an antibody binds to an antigen, it forms a complex that can be either soluble or insoluble. Soluble complexes are formed when the antigen is small and can move freely through the bloodstream. Insoluble complexes, on the other hand, are formed when the antigen is too large to move freely, such as when it is part of a bacterium or virus.

The formation of antigen-antibody complexes plays an important role in the immune response. Once formed, these complexes can be recognized and cleared by other components of the immune system, such as phagocytes, which help to prevent further damage to the body. However, in some cases, the formation of large numbers of antigen-antibody complexes can lead to inflammation and tissue damage, contributing to the development of certain autoimmune diseases.

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) gamma chains are the heavy, constant region proteins found in IgG immunoglobulins, which are a type of antibody. These gamma chains are composed of four subunits - two heavy chains and two light chains - and play a crucial role in the immune response by recognizing and binding to specific antigens, such as pathogens or foreign substances.

IgG is the most abundant type of antibody in human serum and provides long-term immunity against bacterial and viral infections. The gamma chains contain a region that binds to Fc receptors found on various immune cells, which facilitates the destruction of pathogens or foreign substances. Additionally, IgG can cross the placenta, providing passive immunity to the fetus.

Abnormalities in the production or function of IgG gamma chains can lead to various immunodeficiency disorders, such as X-linked agammaglobulinemia, which is characterized by a lack of functional B cells and low levels of IgG antibodies.

Immunoglobulin J-chains are small protein structures that play a role in the assembly and structure of certain types of antibodies, specifically IgM and IgA. The J-chain is a polypeptide chain that contains multiple cysteine residues, which allow it to form disulfide bonds with the heavy chains of IgM and IgA molecules.

In IgM antibodies, the J-chain helps to link the five identical heavy chain units together to form a pentameric structure. In IgA antibodies, the J-chain links two dimeric structures together to form a tetrameric structure. This polymerization of IgM and IgA molecules is important for their function in the immune system, as it allows them to form large complexes that can effectively agglutinate and neutralize pathogens.

The J-chain is synthesized by a specialized group of B cells called plasma cells, which are responsible for producing and secreting antibodies. Once synthesized, the J-chain is covalently linked to the heavy chains of IgM or IgA molecules during their assembly in the endoplasmic reticulum of the plasma cell.

Overall, the Immunoglobulin J-chain plays a crucial role in the structure and function of certain classes of antibodies, contributing to their ability to effectively combat pathogens and protect the body from infection.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Rabbits" is a common name used to refer to the Lagomorpha species, particularly members of the family Leporidae. They are small mammals known for their long ears, strong legs, and quick reproduction.

However, if you're referring to "rabbits" in a medical context, there is a term called "rabbit syndrome," which is a rare movement disorder characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements of the fingers, resembling those of a rabbit chewing. It is also known as "finger-chewing chorea." This condition is usually associated with certain medications, particularly antipsychotics, and typically resolves when the medication is stopped or adjusted.

Immunoglobulin fragments refer to the smaller protein units that are formed by the digestion or break-down of an intact immunoglobulin, also known as an antibody. Immunoglobulins are large Y-shaped proteins produced by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign substances such as pathogens or toxins. They consist of two heavy chains and two light chains, held together by disulfide bonds.

The digestion or break-down of an immunoglobulin can occur through enzymatic cleavage, which results in the formation of distinct fragments. The most common immunoglobulin fragments are:

1. Fab (Fragment, antigen binding) fragments: These are formed by the digestion of an intact immunoglobulin using the enzyme papain. Each Fab fragment contains a single antigen-binding site, consisting of a portion of one heavy chain and one light chain. The Fab fragments retain their ability to bind to specific antigens.
2. Fc (Fragment, crystallizable) fragments: These are formed by the digestion of an intact immunoglobulin using the enzyme pepsin or through the natural breakdown process in the body. The Fc fragment contains the constant region of both heavy chains and is responsible for effector functions such as complement activation, binding to Fc receptors on immune cells, and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC).

These immunoglobulin fragments play crucial roles in various immune responses and diagnostic applications. For example, Fab fragments can be used in immunoassays for the detection of specific antigens, while Fc fragments can mediate effector functions that help eliminate pathogens or damaged cells from the body.

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disease that can affect almost any organ or system in the body. In SLE, the immune system produces an exaggerated response, leading to the production of autoantibodies that attack the body's own cells and tissues, causing inflammation and damage. The symptoms and severity of SLE can vary widely from person to person, but common features include fatigue, joint pain, skin rashes (particularly a "butterfly" rash across the nose and cheeks), fever, hair loss, and sensitivity to sunlight.

Systemic lupus erythematosus can also affect the kidneys, heart, lungs, brain, blood vessels, and other organs, leading to a wide range of symptoms such as kidney dysfunction, chest pain, shortness of breath, seizures, and anemia. The exact cause of SLE is not fully understood, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic, environmental, and hormonal factors. Treatment typically involves medications to suppress the immune system and manage symptoms, and may require long-term management by a team of healthcare professionals.

Antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the presence of a foreign substance, such as a bacterium or virus. They are capable of identifying and binding to specific antigens (foreign substances) on the surface of these invaders, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Antibodies are also known as immunoglobulins and come in several different types, including IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM, each with a unique function in the immune response. They are composed of four polypeptide chains, two heavy chains and two light chains, that are held together by disulfide bonds. The variable regions of the heavy and light chains form the antigen-binding site, which is specific to a particular antigen.

Immunization is defined medically as the process where an individual is made immune or resistant to an infectious disease, typically through the administration of a vaccine. The vaccine stimulates the body's own immune system to recognize and fight off the specific disease-causing organism, thereby preventing or reducing the severity of future infections with that organism.

Immunization can be achieved actively, where the person is given a vaccine to trigger an immune response, or passively, where antibodies are transferred to the person through immunoglobulin therapy. Immunizations are an important part of preventive healthcare and have been successful in controlling and eliminating many infectious diseases worldwide.

Polymeric immunoglobulin receptors (pIgRs) are specialized cell surface receptors found on the basolateral membrane of epithelial cells, particularly in mucosal surfaces. They play a crucial role in the transport of polymeric immunoglobulins, specifically IgA and IgM, from the bloodstream to external secretions like saliva, tears, breast milk, and gut fluids. This process is known as transcytosis.

The pIgR is composed of a large extracellular domain that binds to the J chain present in polymeric immunoglobulins, a single transmembrane segment, and a short cytoplasmic tail. After binding to the polymeric immunoglobulin, the receptor-immunoglobulin complex is endocytosed, transported across the cell, and then released at the apical surface of the epithelial cells after cleavage by proteases. This results in the secretion of dimeric IgA or pentameric IgM, along with a smaller fragment of the receptor called the secretory component (SC). The SC protects the immunoglobulins from degradation and helps maintain their function in external secretions.

In summary, polymeric immunoglobulin receptors are essential for the protection of mucosal surfaces by facilitating the transport and secretion of polymeric immunoglobulins, primarily IgA and IgM, to maintain immune function and provide a first line of defense against pathogens.

Inbred strains of mice are defined as lines of mice that have been brother-sister mated for at least 20 consecutive generations. This results in a high degree of homozygosity, where the mice of an inbred strain are genetically identical to one another, with the exception of spontaneous mutations.

Inbred strains of mice are widely used in biomedical research due to their genetic uniformity and stability, which makes them useful for studying the genetic basis of various traits, diseases, and biological processes. They also provide a consistent and reproducible experimental system, as compared to outbred or genetically heterogeneous populations.

Some commonly used inbred strains of mice include C57BL/6J, BALB/cByJ, DBA/2J, and 129SvEv. Each strain has its own unique genetic background and phenotypic characteristics, which can influence the results of experiments. Therefore, it is important to choose the appropriate inbred strain for a given research question.

Antibody-producing cells, also known as plasma cells, are a type of white blood cell that is responsible for producing and secreting antibodies in response to a foreign substance or antigen. These cells are derived from B lymphocytes, which become activated upon encountering an antigen and differentiate into plasma cells.

Once activated, plasma cells can produce large amounts of specific antibodies that bind to the antigen, marking it for destruction by other immune cells. Antibody-producing cells play a crucial role in the body's humoral immune response, which helps protect against infection and disease.

The Immunoglobulin Joining Region (IgJ or J chain) is a polypeptide chain that is a component of certain immunoglobulins, specifically IgM and IgA. The J chain plays a crucial role in the polymerization of these immunoglobulins, allowing them to form higher-order structures such as pentamers (in the case of IgM) or dimers (in the case of IgA). This polymerization is important for the functioning of these immunoglobulins in the immune response. The J chain contains multiple cysteine residues that form disulfide bonds with each other and with the heavy chains of the immunoglobulin molecules, helping to stabilize the polymeric structure.

Bacterial antibodies are a type of antibodies produced by the immune system in response to an infection caused by bacteria. These antibodies are proteins that recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of the bacterial cells, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Bacterial antibodies can be classified into several types based on their structure and function, including IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE. They play a crucial role in the body's defense against bacterial infections and provide immunity to future infections with the same bacteria.

The spleen is an organ in the upper left side of the abdomen, next to the stomach and behind the ribs. It plays multiple supporting roles in the body:

1. It fights infection by acting as a filter for the blood. Old red blood cells are recycled in the spleen, and platelets and white blood cells are stored there.
2. The spleen also helps to control the amount of blood in the body by removing excess red blood cells and storing platelets.
3. It has an important role in immune function, producing antibodies and removing microorganisms and damaged red blood cells from the bloodstream.

The spleen can be removed without causing any significant problems, as other organs take over its functions. This is known as a splenectomy and may be necessary if the spleen is damaged or diseased.

Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests are a type of serological assay used in medical laboratories to detect and measure the amount of antibodies present in a patient's serum. These tests are commonly used to diagnose viral infections, such as influenza or HIV, by identifying the presence of antibodies that bind to specific viral antigens and prevent hemagglutination (the agglutination or clumping together of red blood cells).

In an HI test, a small amount of the patient's serum is mixed with a known quantity of the viral antigen, which has been treated to attach to red blood cells. If the patient's serum contains antibodies that bind to the viral antigen, they will prevent the antigen from attaching to the red blood cells and inhibit hemagglutination. The degree of hemagglutination inhibition can be measured and used to estimate the amount of antibody present in the patient's serum.

HI tests are relatively simple and inexpensive to perform, but they have some limitations. For example, they may not detect early-stage infections before the body has had a chance to produce antibodies, and they may not be able to distinguish between different strains of the same virus. Nonetheless, HI tests remain an important tool for diagnosing viral infections and monitoring immune responses to vaccination or infection.

IGA glomerulonephritis (also known as Berger's disease) is a type of glomerulonephritis, which is a condition characterized by inflammation of the glomeruli, the tiny filtering units in the kidneys. In IgA glomerulonephritis, the immune system produces an abnormal amount of IgA antibodies, which deposit in the glomeruli and cause inflammation. This can lead to symptoms such as blood in the urine, protein in the urine, and swelling in the legs and feet. In some cases, it can also lead to kidney failure. The exact cause of IgA glomerulonephritis is not known, but it is often associated with other conditions such as infections, autoimmune diseases, and certain medications.

Inbred A mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings. This results in a high degree of genetic similarity among individuals within the strain, making them useful for research purposes where a consistent genetic background is desired. The Inbred A strain is maintained through continued brother-sister mating. It's important to note that while these mice are called "Inbred A," the designation does not refer to any specific medical condition or characteristic. Instead, it refers to the breeding practices used to create and maintain this particular strain of laboratory mice.

T-lymphocytes, also known as T-cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the adaptive immune system's response to infection. They are produced in the bone marrow and mature in the thymus gland. There are several different types of T-cells, including CD4+ helper T-cells, CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells, and regulatory T-cells (Tregs).

CD4+ helper T-cells assist in activating other immune cells, such as B-lymphocytes and macrophages. They also produce cytokines, which are signaling molecules that help coordinate the immune response. CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells directly kill infected cells by releasing toxic substances. Regulatory T-cells help maintain immune tolerance and prevent autoimmune diseases by suppressing the activity of other immune cells.

T-lymphocytes are important in the immune response to viral infections, cancer, and other diseases. Dysfunction or depletion of T-cells can lead to immunodeficiency and increased susceptibility to infections. On the other hand, an overactive T-cell response can contribute to autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammation.

1. Receptors: In the context of physiology and medicine, receptors are specialized proteins found on the surface of cells or inside cells that detect and respond to specific molecules, known as ligands. These interactions can trigger a variety of responses within the cell, such as starting a signaling cascade or changing the cell's metabolism. Receptors play crucial roles in various biological processes, including communication between cells, regulation of immune responses, and perception of senses.

2. Antigen: An antigen is any substance (usually a protein) that can be recognized by the adaptive immune system, specifically by B-cells and T-cells. Antigens can be derived from various sources, such as microorganisms (like bacteria, viruses, or fungi), pollen, dust mites, or even components of our own cells (for instance, in autoimmune diseases). An antigen's ability to stimulate an immune response is determined by its molecular structure and whether it can be recognized by the receptors on immune cells.

3. B-Cell: B-cells are a type of white blood cell that plays a critical role in the adaptive immune system, particularly in humoral immunity. They originate from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow and are responsible for producing antibodies, which are proteins that recognize and bind to specific antigens. Each B-cell has receptors on its surface called B-cell receptors (BCRs) that can recognize a unique antigen. When a B-cell encounters its specific antigen, it becomes activated, undergoes proliferation, and differentiates into plasma cells that secrete large amounts of antibodies to neutralize or eliminate the antigen.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

A dose-response relationship in immunology refers to the quantitative relationship between the dose or amount of an antigen (a substance that triggers an immune response) and the magnitude or strength of the resulting immune response. Generally, as the dose of an antigen increases, the intensity and/or duration of the immune response also increase, up to a certain point. This relationship helps in determining the optimal dosage for vaccines and immunotherapies, ensuring sufficient immune activation while minimizing potential adverse effects.

Immunoglobulin heavy chains (IgH) are proteins that make up the framework of antibodies, which are crucial components of the adaptive immune system. These heavy chains are produced by B cells and plasma cells, and they contain variable regions that can bind to specific antigens, as well as constant regions that determine the effector functions of the antibody.

The genes that encode for immunoglobulin heavy chains are located on chromosome 14 in humans, within a region known as the IgH locus. These genes undergo a complex process of rearrangement during B cell development, whereby different gene segments (V, D, and J) are joined together to create a unique variable region that can recognize a specific antigen. This process of gene rearrangement is critical for the diversity and specificity of the antibody response.

Therefore, the medical definition of 'Genes, Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain' refers to the set of genetic elements that encode for the immunoglobulin heavy chain proteins, and their complex process of rearrangement during B cell development.

Somatic hypermutation is a process that occurs in the immune system, specifically within B cells, which are a type of white blood cell responsible for producing antibodies. This process involves the introduction of point mutations into the immunoglobulin (Ig) genes, which encode for the variable regions of antibodies.

Somatic hypermutation occurs in the germinal centers of lymphoid follicles in response to antigen stimulation. The activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) enzyme is responsible for initiating this process by deaminating cytosines to uracils in the Ig genes. This leads to the introduction of point mutations during DNA replication and repair, which can result in changes to the antibody's binding affinity for the antigen.

The somatic hypermutation process allows for the selection of B cells with higher affinity antibodies that can better recognize and neutralize pathogens. This is an important mechanism for the development of humoral immunity and the generation of long-lived memory B cells. However, excessive or aberrant somatic hypermutation can also contribute to the development of certain types of B cell malignancies, such as lymphomas and leukemias.

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the genetic material present in the cells of organisms where it is responsible for the storage and transmission of hereditary information. DNA is a long molecule that consists of two strands coiled together to form a double helix. Each strand is made up of a series of four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - that are linked together by phosphate and sugar groups. The sequence of these bases along the length of the molecule encodes genetic information, with A always pairing with T and C always pairing with G. This base-pairing allows for the replication and transcription of DNA, which are essential processes in the functioning and reproduction of all living organisms.

Immunoglobulin delta-chains (IgD) are a type of heavy chain found in immunoglobulins, which are also known as antibodies. Antibodies are proteins that play a crucial role in the immune system's response to foreign substances, such as bacteria and viruses.

The heavy chains of an antibody consist of four polypeptide regions: the variable region, which varies between different antibodies and is responsible for recognizing and binding to specific antigens; and three constant regions, known as Cμ, Cγ, Cα, or Cδ, which determine the class of the antibody and its effector functions.

IgD heavy chains contain a single Cδ region and are found only in a small subset of antibodies, primarily located on the surface of mature B cells. IgD is co-expressed with IgM on the surface of naive B cells and plays a role in activating the immune response by binding to antigens and initiating signal transduction pathways that lead to B cell activation and differentiation into antibody-secreting plasma cells.

While the function of IgD is not fully understood, it is thought to play a role in regulating the immune response, including modulating allergic reactions and protecting against autoimmunity. Additionally, IgD has been found to have a role in the development and survival of B cells, as well as in the regulation of calcium signaling in B cells.

The Immunoglobulin (Ig) switch region, also known as the switch (S) region or switch area, is a segment of DNA located within the heavy chain constant region (Cμ, Cδ, Cγ, Cε, and Cα) genes of the immunoglobulin locus. These regions are found in chromosome 14 in humans.

The Ig switch regions are crucial for antibody class switching, a process that allows B cells to change the type of heavy chain constant region (Cμ, Cδ, Cγ, Cε, or Cα) expressed in their immunoglobulin, thus modifying the effector functions of the antibodies they produce without altering their antigen specificity. This mechanism enables the immune system to generate a more diverse response against various pathogens and adapt to new challenges.

The switch regions are composed of repetitive DNA sequences that vary in length and sequence between different immunoglobulin isotypes (IgM, IgD, IgG, IgA, and IgE). During class switching, an activated B cell utilizes the enzyme activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) to introduce DNA double-strand breaks within a specific switch region. The broken ends of the DNA are then joined together through a process called class switch recombination (CSR), resulting in the deletion of the intervening DNA and the fusion of the upstream V(D)J region with a new downstream constant region gene, thereby altering the isotype of the expressed antibody.

Immunoglobulin alpha-chains (IgA) are a type of immunoglobulin or antibody that plays a crucial role in the immune system. They are composed of two heavy chains, known as alpha-chains, and two light chains. IgA is primarily found in secretions such as tears, saliva, breast milk, and respiratory and intestinal mucus, where they provide protection against pathogens that enter the body through these surfaces.

IgA can exist in two forms: a monomeric form, which consists of a single IgA molecule, and a polymeric form, which consists of several IgA molecules joined together by a J chain. The polymeric form is more common in secretions, where it provides an effective barrier against pathogens.

IgA functions by binding to antigens on the surface of pathogens, preventing them from attaching to and infecting host cells. It can also neutralize toxins produced by some bacteria and viruses. Additionally, IgA can activate the complement system, a group of proteins that work together to destroy pathogens, and initiate an immune response by recruiting other immune cells to the site of infection.

Deficiencies in IgA are relatively common and usually do not cause any significant health problems. However, in some cases, people with IgA deficiency may develop recurrent infections or allergies.

Dextrans are a type of complex glucose polymers that are formed by the action of certain bacteria on sucrose. They are branched polysaccharides consisting of linear chains of α-1,6 linked D-glucopyranosyl units with occasional α-1,3 branches.

Dextrans have a wide range of applications in medicine and industry. In medicine, dextrans are used as plasma substitutes, volume expanders, and anticoagulants. They are also used as carriers for drugs and diagnostic agents, and in the manufacture of immunoadsorbents for the removal of toxins and pathogens from blood.

Dextrans can be derived from various bacterial sources, but the most common commercial source is Leuconostoc mesenteroides B-512(F) or L. dextranicum. The molecular weight of dextrans can vary widely, ranging from a few thousand to several million Daltons, depending on the method of preparation and purification.

Dextrans are generally biocompatible and non-toxic, but they can cause allergic reactions in some individuals. Therefore, their use as medical products requires careful monitoring and testing for safety and efficacy.

Gamma-globulins are a type of protein found in the blood serum, specifically a class of immunoglobulins (antibodies) known as IgG. They are the most abundant type of antibody and provide long-term defense against bacterial and viral infections. Gamma-globulins can also be referred to as "gamma globulin" or "gamma immune globulins."

These proteins are produced by B cells, a type of white blood cell, in response to an antigen (a foreign substance that triggers an immune response). IgG gamma-globulins have the ability to cross the placenta and provide passive immunity to the fetus. They can be measured through various medical tests such as serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP) or immunoelectrophoresis, which are used to diagnose and monitor conditions related to immune system disorders, such as multiple myeloma or primary immunodeficiency diseases.

In addition, gamma-globulins can be administered therapeutically in the form of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) to provide passive immunity for patients with immunodeficiencies, autoimmune disorders, or infectious diseases.

Antibodies, viral are proteins produced by the immune system in response to an infection with a virus. These antibodies are capable of recognizing and binding to specific antigens on the surface of the virus, which helps to neutralize or destroy the virus and prevent its replication. Once produced, these antibodies can provide immunity against future infections with the same virus.

Viral antibodies are typically composed of four polypeptide chains - two heavy chains and two light chains - that are held together by disulfide bonds. The binding site for the antigen is located at the tip of the Y-shaped structure, formed by the variable regions of the heavy and light chains.

There are five classes of antibodies in humans: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Each class has a different function and is distributed differently throughout the body. For example, IgG is the most common type of antibody found in the bloodstream and provides long-term immunity against viruses, while IgA is found primarily in mucous membranes and helps to protect against respiratory and gastrointestinal infections.

In addition to their role in the immune response, viral antibodies can also be used as diagnostic tools to detect the presence of a specific virus in a patient's blood or other bodily fluids.

"Competitive binding" is a term used in pharmacology and biochemistry to describe the behavior of two or more molecules (ligands) competing for the same binding site on a target protein or receptor. In this context, "binding" refers to the physical interaction between a ligand and its target.

When a ligand binds to a receptor, it can alter the receptor's function, either activating or inhibiting it. If multiple ligands compete for the same binding site, they will compete to bind to the receptor. The ability of each ligand to bind to the receptor is influenced by its affinity for the receptor, which is a measure of how strongly and specifically the ligand binds to the receptor.

In competitive binding, if one ligand is present in high concentrations, it can prevent other ligands with lower affinity from binding to the receptor. This is because the higher-affinity ligand will have a greater probability of occupying the binding site and blocking access to the other ligands. The competition between ligands can be described mathematically using equations such as the Langmuir isotherm, which describes the relationship between the concentration of ligand and the fraction of receptors that are occupied by the ligand.

Competitive binding is an important concept in drug development, as it can be used to predict how different drugs will interact with their targets and how they may affect each other's activity. By understanding the competitive binding properties of a drug, researchers can optimize its dosage and delivery to maximize its therapeutic effect while minimizing unwanted side effects.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Autoantigens are substances that are typically found in an individual's own body, but can stimulate an immune response because they are recognized as foreign by the body's own immune system. In autoimmune diseases, the immune system mistakenly attacks and damages healthy tissues and organs because it recognizes some of their components as autoantigens. These autoantigens can be proteins, DNA, or other molecules that are normally present in the body but have become altered or exposed due to various factors such as infection, genetics, or environmental triggers. The immune system then produces antibodies and activates immune cells to attack these autoantigens, leading to tissue damage and inflammation.

The Secretory Component (SC) is the receptor protein for the Fc region of IgA immunoglobulins. It is also known as the transporter protein, which helps in the transport of polymeric IgA and pentameric IgM across the epithelial cells and into various secretions such as saliva, tears, and milk. The SC plays a crucial role in mucosal immunity by facilitating the local immune defense against pathogens. It is produced by the epithelial cells and can be cleaved from the polymeric IgA to become the free SC, which has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties.

Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) is not a medical term per se, but a biochemical term. It is widely used in medical and biological research. Here's the definition:

Bovine Serum Albumin is a serum albumin protein derived from cows. It is often used as a stabilizer, an emulsifier, or a protein source in various laboratory and industrial applications, including biochemical experiments, cell culture media, and diagnostic kits. BSA has a high solubility in water and can bind to many different types of molecules, making it useful for preventing unwanted interactions between components in a solution. It also has a consistent composition and is relatively inexpensive compared to human serum albumin, which are factors that contribute to its widespread use.

Agammaglobulinemia is a medical condition characterized by a severe deficiency or complete absence of gamma globulins (a type of antibodies) in the blood. This deficiency results from a lack of functional B cells, which are a type of white blood cell that produces antibodies to help fight off infections.

There are two main types of agammaglobulinemia: X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) and autosomal recessive agammaglobulinemia (ARA). XLA is caused by mutations in the BTK gene and primarily affects males, while ARA is caused by mutations in other genes and can affect both males and females.

People with agammaglobulinemia are at increased risk for recurrent bacterial infections, particularly respiratory tract infections such as pneumonia and sinusitis. They may also be more susceptible to certain viral and parasitic infections. Treatment typically involves replacement therapy with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) to provide the patient with functional antibodies.

Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Class II genes are a group of genes that encode cell surface proteins responsible for presenting peptide antigens to CD4+ T cells, which are crucial in the adaptive immune response. These proteins are expressed mainly on professional antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells, macrophages, and B cells. MHC Class II molecules present extracellular antigens derived from bacteria, viruses, and other pathogens, facilitating the activation of appropriate immune responses to eliminate the threat. The genes responsible for these proteins are found within the MHC locus on chromosome 6 in humans (chromosome 17 in mice).

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) allotypes refer to the genetic variations in the constant region of the IgG heavy chain that are caused by differences in amino acid sequences. These variations are inherited and can be used to identify an individual's immune response genes. There are several different IgG allotypes, which are designated as G1m, G2m, G3m, etc., based on the specific antigenic markers present on the heavy chain.

The IgG allotypes play a role in the immune response to infections and immunizations, and they can also influence the development of autoimmune diseases. Some allotypes have been associated with increased susceptibility to certain diseases, while others may provide protection against infection or disease progression.

IgG allotypes are important in forensic science for identification purposes, as well as in transplantation medicine to match donors and recipients. They can also be used in research to study the genetic basis of immune responses and diseases.

Colostrum is the first type of milk produced by the mammary glands of mammals (including humans) after giving birth. It is a yellowish, sticky fluid that contains a higher concentration of nutrients, antibodies, and immune-boosting components compared to mature milk. Colostrum provides essential protection and nourishment for newborns during their most vulnerable period, helping them establish a healthy immune system and promoting optimal growth and development. It is rich in proteins, vitamins, minerals, and growth factors that support the baby's gut health, brain development, and overall well-being. In humans, colostrum is usually produced in small quantities during the first few days after delivery, and its consumption by newborns is crucial for setting a strong foundation for their health.

Fc receptors (FcRs) are specialized proteins found on the surface of various immune cells, including neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, eosinophils, basophils, mast cells, and B lymphocytes. They play a crucial role in the immune response by recognizing and binding to the Fc region of antibodies (IgG, IgA, and IgE) after they have interacted with their specific antigens.

FcRs can be classified into several types based on the class of antibody they bind:

1. FcγRs - bind to the Fc region of IgG antibodies
2. FcαRs - bind to the Fc region of IgA antibodies
3. FcεRs - bind to the Fc region of IgE antibodies

The binding of antibodies to Fc receptors triggers various cellular responses, such as phagocytosis, degranulation, and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), which contribute to the elimination of pathogens, immune complexes, and other foreign substances. Dysregulation of Fc receptor function has been implicated in several diseases, including autoimmune disorders and allergies.

Passive immunization is a type of temporary immunity that is transferred to an individual through the injection of antibodies produced outside of the body, rather than through the active production of antibodies in the body in response to vaccination or infection. This can be done through the administration of preformed antibodies, such as immune globulins, which contain a mixture of antibodies that provide immediate protection against specific diseases.

Passive immunization is often used in situations where individuals have been exposed to a disease and do not have time to develop their own active immune response, or in cases where individuals are unable to produce an adequate immune response due to certain medical conditions. It can also be used as a short-term measure to provide protection until an individual can receive a vaccination that will confer long-term immunity.

Passive immunization provides immediate protection against disease, but the protection is typically short-lived, lasting only a few weeks or months. This is because the transferred antibodies are gradually broken down and eliminated by the body over time. In contrast, active immunization confers long-term immunity through the production of memory cells that can mount a rapid and effective immune response upon re-exposure to the same pathogen in the future.

Immunoglobulins or TCRs with a shared idiotope are the same idiotype. Antibody idiotype is determined by: Gene rearrangement ... In immunology, an idiotype is a shared characteristic between a group of immunoglobulin or T-cell receptor (TCR) molecules ... Allotype (immunology) Isotype (immunology) Immune network theory Immunoglobulin+idiotypes at the U.S. National Library of ... idiotype describes the distinctive sequence and region that makes any immunoglobulin/TCR unique from others of the same type ...
This cell then secretes the unique idiotype, or immunoglobulin antigen characteristic of the individual tumor, which is ...
ROR-1 and the immunoglobulin light-chain idiotype expressed by the individual cancer. CARs targeting either CD33 or CD123 have ... Toxicity against CD19 results in B cell loss in circulation and in bone marrow that can be overcome by periodic immunoglobulin ... Loss of B cells can be countered with immunoglobulin. Startups including Juno Therapeutics exploit the combination of ...
... immunoglobulin idiotypes MeSH D12.776.124.790.651.705.500 - immunoglobulin heavy chains MeSH D12.776.124.790.651.705.500.350 - ... immunoglobulin constant regions MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.680.745 - immunoglobulin idiotypes MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.705 - ... immunoglobulin a MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.619.026.030 - immunoglobulin a, secretory MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.619.026. ... immunoglobulin d MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.619.251.500 - immunoglobulin delta-chains MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.619.312 - ...
... immunoglobulin idiotypes MeSH D23.050.705.115 - antigens, human platelet MeSH D23.050.705.230 - blood group antigens MeSH ...
So, when a full, high-fidelity copy of the idiotype is linked to a foreign protein (KLH), and administered with an immune- ... manufactured with an IgG isotype with each treatment vaccine produced to correspond with the patient's tumor immunoglobulin ... "Idiotype vaccine therapy (BiovaxID) in follicular lymphoma in first complete remission: Phase III clinical trial results". ... This approach is used because there is a unique protein called an "idiotype" expressed exclusively on the cancerous B-cells. ...
Idiotype cross-reaction - Idiotypes are antigenic epitopes found in the antigen-binding portion (Fab) of the immunoglobulin ... Idiotype network theory, proposed by Jerne, wherein a network of antibodies capable of neutralizing self-reactive antibodies ... In this case, the host-cell receptor is envisioned as an internal image of the virus, and the anti-idiotype antibodies can ... Plotz and Oldstone presented evidence that autoimmunity can arise as a result of a cross-reaction between the idiotype on an ...
... immunoglobulin km allotypes MeSH G04.610.626.510 - immunoglobulin idiotypes MeSH G04.610.626.580 - major histocompatibility ... immunoglobulin MeSH G04.610.626.454 - immunoglobulin allotypes MeSH G04.610.626.454.586 - immunoglobulin gm allotypes MeSH ... immunoglobulin class switching MeSH G04.610.626.320.601 - gene rearrangement, b-lymphocyte, light chain MeSH G04.610.626.325 - ... immunoglobulin MeSH G04.742.675.700 - plant tumors MeSH G04.742.800.400 - gravitropism MeSH G04.742.800.700 - phototropism The ...
The structure of immunoglobulin polypeptide chain is dictated and controlled by number of genes encoded in the germ line. ... Allotype (disambiguation) Idiotype Isotype "Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology". University of South Carolina School of ... Immunoglobulin+allotypes at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) (Genetics, Transplantation ... However, it is important to mention that not all variations in immunoglobulin amino acid sequence pose as a determinant ...
Immunoglobulin lambda joining 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IGLJ3 gene. "Human PubMed Reference:". National ... "The anti-DNA-associated idiotype 8.12 is encoded by the V lambda II gene family and maps to the vicinity of L chain CDR1". ... Combriato G, Klobeck HG (June 1991). "V lambda and J lambda-C lambda gene segments of the human immunoglobulin lambda light ... "Entrez Gene: Immunoglobulin lambda joining 3". Paul E, Iliev AA, Livneh A, Diamond B (December 1992). " ...
Idiotype Janeway, CA; Travers, P; Walport, M; et al. (2001). "Immunobiology: The Immune System in Health and Disease. 5th ... In immunology, antibodies (immunoglobulins (Ig)) are classified into several types called isotypes or classes. The variable (V ... Stavnezer, Janet (1996). "Immunoglobulin Class Switching". Current Opinion in Immunology. 8 (2): 199-205. doi:10.1016/s0952- ... Chen, J, Boes, M (1998). "A critical role of natural immunoglobulin M in immediate defense against systemic bacterial infection ...
IgA1 IgA2 Immunoglobulin D (IgD) Immunoglobulin E (IgE) Immunoglobulin G (IgG) IgG1 IgG2 IgG3 IgG4 Immunoglobulin M (IgM) ... antibodies Polyclonal antibodies Autoantibody Microantibody Neutralizing antibody Classification Allotype Isotype Idiotype ... Immunoglobulin heavy chain / Immunoglobulin light chain Co-receptors Stimulatory CD21 CD19 CD81 Inhibitory CD22 Accessory ... IL10RB Immunoglobulin superfamily (Some members) CSF1 CD117 (c-KIT) IL1 receptor family (IL1R) IL1R type 1 (CD121a) IL1R type 2 ...
... immunoglobulin constant regions MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.680.745 - immunoglobulin idiotypes MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.705 - ... immunoglobulin a MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.619.026.030 - immunoglobulin a, secretory MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.619.026. ... immunoglobulin d MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.619.251.500 - immunoglobulin delta-chains MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.619.312 - ... immunoglobulin g MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.619.393.522 - immunoglobulin gamma-chains MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.619.393. ...
D Immunoglobulin E Immunoglobulin G Immunoglobulin heavy chain Immunoglobulin light chain Immunoglobulin M Immunoglobulin Y ... Human leukocyte antigen Humoral immunity Hybridoma technology Hyperimmune globulin Hypersensitive response Idiotopes Idiotype ... Immunofixation Immunogen Immunogenetics Immunogenicity Immunoglobulin A Immunoglobulin class switching Immunoglobulin ...
Immunoglobulin-binding protein - Proteins such as protein A, protein G, and protein L that are capable of binding to antibodies ... Different antibody idiotypes, each have distinctly formed complementarity-determining regions. Allergen - A substance capable ... While antigens are the "target" of antibodies, immunoglobulin-binding proteins "attack" antibodies. T-dependent antigen - ...
Wilson, P. C.; Wilson, K.; Liu, Y. J.; Banchereau, J.; Pascual, V.; Capra, J. D. (2000). "Receptor revision of immunoglobulin ... Evidence that the VH4-21 gene segment is responsible for the major cross-reactive idiotype". Journal of Immunology. 146 (12): ... Hasemann, C. A.; Capra, J. D. (1990). "High-level production of a functional immunoglobulin heterodimer in a baculovirus ... Pascual, V.; Capra, J. D. (1991). Human immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region genes: Organization, polymorphism, and ...
Each immunoglobulin domain has a similar structure, characteristic of all the members of the immunoglobulin superfamily: it is ... In the framework of the immune network theory, CDRs are also called idiotypes. According to immune network theory, the adaptive ... Somatic recombination of immunoglobulins, also known as V(D)J recombination, involves the generation of a unique immunoglobulin ... The membrane-bound form of an antibody may be called a surface immunoglobulin (sIg) or a membrane immunoglobulin (mIg). It is ...
Yewdell J (4 October 2003). "He put the Id in Idiotype". EMBO Reports (Book review). 4 (10): 931. doi:10.1038/sj.embor.embor951 ... Many of the classical molecules of the adaptive immune system (for example, immunoglobulins and T-cell receptors) exist only in ... Saji F, Samejima Y, Kamiura S, Koyama M (May 1999). "Dynamics of immunoglobulins at the feto-maternal interface" (PDF). Reviews ... Housden NG, Harrison S, Roberts SE, Beckingham JA, Graille M, Stura E, Gore MG (June 2003). "Immunoglobulin-binding domains: ...
Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) was used successfully in an infant with IgA-associated autoimmune hemolytic anemia. ... with a distinct idiotype identified by the 9G4 rat murine monoclonal antibody. AIHA can be classified as warm autoimmune ...
In the early 1990s, Bogen and co-workers discovered a new type of collaboration between T and B-cells (Idiotype-driven T-B ... Mar;22(3):371-83.PMID 15780993 Weiss S, Bogen B. (1989) B-lymphoma cells process and present their endogenous immunoglobulin to ... Epub 2007 May 7. PMID 17485509 Lauritzsen GF, Weiss S, Dembic Z, Bogen B. (1994) Naive idiotype-specific CD4+ T cells and ... PMID 10706628 Fredriksen AB, Bogen B. (2007) Chemokine-idiotype fusion DNA vaccines are potentiated by bivalency and xenogeneic ...
Robertson, Miranda (1981). "Genes of lymphocytes II: T-cell receptors, idiotypes and the MHC". Nature. 291 (5812): 187-188. ... Robertson, Miranda (1983). "Tumours of lymphocytes: What happens when cellular oncogenes collide with immunoglobulin genes". ...
... anti-idiotypes' (antigen receptors that react with the idiotype as if it were a foreign antigen). This theory, which builds on ... Antibodies (also known as immunoglobulin, Ig), are large Y-shaped proteins used by the immune system to identify and neutralize ... In antibody responses, B cells are activated to secrete antibodies, which are proteins also known as immunoglobulins. ... Dong Y, Taylor HE, Dimopoulos G (July 2006). "AgDscam, a hypervariable immunoglobulin domain-containing receptor of the ...
... anti-idiotype vaccine - anti-inflammatory - antiandrogen - antiandrogen therapy - anti-angiogenesis - antiangiogenic - antibody ... immunoglobulin - immunological adjuvant - immunology - immunomodulation - immunophenotyping - immunoscintigraphy - ...
Cloning Variable Region Genes Of Clonal Lymphoma Immunoglobulin For Generating Patient-Specific Idiotype DNA vaccine. In: ... Cloning Variable Region Genes Of Clonal Lymphoma Immunoglobulin For Generating Patient-Specific Idiotype DNA vaccine. / Cha, ... title = "Cloning Variable Region Genes Of Clonal Lymphoma Immunoglobulin For Generating Patient-Specific Idiotype DNA vaccine", ... Cloning Variable Region Genes Of Clonal Lymphoma Immunoglobulin For Generating Patient-Specific Idiotype DNA vaccine. ...
Immunoglobulins or TCRs with a shared idiotope are the same idiotype. Antibody idiotype is determined by: Gene rearrangement ... In immunology, an idiotype is a shared characteristic between a group of immunoglobulin or T-cell receptor (TCR) molecules ... Allotype (immunology) Isotype (immunology) Immune network theory Immunoglobulin+idiotypes at the U.S. National Library of ... idiotype describes the distinctive sequence and region that makes any immunoglobulin/TCR unique from others of the same type ...
Immunoglobulin deficiency and idiotype expression in children developing Haemophilus influenzae type b disease after ... had evidence of low immunoglobulin levels (34).. COMBINATION VACCINES. TETRAMUNE{TM}. On March 30, 1993, the Food and Drug ... subnormal immunoglobulin concentrations were present in approximately 40% of those who developed invasive Hib disease (33). ...
Vaccination with syngeneic, lymphoma-derived immunoglobulin idiotype combined with granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating ... I. Role of surface immunoglobulin receptors. Rock, K.L., Benacerraf, B., Abbas, A.K. J. Exp. Med. (1984) [Pubmed] ... Lymphocytes from the spleens and thymuses of leukemic animals were examined for Thy-1 antigen and immunoglobulins on the cell ... cells and/or nonreactive cells lacking both the Thy-1 antigen and immunoglobulins [5]. ...
Immunoglobulin Idiotypes. dc.subject.mesh. Mutation. dc.subject.mesh. Neoplasms. dc.subject.mesh. T-Lymphocytes. ...
Therapy by human immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentrates is a success story ongoing for decades with an ever increasing demand for ... Therapy by human immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentrates is a success story ongoing for decades with an ever increasing demand for ... Immunoglobulin G dimer: an idiotype-anti-idiotype complex. Mol Immunol (1988) 25:41-8. doi:10.1016/0161-5890(88)90088-0 ... Well-tolerated liquid intravenous immunoglobulin G preparations (IVGG) have a low immunoglobulin G dimer (IgG-dimer) content. J ...
Hypogammaglobulinemia: Abnormally low levels of immunoglobulins.. Idiotypes: The unique and characteristic parts of an ... immunoglobulins. Immunoglobulins are proteins, made up of chains of polypeptides, strings of the basic units known as amino ... and these are known collectively as an idiotype. Like any other antigen, an idiotype can trigger complementary antibody. This ... A Web of Idiotypes. The unique and characteristic pocket on an antibody that recognizes a specific antigen-its variable region- ...
Clone Cells, Humans, Immunoglobulin Idiotypes, Lymphocyte Activation, Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, T-Lymphocytes, T-Lymphocytes ...
Immunoglobulin Idiotypes [D23.050.550.750] * Biological Factors [D23] * Biomarkers [D23.101] * Biomarkers, Tumor [D23.101.140] ...
E5.478.594.430.400 Immunoglobulin Idiotypes G2.111.570.60.425.580 Immunohistochemistry E1.450.495.435 E1.370.225.500.607.512 ...
E5.478.594.430.400 Immunoglobulin Idiotypes G2.111.570.60.425.580 Immunohistochemistry E1.450.495.435 E1.370.225.500.607.512 ...
... contains several immunoglobulin-binding domains capable of binding both the Fcγ of IgG antibodies and the Fab of VH3-idiotype ...
Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments. *Immunoglobulin Idiotypes. Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more specific than " ... Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN ... "Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the ...
Idiotype cross-reaction - Idiotypes are antigenic epitopes found in the antigen-binding portion (Fab) of the immunoglobulin ... Idiotype network theory, proposed by Jerne, wherein a network of antibodies capable of neutralizing self-reactive antibodies ... In this case, the host-cell receptor is envisioned as an internal image of the virus, and the anti-idiotype antibodies can ... Plotz and Oldstone presented evidence that autoimmunity can arise as a result of a cross-reaction between the idiotype on an ...
Immunoglobulin Idiotypes. *Major Histocompatibility Complex. *Minor Histocompatibility Loci. *Minor Lymphocyte Stimulatory Loci ... Allelic variants of the immunoglobulin light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) or heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS ... "Immunoglobulin Allotypes" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Immunoglobulin Allotypes" by people in this website by year, ...
43] Three studies demonstrated immunoglobulin (Ig) fractions of antiphospholipid antibody (APLA) or beta2-glycoprotein-1 (B2GP1 ... several studies have shown this anti-annexin-V activity to be limited to the antiphosphatidylserine subgroup antibody idiotype. ...
Patients with hyper-IgM syndrome Hyper-IgM Syndrome Hyper-IgM syndrome is an immunoglobulin (Ig) deficiency characterized by ... anti-idiotype) antibodies can bind; this binding may help regulate B-cell responses. ... Within the V regions, hypervariable regions determine the specificity of the immunoglobulin (Ig). They also function as ... immunoglobulin; L-kappa (κ) or lambda (λ) = 2 types of light chains; VH = heavy chain variable region; VL = light chain ...
Anti-D immunoglobulin (WinRho, 50-75 μg/kg IV) is also as effective as IV immunoglobulin in Rh-positive adults with an intact ... suppressing autoantibody production by providing anti-idiotypes, and stimulating the clearance of autoantibodies. ... Inducing a mild hemolytic state by administering anti-D immunoglobulin (25-50 μg/kg for 2 d) is effective in individuals who ... What is the role of IVIG and anti-D immunoglobulin in the treatment of chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) in adults? ...
Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) contains the pooled immunoglobulin G (IgG) immunoglobulins from the plasma of approximately a ... The high content of anti-idiotypes against autoantibodies in IVIG facilitates its ability to neutralize autoantibodies, as is ... Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) contains the pooled immunoglobulin G (IgG) immunoglobulins from the plasma of approximately a ... encoded search term (Intravenous Immunoglobulin) and Intravenous Immunoglobulin What to Read Next on Medscape ...
Immunoglobulin Idiotypes. *Major Histocompatibility Complex. *Minor Histocompatibility Loci. *Minor Lymphocyte Stimulatory Loci ... Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions coding for the IMMUNOGLOBULIN CHAINS, thereby contributing to ... governs somatic hypermutation in vivo at the immunoglobulin kappa-chain locus. Nat Immunol. 2007 Jul; 8(7):715-22. ...
Immunoglobulins are divided into 5 major types based on the differences in their heavy chain constant regions. These are IgA, ... Immunoglobulins are divided into 5 major types based on the differences in their heavy chain constant regions. These are IgA, ... link to Isotypes, Allotypes, and Idiotypes Isotypes, Allotypes, and Idiotypes. Human antibodies are Y-shaped, tetrapeptide ... Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is one of five isotypes of human immunoglobulins: IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, and IgE. IgE is commonly ...
Immunoglobulin production induced by CD57+ GC-derived helper T cells in vitro requires addition of exogenous IL-2 Eva Andersson ... Relationship of variable region sequence to antigen specificity and rheumatoid factor-associated idiotype expression J. D. ... A point mutation in a murine immunoglobulin V-region strongly influences the antibody yield in Escherichia coli M. Dueñas, M. ... CD4+CD57+ T cells derived from peripheral blood do not support immunoglobulin production by B cells Eva Andersson, Mats Ohlin, ...
Immunoglobulin gene: Genetic basis of creation of antibody diversity, Effect of T cell functions. ... idiotypes. ...
Immunoglobulin Allotypes [G12.500.400] Immunoglobulin Allotypes * Immunoglobulin Idiotypes [G12.500.450] Immunoglobulin ... Genes, Immunoglobulin Entry term(s). Gene, Ig Gene, Immunoglobulin Genes, Ig Ig Gene Ig Genes Immunoglobulin Gene ... Gene, Immunoglobulin. Genes, Ig. Ig Gene. Ig Genes. Immunoglobulin Gene. Immunoglobulin Genes. ... for example the IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN GENES and the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES. The heavy and light immunoglobulin ...
The structure and function of immunoglobulins - antibodies. *Immunoglobulins are protein molecules that are produced by plasma ... New methods: subunit vaccines, anti-idiotype and DNA vaccines.. *Molecular approaches to the development of viral vaccines ...
... and a monoclonal immunoglobulin M (IgM) gammopathy in a concentration of usually less than 10 g/L. Approximately 10-15% of ... The gammonpathy is most often of the immunoglobulin M (IgM) subtype; those with an immunoglobulin G (IgG) monoclonal gammopathy ... Similar idiotypes demonstrated in the skin and on peripheral blood lymphocytes. Acta Med Scand. 1980. 207(5):379-84. [QxMD ... Olsen E, Forre O, Lea T, Langeland T. Unique antigenic determinants (idiotypes) used as markers in a patient with ...
Cryoglobulins are classified into 3 types based on their immunoglobulin (Ig) makeup: I, II and III [3]. Type I cryoglobulins ... which are enriched in VH1C69 and Vk3C20 gene segments that code for any rheumatoid element typically of the Wa idiotype [17]. ... Cryoglobulins are immunoglobulin complexes that precipitate at temperatures less than 37C and redissolve upon rewarming. ...
IgG, immunoglobulin G. reaction between antibodies produced during H. pylori infection and thyroid antigens, leading to ... alteration of the idiotype network, formation of immune complexes, and induction of major histocompatibility complex molecules ... Table 1. Characteristics of the subjects according to Helicobacter pylori immunoglobulin G antibody status Characteristic Age, ... Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to H. pylori were measured as an indication of H. pylori infection. We compared the ...
The mechanisms of action of intravenous immunoglobulin and polyclonal anti-d immunoglobulin in the amelioration of immune ... HLA and anti-idiotype antibodies. Thus, it would not be surprising that the reactions to Anti-D may lead to polarization of ... However, it has been shown that treatment with intravenous immunoglobulins (IvIg) that somewhat resembles Anti-D, may improve ... Modulatory effect of intravenous immunoglobulin on Th17/Treg cell balance in women with unexplained recurrent spontaneous ...
Identification of VH, DH, and JH immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene sequences. For each sequenced immunoglobulin gene ... Kang CY, Cheng HL, Rudikoff S, Kohler H: Idiotypic self binding of a dominant germline idiotype (T15). Autobody activity is ... Clonally related and unrelated sequences over time. The stacked bar graph indicates the numbers of immunoglobulin heavy-chain ( ... Clonal immunoglobulin gene tree construction. FASTA sequences for all of the clonal variant sequences were analyzed and ...
  • New methods: subunit vaccines, anti-idiotype and DNA vaccines. (edu.pk)
  • Patients have shown deposition of IgM in the involved tissue, and using anti-idiotype antibodies, IgM monoclonal antibodies were demonstrated to react with epidermal antigens. (medscape.com)
  • METHODS: In vitro natalizumab arm exchange was conducted, along with peptide mimotope and anti-idiotype surface capture chemistry, to enable the development of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). (bvsalud.org)
  • Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to H. pylori were measured as an indication of H. pylori infection. (docksci.com)
  • Subjects who checked for serum levels of free thyroxine (T4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO-Ab) and H. pylori immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies were included. (docksci.com)
  • Maternal serum was tested for CMV immunoglobulin G antibodies at a median of 10 (interquartile range: 8-12) weeks gestation (n = 1501). (bvsalud.org)
  • The polyclonal antibodies (pAbs) are a collection of antibodies recognizing different epitopes on a given antigen, each idiotype being secreted by a different plasmocyte. (synabs.be)
  • Back in 2000, Symphogen (Servier, since June 2020) decided to launch symphobody Sym001 (Rozrolimupab), a recombinant polyclonal antibody consisting of 25 different anti-Rhesus D (RhD) antibodies to replace existing anti-RhD hyperimmune immunoglobulins for the treatment of Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP) and the prevention of Hemolytic Disease of Newborns (HDN) (1). (synabs.be)
  • Specifically, in the Methods section we describe how to identify lymphoma- associated immunoglobulin V (IgV) genes from patient biopsy and how to assemble these genes as single-chain variable gene fragment (scFv) in-frame with MIP-3α to generate novel DNA fusion vaccines. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Los genes de las cadenas ligeras y pesadas están presentes como segmentos de genes en las células germinales. (bvsalud.org)
  • Genes encoding the different subunits of the IMMUNOGLOBULINS , for example the IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN GENES and the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES . (bvsalud.org)
  • The heavy and light immunoglobulin genes are present as gene segments in the germline cells. (bvsalud.org)
  • The recombination-activating genes (RAGs) encode parts of a protein complex that plays important roles in the rearrangement and recombination of the genes encoding immunoglobulin and T cell receptor molecules. (wikiwand.com)
  • In immunology, an idiotype is a shared characteristic between a group of immunoglobulin or T-cell receptor (TCR) molecules based upon the antigen binding specificity and therefore structure of their variable region. (wikipedia.org)
  • The variable region of antigen receptors of T cells (TCRs) and B cells (immunoglobulins) contain complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) with unique amino acid sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term "idiotype" is sometimes used to describe the collection of multiple idiotopes, and therefore overall antigen binding capacity, possessed by an antibody. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigen affinity purification results in the elimination of the bulk of the non-specific IgG fraction (95 to 99,5% of the all antiserum), and enriches the fraction of immunoglobulin that specifically reacts with the target antigen. (synabs.be)
  • Antibody idiotype is determined by: Gene rearrangement Junctional diversity P-nucleotides (palindromic nucleotides at sites of single-strand breaks) N-nucleotides Somatic hypermutations The word idiotype comes from two Greek roots, idio meaning 'private, distinctive, peculiar' and typos meaning 'mark. (wikipedia.org)
  • He defined idiotype as the set of epitopes on the V region of an antibody molecule, where epitope means an antigenic determinant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions coding for the IMMUNOGLOBULIN CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Immunoglobulin Allotypes" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (umassmed.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Immunoglobulin Allotypes" by people in this website by year, and whether "Immunoglobulin Allotypes" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (umassmed.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Immunoglobulin Allotypes" by people in Profiles. (umassmed.edu)
  • Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) contains the pooled immunoglobulin G (IgG) immunoglobulins from the plasma of approximately a thousand or more blood donors. (medscape.com)
  • Perricone, C. Intravenous Immunoglobulins. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • Intravenous Immunoglobulins" Encyclopedia , https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/7334 (accessed April 20, 2024). (encyclopedia.pub)
  • Intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) are blood preparations pooled from the plasma of donors that have been first employed as replacement therapy in immunodeficiency. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • Intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) are a blood preparation pooled from the plasma of tens of thousands of donors who underwent plasmapheresis in order to obtain a very high concentration of immunoglobulins (Ig). (encyclopedia.pub)
  • Stavnezer J, Sirlin S, Abbott J. Induction of immunoglobulin isotype switching in cultured I.29 B lymphoma cells. (umassmed.edu)
  • Within the V regions, hypervariable regions determine the specificity of the immunoglobulin (Ig). (msdmanuals.com)
  • those with an immunoglobulin G (IgG) monoclonal gammopathy are considered to be a distinct group. (medscape.com)
  • We hypothesize that using idiotypic determinants of a B-cell lymphoma's surface immunoglobulin as a tumor-specific marker, we can develop patient-specific chemokine-idiotype fusion DNA vaccines that induce an immune response against LPL. (elsevierpure.com)
  • The word "idiotype" became influential in immunology when Niels Jerne formulated his immune network theory. (wikipedia.org)
  • The best developed version of immune network theory is called the symmetrical network theory, in which the distinction between idiotype and paratope plays no role. (wikipedia.org)
  • The broad range of applications of IVIG shows the importance of immunoglobulins in the immune homeostasis in healthy people. (medscape.com)
  • The image below is a schematic representation of an immunoglobulin G molecule. (medscape.com)
  • Schematic representation of an immunoglobulin G molecule. (medscape.com)
  • These chemokine- idiotype fusion DNA vaccines provide protection in a lymphoma mouse model and have recently entered clinical trials. (elsevierpure.com)
  • The high content of anti-idiotypes against autoantibodies in IVIG facilitates its ability to neutralize autoantibodies, as is shown in patients with acquired hemophilia due to autoantibodies against factor VIII. (medscape.com)
  • METHODS: We used self-reported data from Zika en Embarazadas y Niños (ZEN), a cohort study of women in early pregnancy across three regions of Colombia during 2017-2018. (bvsalud.org)
  • Thus, idiotype describes the distinctive sequence and region that makes any immunoglobulin/TCR unique from others of the same type which is its variable region. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therapy by human immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentrates is a success story ongoing for decades with an ever increasing demand for this plasma product. (frontiersin.org)
  • [ 3 ] IVIGs are sterile, purified IgG products manufactured from pooled human plasma and typically contain more than 95% unmodified IgG, which has intact Fc-dependent effector functions and only trace amounts of immunoglobulin A (IgA) or immunoglobulin M (IgM). (medscape.com)
  • Since the initial clinical use of immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentrates of human origin, transmission of pathogens and non-infectious adverse events (AEs) were reported ( 1 - 7 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) contains the pooled immunoglobulin G (IgG) immunoglobulins from the plasma of approximately a thousand or more blood donors. (medscape.com)
  • The group of Prof. Dr. Tchavdar Vassilev is a leader in research on immunoregulatory properties of intravenous immunoglobulin preparations. (bas.bg)
  • We and others have previously reported that immunoglobulin G Fc receptor (FcgammaR) polymorphisms predict the clinical response of lymphoma patients to passive anti-CD20 antibody infusions. (nih.gov)
  • Using the TSH binding inhibition IgG (TBII) assay three patients with Graves' disease had been discovered to possess serum TSH-binding immunoglobulins of high affinity. (ecolowood.com)
  • IVIGs are sterile, purified IgG products manufactured from pooled human plasma and typically contain more than 95% unmodified IgG, which has intact Fc-dependent effector functions and only trace amounts of immunoglobulin A (IgA) or immunoglobulin M (IgM). (medscape.com)
  • The high content of anti-idiotypes against autoantibodies in IVIG facilitates its ability to neutralize autoantibodies, as is shown in patients with acquired hemophilia due to autoantibodies against factor VIII . (medscape.com)