The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.
Genes and gene segments encoding the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS. Gene segments of the heavy chain genes are symbolized V (variable), D (diversity), J (joining), and C (constant).
Genes encoding the different subunits of the IMMUNOGLOBULINS, for example the IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN GENES and the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES. The heavy and light immunoglobulin genes are present as gene segments in the germline cells. The completed genes are created when the segments are shuffled and assembled (B-LYMPHOCYTE GENE REARRANGEMENT) during B-LYMPHOCYTE maturation. The gene segments of the human light and heavy chain germline genes are symbolized V (variable), J (joining) and C (constant). The heavy chain germline genes have an additional segment D (diversity).
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the first stage of differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.
The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN M. They have a molecular weight of approximately 72 kDa and they contain about 57 amino acid residues arranged in five domains and have more oligosaccharide branches and a higher carbohydrate content than the heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.
The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
The domains of the immunoglobulin molecules that are invariable in their amino acid sequence within any class or subclass of immunoglobulin. They confer biological as well as structural functions to immunoglobulins. One each on both the light chains and the heavy chains comprises the C-terminus half of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN FAB FRAGMENT and two or three of them make up the rest of the heavy chains (all of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN FC FRAGMENT)
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G having a molecular weight of approximately 51 kDa. They contain about 450 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component covalently bound to the Fc fragment constant region. The gamma heavy chain subclasses (for example, gamma 1, gamma 2a, and gamma 2b) of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G isotype subclasses (IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B) resemble each other more closely than the heavy chains of the other IMMUNOGLOBULIN ISOTYPES.
Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN A. They have a molecular weight of approximately 58 kDa and contain about 470 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component bound covalently to their Fc fragment constant region.
A segment of the immunoglobulin heavy chains, encoded by the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES in the J segment where, during the maturation of B-LYMPHOCYTES; the gene segment for the variable region upstream is joined to a constant region gene segment downstream. The exact position of joining of the two gene segments is variable and contributes to ANTIBODY DIVERSITY. It is distinguished from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN J CHAINS; a separate polypeptide that serves as a linkage piece in polymeric IGA or IGM.
Any discrete, presumably solitary, mass of neoplastic PLASMA CELLS either in BONE MARROW or various extramedullary sites.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Abnormal immunoglobulins characteristic of MULTIPLE MYELOMA.
The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
One of the types of light chains of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Allelic variants of the immunoglobulin light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) or heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) encoded by ALLELES of IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES.
Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions coding for the IMMUNOGLOBULIN CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.
A disorder of immunoglobulin synthesis in which large quantities of abnormal heavy chains are excreted in the urine. The amino acid sequences of the N-(amino-) terminal regions of these chains are normal, but they have a deletion extending from part of the variable domain through the first domain of the constant region, so that they cannot form cross-links to the light chains. The defect arises through faulty coupling of the variable (V) and constant (C) region genes.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Gene rearrangement of the B-lymphocyte which results in a substitution in the type of heavy-chain constant region that is expressed. This allows the effector response to change while the antigen binding specificity (variable region) remains the same. The majority of class switching occurs by a DNA recombination event but it also can take place at the level of RNA processing.
A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.
The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.
A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors generally expressing one or more B-cell antigens or representing malignant transformations of B-lymphocytes.
Immunoglobulin preparations used in intravenous infusion, containing primarily IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. They are used to treat a variety of diseases associated with decreased or abnormal immunoglobulin levels including pediatric AIDS; primary HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA; SCID; CYTOMEGALOVIRUS infections in transplant recipients, LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC; Kawasaki syndrome, infection in neonates, and IDIOPATHIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA.
An immunoglobulin which accounts for less than 1% of plasma immunoglobulin. It is found on the membrane of many circulating B LYMPHOCYTES.
A 15 kD "joining" peptide that forms one of the linkages between monomers of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A or IMMUNOGLOBULIN M in the formation of polymeric immunoglobulins. There is one J chain per one IgA dimer or one IgM pentamer. It is also involved in binding the polymeric immunoglobulins to POLYMERIC IMMUNOGLOBULIN RECEPTOR which is necessary for their transcytosis to the lumen. It is distinguished from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN JOINING REGION which is part of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of the immunoglobulin light and heavy chains.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
One of the types of light chain subunits of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.
The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.
Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A programmed mutation process whereby changes are introduced to the nucleotide sequence of immunoglobulin gene DNA during development.
A site located in the INTRONS at the 5' end of each constant region segment of a immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene where recombination (or rearrangement) occur during IMMUNOGLOBULIN CLASS SWITCHING. Ig switch regions are found on genes encoding all five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN ISOTYPES) of IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN D. They have a molecular weight of approximately 64 kDa and they contain about 500 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component covalently bound to the Fc fragment constant region.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The heavy chain subunits of clathrin.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A chronic leukemia characterized by abnormal B-lymphocytes and often generalized lymphadenopathy. In patients presenting predominately with blood and bone marrow involvement it is called chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL); in those predominately with enlarged lymph nodes it is called small lymphocytic lymphoma. These terms represent spectrums of the same disease.
The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
Three regions (CDR1; CDR2 and CDR3) of amino acid sequence in the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION that are highly divergent. Together the CDRs from the light and heavy immunoglobulin chains form a surface that is complementary to the antigen. These regions are also present in other members of the immunoglobulin superfamily, for example, T-cell receptors (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL).
Allelic variants of the gamma-immunoglobulin heavy chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN GAMMA-CHAINS) encoded by ALLELES of IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES.
Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions coding for the kappa or lambda IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the second stage of differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.
Genes that cause the epigenotype (i.e., the interrelated developmental pathways through which the adult organism is realized) to switch to an alternate cell lineage-related pathway. Switch complexes control the expression of normal functional development as well as oncogenic transformation.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The medium-sized, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group D in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 13, 14, and 15.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN E. They have a molecular weight of approximately 72 kDa and they contain about 550 amino acid residues arranged in five domains and about three times more carbohydrate than the heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; and IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Crystallizable fragments composed of the carboxy-terminal halves of both IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fc fragments contain the carboxy-terminal parts of the heavy chain constant regions that are responsible for the effector functions of an immunoglobulin (COMPLEMENT fixation, binding to the cell membrane via FC RECEPTORS, and placental transport). This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.
Malignant lymphoma in which the lymphomatous cells are clustered into identifiable nodules within the LYMPH NODES. The nodules resemble to some extent the GERMINAL CENTER of lymph node follicles and most likely represent neoplastic proliferation of lymph node-derived follicular center B-LYMPHOCYTES.
The process by which the V (variable), D (diversity), and J (joining) segments of IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES or T-CELL RECEPTOR GENES are assembled during the development of LYMPHOID CELLS using NONHOMOLOGOUS DNA END-JOINING.
Exons that are created in vivo during LYMPHOCYTE maturation from the V, D, and J gene segments of immunoglobulin superfamily genes (e.g., the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES, or the T-CELL RECEPTOR BETA GENES or T-CELL RECEPTOR GAMMA GENES ) by the VDJ RECOMBINASE system.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The common name for all members of the Rajidae family. Skates and rays are members of the same order (Rajiformes). Skates have weak electric organs.
Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.
Specialized forms of antibody-producing B-LYMPHOCYTES. They synthesize and secrete immunoglobulin. They are found only in lymphoid organs and at sites of immune responses and normally do not circulate in the blood or lymph. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989, p169 & Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p20)
A group of disorders having a benign course but exhibiting clinical and histological features suggestive of malignant lymphoma. Pseudolymphoma is characterized by a benign infiltration of lymphoid cells or histiocytes which microscopically resembles a malignant lymphoma. (From Dorland, 28th ed & Stedman, 26th ed)
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
A transcription factor that is essential for CELL DIFFERENTIATION of B-LYMPHOCYTES. It functions both as a transcriptional activator and repressor to mediate B-cell commitment.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Lymphocyte progenitor cells that are restricted in their differentiation potential to the B lymphocyte lineage. The pro-B cell stage of B lymphocyte development precedes the pre-B cell stage.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A malignant disease of the B-LYMPHOCYTES in the bone marrow and/or blood.
Recombinases involved in the rearrangement of immunity-related GENES such as IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES and T-CELL RECEPTOR GENES.
A group of elongate elasmobranchs. Sharks are mostly marine fish, with certain species large and voracious.
Conditions characterized by the presence of M protein (Monoclonal protein) in serum or urine without clinical manifestations of plasma cell dyscrasia.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
An immunolglobulin light chain-like protein composed of an IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION-like peptide (such as light chain like lambda5 peptide) and an IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGION-like peptide (such as Vpreb1 peptide). Surrogate light chains associate with MU IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS in place of a conventional immunoglobulin light chains to form pre-B cell receptors.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Isoforms of MYOSIN TYPE II, specifically found in the ventricular muscle of the HEART. Defects in the genes encoding ventricular myosins result in FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A protein tyrosine kinase that is required for T-CELL development and T-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTOR function.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Specialized Fc receptors (RECEPTORS, FC) for polymeric immunoglobulins, which mediate transcytosis of polymeric IMMUNOGLOBULIN A and IMMUNOGLOBULIN M into external secretions. They are found on the surfaces of epithelial cells and hepatocytes. After binding to IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, the receptor-ligand complex undergoes endocytosis, transport by vesicle, and secretion into the lumen by exocytosis. Before release, the part of the receptor (SECRETORY COMPONENT) that is bound to IMMUNOGLOBULIN A is proteolytically cleaved from its transmembrane tail. (From Rosen et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Serum globulins that migrate to the gamma region (most positively charged) upon ELECTROPHORESIS. At one time, gamma-globulins came to be used as a synonym for immunoglobulins since most immunoglobulins are gamma globulins and conversely most gamma globulins are immunoglobulins. But since some immunoglobulins exhibit an alpha or beta electrophoretic mobility, that usage is in decline.
Extranodal lymphoma of lymphoid tissue associated with mucosa that is in contact with exogenous antigens. Many of the sites of these lymphomas, such as the stomach, salivary gland, and thyroid, are normally devoid of lymphoid tissue. They acquire mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type as a result of an immunologically mediated disorder.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the gamma-chain of antigen receptors.
A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The region of DNA which borders the 3' end of a transcription unit and where a variety of regulatory sequences are located.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A family of North American freshwater CATFISHES. It consists of four genera (Ameiurus, Ictalurus, Noturus, Pylodictis,) comprising several species, two of which are eyeless.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The infiltrating of tissue specimens with paraffin, as a supporting substance, to prepare for sectioning with a microtome.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of cytidine, forming uridine. EC
A family of multisubunit cytoskeletal motor proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power a variety of cellular functions. Dyneins fall into two major classes based upon structural and functional criteria.
Large cells, usually multinucleate, whose presence is a common histologic characteristic of classical HODGKIN DISEASE.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A replication-defective strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) capable of transforming lymphoid cells and producing a rapidly progressing lymphoid leukemia after superinfection with FRIEND MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS; MOLONEY MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS; or RAUSCHER VIRUS.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (myc) originally isolated from an avian myelocytomatosis virus. The proto-oncogene myc (c-myc) codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Truncation of the first exon, which appears to regulate c-myc expression, is crucial for tumorigenicity. The human c-myc gene is located at 8q24 on the long arm of chromosome 8.
Leukemia associated with HYPERPLASIA of the lymphoid tissues and increased numbers of circulating malignant LYMPHOCYTES and lymphoblasts.
A transmembrane glycoprotein subunit that can dimerize with a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS). This protein subunit serves a diverse array of functions including amino acid transport and cell fusion. Its function is altered depending which of the light chain subunits it interacts with.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
DNA sequences encoding the gamma chain of the T-cell receptor. The human gamma-chain locus is organized similarly to the TcR beta-chain locus.
Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.
A leukemia/lymphoma found predominately in children and adolescents and characterized by a high number of lymphoblasts and solid tumor lesions. Frequent sites involve LYMPH NODES, skin, and bones. It most commonly presents as leukemia.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors representing malignant transformations of T-lymphocytes.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the antigen receptors.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The medium-sized, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group C in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 and the X chromosome.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The activated center of a lymphoid follicle in secondary lymphoid tissue where B-LYMPHOCYTES are stimulated by antigens and helper T cells (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER) are stimulated to generate memory cells.
The smaller subunits of MYOSINS that bind near the head groups of MYOSIN HEAVY CHAINS. The myosin light chains have a molecular weight of about 20 KDa and there are usually one essential and one regulatory pair of light chains associated with each heavy chain. Many myosin light chains that bind calcium are considered "calmodulin-like" proteins.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 genes, responsible for blocking apoptosis in normal cells, and associated with follicular lymphoma when overexpressed. Overexpression results from the t(14;18) translocation. The human c-bcl-2 gene is located at 18q24 on the long arm of chromosome 18.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Enzyme that is a major constituent of kidney brush-border membranes and is also present to a lesser degree in the brain and other tissues. It preferentially catalyzes cleavage at the amino group of hydrophobic residues of the B-chain of insulin as well as opioid peptides and other biologically active peptides. The enzyme is inhibited primarily by EDTA, phosphoramidon, and thiorphan and is reactivated by zinc. Neprilysin is identical to common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA Antigen), an important marker in the diagnosis of human acute lymphocytic leukemia. There is no relationship with CALLA PLANT.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).
Parts of the myosin molecule resulting from cleavage by proteolytic enzymes (PAPAIN; TRYPSIN; or CHYMOTRYPSIN) at well-localized regions. Study of these isolated fragments helps to delineate the functional roles of different parts of myosin. Two of the most common subfragments are myosin S-1 and myosin S-2. S-1 contains the heads of the heavy chains plus the light chains and S-2 contains part of the double-stranded, alpha-helical, heavy chain tail (myosin rod).
An immunologic deficiency state characterized by an extremely low level of generally all classes of gamma-globulin in the blood.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
An 11-kDa protein associated with the outer membrane of many cells including lymphocytes. It is the small subunit of the MHC class I molecule. Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the urine and plasma of patients with tubular proteinemia, renal failure, or kidney transplants.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
A form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma having a usually diffuse pattern with both small and medium lymphocytes and small cleaved cells. It accounts for about 5% of adult non-Hodgkin lymphomas in the United States and Europe. The majority of mantle-cell lymphomas are associated with a t(11;14) translocation resulting in overexpression of the CYCLIN D1 gene (GENES, BCL-1).
Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the beta-chain of antigen receptors.
Serum proteins that have the most rapid migration during ELECTROPHORESIS. This subgroup of globulins is divided into faster and slower alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-globulins.
The extracellular moiety of the POLYMERIC IMMUNOGLOBULIN RECEPTOR found alone or complexed with IGA or IGM, in a variety of external secretions (tears, bile, colostrum.) Secretory component is derived by proteolytic cleavage of the receptor during transcytosis. When immunoglobulins IgA and IgM are bound to the receptor, during their transcytosis secretory component becomes covalently attached to them generating SECRETORY IMMUNOGLOBULIN A or secretory IMMUNOGLOBULIN M.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Remnant of a tumor or cancer after primary, potentially curative therapy. (Dr. Daniel Masys, written communication)
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.

Repertoire of human antibodies against the polysaccharide capsule of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 6B. (1/3464)

We examined the repertoire of antibodies to Streptococcus pneumoniae 6B capsular polysaccharide induced with the conventional polysaccharide vaccine in adults at the molecular level two ways. In the first, we purified from the sera of seven vaccinees antipneumococcal antibodies and determined their amino acid sequences. Their VH regions are mainly the products of VH3 family genes (candidate genes, 3-23, 3-07, 3-66, and 3-74), but the product of a VH1 family gene (candidate gene, 1-03) is occasionally used. All seven individuals have small amounts of polyclonal kappa+ antibodies (Vkappa1 to Vkappa4 families), although kappa+ antibodies are occasionally dominated by antibodies formed with the product of the A27 Vkappa gene. In contrast, lambda+ anti-6B antibodies are dominated by the antibodies derived from one of 3 very similar Vlambda2 family genes (candidate genes, 2c, 2e, and 2a2) and Clambda1 gene product. The Vlambda2(+) antibodies express the 8.12 idiotype, which is expressed on anti-double-stranded-DNA antibodies. In one case, Vlambda is derived from a rarely expressed Vlambda gene, 10a. In the second approach, we studied a human hybridoma (Dob1) producing anti-6B antibody. Its VH region sequence is closely related to those of the 3-15 VH gene (88% nucleotide homology) and JH4 (92% homology). Its VL region is homologous to the 2a2 Vlambda2 gene (91%) and Jlambda1/Clambda1. Taken together, the V region of human anti-6B antibodies is commonly formed by a VH3 and a Vlambda2 family gene product.  (+info)

Insertion of excised IgH switch sequences causes overexpression of cyclin D1 in a myeloma tumor cell. (2/3464)

Oncogenes are often dysregulated in B cell tumors as a result of a reciprocal translocation involving an immunoglobulin locus. The translocations are caused by errors in two developmentally regulated DNA recombination processes: V(D)J and IgH switch recombination. Both processes share the property of joining discontinuous sequences from one chromosome and releasing intervening sequences as circles that are lost from progeny cells. Here we show that these intervening sequences may instead insert in the genome and that during productive IgH mu-epsilon switch recombination in U266 myeloma tumor cells, a portion of the excised IgH switch intervening sequences containing the 3' alpha-1 enhancer has inserted on chromosome 11q13, resulting in overexpression of the adjacent cyclin D1 oncogene.  (+info)

Analysis of V(H)-D-J(H) gene transcripts in B cells infiltrating the salivary glands and lymph node tissues of patients with Sjogren's syndrome. (3/3464)

OBJECTIVE: In patients with Sjogren's syndrome (SS), B lymphocytes have been found to infiltrate salivary glands, resulting in sialadenitis and keratoconjunctivitis. The disease is frequently associated with benign and neoplastic lymphoproliferation. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether clonal B cell expansion takes place in lymphocytic infiltrations of salivary glands under (auto- [?]) antigen stimulation, by analyzing in more detail the variable part (V(H)-D-J(H)) of the immunoglobulin heavy chain genes expressed in these B cells. METHODS: Biopsies of the labial salivary glands and lymph nodes were performed on 2 female patients with SS. The Ig gene rearrangements in these tissues were amplified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction using specific primers. RESULTS: A total of 94 V(H)-D-J(H) transcripts were cloned and sequenced. Our data suggest a polyclonal origin of the B cell infiltrates. In 92 of the transcripts, V(H) genes were modified by somatic mutation. Further analysis showed counterselection for replacement mutations within the framework regions, suggesting that those B cells were stimulated and selected for functional expression of a surface Ig. In labial salivary glands from both patients, clonally related B cells became evident. Members of 1 particular clone were found in both the lip and lymph node material. CONCLUSION: These data provide evidence, on the nucleotide sequence level, that an antigen-triggered clonal B cell expansion takes place in the salivary glands of patients with SS who do not have histologic evidence of developing lymphoma. It may be speculated that those B cell clones expand during disease progression, resulting in lymphomagenesis.  (+info)

The role of homophilic binding in anti-tumor antibody R24 recognition of molecular surfaces. Demonstration of an intermolecular beta-sheet interaction between vh domains. (4/3464)

The murine antibody R24 and mouse-human Fv-IgG1(kappa) chimeric antibody chR24 are specific for the cell-surface tumor antigen disialoganglioside GD3. X-ray diffraction and surface plasmon resonance experiments have been employed to study the mechanism of "homophilic binding," in which molecules of R24 recognize and bind to other molecules of R24 though their heavy chain variable domains. R24 exhibits strong binding to liposomes containing disialoganglioside GD3; however, the kinetics are unusual in that saturation of binding is not observed. The binding of chR24 to GD3-bearing liposomes is significantly weaker, suggesting that cooperative interactions involving antibody constant regions contribute to R24 binding of membrane-bound GD3. The crystal structures of the Fabs from R24 and chR24 reveal the mechanism for homophilic binding and confirm that the homophilic and antigen-binding idiotopes are distinct. The homophilic binding idiotope is formed largely by an anti-parallel beta-sheet dimerization between the H2 complementarity determining region (CDR) loops of two Fabs, while the antigen-binding idiotope is a pocket formed by the three CDR loops on the heavy chain. The formation of homophilic dimers requires the presence of a canonical conformation for the H2 CDR in conjunction with participation of side chains. The relative positions of the homophilic and antigen-binding sites allows for a lattice of GD3-specific antibodies to be constructed, which is stabilized by the presence of the cell membrane. This model provides for the selective recognition by R24 of cells that overexpress GD3 on the cell surface.  (+info)

Human triclonal anti-IgG gammopathy. I. Iso-electric focusing characteristics of the IgG, IgA and IgM anti-IgG and their heavy and light chains. (5/3464)

Human IgG, IgA and IgM anti-IgG autoantibodies have been isolated from the serum of an individual with Felty's syndrome. These were initially noted as soluble circulating serum complexes by analytical ultracentrifugation. Isolation was accomplished by solid phase immunoadsorption and each of the three antibody populations obtained was shown to be of restricted heterogeneity by liquid and polyacrylamide gel electrofocussing methods. Type kappa light chains were obtained from each protein. Co-isoelectric focusing experiments of all possible pairs of these light chains showed them to have identical net charge characteristics. Heavy chains obtained from each protein were also monoclonal and of differing isoelectric point. The availability of this serum provides a human model with which to study the changes which may occur in autoantibodies during the autoimmune response.  (+info)

Ialpha exon-replacement mice synthesize a spliced HPRT-C(alpha) transcript which may explain their ability to switch to IgA. Inhibition of switching to IgG in these mice. (6/3464)

Antibody class switching is regulated by transcription of unrearranged C(H) genes to produce germline (GL) transcripts which direct the choice of isotype and are required for switching. However, their role is unknown. GL transcripts are initiated at the I exons located upstream of each switch region. Although deletion of the I exon by gene targeting prevents switch recombination to that CH gene, the Ialpha exon can be replaced by an entirely different DNA segment, a minigene driven by the phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) promoter and encoding hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT), oriented in the sense direction, without reducing antibody class switching to IgA. To understand why HPRT substitution of the Ialpha exon does not disrupt switch recombination, we have analyzed the structure of the transcript from the targeted allele in these mice. We identify a spliced transcript in which the HPRT exons are spliced to the C(alpha) gene segments, resulting in a structure similar to normal GL transcripts. The abundance of this transcript is similar to that of the normal alpha GL RNA. We also demonstrate that switching to the four IgG subclasses in B cells from these mice is reduced in comparison to wild-type mice. We discuss the possibility that the strong PGK promoter inserted at the Ig alpha locus may interfere with interaction of the promoters for gamma GL transcripts with the 3' IgH enhancer.  (+info)

Induction of Ig light chain gene rearrangement in heavy chain-deficient B cells by activated Ras. (7/3464)

During B cell development, rearrangement and expression of Ig heavy chain (HC) genes promote development and expansion of pre-B cells accompanied by the onset of Ig light chain (LC) variable region gene assembly. To elucidate the signaling pathways that control these events, we have tested the ability of activated Ras expression to promote B cell differentiation to the stage of LC gene rearrangement in the absence of Ig HC gene expression. For this purpose, we introduced an activated Ras expression construct into JH-deleted embryonic stem cells that lack the ability to assemble HC variable region genes and assayed differentiation potential by recombination activating gene (RAG) 2-deficient blastocyst complementation. We found that activated Ras expression induces the progression of B lineage cells beyond the developmental checkpoint ordinarily controlled by mu HC. Such Ras/JH-deleted B cells accumulate in the periphery but continue to express markers associated with precursor B cells including RAG gene products. These peripheral Ras/JH-deleted B cell populations show extensive Ig LC gene rearrangement but maintain an extent of kappa LC gene rearrangement and a preference for kappa over lambda LC gene rearrangement similar to that of wild-type B cells. We discuss these findings in the context of potential mechanisms that may regulate Ig LC gene rearrangement.  (+info)

Predominant VH genes expressed in innate antibodies are associated with distinctive antigen-binding sites. (8/3464)

Antibodies to phosphatidylcholine (PtC), a common constituent of mammalian and bacterial cell membranes, represent a large proportion of the natural antibody repertoire in mice. Previous studies of several mouse strains (e.g., C57BL/6) have shown that anti-PtC antibodies are mainly encoded by the VH11 and VH12 immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region gene families. We show here, however, that VH11 and VH12 encode only a small proportion of the anti-PtC antibodies in BALB/c mice. Instead, VHQ52-encoded antibodies predominate in this strain. In addition, two-thirds of the cells expressing VHQ52 family genes use a single gene (which, interestingly, has been previously shown to predominate in the anti-oxazolone response). We also show here that in anti-PtC antibodies from all strains, the distinctive antigen-binding sites associated with VHQ52 differ substantially from those associated with VH11 and VH12. That is, VHQ52-containing transcripts preferentially use the joining region JH4 rather than JH1 and exhibit more diverse complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) junctions with more N-region nucleotide additions at the gene segment junctions. Thus, the VH gene family that predominates in the anti-PtC repertoire differs among mouse strains, whereas the distinctive VHDJH rearrangements (CDR3, JH) associated with each VH gene family are similar in all strains. We discuss these findings in the context of a recent hypothesis suggesting that CDR3 structure, independent of VH framework, is sufficient to define the specificity of an antibody.  (+info)

Several genes for the variable region of immunoglobulin heavy chains (VH genes) have been isolated from human fetal liver DNA by using a cDNA plasmid probe containing a mouse VH sequence. The detectable VH genes are separated by 12-16 kilobases of DNA, and hybridization experiments show about 23 hybridizing VH genes in DNA of three different individuals. The complete nucleotide sequence of one of these human VH genes shows that it belongs to the human VHIII subgroup. The VH gene appears to contain an intervening sequence (104 bases in length) within a precursor sequence, between residues -4 and -5. The precursor sequence is itself 19 codons in length. The 3 end of the V gene seems to be at codon 93 or 94, and this is followed by the conserved sequences C-A-C-A-G-T-G and G-A-C-A-C-A-A-A-C-C. The presence of these sequences suggests that similar enzymatic mechanisms are involved in the integration of V genes in both heavy and light chains.
DNA encoding the rat diversity segment (D), joining segment (JH), and constant (C) region mu, gamma 2a, gamma 1, gamma 2b, epsilon and alpha of the Ig heavy chain has been isolated from a cosmid library. Restriction mapping allowed us to identify two gene clusters: D-JH-C mu and C gamma 1-C gamma 2b-C epsilon-C alpha in addition to a single C gamma 2a gene. Analysis of genomic DNA by Southern blotting permitted identification of the C gamma 2c gene and led to the proposal of the following gene order for the rat Ig heavy chain locus: D-JH-C mu-C delta-(C gamma 2c, C gamma 2a)-C gamma 1-C gamma 2b-C epsilon-C alpha. There is striking homology between the rat and mouse Ig heavy chain loci as regards gene order and distance between CH genes. Partial DNA sequencing confirms this homology and shows that exon sequences are more conserved than are intron sequences. One of the most conserved intron regions between rat and mouse is that spanning the Ig heavy chain enhancer (91% homology). However, the
TY - JOUR. T1 - Immunoglobulin heavy chain gene analysis in lymphomas. T2 - A multi-center study demonstrating the heterogeneity of performance of polymerase chain reaction assays. AU - Bagg, Adam. AU - Braziel, Rita M.. AU - Arber, Daniel A.. AU - Bijwaard, Karen E.. AU - Chu, Albert Y.. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - Determination of monoclonality through an evaluation of immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) gene rearrangements is a commonly performed and useful diagnostic assay. Many laboratories that perform this assay do so by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). To evaluate current methods for performing IgH gene testing, 19 different Association of Molecular Pathology (AMP) member laboratories analyzed 29 blinded B cell and T cell lymphoid neoplasm samples of extracted DNA and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue and were asked to complete a technical questionnaire. From this study, it is clear that Southern blot analysis remains the diagnostic gold standard, with a 100% diagnostic ...
We have examined the interaction of factors in HeLa cell nuclear extracts with a human histone H2B gene (H2B) promoter. Protein-DNA mobility-shift and DNase I protection assays detected a factor(s) binding to a 15-base-pair consensus element that is essential for efficient H2B transcription in vitro. Part of this consensus sequence is the octanucleotide ATTTGCAT, which is apparently a functional component of several non-histone genes. A subset of these genes, including a human U2 small nuclear RNA (snRNA) gene promoter, a mouse immunoglobulin heavy chain enhancer, and a mouse light chain promoter, were shown to interact with the H2B consensus sequence-binding factor(s). These results suggest that a common factor or closely related factors may contribute to the regulation of these and other genes that share the octanucleotide sequence.. ...
The immunoglobulin heavy-chain (domain. the variable areas of immunoglobulin (Ig) genetics from adjustable (Sixth is v), variety (D), and becoming a member of (M) gene sections during N cell advancement. The recombination of genetics can be firmly managed within the N lymphoid family tree: the Ig heavy-chain (locus are started in lymphoid progenitors adopted by VH-DJH recombination in pro-B cells. The temporary purchase of Sixth is v(G)M recombination can be mainly established by the ease of access of the different Ig gene sections to the Sixth is v(G)M recombinase, which can be managed by multiple epigenetic systems (Jhunjhunwala et al., 2009; Alt and Perlot, 2008). The locus can be made up of the 3 proximal area of 266 kb size consisting of 16 DH, 4 JH, and 8 CH gene sections and of the distal VH gene bunch increasing over a 2.44 Mb area, which contains 195 VH genetics with the largest VH gene family members consisting of 89 VHJ558 genetics (Johnston et al., 2006). VH-DJH recombination at the ...
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Author Summary Each time a mammalian cell duplicates its genome in preparation for cell division it activates thousands of so called
Compare Immunoglobulin heavy chain (gamma polypeptide) ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, and more.
Constant region of immunoglobulin heavy chains. Immunoglobulins, also known as antibodies, are membrane-bound or secreted glycoproteins produced by B lymphocytes. In the recognition phase of humoral immunity, the membrane-bound immunoglobulins serve as receptors which, upon binding of a specific antigen, trigger the clonal expansion and differentiation of B lymphocytes into immunoglobulins-secreting plasma cells. Secreted immunoglobulins mediate the effector phase of humoral immunity, which results in the elimination of bound antigens (PubMed:22158414, PubMed:20176268). The antigen binding site is formed by the variable domain of one heavy chain, together with that of its associated light chain. Thus, each immunoglobulin has two antigen binding sites with remarkable affinity for a particular antigen. The variable domains are assembled by a process called V-(D)-J rearrangement and can then be subjected to somatic hypermutations which, after exposure to antigen and selection, allow affinity maturation for
Antibodies are produced by plasma cells, the terminally differentiated descendants of the B-cell lineage. The early stages of B-cell development occur in the bone marrow, where pro-B cells, which are derived from hematopoietic stem cells, undergo rearrangement of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain genes. This process occurs throughout the life of the individual. At the next stage of B-cell differentiation, in pre-B cells, there is rearrangement of the light-chain genes. This allows the expression of the intact immunoglobulin molecule on the cell surface of the B cell. Each B cell and its progeny express only one rearranged immunoglobulin heavy chain and one light chain. When antigen binds to the surface of the B cell, if the appropriate environmental signals are received, the B cell proliferates and differentiates into a memory B cell that can respond more rapidly to future exposures to that antigen or to a plasma cell that secretes high concentrations of antibodies.. ...
We report the sequence of a cDNA encoding a rabbit immunoglobulin γ heavy chain of d12 and e14 allotypes with high homology to… Expand ...
Details on the datasets generation: 169 structures of protein antigens (length >30 amino acids) in complex with antibody fragments have been manually collected from the PDB of January 2006 at a resolution ≤ 4 Å. Every structure has been manually curated. Structures in which the antibody binds antigen but involves no CDR residues have been excluded from the analysis; there were four such structures [PDB: 1MHH, 1HEZ, 1DEE, 1IGC]. If a structure contained several complexes in one asymmetric unit (there were 46 such structures in 165) and the authors of the structure observed no structural difference between these complexes, only one complex was selected - those that were specified as a reference complex by the authors of the article describing the structure (primary citation in the PDB); there were 18 such structures out of 46. If the authors didnt provide this information, all complexes in the structure were considered for analysis. The authors of a few structures clearly stated in their ...
specific ablation of YY1 in mouse B cells caused a defect in somatic rearrangement in the immunoglobulin heavy-chain (IgH) locus and a block in the progenitor-B-to-precursor-B-cell transition, which was partially rescued by a prerearranged IgH transgene ...
Puri, J; Ben, neriah Y.; Givol, D; and Lonai, P, Antibodies to immunoglobulin heavy chain variable regions protect helper cells from specific suicide by radiolabeled antigen. (1980). Subject Strain Bibliography 1980. 1413 ...
Using cosmids covering about 117 Kb upstream of the human immunoglobulin chain C mu gene, we have identified a potentially functional VH gene, belonging to the VHVI subgroup. This VHVI gene is only about 95 Kb from the C mu gene and is probably the first functional VH segment of the Igh locus. These results illustrate the proximity of the human VH, DH and JH segments involved in creation of the complete heavy chain genes.
In Burkitt lymphoma the c-myc gene, the cellular homologue of the viral oncogene v-myc, has been implicated in the aetiology of this human B-cell malignancy. Burkitt lymphoma cells possess specific chromosomal rearrangements involving the region proximal to the c-myc gene and one of the three human immunoglobulin loci. The nature of the effect exerted by the immunoglobulin loci on the translocated c-myc gene is controversial: whereas some reports have suggested c-myc transcription is elevated in Burkitt lymphoma cells, others have suggested the level of transcription is unaffected by the translation. Recently, transcription enhancer elements have been identified in the intron between the JH and C mu segments of the heavy-chain immunoglobulin gene in mice. If similar enhancers exist in humans they may lead to increased transcription of the translocated c-myc gene and thus contribute to oncogenesis in Burkitt lymphoma. We report here the identification of an enhancer element adjacent to the human C mu
Faust, C H.; Moore, J M.; and Heim, I E., Mouse immunoglobulin mu heavy chain mrna of y5781, a high yield myeloma. (1979). Subject Strain Bibliography 1979. 640 ...
Depending on whether the nature of the antigen is protein or polysaccharide and the frequency and duration of stimulation by the antigen, an antibody response may exhibit changes in the distribution of IgG subclasses in plasma, and cause increased or diminished levels of one or more IgG subclasses (Meulenbroek et al., 2000). When the serum level of a subclass is below detection levels of the most sensitive techniques (ELISA/RIA), it is considered as a complete deficiency /absence or a total lack (Meulenbroek et al., 2000). Such complete deficiency is rare and is usually due to deletions in chromosome 14 loci. Such a total lack of one or more IgG subclasses due to deletions of the immunoglobulin heavy chain constant region genes is occasionally found in healthy individuals. The fact that these individuals still produce protective antibody titers in the residual immunoglobulin classes or subclasses suggests that the deletion of the isotype(s) occurs by chance and can be compensated adequately ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - NF-HB (BSAP) is a repressor of the murine immunoglobulin heavy-chain 3′α enhancer at early stages of B-cell differentiation. AU - Singh, Mallika. AU - Birshtein, Barbara K.. PY - 1993/6. Y1 - 1993/6. N2 - We have identified a nuclear factor expressed in pro-B-, pre-B-, and B-cell lines that binds to two sites within the murine immunoglobulin heavy-chain (IgH) 3′α enhancer (3′αE). These sites were defined by oligonucleotide competition in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and methylation interference footprinting. The 3′αE-binding factor is indistinguishable from NF-HB (B-lineage-specific nuclear factor that binds to the IgH gene) and the B-lineage-specific transcription factor BSAP by several criteria, including similar cell type distribution of binding activity, cross-competition of binding sites in EMSA, similar protein size as demonstrated by UV cross-linking, and sequence identity of one of the 3′αE-binding sites with a BSAP-binding site within the ...
Immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) class switch recombination (CSR) replaces the initially expressed IgH C exons with a set of downstream IgH constant region (CH) exons. functioned similarly to a size-matched synthetic S1 series to mediate significant CSR to IgG1 in mutant B cells turned on under circumstances that stimulate IgG1 switching in WT B cells. We conclude that S3 can function to S1 in mediating endogenous CSR to IgG1 similarly. The approach that people are suffering from will facilitate assays for IgH isotypeCspecific features of various other endogenous S locations. The IgH continuous area (CH) determines the course and effector features of immunoglobulins. IgH course change recombination (CSR) enables turned on B cells to change from creation of IgM to various other Ig classes, including IgG, IgE, and IgA. In mice, the exons that encode different IgH classes (termed CH LDN193189 genes) are arranged as 5CVDJCCCCCC3CC1CC2bCC2CCCCC3 (1). Each CH gene that goes through CSR is normally ...
Reacts with ZAP-70 expressed in T cells, natural killer cells, pro/pre B cells but not in normal mature B cells. The antibody is a useful aid for classification of a subset of chronic lymphocytic leukemias (CLL). In CLL, ZAP-70 expression is closely associated with an unmutated configuration of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region (IgVH) genes (1).|* This product is for in vitro diagnostic use only. The product embodies technology described in US Patent 7,329,502 and pending Canadian Patent Application No. 2,413,475.
Humans; Animals; Amino Acid Sequence; Molecular Sequence Data; Species Specificity; Protein Structure, Tertiary; Sequence Homology, Amino Acid; Genetic Engineering; Tumor Cells, Cultured; *Genes, Immunoglobulin; Antibodies, Monoclonal/*genetics/immunology; Antibody Affinity; Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains/chemistry/*genetics; Immunoglobulin Variable Region/chemistry/*genetics; Leukemia-Lymphoma, Adult T-Cell; Mice/*genetics/immunology; Recombinant Fusion Proteins/*genetics/immunology. ...
Angiogenesis is a potential prognostic factor in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Elevated circulating levels of angiogenic factors in CLL have been repeatedly reported. Nevertheless, the issue of bone marrow neovascularization in CLL remains controversial, partly due to limited number of published studies, different methods of assessing microvessel density (MVD) and small patient cohorts. Moreover, there are very scarce data regarding the relationship of marrow angiogenesis to prognostic markers in CLL. Our objectives were: 1. To assess bone marrow MVD in CLL using two different monoclonal antibodies and a reproducible method of MVD quantification; 2. To examine the possible association of marrow MVD and clinical course, pattern of marrow infiltration, Rai stage, cytogenetic abnormalities detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and mutation status of immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region (IgVH). MVD was higher using CD34 vs vWF antibody ( ...
The intracellular fates of membrane and secretory immunoglobulin heavy chains were examined in a pre-B cell line that has switched to the gamma isotype. The membrane form of the heavy chain (gamma m) was rapidly degraded while the secretory form (gamma s) was retained intracellularly in association with BiP. The degradation of gamma m could not be inhibited by ammonium chloride, chloroquine, or monensin suggesting that it occurred in a nonlysosomal compartment. The inability to detect any Endo H-resistant form of gamma m before its degradation suggested that degradation occurs before entry into the Golgi compartment. Degradation of gamma m could be inhibited by incubation at 24 degrees C. In a derivative of this cell line expressing a transfected kappa gene, gamma s formed disulfide linked tetramers with kappa and was secreted, while gamma m, although associated with kappa, continued to be rapidly degraded. These observations suggest that membrane and secretory heavy chain proteins are retained ...
Nucleotide sequences of immunoglobulin epsilon genes of chimpanzee and orangutan: DNA molecular clock and hominoid evolution.: To determine the phylogenetic rel
Diversification of the antibody repertoire in mammals results from a series of apparently random somatically propagated gene rearrangement and mutational events. Nevertheless, it is well known that the adult repertoire of antibody specificities is acquired in a developmentally programmed fashion. As previously shown, rearrangement of the gene segments encoding the heavy-chain variable regions (VH) of mouse antibodies is also developmentally ordered: the number of VH gene segments rearranged in B lymphocytes of fetal mice is small but increased progressively after birth. In this report, human fetal B-lineage cells were also shown to rearrange a highly restricted set of VH gene segments. In a sample of heavy-chain transcripts from a 130-day human fetus the most frequently expressed human VH element proved to be closely related to the VH element most frequently expressed in murine fetal B-lineage cells. These observations are important in understanding the development of immunocompetence. ...
Accumulating data have implicated that long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) plays an important role in osteoarthritis (OA), which may function as a competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) of microRNAs (miRNAs). lncRNA IGHC|i|γ|/i|1 has been demonstrated to regulate inflammation and autoimmunity. Nonetheless, the altering effect of IGHC|i|γ|/i|1 in OA remains unclear. This study is aimed at investigating the mechanism and function of lncRNA IGHC|i|γ|/i|1 in OA. CCK-8, EdU, and transwell assays were used to estimate macrophage proliferation and migration. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed to estimate the local expression of lncRNA IGHC|i|γ|/i|1 in macrophages. Luciferase reporter assay was adopted to validate the ceRNA role of IGHC|i|γ|/i|1 as miRNA sponge. lncRNA IGHC|i|γ|/i|1 was primarily localized in macrophage cytoplasm and upregulated in OA. miR-6891-3p inhibited macrophage proliferation, migration, and inflammatory response by targeting TLR4, while
Unique DNA sequences can be determined directly from mouse genomic DNA. A denaturing gel separates by size mixtures of unlabeled DNA fragments from complete restriction and partial chemical cleavages of the entire genome. These lanes of DNA are transferred and UV-crosslinked to nylon membranes. Hybridization with a short 32P-labeled single-stranded probe produces the image of a DNA sequence ladder extending from the 3 or 5 end of one restriction site in the genome. Numerous different sequences can be obtained from a single membrane by reprobing. Each band in these sequences represents 3 fg of DNA complementary to the probe. Sequence data from mouse immunoglobulin heavy chain genes from several cell types are presented. The genomic sequencing procedures are applicable to the analysis of genetic polymorphisms, DNA methylation at deoxycytidines, and nucleic acid-protein interactions at single nucleotide resolution.. MeSH Terms ...
title: Immunoglobulin V(H) chain gene analysis of peripheral blood IgM-producing B cells in patients with Kawasaki disease, doi: 10.3349/ymj.2009.50.4.493, category: Article
The amino acid sequences of the Fd fragments of two human pathological immunoglobulins of the immunoglobulin G1 class are reported. Comparison of the two sequences shows that the heavy-chain variable regions are similar in length to those of the light chains. The existence of heavy chain variable region subgroups is also deduced, from a comparison of these two sequences with those of another γ 1 chain, Eu, a μ chain, Ou, and the partial sequence of a fourth γ 1 chain, Ste. Carbohydrate has been found to be linked to an aspartic acid residue in the variable region of one of the γ 1 chains, Cor.. ...
Immunoglobulins play important roles in antigen recognition during the immune response, and the complementarity-determining region (CDR) 3 of the heavy chain is considered as the critical antigen-binding site. We previously developed a statistical protocol for the extensive analysis of heavy chain variable region repertoires and the dynamics of their immune response using next-generation sequencing (NGS). The properties of important antibody heavy chains predicted in silico by the protocol were examined by gene synthesis and antibody protein expression; however, the corresponding light chain that matches with the heavy chain could not be predicted by our protocol. To understand the dynamics of the heavy chain and the effect of light chain pairing on it, we firstly tried to obtain an artificial light chain that pairs with a broad range of heavy chains and then analyzed its effect on the antigen binding of heavy chains upon pairing. During the pre-B cell stage, the surrogate light chain (SLC) ...
We have developed a novel software algorithm, JOINSOLVER, to analyze the human CDR3H. Within the CDR3H, the definition of the D segment has been particularly problematic because of its short size and extensive terminal processing. Many attempts have been made to define the minimum length needed for D segment assignment (8, 21, 24, 25, 26, 36), yet there is still no consensus definition. Thus, we used novel methods to assign D segments. The first involved the use of a consecutive matching approach rather than the more standard alignment scoring system. The consecutive matching approach permitted the secure assignment of more D segments than the alignment scoring method. The second used methods to limit the search for identity to the VH-JH region only. Finally, a Monte Carlo simulation was used to determine the consecutive match necessary to assign a D segment. We opted to distinguish an actual D segment match from random sequence identity using a 95% probability. This level of confidence seems ...
0110] The following references, to the extent that they provide exemplary procedural or other details supplementary to those set forth herein, are specifically incorporated herein by reference. [0111] U.S. Pat. No. 5,922,591 [0112] U.S. Pat. No. 5,921,396 [0113] U.S. Pat. No. 5,726,012 [0114] U.S. Pat. No. 5,090,420 [0115] Allewell, N. M., Sama, A., The effect of ammonium sulfate on the activity of ribonuclease A. Biochemica et Biophysica Acta 341:484-488 (1974). [0116] Auffray, C., Rougeon, F., Purification of mouse immunoglobulin heavy chain messenger RNAs from total myeloma tumor RNA. Eur. J. Biochemistry June;107(2)303-314 (1980). [0117] Boom, W. R., Adriaanse, H., Kievits, T., Lens, P. F., U. S. Pat. No. 5,234,809 entitled: Process for Isolating Nucleic Acid. [0118] Bugos R. C., Chiang, V. L., Zhang, X. H., Campbell, E. R., Podila G. K., Campbell W. H., RNA isolation from plant tissues recalcitrant to extraction by guanidine. Biotechniques November;19(5)734-7 (1995). [0119] Cairns, M. ...
Toda la información sobre las últimas publicaciones científicas de la Clínica Universidad de Navarra. Acquired potential N-glycosylation sites within the tumor-specific immunoglobulin heavy chains of B-cell malignancies
Thörnqvist L, Ohlin M Data Brief 19 (-) 337-352 [2018-08-00; online 2018-05-04] The highly variable complementary determining region 3 (CDR3) of antibodies is generated through recombination of immunoglobulin heavy chain variable (IGHV), diversity, and joining genes. The codons encoding the first residues of CDR3 may be derived directly from the IGHV germline gene but they may also be generated as part of the rearrangement process. Data of the nucleotide composition of these codons of rearranged genes, an indicator of the degree of contribution of the IGHV gene to CDR3 diversity, are presented in this article. Analyzed data are presented for two unrelated sets of raw sequence data. The raw data sets consisted of sequences of antibody heavy chain-encoding transcripts of six allergic subjects (European Nucleotide Archive accession number PRJEB18926), and paired antibody heavy and light chain variable region-encoding transcripts of memory B cells of three subjects (European Nucleotide Archive ...
Acts as a transcriptional repressor. Binds to E-box sequences in the immunoglobulin heavy chain enhancer as well as in the regulatory regions of many other tissue-specific genes. Represses E-cadherin promoter and induces an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by recruiting SMARCA4/BRG1. Represses BCL6 transcription in the presence of the corepressor CTBP1. Positively regulates neuronal differentiation. Represses RCOR1 transcription activation during neurogenesis. Represses transcription by binding to the E box (5-CANNTG-3). Promotes tumorigenicity by repressing stemness-inhibiting microRNAs (By similarity).
Compaction and looping of the ~2.5-Mb Igh locus during V(D)J rearrangement is essential to allow all V(H) genes to be brought in proximity with D(H)-J(H) segments to create a diverse antibody repertoire, but the proteins directly responsible for this are unknown. Because CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) has been demonstrated to be involved in long-range chromosomal interactions, we hypothesized that CTCF may promote the contraction of the Igh locus. ChIP sequencing was performed on pro-B cells, revealing colocalization of CTCF and Rad21 binding at ~60 sites throughout the V(H) region and 2 other sites within the Igh locus. These numerous CTCF/cohesin sites potentially form the bases of the multiloop rosette structures at the Igh locus that compact during Ig heavy chain rearrangement. To test whether CTCF was involved in locus compaction, we used 3D-FISH to measure compaction in pro-B cells transduced with CTCF shRNA retroviruses. Reduction of CTCF binding resulted in a decrease in Igh locus ...
Genes encoding the different subunits of the IMMUNOGLOBULINS, for example the IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN GENES and the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES. The heavy and light immunoglobulin genes are present as gene segments in the germline cells. The completed genes are created when the segments are shuffled and assembled (B-LYMPHOCYTE GENE REARRANGEMENT) during B-LYMPHOCYTE maturation. The gene segments of the human light and heavy chain germline genes are symbolized V (variable), J (joining) and C (constant). The heavy chain germline genes have an additional segment D (diversity ...
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V region of the variable domain of immunoglobulin heavy chains that participates in the antigen recognition. Immunoglobulins, also known as antibodies, are membrane-bound or secreted glycoproteins produced by B lymphocytes. In the recognition phase of humoral immunity, the membrane-bound immunoglobulins serve as receptors which, upon binding of a specific antigen, trigger the clonal expansion and differentiation of B lymphocytes into immunoglobulins-secreting plasma cells. Secreted immunoglobulins mediate the effector phase of humoral immunity, which results in the elimination of bound antigens (PubMed:22158414, PubMed:20176268). The antigen binding site is formed by the variable domain of one heavy chain, together with that of its associated light chain. Thus, each immunoglobulin has two antigen binding sites with remarkable affinity for a particular antigen. The variable domains are assembled by a process called V-(D)-J rearrangement and can then be subjected to somatic hypermutations which, ...
Research Interests. Genetic aberrations are important indicators of prognosis in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and are widely used in risk stratification. Translocations involving the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus (IGH) are hallmarks of mature B-cell malignancies, where they drive pathogenesis. IGH translocations have been described in B-cell precursor ALL (BCP-ALL), where they target different genes with the same consequence; the partner gene is overexpressed as a result of its close proximity to the IGH enhancer. We have previously reported recurrent BCP-ALL translocation partner genes including five members of the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (CEBP) family of transcription factors, showing opposing functions for deregulation in myeloid and lymphoid leukemogenesis; the inhibitory transcription factor, ID4, in the translocation, t(6;14)(p22;q32), defining a subgroup characterized by deletion of CDKN2A/B and PAX; the cytokine receptor for erythropoietin (EPOR) at 19p13; type I ...
Humanized monoclonal antibody (IgG1k) produced by recombinant DNA technology, directed to an epitope in the A antigenic site of the F protein of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Synagis is a composite of human (95%) and murine (5%) antibody sequences. The human heavy chain sequence was derived from the constant domains of human IgG1 and the variable framework regions of the VH genes Cor (1) and Cess (2). The human lightchain sequence was derived from the constant domain of Ck and the variable framework regions of the VL gene K104 withJk-4. Palivizumab is expressed from a stable murine (mouse) myeloma cell line (NS0). Palivizumab is composed of to heavy chains (50.6 kDa each) and two light chains (27.6 kDa each), contains 1-2% carbohydrate by weight and has a molecular weight of 147.7 kDa +/- 1 kDa (MALDI-TOF)
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) represents the most frequent leukemia in the Western world. During the last decade, there has been tremendous progress in elucidating the pathogenesis of this disease. One of the most interesting features discovered during this search is the fact that the leukemia cells express immunoglobulin (IG) that may or may not have incurred somatic hypermutations of the IG heavy variable (IGHV) genes. The outcome of CLL patients with leukemia cells using an unmutated IGHV gene is inferior to those patients with leukemia cells that carry a mutated one. In addition to the important observations relating the IG mutation status to clinical behavior, the fact that the IG repertoire in CLL is restricted and also uniquely characterized by the existence of closely similar, stereotyped B cell receptors implies a role for antigen(s) in leukemogenesis ...
SQ P01864 # GCAB_MOUSE Ig gamma-2A chain C region secreted form (B allele) ! SQ P01863 #GCAA_MOUSE Ig gamma-2A chain C region, A allele; 86% sequence identity ! SQ NA # natural chimera; best hits are: SQ P01751 (Ig heavy chain V region B1-8/186-2) and SQ P01864 (Ig gamma-2A chain C region secreted form) ! SQ P01868 # GC1_MOUSE Ig gamma-1 chain C region secreted form ! SQ P01864 # GCAB_MOUSE (P01864) Ig gamma-2A chain C region ! SQ P01837 # KAC_MOUSE (P01837) Ig kappa chain C region ! SQ P01863 # GCAA_MOUSE Ig gamma-2A chain C region, A allele ! SQ NA # part of Fab 28 against HIV-1 RT ! SQ P01868 # ! GC1_MOUSE Ig gamma-1 chain C region secreted form ...
Cells of the monocytic lineage play fundamental roles in the regulation of health, ranging from the initiation and resolution of inflammation to bone homeostasis. In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the inflamed synovium exhibits characteristic infiltratio
Abcam provides specific protocols for Anti-Cyclin B1 antibody [V152] (ab72) : Flow cytometry protocols, Immunohistochemistry protocols, Immunocytochemistry…
Human IgA (Heavy chain) antibody for ELISA, IHC-Fr, WB. Anti-Human IgA (Heavy chain) pAb (GTX40482) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Tg H chain expression in B cells of heterozygous or homozygous H+L and H3 Tg mice. Cells were isolated from bone marrow (A) and spleen (B) of indicated mice at
IVD IGH Break - The IGH (14q32) break probe is optimized to detect translocations involving the IGH gene region at 14q32 in a dual-color, split assay.
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is a disease with upregulated expression of the transmembrane tyrosine-protein kinase ROR1, a member of the Wnt/planar cell polarity pathway. In this study, we identified COBLL1 as a novel interaction partner of ROR1. COBLL1 shows clear bimodal expression with high levels in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients with mutated IGHV and approximately 30% of chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients with unmutated IGHV. In the remaining 70% of chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients with unmutated IGHV, COBLL1 expression is low. Importantly, chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients with unmutated IGHV and high COBLL1 have an unfavorable disease course with short overall survival and time to second treatment. COBLL1 serves as an independent molecular marker for overall survival in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients with unmutated IGHV. In addition, chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients with unmutated IGHV and high COBLL1 show impaired motility and chemotaxis towards CCL19 and ...
Although it has been assumed that the deregulated bcl-2 expression in t(14;18) cells is mediated in part by the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene regulatory region, this has not been demonstrated, nor was it known which elements of that region were responsible for the deregulation. In these studies, we found that the four DNase I-hypersensitive regions within the IgH 3′ enhancer were able to activate the bcl-2 promoter in the t(14;18) cell line DHL-4. Of those four hypersensitive regions, we demonstrated that HS4 had the most influence on bcl-2 promoter activity. This is similar to the situation in pre-B and plasmacytoma cells, where HS4 is the most active enhancer region. We also showed that the HS1,2 region was capable of activating the promoter independently. By itself, HS3 increased bcl-2 promoter activity by only a minor amount. Other studies of HS3 have shown that it is contains elements that act as negative effectors of the IgH 3′ enhancer (37) , and preliminary studies in our ...
Ig epsilon chain C region is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IGHE gene. Human PubMed Reference:. Entrez Gene: IGHE immunoglobulin heavy constant epsilon. Venkitaraman AR, Williams GT, Dariavach P, Neuberger MS (Aug 1991). The B-cell antigen receptor of the five immunoglobulin classes. Nature. 352 (6338): 777-81. doi:10.1038/352777a0. PMID 1881434. Padlan EA, Davies DR (Oct 1986). A model of the Fc of immunoglobulin E. Molecular Immunology. 23 (10): 1063-75. doi:10.1016/0161-5890(86)90005-2. PMID 3796618. Flanagan JG, Rabbitts TH (1984). The sequence of a human immunoglobulin epsilon heavy chain constant region gene, and evidence for three non-allelic genes. The EMBO Journal. 1 (5): 655-60. PMC 553102 . PMID 6234164. Max EE, Battey J, Ney R, Kirsch IR, Leder P (Jun 1982). Duplication and deletion in the human immunoglobulin epsilon genes. Cell. 29 (2): 691-9. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(82)90185-4. PMID 6288268. Ellison J, Buxbaum J, Hood L (1983). Nucleotide sequence of a human ...
英) We have established a method for selecting binding phages from a phage immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region (VH) library by panning with nitrocellulose membranes (membrane panning). To evaluate the concentrating ability of membrane panning for binding phages, a phage VH library containing clones that bind to hen egg white lysozyme (HEL) was used for panning against HEL. The efficiency of our method was as high as that of panning with magnetic beads. In addition, we performed membrane panning against target proteins and isolated the binding phages. The human VH genes of these phages were cloned and expressed as VH-bacterial alkaline phosphatase (PhoA) conjugates (VH-PhoA) in Escherichia coli. The dose-dependent binding of VH-PhoA to target proteins was confirmed by dot blotting. When applied to disease-associated antibodies, these methods will likely benefit clinical research. In addition, these techniques may be applicable to systematic analysis in proteome studies. (日) ...
ONLINE COVER B Cell Outsiders Moving In. Shown are representative lineages of clonally related immunoglobulin heavy chain variable regions found in the cerebral spinal fluid and peripheral blood of multiple sclerosis patients. Complementary studies by Palanichamy et al. and Stern et al. report that in multiple sclerosis patients, B cells found outside the central nervous system-in peripheral blood and draining cervical lymph nodes-share antigen specificity with intrathecal B cell repertoires. These data support the therapeutic use of monoclonal antibodies to prevent lymphocytes from crossing the blood-brain barrier or induce peripheral B cell depletion in multiple sclerosis patients. See the related Focus by Lu et al. [CREDIT: L. APELTSIN, H-C. VON BUEDINGEN/DEPARTMENT OF NEUROLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SAN FRANCISCO] ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Anti-nuclear antibody reactivity in lupus may be partly hard-wired into the primary B-cell repertoire. AU - Chang, Sooghee. AU - Yang, Liu. AU - Moon, Young Mee. AU - Cho, Young Gyu. AU - Min, So Youn. AU - Kim, Tae Joo. AU - Kim, Young Joo. AU - Patrick, Wilson. AU - Kim, Ho Youn. AU - Mohan, Chandra. PY - 2009/10. Y1 - 2009/10. N2 - When monoclonal ANAs and non-ANAs generated from a genetically simplified mouse model of lupus, B6.Sle1, were recently compared, the ANAs exhibited three sequence motifs in their immunoglobulin heavy chains, including increased cationicity in CDR3 (motif A), reduced anionicity in CDR2 (motif B) and increased aspartate at H50 (motif C). The present study was designed to elucidate the extent to which these ANA-associated sequence motifs might be hard-wired into the primary B-cell repertoire in lupus. The immunoglobulin heavy chain sequence of total splenic B-cells, follicular B-cells and marginal zone B-cells from B6.Sle1 congenic mice and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - RosettaAntibody. T2 - Antibody variable region homology modeling server. AU - Sircar, Aroop. AU - Kim, Eric T.. AU - Gray, Jeffrey J.. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. N2 - The RosettaAntibody server ( predicts the structure of an antibody variable region given the amino-acid sequences of the respective light and heavy chains. In an initial stage, the server identifies and displays the most sequence homologous template structures for the light and heavy framework regions and each of the complementarity determining region (CDR) loops. Subsequently, the most homologous templates are assembled into a side-chain optimized crude model, and the server returns a picture and coordinate file. For users requesting a high-resolution model, the server executes the full RosettaAntibody protocol which additionally models the hyper-variable CDR H3 loop. The high-resolution protocol also relieves steric clashes by optimizing the CDR backbone torsion angles and by ...
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B cell antigen receptor (BCR) or antibody diversity arises from somatic recombination of immunoglobulin (Ig) gene segments and is concentrated within the Ig heavy (H) chain complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR-H3). We performed high-throughput sequencing of the expressed antibody heavy chain repertoire from adult torafugu. We found that torafugu use between 70% and 82% of all possible V (variable) D (diversity) J (joining) gene segment combinations and that they share a similar frequency distribution of these VDJ combinations. The CDR-H3 sequence repertoire observed in individuals is biased with the preferential use of a small number of VDJ, dominated by sequences containing inserted nucleotides. We uncovered the common CDR-H3 amino acid (aa) sequences shared by individuals. Common CDR-H3 sequences feature highly convergent nucleic acid recombination compared with private ones. Finally, we observed differences in repertoires between IgM and IgT, including the unequal usage frequencies of V gene
The invention provides recombinant antibody molecules comprising antigen binding regions derived from the heavy and/or light chain variable regions of a donor anti-CD3 antibody, e.g. OKT3, and which have anti-CD3 binding specificity, preferably of affinity similar to that of OKT3. The recombinant antibody is preferably a humanized antibody and may be a chimeric or CDR-grafted antibody. A method is disclosed for preparing CDR-grafted humanized antibodies in which, in addition to the CDRs, non-human antibody residues are preferably used at positions 23, 24, 49, 71, 73 and 78 of the heavy chain variable region and at positions 46, 48, 58, and 71 of the light chain variable region. The recombinant, especially the humanized, anti-CD3 antibodies may used for in vivo therapy or diagnosis.
Crews, Stephen Thomas (1983) The Structure of Mammalian Genes: (1) Antibody Heavy Chain Variable Region Genes: Organization, Diversity, and Somatic Mutation. (2) Structure and Transcription of the DNA Encompassing the Origin of Replication of Human Mitochondrial DNA. Dissertation (Ph.D.), California Institute of Technology. doi:10.7907/4dgr-za66. ...
The VH gene repertoire of human peripheral B cells was analyzed using PCR analysis of individual blood B cells. Because genomic DNA of single B cells was analyzed, data from both productive and nonproductive VDJ rearrangements were obtained. Nine out of 75 B cells contained both functional and nonfunctional rearrangement products, whereas 62/75 had a single productive VDJ rearrangement. The distribution of VH families was ordered in accordance with the germline complexity, although a bias toward VH3 and some of its members was found. This bias was noted in both the productively and nonproductively rearranged repertoires, indicating that it resulted from molecular and not selective processes. Evidence for negative selection of certain VH3 and VH4 family members was noted in that they were found less often as productive than nonproductive VDJ rearrangements. In addition, evidence for positive selection based on CDR3 was obtained, in that JH6 and DXP1 were found at a higher frequency in the ...
Rabbit polyclonal Dynein heavy chain antibody. Validated in IHC and tested in Human. Independently reviewed in 1 review(s). Immunogen corresponding to recombinant fragment.
ZytuxTM is a biosimilar product with the generic name of Rituximab. It is a genetically engineered human-mouse chimeric monoclonal antibody produced by Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells in suspension. It is a fusion of the light and heavy chain variable domains of a murine monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody and human kappa light-chain and gamma 1 heavy-chain constant regions. Rituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody against CD20 antigens presents on surface of lymphocyte cells. Rituximab binds to the target CD20 antigen via the variable murine regions, while the remainder of the antibody interacts with human immune-effector mechanisms to kill the target cells. Zytux™ is used for treatment of ...
To promote cancer research and to develop innovative therapies, refined pre-clinical mouse tumor models that mimic the actual disease in humans are of dire need. A number of neoplasms along the B cell lineage are commonly initiated by a translocation recombining c-myc with the immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene locus. The translocation is modeled in the C.129S1-Ighatm1(Myc)Janz/J mouse which has been previously engineered to express c-myc under the control of the endogenous IgH promoter. This transgenic mouse exhibits B cell hyperplasia and develops diverse B cell tumors. We have isolated tumor cells from the spleen of a C.129S1-Ighatm1(Myc)Janz/J mouse that spontaneously developed a plasmablastic lymphoma-like disease. These cells were cultured, transduced to express eGFP and firefly luciferase, and gave rise to a highly aggressive, transplantable B cell lymphoma cell line, termed IM380. This model bears several advantages over other models as it is genetically induced and mimics the translocation ...
Rat IgG2b Kappa Light Chain Isotype Control (149/10H5) [PE/Cy7]. Available in 26 dyes & fluorophores. Backed by our 100% Guarantee.
Hi all, Im a beginner to bioinformatics, and Im having trouble finding specific tools that could help me analyze and visualize data of immunoglobulin variable heavy chains. The data I have is from a MiSeq readout. So far Ive only been able to use PEAR to sticth my reads together, FASTAptamer to count, compare, and cluster my sequences, and thats about it. Ive been trying to use different visualization tools on Galaxy but it seems like the ones that do allow FASTA files as input are spitting out errors because of varying length of sequences in the file and other errors (one that keeps popping up is Picked Up JAVA_OPTIONS?). Ive tried IgGalaxy but Im having trouble setting it up because the VMWare isnt compatible with my computer. Am I missing something with Galaxy that Im not aware of? Thanks in advance!. ...
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The genesis of human follicular lymphoma (FL) is a multistep process. The initial event is thought to be the chromosomal translocation t(14;18)(q32;q21) juxtaposing the bcl-2 proto-oncogene with the immunoglobulin (Ig) H chain locus joining segment (JH) as an error of D-J or V-D joining in the pre-B cell. However, FL is recognized clinically as a tumor of surface Ig (sIg)-positive B cells with morphologic and phenotypic similarities to the centrocyte of the secondary immune response. Thus, additional steps must be involved in the clonal expansion of the FL tumor cell beyond the activation of bcl-2 as a consequence of the t(14;18) translocation. Like the normal centrocyte, somatic mutations accumulate in the variable (V) genes of FL tumor B cells. To determine if clonal expansion of FL occurs before or after the development of the malignant follicle, we sought to examine the evolution of the FL V gene from its unmutated germline (GL) counterpart. To obtain the GL gene we first cloned the ...
results of an open-label, multicenter, phase I/II trial aiming to determine the Maximal Tolerable Dose (MTD) of alemtuzumab consolidation and to evaluate safety and efficacy in CLL patients who responded to second-line fludarabine-based treatment.
This trial was investigating the efficacy, pharmacokinetics, tolerability and quality-of-life effects of rituximab in patients with chronic lymphocytic
A role of B cells in multiple sclerosis (MS) is well established, but there is limited understanding of their involvement during active disease. Here, we examined cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and peripheral blood (PB) B cells in treatment-naive patients with MS or high-risk clinically isolated syndrome. Using flow cytometry, we found increased CSF lymphocytes with a disproportionate increase of B cells compared with T cells in patients with gadolinium-enhancing (Gd+) lesions on brain MRI. Ig gene heavy chain variable region (Ig-VH) repertoire sequencing of CSF and PB B cells revealed clonal relationships between intrathecal and peripheral B cell populations, which could be consistent with migration of B cells to and activation in the CNS in active MS ...
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Functional isotypes are not encoded by the constant region genes of the beta subunit of the T cell receptor for antigen/major histocompatibility complex ...
Name: Drug, bio-affecting and body treating compositions > Involving immunoglobulin or antibody fragment (e.g., f(ab`)2, fab`, fv, fc, heavy chain, light chain, etc ...
Background Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) can be defined as chronic symptoms or laryngeal mucosal damage caused by the abnormal reflux of gastric contents into the upper airway. LPR plays an important role in up to 50% of laryngeal complaints that present in the otolaryngeal clinic, and the symptomatology of LPR has more different presentation. LPR is suspected in the presence of symptoms of hoarseness, dysphagia, cough, globus, excessive mucus, throat pain, throat clearing, and laryngospasm. Diagnosis of LPR is confirmed using the following: reflux symptom index (RSI), laryngoscopic examination [reflux finding score (RFS)], and esophagogastroduodenoscopy. Patients and methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 60 patients with typical gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms and laryngeal complaints; these studied patients were recruited from patients who attended the outpatient clinic of Tropical Medicine and Gastroenterology, and Phoniatric Unit, Assiut University Hospital. The ...
Background Monitoring of minimal residual disease (MRD) has become a frontline clinical practice in the treatment of virtually all childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cases and in many cases of adult patients with ALL. The MRD diagnostics has proven to be the strongest prognostic factor allowing for risk group assignment into different treatment arms. The MRD techniques need to be sensitive (≤10-4), which means, the ability to detect one malignant cell among 10 000 normal cells; broadly applicable; accurate; reliable; fast; and affordable. Aim The objective of this study is to evaluate the analysis of immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) or T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements as targets for MRD assessment in ALL, allowing early detection of relapsed cases, compare with the results of morphological evaluation of the same cases and to risk stratify patients with ALL according to the MRD assessment as a prognostic marker independent and superior to other conventional risk factors. ...
Human IgG4 heavy chain小鼠单克隆抗体[5C7](ab1930)可与人样本反应并经ELISA实验严格验证,被1篇文献引用。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
ho62a01.x1 Soares_NFL_T_GBC_S1 Homo sapiens cDNA clone IMAGE:3041928 3- similar to SW:TVA1_MOUSE P01738 T-CELL RECEPTOR ALPHA CHAIN V REGION PHDS58 PRECURSOR. [1] ;, mRNA ...
There was a positive correlation between CEA levels and CA 15-3 levels and patient prognosis. A high specificity for B-cells was confirmed by assaying for luciferase reporter gene expression from a plasmid containing an analogous combination of immunoglobulin heavy chain regulatory ...
Riblet R, Weigert M, Mäkelä O. Genetics of mouse antibodies. II. Recombination between VH genes and allotype. Eur J Immunol. 1975 Nov; 5(11):778-81 ...
mouse anti-myosin heavy chain, embryonic hybridoma (BF-G6) is an eagle-i resource of type Hybridoma cell line at eagle-i Network Shared Resource Repository.
BackgroundThe KM mouse lacks endogenous genes for immunoglobulins and carries the entire human IgH locus and the IgLk transgene… Expand ...
抗人IgM mu chain Biotin (ab97208)经WB, ELISA, IHC-P, ICC/IF实验严格验证。其他多种Biotin偶联二抗可供选择。品质保证,提供全方位技术支持,中国80%以上现货。
ウサギ・ポリクローナル抗体 ab91506 交差種: Ms,Rat,Hu,Pig 適用: WB,IHC-P,IHC-Fr…Fast Myosin Skeletal Heavy chain抗体一覧…画像、プロトコール、文献などWeb上の情報が満載のアブカムの…
isotype switching will change the isotype of the Ab. The constant region of the Ab is coded by the C region with the greek letter that matches its name. Ie, IgG has a C(gamma) constant region ...
tetanospasmin: composed of a heavy chain and a light chain; the L chain is a zinc-dependent endopeptidase; classified as EC
These heavy chain types vary between different animals. All heavy chains contain a series of immunoglobulin domains, usually ... The heavy chain doesn't always have to bind to a light chain. Pre-B lymphocytes can synthesize heavy chain in the absence of ... Heavy chains α and γ have approximately 450 amino acids. Heavy chains μ and ε have approximately 550 amino acids. Each heavy ... heavy chain that is present in all jawed fish and is the heavy chain for what is thought to be the primordial immunoglobulin. ...
... immunoglobulin). A typical antibody is composed of two immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chains and two Ig light chains. There are two ... a functional heavy-chain homodimeric antibody-like molecule referred to as IgNAR (immunoglobulin new antigen receptor). IgNAR ... chain, encoded by the immunoglobulin kappa locus ([email protected]) on chromosome 2 (locus: 2p11.2) lambda (λ) chain, encoded by the ... but lack the light chains usually paired with each heavy chain. Sharks also possess, as part of their adaptive immune systems, ...
Immunoglobulin heavy chain gene IGH; g) enzyme genes TTL (adds and removes tyrosine residues on α-tubulin), GOT1 (an Aspartate ... "IGH immunoglobulin heavy locus (human )". Entrez Gene. "TTL tubulin tyrosine ligase (human)". Entrez Gene. "CHIC2 cysteine rich ... transaminase), and ACSL6 (a Long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase); h) transporter gene ARNT (binds to ligand-bound aryl hydrocarbon ...
Ig heavy chain V-III region VH26 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the [email protected] gene. IGHV is the immunoglobulin heavy ... [email protected] Walter MA, Dosch HM, Cox DW (Aug 1991). "A deletion map of the human immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region". J Exp ... Boursier L, Su W, Spencer J (2003). "Imprint of somatic hypermutation differs in human immunoglobulin heavy and lambda chain ... 2005). "CD5+ diffuse large B-cell lymphoma consists of germline cases and hypermutated cases in the immunoglobulin heavy chain ...
2006). "Reconsidering the human immunoglobulin heavy-chain locus: 1. An evaluation of the expressed human IGHD gene repertoire ... "Entrez Gene: IGHD immunoglobulin heavy constant delta". Shin SU, Wei CF, Amin AR, et al. (1992). "Structural and functional ... 1982). "Amino acid sequence of the first constant region domain and the hinge region of the delta heavy chain of human IgD". ... White MB, Shen AL, Word CJ, Tucker PW, Blattner FR (May 1985). "Human immunoglobulin D: genomic sequence of the delta heavy ...
"A tissue-specific transcription enhancer element is located in the major intron of a rearranged immunoglobulin heavy chain gene ... "Transcriptional enhancer elements in the mouse immunoglobulin heavy chain locus". Science. 221 (4611): 663-665. Bibcode:1983Sci ... "Sequence of a mouse germ-line gene for a variable region of an immunoglobulin light chain". Proceedings of the National Academy ... These were delimited by regions containing stop signals, the messages to terminate construction of the polypeptide chain, and ...
Immunoglobulins are composed of light chains and heavy chains. The light chain (λ or κ) is a protein of ~220 amino acids, ... composed of one light chain, denoted L, and one heavy chain, denoted µ. The heavy and light chains are held together both by ... Early in ontogeny, B cells express both the µ and the δ heavy chains; co-expression of these two heavy chains, each bearing the ... As in the case of other immunoglobulins, the domains of the µ heavy chain have the characteristic overlying β-sheets comprising ...
Rajaiya J, Nixon JC, Ayers N, Desgranges ZP, Roy AL, Webb CF (Jun 2006). "Induction of immunoglobulin heavy-chain transcription ... "Bright/ARID3A contributes to chromatin accessibility of the immunoglobulin heavy chain enhancer". Molecular Cancer. 6: 23. doi: ...
"Expression and regulation of immunoglobulin heavy chain gene transfected into lymphoid cells". The EMBO Journal. Wiley. 2 (8): ... Di Noia, Javier; Neuberger, Michael S. (31 July 2002). "Altering the pathway of immunoglobulin hypermutation by inhibiting ... "Immunoglobulin Isotype Switching Is Inhibited and Somatic Hypermutation Perturbed in UNG-Deficient Mice". Current Biology. ... "AID Is Essential for Immunoglobulin V Gene Conversion in a Cultured B Cell Line". Current Biology. Elsevier BV. 12 (5): 435-438 ...
Clonal rearrangements of the immunoglobulin genes (heavy and light chains) are frequently seen. The deletion 7q21-32 is seen in ... Dunn-Walters DK, Boursier L, Spencer J, Isaacson PG (June 1998). "Analysis of immunoglobulin genes in splenic marginal zone ...
"Organization of the constant-region gene family of the mouse immunoglobulin heavy chain". Cell. 28 (3): 499-506. doi:10.1016/ ... He succeeded in cDNA clonings of IL-4 and IL-5 cytokines involved in class switching and IL-2 receptor alpha chain in 1986, and ... a novel member of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily, upon programmed cell death". The EMBO Journal. 11 (11): 3887-3895. doi: ...
FcαRI binds the heavy-chain constant region of Immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies. FcαRI is present on the cell surface of ... FcR γ-chain). Though FcαRI is part of the Fc receptor immunoglobulin superfamily, the protein's primary structure is similar to ... "Functional association between the human myeloid immunoglobulin A Fc receptor (CD89) and FcR gamma chain. Molecular basis for ... However, this chain alone cannot perform signaling in response to IgA binding, and FcαRI must associate with a dimeric form of ...
... constitutes a variant form of class switch recombination that eliminates all immunoglobulin heavy chain constant genes. It thus ... "AID-Driven Deletion Causes Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Locus Suicide Recombination in B Cells". Science. American Association ... Acton, Q.A. (2013). Immunoglobulins-Advances in Research and Application: 2013 Edition. ScholarlyEditions. p. 866. ISBN 978-1- ... terminates immunoglobulin and B-cell receptor (BCR) expression in B-lymphocytes and results in B-cell death since survival of ...
... of immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chain and light chain genes in B cells forms the genetic basis for the presence ... "Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Variable, Diversity, and Joining Region Gene Rearrangement". National Cancer Institute Thesaurus. ... Pelanda R (April 2014). "Dual immunoglobulin light chain B cells: Trojan horses of autoimmunity?". Current Opinion in ... The allelic exclusion of light chain genes Igκ and Igλ is a process that is controlled by the monoallelic initiation of V(D)J ...
Krawinkel U, Rabbitts TH (1984). "Comparison of the hinge-coding segments in human immunoglobulin gamma heavy chain genes and ... Ellison J, Hood L (Mar 1982). "Linkage and sequence homology of two human immunoglobulin gamma heavy chain constant region ... Milstein C, Frangione B (Jan 1971). "Disulphide bridges of the heavy chain of human immunoglobulin G2". The Biochemical Journal ... "Entrez Gene: IGHG2 immunoglobulin heavy constant gamma 2 (G2m marker)". Connell GE, Parr DM, Hofmann T (Jun 1979). "The amino ...
The first discovery of a eukaryotic enhancer was in the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene in 1983. This enhancer, located in the ... Mercola M, Wang XF, Olsen J, Calame K (August 1983). "Transcriptional enhancer elements in the mouse immunoglobulin heavy chain ... "A tissue-specific transcription enhancer element is located in the major intron of a rearranged immunoglobulin heavy chain gene ... "A tissue-specific transcription enhancer element is located in the major intron of a rearranged immunoglobulin heavy chain gene ...
Each immunoglobulin molecule consists of two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains. There are two classes of ... Boursier L, Su W, Spencer J (2003). "Imprint of somatic hypermutation differs in human immunoglobulin heavy and lambda chain ... that contains genes for the lambda light chains of antibodies (or immunoglobulins). Immunoglobulins recognize foreign antigens ... immunoglobulin lambda constant 1 (Mcg marker) IGLC2 - immunoglobulin lambda constant 2 (Kern-Oz- marker) IGLC3 - immunoglobulin ...
There is approximately 40% excess immunoglobulin light-chain production over immunoglobulin heavy-chain synthesis. Possibly ... Solomon A (1985). "[6] Light chains of human immunoglobulins". Light chains of human immunoglobulins. Methods in Enzymology. ... Immunoglobulin light chains that are circulating in serum in a free (unbound) state are called free light chains (FLCs). ... Each immunoglobulin light-chain molecule contains approximately 220 amino acids in a single polypeptide chain that is folded to ...
They are formed by light and heavy chain of the variable region of an immunoglobulin. The two chains are linked by a flexible ... They mostly consist of a heavy and light chain of the variable region of immunoglobulin. Recombinant antibodies have many ... "Assembly of functional antibodies from immunoglobulin heavy and light chains synthesised in E. coli". Nucleic Acids Research. ... day production of scFv was the successful assembly of recombinant antibodies from heavy and light chain of immunoglobulin. ...
"Variable regions of heavy and light polypeptide chains of the same gammaG-immunoglobulin molecule". Proceedings of the National ... the larger heavy chains and the smaller light chains. Two light and two heavy chains are linked together by disulfide bonds to ... include amino acids from both the light and heavy protein subunits. The inter-chain disulfide bonds help bring together the two ... Cummingham, B.; Gottlieb, P.; Konigsberg, W.; Edelman, G. (1968). "The covalent structure of a human gamma G-immunoglobulin. V ...
... immunoglobulin genes: Heavy chain alpha (IgA): IGHA1, IGHA2 Heavy chain gamma (IgG): IGHG1, IGHG2, IGHG3, IGHG4 Heavy chain ... Immunoglobulin heavy locus, also known as IGH, is a region on human chromosome 14 that contains a gene for the heavy chains of ... Each immunoglobulin molecule consists of two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains. This region represents the ... "Entrez Gene: IGH immunoglobulin heavy locus". "Gene Family: Immunoglobulin heavy locus at 14q32.33 (IGH)". HGNC: HUGO Gene ...
"Variable regions of heavy and light polypeptide chains of the same gammaG-immunoglobulin molecule". Proceedings of the National ... The protein subunits of antibodies are of two types, the larger heavy chains and the smaller light chains. Gottlieb's ... "The covalent structure of a human gamma G-immunoglobulin. V. Partial amino acid sequence of the light chain". Biochemistry. 7 ( ... Gottlieb, Paul David (1972). "The variability of immunoglobulins". 1. Kobler, John (1977). The Rockefeller ...
It encodes a constant (C) segment of Immunoglobulin A heavy chain. Immunoglobulin A is an antibody that plays a critical role ... Complete nucleotide sequences for the alpha-1 heavy chain constant region and the allelic alpha-2 heavy chain regions were ... IgA shows the same typical structure of other antibody classes, with two heavy chains and two light chains, and four distinct ... Immunoglobulin heavy constant alpha 1 is a immunoglobulin gene with symbol IGHA1. ...
Pascual, V.; Capra, J. D. (1991). Human immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region genes: Organization, polymorphism, and ... "Receptor revision of immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region genes in normal human B lymphocytes". The Journal of ... Hurley, C. K.; Shaw, S.; Nadler, L.; Schlossman, S.; Capra, J. D. (1982). "Alpha and beta chains of SB and DR antigens are ... Hasemann, C. A.; Capra, J. D. (1990). "High-level production of a functional immunoglobulin heterodimer in a baculovirus ...
Antibody (or immunoglobulin) structure is made up of two heavy-chains and two light-chains. These chains are held together by ... Here at this stage, Pre-B cell, mμ heavy chain and surrogate light chain are formed. The final rearrangement of the light chain ... a partial rearrangement of the heavy-chain gene occurs which is followed by complete rearrangement of heavy-chain gene. ... 1979). "Cloned pairs of variable region genes for immunoglobulin heavy-chains isolated from a clone library of the entire mouse ...
V-set domains are found in diverse protein families, including immunoglobulin light and heavy chains; in several T-cell ... "Phosphocholine binding immunoglobulin Fab McPC603. An X-ray diffraction study at 2.7 A". J. Mol. Biol. 190 (4): 593-604. doi: ... Immunoglobulin V-set, subgroup InterPro: IPR003596 T-cell surface antigen CD2 InterPro: IPR013285 ACAM; ACAN; ADAMTSL1; AGC1; ...
Busslinger also contributed to the current knowledge of how the large locus encoding the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) ... "Pax5 induces V-to-DJ rearrangements and locus contraction of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene". Retrieved 2019-01-08. " ...
Toraño A, Putnam FW (Feb 1978). "Complete amino acid sequence of the alpha 2 heavy chain of a human IgA2 immunoglobulin of the ... Ellison J, Hood L (Mar 1982). "Linkage and sequence homology of two human immunoglobulin gamma heavy chain constant region ... Flanagan JG, Rabbitts TH (Dec 1982). "Arrangement of human immunoglobulin heavy chain constant region genes implies ... "Entrez Gene: IGHA2 immunoglobulin heavy constant alpha 2 (A2m marker)". Kerr MA (Oct 1990). "The structure and function of ...
... light and heavy chain deposition disease, where both heavy and light chains of immunoglobulins are deposited, and heavy chain ... The immunoglobulin heavy chain in HCDD is frequently a truncated heavy chain. HCDD is the rarest subtype of MIDD. Serum protein ... Heavy Chain Deposition Disease (HCDD) features deposition of heavy chains only. Most commonly, this subtype is formed of ... where only immunoglobulin heavy chains are deposited. Light chain deposition disease (LCDD) is the most common of the three ...
1986). "Sequence of a human immunoglobulin gamma 3 heavy chain constant region gene: comparison with the other human C gamma ... "heavy chain disease" protein ZUC. Structure of the Fc fragment of immunoglobulin G3". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 71 (4): ... "Entrez Gene: IGHG3 immunoglobulin heavy constant gamma 3 (G3m marker)". Michaelsen TE, Frangione B, Franklin EC (1977). " ... Alexander A, Steinmetz M, Barritault D, Frangione B, Franklin EC, Hood L, Buxbaum JN (Sep 1982). "gamma Heavy chain disease in ...
... free heavy chains of HLA class I, with a preference for free heavy chains of HLA-C alleles Cluster of differentiation "Human ... immunoglobulin-like transcript 6 (ILT-6), and leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor 4 (LIR-4) is a protein that in humans is ... Leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor subfamily A member 3 (LILR-A3) also known as CD85 antigen-like family member E (CD85e), ... Samaridis J, Colonna M (March 1997). "Cloning of novel immunoglobulin superfamily receptors expressed on human myeloid and ...
Press's work provided the first evidence that immunoglobulin heavy chains had variable regions similar to those observed in ... Her research also pointed to evidence that at least two genes are involved in the synthesis of the heavy chain. "Elizabeth ( ... The structural studies on antibodies were essential in the chain of scientific discoveries which led to the development of ... Her studies on antibodies were important in determining the chain structure, and particularly the observation that more than ...
... γ4 heavy chain (134-218') disulfide and a humanized mouse monoclonal κ light chain dimer (226-226:229-229)-bisdisulfide. It is ... Pembrolizumab is an immunoglobulin G4, with a variable region against the human PD-1 receptor, a humanized mouse monoclonal [ ...
"V-region and class specific RT-PCR amplification of human immunoglobulin heavy and light chain genes from B-cell lines". ... "V lambda and J lambda-C lambda gene segments of the human immunoglobulin lambda light chain locus are separated by 14 kb and ... Immunoglobulin lambda joining 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IGLJ3 gene. "Human PubMed Reference:". National ... "Entrez Gene: Immunoglobulin lambda joining 3". Paul E, Iliev AA, Livneh A, Diamond B (December 1992). "The anti-DNA-associated ...
... protein-related factor binding site is required for the deregulation of c-myc expression by the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene ...
The same heavy and light variable chains used for scFv construction can be used in the construction of Fab. Construction of pre ... "Dextran as a Generally Applicable Multivalent Scaffold for Improving Immunoglobulin-Binding Affinities of Peptide and ... "Therapeutic anti-IgE monoclonal antibody single chain variable fragment (scFv) safety and immunomodulatory effects after one ... data Yeast two-hybrid screen Monoclonal antibodies such as mouse anti-human Duox2 monoclonal antibody S-40 Immunoglobulin Y ( ...
Immunoelectrophoresis and immunofixation studies help identify the type of immunoglobulin, the clonality of the light chain, ... and increased viscosity of the blood due to increased levels of a class of heavy proteins called macroglobulins. For a time, ... Results from characterization studies of urinary immunoglobulins indicate that light chains (Bence Jones protein), usually of ... The light chain of the monoclonal protein is usually the kappa light chain. At times, patients with Waldenström ...
... heavy-chain immunoglobulin - Hela cell - helminth protein - helper T cell - hemopexin - hemoglobin - herpes simplex virus ... immunoglobulin - immunoglobulin joining region - immunoglobulin variable region - immunologic receptor - immunology - In vivo ... gamma-chain immunoglobulin - gamma-delta T-cell antigen receptor - gastrin - gastrointestinal hormone receptor - gastrula - gel ... kappa-chain immunoglobulin - karyoplasm - karyotype - kelvin - keratin - kinase - kinesin - kinetic energy - kinetic exclusion ...
3. Kleinfield R, Hardy RR, Tarlinton, D (1986). 'Recombination between an expressed immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene and a ... They can avoid apoptosis by modifying the sequence of light chain V and J genes (components of the antigen receptor) so that it ...
Association of the CD79a/b heterodimer with the immunoglobulin heavy chain is required for surface expression of the BCR and ... The CD79a/b heterodimer associates non-covalently with the immunoglobulin heavy chain through its transmembrane region, thus ... forming the BCR along with the immunoglobulin light chain and the pre-BCR when associated with the surrogate light chain in ... Cluster of differentiation CD79A also known as B-cell antigen receptor complex-associated protein alpha chain and MB-1 membrane ...
A tissue-specific transcription enhancer element is located in the major intron of a rearranged immunoglobulin heavy chain gene ...
2000). "BCL-6 mutations are associated with immunoglobulin variable heavy chain mutations in B-cell chronic lymphocytic ...
It binds the heavy chain within the Fc region of most immunoglobulins and also within the Fab region in the case of the human ... Protein A can bind with strong affinity to the Fc portion of immunoglobulin of certain species as shown in the below table. In ... It has found use in biochemical research because of its ability to bind immunoglobulins. It is composed of five homologous Ig- ... Its isolation by affinity chromatography and its use as an immunosorbent for isolation of immunoglobulins". FEBS Letters. 28 (1 ...
"The HoxC4 homeodomain protein mediates activation of the immunoglobulin heavy chain 3' hs1,2 enhancer in human B cells. ...
"Altered repertoire of endogenous immunoglobulin gene expression in transgenic mice containing a rearranged mu heavy chain gene ...
Primary amyloidosis (AL) is caused by the deposition of excess immunoglobulin light chains which are secreted from plasma cells ... Plasmacytoma, multiple myeloma, Waldenström macroglobulinemia, heavy chain disease, and plasma cell leukemia are malignant ... Plasma cells can only produce a single kind of antibody in a single class of immunoglobulin. In other words, every B cell is ... However, continued exposure to antigen through those low levels of immunoglobulin is important, as it partly determines the ...
Polymorphic epitopes can be present on immunoglobulin constant regions on both heavy and light chains, differing between ... This means that divergent allotype of heavy chain of IgG antibody may be balanced by presence of this allotype on heavy chain ... The structure of immunoglobulin polypeptide chain is dictated and controlled by number of genes encoded in the germ line. ... For example, allotype expressed on constant region of heavy chain on IgG are designated by Gm which stands for 'genetic marker ...
... is a tetrapeptide (Thr-Lys-Pro-Arg, TKPR) located in the Fc-domain of the heavy chain of immunoglobulin G (residues 289 ... the spleen enzyme tuftsin-endocarboxypeptidase nicks the heavy chain at the Arg-Glu bond (292-293). The arginine carboxy- ... Two enzymes are needed to release tuftsin from immunoglobulin G.First, ...
... next to the immunoglobulin heavy- or light-chain gene enhancers, leading to increased C-MYC expression and increased cell ... The cDNA is sequenced and the sequence encoding the variable heavy and variable light chains of these antibodies are cloned ... This technology uses a single chain variable fragment (scFv) designed to recognize the cell surface marker CD19 as a method of ...
... revealing a pair of two-domain light chains and four-domain heavy chains. Subsequent analysis revealed the terminal domains of ... set of whole genome duplication events at the origin of vertebrates that gave rise to the entire super-family of immunoglobulin ... and heavy-chain fragments. Together, this work allowed the antibody structure to be sequenced and reconstructed, resulting in ... both chains to be variable domains responsible for antigen recognition. The work of Porter and Edelman revealed the molecular ...
Mues A, van der Ven PF, Young P, Fürst DO, Gautel M (May 1998). "Two immunoglobulin-like domains of the Z-disc portion of titin ... "The Chain-like Elasticity of Titin". Theoretical and Computational Biophysics Group, University of Illinois. Archived from the ... titin mechanical strength appears to decrease through the loss of disulfide bonds as the organism becomes heavier. Titin A-band ... More specifically the I-band contains two regions of tandem type II immunoglobulin domains on either side of a PEVK region that ...
The two heavy chains are linked to each other and to a light chain each by disulfide bonds. The resulting tetramer has two ... IgG antibodies are large globular proteins made of four peptide chains; two identical γ (gamma) heavy chains of about 50 kDa ... The Fc regions of IgGs bear a highly conserved N-glycosylation site at asparagine 297 in the constant region of the heavy chain ... Immunoglobulin G (Ig G) is a type of antibody. Representing approximately 75% of serum antibodies in humans, IgG is the most ...
... of bone Extraosseous plasmacytoma Monoclonal immunoglobulin deposition diseases Primary amyloidosis Light chain and heavy chain ... gammopathy of undetermined significance Heavy chain diseases Mu heavy chain disease Gamma heavy chain disease Alpha heavy chain ...
MYBPC3 was thus the fourth gene for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, following MYH7, encoding β-myosin heavy chain, TNNT2 and TPM1 ... an additional immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domain on the N-terminus, (2) a linker region between the second and third Ig domains, ... "Double heterozygosity for mutations in the beta-myosin heavy chain and in the cardiac myosin binding protein C genes in a ... "A molecular screening strategy based on beta-myosin heavy chain, cardiac myosin binding protein C and troponin T genes in ...
... (or derivative) may refer to: Igh (trigraph), used in Irish orthography Immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH), the large ... the Immunoglobulin heavy locus, in biology Institut IGH, a Croatian company Internal geared hubs, used on bicycles Inver Grove ...
... immunoglobulin heavy chains MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.705.500.350 - immunoglobulin alpha-chains MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.705. ... immunoglobulin j-chains MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.705.750 - immunoglobulin light chains MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.705.750.530 - ... immunoglobulin delta-chains MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.705.500.370 - immunoglobulin epsilon-chains MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.705. ... myosin heavy chains MeSH D12.776.210.500.600.200 - myosin light chains MeSH D12.776.210.500.600.300 - myosin subfragments MeSH ...
... surface B27 heavy chains and dimers can bind to regulatory immune receptors such as members of the killer cell immunoglobulin- ... Also, the HLA-B27 heavy chain homodimer formation hypothesis suggests that B27 heavy chains tend to dimerise and accumulate in ... One more misfolding theory, published in 2004, proposes that β2 microglobulin-free heavy chains of HLA-B27 undergo a facile ... Three previously noted features of HLA-B27, which distinguish it from other heavy chains, underlie the hypothesis: (1) HLA-B27 ...
"Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains". 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. V. W. X. Y. Z. * 0-9 ...
"Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains". 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. V. W. X. Y. Z. * 0-9 ...
Immunoglobulin heavy chain gamma constant domain 1, CH1-gamma ... Protein Immunoglobulin heavy chain gamma constant domain 1, CH1 ... Lineage for Protein: Immunoglobulin heavy chain gamma constant domain 1, CH1-gamma. *Root: SCOP 1.71 *. Class b: All beta ... part of metal chelatase catalytic Fab 7G12; germline antibody; chain identifiers are probably mixed up. complexed with mmp. ... part of Fab CNJ206; H-chains in this entry seem to be mistraced in VH region. ...
The association of immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein with unassembled immunoglobulin heavy chains occurs within the ... The translation in vitro of mRNA for immunoglobulin heavy chains. The translation in vitro of mRNA for immunoglobulin heavy ... Contributions of heavy and light chains of rabbit immunoglobulin G to antibody activity. I. Binding studies on isolated heavy ... Joint-derived T cells in rheumatoid arthritis react with self-immunoglobulin heavy chains or immunoglobulin-binding proteins ...
Immunoglobulin heavy chain gene expression in peripheral blood B lymphocytes. Chichi Huang, A. Keith Stewart, Robert S. ... Dive into the research topics of Immunoglobulin heavy chain gene expression in peripheral blood B lymphocytes. Together they ...
Ansari NA, Owais M, Usha . Immunoglobulin heavy and light chain isotypes in multiple myeloma patients. Asian Pacific Journal of ... The frequency of expression of immunoglobulin (Ig) light and heavy chain isotypes was analyzed in myeloma proteins (M-proteins ... Both kappa and lambda light chains were associated with the heavy chain isotypes. We recommend the triangular combination for ...
Regulation of the replication of the murine immunoglobulin heavy chain gene locus: Evaluation of the role of the 3 regulatory ... Regulation of the replication of the murine immunoglobulin heavy chain gene locus: Evaluation of the role of the 3 regulatory ...
Heavy chain amyloidosis (AH). In a few cases, immunoglobulin chain amyloidosis fibrils contain only heavy-chain sequences ... Light chain amyloidosis (AL). The precursor protein is a clonal immunoglobulin light chain or light chain fragment. AL is a ... Immunoglobulin light and heavy chain amyloidosis AL/AH: renal pathology and differential diagnosis. Contrib Nephrol. 2007. 153: ... the fibril protein is an immunoglobulin light chain or light chain fragment (abbreviated L); thus, patients with these ...
Heavy chain amyloidosis (AH). In a few cases, immunoglobulin chain amyloidosis fibrils contain only heavy-chain sequences ... Light chain amyloidosis (AL). The precursor protein is a clonal immunoglobulin light chain or light chain fragment. AL is a ... Immunoglobulin light and heavy chain amyloidosis AL/AH: renal pathology and differential diagnosis. Contrib Nephrol. 2007. 153: ... the fibril protein is an immunoglobulin light chain or light chain fragment (abbreviated L); thus, patients with these ...
These results show that an open chromatin structure around the heavy chain enhancer is necessary but insufficient for ... Cell lineage specificity of chromatin configuration around the immunoglobulin heavy chain enhancer. ... Cell lineage specificity of chromatin configuration around the immunoglobulin heavy chain enhancer. ... These results show that an open chromatin structure around the heavy chain enhancer is necessary but insufficient for ...
Nature Webinar: Using long-read sequencing to characterize population diversity at the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus ... studying the genetic background of immune response by characterizing population diversity at the immunoglobulin heavy chain ...
An immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region gene is generated from three segments of DNA: VH, D and JH. ... Sequences of the joining region genes for immunoglobulin heavy chains and their role in generation of antibody diversity ... Structural evidence for independent joining region gene in immunoglobulin heavy chains from anti-galactan myeloma proteins and ... Two types of somatic recombination are necessary for the generation of complete immunoglobulin heavy-chain genes. ...
PDB Compounds: (K:) immunoglobulin heavy chain. SCOPe Domain Sequences for d1hzhk3:. Sequence; same for both SEQRES and ATOM ... d1hzhk3 b.1.1.2 (K:239-359) Immunoglobulin heavy chain gamma constant domain 2, CH2-gamma {Human (Homo sapiens) [TaxId: 9606]} ... Protein Immunoglobulin heavy chain gamma constant domain 2, CH2-gamma [88584] (4 species). ... d1hzhk4 in context of chain. View in 3D. Domains from same chain:. (mouse over for more information). d1hzhk1, d1hzhk2, d1hzhk4 ...
... are heavy chain counterparts of the variable (V) and joining (J) gene segments of immunoglobulin light chains. The VH gene ... are heavy chain counterparts of the variable (V) and joining (J) gene segments of immunoglobulin light chains. The VH gene ... are heavy chain counterparts of the variable (V) and joining (J) gene segments of immunoglobulin light chains. The VH gene ... are heavy chain counterparts of the variable (V) and joining (J) gene segments of immunoglobulin light chains. The VH gene ...
immunoglobulin heavy chain 4 (serum IgG1). *immunoglobulin heavy chain V region. Gene Ontology Provided by MGI Function. ... immunoglobulin heavy constant gamma 1 (G1m marker)); IGHG2 (immunoglobulin heavy constant gamma 2 (G2m marker)); and IGHG3 ( ... immunoglobulin heavy constant gamma 1 (G1m marker)provided by MGI. Primary source. MGI:MGI:96446 See related. IMGT/GENE-DB: ... Ighg1 immunoglobulin heavy constant gamma 1 (G1m marker) [ Mus musculus (house mouse) ] Gene ID: 16017, updated on 27-Sep-2022 ...
Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains / genetics * Immunotherapy, Active * Influenza A virus / immunology* * Influenza A virus / ...
Heavy-Chain. Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains. Immunoglobulins, J-Chain. Immunoglobulin J-Chains. Immunoglobulins, Light-Chain. ... Immunoglobulin Light Chains. Immunoglobulins, alpha-Chain. Immunoglobulin alpha-Chains. Immunoglobulins, delta-Chain. ... Immunoglobulin delta-Chains. Immunoglobulins, epsilon-Chain. Immunoglobulin epsilon-Chains. Immunoglobulins, gamma-Chain. ... Immunoglobulin gamma-Chains. Immunoglobulins, kappa-Chain. Immunoglobulin kappa-Chains. Immunoglobulins, lambda-Chain. ...
We detected immunoglobulin M by using a μ heavy chain-specific conjugate. Only an acute serum sample was collected from each ...
Immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) sequence accession identifiers. Supplementary Table 13. Immunoglobulin light chain (IgL) ... 3 Genomic organization of bowfin immunoglobulin and TCR genes.. (a) The immunoglobulin heavy (IgH) chain and T cell receptor ( ... d) The Ig light (IgL) chain kappa locus is present on Aca scaf11. (e) The IgL chain sigma loci are encoded on Aca scaf22. ... Mirete-Bachiller, S., Olivieri, D. N. & Gambon-Deza, F. Immunoglobulin T genes in Actinopterygii. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 108, ...
BALDR: a computational pipeline for paired heavy and light chain immunoglobulin reconstruction in single-cell RNA-seq data. ... BALDR: a computational pipeline for paired heavy and light chain immunoglobulin reconstruction in single-cell RNA-seq data ... that accurately reconstructs the paired heavy and light chain immunoglobulin gene sequences from Illumina single-cell RNA-seq ...
Home/2019 Publications, Featured Publications, Publications/Establishment of Immunoglobulin Heavy (IGH) Chain Clonality Testing ... Establishment of Immunoglobulin Heavy (IGH) Chain Clonality Testing by Next-Generation Sequencing for Routine Characterization ... Establishment of Immunoglobulin Heavy (IGH) Chain Clonality Testing by Next-Generation Sequencing for Routine Characterization ...
VH1-46 Is the Dominant Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Gene Segment in Rotavirus-Specific Memory B Cells Expressing the Intestinal ... Analysis of the heavy chain repertoire of human peripheral B cells using single-cell polymerase chain reaction. J. Immunol. ... VH1-46 Is the Dominant Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Gene Segment in Rotavirus-Specific Memory B Cells Expressing the Intestinal ... The human heavy chain Ig V region gene repertoire is biased at all stages of B cell ontogeny, including early pre-B cells. J. ...
Molecular characterization of immunoglobulins A, G, and M heavy chains in the Atlantic bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus ... Molecular characterization of immunoglobulins A, G, and M heavy chains in the Atlantic bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus. ... Post a Comment for Molecular characterization of immunoglobulins A, G, and M heavy chains in the Atlantic bottlenose dolphin, ... Molecular characterization of immunoglobulins A, G, and M heavy chains in the Atlantic bottlenose... ...
... of immunoglobulin lambda constant region 7 on its association with ME/CFS with sr-IBS whilst IGHV3-23/30 and immunoglobulin ... revealed a significant association between ME/CFS and the immunoglobulin heavy variable (IGHV) region 3-23/30. Stratifying the ... Splenic marginal zone lymphoma: Clinical clustering of immunoglobulin heavy chain repertoires. Blood Cells Mol Dis. 2009;42: ... immunoglobulin heavy variable, IGLC: immunoglobulin lambda constant, IGKV: immunoglobulin kappa variable. ...
The immunoglobulin heavy chain gene locus (IgH), present in the genome of all naive IgM+ B cells, contains all the genetic ... end of the IgH locus encodes the antigen-combining regions of a mature immunoglobulin heavy chain. This is followed by widely ... JH cassette is moved into a location adjacent to the exons encoding constant domains of immunoglobulin heavy chains (isotype ... Rolink, A, Melchers, F, Andersson, J. The SCID but not the RAG-2 gene product is required for Sυ-Sε heavy chain class switching ...
Mutational status of immunoglobulin heavy chain variable (IGVH). *Deletion 17p (FISH) and/or TP53 mutation ... Additionally, they also express extremely low levels of a single immunoglobulin light chain (kappa or lambda). ... CLL B-lymphocytes express extremely low levels of surface membrane immunoglobulin, most often immunoglobulin M (IgM) or IgM/IgD ... Raanani P, Gafter-Gvili A, Paul M, Ben-Bassat I, Leibovici L, Shpilberg O. Immunoglobulin prophylaxis in chronic lymphocytic ...
... with this gene fusion and eosinophilic cytokine comes under control of immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) locus. This entity need ...
Expression of the human immunoglobulin heavy chain VH6 gene element by fetal B lymphocytes. Scand J Immunol (1997) 46(3):292-7. ... and a 40 kDa heavy chain (p40). It is produced by activated monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, microglia, and dendritic cells ... Saji F, Samejima Y, Kamiura S, Koyama M. Dynamics of immunoglobulins at the feto-maternal interface. Rev Reprod (1999) 4(2):81- ... Purkerson J, Isakson P. A two-signal model for regulation of immunoglobulin isotype switching. FASEB J (1992) 6(14):3245-52. ...
  • Cows, specifically Bos taurus, show a variation on the general mammalian theme in which the heavy chain CDR H3 region has adapted to produce a divergent repertoire of antibodies which present a "stalk and knob" antigen interaction surface instead of the more familiar bivalent tip surface. (
  • The resulting antibodies are designated IgW (also called IgX or IgNARC) and IgNAR (immunoglobulin new antigen receptor). (
  • The latter type is a heavy-chain antibody, an antibody lacking light chains, and can be used to produce single-domain antibodies, which are essentially the variable domain (VNAR) of an IgNAR. (
  • Antibodies (also called Immunoglobulins (Ig) ) are special proteins. (
  • There are several different types of antibody heavy chains, and several different kinds of antibodies, which are grouped into different isotypes based on which heavy chain they possess. (
  • Antibodies may be monoclonal antibodies or single chain antibodies or humanized antibodies. (
  • Antibodies are glycoproteins belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily . (
  • Antibodies are heavy (~150 k Da ) proteins of about 10 nm in size, [7] arranged in three globular regions that roughly form a Y shape. (
  • [10] In between them is a hinge region of the heavy chains, whose flexibility allows antibodies to bind to pairs of epitopes at various distances, to form complexes ( dimers , trimers, etc.), and to bind effector molecules more easily. (
  • This variant terminology fell out of use due to the correspondence being inexact and due to confusion with γ heavy chains which characterize the IgG class of antibodies. (
  • This test looks for signs of antibodies called immunoglobulins in your blood. (
  • Primary antibodies are immunoglobulins that bind to a specific antigen of interest. (
  • If you buy Antibodies supplied by genways they should be stored frozen at - 24°C for long term storage and for short term at + 5°C.Immunoglobulin M, or IgM for short, is a basic antibody that is produced by B cells. (
  • Immunoglobulin gamma, IgG, mouse monoclonal H&L chain clones or rabbit, goat polyclonal antibodies have 4 parts. (
  • Immunoglobulins, also known as antibodies, are membrane-bound or secreted glycoproteins produced by B lymphocytes. (
  • Plasma cells also make immunoglobulins (antibodies). (
  • An immunoglobulins test measures the levels of certain antibodies in your. (
  • COVID-19 Coronavirus Antibody Serology Test This bucket a blood test It is designed to detect antibodies immunoglobulins IgG and IgM against the coronavirus. (
  • Pre-B lymphocytes can synthesize heavy chain in the absence of light chain, which then can allow the heavy chain to bind to a heavy-chain binding protein. (
  • To examine the anti-cancer mechanisms of autophagic inhibition, we used colon cancer cell lines harboring different p53 gene statuses, as well as small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting Atg5 and immunoglobulin heavy-chain binding protein (BiP), a chaperone to aid folding of unfolded proteins. (
  • These include heat shock protein GRP78 (glucose regulated protein 78, also called BiP, immunoglobulin heavy chain-binding protein) and three ER transmembrane proteins PERK (protein kinase activated by double-stranded RNA-like ER kinase), IRE1 (inositol-requiring enzyme 1) and ATF6 (activating transcription factor 6). (
  • These results show that an open chromatin structure around the heavy chain enhancer is necessary but insufficient for initiating transcription from unrearranged IgH genes and further suggests this region may be in an open or accessible configuration prior to lineage commitment and closed following adoption of the myeloid lineage. (
  • Gene conversion: some implications for immunoglobulin genes. (
  • Two types of somatic recombination are necessary for the generation of complete immunoglobulin heavy-chain genes. (
  • Single-cell based high-throughput sequencing of full-length immunoglobulin heavy and light chain genes. (
  • Cloning of immunoglobulin genes from HA-specific B cells isolated from a single human subject demonstrates that vaccination with H5N1 influenza virus can elicit B cells expressing stem monoclonal Abs (MAbs). (
  • Mutations at A/T bases within immunoglobulin genes have been shown to be generated by a repair pathway involving the DNA-binding moiety of the mismatch repair complex constituted by the MSH2-MSH6 proteins, together with DNA polymerase η (pol η). (
  • Thus, CLL with hyper-mutated immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region (IgH V H ) genes (mutated [M]-CLL) show a more favorable prognosis than those with unmutated IgH V H genes (unmutated [U]-CLL). (
  • Some other genes are also regulated, including those for immunoglobulin light and heavy chains (Oct-2) [ ( PUBMED:1967834 ) ( PUBMED:1967821 ) ], and trophic hormone genes, such as those for prolactin and growth hormone (Pit-1). (
  • Immunoglobulin constant heavy G chain genes as risk factors in childhood allergies. (
  • Based on these observations, we propose a model for variable region gene rearrangement mediated by proteins which recognize the same conserved sequences adjacent to both light and heavy chain immunoglobulin gene segments. (
  • The frequency of expression of immunoglobulin (Ig) light and heavy chain isotypes was analyzed in myeloma proteins (M-proteins) from sera of 40 Indian patients with clinically established multiple myeloma. (
  • Additionally, several classes of proteins, including immunoglobulins (Igs), the complement system, and anti-microbial proteins and peptides (APPs), aid in the innate response to invading microorganisms and display age-dependent maturation (Figure 1 ). (
  • Light chains are also called Bence Jones proteins. (
  • Monoclonal proteins can be either intact monoclonal immunoglobulins or immunoglobulin light chains (Bence Jones proteins) found in the blood and/or urine. (
  • In healthy individuals, plasma cells produce proteins called "polyclonal immunoglobulins. (
  • When excreted in large amounts, Bence Jones proteins (free light chains) can sometimes make the urine appear foamy and they can cause injury to the kidneys. (
  • Light chains are proteins made by plasma cells, a type of white blood cell. (
  • rarely, it may involve monoclonal immunoglobulin G (IgG), immunoglobulin A (IgA), or λ light chain restriction. (
  • In light chain (LC) diseases, monoclonal immunoglobulin LCs are abundantly produced with the consequence in some cases to form deposits of a fibrillar or amorphous nature affecting various organs, such as heart and kidney. (
  • In myeloma, large amounts of a single antibody are noted as a "monoclonal immunoglobulin spike" or "monoclonal spike" (M spike), indicating that the protein came from cells that originally started as single, malignant cell. (
  • Galcanezumab-gnlm is composed of two identical immunoglobulin kappa light chains and two identical immunoglobulin gamma heavy chains and has an overall molecular weight of approximately 147 kDa. (
  • Each hemoglobin molecule contains one pair of alpha globin family chains (including alpha and zeta globin chains) and one pair of beta-globin family chains (including beta, gamma, delta and epsilon globin chains). (
  • Dependent on the type of the underlying B-cell disorder, they may reflect a monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance (MGUS), a smoldering or full blown multiple myeloma (MM) with exclusive (Bence Jones MM) or substantial light chain secretion in addition to the complete immunoglobulin. (
  • Melissa Laird Smith from Icahn Institute at Mt. Sinai reviews her work studying the genetic background of immune response by characterizing population diversity at the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus. (
  • [4] with this gene fusion and eosinophilic cytokine comes under control of immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) locus. (
  • We are testing in vitro and in vivo key YY1 mutants that ablate specific YY1 functions such as transcriptional activation, Polycomb recruitment, self-association, and DNA binding, for their impact on chromatin structure, long-distance DNA interactions, and immunoglobulin locus contraction needed for V(D)J rearrangement. (
  • Class switch recombination (CSR) at the immunoglobulin heavy-chain (IgH) locus is associated with the formation of R-loop structures over switch (S) regions. (
  • This translocation involves the immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene on chromosome 14 and the BCL1 locus on chromosome 11. (
  • Cell lineage specificity of chromatin configuration around the immunoglobulin heavy chain enhancer. (
  • In S107, these nucleotides encode amino acids 102-106, which form part of the third hypervariable region and consequently influence the antigen-binding specificity of the immunoglobulin molecule. (
  • Molecular investigations for immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) gene rearrangement revealed the presence of a clonal population of B cells. (
  • Immunoglobulin gene rearrangement IGHV3-48 is a predictive marker of histological transformation into aggressive lymphoma in follicular lymphomas. (
  • We have determined the sequences of separate germline genetic elements which encode two parts of a mouse immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region. (
  • In addition, we have partially determined the V H coding sequences of the S107 and M167 heavy chain mRNAs. (
  • Here we describe a bioinformatic pipeline, BALDR (BCR Assignment of Lineage using De novo Reconstruction) that accurately reconstructs the paired heavy and light chain immunoglobulin gene sequences from Illumina single-cell RNA-seq data. (
  • The deduced amino acid sequences of the dolphin immunoglobulins show greatest similarity to ex and y of evolutionarily-related artiodactyl species (pig , sheep , and cow) . (
  • Identifying key characteristics like genetic aberrations (17p, 11q, and 13q deletions and trisomy 12) as well as immunoglobulin gene mutational status has helped in not only prognostication but also therapeutic decision-making. (
  • 1 These new tests include: immunoglobulin variable-region heavy chain mutational status, cytogenetic abnormalities assessed by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), and Z-chain-associated protein kinase 70 expression (ZAP-70) 2 . (
  • Similar to the situation observed for bony fish, three distinct Ig heavy chain isotypes have been identified in cartilaginous fish. (
  • With the exception of μ, these Ig heavy chain isotypes appear to be unique to cartilaginous fish. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Immunoglobulin heavy and light chain isotypes in multiple myeloma patients. (
  • Both kappa and lambda light chains were associated with the heavy chain isotypes. (
  • It does not crossreact with other immunoglobulin heavy chain isotypes. (
  • Thus, each immunoglobulin has two antigen binding sites with remarkable affinity for a particular antigen. (
  • In the recognition phase of humoral immunity, the membrane-bound immunoglobulins serve as receptors which, upon binding of a specific antigen, trigger the clonal expansion and differentiation of B lymphocytes into immunoglobulins-secreting plasma cells. (
  • Secreted immunoglobulins mediate the effector phase of humoral immunity, which results in the elimination of bound antigens (PubMed:22158414, PubMed:20176268). (
  • Overnight cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes were stained with purified anti-human Ig Light Chain λ (clone, 1-155-2) (upper panel) or purified mIgG1, κ isotype control (bottom) followed by anti-mouse IgG FITC then stained with CD19 APC. (
  • Overnight cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes were stained with purified anti-human Ig Light Chain λ (clone 1-155-2) followed by anti-mouse IgG FITC and then Brilliant Violet™ 421 ant-human kappa (clone MHK-49). (
  • An intact immunoglobulin (Ig) molecule is composed of two larger pieces (heavy chains) and two smaller pieces (light chains) that are attached to each other. (
  • [ 1 ] Donath-Landsteiner hemolytic anemia is also caused by a cold-reacting immunoglobulin, but most cases are due to polyclonal IgG. (
  • Several different types of heavy chain exist that define the class or isotype of an antibody. (
  • This heavy chain, identified in both rainbow trout (τ) and zebrafish (ζ), could potentially form a distinct antibody isotype (IgT or IgZ) that may precede IgM in evolutionary terms. (
  • AbFlex ® N6-Methyladenosine (m6A) antibody was expressed as full-length IgG with mouse immunoglobulin heavy and light chains (IgG2a isotype) in mammalian 293 cells. (
  • In general, the monoclonal free light chains of either kappa or lambda isotype are the secreted product of monoclonal plasma cells residing in the bone marrow. (
  • Immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region gene mutation, cell of origin, Myc/Bcl-2 double expression and MYC/BCL2/BCL6 double-/triple-hit status were not associated with OS. (
  • ZAP-70 compared with immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene mutation status as a predictor of disease progression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. (
  • In IgVH testing, immunoglobulin gene mutation status is checked for the expression in CLL cells. (
  • Logistic regression models, with both linear and quadratic terms of the protein levels as independent variables, revealed a significant association between ME/CFS and the immunoglobulin heavy variable (IGHV) region 3-23/30. (
  • Nineteen (37%) had 17p deletion, and 75% had unmutated immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region (IgHV). (
  • 3 cm), unmutated immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region gene ( IGHV ), del(17p), TP53 mutation, NOTCH1 mutation, and stereotyped B-cell receptor (BCR). (
  • One test that has been associated with the aggressiveness of CLL is the expression of part of a gene referred to as an unmutated immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable-region gene (IgVH). (
  • Rai stage and lack of mutation in the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene (IgVH) were also strong predictors of progression. (
  • Because recombinant antibody production involves sequencing the antibody light and heavy chains, it is a highly controlled and reliable process. (
  • responses were similar regardless of genomic features (presence of del(11)(q22.3), del(17)(p13.1), complex karyotype, or immunoglobulin variable region heavy chain mutation status). (
  • An immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region gene is generated from three segments of DNA: VH, D and JH. (
  • Dive into the research topics of 'An immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region gene is generated from three segments of DNA: V H , D and J H '. Together they form a unique fingerprint. (
  • The 24-month progression-free survival was 89% with ibrutinib (97% and 89% in patients with del[11q] and unmutated immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region gene, respectively). (
  • HSPA5 Mouse Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 659 amino acids (20-655 a.a) and having a molecular mass of 72.9kDa. (
  • Malignant plasma cells in bone marrow produce an immunoglobulin, usually monoclonal IgG or IgA or, less commonly, immunoglobulin light chains [1]. (
  • M2 BM (5%-24% lymphoblasts): by morphology with confirmatory testing consisting of at least one of the following: flow cytometry lymphoblasts ≥5%, or BCR-ABL1 fluorescence in situ hybridization, or ≥10-2 leukemic clone identified by immunoglobulin heavy chain-T-cell receptor polymerase chain reaction, OR ii. (
  • Twenty-seven case-patients had polymerase chain reaction (PCR) evidence of hantavirus ribonucleic acid in frozen lung tissue and/or positive immunohistochemical staining of formalin-fixed tissue for hantavirus antigen, in addition to compatible pathologic findings. (
  • Immunoglobulin A (IgA), in its secretory form, is the main effector of the mucosal immune system and provides an important first line of defense against most pathogens that invade the body at a mucosal surface [1] . (
  • Secretory IgA (SIgA) represents the most abundant immunoglobulin of body secretions such as saliva, tears, colostrum and gastrointestinal secretions. (
  • Very rarely IgD [2] or both IgG and IgA, or even no immunoglobulins are produced (non-secretory MM) [1,3]. (
  • The more free light chains in your blood, the more plasma cells you have. (
  • Results are given in milligrams per liter (mg/L). The test measures the levels of specific types of free light chains, known as kappa and lambda, and also the ratio between the two. (
  • A particular class of such protein deposition disorders is represented by the light chain diseases, which are characterized by the occurrence of monoclonal free light chains in blood and urine ( Edelman & Gally, 1962 ). (
  • Some of these patients can be followed with a newer blood test that measures serum free light chains, which are a small fragment of the larger intact M protein. (
  • Unattached, "free" light chains enter the blood and are excreted rapidly in the urine. (
  • What is a free light chains test? (
  • These unlinked chains are known as free light chains. (
  • A free light chains test measures the amount of lambda and kappa free light chains in the blood. (
  • If the amount of free light chains is higher or lower than normal, it can mean you have a disorder of the plasma cells. (
  • A free light chains test is used to help diagnose or monitor plasma cell disorders. (
  • Why do I need a free light chains test? (
  • You don't need any special preparations for a free light chains test. (
  • Are there any risks to a free light chains test? (
  • Your results will show amounts for lambda and kappa free light chains. (
  • Is there anything else I need to know about a free light chains test? (
  • A free light chains test is often ordered with other tests, including an immunofixation blood test , to help confirm or rule out a diagnosis. (
  • The immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) is the large polypeptide subunit of an antibody (immunoglobulin). (
  • Cold agglutinins commonly have variable heavy-chain regions encoded by VH, with a distinct idiotype identified by the 9G4 rat murine monoclonal antibody. (
  • We performed detailed biochemical and biophysical investigations of light chains extracted and purified from the urine of a group of 20 patients with light chain disease. (
  • When the whole immunoglobulin is present in the urine, it is usually at a low level. (
  • Enables antigen binding activity and immunoglobulin receptor binding activity. (
  • If the heavy chain is able to bind to a surrogate light chain and move to the plasma membrane, then the developing B cell can begin producing its light chain. (
  • The heavy chain doesn't always have to bind to a light chain. (
  • When you have more light chains than heavy chains, those extra light chains are called "free" because they don't bind to the heavy chains. (
  • Normally, plasma cells make a small amount of extra light chains that don't bind with heavy chains. (
  • We term this postulated genetic element the D gene segment, referring to its role in the generation of heavy chain diversity. (
  • The cloning and characterization of dolphin immunoglobulins will be useful in developing immunological reagents for assessment of dolphin health as well as in understanding the dolphin immune system and its evolutionary implications . (
  • chain variable region-binding peptide includes an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 21 with substitution of one or more amino acid residues at the 15th position, the 16th position, the 17th position or the 18th position, wherein an acid dissociation pH thereof is shifted to a neutral side. (
  • The amino acid sequence, together with potential post-translational modifications and in interplay with the local conditions in the organism, such as local pH or presence of proteases, determines the in vivo behavior of the light chain. (
  • This Ser~Gly shift may interfere with the interaction between the J.1TM and the CD79a1b chains andultimately affect the efficiency of signal transduction and activation of B cells in the primary Immune response . (
  • Treatment and prognosis of immunoglobulin light chain (AL) amyloidosis and light and heavy chain deposition diseases. (
  • The landscape of immunoglobulin heavy chain gene repertoire and its clinical relevance in LPL/WM. (
  • Each heavy chain has two regions: a constant region (which is the same for all immunoglobulins of the same class but differs between classes). (
  • Heavy chains γ, α and δ have a constant region composed of three tandem (in a line next to each other) immunoglobulin domains but also have a hinge region for added flexibility. (
  • Heavy chains μ and ε have a constant region composed of four domains. (
  • Stratifying the ME/CFS group based on self-reported irritable bowel syndrome (sr-IBS) status revealed a significant quadratic effect of immunoglobulin lambda constant region 7 on its association with ME/CFS with sr-IBS whilst IGHV3-23/30 and immunoglobulin kappa variable region 3-11 were significantly associated with ME/CFS without sr-IBS. (
  • The G7-26 monoclonal antibody specifically recognizes the constant region of human Immunoglobulin E (IgE). (
  • 2007. Non-Human Transgenic Mammal for the Constant Region of the Class a Human Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain and Applications Thereof. (
  • Constant region of immunoglobulin heavy chains. (
  • 2002. Multiple functions of immunoglobulin A in mucosal defense against viruses: an in vitro measles virus model. (