The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.
Genes and gene segments encoding the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS. Gene segments of the heavy chain genes are symbolized V (variable), D (diversity), J (joining), and C (constant).
Genes encoding the different subunits of the IMMUNOGLOBULINS, for example the IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN GENES and the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES. The heavy and light immunoglobulin genes are present as gene segments in the germline cells. The completed genes are created when the segments are shuffled and assembled (B-LYMPHOCYTE GENE REARRANGEMENT) during B-LYMPHOCYTE maturation. The gene segments of the human light and heavy chain germline genes are symbolized V (variable), J (joining) and C (constant). The heavy chain germline genes have an additional segment D (diversity).
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the first stage of differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.
The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN M. They have a molecular weight of approximately 72 kDa and they contain about 57 amino acid residues arranged in five domains and have more oligosaccharide branches and a higher carbohydrate content than the heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.
The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
The domains of the immunoglobulin molecules that are invariable in their amino acid sequence within any class or subclass of immunoglobulin. They confer biological as well as structural functions to immunoglobulins. One each on both the light chains and the heavy chains comprises the C-terminus half of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN FAB FRAGMENT and two or three of them make up the rest of the heavy chains (all of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN FC FRAGMENT)
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G having a molecular weight of approximately 51 kDa. They contain about 450 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component covalently bound to the Fc fragment constant region. The gamma heavy chain subclasses (for example, gamma 1, gamma 2a, and gamma 2b) of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G isotype subclasses (IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B) resemble each other more closely than the heavy chains of the other IMMUNOGLOBULIN ISOTYPES.
Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN A. They have a molecular weight of approximately 58 kDa and contain about 470 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component bound covalently to their Fc fragment constant region.
A segment of the immunoglobulin heavy chains, encoded by the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES in the J segment where, during the maturation of B-LYMPHOCYTES; the gene segment for the variable region upstream is joined to a constant region gene segment downstream. The exact position of joining of the two gene segments is variable and contributes to ANTIBODY DIVERSITY. It is distinguished from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN J CHAINS; a separate polypeptide that serves as a linkage piece in polymeric IGA or IGM.
Any discrete, presumably solitary, mass of neoplastic PLASMA CELLS either in BONE MARROW or various extramedullary sites.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Abnormal immunoglobulins characteristic of MULTIPLE MYELOMA.
The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
One of the types of light chains of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Allelic variants of the immunoglobulin light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) or heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) encoded by ALLELES of IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES.
Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions coding for the IMMUNOGLOBULIN CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.
A disorder of immunoglobulin synthesis in which large quantities of abnormal heavy chains are excreted in the urine. The amino acid sequences of the N-(amino-) terminal regions of these chains are normal, but they have a deletion extending from part of the variable domain through the first domain of the constant region, so that they cannot form cross-links to the light chains. The defect arises through faulty coupling of the variable (V) and constant (C) region genes.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Gene rearrangement of the B-lymphocyte which results in a substitution in the type of heavy-chain constant region that is expressed. This allows the effector response to change while the antigen binding specificity (variable region) remains the same. The majority of class switching occurs by a DNA recombination event but it also can take place at the level of RNA processing.
A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.
The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.
A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors generally expressing one or more B-cell antigens or representing malignant transformations of B-lymphocytes.
Immunoglobulin preparations used in intravenous infusion, containing primarily IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. They are used to treat a variety of diseases associated with decreased or abnormal immunoglobulin levels including pediatric AIDS; primary HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA; SCID; CYTOMEGALOVIRUS infections in transplant recipients, LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC; Kawasaki syndrome, infection in neonates, and IDIOPATHIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA.
An immunoglobulin which accounts for less than 1% of plasma immunoglobulin. It is found on the membrane of many circulating B LYMPHOCYTES.
A 15 kD "joining" peptide that forms one of the linkages between monomers of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A or IMMUNOGLOBULIN M in the formation of polymeric immunoglobulins. There is one J chain per one IgA dimer or one IgM pentamer. It is also involved in binding the polymeric immunoglobulins to POLYMERIC IMMUNOGLOBULIN RECEPTOR which is necessary for their transcytosis to the lumen. It is distinguished from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN JOINING REGION which is part of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of the immunoglobulin light and heavy chains.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
One of the types of light chain subunits of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.
The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.
Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A programmed mutation process whereby changes are introduced to the nucleotide sequence of immunoglobulin gene DNA during development.
A site located in the INTRONS at the 5' end of each constant region segment of a immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene where recombination (or rearrangement) occur during IMMUNOGLOBULIN CLASS SWITCHING. Ig switch regions are found on genes encoding all five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN ISOTYPES) of IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN D. They have a molecular weight of approximately 64 kDa and they contain about 500 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component covalently bound to the Fc fragment constant region.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The heavy chain subunits of clathrin.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A chronic leukemia characterized by abnormal B-lymphocytes and often generalized lymphadenopathy. In patients presenting predominately with blood and bone marrow involvement it is called chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL); in those predominately with enlarged lymph nodes it is called small lymphocytic lymphoma. These terms represent spectrums of the same disease.
The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
Three regions (CDR1; CDR2 and CDR3) of amino acid sequence in the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION that are highly divergent. Together the CDRs from the light and heavy immunoglobulin chains form a surface that is complementary to the antigen. These regions are also present in other members of the immunoglobulin superfamily, for example, T-cell receptors (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL).
Allelic variants of the gamma-immunoglobulin heavy chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN GAMMA-CHAINS) encoded by ALLELES of IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES.
Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions coding for the kappa or lambda IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the second stage of differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.
Genes that cause the epigenotype (i.e., the interrelated developmental pathways through which the adult organism is realized) to switch to an alternate cell lineage-related pathway. Switch complexes control the expression of normal functional development as well as oncogenic transformation.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The medium-sized, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group D in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 13, 14, and 15.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN E. They have a molecular weight of approximately 72 kDa and they contain about 550 amino acid residues arranged in five domains and about three times more carbohydrate than the heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; and IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Crystallizable fragments composed of the carboxy-terminal halves of both IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fc fragments contain the carboxy-terminal parts of the heavy chain constant regions that are responsible for the effector functions of an immunoglobulin (COMPLEMENT fixation, binding to the cell membrane via FC RECEPTORS, and placental transport). This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.
Malignant lymphoma in which the lymphomatous cells are clustered into identifiable nodules within the LYMPH NODES. The nodules resemble to some extent the GERMINAL CENTER of lymph node follicles and most likely represent neoplastic proliferation of lymph node-derived follicular center B-LYMPHOCYTES.
The process by which the V (variable), D (diversity), and J (joining) segments of IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES or T-CELL RECEPTOR GENES are assembled during the development of LYMPHOID CELLS using NONHOMOLOGOUS DNA END-JOINING.
Exons that are created in vivo during LYMPHOCYTE maturation from the V, D, and J gene segments of immunoglobulin superfamily genes (e.g., the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES, or the T-CELL RECEPTOR BETA GENES or T-CELL RECEPTOR GAMMA GENES ) by the VDJ RECOMBINASE system.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The common name for all members of the Rajidae family. Skates and rays are members of the same order (Rajiformes). Skates have weak electric organs.
Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.
Specialized forms of antibody-producing B-LYMPHOCYTES. They synthesize and secrete immunoglobulin. They are found only in lymphoid organs and at sites of immune responses and normally do not circulate in the blood or lymph. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989, p169 & Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p20)
A group of disorders having a benign course but exhibiting clinical and histological features suggestive of malignant lymphoma. Pseudolymphoma is characterized by a benign infiltration of lymphoid cells or histiocytes which microscopically resembles a malignant lymphoma. (From Dorland, 28th ed & Stedman, 26th ed)
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
A transcription factor that is essential for CELL DIFFERENTIATION of B-LYMPHOCYTES. It functions both as a transcriptional activator and repressor to mediate B-cell commitment.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Lymphocyte progenitor cells that are restricted in their differentiation potential to the B lymphocyte lineage. The pro-B cell stage of B lymphocyte development precedes the pre-B cell stage.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A malignant disease of the B-LYMPHOCYTES in the bone marrow and/or blood.
Recombinases involved in the rearrangement of immunity-related GENES such as IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES and T-CELL RECEPTOR GENES.
A group of elongate elasmobranchs. Sharks are mostly marine fish, with certain species large and voracious.
Conditions characterized by the presence of M protein (Monoclonal protein) in serum or urine without clinical manifestations of plasma cell dyscrasia.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
An immunolglobulin light chain-like protein composed of an IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION-like peptide (such as light chain like lambda5 peptide) and an IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGION-like peptide (such as Vpreb1 peptide). Surrogate light chains associate with MU IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS in place of a conventional immunoglobulin light chains to form pre-B cell receptors.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Isoforms of MYOSIN TYPE II, specifically found in the ventricular muscle of the HEART. Defects in the genes encoding ventricular myosins result in FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A protein tyrosine kinase that is required for T-CELL development and T-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTOR function.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Specialized Fc receptors (RECEPTORS, FC) for polymeric immunoglobulins, which mediate transcytosis of polymeric IMMUNOGLOBULIN A and IMMUNOGLOBULIN M into external secretions. They are found on the surfaces of epithelial cells and hepatocytes. After binding to IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, the receptor-ligand complex undergoes endocytosis, transport by vesicle, and secretion into the lumen by exocytosis. Before release, the part of the receptor (SECRETORY COMPONENT) that is bound to IMMUNOGLOBULIN A is proteolytically cleaved from its transmembrane tail. (From Rosen et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Serum globulins that migrate to the gamma region (most positively charged) upon ELECTROPHORESIS. At one time, gamma-globulins came to be used as a synonym for immunoglobulins since most immunoglobulins are gamma globulins and conversely most gamma globulins are immunoglobulins. But since some immunoglobulins exhibit an alpha or beta electrophoretic mobility, that usage is in decline.
Extranodal lymphoma of lymphoid tissue associated with mucosa that is in contact with exogenous antigens. Many of the sites of these lymphomas, such as the stomach, salivary gland, and thyroid, are normally devoid of lymphoid tissue. They acquire mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type as a result of an immunologically mediated disorder.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the gamma-chain of antigen receptors.
A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The region of DNA which borders the 3' end of a transcription unit and where a variety of regulatory sequences are located.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A family of North American freshwater CATFISHES. It consists of four genera (Ameiurus, Ictalurus, Noturus, Pylodictis,) comprising several species, two of which are eyeless.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The infiltrating of tissue specimens with paraffin, as a supporting substance, to prepare for sectioning with a microtome.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of cytidine, forming uridine. EC 3.5.4.5.
A family of multisubunit cytoskeletal motor proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power a variety of cellular functions. Dyneins fall into two major classes based upon structural and functional criteria.
Large cells, usually multinucleate, whose presence is a common histologic characteristic of classical HODGKIN DISEASE.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A replication-defective strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) capable of transforming lymphoid cells and producing a rapidly progressing lymphoid leukemia after superinfection with FRIEND MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS; MOLONEY MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS; or RAUSCHER VIRUS.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (myc) originally isolated from an avian myelocytomatosis virus. The proto-oncogene myc (c-myc) codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Truncation of the first exon, which appears to regulate c-myc expression, is crucial for tumorigenicity. The human c-myc gene is located at 8q24 on the long arm of chromosome 8.
Leukemia associated with HYPERPLASIA of the lymphoid tissues and increased numbers of circulating malignant LYMPHOCYTES and lymphoblasts.
A transmembrane glycoprotein subunit that can dimerize with a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS). This protein subunit serves a diverse array of functions including amino acid transport and cell fusion. Its function is altered depending which of the light chain subunits it interacts with.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
DNA sequences encoding the gamma chain of the T-cell receptor. The human gamma-chain locus is organized similarly to the TcR beta-chain locus.
Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.
A leukemia/lymphoma found predominately in children and adolescents and characterized by a high number of lymphoblasts and solid tumor lesions. Frequent sites involve LYMPH NODES, skin, and bones. It most commonly presents as leukemia.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors representing malignant transformations of T-lymphocytes.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the antigen receptors.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The medium-sized, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group C in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 and the X chromosome.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The activated center of a lymphoid follicle in secondary lymphoid tissue where B-LYMPHOCYTES are stimulated by antigens and helper T cells (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER) are stimulated to generate memory cells.
The smaller subunits of MYOSINS that bind near the head groups of MYOSIN HEAVY CHAINS. The myosin light chains have a molecular weight of about 20 KDa and there are usually one essential and one regulatory pair of light chains associated with each heavy chain. Many myosin light chains that bind calcium are considered "calmodulin-like" proteins.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 genes, responsible for blocking apoptosis in normal cells, and associated with follicular lymphoma when overexpressed. Overexpression results from the t(14;18) translocation. The human c-bcl-2 gene is located at 18q24 on the long arm of chromosome 18.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Enzyme that is a major constituent of kidney brush-border membranes and is also present to a lesser degree in the brain and other tissues. It preferentially catalyzes cleavage at the amino group of hydrophobic residues of the B-chain of insulin as well as opioid peptides and other biologically active peptides. The enzyme is inhibited primarily by EDTA, phosphoramidon, and thiorphan and is reactivated by zinc. Neprilysin is identical to common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA Antigen), an important marker in the diagnosis of human acute lymphocytic leukemia. There is no relationship with CALLA PLANT.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).
Parts of the myosin molecule resulting from cleavage by proteolytic enzymes (PAPAIN; TRYPSIN; or CHYMOTRYPSIN) at well-localized regions. Study of these isolated fragments helps to delineate the functional roles of different parts of myosin. Two of the most common subfragments are myosin S-1 and myosin S-2. S-1 contains the heads of the heavy chains plus the light chains and S-2 contains part of the double-stranded, alpha-helical, heavy chain tail (myosin rod).
An immunologic deficiency state characterized by an extremely low level of generally all classes of gamma-globulin in the blood.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
An 11-kDa protein associated with the outer membrane of many cells including lymphocytes. It is the small subunit of the MHC class I molecule. Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the urine and plasma of patients with tubular proteinemia, renal failure, or kidney transplants.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
A form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma having a usually diffuse pattern with both small and medium lymphocytes and small cleaved cells. It accounts for about 5% of adult non-Hodgkin lymphomas in the United States and Europe. The majority of mantle-cell lymphomas are associated with a t(11;14) translocation resulting in overexpression of the CYCLIN D1 gene (GENES, BCL-1).
Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the beta-chain of antigen receptors.
Serum proteins that have the most rapid migration during ELECTROPHORESIS. This subgroup of globulins is divided into faster and slower alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-globulins.
The extracellular moiety of the POLYMERIC IMMUNOGLOBULIN RECEPTOR found alone or complexed with IGA or IGM, in a variety of external secretions (tears, bile, colostrum.) Secretory component is derived by proteolytic cleavage of the receptor during transcytosis. When immunoglobulins IgA and IgM are bound to the receptor, during their transcytosis secretory component becomes covalently attached to them generating SECRETORY IMMUNOGLOBULIN A or secretory IMMUNOGLOBULIN M.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Remnant of a tumor or cancer after primary, potentially curative therapy. (Dr. Daniel Masys, written communication)
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.

Repertoire of human antibodies against the polysaccharide capsule of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 6B. (1/3464)

We examined the repertoire of antibodies to Streptococcus pneumoniae 6B capsular polysaccharide induced with the conventional polysaccharide vaccine in adults at the molecular level two ways. In the first, we purified from the sera of seven vaccinees antipneumococcal antibodies and determined their amino acid sequences. Their VH regions are mainly the products of VH3 family genes (candidate genes, 3-23, 3-07, 3-66, and 3-74), but the product of a VH1 family gene (candidate gene, 1-03) is occasionally used. All seven individuals have small amounts of polyclonal kappa+ antibodies (Vkappa1 to Vkappa4 families), although kappa+ antibodies are occasionally dominated by antibodies formed with the product of the A27 Vkappa gene. In contrast, lambda+ anti-6B antibodies are dominated by the antibodies derived from one of 3 very similar Vlambda2 family genes (candidate genes, 2c, 2e, and 2a2) and Clambda1 gene product. The Vlambda2(+) antibodies express the 8.12 idiotype, which is expressed on anti-double-stranded-DNA antibodies. In one case, Vlambda is derived from a rarely expressed Vlambda gene, 10a. In the second approach, we studied a human hybridoma (Dob1) producing anti-6B antibody. Its VH region sequence is closely related to those of the 3-15 VH gene (88% nucleotide homology) and JH4 (92% homology). Its VL region is homologous to the 2a2 Vlambda2 gene (91%) and Jlambda1/Clambda1. Taken together, the V region of human anti-6B antibodies is commonly formed by a VH3 and a Vlambda2 family gene product.  (+info)

Insertion of excised IgH switch sequences causes overexpression of cyclin D1 in a myeloma tumor cell. (2/3464)

Oncogenes are often dysregulated in B cell tumors as a result of a reciprocal translocation involving an immunoglobulin locus. The translocations are caused by errors in two developmentally regulated DNA recombination processes: V(D)J and IgH switch recombination. Both processes share the property of joining discontinuous sequences from one chromosome and releasing intervening sequences as circles that are lost from progeny cells. Here we show that these intervening sequences may instead insert in the genome and that during productive IgH mu-epsilon switch recombination in U266 myeloma tumor cells, a portion of the excised IgH switch intervening sequences containing the 3' alpha-1 enhancer has inserted on chromosome 11q13, resulting in overexpression of the adjacent cyclin D1 oncogene.  (+info)

Analysis of V(H)-D-J(H) gene transcripts in B cells infiltrating the salivary glands and lymph node tissues of patients with Sjogren's syndrome. (3/3464)

OBJECTIVE: In patients with Sjogren's syndrome (SS), B lymphocytes have been found to infiltrate salivary glands, resulting in sialadenitis and keratoconjunctivitis. The disease is frequently associated with benign and neoplastic lymphoproliferation. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether clonal B cell expansion takes place in lymphocytic infiltrations of salivary glands under (auto- [?]) antigen stimulation, by analyzing in more detail the variable part (V(H)-D-J(H)) of the immunoglobulin heavy chain genes expressed in these B cells. METHODS: Biopsies of the labial salivary glands and lymph nodes were performed on 2 female patients with SS. The Ig gene rearrangements in these tissues were amplified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction using specific primers. RESULTS: A total of 94 V(H)-D-J(H) transcripts were cloned and sequenced. Our data suggest a polyclonal origin of the B cell infiltrates. In 92 of the transcripts, V(H) genes were modified by somatic mutation. Further analysis showed counterselection for replacement mutations within the framework regions, suggesting that those B cells were stimulated and selected for functional expression of a surface Ig. In labial salivary glands from both patients, clonally related B cells became evident. Members of 1 particular clone were found in both the lip and lymph node material. CONCLUSION: These data provide evidence, on the nucleotide sequence level, that an antigen-triggered clonal B cell expansion takes place in the salivary glands of patients with SS who do not have histologic evidence of developing lymphoma. It may be speculated that those B cell clones expand during disease progression, resulting in lymphomagenesis.  (+info)

The role of homophilic binding in anti-tumor antibody R24 recognition of molecular surfaces. Demonstration of an intermolecular beta-sheet interaction between vh domains. (4/3464)

The murine antibody R24 and mouse-human Fv-IgG1(kappa) chimeric antibody chR24 are specific for the cell-surface tumor antigen disialoganglioside GD3. X-ray diffraction and surface plasmon resonance experiments have been employed to study the mechanism of "homophilic binding," in which molecules of R24 recognize and bind to other molecules of R24 though their heavy chain variable domains. R24 exhibits strong binding to liposomes containing disialoganglioside GD3; however, the kinetics are unusual in that saturation of binding is not observed. The binding of chR24 to GD3-bearing liposomes is significantly weaker, suggesting that cooperative interactions involving antibody constant regions contribute to R24 binding of membrane-bound GD3. The crystal structures of the Fabs from R24 and chR24 reveal the mechanism for homophilic binding and confirm that the homophilic and antigen-binding idiotopes are distinct. The homophilic binding idiotope is formed largely by an anti-parallel beta-sheet dimerization between the H2 complementarity determining region (CDR) loops of two Fabs, while the antigen-binding idiotope is a pocket formed by the three CDR loops on the heavy chain. The formation of homophilic dimers requires the presence of a canonical conformation for the H2 CDR in conjunction with participation of side chains. The relative positions of the homophilic and antigen-binding sites allows for a lattice of GD3-specific antibodies to be constructed, which is stabilized by the presence of the cell membrane. This model provides for the selective recognition by R24 of cells that overexpress GD3 on the cell surface.  (+info)

Human triclonal anti-IgG gammopathy. I. Iso-electric focusing characteristics of the IgG, IgA and IgM anti-IgG and their heavy and light chains. (5/3464)

Human IgG, IgA and IgM anti-IgG autoantibodies have been isolated from the serum of an individual with Felty's syndrome. These were initially noted as soluble circulating serum complexes by analytical ultracentrifugation. Isolation was accomplished by solid phase immunoadsorption and each of the three antibody populations obtained was shown to be of restricted heterogeneity by liquid and polyacrylamide gel electrofocussing methods. Type kappa light chains were obtained from each protein. Co-isoelectric focusing experiments of all possible pairs of these light chains showed them to have identical net charge characteristics. Heavy chains obtained from each protein were also monoclonal and of differing isoelectric point. The availability of this serum provides a human model with which to study the changes which may occur in autoantibodies during the autoimmune response.  (+info)

Ialpha exon-replacement mice synthesize a spliced HPRT-C(alpha) transcript which may explain their ability to switch to IgA. Inhibition of switching to IgG in these mice. (6/3464)

Antibody class switching is regulated by transcription of unrearranged C(H) genes to produce germline (GL) transcripts which direct the choice of isotype and are required for switching. However, their role is unknown. GL transcripts are initiated at the I exons located upstream of each switch region. Although deletion of the I exon by gene targeting prevents switch recombination to that CH gene, the Ialpha exon can be replaced by an entirely different DNA segment, a minigene driven by the phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) promoter and encoding hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT), oriented in the sense direction, without reducing antibody class switching to IgA. To understand why HPRT substitution of the Ialpha exon does not disrupt switch recombination, we have analyzed the structure of the transcript from the targeted allele in these mice. We identify a spliced transcript in which the HPRT exons are spliced to the C(alpha) gene segments, resulting in a structure similar to normal GL transcripts. The abundance of this transcript is similar to that of the normal alpha GL RNA. We also demonstrate that switching to the four IgG subclasses in B cells from these mice is reduced in comparison to wild-type mice. We discuss the possibility that the strong PGK promoter inserted at the Ig alpha locus may interfere with interaction of the promoters for gamma GL transcripts with the 3' IgH enhancer.  (+info)

Induction of Ig light chain gene rearrangement in heavy chain-deficient B cells by activated Ras. (7/3464)

During B cell development, rearrangement and expression of Ig heavy chain (HC) genes promote development and expansion of pre-B cells accompanied by the onset of Ig light chain (LC) variable region gene assembly. To elucidate the signaling pathways that control these events, we have tested the ability of activated Ras expression to promote B cell differentiation to the stage of LC gene rearrangement in the absence of Ig HC gene expression. For this purpose, we introduced an activated Ras expression construct into JH-deleted embryonic stem cells that lack the ability to assemble HC variable region genes and assayed differentiation potential by recombination activating gene (RAG) 2-deficient blastocyst complementation. We found that activated Ras expression induces the progression of B lineage cells beyond the developmental checkpoint ordinarily controlled by mu HC. Such Ras/JH-deleted B cells accumulate in the periphery but continue to express markers associated with precursor B cells including RAG gene products. These peripheral Ras/JH-deleted B cell populations show extensive Ig LC gene rearrangement but maintain an extent of kappa LC gene rearrangement and a preference for kappa over lambda LC gene rearrangement similar to that of wild-type B cells. We discuss these findings in the context of potential mechanisms that may regulate Ig LC gene rearrangement.  (+info)

Predominant VH genes expressed in innate antibodies are associated with distinctive antigen-binding sites. (8/3464)

Antibodies to phosphatidylcholine (PtC), a common constituent of mammalian and bacterial cell membranes, represent a large proportion of the natural antibody repertoire in mice. Previous studies of several mouse strains (e.g., C57BL/6) have shown that anti-PtC antibodies are mainly encoded by the VH11 and VH12 immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region gene families. We show here, however, that VH11 and VH12 encode only a small proportion of the anti-PtC antibodies in BALB/c mice. Instead, VHQ52-encoded antibodies predominate in this strain. In addition, two-thirds of the cells expressing VHQ52 family genes use a single gene (which, interestingly, has been previously shown to predominate in the anti-oxazolone response). We also show here that in anti-PtC antibodies from all strains, the distinctive antigen-binding sites associated with VHQ52 differ substantially from those associated with VH11 and VH12. That is, VHQ52-containing transcripts preferentially use the joining region JH4 rather than JH1 and exhibit more diverse complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) junctions with more N-region nucleotide additions at the gene segment junctions. Thus, the VH gene family that predominates in the anti-PtC repertoire differs among mouse strains, whereas the distinctive VHDJH rearrangements (CDR3, JH) associated with each VH gene family are similar in all strains. We discuss these findings in the context of a recent hypothesis suggesting that CDR3 structure, independent of VH framework, is sufficient to define the specificity of an antibody.  (+info)

Several genes for the variable region of immunoglobulin heavy chains (VH genes) have been isolated from human fetal liver DNA by using a cDNA plasmid probe containing a mouse VH sequence. The detectable VH genes are separated by 12-16 kilobases of DNA, and hybridization experiments show about 23 hybridizing VH genes in DNA of three different individuals. The complete nucleotide sequence of one of these human VH genes shows that it belongs to the human VHIII subgroup. The VH gene appears to contain an intervening sequence (104 bases in length) within a precursor sequence, between residues -4 and -5. The precursor sequence is itself 19 codons in length. The 3 end of the V gene seems to be at codon 93 or 94, and this is followed by the conserved sequences C-A-C-A-G-T-G and G-A-C-A-C-A-A-A-C-C. The presence of these sequences suggests that similar enzymatic mechanisms are involved in the integration of V genes in both heavy and light chains.
DNA encoding the rat diversity segment (D), joining segment (JH), and constant (C) region mu, gamma 2a, gamma 1, gamma 2b, epsilon and alpha of the Ig heavy chain has been isolated from a cosmid library. Restriction mapping allowed us to identify two gene clusters: D-JH-C mu and C gamma 1-C gamma 2b-C epsilon-C alpha in addition to a single C gamma 2a gene. Analysis of genomic DNA by Southern blotting permitted identification of the C gamma 2c gene and led to the proposal of the following gene order for the rat Ig heavy chain locus: D-JH-C mu-C delta-(C gamma 2c, C gamma 2a)-C gamma 1-C gamma 2b-C epsilon-C alpha. There is striking homology between the rat and mouse Ig heavy chain loci as regards gene order and distance between CH genes. Partial DNA sequencing confirms this homology and shows that exon sequences are more conserved than are intron sequences. One of the most conserved intron regions between rat and mouse is that spanning the Ig heavy chain enhancer (91% homology). However, the
TY - JOUR. T1 - Immunoglobulin heavy chain gene analysis in lymphomas. T2 - A multi-center study demonstrating the heterogeneity of performance of polymerase chain reaction assays. AU - Bagg, Adam. AU - Braziel, Rita M.. AU - Arber, Daniel A.. AU - Bijwaard, Karen E.. AU - Chu, Albert Y.. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - Determination of monoclonality through an evaluation of immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) gene rearrangements is a commonly performed and useful diagnostic assay. Many laboratories that perform this assay do so by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). To evaluate current methods for performing IgH gene testing, 19 different Association of Molecular Pathology (AMP) member laboratories analyzed 29 blinded B cell and T cell lymphoid neoplasm samples of extracted DNA and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue and were asked to complete a technical questionnaire. From this study, it is clear that Southern blot analysis remains the diagnostic gold standard, with a 100% diagnostic ...
We have examined the interaction of factors in HeLa cell nuclear extracts with a human histone H2B gene (H2B) promoter. Protein-DNA mobility-shift and DNase I protection assays detected a factor(s) binding to a 15-base-pair consensus element that is essential for efficient H2B transcription in vitro. Part of this consensus sequence is the octanucleotide ATTTGCAT, which is apparently a functional component of several non-histone genes. A subset of these genes, including a human U2 small nuclear RNA (snRNA) gene promoter, a mouse immunoglobulin heavy chain enhancer, and a mouse light chain promoter, were shown to interact with the H2B consensus sequence-binding factor(s). These results suggest that a common factor or closely related factors may contribute to the regulation of these and other genes that share the octanucleotide sequence.. ...
The immunoglobulin heavy-chain (domain. the variable areas of immunoglobulin (Ig) genetics from adjustable (Sixth is v), variety (D), and becoming a member of (M) gene sections during N cell advancement. The recombination of genetics can be firmly managed within the N lymphoid family tree: the Ig heavy-chain (locus are started in lymphoid progenitors adopted by VH-DJH recombination in pro-B cells. The temporary purchase of Sixth is v(G)M recombination can be mainly established by the ease of access of the different Ig gene sections to the Sixth is v(G)M recombinase, which can be managed by multiple epigenetic systems (Jhunjhunwala et al., 2009; Alt and Perlot, 2008). The locus can be made up of the 3 proximal area of 266 kb size consisting of 16 DH, 4 JH, and 8 CH gene sections and of the distal VH gene bunch increasing over a 2.44 Mb area, which contains 195 VH genetics with the largest VH gene family members consisting of 89 VHJ558 genetics (Johnston et al., 2006). VH-DJH recombination at the ...
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Author Summary Each time a mammalian cell duplicates its genome in preparation for cell division it activates thousands of so called
Compare Immunoglobulin heavy chain (gamma polypeptide) ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, and more.
Constant region of immunoglobulin heavy chains. Immunoglobulins, also known as antibodies, are membrane-bound or secreted glycoproteins produced by B lymphocytes. In the recognition phase of humoral immunity, the membrane-bound immunoglobulins serve as receptors which, upon binding of a specific antigen, trigger the clonal expansion and differentiation of B lymphocytes into immunoglobulins-secreting plasma cells. Secreted immunoglobulins mediate the effector phase of humoral immunity, which results in the elimination of bound antigens (PubMed:22158414, PubMed:20176268). The antigen binding site is formed by the variable domain of one heavy chain, together with that of its associated light chain. Thus, each immunoglobulin has two antigen binding sites with remarkable affinity for a particular antigen. The variable domains are assembled by a process called V-(D)-J rearrangement and can then be subjected to somatic hypermutations which, after exposure to antigen and selection, allow affinity maturation for
Antibodies are produced by plasma cells, the terminally differentiated descendants of the B-cell lineage. The early stages of B-cell development occur in the bone marrow, where pro-B cells, which are derived from hematopoietic stem cells, undergo rearrangement of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain genes. This process occurs throughout the life of the individual. At the next stage of B-cell differentiation, in pre-B cells, there is rearrangement of the light-chain genes. This allows the expression of the intact immunoglobulin molecule on the cell surface of the B cell. Each B cell and its progeny express only one rearranged immunoglobulin heavy chain and one light chain. When antigen binds to the surface of the B cell, if the appropriate environmental signals are received, the B cell proliferates and differentiates into a memory B cell that can respond more rapidly to future exposures to that antigen or to a plasma cell that secretes high concentrations of antibodies.. ...
We report the sequence of a cDNA encoding a rabbit immunoglobulin γ heavy chain of d12 and e14 allotypes with high homology to… Expand ...
Details on the datasets generation: 169 structures of protein antigens (length >30 amino acids) in complex with antibody fragments have been manually collected from the PDB of January 2006 at a resolution ≤ 4 Å. Every structure has been manually curated. Structures in which the antibody binds antigen but involves no CDR residues have been excluded from the analysis; there were four such structures [PDB: 1MHH, 1HEZ, 1DEE, 1IGC]. If a structure contained several complexes in one asymmetric unit (there were 46 such structures in 165) and the authors of the structure observed no structural difference between these complexes, only one complex was selected - those that were specified as a reference complex by the authors of the article describing the structure (primary citation in the PDB); there were 18 such structures out of 46. If the authors didnt provide this information, all complexes in the structure were considered for analysis. The authors of a few structures clearly stated in their ...
specific ablation of YY1 in mouse B cells caused a defect in somatic rearrangement in the immunoglobulin heavy-chain (IgH) locus and a block in the progenitor-B-to-precursor-B-cell transition, which was partially rescued by a prerearranged IgH transgene ...
Puri, J; Ben, neriah Y.; Givol, D; and Lonai, P, Antibodies to immunoglobulin heavy chain variable regions protect helper cells from specific suicide by radiolabeled antigen. (1980). Subject Strain Bibliography 1980. 1413 ...
Using cosmids covering about 117 Kb upstream of the human immunoglobulin chain C mu gene, we have identified a potentially functional VH gene, belonging to the VHVI subgroup. This VHVI gene is only about 95 Kb from the C mu gene and is probably the first functional VH segment of the Igh locus. These results illustrate the proximity of the human VH, DH and JH segments involved in creation of the complete heavy chain genes.
In Burkitt lymphoma the c-myc gene, the cellular homologue of the viral oncogene v-myc, has been implicated in the aetiology of this human B-cell malignancy. Burkitt lymphoma cells possess specific chromosomal rearrangements involving the region proximal to the c-myc gene and one of the three human immunoglobulin loci. The nature of the effect exerted by the immunoglobulin loci on the translocated c-myc gene is controversial: whereas some reports have suggested c-myc transcription is elevated in Burkitt lymphoma cells, others have suggested the level of transcription is unaffected by the translation. Recently, transcription enhancer elements have been identified in the intron between the JH and C mu segments of the heavy-chain immunoglobulin gene in mice. If similar enhancers exist in humans they may lead to increased transcription of the translocated c-myc gene and thus contribute to oncogenesis in Burkitt lymphoma. We report here the identification of an enhancer element adjacent to the human C mu
Faust, C H.; Moore, J M.; and Heim, I E., Mouse immunoglobulin mu heavy chain mrna of y5781, a high yield myeloma. (1979). Subject Strain Bibliography 1979. 640 ...
Depending on whether the nature of the antigen is protein or polysaccharide and the frequency and duration of stimulation by the antigen, an antibody response may exhibit changes in the distribution of IgG subclasses in plasma, and cause increased or diminished levels of one or more IgG subclasses (Meulenbroek et al., 2000). When the serum level of a subclass is below detection levels of the most sensitive techniques (ELISA/RIA), it is considered as a complete deficiency /absence or a total lack (Meulenbroek et al., 2000). Such complete deficiency is rare and is usually due to deletions in chromosome 14 loci. Such a total lack of one or more IgG subclasses due to deletions of the immunoglobulin heavy chain constant region genes is occasionally found in healthy individuals. The fact that these individuals still produce protective antibody titers in the residual immunoglobulin classes or subclasses suggests that the deletion of the isotype(s) occurs by chance and can be compensated adequately ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - NF-HB (BSAP) is a repressor of the murine immunoglobulin heavy-chain 3′α enhancer at early stages of B-cell differentiation. AU - Singh, Mallika. AU - Birshtein, Barbara K.. PY - 1993/6. Y1 - 1993/6. N2 - We have identified a nuclear factor expressed in pro-B-, pre-B-, and B-cell lines that binds to two sites within the murine immunoglobulin heavy-chain (IgH) 3′α enhancer (3′αE). These sites were defined by oligonucleotide competition in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and methylation interference footprinting. The 3′αE-binding factor is indistinguishable from NF-HB (B-lineage-specific nuclear factor that binds to the IgH gene) and the B-lineage-specific transcription factor BSAP by several criteria, including similar cell type distribution of binding activity, cross-competition of binding sites in EMSA, similar protein size as demonstrated by UV cross-linking, and sequence identity of one of the 3′αE-binding sites with a BSAP-binding site within the ...
Reacts with ZAP-70 expressed in T cells, natural killer cells, pro/pre B cells but not in normal mature B cells. The antibody is a useful aid for classification of a subset of chronic lymphocytic leukemias (CLL). In CLL, ZAP-70 expression is closely associated with an unmutated configuration of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region (IgVH) genes (1).|* This product is for in vitro diagnostic use only. The product embodies technology described in US Patent 7,329,502 and pending Canadian Patent Application No. 2,413,475.
Humans; Animals; Amino Acid Sequence; Molecular Sequence Data; Species Specificity; Protein Structure, Tertiary; Sequence Homology, Amino Acid; Genetic Engineering; Tumor Cells, Cultured; *Genes, Immunoglobulin; Antibodies, Monoclonal/*genetics/immunology; Antibody Affinity; Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains/chemistry/*genetics; Immunoglobulin Variable Region/chemistry/*genetics; Leukemia-Lymphoma, Adult T-Cell; Mice/*genetics/immunology; Recombinant Fusion Proteins/*genetics/immunology. ...
Angiogenesis is a potential prognostic factor in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Elevated circulating levels of angiogenic factors in CLL have been repeatedly reported. Nevertheless, the issue of bone marrow neovascularization in CLL remains controversial, partly due to limited number of published studies, different methods of assessing microvessel density (MVD) and small patient cohorts. Moreover, there are very scarce data regarding the relationship of marrow angiogenesis to prognostic markers in CLL. Our objectives were: 1. To assess bone marrow MVD in CLL using two different monoclonal antibodies and a reproducible method of MVD quantification; 2. To examine the possible association of marrow MVD and clinical course, pattern of marrow infiltration, Rai stage, cytogenetic abnormalities detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and mutation status of immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region (IgVH). MVD was higher using CD34 vs vWF antibody ( ...
The intracellular fates of membrane and secretory immunoglobulin heavy chains were examined in a pre-B cell line that has switched to the gamma isotype. The membrane form of the heavy chain (gamma m) was rapidly degraded while the secretory form (gamma s) was retained intracellularly in association with BiP. The degradation of gamma m could not be inhibited by ammonium chloride, chloroquine, or monensin suggesting that it occurred in a nonlysosomal compartment. The inability to detect any Endo H-resistant form of gamma m before its degradation suggested that degradation occurs before entry into the Golgi compartment. Degradation of gamma m could be inhibited by incubation at 24 degrees C. In a derivative of this cell line expressing a transfected kappa gene, gamma s formed disulfide linked tetramers with kappa and was secreted, while gamma m, although associated with kappa, continued to be rapidly degraded. These observations suggest that membrane and secretory heavy chain proteins are retained ...
Nucleotide sequences of immunoglobulin epsilon genes of chimpanzee and orangutan: DNA molecular clock and hominoid evolution.: To determine the phylogenetic rel
Diversification of the antibody repertoire in mammals results from a series of apparently random somatically propagated gene rearrangement and mutational events. Nevertheless, it is well known that the adult repertoire of antibody specificities is acquired in a developmentally programmed fashion. As previously shown, rearrangement of the gene segments encoding the heavy-chain variable regions (VH) of mouse antibodies is also developmentally ordered: the number of VH gene segments rearranged in B lymphocytes of fetal mice is small but increased progressively after birth. In this report, human fetal B-lineage cells were also shown to rearrange a highly restricted set of VH gene segments. In a sample of heavy-chain transcripts from a 130-day human fetus the most frequently expressed human VH element proved to be closely related to the VH element most frequently expressed in murine fetal B-lineage cells. These observations are important in understanding the development of immunocompetence. ...
Accumulating data have implicated that long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) plays an important role in osteoarthritis (OA), which may function as a competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) of microRNAs (miRNAs). lncRNA IGHC|i|γ|/i|1 has been demonstrated to regulate inflammation and autoimmunity. Nonetheless, the altering effect of IGHC|i|γ|/i|1 in OA remains unclear. This study is aimed at investigating the mechanism and function of lncRNA IGHC|i|γ|/i|1 in OA. CCK-8, EdU, and transwell assays were used to estimate macrophage proliferation and migration. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed to estimate the local expression of lncRNA IGHC|i|γ|/i|1 in macrophages. Luciferase reporter assay was adopted to validate the ceRNA role of IGHC|i|γ|/i|1 as miRNA sponge. lncRNA IGHC|i|γ|/i|1 was primarily localized in macrophage cytoplasm and upregulated in OA. miR-6891-3p inhibited macrophage proliferation, migration, and inflammatory response by targeting TLR4, while
Unique DNA sequences can be determined directly from mouse genomic DNA. A denaturing gel separates by size mixtures of unlabeled DNA fragments from complete restriction and partial chemical cleavages of the entire genome. These lanes of DNA are transferred and UV-crosslinked to nylon membranes. Hybridization with a short 32P-labeled single-stranded probe produces the image of a DNA sequence ladder extending from the 3 or 5 end of one restriction site in the genome. Numerous different sequences can be obtained from a single membrane by reprobing. Each band in these sequences represents 3 fg of DNA complementary to the probe. Sequence data from mouse immunoglobulin heavy chain genes from several cell types are presented. The genomic sequencing procedures are applicable to the analysis of genetic polymorphisms, DNA methylation at deoxycytidines, and nucleic acid-protein interactions at single nucleotide resolution.. MeSH Terms ...
title: Immunoglobulin V(H) chain gene analysis of peripheral blood IgM-producing B cells in patients with Kawasaki disease, doi: 10.3349/ymj.2009.50.4.493, category: Article
The amino acid sequences of the Fd fragments of two human pathological immunoglobulins of the immunoglobulin G1 class are reported. Comparison of the two sequences shows that the heavy-chain variable regions are similar in length to those of the light chains. The existence of heavy chain variable region subgroups is also deduced, from a comparison of these two sequences with those of another γ 1 chain, Eu, a μ chain, Ou, and the partial sequence of a fourth γ 1 chain, Ste. Carbohydrate has been found to be linked to an aspartic acid residue in the variable region of one of the γ 1 chains, Cor.. ...
Immunoglobulins play important roles in antigen recognition during the immune response, and the complementarity-determining region (CDR) 3 of the heavy chain is considered as the critical antigen-binding site. We previously developed a statistical protocol for the extensive analysis of heavy chain variable region repertoires and the dynamics of their immune response using next-generation sequencing (NGS). The properties of important antibody heavy chains predicted in silico by the protocol were examined by gene synthesis and antibody protein expression; however, the corresponding light chain that matches with the heavy chain could not be predicted by our protocol. To understand the dynamics of the heavy chain and the effect of light chain pairing on it, we firstly tried to obtain an artificial light chain that pairs with a broad range of heavy chains and then analyzed its effect on the antigen binding of heavy chains upon pairing. During the pre-B cell stage, the surrogate light chain (SLC) ...
We have developed a novel software algorithm, JOINSOLVER, to analyze the human CDR3H. Within the CDR3H, the definition of the D segment has been particularly problematic because of its short size and extensive terminal processing. Many attempts have been made to define the minimum length needed for D segment assignment (8, 21, 24, 25, 26, 36), yet there is still no consensus definition. Thus, we used novel methods to assign D segments. The first involved the use of a consecutive matching approach rather than the more standard alignment scoring system. The consecutive matching approach permitted the secure assignment of more D segments than the alignment scoring method. The second used methods to limit the search for identity to the VH-JH region only. Finally, a Monte Carlo simulation was used to determine the consecutive match necessary to assign a D segment. We opted to distinguish an actual D segment match from random sequence identity using a 95% probability. This level of confidence seems ...
0110] The following references, to the extent that they provide exemplary procedural or other details supplementary to those set forth herein, are specifically incorporated herein by reference. [0111] U.S. Pat. No. 5,922,591 [0112] U.S. Pat. No. 5,921,396 [0113] U.S. Pat. No. 5,726,012 [0114] U.S. Pat. No. 5,090,420 [0115] Allewell, N. M., Sama, A., The effect of ammonium sulfate on the activity of ribonuclease A. Biochemica et Biophysica Acta 341:484-488 (1974). [0116] Auffray, C., Rougeon, F., Purification of mouse immunoglobulin heavy chain messenger RNAs from total myeloma tumor RNA. Eur. J. Biochemistry June;107(2)303-314 (1980). [0117] Boom, W. R., Adriaanse, H., Kievits, T., Lens, P. F., U. S. Pat. No. 5,234,809 entitled: Process for Isolating Nucleic Acid. [0118] Bugos R. C., Chiang, V. L., Zhang, X. H., Campbell, E. R., Podila G. K., Campbell W. H., RNA isolation from plant tissues recalcitrant to extraction by guanidine. Biotechniques November;19(5)734-7 (1995). [0119] Cairns, M. ...
Toda la información sobre las últimas publicaciones científicas de la Clínica Universidad de Navarra. Acquired potential N-glycosylation sites within the tumor-specific immunoglobulin heavy chains of B-cell malignancies
Thörnqvist L, Ohlin M Data Brief 19 (-) 337-352 [2018-08-00; online 2018-05-04] The highly variable complementary determining region 3 (CDR3) of antibodies is generated through recombination of immunoglobulin heavy chain variable (IGHV), diversity, and joining genes. The codons encoding the first residues of CDR3 may be derived directly from the IGHV germline gene but they may also be generated as part of the rearrangement process. Data of the nucleotide composition of these codons of rearranged genes, an indicator of the degree of contribution of the IGHV gene to CDR3 diversity, are presented in this article. Analyzed data are presented for two unrelated sets of raw sequence data. The raw data sets consisted of sequences of antibody heavy chain-encoding transcripts of six allergic subjects (European Nucleotide Archive accession number PRJEB18926), and paired antibody heavy and light chain variable region-encoding transcripts of memory B cells of three subjects (European Nucleotide Archive ...
Acts as a transcriptional repressor. Binds to E-box sequences in the immunoglobulin heavy chain enhancer as well as in the regulatory regions of many other tissue-specific genes. Represses E-cadherin promoter and induces an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by recruiting SMARCA4/BRG1. Represses BCL6 transcription in the presence of the corepressor CTBP1. Positively regulates neuronal differentiation. Represses RCOR1 transcription activation during neurogenesis. Represses transcription by binding to the E box (5-CANNTG-3). Promotes tumorigenicity by repressing stemness-inhibiting microRNAs (By similarity).
Compaction and looping of the ~2.5-Mb Igh locus during V(D)J rearrangement is essential to allow all V(H) genes to be brought in proximity with D(H)-J(H) segments to create a diverse antibody repertoire, but the proteins directly responsible for this are unknown. Because CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) has been demonstrated to be involved in long-range chromosomal interactions, we hypothesized that CTCF may promote the contraction of the Igh locus. ChIP sequencing was performed on pro-B cells, revealing colocalization of CTCF and Rad21 binding at ~60 sites throughout the V(H) region and 2 other sites within the Igh locus. These numerous CTCF/cohesin sites potentially form the bases of the multiloop rosette structures at the Igh locus that compact during Ig heavy chain rearrangement. To test whether CTCF was involved in locus compaction, we used 3D-FISH to measure compaction in pro-B cells transduced with CTCF shRNA retroviruses. Reduction of CTCF binding resulted in a decrease in Igh locus ...
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V region of the variable domain of immunoglobulin heavy chains that participates in the antigen recognition. Immunoglobulins, also known as antibodies, are membrane-bound or secreted glycoproteins produced by B lymphocytes. In the recognition phase of humoral immunity, the membrane-bound immunoglobulins serve as receptors which, upon binding of a specific antigen, trigger the clonal expansion and differentiation of B lymphocytes into immunoglobulins-secreting plasma cells. Secreted immunoglobulins mediate the effector phase of humoral immunity, which results in the elimination of bound antigens (PubMed:22158414, PubMed:20176268). The antigen binding site is formed by the variable domain of one heavy chain, together with that of its associated light chain. Thus, each immunoglobulin has two antigen binding sites with remarkable affinity for a particular antigen. The variable domains are assembled by a process called V-(D)-J rearrangement and can then be subjected to somatic hypermutations which, ...
Research Interests. Genetic aberrations are important indicators of prognosis in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and are widely used in risk stratification. Translocations involving the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus (IGH) are hallmarks of mature B-cell malignancies, where they drive pathogenesis. IGH translocations have been described in B-cell precursor ALL (BCP-ALL), where they target different genes with the same consequence; the partner gene is overexpressed as a result of its close proximity to the IGH enhancer. We have previously reported recurrent BCP-ALL translocation partner genes including five members of the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (CEBP) family of transcription factors, showing opposing functions for deregulation in myeloid and lymphoid leukemogenesis; the inhibitory transcription factor, ID4, in the translocation, t(6;14)(p22;q32), defining a subgroup characterized by deletion of CDKN2A/B and PAX; the cytokine receptor for erythropoietin (EPOR) at 19p13; type I ...
Humanized monoclonal antibody (IgG1k) produced by recombinant DNA technology, directed to an epitope in the A antigenic site of the F protein of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Synagis is a composite of human (95%) and murine (5%) antibody sequences. The human heavy chain sequence was derived from the constant domains of human IgG1 and the variable framework regions of the VH genes Cor (1) and Cess (2). The human lightchain sequence was derived from the constant domain of Ck and the variable framework regions of the VL gene K104 withJk-4. Palivizumab is expressed from a stable murine (mouse) myeloma cell line (NS0). Palivizumab is composed of to heavy chains (50.6 kDa each) and two light chains (27.6 kDa each), contains 1-2% carbohydrate by weight and has a molecular weight of 147.7 kDa +/- 1 kDa (MALDI-TOF)
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) represents the most frequent leukemia in the Western world. During the last decade, there has been tremendous progress in elucidating the pathogenesis of this disease. One of the most interesting features discovered during this search is the fact that the leukemia cells express immunoglobulin (IG) that may or may not have incurred somatic hypermutations of the IG heavy variable (IGHV) genes. The outcome of CLL patients with leukemia cells using an unmutated IGHV gene is inferior to those patients with leukemia cells that carry a mutated one. In addition to the important observations relating the IG mutation status to clinical behavior, the fact that the IG repertoire in CLL is restricted and also uniquely characterized by the existence of closely similar, stereotyped B cell receptors implies a role for antigen(s) in leukemogenesis ...
SQ P01864 # GCAB_MOUSE Ig gamma-2A chain C region secreted form (B allele) ! SQ P01863 #GCAA_MOUSE Ig gamma-2A chain C region, A allele; 86% sequence identity ! SQ NA # natural chimera; best hits are: SQ P01751 (Ig heavy chain V region B1-8/186-2) and SQ P01864 (Ig gamma-2A chain C region secreted form) ! SQ P01868 # GC1_MOUSE Ig gamma-1 chain C region secreted form ! SQ P01864 # GCAB_MOUSE (P01864) Ig gamma-2A chain C region ! SQ P01837 # KAC_MOUSE (P01837) Ig kappa chain C region ! SQ P01863 # GCAA_MOUSE Ig gamma-2A chain C region, A allele ! SQ NA # part of Fab 28 against HIV-1 RT ! SQ P01868 # ! GC1_MOUSE Ig gamma-1 chain C region secreted form ...
Cells of the monocytic lineage play fundamental roles in the regulation of health, ranging from the initiation and resolution of inflammation to bone homeostasis. In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the inflamed synovium exhibits characteristic infiltratio
Abcam provides specific protocols for Anti-Cyclin B1 antibody [V152] (ab72) : Flow cytometry protocols, Immunohistochemistry protocols, Immunocytochemistry…
Human IgA (Heavy chain) antibody for ELISA, IHC-Fr, WB. Anti-Human IgA (Heavy chain) pAb (GTX40482) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Tg H chain expression in B cells of heterozygous or homozygous H+L and H3 Tg mice. Cells were isolated from bone marrow (A) and spleen (B) of indicated mice at
IVD IGH Break - The IGH (14q32) break probe is optimized to detect translocations involving the IGH gene region at 14q32 in a dual-color, split assay.
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is a disease with upregulated expression of the transmembrane tyrosine-protein kinase ROR1, a member of the Wnt/planar cell polarity pathway. In this study, we identified COBLL1 as a novel interaction partner of ROR1. COBLL1 shows clear bimodal expression with high levels in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients with mutated IGHV and approximately 30% of chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients with unmutated IGHV. In the remaining 70% of chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients with unmutated IGHV, COBLL1 expression is low. Importantly, chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients with unmutated IGHV and high COBLL1 have an unfavorable disease course with short overall survival and time to second treatment. COBLL1 serves as an independent molecular marker for overall survival in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients with unmutated IGHV. In addition, chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients with unmutated IGHV and high COBLL1 show impaired motility and chemotaxis towards CCL19 and ...
Although it has been assumed that the deregulated bcl-2 expression in t(14;18) cells is mediated in part by the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene regulatory region, this has not been demonstrated, nor was it known which elements of that region were responsible for the deregulation. In these studies, we found that the four DNase I-hypersensitive regions within the IgH 3′ enhancer were able to activate the bcl-2 promoter in the t(14;18) cell line DHL-4. Of those four hypersensitive regions, we demonstrated that HS4 had the most influence on bcl-2 promoter activity. This is similar to the situation in pre-B and plasmacytoma cells, where HS4 is the most active enhancer region. We also showed that the HS1,2 region was capable of activating the promoter independently. By itself, HS3 increased bcl-2 promoter activity by only a minor amount. Other studies of HS3 have shown that it is contains elements that act as negative effectors of the IgH 3′ enhancer (37) , and preliminary studies in our ...
Ig epsilon chain C region is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IGHE gene. Human PubMed Reference:. Entrez Gene: IGHE immunoglobulin heavy constant epsilon. Venkitaraman AR, Williams GT, Dariavach P, Neuberger MS (Aug 1991). The B-cell antigen receptor of the five immunoglobulin classes. Nature. 352 (6338): 777-81. doi:10.1038/352777a0. PMID 1881434. Padlan EA, Davies DR (Oct 1986). A model of the Fc of immunoglobulin E. Molecular Immunology. 23 (10): 1063-75. doi:10.1016/0161-5890(86)90005-2. PMID 3796618. Flanagan JG, Rabbitts TH (1984). The sequence of a human immunoglobulin epsilon heavy chain constant region gene, and evidence for three non-allelic genes. The EMBO Journal. 1 (5): 655-60. PMC 553102 . PMID 6234164. Max EE, Battey J, Ney R, Kirsch IR, Leder P (Jun 1982). Duplication and deletion in the human immunoglobulin epsilon genes. Cell. 29 (2): 691-9. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(82)90185-4. PMID 6288268. Ellison J, Buxbaum J, Hood L (1983). Nucleotide sequence of a human ...
英) We have established a method for selecting binding phages from a phage immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region (VH) library by panning with nitrocellulose membranes (membrane panning). To evaluate the concentrating ability of membrane panning for binding phages, a phage VH library containing clones that bind to hen egg white lysozyme (HEL) was used for panning against HEL. The efficiency of our method was as high as that of panning with magnetic beads. In addition, we performed membrane panning against target proteins and isolated the binding phages. The human VH genes of these phages were cloned and expressed as VH-bacterial alkaline phosphatase (PhoA) conjugates (VH-PhoA) in Escherichia coli. The dose-dependent binding of VH-PhoA to target proteins was confirmed by dot blotting. When applied to disease-associated antibodies, these methods will likely benefit clinical research. In addition, these techniques may be applicable to systematic analysis in proteome studies. (日) ...
ONLINE COVER B Cell Outsiders Moving In. Shown are representative lineages of clonally related immunoglobulin heavy chain variable regions found in the cerebral spinal fluid and peripheral blood of multiple sclerosis patients. Complementary studies by Palanichamy et al. and Stern et al. report that in multiple sclerosis patients, B cells found outside the central nervous system-in peripheral blood and draining cervical lymph nodes-share antigen specificity with intrathecal B cell repertoires. These data support the therapeutic use of monoclonal antibodies to prevent lymphocytes from crossing the blood-brain barrier or induce peripheral B cell depletion in multiple sclerosis patients. See the related Focus by Lu et al. [CREDIT: L. APELTSIN, H-C. VON BUEDINGEN/DEPARTMENT OF NEUROLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SAN FRANCISCO] ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Anti-nuclear antibody reactivity in lupus may be partly hard-wired into the primary B-cell repertoire. AU - Chang, Sooghee. AU - Yang, Liu. AU - Moon, Young Mee. AU - Cho, Young Gyu. AU - Min, So Youn. AU - Kim, Tae Joo. AU - Kim, Young Joo. AU - Patrick, Wilson. AU - Kim, Ho Youn. AU - Mohan, Chandra. PY - 2009/10. Y1 - 2009/10. N2 - When monoclonal ANAs and non-ANAs generated from a genetically simplified mouse model of lupus, B6.Sle1, were recently compared, the ANAs exhibited three sequence motifs in their immunoglobulin heavy chains, including increased cationicity in CDR3 (motif A), reduced anionicity in CDR2 (motif B) and increased aspartate at H50 (motif C). The present study was designed to elucidate the extent to which these ANA-associated sequence motifs might be hard-wired into the primary B-cell repertoire in lupus. The immunoglobulin heavy chain sequence of total splenic B-cells, follicular B-cells and marginal zone B-cells from B6.Sle1 congenic mice and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - RosettaAntibody. T2 - Antibody variable region homology modeling server. AU - Sircar, Aroop. AU - Kim, Eric T.. AU - Gray, Jeffrey J.. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. N2 - The RosettaAntibody server (http://antibody.graylab.jhu.edu) predicts the structure of an antibody variable region given the amino-acid sequences of the respective light and heavy chains. In an initial stage, the server identifies and displays the most sequence homologous template structures for the light and heavy framework regions and each of the complementarity determining region (CDR) loops. Subsequently, the most homologous templates are assembled into a side-chain optimized crude model, and the server returns a picture and coordinate file. For users requesting a high-resolution model, the server executes the full RosettaAntibody protocol which additionally models the hyper-variable CDR H3 loop. The high-resolution protocol also relieves steric clashes by optimizing the CDR backbone torsion angles and by ...
Purchase Recombinant Mouse Low affinity immunoglobulin epsilon Fc receptor(Fcer2),partial. It is produced in Yeast. High purity. Good price.
B cell antigen receptor (BCR) or antibody diversity arises from somatic recombination of immunoglobulin (Ig) gene segments and is concentrated within the Ig heavy (H) chain complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR-H3). We performed high-throughput sequencing of the expressed antibody heavy chain repertoire from adult torafugu. We found that torafugu use between 70% and 82% of all possible V (variable) D (diversity) J (joining) gene segment combinations and that they share a similar frequency distribution of these VDJ combinations. The CDR-H3 sequence repertoire observed in individuals is biased with the preferential use of a small number of VDJ, dominated by sequences containing inserted nucleotides. We uncovered the common CDR-H3 amino acid (aa) sequences shared by individuals. Common CDR-H3 sequences feature highly convergent nucleic acid recombination compared with private ones. Finally, we observed differences in repertoires between IgM and IgT, including the unequal usage frequencies of V gene
The invention provides recombinant antibody molecules comprising antigen binding regions derived from the heavy and/or light chain variable regions of a donor anti-CD3 antibody, e.g. OKT3, and which have anti-CD3 binding specificity, preferably of affinity similar to that of OKT3. The recombinant antibody is preferably a humanized antibody and may be a chimeric or CDR-grafted antibody. A method is disclosed for preparing CDR-grafted humanized antibodies in which, in addition to the CDRs, non-human antibody residues are preferably used at positions 23, 24, 49, 71, 73 and 78 of the heavy chain variable region and at positions 46, 48, 58, and 71 of the light chain variable region. The recombinant, especially the humanized, anti-CD3 antibodies may used for in vivo therapy or diagnosis.
The VH gene repertoire of human peripheral B cells was analyzed using PCR analysis of individual blood B cells. Because genomic DNA of single B cells was analyzed, data from both productive and nonproductive VDJ rearrangements were obtained. Nine out of 75 B cells contained both functional and nonfunctional rearrangement products, whereas 62/75 had a single productive VDJ rearrangement. The distribution of VH families was ordered in accordance with the germline complexity, although a bias toward VH3 and some of its members was found. This bias was noted in both the productively and nonproductively rearranged repertoires, indicating that it resulted from molecular and not selective processes. Evidence for negative selection of certain VH3 and VH4 family members was noted in that they were found less often as productive than nonproductive VDJ rearrangements. In addition, evidence for positive selection based on CDR3 was obtained, in that JH6 and DXP1 were found at a higher frequency in the ...
Rabbit polyclonal Dynein heavy chain antibody. Validated in IHC and tested in Human. Independently reviewed in 1 review(s). Immunogen corresponding to recombinant fragment.
ZytuxTM is a biosimilar product with the generic name of Rituximab. It is a genetically engineered human-mouse chimeric monoclonal antibody produced by Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells in suspension. It is a fusion of the light and heavy chain variable domains of a murine monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody and human kappa light-chain and gamma 1 heavy-chain constant regions. Rituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody against CD20 antigens presents on surface of lymphocyte cells. Rituximab binds to the target CD20 antigen via the variable murine regions, while the remainder of the antibody interacts with human immune-effector mechanisms to kill the target cells. Zytux™ is used for treatment of ...
To promote cancer research and to develop innovative therapies, refined pre-clinical mouse tumor models that mimic the actual disease in humans are of dire need. A number of neoplasms along the B cell lineage are commonly initiated by a translocation recombining c-myc with the immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene locus. The translocation is modeled in the C.129S1-Ighatm1(Myc)Janz/J mouse which has been previously engineered to express c-myc under the control of the endogenous IgH promoter. This transgenic mouse exhibits B cell hyperplasia and develops diverse B cell tumors. We have isolated tumor cells from the spleen of a C.129S1-Ighatm1(Myc)Janz/J mouse that spontaneously developed a plasmablastic lymphoma-like disease. These cells were cultured, transduced to express eGFP and firefly luciferase, and gave rise to a highly aggressive, transplantable B cell lymphoma cell line, termed IM380. This model bears several advantages over other models as it is genetically induced and mimics the translocation ...
Rat IgG2b Kappa Light Chain Isotype Control (149/10H5) [PE/Cy7]. Available in 26 dyes & fluorophores. Backed by our 100% Guarantee.
Hi all, Im a beginner to bioinformatics, and Im having trouble finding specific tools that could help me analyze and visualize data of immunoglobulin variable heavy chains. The data I have is from a MiSeq readout. So far Ive only been able to use PEAR to sticth my reads together, FASTAptamer to count, compare, and cluster my sequences, and thats about it. Ive been trying to use different visualization tools on Galaxy but it seems like the ones that do allow FASTA files as input are spitting out errors because of varying length of sequences in the file and other errors (one that keeps popping up is Picked Up JAVA_OPTIONS?). Ive tried IgGalaxy but Im having trouble setting it up because the VMWare isnt compatible with my computer. Am I missing something with Galaxy that Im not aware of? Thanks in advance!. ...
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The genesis of human follicular lymphoma (FL) is a multistep process. The initial event is thought to be the chromosomal translocation t(14;18)(q32;q21) juxtaposing the bcl-2 proto-oncogene with the immunoglobulin (Ig) H chain locus joining segment (JH) as an error of D-J or V-D joining in the pre-B cell. However, FL is recognized clinically as a tumor of surface Ig (sIg)-positive B cells with morphologic and phenotypic similarities to the centrocyte of the secondary immune response. Thus, additional steps must be involved in the clonal expansion of the FL tumor cell beyond the activation of bcl-2 as a consequence of the t(14;18) translocation. Like the normal centrocyte, somatic mutations accumulate in the variable (V) genes of FL tumor B cells. To determine if clonal expansion of FL occurs before or after the development of the malignant follicle, we sought to examine the evolution of the FL V gene from its unmutated germline (GL) counterpart. To obtain the GL gene we first cloned the ...
results of an open-label, multicenter, phase I/II trial aiming to determine the Maximal Tolerable Dose (MTD) of alemtuzumab consolidation and to evaluate safety and efficacy in CLL patients who responded to second-line fludarabine-based treatment.
This trial was investigating the efficacy, pharmacokinetics, tolerability and quality-of-life effects of rituximab in patients with chronic lymphocytic
A role of B cells in multiple sclerosis (MS) is well established, but there is limited understanding of their involvement during active disease. Here, we examined cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and peripheral blood (PB) B cells in treatment-naive patients with MS or high-risk clinically isolated syndrome. Using flow cytometry, we found increased CSF lymphocytes with a disproportionate increase of B cells compared with T cells in patients with gadolinium-enhancing (Gd+) lesions on brain MRI. Ig gene heavy chain variable region (Ig-VH) repertoire sequencing of CSF and PB B cells revealed clonal relationships between intrathecal and peripheral B cell populations, which could be consistent with migration of B cells to and activation in the CNS in active MS ...
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Functional isotypes are not encoded by the constant region genes of the beta subunit of the T cell receptor for antigen/major histocompatibility complex ...
Name: Drug, bio-affecting and body treating compositions > Involving immunoglobulin or antibody fragment (e.g., f(ab`)2, fab`, fv, fc, heavy chain, light chain, etc ...
Background Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) can be defined as chronic symptoms or laryngeal mucosal damage caused by the abnormal reflux of gastric contents into the upper airway. LPR plays an important role in up to 50% of laryngeal complaints that present in the otolaryngeal clinic, and the symptomatology of LPR has more different presentation. LPR is suspected in the presence of symptoms of hoarseness, dysphagia, cough, globus, excessive mucus, throat pain, throat clearing, and laryngospasm. Diagnosis of LPR is confirmed using the following: reflux symptom index (RSI), laryngoscopic examination [reflux finding score (RFS)], and esophagogastroduodenoscopy. Patients and methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 60 patients with typical gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms and laryngeal complaints; these studied patients were recruited from patients who attended the outpatient clinic of Tropical Medicine and Gastroenterology, and Phoniatric Unit, Assiut University Hospital. The ...
Background Monitoring of minimal residual disease (MRD) has become a frontline clinical practice in the treatment of virtually all childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cases and in many cases of adult patients with ALL. The MRD diagnostics has proven to be the strongest prognostic factor allowing for risk group assignment into different treatment arms. The MRD techniques need to be sensitive (≤10-4), which means, the ability to detect one malignant cell among 10 000 normal cells; broadly applicable; accurate; reliable; fast; and affordable. Aim The objective of this study is to evaluate the analysis of immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) or T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements as targets for MRD assessment in ALL, allowing early detection of relapsed cases, compare with the results of morphological evaluation of the same cases and to risk stratify patients with ALL according to the MRD assessment as a prognostic marker independent and superior to other conventional risk factors. ...
Human IgG4 heavy chain小鼠单克隆抗体[5C7](ab1930)可与人样本反应并经ELISA实验严格验证,被1篇文献引用。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
ho62a01.x1 Soares_NFL_T_GBC_S1 Homo sapiens cDNA clone IMAGE:3041928 3- similar to SW:TVA1_MOUSE P01738 T-CELL RECEPTOR ALPHA CHAIN V REGION PHDS58 PRECURSOR. [1] ;, mRNA ...
There was a positive correlation between CEA levels and CA 15-3 levels and patient prognosis. A high specificity for B-cells was confirmed by assaying for luciferase reporter gene expression from a plasmid containing an analogous combination of immunoglobulin heavy chain regulatory ...
Riblet R, Weigert M, Mäkelä O. Genetics of mouse antibodies. II. Recombination between VH genes and allotype. Eur J Immunol. 1975 Nov; 5(11):778-81 ...
mouse anti-myosin heavy chain, embryonic hybridoma (BF-G6) is an eagle-i resource of type Hybridoma cell line at eagle-i Network Shared Resource Repository.
BackgroundThe KM mouse lacks endogenous genes for immunoglobulins and carries the entire human IgH locus and the IgLk transgene… Expand ...
抗兔IgM mu chain Alkaline Phosphatase(ab98452)经WB, ELISA, IHC-P, ICC实验验证。产品经预吸附处理(去除交叉反应)。其他Alkaline Phosphatase偶联二抗可供选择。
ウサギ・ポリクローナル抗体 ab91506 交差種: Ms,Rat,Hu,Pig 適用: WB,IHC-P,IHC-Fr…Fast Myosin Skeletal Heavy chain抗体一覧…画像、プロトコール、文献などWeb上の情報が満載のアブカムの…
isotype switching will change the isotype of the Ab. The constant region of the Ab is coded by the C region with the greek letter that matches its name. Ie, IgG has a C(gamma) constant region ...
tetanospasmin: composed of a heavy chain and a light chain; the L chain is a zinc-dependent endopeptidase; classified as EC 3.4.24.68
Immunoglobulin heavy chain gene IGH; g) enzyme genes TTL (adds and removes tyrosine residues on α-tubulin), GOT1 (an Aspartate ... "IGH immunoglobulin heavy locus (human )". Entrez Gene. "TTL tubulin tyrosine ligase (human)". Entrez Gene. "CHIC2 cysteine rich ... transaminase), and ACSL6 (a Long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase); h) transporter gene ARNT (binds to ligand-bound aryl hydrocarbon ...
Eaton began her research career working on immunoglobulin heavy chain genes at University of California, Los Angeles, in the ... Molecular analysis of an immunoglobulin heavy chain promoter. OCLC 18403951. Eaton group webpage at TU Dresden, accessed on ... Her thesis, entitled Molecular analysis of an immunoglobulin heavy chain promoter, was completed under the supervision of ...
Ig heavy chain V-III region VH26 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the [email protected] gene. IGHV is the immunoglobulin heavy ... [email protected] Walter MA, Dosch HM, Cox DW (Aug 1991). "A deletion map of the human immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region". J Exp ... Boursier L, Su W, Spencer J (2003). "Imprint of somatic hypermutation differs in human immunoglobulin heavy and lambda chain ... 2005). "CD5+ diffuse large B-cell lymphoma consists of germline cases and hypermutated cases in the immunoglobulin heavy chain ...
2006). "Reconsidering the human immunoglobulin heavy-chain locus: 1. An evaluation of the expressed human IGHD gene repertoire ... "Entrez Gene: IGHD immunoglobulin heavy constant delta". Shin SU, Wei CF, Amin AR, et al. (1992). "Structural and functional ... 1982). "Amino acid sequence of the first constant region domain and the hinge region of the delta heavy chain of human IgD". ... White MB, Shen AL, Word CJ, Tucker PW, Blattner FR (May 1985). "Human immunoglobulin D: genomic sequence of the delta heavy ...
"A tissue-specific transcription enhancer element is located in the major intron of a rearranged immunoglobulin heavy chain gene ... "Transcriptional enhancer elements in the mouse immunoglobulin heavy chain locus". Science. 221 (4611): 663-665. Bibcode:1983Sci ... "Sequence of a mouse germ-line gene for a variable region of an immunoglobulin light chain". Proceedings of the National Academy ... These were delimited by regions containing stop signals, the messages to terminate construction of the polypeptide chain, and ...
Rajaiya J, Nixon JC, Ayers N, Desgranges ZP, Roy AL, Webb CF (Jun 2006). "Induction of immunoglobulin heavy-chain transcription ... "Bright/ARID3A contributes to chromatin accessibility of the immunoglobulin heavy chain enhancer". Molecular Cancer. 6: 23. doi: ...
Clonal rearrangements of the immunoglobulin genes (heavy and light chains) are frequently seen. The deletion 7q21-32 is seen in ... Dunn-Walters DK, Boursier L, Spencer J, Isaacson PG (June 1998). "Analysis of immunoglobulin genes in splenic marginal zone ...
"Organization of the constant-region gene family of the mouse immunoglobulin heavy chain". Cell. Elsevier BV. 28 (3): 499-506. ... He succeeded in cDNA clonings of IL-4 and IL-5 cytokines involved in class switching and IL-2 receptor alpha chain in 1986, and ... Ishida, Y.; Agata, Y.; Shibahara, K.; Honjo, T. (1992). "Induced expression of PD-1, a novel member of the immunoglobulin gene ...
... constitutes a variant form of class switch recombination that eliminates all immunoglobulin heavy chain constant genes. It thus ... "AID-Driven Deletion Causes Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Locus Suicide Recombination in B Cells". Science. American Association ... Acton, Q.A. (2013). Immunoglobulins-Advances in Research and Application: 2013 Edition. ScholarlyEditions. p. 866. ISBN 978-1- ... terminates immunoglobulin and B-cell receptor (BCR) expression in B-lymphocytes and results in B-cell death since survival of ...
... of immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chain and light chain genes in B cells forms the genetic basis for the presence ... "Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Variable, Diversity, and Joining Region Gene Rearrangement". National Cancer Institute Thesaurus. ... Pelanda R (April 2014). "Dual immunoglobulin light chain B cells: Trojan horses of autoimmunity?". Current Opinion in ... The allelic exclusion of light chain genes Igκ and Igλ is a process that is controlled by the monoallelic initiation of V(D)J ...
Krawinkel U, Rabbitts TH (1984). "Comparison of the hinge-coding segments in human immunoglobulin gamma heavy chain genes and ... Ellison J, Hood L (Mar 1982). "Linkage and sequence homology of two human immunoglobulin gamma heavy chain constant region ... Milstein C, Frangione B (Jan 1971). "Disulphide bridges of the heavy chain of human immunoglobulin G2". The Biochemical Journal ... "Entrez Gene: IGHG2 immunoglobulin heavy constant gamma 2 (G2m marker)". Connell GE, Parr DM, Hofmann T (Jun 1979). "The amino ...
The first discovery of a eukaryotic enhancer was in the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene in 1983. This enhancer, located in the ... Mercola M, Wang XF, Olsen J, Calame K (August 1983). "Transcriptional enhancer elements in the mouse immunoglobulin heavy chain ... "A tissue-specific transcription enhancer element is located in the major intron of a rearranged immunoglobulin heavy chain gene ... "A lymphocyte-specific cellular enhancer is located downstream of the joining region in immunoglobulin heavy chain genes". Cell ...
Each immunoglobulin molecule consists of two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains. There are two classes of ... Boursier L, Su W, Spencer J (2003). "Imprint of somatic hypermutation differs in human immunoglobulin heavy and lambda chain ... immunoglobulin lambda constant 1 (Mcg marker) IGLC2 - immunoglobulin lambda constant 2 (Kern-Oz- marker) IGLC3 - immunoglobulin ... Combriato G, Klobeck HG (1991). "V lambda and J lambda-C lambda gene segments of the human immunoglobulin lambda light chain ...
They are formed by light and heavy chain of the variable region of an immunoglobulin. The two chains are linked by a flexible ... They mostly consist of a heavy and light chain of the variable region of immunoglobulin. Recombinant antibodies have many ... "Assembly of functional antibodies from immunoglobulin heavy and light chains synthesised in E. coli". Nucleic Acids Research. ... day production of scFv was the successful assembly of recombinant antibodies from heavy and light chain of immunoglobulin. ...
"Variable regions of heavy and light polypeptide chains of the same gammaG-immunoglobulin molecule". Proceedings of the National ... the larger heavy chains and the smaller light chains. Two light and two heavy chains are linked together by disulfide bonds to ... include amino acids from both the light and heavy protein subunits. The inter-chain disulfide bonds help bring together the two ... Cummingham, B.; Gottlieb, P.; Konigsberg, W.; Edelman, G. (1968). "The covalent structure of a human gamma G-immunoglobulin. V ...
... immunoglobulin genes: Heavy chain alpha (IgA): IGHA1, IGHA2 Heavy chain gamma (IgG): IGHG1, IGHG2, IGHG3, IGHG4 Heavy chain ... Immunoglobulin heavy locus, also known as IGH, is a region on human chromosome 14 that contains a gene for the heavy chains of ... Each immunoglobulin molecule consists of two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains. This region represents the ... "Entrez Gene: IGH immunoglobulin heavy locus". "Gene Family: Immunoglobulin heavy locus at 14q32.33 (IGH)". HGNC: HUGO Gene ...
"Variable regions of heavy and light polypeptide chains of the same gammaG-immunoglobulin molecule". Proceedings of the National ... The protein subunits of antibodies are of two types, the larger heavy chains and the smaller light chains. Gottlieb's ... "The covalent structure of a human gamma G-immunoglobulin. V. Partial amino acid sequence of the light chain". Biochemistry. 7 ( ... Gottlieb, Paul David (1972). "The variability of immunoglobulins". elibrary.ru. Kobler, John (1977). The Rockefeller University ...
Pascual, V.; Capra, J. D. (1991). Human immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region genes: Organization, polymorphism, and ... "Receptor revision of immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region genes in normal human B lymphocytes". The Journal of ... Hurley, C. K.; Shaw, S.; Nadler, L.; Schlossman, S.; Capra, J. D. (1982). "Alpha and beta chains of SB and DR antigens are ... Hasemann, C. A.; Capra, J. D. (1990). "High-level production of a functional immunoglobulin heterodimer in a baculovirus ...
Busslinger also contributed to the current knowledge of how the large locus encoding the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) ... "Pax5 induces V-to-DJ rearrangements and locus contraction of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene". Retrieved 2019-01-08. " ...
"Association Between a Common Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Allele and Rheumatic Heart Disease Risk in Oceania". Nature ...
Toraño A, Putnam FW (Feb 1978). "Complete amino acid sequence of the alpha 2 heavy chain of a human IgA2 immunoglobulin of the ... Ellison J, Hood L (Mar 1982). "Linkage and sequence homology of two human immunoglobulin gamma heavy chain constant region ... Flanagan JG, Rabbitts TH (Dec 1982). "Arrangement of human immunoglobulin heavy chain constant region genes implies ... "Entrez Gene: IGHA2 immunoglobulin heavy constant alpha 2 (A2m marker)". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Kerr MA (Oct ...
Expression and regulation of immunoglobulin heavy chain gene transfected into lymphoid cells. EMBO J 2: 1373-1378 Neuberger MS ... Nature 419: 43-48 Harris RS, Sale JE, Petersen-Mahrt SK, Neuberger MS (2002) AID is essential for immunoglobulin V gene ... Nature 418: 99-103 Rada C, Wiliams GT, Nilsen H, Barnes DE, Lindahl T, Neuberger MS (2002) Immunoglobulin isotype switching is ... Nature 12: 604-608 Di Noia J, Neuberger MS (2002) Altering the pathway of immunoglobulin hypermutation by inhibiting uracil-DNA ...
1986). "Sequence of a human immunoglobulin gamma 3 heavy chain constant region gene: comparison with the other human C gamma ... "heavy chain disease" protein ZUC. Structure of the Fc fragment of immunoglobulin G3". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 71 (4): ... "Entrez Gene: IGHG3 immunoglobulin heavy constant gamma 3 (G3m marker)". Michaelsen TE, Frangione B, Franklin EC (1977). " ... Alexander A, Steinmetz M, Barritault D, Frangione B, Franklin EC, Hood L, Buxbaum JN (Sep 1982). "gamma Heavy chain disease in ...
2005). "TWIST2 demonstrates differential methylation in immunoglobulin variable heavy chain mutated and unmutated chronic ...
B-cells from LMP2A transgenic E line undergo immunoglobulin light chain rearrangements, but not heavy chain rearrangement. This ... indicates that LMP2A signaling bypasses the requirement for immunoglobulin recombination and allows immunoglobulin M-negative ...
"Immunoglobulin heavy and light chain gene features are correlated with primary cold agglutinin disease onset and activity". ... In people with cold agglutinin disease, the Coombs test is almost always positive for immunoglobulin M (IgM). Avoid cold ...
Refolding of colloidal thyroglobulin by protein disulfide isomerase and immunoglobulin heavy chain-binding protein". J. Biol. ... Thyroglobulin has been shown to interact with Binding immunoglobulin protein. Coscia F, Taler-Verčič A, Chang VT, Sinn L, ... possible cleavage of the polypeptide chain at the tyrosine donor site". FEBS Lett. 242 (2): 414-8. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(89) ...
2000). "BCL-6 mutations are associated with immunoglobulin variable heavy chain mutations in B-cell chronic lymphocytic ...
... binds to the mu-E3 motif of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain enhancer and is expressed in many cell types (Henthorn et al., 1991 ... a transcription factor that binds the immunoglobulin heavy-chain enhancer, maps to Xp11.22". Genomics. 11 (2): 374-8. doi: ... Chung MC, Kim HK, Kawamoto S (2001). "TFEC can function as a transcriptional activator of the nonmuscle myosin II heavy chain-A ... "bcn-1 Element-dependent activation of the laminin gamma 1 chain gene by the cooperative action of transcription factor E3 (TFE3 ...
Ellison J, Hood L (Mar 1982). "Linkage and sequence homology of two human immunoglobulin gamma heavy chain constant region ... Flanagan JG, Rabbitts TH (1984). "The sequence of a human immunoglobulin epsilon heavy chain constant region gene, and evidence ... "Entrez Gene: IGHE immunoglobulin heavy constant epsilon". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Venkitaraman AR, Williams GT ... "Cloning and sequence determination of the gene for the human immunoglobulin epsilon chain expressed in a myeloma cell line". ...
In a 2002-2003 survey of 1,030 animals including 679 bats from Gabon and the Republic of the Congo, immunoglobulin G (IgG) ... "This is the first time that all three countries - Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone - have stopped the original chains of ... Heavy bleeding is uncommon; if it occurs, it is usually in the gastrointestinal tract.[35] The incidence of bleeding into the ... detecting the viral RNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)[6][23] and detecting proteins by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ( ...
Heavy chains[change , change source]. Antibodies are glycoproteins belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily; the terms ... Antibodies are typically made of basic structural units-each with two large heavy chains and two small light chains. There are ... 3. Heavy chain (blue) with one variable (VH) domain followed by a constant domain (CH1), a hinge region, and two more constant ... which are grouped into different isotypes based on which heavy chain they possess. Five different antibody isotypes are known ...
Hyper-IgM syndromes Normal numbers of B cells with isotype or light chain deficiencies: heavy chain deletions, kappa chain ... immunoglobulin replacement therapy in the form of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) or subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIG) may ... μ-Heavy chain deficiency, l 5 deficiency, Igα deficiency, BLNK deficiency, thymoma with immunodeficiency B cells low but ... For instance, an antibody deficiency can be diagnosed in the presence of low immunoglobulins, recurrent infections and failure ...
... resulting in different types of polyubiquitin chains.[54] Chains in which each additional ubiquitin is linked to lysine 48 of ... In this neutralisation pathway, TRIM21 (a protein of the tripartite motif family) binds with immunoglobulin G to direct the ... possibly due to the heavy transcription demands on these genes to produce enough ubiquitin for the cell. It has been proposed ... The result is a polyubiquitin chain that is bound by the proteasome, allowing it to degrade the tagged protein.[1] The ...
... also called immunoglobulins). The TCR is similar to a half-antibody consisting of a single heavy and single light chain, except ... Each chain is composed of two extracellular domains: Variable (V) region and a Constant (C) region, both of Immunoglobulin ... The TCR alpha chain is generated by VJ recombination, whereas the beta chain is generated by VDJ recombination (both involving ... Likewise, generation of the TCR gamma chain involves VJ recombination, whereas generation of the TCR delta chain occurs by VDJ ...
Monomers of IgE consist of two heavy chainschain) and two light chains, with the ε chain containing 4 Ig-like constant ... Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a type of antibody (or immunoglobulin (Ig) "isotype") that has only been found in mammals. IgE is ... Presence of a unique immunoglobulin as a carrier of reaginic activity". J. Immunol. 97 (1): 75-85. PMID 4162440.. ... Winter WE, Hardt NS, Fuhrman S (2000). "Immunoglobulin E: importance in parasitic infections and hypersensitivity responses". ...
... having a heavier body weight, should have larger, heavier nasal glands to more effectively excrete salt from a larger volume of ... In Eastern Christianity it is common to hang decorated common ostrich eggs on the chains holding the oil lamps.[92] The initial ... This is in contrast to domesticated ostriches, who in captivity develop high concentration of immunoglobulin antibodies in ... total short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), and acetate.[75] The caecum contains a high water concentration with reduced levels ...
In humans, transferrin consists of a polypeptide chain containing 679 amino acids and two carbohydrate chains. The protein is ... Carbohydrate deficient transferrin increases in the blood with heavy ethanol consumption and can be monitored through ...
Kaht suuremat ja omavahel identset ahelat nimetatakse rasketeks ehk H-ahelateks (ingl.k heavy chains), kaht väiksemat ning ... J Wang, D Lin, H Peng, Y Huang, J Huang ja J Gu, Cancer-derived immunoglobulin G promotes tumor cell growth and proliferation ... Roald Nezlin, The Immunoglobulins: Structure and Function, lk 93, 1998, Academic Press, Google'i raamat veebiversioon (vaadatud ... samuti omavahel identset ahelat nimetatakse kergeteks ehk L-ahelateks (inglise light chains). Raske ahel koosneb neljast eri ...
... next to the immunoglobulin heavy- or light-chain gene enhancers, leading to increased C-MYC expression and increased cell ... The cDNA is sequenced and the sequence encoding the variable heavy and variable light chains of these antibodies are cloned ... This technology uses a single chain variable fragment (scFv) designed to recognize the cell surface marker CD19 as a method of ...
Her death would indirectly spark a chain of events that would eventually lead to the permanent ousting of the Stuart line from ... Serologic tests and enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), which measured Variola virus-specific immunoglobulin and ... as an adult she would often try to disguise the pockmarks with heavy makeup). His great-niece, Mary, Queen of Scots, contracted ... Strains were characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. ...
"Organization of the constant-region gene family of the mouse immunoglobulin heavy chain". Cell. Elsevier BV. 28 (3): 499-506. ... "Induced expression of PD-1, a novel member of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily, upon programmed cell death". The EMBO ...
An antibody is made up of two heavy chains and two light chains. The unique variable region allows an antibody to recognize its ... Antibodies (also known as immunoglobulin, Ig), are large Y-shaped proteins used by the immune system to identify and neutralize ... In antibody responses, B cells are activated to secrete antibodies, which are proteins also known as immunoglobulins. ... "AgDscam, a hypervariable immunoglobulin domain-containing receptor of the Anopheles gambiae innate immune system". PLOS ...
Heavy chain[edit]. Further information: Immunoglobulin heavy chain. There are five types of mammalian Ig heavy chain denoted by ... heavy chains μ and ε have a constant region composed of four immunoglobulin domains.[2] The variable region of the heavy chain ... Several immunoglobulin domains make up the two heavy chains (red and blue) and the two light chains (green and yellow) of an ... Light chain[edit]. Further information: Immunoglobulin light chain. In mammals there are two types of immunoglobulin light ...
Binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP or Grp78) is a protein localized to the endoplasmic reticulum. It is involved in protein ... Members of the Hsp70 family are very strongly upregulated by heat stress and toxic chemicals, particularly heavy metals such as ... When ATP is hydrolyzed to ADP the binding pocket of Hsp70 closes, tightly binding the now-trapped peptide chain. Further ...
Serum levels can also be elevated in heavy smokers. CEA are glycosyl phosphatidyl inositol (GPI) cell-surface-anchored ... CEA and related genes make up the CEA family belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily. In humans, the carcinoembryonic ... "Structural models for carcinoembryonic antigen and its complex with the single-chain Fv antibody molecule MFE23". FEBS Letters ...
Gas cores can be composed of air, or heavy gases like perfluorocarbon, or nitrogen.[4] Heavy gases are less water-soluble so ... immunoglobulin superfamily), which has a slower on-rate but slow off-rate to arrest the leukocyte, kinetically enhancing ... Microbubbles can be conjugated to a recombinant single-chain variable fragment specific for activated glycoprotein IIb/IIIa ( ... microbubbles with heavy gas cores last longer in circulation. ... "Novel single-chain antibody-targeted microbubbles for ...
... in patients with acute B lymphocytic leukemia resulted in the juxtaposition of the IL-3 gene and the immunoglobulin heavy-chain ...
Myosin-9 also known as myosin, heavy chain 9, non-muscle or non-muscle myosin heavy chain IIa (NMMHC-IIA) is a protein which in ... MYH9, BDPLT6, DFNA17, EPSTS, FTNS, MHA, NMHC-II-A, NMMHC-IIA, NMMHCA, myosin, heavy chain 9, non-muscle, myosin heavy chain 9, ... Plasma immunoglobulins. Normal Haematology. Normal Peripheral blood lymphocytes. Normal Micronucleus test. Normal ... and two essential light chains (17 kDa), which stabilize the heavy chain structure.[10][11][12][13][14] ...
Due to their position at the top of the ecological pyramid, with a diet heavy in blubber in which halocarbons concentrate, ... and biomarkers such as immunoglobulin G and retinol suggest similar effects on polar bears. PCBs have received the most study, ... in polar bear tissues continued to rise for decades after being banned as these chemicals spread through the food chain. Since ... which is about twice as heavy as that.[109][110] Adult muskox, which can weigh 450 kg (1,000 lb) or more, are a more formidable ...
Jeed Antikörper is ut twee glieke swore Keden (heavy chains, H) un twee glieke lichte Keden (light chains, L) tohopensett, de ... Immunoglobulin W[ännern , Bornkood ännern]. Immunglobulin W (IgW) is eerst 1996 bi en Oort vun de Haien opdeckt worrn. Ut ... Alexander H. Lucas (2001): Immunoglobulin Gene Construction. In: Encyclopedia of Life Sciences. doi:10.1038/npg.els.000117 ( ...
In recognition of his outstanding studies of cosmic ray showers and heavy mesons and in the field of palaeomagnetism ... In recognition of his elucidation of the structure of immunoglobulins and of the reactions involved in activating the ... In recognition of his seminal contributions to understanding the fundamental dynamics of carbon chain molecules, leading to the ... and signal advances in proposing the probable existence of nuclear chain reactions in fissile materials ...
"Synthesis of secreted and membrane-bound immunoglobulin mu heavy chains is directed by mRNAs that differ at their 3′ ends". ...
"The human gene encoding the heavy chain of the major histocompatibility complex class I-like Fc receptor (FCGRT) maps to ... West AP, Bjorkman PJ (2000). "Crystal structure and immunoglobulin G binding properties of the human major histocompatibility ... possible role in transfer of immunoglobulin G from mother to fetus". J. Exp. Med. 180 (6): 2377-81. doi:10.1084/jem.180.6.2377 ... with increased affinity for mouse immunoglobulin G". J. Mol. Biol. 332 (4): 901-13. doi:10.1016/S0022-2836(03)00952-5. PMID ...
As the map indicates, outside the Sunda Shelf are deep ocean basins which were not often crossed until heavier and wider ... Archaeologists believe that at this time the Himalayas, a chain of mountains in northern Burma and China, created an icy ... "The origin of the Japanese race based on genetic markers of immunoglobulin G". Proceedings of the Japan Academy, Series B. 85 ...
... receptor-IgG heavy chain chimeric protein as a bivalent antagonist of TNF activity". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 174 ... Second, they isolated the DNA sequence that codes the human gene for the Fc end of immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1). Third, they linked ...
Immunoglobulins consist of heavy chains (IgA, IgM, IgG, IgE and IgD) and light chains (kappa and lambda). A normal gamma zone ... The immunoglobulins or antibodies are generally the only proteins present in the normal gamma region. Of note, any protein ... Note that immunoglobulins may also be found in other zones; IgA typically migrates in the beta-gamma zone, and in particular, ... A broad "swell-like" manner (wide) indicates polyclonal immunoglobulin production. If it is elevated in an asymmetric manner or ...
Hochman J, Inbar D, Givol D. An active antibody fragment (Fv) composed of the variable portions of heavy and light chains. ... 抗體(antibody),又稱免疫球蛋白(immunoglobulin,簡稱Ig)[1],是一種主要由漿細胞分泌,被免疫系統用來鑑別與中和外來物質如細菌、病毒等病原體的大型Y形蛋白質,僅被發現存在於脊椎動物的血液等體液中,及其B細胞的細胞膜表面[2][3 ... Streptococcal IgA1 protease, digestion, Fab and
"In recognition of his penetrating investigations on the structure of immunoglobulins.". مارتين رايل. Astronomy. "In recognition ... "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to the science and technology of heavy water reactors for power generation." ... of the splendid chain of Discoveries in Chemical Electricity, which has been continued for so many years of his valuable life." ... "In recognition of his fundamental contribution to understanding the structure and genetic control of immunoglobulins; his ...
For the quantitative measurement of human IgG heavy chain and light chain intact immunoglobulin in serum. The IgG HLC ratio can ... Immunoglobulin G (IgG) Heavy and Light Chain (HLC) Pairs, κ and λ With Ratio. TEST: 123550 Test number copied ... Immunoglobulin heavy/light chain ratios improve paraprotein detection and monitoring, identify residual disease and correlate ... An elevated IgG heavy and light chain (HLC) pair ratio suggests a clonal proliferation of an IgG κ clone of plasma cells. ...
These heavy chain types vary between different animals. All heavy chains contain a series of immunoglobulin domains, usually ... The heavy chain doesnt always have to bind to a light chain. Pre-B lymphocytes can synthesize heavy chain in the absence of ... Heavy chains α and γ have approximately 450 amino acids. Heavy chains μ and ε have approximately 550 amino acids. Each heavy ... heavy chain that is present in all jawed fish and is the heavy chain for what is thought to be the primordial immunoglobulin. ...
Immunoglobulins are composed of two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains; disulfide-linked (PubMed:20176268). ... An IgD molecule contains thus a delta heavy chain combined with either a kappa or a lambda light chains. Kappa light chains are ... The antigen binding site is formed by the variable domain of one heavy chain, together with that of its associated light chain ... Thus, each immunoglobulin has two antigen binding sites with remarkable affinity for a particular antigen. The variable domains ...
Many human immunoglobulin heavy-chain IGHV gene polymorphisms have been reported in error.. Wang Y1, Jackson KJ, Sewell WA, ... The immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable (IGHV) gene repertoire is generally considered to be highly polymorphic. In this report ... The analysis also highlights the presence of common mismatches, with respect to the germline, in many rearranged heavy-chain ... The identification of the genes that make up rearranged immunoglobulin genes is critical to many studies. For example, the ...
... immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) polymerase chain reaction testing demonstrated B-cell monoclonality, consistent with an early ... Early Bronchus-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma Diagnosed with Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Molecular Testing. Pen Li,1 ...
Extracted DNA is analyzed for immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangements by a polymerase chain reaction method using V ... Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain (IGH) Gene Rearrangement, PCR. Indication. - Assessment of clonality in suspected B-cell ...
Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains: The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid ...
We extensively investigated age-related alterations of naïve and antigen-experienced immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) ... The most significant changes were observed in the first 10 years of life, and were characterized by altered immunoglobulin gene ... The most significant changes were observed in the first 10 years of life, and were characterized by altered immunoglobulin gene ... We extensively investigated age-related alterations of naïve and antigen-experienced immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) ...
Immunoglobulin heavy and light chain genes rearrange independently at early stages of B cell development.. Ehlich A1, Schaal S ... We report the occurrence of immunoglobulin heavy and light chain gene rearrangement at the stage of large B cell precursors. We ... cell receptor complex nor any gene rearrangement in the heavy chain locus is required for the induction of kappa light chain ... Using this system and employing mutant mice in which the membrane exon of the mu chain, the lambda 5 gene, or the JH locus was ...
Joining of immunoglobulin heavy chain gene segments: implications from a chromosome with evidence of three D-JH fusions. F W ... Joining of immunoglobulin heavy chain gene segments: implications from a chromosome with evidence of three D-JH fusions ... Joining of immunoglobulin heavy chain gene segments: implications from a chromosome with evidence of three D-JH fusions ... Joining of immunoglobulin heavy chain gene segments: implications from a chromosome with evidence of three D-JH fusions ...
... and ε heavy chains reveals evolutionary relationships and suggests that two genes code for each heavy chain. ... Complete Amino Acid Sequence of the Mu Heavy Chain of a Human IgM Immunoglobulin ... Complete Amino Acid Sequence of the Mu Heavy Chain of a Human IgM Immunoglobulin ... Complete Amino Acid Sequence of the Mu Heavy Chain of a Human IgM Immunoglobulin ...
Author Summary Each time a mammalian cell duplicates its genome in preparation for cell division it activates thousands of so called
"Immunoglobulin heavy chain sequence analysis in Waldenströms macroglobulinemia and immunoglobulin M monoclonal gammopathy of ... Immunoglobulin heavy chain gene (IGH) sequence analysis can provide useful clues in the investigation of B-cell ... Immunoglobulin heavy chain VDJ locus was amplified by PCR using the Biomed-2 strategy with FR1 primers as previously described ... Clonotypic Analysis of Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Sequences in Patients with Waldenströms Macroglobulinemia: Correlation with ...
Regulation of the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene is controlled in part by four DNase I-hypersensitive regions located 3′ of ... Critical Elements of the Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Gene Enhancers for Deregulated Expression of Bcl-2. Caroline A. Heckman, ... Singh M., Birshtein B. K. NF-HB (BSAP) is a repressor of the murine immunoglobulin heavy-chain 3′α enhancer at early stages of ... Increased bcl-2 Promoter Activity with the Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Gene 3′ Enhancers.. The activity of the IgH 3′ enhancers ...
... genes is provided both by H1 and H2 loops whereas for immunoglobulin heavy chain variable (IGKV) genes or immunoglobulin heavy ... CDR3 in heavy- and light-chain rearrangements of individual SMZL clones. Heavy-chain genes. Analysis of the HCDR3 region was ... light chain in the recognition mechanism of the IG. The diversity of the structural repertoire for immunoglobulin heavy chain ... 2002) The cleavage efficiency of the human immunoglobulin heavy chain VH elements by the RAG complex: implications for the ...
Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Locus Events and Expression of Activation-Induced Cytidine Deaminase in Epithelial Breast Cancer ... Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Locus Events and Expression of Activation-Induced Cytidine Deaminase in Epithelial Breast Cancer ... Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Locus Events and Expression of Activation-Induced Cytidine Deaminase in Epithelial Breast Cancer ... Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Locus Events and Expression of Activation-Induced Cytidine Deaminase in Epithelial Breast Cancer ...
In our series, all cases of FL had AGS within their tumor-specific immunoglobulin heavy chain variable regions. In contrast, ... Acquired potential N-glycosylation sites within the tumor-specific immunoglobulin heavy chains of B-cell malignancies. ... We sequenced the tumor-specific immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region fragment, including complementarity-determining ... We then statistically analyzed differences in presentation pattern, in terms of tumor histology, immunoglobulin isotype, AGS ...
Macroglobulin Structure: Homology of Mu and Gamma Heavy Chains of Human Immunoglobulins ... Macroglobulin Structure: Homology of Mu and Gamma Heavy Chains of Human Immunoglobulins ... Macroglobulin Structure: Homology of Mu and Gamma Heavy Chains of Human Immunoglobulins ... Macroglobulin Structure: Homology of Mu and Gamma Heavy Chains of Human Immunoglobulins ...
... ... CitacióNavarro, A. [et al.]. MicroRNAs expression, chromosomal alterations and immunoglobulin variable Heavy chain ... purified leukemic MCL cells revealed two clusters of tumors characterized by different mutational status of the immunoglobulin ...
Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Variable Gene Usage and (Super)-antigen Drive in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia. Andreas Bühler, ... In this issue of Clinical Cancer Research Bomben and colleagues (1) investigate the role of immunoglobulin heavy chain variable ... Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Variable Gene Usage and (Super)-antigen Drive in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia ... Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Variable Gene Usage and (Super)-antigen Drive in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia ...
Immunoglobulin M (IgG, IgM) (Heavy & Light Chain) antibody (Alkaline Phosphatase (AP)) ABIN637975 from antibodies-online ... anti-Immunoglobulin G, Immunoglobulin M (IgG, IgM) (Heavy & Light Chain) antibody (Alkaline Phosphatase (AP)) from antibodies- ... Itemanti-Immunoglobulin G, Immunoglobulin M (IgG, IgM) (Heavy & Light Chain) antibody (Alkaline Phosphatase (AP)) ... anti-Immunoglobulin G, Immunoglobulin M (IgG, IgM) (Heavy & Light Chain) antibody (Alkaline Phosphatase (AP)) ...
"Bright/ARID3A Contributes to Chromatin Accessibility of the Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Enhancer." Molecular Cancer 6, no. 1 ( ... Bright/ARID3A contributes to chromatin accessibility of the immunoglobulin heavy chain enhancer. ... Bright/ARID3A is a nuclear matrix-associated transcription factor that stimulates immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) expression ...
Noncovalent association of heavy and light chains of human immunoglobulins. III. Specific interactions between VH and VL.. C ... Noncovalent association of heavy and light chains of human immunoglobulins. III. Specific interactions between VH and VL. ... Noncovalent association of heavy and light chains of human immunoglobulins. III. Specific interactions between VH and VL. ... Noncovalent association of heavy and light chains of human immunoglobulins. III. Specific interactions between VH and VL. ...
The larger of the two immunoglobulin chain types determines the immunoglobulin class (G, A, D, E or M, respectively). The heavy ... chain molecules exhibit the same structure and composition, which consists of constant, variable, and hypervariable regions. ... A protein complex that consists of two heavy chains (gamma, alpha, delta, epsilon or mu). ... Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains. Known as: Heavy Chains, Immunoglobulin, Immunoglobulins, Heavy Chain, Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain ...
where to buy 219685-50-4(Immunoglobulin,anti-(human complement C5 a-chain) (human-mouse monoclonal 5G1.1 heavy chain), ... Immunoglobulin,anti-(human complement C5 a-chain) (human-mouse monoclonal 5G1.1 heavy chain), disulfide withhuman-mouse ... human complement C5 a-chain) (human-mouse monoclonal 5G1.1 heavy chain), disulfide withhuman-mouse monoclonal 5G1.1 light chain ... disulfide withhuman-mouse monoclonal 5G1.1 light chain, dimer (9CI)).Also offer free database of 219685-50-4( ...
where to buy 357613-77-5(Immunoglobulin G1, anti-(human CD80 (antigen)) (human-Macaca irus monoclonal IDEC-114 heavy chain), ... Immunoglobulin G1, anti-(human CD80 (antigen)) (human-Macaca irus monoclonal IDEC-114 heavy chain), disulfide with human-Macaca ... human-Macaca irus monoclonal IDEC-114 heavy chain), disulfide with human-Macaca irus monoclonal IDEC-114 lamda chain, dimer) ... disulfide with human-Macaca irus monoclonal IDEC-114 lamda chain, dimer).Also offer free database of 357613-77-5( ...
Comparison of ZAP-70/Syk mRNA levels with immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene mutation status and disease progression in chronic ... Comparison of ZAP-70/Syk mRNA levels with immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene mutation status and disease progression in chronic ... Comparison of ZAP-70/Syk mRNA levels with immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene mutation status and disease progression in chronic ...
... heavy chain, light chain, etc.). Description: Subject matter involving an immunoglobulin or antibody fragment.. Patents under ... Feline immunoglobulin E molecules and related methods. Sep. 1, 2009. 7547436. Receptor specific transepithelial transport of ... Name: Drug, bio-affecting and body treating compositions > Involving immunoglobulin or antibody fragment (e.g., f(ab`)2, fab`, ... Method of obtaining immunoglobulins from colostrum and their use in pharmaceutical composition. Jul. 14, 1998. ...
The heavy-chain switch from immunoglobulin M (IgM) expression to IgA expression is mediated by a recombination event between ... and deletion of recombined switch regions suggest a role for DNA replication in the immunoglobulin heavy-chain switch.. W ... and deletion of recombined switch regions suggest a role for DNA replication in the immunoglobulin heavy-chain switch. ... and deletion of recombined switch regions suggest a role for DNA replication in the immunoglobulin heavy-chain switch. ...
Immunoglobulin genes in multiple myeloma: expressed and non-expressed repertoires, heavy and light chain pairings and somatic ... Immunoglobulin genes in multiple myeloma: expressed and non-expressed repertoires, heavy and light chain pairings and somatic ... derive mainly from heavy chains; considerably less is known about light chains. We assessed in parallel IGH and IGK/IGL ... All in-frame, transcribed IGH/IGK/IGL sequences were mutated; parallel heavy/light chain analysis demonstrated a comparable ...
  • The identification of the genes that make up rearranged immunoglobulin genes is critical to many studies. (nih.gov)
  • For example, the enumeration of mutations in immunoglobulin genes is important for the prognosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and this requires the accurate identification of the germline genes from which a particular sequence is derived. (nih.gov)
  • We therefore present a revised repertoire of expressed IGHV genes, which should substantially improve the accuracy of immunoglobulin gene analysis. (nih.gov)
  • The heavy and light chains of the B cell receptor (BCR) are generated in the bone marrow by recombining individual variable (V), diversity (D), and joining (J) genes through a process called VDJ recombination. (frontiersin.org)
  • Immunoglobulin heavy and light chain genes rearrange independently at early stages of B cell development. (nih.gov)
  • The homology of the constant regions of immunoglobulin µ, γ, α, and ε heavy chains reveals evolutionary relationships and suggests that two genes code for each heavy chain. (sciencemag.org)
  • The monoclonal IgM is produced by malignant B-cells harboring a unique clonotypic rearrangement of immunoglobulin heavy chain variable genes ( IGH ), the VDJH rearrangement, associated with a specific constant region [ 4 , 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Disorders characterized by germline immunoglobulin genes are likely to be derived from naive B cells, which have not encountered antigen. (hindawi.com)
  • Most of B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders, however, exhibit somatic hypermutation (SHM) of immunoglobulin variable genes and are, therefore, derived from cells that have encountered antigen in germinal center. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition, in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), marginal zone lymphoma (MZL), and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), biased usage of IGHV genes and stereotyped clusters of immunoglobulin receptor support the role of antigen-driven mechanisms in their pathogenesis [ 7 , 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Human SMZ B cells are a heterogeneous population: evidence for this heterogeneity was provided by mutation analysis of rearranged immunoglobulin heavy (IGH) chain genes of microdissected SMZ cells as well as tonsillar marginal zone B cells (equivalent to SMZ B cells) ( 4 , 5 , 6 ), which has demonstrated that some cells carried mutated IGHV genes while other cells carried unmutated genes. (springer.com)
  • In breast cancer cells, however, it was not clear whether any rearranged immunoglobulin variable ( V ) region genes were being expressed ( 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • An unsupervised analysis of miR expression profile in purified leukemic MCL cells revealed two clusters of tumors characterized by different mutational status of the immunoglobulin genes, proliferation signature, and number of genomic alterations. (upc.edu)
  • Increasing evidence supports the prognostic relevance of specific immunoglobulin heavy chain variable (IGHV) genes or stereotyped B-cell receptors (BCR) in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The structure of the human immunoglobulin heavy chain constant region (IGHC), on chromosome 14q32, comprises nine CH genes and two pseudogenes, all originating from multiple duplication events. (springer.com)
  • Rearrangement of rat immunoglobulin E heavy-chain and c-myc genes in the B-cell immunocytoma IR162. (asm.org)
  • The variable (V)‐region heavy (H) and light (L) chain genes expressed by the variant hybridoma were amplified by polymerase chain reaction, cloned, sequenced, and compared with those of the KIM4.6 parent and other DNA‐binding and non-DNA‐binding antibodies. (uwo.ca)
  • Therefore we analysed the distribution of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain (Ig-VH) genes usage of a RA patient before, 7 months and 17 months after anti-CD20 therapy with rituximab. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It has recently been postulated that immunoglobulin class switching is preceded by transcription from unrearranged heavy chain genes. (umassmed.edu)
  • We describe the structure of the major germ line RNA transcribed from unrearranged immunoglobulin alpha heavy-chain genes in immunoglobulin M-expressing cells of the I.29 mu B-cell lymphoma, a cell line capable of switching to immunoglobulin A expression upon lipopolysaccharide treatment. (umassmed.edu)
  • Contribution of immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable-region genes to antibody diversity. (ox.ac.uk)
  • A mouse cloned cDNA probe containing a variable (V) region belonging to the VHIII subgroup has been used in filter hybridisations to estimate the number of heavy-chain V-genes in this subgroup of mouse and human DNA. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The unique combination of heavy and light chain genes defines the immunological activity of a B cell and also its identity, also referred to as its clonotype. (biomedcentral.com)
  • While the achievable depth of these amplicon-based approaches provided remarkable resolution (10 5 -10 6 chains in a single experiment) [ 8 ], a significant limitation of this technology for functional studies of the immune system is that it only sequences a single chain and cannot provide information on endogenous pairing of IgH/IgL genes to definitively identify a B cell clonotype. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Rearranged immunoglobulin heavy chain genes from two extranodal marginal zone B cell lymphomas were amplified, cloned, and sequenced. (bmj.com)
  • Two copies of chromosome 12, to which immunoglobulin heavy chain structural genes have been assigned, were found. (uab.edu)
  • Immunoglobulin heavy chain locus of the rat: striking homology to mouse antibody genes. (ox.ac.uk)
  • There is striking homology between the rat and mouse Ig heavy chain loci as regards gene order and distance between CH genes. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Crossing over between genes in the immunoglobulin heavy chain linkage group of the mouse. (jax.org)
  • Polymorphism of heavy-chain genes in immunoglobulins of wild mice. (jax.org)
  • Lieberman, R and Potter, M, "Polymorphism of heavy-chain genes in immunoglobulins of wild mice. (jax.org)
  • We have examined the arrangement of the genes for the mouse heavy chain subclasses gamma 2b, gamma 2a and gamma 1 by the Southern hybridisation procedure. (ox.ac.uk)
  • These observations implicate deletion in the mechanism of the H-chain switch and allow a preliminary ordering of some of the CH genes in the mouse genome. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Single-cell PCR and sequencing of full-length Ig heavy (Igh) and Igk and Igl light chain genes is a powerful tool to measure the diversity of antibody repertoires and allows the functional assessment of B-cell responses through direct Ig gene cloning and the generation of recombinant mAbs. (mpg.de)
  • The highly variable complementary determining region 3 (CDR3) of antibodies is generated through recombination of immunoglobulin heavy chain variable (IGHV), diversity, and joining genes. (scilifelab.se)
  • These data have been used (Thörnqvist and Ohlin, 2018) [1] to demonstrate the extent of incorporation of the 3' most bases of IGHV germline genes into rearranged immunoglobulin encoding sequences, and the extent whereby any difference in incorporation affects the specificity of inference of the 3'-end of IGHV genes from immunoglobulin-encoding transcripts. (scilifelab.se)
  • Structure and multiplicity of genes for the human immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Several genes for the variable region of immunoglobulin heavy chains (VH genes) have been isolated from human fetal liver DNA by using a cDNA plasmid probe containing a mouse VH sequence. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The 3' end of the V gene seems to be at codon 93 or 94, and this is followed by the conserved sequences C-A-C-A-G-T-G and G-A-C-A-C-A-A-A-C-C. The presence of these sequences suggests that similar enzymatic mechanisms are involved in the integration of V genes in both heavy and light chains. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In chromosome translocations characteristic of Burkitt lymphomas (BL) and murine plasmacytomas, c-myc genes become juxtaposed to immunoglobulin heavy-chain (IgH) sequences, resulting in aberrant c-myc transcription. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • When we examined genomic DNA from the lymphoma cells, we detected the rearrangement of immunoglobulin heavy chain genes with a germ-line configuration of light chain genes and no rearrangement of T-cell receptor β-chain gene. (elsevier.com)
  • These results indicated that the rearrangement of immunoglobulin genes could occur in T-cell malignant lymphoma, and that T3 antigen could be expressed prior to the rearrangement of T-cell receptor β-chain genes under certain circumstances. (elsevier.com)
  • The heavy chain gene MARs, however, exhibit a lower affinity for matrix association compared to the kappa gene MAR. Significantly, the juxtaposition of enhancer elements with MARs appears to be evolutionarily conserved within the immunoglobulin genes, suggesting that MARs may act as positive and/or negative regulators of enhancer function. (elsevier.com)
  • The immunoglobulin light chain genes in tetrapods can be classified into three distinct groups: kappa (κ), lambda (λ), and sigma (σ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Specific rearrangement of lambda light chain of immunoglobulins can lead to loss of some protein coding genes, which does not seem to be functionally relevant (while functionally relevant miR-650 can be overexpressed). (wikipedia.org)
  • Using this system and employing mutant mice in which the membrane exon of the mu chain, the lambda 5 gene, or the JH locus was inactivated by gene targeting, we found that expression of the pre-B cell receptor complex is necessary for the transition from the large CD43+ to the small CD43- pre-B cell stage. (nih.gov)
  • We show that neither the pre-B cell receptor complex nor any gene rearrangement in the heavy chain locus is required for the induction of kappa light chain gene rearrangement in early B cell progenitors. (nih.gov)
  • Although these transcription factors play a role in the deregulated bcl-2 expression in t(14;18) lymphoma cells, it is likely that regulatory regions of the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus influence bcl-2 expression as well. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To address this, we examined several well-defined and commonly used breast cancer cell lines for V H gene expression coupled with an analysis of additional immunoglobulin heavy chain ( IgH ) locus events. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Translocation of the c-myc gene into the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus in human Burkitt lymphoma and murine plasmacytoma cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Definition of Immunoglobulin Heavy Locus This region represents the germline organization of the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus. (netdoc.com)
  • Publications] F.Matsuda and T.Honjo: 'Organization of the human immunoglobulin heavy-chain locus' Advances in Immunology. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Conformational differences in the 3-D nanostructure of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain locus, a hotspot of chromosomal translocations in B lymphocytes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • article{Esa2001ConformationalDI, title={Conformational differences in the 3-D nanostructure of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain locus, a hotspot of chromosomal translocations in B lymphocytes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Physical mapping of the bovine immunoglobulin heavy chain constant region gene locus. (mysciencework.com)
  • The immunoglobulin heavy (IgH) chain locus is subject to somatic recombination and changes in gene expression in B lineage cells. (ki.se)
  • 18) chromosome translocation activates the antiapoptotic oncogene Bcl2 by linking it to the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) locus. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Its characteristic t(14;18) chromosome translocation results from linkage of the gene Bcl2 to the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) locus. (bloodjournal.org)
  • In vivo disruption of PU.1 in mature B cells by the CD19-Cre locus did not affect B-cell maturation, and PU.1 -deficient mature B cells displayed normal proliferation in response to mitogenic signals including the cross-linking of surface immunoglobulin M (IgM). (bloodjournal.org)
  • Analysis of genomic DNA by Southern blotting permitted identification of the C gamma 2c gene and led to the proposal of the following gene order for the rat Ig heavy chain locus: D-JH-C mu-C delta-(C gamma 2c, C gamma 2a)-C gamma 1-C gamma 2b-C epsilon-C alpha. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Schematics of the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) locus and of the templates and strategies used for chromatin reconstituted in vitro transcription assays . (biomedcentral.com)
  • The recombination of genetics can be firmly managed within the N lymphoid family tree: the Ig heavy-chain (locus are started in lymphoid progenitors adopted by VH-DJH recombination in pro-B cells. (capecodmushroom.org)
  • The enhancer of the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus is flanked by presumptive chromosomal loop anchorage elements. (elsevier.com)
  • We have located presumptive chromosomal loop anchorage elements within the mouse heavy chain immunoglobulin locus. (elsevier.com)
  • There are two types of light chain in humans: kappa (κ) chain, encoded by the immunoglobulin kappa locus ([email protected]) on chromosome 2 lambda (λ) chain, encoded by the immunoglobulin lambda locus ([email protected]) on chromosome 22 Antibodies are produced by B lymphocytes, each expressing only one class of light chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, while histology and immunohistochemistry lacked definitive features of a lymphoma, immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) polymerase chain reaction testing demonstrated B-cell monoclonality, consistent with an early BALT lymphoma. (hindawi.com)
  • Extracted DNA is analyzed for immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangements by a polymerase chain reaction method using V primers derived from framework 1, framework 2 and framework 3 regions in combination with a mixture of fluorescently labeled J primers. (mdanderson.org)
  • IGHV-(D)-J and IGLV-J rearrangements were amplified by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR). (haematologica.org)
  • Although Bcl2 activation is a prerequisite for human follicular lymphoma, it does not appear to be sufficient to initiate the tumor, because sensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedures can detect the t(14;18) translocation at low frequency in the B cells of a substantial proportion of healthy individuals. (bloodjournal.org)
  • We have recently developed a novel Immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangement (IgH-R) assay that combines polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and analysis in the same closed capillary tube using the LightCycler System. (elsevier.com)
  • The earliest tools used deep sequencing of the immunoglobulin heavy or light chains, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the variable region, followed by MiSeq-based sequencing of the resultant amplicon. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the remaining common 3′-VH regions, these mutations could be used to establish a phylogenetic relation between the sequences, rendering the possibility of artefactual chimaeric polymerase chain reaction products very unlikely. (bmj.com)
  • Tumor-related immunoglobulin heavy-chain (IgH) rearrangements are markers for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of minimal residual disease (MRD) in B-cell malignancies. (ashpublications.org)
  • In B-cell malignancies, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays have been established that use tumor-specific immunoglobulin heavy-chain (IgH) or T-cell receptor rearrangements as markers of disease. (ashpublications.org)
  • The immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) is the large polypeptide subunit of an antibody (immunoglobulin). (wikipedia.org)
  • A typical antibody is composed of two immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chains and two Ig light chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several different types of heavy chain exist that define the class or isotype of an antibody. (wikipedia.org)
  • This heavy chain, identified in both rainbow trout (τ) and zebrafish (ζ), could potentially form a distinct antibody isotype (IgT or IgZ) that may precede IgM in evolutionary terms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The latter type is a heavy-chain antibody, an antibody lacking light chains, and can be used to produce single-domain antibodies, which are essentially the variable domain (VNAR) of an IgNAR. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subject matter involving an immunoglobulin or antibody fragment. (patentgenius.com)
  • The role of the immunoglobulin heavy chain in human anti‐dna antibody " by Ahmoud Mahmoudi, Gregory A. Denomme et al. (uwo.ca)
  • In contrast, the VH chain was completely different from the VH chain of the parent but was similar or identical, except in the diversity (D) and joining regions, to the VH chain of the systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) IgG anti‐DNA antibody T14 and SLE IgM nephritogenic anti‐DNA antibodies NE‐1 and NE‐13. (uwo.ca)
  • The VH chain and its D region play a key role in conferring DNA binding of the KIM4.6 anti‐DNA antibody. (uwo.ca)
  • Analysis of the structural correlates for antibody polyreactivity by multiple reassortments of chimeric human immunoglobulin heavy and light chain V segments. (rupress.org)
  • We analyzed the contribution of Ig polyvalency and of heavy (H) and light (L) chain variable (V) regions to polyreactivity in recombinatorial experiments involving the VH-diversity(D)-JH and V kappa-J kappa gene segments of a human polyreactive IgM, monoclonal antibody 55 (mAb55), and those of a human monoreactive anti-insulin IgG, mAb13, in an in vitro C gamma l and C kappa human expression system. (rupress.org)
  • B-cell depletion by anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody leads to a significant modulation of the expressed immunoglobulin-VH gene repertoire after B-cell regeneration, which is accompanied with a clinical benefit in a single patient. (biomedcentral.com)
  • B27 dimer binding to LILRB5 was blocked with the class I heavy chain antibody HC10 and anti-LILRB5 antisera. (ox.ac.uk)
  • To build the variable, antigen binding region of an antibody molecule, two (V and J) or three (V, D, and J) different gene segments are joined to produce light or heavy chains, respectively. (bmj.com)
  • Effect of anti-γ chain and anti-µ chain on secondary antibody response of rabbit spleen cells was studied in vitro . (jimmunol.org)
  • Spleen cells from rabbits primed with dinitrophenylbovine γ globulin (DNP-BGG) were stimulated in vitro with the antigen either in the presence or absence of anti-heavy chain antibody. (jimmunol.org)
  • It was found that anti-γ chain suppressed both IgG and IgM antibody response, while anti-µ chain suppressed only IgM antibody response. (jimmunol.org)
  • The treatment with anti-heavy chains did not inhibit secretion of antibodies from antibody producing cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • It appears that anti-heavy chain suppressed differentiation of precursor cells to antibody-producing cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Here we developed a two-dimensional bar-coded primer matrix to combine Igh and Igk/Igl chain gene single-cell PCR with next-generation sequencing for the parallel analysis of the antibody repertoire of over 46 000 individual B cells. (mpg.de)
  • The raw data sets consisted of sequences of antibody heavy chain-encoding transcripts of six allergic subjects (European Nucleotide Archive accession number PRJEB18926), and paired antibody heavy and light chain variable region-encoding transcripts of memory B cells of three subjects (European Nucleotide Archive accession numbers SRX709625, SRX709626, and SRX709627). (scilifelab.se)
  • Plant cells can assemble antibody chains with high efficiency and vacuolar transport occurs only after the assembled immunoglobulins have traveled through the Golgi complex. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Sharks also possess, as part of their adaptive immune systems, a functional heavy-chain homodimeric antibody-like molecule referred to as IgNAR (immunoglobulin new antigen receptor). (wikipedia.org)
  • Only one type of light chain is present in a typical antibody, thus the two light chains of an individual antibody are identical. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunoglobulins, also known as antibodies, are membrane-bound or secreted glycoproteins produced by B lymphocytes. (rcsb.org)
  • Cows, specifically Bos taurus, show a variation on the general mammalian theme in which the heavy chain CDR H3 region has adapted to produce a divergent repertoire of antibodies which present a "stalk and knob" antigen interaction surface instead of the more familiar bivalent tip surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • The resulting antibodies are designated IgW (also called IgX or IgNARC) and IgNAR (immunoglobulin new antigen receptor). (wikipedia.org)
  • The most significant changes were observed in the first 10 years of life, and were characterized by altered immunoglobulin gene usage and an increased frequency of mutated antibodies structurally diverging from their germline precursors. (frontiersin.org)
  • The Hevylite reagents, which are made up of polyclonal antibodies, recognise the epitopes which are only found at the whole immunoglobulin heavy and light chain junction. (eurofins-biomnis.com)
  • These antibodies allow us to quantify the immunoglobulin pairs (IgG kappa/IgG lambda, IgA kappa/IgA lambda, IgM kappa/IgM lambda) by using nephelometry or turbidimetry and a ratio calculation between the monoclonal component and the residual immunoglobulins of the same class. (eurofins-biomnis.com)
  • Antibodies, also referred to as immunoglobulins (Ig) or B cell antigen receptors (BCRs), are produced by the paired expression of a "heavy chain" (IgH) immunoglobulin gene and a "light chain" (IgL) immunoglobulin gene. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Several methods have been developed to analyze Immunoglobulin (Ig) chains of single B or plasma cells 1-4 , but it is usually not known which particular cell secretes disease-relevant expanded antibodies and which cell produces irrelevant Ig chains. (researchsquare.com)
  • The anti-basement membrane zone (anti-BMZ) antibodies of patients with bullous pemphigoid showed a predominance of κ light chains, and patients with linear IgA bullous dermatosis showed a predominance of one light chain that was sometimes κ and sometimes λ. (elsevier.com)
  • In a healthy individual, the total kappa-to-lambda ratio is roughly 2:1 in serum (measuring intact whole antibodies) or 1:1.5 if measuring free light chains, with a highly divergent ratio indicative of neoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Camelids are unique among mammals as they also have fully functional antibodies which have two heavy chains, but lack the light chains usually paired with each heavy chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • IgNAR is believed to have never had an associated light chain, contrary to the understanding that the heavy-chain-only antibodies in camelids may have lost its light chain partner through evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1. Distinguishing between broadly migrating monoclonal proteins and restricted polyclonal immunoglobulin patterns on serum protein electrophoresis. (labcorp.com)
  • Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) is an uncommon B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by bone marrow lymphoplasmacytic infiltration and by the presence of a monoclonal IgM immunoglobulin in the serum [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • A rapid diagnostic tool for a heavy chain disease (4): up until now, the proof of this low-frequency monoclonal gammopathy could only be determined through the use of a time-consuming manual technique known as immunoselection. (eurofins-biomnis.com)
  • Stereotyped BCRs are strikingly similar BCRs, often arising from the use of common H and L chain V region gene segments that share CDR3 structural features (length, amino acid composition, and unique amino acid residues at recombination junctions). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The heavy-chain switch from immunoglobulin M (IgM) expression to IgA expression is mediated by a recombination event between segments of DNA called switch regions. (asm.org)
  • This recombination has resulted in the loss of 5'-proximal DNA and, consequently, potential regulatory information from the body of the c-myc structural gene via joining to the epsilon heavy-chain switch region in a head-to-head, i.e., 5'-to-5', configuration. (asm.org)
  • These findings formally exclude both unequal sister chromatid exchange and recombination between homologues as mechanisms for creating a gene encoding the gamma 2b chain. (uab.edu)
  • Immunoglobulin (Ig) class-switch DNA recombination (CSR) is thought to be highly dependent upon engagement of CD40 on B cells by CD40 ligand on T cells. (nih.gov)
  • Translocation of the bcl-2 gene to the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene is the most common alteration in follicular lymphoma. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Publications] Ueda, Y. 他: 'Tumor‐specific rearrangements of the immunoglobulin heary‐chain gene in B‐cell Non‐Hodgkin′s lymphoma detected by in situ hybridization' Blood. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Significant association between TNFAIP3 inactivation and biased immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region 4-34 usage in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. (cam.ac.uk)
  • If, however, one type of light chain is significantly more common than the other, the cells are likely all derived from a small clonal population, which may indicate a malignant condition, such as B-cell lymphoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is important to note that, in contrast to increased levels in lymphoma patients, these Ig light chains are polyclonal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pre-B lymphocytes can synthesize heavy chain in the absence of light chain, which then can allow the heavy chain to bind to a heavy-chain binding protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Depleted immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein (BiP) expands the endoplasmic reticulum and the golgi apparatus in dengue virus-infected cells. (who.int)
  • Objective: To test whether depleted expression of immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein (BiP), which is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone, in dengue virus (DENV)-infected cells, affected integrities of the ER and the Golgi apparatus of the host cells. (who.int)
  • abstract = "Cells of the MPC 11 mouse myeloma cell line, which produces an IgG(2b) immunoglobulin, were subjected to mutagenesis with Melphalan or with ICR 191, after which they were cloned in soft agar. (elsevier.com)
  • abstract = "To assess the heterogeneity of immunoglobulins involved in various skin diseases, direct and indirect immunofluorescence studies of skin biopsies and sera, respectively, for κ and λ light chains, were performed. (elsevier.com)
  • For the quantitative measurement of human IgG heavy chain and light chain intact immunoglobulin in serum. (labcorp.com)
  • The Leukocyte Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor Family Member LILRB5 Binds to HLA-Class I Heavy Chains. (ox.ac.uk)
  • OBJECTIVE: The leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor (LILR) family includes inhibitory and stimulatory members which bind to classical and non-classical HLA-class I. The ligands for many LILR including LILRB5 have not yet been identified. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Ordered rearrangement of immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region segments. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Similar to the situation observed for bony fish, three distinct Ig heavy chain isotypes have been identified in cartilaginous fish. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the exception of μ, these Ig heavy chain isotypes appear to be unique to cartilaginous fish. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although other explanations are possible, the light chain restriction in bullous pemphigoid most likely reflects heavy chain restriction and preferential association of heavy and light chain isotypes. (elsevier.com)
  • Flotte, TJ & Baird, LG 1986, ' Immunoglobulin light and heavy chain isotypes in skin diseases: Restricted distribution in bullous pemphigoid and linear IgA bullous dermatosis ', Journal of Immunology , vol. 136, no. 2, pp. 491-496. (elsevier.com)
  • Nuclear factor κB binding sites were shown to be primarily responsible for the positive activity contributed by the HS1,2 and HS4 regions, and we observed the in vivo interaction of these factors with the human immunoglobulin heavy chain gene enhancer regions in t(14;18) cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These results suggest that the interactions of the nuclear factor κB and Sp1 transcription factors with the immunoglobulin heavy chain enhancer region are important for bcl-2 deregulation in t(14;18) cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Putative Maf recognition elements (MAREs) are found in the 3′ enhancer region of the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) gene. (embopress.org)
  • One of the most conserved intron regions between rat and mouse is that spanning the Ig heavy chain enhancer (91% homology). (ox.ac.uk)
  • The MAR sequences residing 5' of the enhancer contain topoisomerase II consensus sequences like the MAR located upstream of the kappa light chain gene enhancer. (elsevier.com)
  • We then statistically analyzed differences in presentation pattern, in terms of tumor histology, immunoglobulin isotype, AGS location and amino acid composition. (cun.es)
  • The intracellular fates of membrane and secretory immunoglobulin heavy chains were examined in a pre-B cell line that has switched to the gamma isotype. (rupress.org)
  • The rate of germ-line RNA transcription correlates with the rate of immunoglobulin heavy chain isotype switching. (elsevier.com)
  • The data indicate that the capacity of a ligand to induce/suppress transcription of a particular unrearranged heavy chain gene is a good indicator of its capacity to induce switching to the corresponding Ig isotype. (umassmed.edu)
  • Immature B cells bearing non-productive rearrangements of either chain can be rescued by new rearrangements on the other allele or, in the case of the light chains, by switching to the other isotype. (bmj.com)
  • In the recognition phase of humoral immunity, the membrane-bound immunoglobulins serve as receptors which, upon binding of a specific antigen, trigger the clonal expansion and differentiation of B lymphocytes into immunoglobulins-secreting plasma cells. (rcsb.org)
  • To exclude coexisting lymphocytes, each cell line was shown to be EBV negative, with CD19/CD20 and cytoplasmic/surface immunoglobulin also absent by flow cytometry. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These findings are unexpected, given that immunoglobulin gene expression normally associates with lineage fidelity in B lymphocytes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • B lymphocytes may switch from producing an immunoglobulin heavy chain of the mu class to that of the gamma, epsilon or alpha class. (uab.edu)
  • In this report, we describe a bioinformatic analysis of germline and rearranged immunoglobulin gene sequences which casts doubt on the existence of a substantial proportion of reported germline polymorphisms. (nih.gov)
  • The analysis also highlights the presence of common mismatches, with respect to the germline, in many rearranged heavy-chain sequences, suggesting the existence of twelve previously unreported alleles. (nih.gov)
  • The amino acid sequence of fragments obtained by cyanogen bromide cleavage of the mu-chain of a human γM-globulin is homologous to the NH 2 -terminal sequences of the gamma-chain of human and rabbit γG-globulins and is related to that of human light chains. (sciencemag.org)
  • Here we describe a bioinformatic pipeline, BALDR ( B CR A ssignment of L ineage using D e novo R econstruction) that accurately reconstructs the paired heavy and light chain immunoglobulin gene sequences from Illumina single-cell RNA-seq data. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Since this rarely yields full sequence coverage, we reveal the complete sequences by alignment of the peptides to the immunoglobulin transcriptome of the same patient. (researchsquare.com)
  • Induction of germ-line immunoglobulin heavy chain transcripts by mitog" by E. Severinson, C. Fernandez et al. (umassmed.edu)
  • Structure of germ line immunoglobulin alpha heavy-chain RNA and its lo" by G. Radcliffe, Y. C. Lin et al. (umassmed.edu)
  • It is the most abundant immunoglobulin and is approximately equally distributed in blood and in tissue liquids, constituting 75% of serum immunoglobulins in humans. (vitalcoaching.com)
  • Many human immunoglobulin heavy-chain IGHV gene polymorphisms have been reported in error. (nih.gov)
  • The immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable (IGHV) gene repertoire is generally considered to be highly polymorphic. (nih.gov)
  • We have previously shown that chronic lymphocytic leukemia in Japan rarely expresses the immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region (IGHV) 1-69 gene (1 out of 43 patients, 2.3%), which is a gene most commonly expressed in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cases from western countries. (cdc.gov)
  • The light chain restriction in linear IgA bullous dermatosis may represent a restricted idiotypic repertoire. (elsevier.com)
  • Even though recognition of certain antigenic epitopes may be critically dependent on conformations achieved by the interaction of both the IG heavy chain (HC) and light chain (LC) proteins, the focus to date has been on the IG HC gene, with studies on CLL IG LCs lagging behind. (linkos.cz)
  • These observations suggest that membrane and secretory heavy chain proteins are retained by distinct intracellular mechanisms. (rupress.org)
  • We have assessed the ability of the plant secretory pathway to handle the expression of complex heterologous proteins by investigating the fate of a hybrid immunoglobulin A/G in tobacco cells. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Ig light chains produced in neoplastic plasma cells, such as in multiple myeloma, are called Bence Jones proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • An IgD molecule contains thus a delta heavy chain combined with either a kappa or a lambda light chains. (rcsb.org)
  • Kappa light chains are found predominantly on the membrane IgD (mIgD) form and lambda on the secreted IgD (sIgD) form, this fact is poorly understood. (rcsb.org)
  • Structural and functional data indicate that the IGH plays a more important role than immunoglobulin kappa (IGK) or lambda (IGL) light chain in the recognition mechanism of the IG. (springer.com)
  • The noncovalent interaction between the VH fragments and autologous kappa-chains was studied by ultraviolet difference spectroscopy and circular dichroism. (jimmunol.org)
  • In contrast to the studies with autologous species, the VH fragments did not associate with heterologous kappa-chains as judged both by difference spectroscopy and gel filtration using radiolabeled VH fragments. (jimmunol.org)
  • Second, we coexpressed the mAb55-derived H or kappa chain with the mAb13-derived kappa or H chain, respectively. (rupress.org)
  • The hybrid IgG Ab bearing the mAb55-derived H chain V segment paired with the mAb13-derived kappa V segment, but not that bearing the mAb13-derived H chain V segment paired with the mAb55-derived kappa V segment, bound multiple Ags, suggesting that the Ig H chain plays a major role in the Ig polyreactivity. (rupress.org)
  • Third, we shuffled the framework 1 (FR1)-FR3 and complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3) regions of the H and kappa chain V segments of the mAB55-derived IgG molecule with the corresponding regions of the monoreactive IgG mAb13. (rupress.org)
  • The polyreactivity of this chimeric IgG was maximized by grafting of the mAb55-derived kappa chain FR1-FR3, but not that of the kappa chain CDR3. (rupress.org)
  • The exact normal ratio of kappa to lambda, according to a novel polyclonal free light chain assay, ranges from 0.26 to 1.65. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both the kappa and the lambda chains can increase proportionately, maintaining a normal ratio. (wikipedia.org)
  • The constant region determines what class (kappa or lambda) the light chain is. (wikipedia.org)
  • Individual B-cells in lymphoid tissue possess either kappa or lambda light chains, but never both together. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using immunohistochemistry, it is possible to determine the relative abundance of B-cells expressing kappa and lambda light chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spectral precision distance microscopy was utilized to detect small but nonetheless consistently present conformational differences between the immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene clusters (IgH) that reside on the two chromosome 12 homologues in all diploid cells of the mouse. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Bright/ARID3A is a nuclear matrix-associated transcription factor that stimulates immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) expression and Cyclin E1/E2F-dependent cell cycle progression. (utexas.edu)
  • A promoter element for the transcription of RNA from the germ-line mouse immunoglobulin ε heavy chain constant region gene is induced by interleukin(IL)-4 and lipopolysaccharide, and is bound at its transcription initiation sites by an IL-4-inducible nuclear protein, NF-BRE. (elsevier.com)
  • 2 Total IgG nephelometric assays will include nontumor immunoglobulin, and measurement of either IgG κ or IgG λ may give a more accurate representation of tumor production. (labcorp.com)
  • Among B-cell malignancies, follicular lymphomas (FL) more frequently show acquired, potential N-glycosylation sites (AGS) within tumor-specific immunoglobulin. (cun.es)
  • We sequenced the tumor-specific immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region fragment, including complementarity-determining regions 2 and 3, of forty-seven consecutive patients with a B-cell malignancy enrolled in idiotype vaccine clinical trials. (cun.es)
  • In our series, all cases of FL had AGS within their tumor-specific immunoglobulin heavy chain variable regions. (cun.es)
  • Of interest in this regard, two studies of epithelial breast cancer reported that IgG can be identified in tumor cells directly based on assays specific for the heavy chain constant region ( 1 , 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The amino acid sequence of the µ, chain of a human IgM immunoglobulin, including the location of all disulfide bridges and oligosaccharides, has been determined. (sciencemag.org)
  • Noncovalent association of heavy and light chains of human immunoglobulins. (jimmunol.org)
  • The heavy chain gene is located at 14q32.3 and the germline organization of the part of the gene that encodes for the variable region of IgH is shown at the top of Figure 20.6. (europeanmedical.info)
  • A chromosomal segment with a unique structure around the immunoglobulin heavy chain joining region (JH) has been molecularly cloned from an Abelson murine leukemia virus-transformed cell line. (pnas.org)
  • International guidelines recommend serum protein electrophoresis or nephelometric immunoglobulin quantification as tools to monitor patients' disease 1 (alongside other tests including flow cytometry and serum free light chain analysis). (labcorp.com)
  • Hello, I invite you to consult the site www.biomnis.com, on page Quantification of immunoglobulin heavy and light chain pairs https://www.eurofins-biomnis.com/en/biomnis-live/light-on/quantification-of-immunoglobulin-heavy-and-light-chain-pairs/ Best regards. (eurofins-biomnis.com)
  • Thus, each immunoglobulin has two antigen binding sites with remarkable affinity for a particular antigen. (rcsb.org)
  • Rearrangement of immunoglobulin gene segments, leading to B cells with functional receptors, is thought to be largely restricted to developing immature B cells in bone marrow. (bmj.com)
  • The antigen binding site is formed by the variable domain of one heavy chain, together with that of its associated light chain. (rcsb.org)
  • All heavy chains contain a series of immunoglobulin domains, usually with one variable domain (VH) that is important for binding antigen and several constant domains (CH1, CH2, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • a variable region that differs between different B cells, but is the same for all immunoglobulins produced by the same B cell or B cell clone. (wikipedia.org)
  • The variable domain of any heavy chain is composed of a single immunoglobulin domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • To extend these findings, we focused on immunoglobulin variable ( V ) region gene analysis using well-defined breast cancer cell lines expressing the epithelial marker, epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this issue of Clinical Cancer Research Bomben and colleagues ( 1 ) investigate the role of immunoglobulin heavy chain variable 3-23 ( IGHV3-23 ) gene usage in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The CDR1 and CDR2 regions encode two out of the three parts of the variable region that determine the antigenic specificity of the heavy-chain V region. (europeanmedical.info)
  • the variable areas of immunoglobulin (Ig) genetics from adjustable (Sixth is v), variety (D), and becoming a member of (M) gene sections during N cell advancement. (capecodmushroom.org)
  • In the case showing a follicular pattern, the extrafollicular CCL cells and most of the cells within the mucosal follicles expressed alpha 1 heavy chain, but a minor and variable population of cells expressed polytypic IgM. (nih.gov)
  • Each light chain is composed of two tandem immunoglobulin domains: one constant (CL) domain one variable domain (VL) that is important for binding antigen The approximate length of a light chain protein is from 211 to 217 amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mAb55-derived IgG molecule lost polyreactivity when the H chain CDR3, but not the FR1-FR3 region, was replaced by the corresponding region of mAb13, suggesting that within the H chain, the CDR3 provides the major structural correlate for multiple Ag-binding. (rupress.org)
  • This was formally proved by the multiple Ag-binding of the originally monoreactive mAb13-derived IgG molecule grafted with the mAb55-derived H chain CDR3. (rupress.org)
  • Immunoglobulin (IG) gene usage and somatic mutation patterns were studied in a series of 43 SMZL cases. (springer.com)
  • Once set, light chain class remains fixed for the life of the B lymphocyte. (wikipedia.org)
  • After a successful heavy-chain VDJ has been made, a B cell must express the heavy chain with the surrogate light chain composed of V-pre-B and X5 if further differentiation is to occur. (europeanmedical.info)
  • An elevated IgG heavy and light chain (HLC) pair ratio suggests a clonal proliferation of an IgG κ clone of plasma cells. (labcorp.com)
  • Mammalian B-cell lymphoid malignancies frequently display aberrant translocations involving the c-myc proto-oncogene and one of the immunoglobulin loci. (asm.org)
  • As discussed in this report, these results, together with the previous results of others, have important implications for immunoglobulin heavy-chain class switching mechanisms controlling normal and abnormal translocations. (asm.org)
  • Although most of the immunoglobulin-synthesizing cells produce either μ or γ(2B) heavy chains, a few cells contain both heavy chains, suggesting immunoglobulin class switching. (uab.edu)
  • We show here for the first time that a c-myc gene has recombined with the excluded allele of the nonfunctional epsilon heavy-chain immunoglobulin gene. (asm.org)
  • Each heavy chain has two regions: a constant region (which is the same for all immunoglobulins of the same class but differs between classes). (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulation of the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene is controlled in part by four DNase I-hypersensitive regions located 3′ of the gene. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Building on the finding that stereotyped BCRs with highly homologous heavy complementary determining region 3 (HCDR3) regions are absent in CLL cases using the IGHV3-23 gene, the group characterized this subgroup of CLL and reports that IGHV3-23 gene usage may have prognostic value independent of mutational status. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Mutations, duplication, and deletion of recombined switch regions suggest a role for DNA replication in the immunoglobulin heavy-chain switch. (asm.org)
  • We have observed and characterized such a translocation in the immunoglobulin E-producing rat immunocytoma IR162 by using recombinant DNA technology. (asm.org)
  • Upon antigen recognition, immunoglobulin heavy (IgH) and light chains of a BCR are further diversified through rounds of somatic hypermutation (SHM) leading to affinity maturation whereby B cells with improved antigen-binding properties are selected in the germinal center. (frontiersin.org)
  • parallel heavy/light chain analysis demonstrated a comparable impact of somatic hypermutation. (haematologica.org)
  • Electrochemical microfluidics techniques for heavy metal ion detection. (semanticscholar.org)
  • H. Ludwig, D. Milosavljevic, N. Zojer, J.M. Faint, A.R. Bradwell, W. Hübl, S.J. Harding Immunoglobulin heavy/light chain ratios improve paraprotein detection and monitoring, identify residual disease and correlate with survival in multiple myeloma patients . (eurofins-biomnis.com)
  • We report the occurrence of immunoglobulin heavy and light chain gene rearrangement at the stage of large B cell precursors. (nih.gov)
  • Characterization of immunoglobulin heavy and light chain gene expression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and related disorders. (cdc.gov)
  • In the current study, we extended the previous study by examining immunoglobulin heavy chain and light chain gene expression in 80 Japanese patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and in 52 Japanese patients with other leukemic chronic lymphoproliferative disorders. (cdc.gov)
  • Distinct intracellular fates of membrane and secretory immunoglobulin heavy chains in a pre-B cell line. (rupress.org)
  • The membrane form of the heavy chain (gamma m) was rapidly degraded while the secretory form (gamma s) was retained intracellularly in association with BiP. (rupress.org)
  • We also show that unassembled light chains are efficiently secreted as monomers by the plant secretory pathway. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Heavy and light chain (HLC) quantitation should be used as a complementary method to serum protein electrophoresis. (labcorp.com)
  • A protein complex that consists of two heavy chains (gamma, alpha, delta, epsilon or mu). (semanticscholar.org)
  • DNA encoding the rat diversity segment (D), joining segment (JH), and constant (C) region mu, gamma 2a, gamma 1, gamma 2b, epsilon and alpha of the Ig heavy chain has been isolated from a cosmid library. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The clones examined produce either mu, gamma 2b or no immunoglobulin chain. (uab.edu)