Genes, Immunoglobulin: Genes encoding the different subunits of the IMMUNOGLOBULINS, for example the IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN GENES and the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES. The heavy and light immunoglobulin genes are present as gene segments in the germline cells. The completed genes are created when the segments are shuffled and assembled (B-LYMPHOCYTE GENE REARRANGEMENT) during B-LYMPHOCYTE maturation. The gene segments of the human light and heavy chain germline genes are symbolized V (variable), J (joining) and C (constant). The heavy chain germline genes have an additional segment D (diversity).Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains: The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.Immunoglobulin Light Chains: Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.Immunoglobulin kappa-Chains: One of the types of light chains of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.Immunoglobulin Variable Region: That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.Immunoglobulins, Intravenous: Immunoglobulin preparations used in intravenous infusion, containing primarily IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. They are used to treat a variety of diseases associated with decreased or abnormal immunoglobulin levels including pediatric AIDS; primary HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA; SCID; CYTOMEGALOVIRUS infections in transplant recipients, LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC; Kawasaki syndrome, infection in neonates, and IDIOPATHIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Immunoglobulin mu-Chains: The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN M. They have a molecular weight of approximately 72 kDa and they contain about 57 amino acid residues arranged in five domains and have more oligosaccharide branches and a higher carbohydrate content than the heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.Immunoglobulin lambda-Chains: One of the types of light chain subunits of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.Somatic Hypermutation, Immunoglobulin: A programmed mutation process whereby changes are introduced to the nucleotide sequence of immunoglobulin gene DNA during development.Immunoglobulin Constant Regions: The domains of the immunoglobulin molecules that are invariable in their amino acid sequence within any class or subclass of immunoglobulin. They confer biological as well as structural functions to immunoglobulins. One each on both the light chains and the heavy chains comprises the C-terminus half of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN FAB FRAGMENT and two or three of them make up the rest of the heavy chains (all of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN FC FRAGMENT)Immunoglobulin J-Chains: A 15 kD "joining" peptide that forms one of the linkages between monomers of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A or IMMUNOGLOBULIN M in the formation of polymeric immunoglobulins. There is one J chain per one IgA dimer or one IgM pentamer. It is also involved in binding the polymeric immunoglobulins to POLYMERIC IMMUNOGLOBULIN RECEPTOR which is necessary for their transcytosis to the lumen. It is distinguished from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN JOINING REGION which is part of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of the immunoglobulin light and heavy chains.Gene Rearrangement, B-Lymphocyte: Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions coding for the IMMUNOGLOBULIN CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.Immunoglobulin gamma-Chains: Heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G having a molecular weight of approximately 51 kDa. They contain about 450 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component covalently bound to the Fc fragment constant region. The gamma heavy chain subclasses (for example, gamma 1, gamma 2a, and gamma 2b) of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G isotype subclasses (IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B) resemble each other more closely than the heavy chains of the other IMMUNOGLOBULIN ISOTYPES.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Immunoglobulin A, Secretory: The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).Immunoglobulin Joining Region: A segment of the immunoglobulin heavy chains, encoded by the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES in the J segment where, during the maturation of B-LYMPHOCYTES; the gene segment for the variable region upstream is joined to a constant region gene segment downstream. The exact position of joining of the two gene segments is variable and contributes to ANTIBODY DIVERSITY. It is distinguished from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN J CHAINS; a separate polypeptide that serves as a linkage piece in polymeric IGA or IGM.Plasmacytoma: Any discrete, presumably solitary, mass of neoplastic PLASMA CELLS either in BONE MARROW or various extramedullary sites.Immunoglobulin Isotypes: The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.Gene Rearrangement: The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.Immunoglobulin Class Switching: Gene rearrangement of the B-lymphocyte which results in a substitution in the type of heavy-chain constant region that is expressed. This allows the effector response to change while the antigen binding specificity (variable region) remains the same. The majority of class switching occurs by a DNA recombination event but it also can take place at the level of RNA processing.Immunoglobulin D: An immunoglobulin which accounts for less than 1% of plasma immunoglobulin. It is found on the membrane of many circulating B LYMPHOCYTES.Gene Rearrangement, B-Lymphocyte, Heavy Chain: Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the first stage of differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Antibody Diversity: The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.Immunoglobulin Fragments: Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments: Crystallizable fragments composed of the carboxy-terminal halves of both IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fc fragments contain the carboxy-terminal parts of the heavy chain constant regions that are responsible for the effector functions of an immunoglobulin (COMPLEMENT fixation, binding to the cell membrane via FC RECEPTORS, and placental transport). This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments: Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Cytidine Deaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of cytidine, forming uridine. EC 220.127.116.11.Myeloma Proteins: Abnormal immunoglobulins characteristic of MULTIPLE MYELOMA.Genes, Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain: Genes and gene segments encoding the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS. Gene segments of the heavy chain genes are symbolized V (variable), D (diversity), J (joining), and C (constant).Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Gene Rearrangement, B-Lymphocyte, Light Chain: Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions coding for the kappa or lambda IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the second stage of differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.Octamer Transcription Factor-2: An octamer transcription factor expressed primarily in B-LYMPHOCYTES and the developing CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES.Immunoglobulin alpha-Chains: The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN A. They have a molecular weight of approximately 58 kDa and contain about 470 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component bound covalently to their Fc fragment constant region.Immunoglobulin Allotypes: Allelic variants of the immunoglobulin light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) or heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) encoded by ALLELES of IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Receptors, Polymeric Immunoglobulin: Specialized Fc receptors (RECEPTORS, FC) for polymeric immunoglobulins, which mediate transcytosis of polymeric IMMUNOGLOBULIN A and IMMUNOGLOBULIN M into external secretions. They are found on the surfaces of epithelial cells and hepatocytes. After binding to IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, the receptor-ligand complex undergoes endocytosis, transport by vesicle, and secretion into the lumen by exocytosis. Before release, the part of the receptor (SECRETORY COMPONENT) that is bound to IMMUNOGLOBULIN A is proteolytically cleaved from its transmembrane tail. (From Rosen et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Genes, Immunoglobulin Light Chain: Genes and gene segments encoding the IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS. Gene segments of the light chain genes are designated as V (variable), J (joining), and C (constant).Immunoglobulin Switch Region: A site located in the INTRONS at the 5' end of each constant region segment of a immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene where recombination (or rearrangement) occur during IMMUNOGLOBULIN CLASS SWITCHING. Ig switch regions are found on genes encoding all five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN ISOTYPES) of IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunoglobulin Gm Allotypes: Allelic variants of the gamma-immunoglobulin heavy chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN GAMMA-CHAINS) encoded by ALLELES of IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Bursa of Fabricius: An epithelial outgrowth of the cloaca in birds similar to the thymus in mammals. It atrophies within 6 months after birth and remains as a fibrous remnant in adult birds. It is composed of lymphoid tissue and prior to involution, is the site of B-lymphocyte maturation.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Gene Conversion: The asymmetrical segregation of genes during replication which leads to the production of non-reciprocal recombinant strands and the apparent conversion of one allele into another. Thus, e.g., the meiotic products of an Aa individual may be AAAa or aaaA instead of AAaa, i.e., the A allele has been converted into the a allele or vice versa.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Burkitt Lymphoma: A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.Lymphoma, B-Cell: A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors generally expressing one or more B-cell antigens or representing malignant transformations of B-lymphocytes.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Immunoglobulin delta-Chains: The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN D. They have a molecular weight of approximately 64 kDa and they contain about 500 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component covalently bound to the Fc fragment constant region.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Mice, Inbred BALB CImmunoglobulin Idiotypes: Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.Translocation, Genetic: A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Enhancer Elements, Genetic: Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.gamma-Globulins: Serum globulins that migrate to the gamma region (most positively charged) upon ELECTROPHORESIS. At one time, gamma-globulins came to be used as a synonym for immunoglobulins since most immunoglobulins are gamma globulins and conversely most gamma globulins are immunoglobulins. But since some immunoglobulins exhibit an alpha or beta electrophoretic mobility, that usage is in decline.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Complementarity Determining Regions: Three regions (CDR1; CDR2 and CDR3) of amino acid sequence in the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION that are highly divergent. Together the CDRs from the light and heavy immunoglobulin chains form a surface that is complementary to the antigen. These regions are also present in other members of the immunoglobulin superfamily, for example, T-cell receptors (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL).Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.V(D)J Recombination: The process by which the V (variable), D (diversity), and J (joining) segments of IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES or T-CELL RECEPTOR GENES are assembled during the development of LYMPHOID CELLS using NONHOMOLOGOUS DNA END-JOINING.Secretory Component: The extracellular moiety of the POLYMERIC IMMUNOGLOBULIN RECEPTOR found alone or complexed with IGA or IGM, in a variety of external secretions (tears, bile, colostrum.) Secretory component is derived by proteolytic cleavage of the receptor during transcytosis. When immunoglobulins IgA and IgM are bound to the receptor, during their transcytosis secretory component becomes covalently attached to them generating SECRETORY IMMUNOGLOBULIN A or secretory IMMUNOGLOBULIN M.Plasma Cells: Specialized forms of antibody-producing B-LYMPHOCYTES. They synthesize and secrete immunoglobulin. They are found only in lymphoid organs and at sites of immune responses and normally do not circulate in the blood or lymph. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989, p169 & Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p20)Agammaglobulinemia: An immunologic deficiency state characterized by an extremely low level of generally all classes of gamma-globulin in the blood.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Multiple Myeloma: A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell: A chronic leukemia characterized by abnormal B-lymphocytes and often generalized lymphadenopathy. In patients presenting predominately with blood and bone marrow involvement it is called chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL); in those predominately with enlarged lymph nodes it is called small lymphocytic lymphoma. These terms represent spectrums of the same disease.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Germinal Center: The activated center of a lymphoid follicle in secondary lymphoid tissue where B-LYMPHOCYTES are stimulated by antigens and helper T cells (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER) are stimulated to generate memory cells.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Colostrum: The thin, yellow, serous fluid secreted by the mammary glands during pregnancy and immediately postpartum before lactation begins. It consists of immunologically active substances, white blood cells, water, protein, fat, and carbohydrates.VDJ Recombinases: Recombinases involved in the rearrangement of immunity-related GENES such as IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES and T-CELL RECEPTOR GENES.Receptors, Fc: Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Chromosomes, Human, 6-12 and X: The medium-sized, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group C in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 and the X chromosome.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Leukemia, Lymphoid: Leukemia associated with HYPERPLASIA of the lymphoid tissues and increased numbers of circulating malignant LYMPHOCYTES and lymphoblasts.Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Reed-Sternberg Cells: Large cells, usually multinucleate, whose presence is a common histologic characteristic of classical HODGKIN DISEASE.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 14: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Staphylococcal Protein A: A protein present in the cell wall of most Staphylococcus aureus strains. The protein selectively binds to the Fc region of human normal and myeloma-derived IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. It elicits antibody activity and may cause hypersensitivity reactions due to histamine release; has also been used as cell surface antigen marker and in the clinical assessment of B lymphocyte function.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.DNA Nucleotidylexotransferase: A non-template-directed DNA polymerase normally found in vertebrate thymus and bone marrow. It catalyzes the elongation of oligo- or polydeoxynucleotide chains and is widely used as a tool in the differential diagnosis of acute leukemias in man. EC 18.104.22.168.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Gene Rearrangement, T-Lymphocyte: Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the antigen receptors.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Uracil-DNA Glycosidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the HYDROLYSIS of the N-glycosidic bond between sugar phosphate backbone and URACIL residue during DNA synthesis.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Immunoglobulin epsilon-Chains: The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN E. They have a molecular weight of approximately 72 kDa and they contain about 550 amino acid residues arranged in five domains and about three times more carbohydrate than the heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; and IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.Mice, Inbred C57BLAntibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Deamination: The removal of an amino group (NH2) from a chemical compound.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Peyer's Patches: Lymphoid tissue on the mucosa of the small intestine.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Genetic Code: The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes: Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.IgA Deficiency: A dysgammaglobulinemia characterized by a deficiency of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Pokeweed Mitogens: Proteins isolated from the roots of the pokeweed, Phytolacca americana, that agglutinate some erythrocytes, stimulate mitosis and antibody synthesis in lymphocytes, and induce activation of plasma cells.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Hodgkin Disease: A malignant disease characterized by progressive enlargement of the lymph nodes, spleen, and general lymphoid tissue. In the classical variant, giant usually multinucleate Hodgkin's and REED-STERNBERG CELLS are present; in the nodular lymphocyte predominant variant, lymphocytic and histiocytic cells are seen.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Receptors, IgG: Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).Immunoglobulins, Thyroid-Stimulating: Autoantibodies that bind to the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor (RECEPTORS, THYROTROPIN) on thyroid epithelial cells. The autoantibodies mimic TSH causing an unregulated production of thyroid hormones characteristic of GRAVES DISEASE.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Hypergammaglobulinemia: An excess of GAMMA-GLOBULINS in the serum due to chronic infections or PARAPROTEINEMIAS.Dysgammaglobulinemia: An immunologic deficiency state characterized by selective deficiencies of one or more, but not all, classes of immunoglobulins.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)B-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of B-lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Immunoglobulin Km Allotypes: Allelic variants of the kappa light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN KAPPA-CHAINS) encoded by ALLELES of IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN GENES.Antibody-Producing Cells: Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.Bence Jones Protein: An abnormal protein with unusual thermosolubility characteristics that is found in the urine of patients with MULTIPLE MYELOMA.Pseudogenes: Genes bearing close resemblance to known genes at different loci, but rendered non-functional by additions or deletions in structure that prevent normal transcription or translation. When lacking introns and containing a poly-A segment near the downstream end (as a result of reverse copying from processed nuclear RNA into double-stranded DNA), they are called processed genes.Leukemia, Hairy Cell: A neoplastic disease of the lymphoreticular cells which is considered to be a rare type of chronic leukemia; it is characterized by an insidious onset, splenomegaly, anemia, granulocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, little or no lymphadenopathy, and the presence of "hairy" or "flagellated" cells in the blood and bone marrow.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Paraproteinemias: A group of related diseases characterized by an unbalanced or disproportionate proliferation of immunoglobulin-producing cells, usually from a single clone. These cells frequently secrete a structurally homogeneous immunoglobulin (M-component) and/or an abnormal immunoglobulin.Complement C3: A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.Saliva: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.Rheumatoid Factor: Antibodies found in adult RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS patients that are directed against GAMMA-CHAIN IMMUNOGLOBULINS.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.B-Cell-Specific Activator Protein: A transcription factor that is essential for CELL DIFFERENTIATION of B-LYMPHOCYTES. It functions both as a transcriptional activator and repressor to mediate B-cell commitment.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Oligonucleotide Probes: Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.Hybrid Cells: Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.Genes, MHC Class II: Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Oncogenes: Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.Abelson murine leukemia virus: A replication-defective strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) capable of transforming lymphoid cells and producing a rapidly progressing lymphoid leukemia after superinfection with FRIEND MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS; MOLONEY MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS; or RAUSCHER VIRUS.Paraproteins: Abnormal immunoglobulins synthesized by atypical cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM. Paraproteins containing only light chains lead to Bence Jones paraproteinemia, while the presence of only atypical heavy chains leads to heavy chain disease. Most of the paraproteins show themselves as an M-component (monoclonal gammopathy) in electrophoresis. Diclonal and polyclonal paraproteins are much less frequently encountered.Lymphoproliferative Disorders: Disorders characterized by proliferation of lymphoid tissue, general or unspecified.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Deoxyribonuclease BamHI: One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 22.214.171.124). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence G/GATCC at the slash. BamHI is from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens N. Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase: DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.Octamer Transcription Factor-1: A ubiquitously expressed octamer transcription factor that regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of SMALL NUCLEAR RNA; IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES; and HISTONE H2B genes.Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia: A lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by pleomorphic B-LYMPHOCYTES including PLASMA CELLS, with increased levels of monoclonal serum IMMUNOGLOBULIN M. There is lymphoplasmacytic cells infiltration into bone marrow and often other tissues, also known as lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma. Clinical features include ANEMIA; HEMORRHAGES; and hyperviscosity.Receptors, IgE: Specific molecular sites on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes which combine with IgEs. Two subclasses exist: low affinity receptors (Fc epsilon RII) and high affinity receptors (Fc epsilon RI).Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.IgG Deficiency: A dysgammaglobulinemia characterized by a deficiency of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Common Variable Immunodeficiency: Heterogeneous group of immunodeficiency syndromes characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia of most isotypes, variable B-cell defects, and the presence of recurrent bacterial infections.Opsonin Proteins: Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Host Cell Factor C1: A cellular transcriptional coactivator that was originally identified by its requirement for the stable assembly IMMEDIATE-EARLY PROTEINS of the HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS. It is a nuclear protein that is a transcriptional coactivator for a number of transcription factors including VP16 PROTEIN; GA-BINDING PROTEIN; EARLY GROWTH RESPONSE PROTEIN 2; and E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. It also interacts with and stabilizes HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS PROTEIN VMW65 and helps regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENES in HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
"Physical linkage of a human immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region gene segment to diversity and joining region elements". ... gene. IGHV is the immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region genes; in B-cell neoplasms like chronic lymphocytic leukemia, ... 1986). "Organization and sequences of the diversity, joining, and constant region genes of the human T-cell receptor beta chain ... "Structure and multiplicity of genes for the human immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77 ...
"A lymphocyte-specific cellular enhancer is located downstream of the joining region in immunoglobulin heavy chain genes". Cell ... Enhancers can also be found at the exonic region of an unrelated gene and they may act on genes on another chromosome. ... "Regulation of eukaryotic gene expression by the untranslated gene regions and other non-coding elements". Cellular and ... HACNS1 (also known as CENTG2 and located in the Human Accelerated Region 2) is a gene enhancer "that may have contributed to ...
The variable region of each immunoglobulin heavy or light chain is encoded in several pieces-known as gene segments (subgenes ... These gene segments are then joined together using random genetic recombination to produce the paratope. The regions where the ... Each heavy chain has two regions, the constant region and the variable region. The constant region is identical in all ... to the desired constant region (γ, α or ε). This process results in an immunoglobulin gene that encodes an antibody of a ...
Organization and expression of immunoglobulin genes
The light chain gene has three gene segments. These include: the light chain variable region (V), joining region (J), and ... Vk gene segments can join with either one of the Jk functional gene segments. The overall rearrangements result in a gene ... The segments joined due to signals generated RSSs that flank each V, D, and J segments. Only genes flank by 12 -bp that join to ... 1979). Cloned pairs of variable region genes for immunoglobulin heavy-chains isolated from a clone library of the entire mouse ...
... immunoglobulin genes: IGHJ1, IGHJ2, IGHJ3, IGHJ4, IGHJ5, IGHJ6 Symbols for constant region (C) immunoglobulin genes: Heavy ... the fused D-J exon of this partially rearranged D-J region is then joined to a V segment. The rearranged V-D-J region ... "Entrez Gene: IGH immunoglobulin heavy locus". "Gene Family: Immunoglobulin heavy locus at 14q32.33 (IGH)". HGNC: HUGO Gene ... "A VH gene is located within 95 Kb of the human immunoglobulin heavy chain constant region genes". Eur. J. Immunol. 18 (11): ...
For example, the human immunoglobulin heavy chain region contains 2 Constant (Cμ and Cδ) gene segments and 44 Variable (V) gene ... This process can involve either the joining of the Dβ1 gene segment to one of six Jβ1 segments or the joining of the Dβ2 gene ... The T cell receptor genes are similar to immunoglobulin genes in that they too contain multiple V, D and J gene segments in ... regions), which are encoded by genes on three loci: The immunoglobulin heavy locus ([email protected]) on chromosome 14, containing the gene ...
Immunoglobulin lambda locus, also known as [email protected], is a region on human chromosome 22 that contains genes for the lambda light ... immunoglobulin lambda constant 7 [email protected] - joining group IGLJn - immunoglobulin lambda joining n IGLJ1, IGLJ2, IGLJ3, IGLJ6, ... 1982). "Chromosomal location of human kappa and lambda immunoglobulin light chain constant region genes". J. Exp. Med. 155 (5 ... The immunoglobulin lambda locus contains the following genes: [email protected] - constant group IGLC1 - immunoglobulin lambda constant 1 ( ...
... or immunoglobulins). In humans the κ chain is coded for by V (variable), J (joining) and C (constant) genes in this region. ... The immunoglobulin kappa locus contains the following genes: IGKC: immunoglobulin kappa constant [email protected]: immunoglobulin kappa ... Immunoglobulin kappa locus, also known as [email protected], is a region on human chromosome 2 that contains genes for the kappa (κ) light ... These genes undergo V(D)J recombination to generate a diverse repertoire of immunoglobulins. ...
Immunoglobulin heavy constant alpha 1
... and showed the genes were contained in three exons, each of which encodes a single region of the protein domain. The genes ... a typical tertiary structure of the immunoglobulin fold class. The two beta sheets that comprise each beta-sandwich are joined ... Immunoglobulin heavy constant alpha 1 is a immunoglobulin gene with symbol IGHA1. It encodes a constant (C) segment of ... 1982). "Structure of human immunoglobulin gamma genes: implications for evolution of a gene family". Cell. 29 (2): 671-9. doi: ...
Each chain is composed of two extracellular domains: Variable (V) region and a Constant (C) region, both of Immunoglobulin ... both involving a somewhat random joining of gene segments to generate the complete TCR chain). Likewise, generation of the TCR ... Unlike immunoglobulins, however, TCR genes do not undergo somatic hypermutation, and T cells do not express Activation-Induced ... The Constant region is proximal to the cell membrane, followed by a transmembrane region and a short cytoplasmic tail, while ...
Non-homologous end joining
Komori T, Okada A, Stewart V, Alt FW (August 1993). "Lack of N regions in antigen receptor variable region genes of TdT- ... Schatz DG, Baltimore D (April 1988). "Stable expression of immunoglobulin gene V(D)J recombinase activity by gene transfer into ... ATM gene), Fanconi anemia (multiple genes), as well as hereditary breast and ovarian cancers (BRCA1 gene). Many NHEJ genes have ... regions, which when assembled together create the variable region of a B-cell or T-cell receptor gene. Unlike typical cellular ...
Chromosome 22 (human)
This region contains about 30 genes, but many of these genes have not been well characterized. A small percentage of affected ... IGLJ3 encoding protein Immunoglobulin lambda joining 3 LINC00899 encoding protein Long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 899 ... gpos: Region which is positively stained by G banding, generally AT-rich and gene poor; gneg: Region which is negatively ... A loss of this gene does not appear to cause learning disabilities, however. Other genes in the deleted region are also likely ...
... sample regions: Gimje, Naju and Jeju). Jung et al. said that in the neighbor joining tree the nodes for South West Korea were ... 2005). "Genetic features of Mongolian ethnic groups revealed by Y-chromosomal analysis". Gene. 346: 63-70. doi:10.1016/j.gene. ... 2009). The origin of the Japanese race based on genetic markers of immunoglobulin G. In Proceedings of the Japan Academy Series ... 2010). Gene Flow between the Korean Peninsula and Its Neighboring Countries. In PLOS ONE 5 (7). Pages 2, 3 & 4. Retrieved 31 ...
J. Donald Capra
Pascual, V.; Capra, J. D. (1991). "Human immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region genes: Organization, polymorphism, and ... Somatic recombination generates the essential arginine at the junction of the variable and joining regions". Proceedings of the ... "Receptor revision of immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region genes in normal human B lymphocytes". The Journal of ... "Nucleotide sequence analysis of the V regions of two IgM cold agglutinins. Evidence that the VH4-21 gene segment is responsible ...
Immunoglobulin lambda joining 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IGLJ3 gene. "Human PubMed Reference:". "Entrez ... "V-region and class specific RT-PCR amplification of human immunoglobulin heavy and light chain genes from B-cell lines". ... Gene: Immunoglobulin lambda joining 3". Paul E, Iliev AA, Livneh A, Diamond B (December 1992). "The anti-DNA-associated ... Combriato G, Klobeck HG (June 1991). "V lambda and J lambda-C lambda gene segments of the human immunoglobulin lambda light ...
Index of biochemistry articles
... immunoglobulin - immunoglobulin joining region - immunoglobulin variable region - immunologic receptor - immunology - In vivo ... gene - gene expression - gene pool - gene regulatory network - genetic carrier - genetic code - genetic drift - Genetic ... erbA gene - erbB gene - erbB-2 gene - erbB-2 receptor - erythropoietin - erythropoietin receptor - Essential amino acid - Ester ... mos gene - Mössbauer spectroscopy - MRI - MSH - mu opioid receptor - mu-chain immunoglobulin - mucin - Muller's ratchet - ...
Immunoglobulin class switching
... α or ε constant region gene segment. The free ends of the DNA are rejoined by a process called non-homologous end joining (NHEJ ... During class switching, the constant region of the immunoglobulin heavy chain changes but the variable regions, and therefore ... Immunoglobulin genes undergo legitimate repair in human B cells not only after cis- but also frequent trans-class switch ... In addition to the highly repetitive structure of the target S regions, the process of class switching needs S regions to be ...
Platelet membrane glycoprotein
In the absence of fibrinogen, the platelets are joined by vWF due to its ability to bind the activated GPIIb / IIIa complex. ... The β1 subunit has four cysteine-rich regions and a structure similar to other β-integrins. The interaction with collagen leads ... Glycoprotein VI is one of the immunoglobulin superfamily type I transmembrane glycoproteins. It is an important collagen ... particularly in relation to the polymorphism of GPIa subunit gene. Different opinions exist on the importance of C - T point ...
Other genes shown to form G-quadruplexes in their promoter regions include the chicken β-globin gene, human ubiquitin-ligase ... The loops joining runs of guanine bases in intramolecular antiparallel quadruplexes are either diagonal, joining two diagonally ... It has been suggested that quadruplex formation plays a role in immunoglobulin heavy chain switching. As cells have evolved ... The proto-oncogene c-myc forms a quadruplex in a nuclease hypersensitive region critical for gene activity. ...
Processing The leader region is cleaved during secretion. Proteolytic nicking separates A and B subunits, which remain joined ... Unusually, the toxin gene is encoded by a bacteriophage (a virus that infects bacteria). The toxin causes the disease in humans ... it is a subclass of immunoglobulin-like fold. The R domain binds to a cell surface receptor, permitting the toxin to enter the ... Freeman found that the toxin gene was not encoded on the bacterial chromosome, but by a lysogenic phage infecting all toxigenic ...
One such locale is the Ig genes. In a pre-B cell, the region consists of all V, D, and J segments. During development of the B ... Follicular lymphoma results from the translocation of immunoglobulin promoter to the Bcl-2 gene, giving rise to large amounts ... by non-homologous end joining). In addition, DNA damages can also give rise to epigenetic alterations during DNA repair. Both ... caretaker genes), as well as in genes that are directly controlling cellular proliferation (gatekeeper genes). Genetic ...
Recombination signal sequences
This prevents two different genes coding for the same region from recombining (ex. V-V recombination). RSSs are located between ... The RAG1/RAG2 enzyme complex follows the 12-23 rule when joining V, D, and J segments, pairing 12-bp spacer RSSs to 23-bp ... undergo recombination during the formation of the heavy and light-chain variable regions in T-cell receptors and immunoglobulin ... D and J sequences in the heavy-chain region of DNA and the V and J sequences in the light-chain DNA region. Spacer sequences ...
Serum free light-chain measurement
... five Jκ gene segments and a single Cκ gene. Lambda molecules (chromosome 22) are constructed from about 30 Vλ gene segments and ... four pairs of functional Jλ gene segments and a Cλ gene. Light chains are incorporated into immunoglobulin molecules during B- ... In addition, the first 23 amino acids of the 1st variable domain framework region have a number of variations known as ... Kappa free-light chains are normally monomeric, while lambda free-light chains tend to be dimeric, joined by disulphide bonds. ...
... immunoglobulins). The non-albumin proteins are referred to as globulins. The alpha region can be further divided into two sub- ... As every person has two copies of the A1AT gene, a heterozygote with two different copies of the gene may have two different ... Normally, A1AT leaves its site of origin, the liver, and joins the systemic circulation; defective A1AT can fail to do so, ... regions, termed "1" and "2". Alpha-1 antitrypsin is the main protein of the alpha-globulin 1 region. Another name used is alpha ...
Complement component 1q
Each chain contains a collagen-like region located near the N terminus and a C-terminal globular region. The A-, B-, and C- ... "Entrez Gene: C1QA complement component 1, q subcomponent, A chain". Sellar GC, Blake DJ, Reid KB (March 1991). " ... It is potentially multivalent for attachment to the complement fixation sites of immunoglobulin. The sites are on the CH2 ... Each 6 peptide subunit consists of a Y-shaped pair of triple peptide helices joined at the stem and ending in a globular non- ...
Press's work provided the first evidence that immunoglobulin heavy chains had variable regions similar to those observed in ... Press was 19 years old when the Second World War started, and joined the Women's Royal Naval Service (WRNS, "the Wrens"). After ... and particularly the observation that more than one gene was involved in coding for antibodies. Her work led to Porter's Nobel ... On 1 October 1955, Press joined Rodney Porter's research group at the National Institute for Medical Research, Mill Hill, ...
In germ-line cells (sperm and ova) the genes that will eventually encode immunoglobulins are not in a functional form (see V(D) ... J chain (J for joining) was discovered as a covalently bonded component of polymeric IgA and IgM . J chain is a small (~137 ... Overall, the IgM constant region has a "mushroom-like" structure, where the Cµ2-Cµ3 domains are a disk analogous to the head of ... Immunodeficiency with hyper-immunoglobulin M Immunoglobulin M deficiency "Immunoglobulin M". The American Heritage Dictionary ...
Arthur M. Lesk
"Conformations of immunoglobulin hypervariable regions". Nature. 342 (6252): 877-883. Bibcode:1989Natur.342..877C. doi:10.1038/ ... Prior to joining Penn State during the fall semester of 2003, Lesk was on the faculty of the clinical school at the University ... and they applied this model to the analysis of antibody-germ-line genes, including the prediction of the structure of the ... Lesk and Chothia also studied the conformations of antigen-binding sites of immunoglobulins. They discovered the "canonical- ...
Villeponteau, B., Landes, G.M., Pankratz, M.J., and Martinson, H.G. (1982). The chicken beta globin gene region. Delineation of ... In 2008 Villeponteau joined Genescient as Vice President of Research. Genescient (an Irvine biotech spinoff of the University ... Villeponteau, B. (1989). Immunoglobulin kappa enhancers are differentially regulated at the level of chromatin structure. ... Villeponteau, B., and Martinson, H.G. (1981). Isolation and characterization of the complete chicken beta-globin gene region: ...
Cloning of the Chicken Immunoglobulin Joining (J)-Chain Gene and Characterization of its Promoter Region
Home » Cloning of the Chicken Immunoglobulin Joining (J)-Chain Gene and Characterization of its Promoter Region ... Cloning of the Chicken Immunoglobulin Joining (J)-Chain Gene and Characterization of its Promoter Region. ... Three overlapping genomic clones of the chicken immunoglobulin joining (J) chain were isolated and then characterized using ... Gene cloning, structural gene and promoter identification, and active assay of the phosphatidylcholine synthase of Pseudomonas ...
Cloning of the chicken immunoglobulin joining (J)-chain gene and characterization of its promoter region
... Academic Article ... Three overlapping genomic clones of the chicken immunoglobulin joining (J) chain were isolated and then characterized using ... The gene consisted of four exons separated by a 2.6-kb intron 1, a 0.9-kb intron 2, and a 0.5-kb intron 3. A transcriptional ... These results suggest that the chicken J-chain gene consists of four exons and three introns and that the transcriptional ...
[email protected] - Wikipedia
"Physical linkage of a human immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region gene segment to diversity and joining region elements". ... gene. IGHV is the immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region genes; in B-cell neoplasms like chronic lymphocytic leukemia, ... 1986). "Organization and sequences of the diversity, joining, and constant region genes of the human T-cell receptor beta chain ... "Structure and multiplicity of genes for the human immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77 ...
Determinism and stochasticity during maturation of the zebrafish antibody repertoire | PNAS
1988) Physical linkage of a human immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region gene segment to diversity and joining region ... 1990) Lack of N regions in fetal and neonatal mouse immunoglobulin V-D-J junctional sequences. J Exp Med 172:1377-1390. ... 1991) VH gene usage in humans: Biased usage of the VH6 gene in immature B lymphoid cells. Eur J Immunol 21:1311-1314. ... Observed d-gene segment diversity across these two datasets averages 3.8 and 4.0, respectively. The 3-prime end of V gene ...
Joining of immunoglobulin heavy chain gene segments: implications from a chromosome with evidence of three D-JH fusions | PNAS
A chromosomal segment with a unique structure around the immunoglobulin heavy chain joining region (JH) has been molecularly ... Joining of immunoglobulin heavy chain gene segments: implications from a chromosome with evidence of three D-JH fusions. F W ... Joining of immunoglobulin heavy chain gene segments: implications from a chromosome with evidence of three D-JH fusions ... Joining of immunoglobulin heavy chain gene segments: implications from a chromosome with evidence of three D-JH fusions ...
Enhancer (genetics) - Wikipedia
"A lymphocyte-specific cellular enhancer is located downstream of the joining region in immunoglobulin heavy chain genes". Cell ... Enhancers can also be found at the exonic region of an unrelated gene and they may act on genes on another chromosome. ... "Regulation of eukaryotic gene expression by the untranslated gene regions and other non-coding elements". Cellular and ... HACNS1 (also known as CENTG2 and located in the Human Accelerated Region 2) is a gene enhancer "that may have contributed to ...
Physical location of the human immunoglobulin lambda-like genes,14.1, 16.1,and16.2 | SpringerLink
... genes, which are homologous to the human immunoglobulin lambda (IGL) light chain genes, are expressed only in pre-B cells and ... Blomberg, B. and Tonegawa, S. DNA sequences of the joining regions of mouse λ light chain immunoglobulin genes. Proc Natl Acad ... The IGLJ6 joining segment as a STS in the human immunoglobulin lambda light chain constant region gene locus (located at 22q11 ... The human immunoglobulin lambda-like (IGLL) genes, which are homologous to the human immunoglobulin lambda (IGL) light chain ...
Generation of xenogeneic antibodies - ABGENIX, INC.
These regions were then joined to the variable region encoding portion of other immunoglobulin genes from another species ... the diversity (D) region genes, followed by the joining (J. H. ) region genes and the constant (C. H. ) gene cluster. The size ... region of the kappa constant region, a thymidine kinase gene for negative selection, a neomycin resistance gene and a 3′ region ... it is not necessary that one include the entire V region. Various V region gene families are interspersed within the V region ...
Expression of Cellular Oncogenes | SpringerLink
A lymphocyte-specific cellular enhancer is located downstream of the joining region in immunoglobulin heavy chain genes. Cell ... Dalla-Favera R, Bregni M, Erikson J, Patterson D, Gallo RC, Croce CM (1982b) Human c-myc onc gene is located on the region of ... Shen-Ong GLC, Keath EJ, Piccoli SP, Cole MD (1982) Novel myc oncogene RNA from abortive immunoglobulin gene recombination in ... Perbal B, Baluda MA (1982) Avian myeloblastosis virus transforming gene is related to unique chicken DNA regions separated by ...
Simian Virus 40 Strains with Novel Properties Generated by Replacing the Viral Enhancer with Synthetic Oligonucleotides |...
A lymphocyte-specific cellular enhancer is located downstream of the joining region in immunoglobulin heavy chain genes. Cell ... The promoter-regulatory region of the major immediate-early gene of human cytomegalovirus responds to T-lymphocyte stimulation ... Metal-dependent SV40 viruses containing inducible enhancers from the upstream region of metallothionein genes. EMBO J. 4:3851- ... In contrast, human and even mouse CMV segment-containing viruses readily expressed the early gene region, as determined by T- ...
Lymphoid Hematopoiesis and Lymphocytes Differentiation and Maturation | IntechOpen
... joining (J), and constant (C) regions [23, 24]. Gene recombination is initiated by recombinase activating gene proteins RAG1 ... Immunoglobulin (Ig) gene recombination in the heavy chain locus starts in this phase. The heavy chain gene is present in ... 30 - Brauninger A, Goossens T, Rajewsky K, Kuppers R. Regulation of immunoglobulin light chain gene rearrangements during early ... Immunoglobulin V regions and the B cell. Blood. 1994;83(7):1717-1730 ...
Pick me! Pick me! How genes are selected to create diverse immune cell receptors | EurekAlert! Science News
Use of a new technique developed at the Babraham Institute has allowed researchers to take an in-depth look at the gene ... 10 D genes and 195 V genes in the immunoglobulin heavy chain antigen receptor. Mix and matching the regions allows our body to ... Every antigen reception is made of a V (variable), D (diversity) and J (joining) region but there are several of each of these ... IMAGE: Gene segments with placards have characteristic features that mean they are used frequently, while sleeping gene ...
VavP-Bcl2 transgenic mice develop follicular lymphoma preceded by germinal center hyperplasia | Blood Journal
S107 VH genes rearranged to the JH1 joining region were cloned from sorted IgM- IgD- κ+ B cells, using a proofreading enzyme to ... Universal PCR amplification of mouse immunoglobulin gene variable regions: the design of degenerate primers and an assessment ... The hypermutation machinery acts not only on immunoglobulin genes but also on other transcribed genes; notably, BCL6 and FAS/ ... Levy S, Mendel E, Kon S, Avnur Z, Levy R. Mutational hot spots in Ig V region genes of human follicular lymphomas. J Exp Med. ...
Patent US6630358 - Arrays of proteins and methods of use thereof - Google Patents
The amplified PCR products are joined by a linker region of DNA encoding the 15 amino acid peptide (Gly4SerGly2CysGlySerGly4Ser ... PCR fragments encoding sequences of the variable heavy and light chain immunoglobulin genes of the mouse are amplified from the ... regions such that each protein immobilization region is separated from other protein immobilization regions by border regions ... For instance, the antibody variable regions encoding a single-chain Fv fragment can be fused to the amino terminus of the gene ...
Immunoglobulin V region
Variable and constant regions are encoded by separated genes, called V genes and C genes respectively, which join during cell ... Protein encoded by a variable region gene (V gene / V segment). The variable region is the region of the immunoglobulin (Ig) ... and one constant region (CL) domain, whereas the heavy chain has one variable region (VH) and three or four constant region ... which varies greatly in amino acid sequence among different immunoglobulins of the same class. Each immunoglobulin molecules is ...
Thyroid Specific Gene Expression | Springer for Research & Development
A lymphocyte-specific cellular enhancer is located downstream of the joining region in immunoglobulin heavy chain genes, Cell. ... C. Queen, and D. Baltimore, Immunoglobulin gene transcription is activated by downstream sequence elements, Cell. 33: 741-748 ( ... A tissue-specific transcription enhancer is located in the major intron of a rearranged immunoglobulin heavy chain gene, Cell. ... A nuclear factor that binds to a conserved sequence motif in transcriptional control elements of immunoglobulin genes, Nature. ...
Phenotype and genotype of interfollicular large B cells, a subpopulation of lymphocytes often with dendritic morphology | Blood...
... in combination with 2-nested primers for the immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene (JH) joining region, as previously described.24 ... The pattern of somatic mutations in the V regions of immunoglobulin heavy (H) chain genes acquired in the germinal center has ... To investigate their stage of maturation, we analyzed their immunoglobulin variable region gene status and found a pattern ... Dunn-Walters DK, Isaacson PG, Spencer J. Analysis of mutations in immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region genes of ...
Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains | Semantic Scholar
The larger of the two immunoglobulin chain types determines the immunoglobulin class (G, A, D, E or M, respectively). The heavy ... A lymphocyte-specific cellular enhancer is located downstream of the joining region in immunoglobulin heavy chain genes ... Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains. Known as: Heavy Chains, Immunoglobulin, Immunoglobulins, Heavy Chain, Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain ... Ordered rearrangement of immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region segments.. *F. Alt, G. Yancopoulos, +7 authors D. Baltimore ...
Rearrangement of rat immunoglobulin E heavy-chain and c-myc genes in the B-cell immunocytoma IR162. | Molecular and Cellular...
... regulatory information from the body of the c-myc structural gene via joining to the epsilon heavy-chain switch region in a ... Rearrangement of rat immunoglobulin E heavy-chain and c-myc genes in the B-cell immunocytoma IR162.. S S Tian, C Faust ... Rearrangement of rat immunoglobulin E heavy-chain and c-myc genes in the B-cell immunocytoma IR162. ... Rearrangement of rat immunoglobulin E heavy-chain and c-myc genes in the B-cell immunocytoma IR162. ...
Insertion of c-Myc into Igh Induces B-Cell and Plasma-Cell Neoplasms in Mice | Cancer Research
Insight into Burkitts lymphoma from immunoglobulin variable region gene analysis. Leuk Lymphoma 1998; 30: 257-67. ... usually occur in the joining gene region of the IGH locus, JH, and in the 5′ flank of MYC. The resulting exchanges allocate the ... We used gene targeting in mice to insert a His6-tagged mouse c-Myc cDNA, MycHis, head to head into the mouse immunoglobulin ... Human c-myc onc gene is located on the region of chromosome 8 that is translocated in Burkitt lymphoma cells. Proc Natl Acad ...
Transgenic non-human animals capable of producing heterologous antibodies of various isotypes - GenPharm International Inc.
... of producing heterologous antibodies and transgenic non-human animals having inactivated endogenous immunoglobulin genes. In ... one diversity gene segment, one joining gene segment and at least one constant region gene segment. The immunoglobulin light ... one diversity gene segment, one joining gene segment and one constant region gene segment. The immunoglobulin light chain ... one diversity gene segment, one joining gene segment and one constant region gene segment. Each of the gene segments of said ...
Patent US6303749 - Agouti and agouti-related peptide analogs - Google Patents
For example, it has been described that the homozygous deletion of the antibody heavy-chain joining region (JH) gene in ... The human immunoglobulin hinge and Fc region can be fused at either the N-terminus or C-terminus of the AGRP/ASP peptides using ... Preferred AGRP/ASP fusion peptides of the present invention include fusions to an immunoglobulin constant region such as an Fc ... The gene encoding human AGRP has been cloned and sequenced (Shutter et al., Genes Dev., 11:593-602 ). The corresponding ...
Dll4 Blockade in Stromal Cells Mediates Antitumor Effects in Preclinical Models of Ovarian Cancer | Cancer Research
The cloned human immunoglobulin variable region genes from antibodies exhibiting the desired characteristics were joined to ... VelocImmune mice (with genes encoding human immunoglobulin heavy and kappa light chain variable regions) were immunized with ... region of the mouse Dll4 gene encoding the extracellular domain were replaced with the equivalent region of the human Dll4 gene ... Since REGN421 does not cross react with rodent Dll4, "humanized" mice were created in which the gene region encoding the Dll4 ...
... tissue sections and PCR amplified using primers to framework region III and the joining region of the immunoglobulin heavy gene ... Ramasamy I, Brisco M, Morley A. Improved PCR method for detecting monoclonal immunoglobulin heavy chain rearrangement in B cell ... Clonal rearrangement of the IgH gene was assessed using DNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded ...
IGL Gene - GeneCards | IGL Protein | IGL Antibody
Immunoglobulin Lambda Locus, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The ... This region represents the germline organization of the lambda light chain locus. The locus includes V (variable), J (joining ... No data available for DME Specific Peptides for IGL Gene Domains & Families for IGL Gene Gene Families for IGL Gene. HGNC:. * ... Summaries for IGL Gene Entrez Gene Summary for IGL Gene. * Immunoglobulins recognize foreign antigens and initiate immune ...
IGHV3-23 Gene - GeneCards | HV323 Protein | HV323 Antibody
Immunoglobulin Heavy Variable 3-23, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - ... Organization and sequences of the diversity, joining, and constant region genes of the human T-cell receptor beta chain. (PMID ... Domains & Families for IGHV3-23 Gene Gene Families for IGHV3-23 Gene. HGNC:. *349 : Immunoglobulin heavy locus at 14q32.33 ... Molecular function for IGHV3-23 Gene. UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: V region of the variable domain of immunoglobulin heavy ...
Extensive allelic sequence variation in the J region of the human immunoglobulin heavy chain gene locus. - PubMed - NCBI
During the initial stages of B lymphocyte differentiation heavy chain variable (VH), diversity (DH) and joining (JH) gene ... Extensive allelic sequence variation in the J region of the human immunoglobulin heavy chain gene locus.. Mattila PS1, Schugk J ... As an attempt to explain this discrepancy a 2.5-kb strech of DNA containing all the six heavy chain JH region genes and the ... gene. Evidence for genetic polymorphism of the human JH gene segments has been obtained from mature rearranged VDJ sequences. ...
Efficient Screening and Design of Variable Domain of Heavy Chain Antibody Ligands Through High Throughput Sequencing for...
Immunoglobulin Joining Region. A segment of the immunoglobulin heavy chains, encoded by the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES in ... Genes, Immunoglobulin. Genes encoding the different subunits of the IMMUNOGLOBULINS, for example the IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN ... GENES and the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES. The heavy and light immunoglobulin genes are present as gene segments in the ... the gene segment for the variable region upstream is joined to a constant region gene segment downstream. The exact position of ...
The First Dose of a Haemophilus influenzae Type b Conjugate Vaccine Reactivates Memory B Cells: Evidence for Extensive Clonal...
A single VκII gene and one of several JK genes are joined by an invariant arginine to form the most common L chain V region. J ... Extensive allelic sequence variation in the J region of the human immunoglobulin heavy chain gene locus. Eur. J. Immunol. 25: ... Immunoglobulin light chain variable region gene sequences for human Abs to Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular ... A map of the human immunoglobulin VH locus completed by analysis of the telomeric region of chromosome 14q. Nat. Genet. 7: 162 ...
Identification of Ig sigma and Ig lambda in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, and Ig lambda in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua
... regions and Southern blot analyses and genomic sequencing show that genes encoding these isotypes, like other teleost IGL genes ... Immunoglobulin light (IGL) chain genes encoding sigma and lambda from channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, and lambda from ... cDNAs for each of these IGL chains encode typical variable (V), joining (J), and constant (C) ... However, unlike the teleost kappa genes, genes encoding catfish sigma and lambda are few in number and the two isotypes are ...
RearrangementRecombinationChainsAntibodiesSequencesProteinsReceptorsLociHuman immunoglobulin genesLambdaEnhancerChromosomeSegmentGermline genesEntrez GeneMoleculesTranslocationMutationsSegments of the human immunoglobulinSomatic hypermutationMoleculeGenomeHumansMouse immunoglobulin heavy-chainRearranged immunoglobulin heavy chainAbstractIsotypeSpecificityProteinHomologousReceptorImmuneExpressionAntigensOrganizationTranscriptionDownstreamNucleotideLymphomaVariable region geneGenomicAmino acid seqEncodeClonalCellChain genesPolymerase chain reHypervariableMutationRepertoireComplementarity-determiHeavy chain gene locusLight chainAntibody genes
- 1 - 7 B-cell precursors in the bone marrow undergo rearrangement of their immunoglobulin genes and initially generate a form of immunoglobulin M (IgM) (confined largely to the cytoplasm) in which μ-chain is associated with "pseudolight chains" (variable preB [VpreB] and λ5). (bloodjournal.org)
- Rearrangement of rat immunoglobulin E heavy-chain and c-myc genes in the B-cell immunocytoma IR162. (asm.org)
- Buttin, Exogenous Ig gene rearrangement in transgenic mice: a new strategy for human monoclonal antibody production? (freepatentsonline.com)
- Ordered rearrangement of immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region segments. (semanticscholar.org)
- In birds, single immunoglobulin variable and joining gene segments at each heavy (H) and light (L) chain locus are subjected to VJ rearrangement in the case of the L chain and VDJ for the H chain. (biomedcentral.com)
- Bottom: Rearrangement of the light chain genes during B lymphocyte differentiation. (nih.gov)
- Top: Rearrangement of the heavy chain genes. (nih.gov)
- Mechanism Successful rearrangement of immunoglobulin gene segmentsone allele shuts down the rearrangement process of the other allele. (powershow.com)
- The presumptive beta-chain clones detect gene rearrangement specifically in T-cell DNA and show homology with immunoglobulin light chains. (ox.ac.uk)
- There are two constant-region genes (C beta 1 and C beta 2), each capable of rearrangement and expression as RNA. (ox.ac.uk)
- The earliest stage is distinguished by accessibility of the immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chain locus, indicating chromatin changes preparatory to heavy chain rearrangement. (springer.com)
- The early stages of B-cell development occur in the bone marrow, where pro-B cells, which are derived from hematopoietic stem cells, undergo rearrangement of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain genes. (mhmedical.com)
- At the next stage of B-cell differentiation, in pre-B cells, there is rearrangement of the light-chain genes. (mhmedical.com)
- Knowles, D. M. / Immunoglobulin and T cell receptor β chain gene rearrangement analysis of ocular adnexal lymphoid neoplasms : Clinical and biologic implications . (elsevier.com)
- Detection of antigen receptor gene rearrangement including T cell receptor (TCR) and immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) by polymerase chain reaction followed by heteroduplex has currently become standard whereas fluorescent fragment analysis (GeneScan) has been used for confirmation test. (biomedcentral.com)
- In conclusion, the detection IgH gene rearrangement by HRM in the LightCycler System showed potential for distinguishing monoclonality from polyclonality in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. (biomedcentral.com)
- In this study, three different techniques were compared to evaluate the suitability of LightCycler PCR with HRM as the clonal diagnostic tool for IgH gene rearrangement in B-cell non-Hogdkin lymphoma, i.e. thermocycler PCR followed by heteroduplex analysis and PAGE, GeneScan analysis and LightCycler PCR with HRM. (biomedcentral.com)
- Objective: To determine the sensitivity and specificity of clonal immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangement (IGHR) analysis in the distinction of benign and malignant lymphoproliferative diseases. (nyu.edu)
- Before a B cell can produce antibodies (immunoglobulins), the genes that encode the light and heavy chains must undergo a rearrangement process. (whfreeman.com)
- We can account for most of the diversity of antibodies in the immune system by considering the immunoglobulin gene rearrangement process. (whfreeman.com)
- Therefore, the number of different heavy chain variable regions that can be made through a random rearrangement process is quite large: 100 × 30 × 6 = 18,000. (whfreeman.com)
- For example, during the rearrangement process, the segments are often joined imprecisely, which introduces slight changes to the coding regions of the joined segments. (whfreeman.com)
- Combinatorial joining of gene segments magnifies antibody diversity by random rearrangement of VJ and VDJ in somatic cells. (avroarrow.org)
- The central process in B-cell formation is the rearrangement of Ig variable-region genes. (europeanmedical.info)
- For rearrangement of V-region genes to occur in either T or B cells, recombinase-activating genes (RAG) 1 and 2 have to be expressed. (europeanmedical.info)
- IgA-producing B cells have undergone somatic rearrangement such that the switch region immediately before the m gene is joined to the one preceding the a gene and the sequences in between are removed. (78stepshealth.us)
- They result from the recombination (or rearrangement), at the DNA level, of two genes: IGKV and IGKJ, with deletion of the intermediary DNA to create a rearranged IGKV-J gene. (imgt.org)
- The codons encoding the first residues of CDR3 may be derived directly from the IGHV germline gene but they may also be generated as part of the rearrangement process. (scilifelab.se)
- The variable domain at the N-terminal end of each IG chain results from a V-(D)-J rearrangement whereas the remaining of the chain, or constant region, is encoded by a C gene. (genenames.org)
- The amino acid sequence of each individuals monoclonal LC is definitely virtually unique, as a consequence of immunoglobulin germline genes rearrangement and somatic hypermutation. (nwointelligence.com)
- Because joined D and JH undergo deletion of terminal coding sequence during recombination but the joined heptameric recognition sequences do not contain the deleted sequence, joining must be a nonreciprocal event. (pnas.org)
- This recombination has resulted in the loss of 5'-proximal DNA and, consequently, potential regulatory information from the body of the c-myc structural gene via joining to the epsilon heavy-chain switch region in a head-to-head, i.e., 5'-to-5', configuration. (asm.org)
- The gene insertion site is also the preferred recombination site of human t(8;14)(q24;q32) IGH-MYC exchanges in human endemic Burkitt lymphoma and mouse T(12;15) Igh-Myc exchanges in certain mouse plasmacytoma. (aacrjournals.org)
- The recognition specificity of different non-self-antigens or defective self-antigens (tumors) by a well-defined B-cell clone does not result from the presence of an extensive number of receptor genes, but rather from immunogenetic mechanisms affecting a limited number of IG genes, including mechanisms of genetic recombination, mutations, deletions or insertions, and gene repair, through very complex regulatory mechanisms that are responsible for a large B-cell repertoire. (intechopen.com)
- Similar to T-cell receptors (TCRs), functional genes of immunoglobulins (Igs) are the result of somatic recombination of DNA containing the relatively limited germinal genetic information, using the so-called V(D)J recombination process that occurs between individual genes (also referred to as gene segments) of the variable domains of the H and L chains (or α, β, γ, and δ chains of TCRs). (intechopen.com)
- The large and diverse population of antibody paratope is generated by random recombination events of a set of gene segments that encode different antigen-binding sites (or paratopes ), followed by random mutations in this area of the antibody gene, which create further diversity. (wikipedia.org)
- Mature B cells in the lymph nodes undergo switch recombination, so that the V-D-J gene is brought in proximity to one of the IGHG, IGHA, or IGHE genes and each cell expresses either the gamma, alpha, or epsilon heavy chain. (abnova.com)
- When the heavy chain gene locus undergoes a phenomenon called class switch recombination (CSR), it leads to formation of isotypes. (news-medical.net)
- Transcription of the switch (S) regions of immunoglobulin genes in B cells generates stable R-loops that are targeted by Activation Induced Cytidine Deaminase (AID), triggering class switch recombination (CSR), as well as translocations with c-MYC responsible for Burkitt's lymphomas. (prolekare.cz)
- Immunoglobulin (Ig) class switch recombination (CSR) is initiated by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), which converts cytosines to uracils in switch (S) regions. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- CSR requires the formation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) within the donor μ gene switch (S) region (Sμ) and one of the downstream S regions, and occurs by an end-joining type of recombination ( 1 - 3 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- CSR is a region-specific recombination, as it can occur anywhere within the S region tandem repeats ( 4 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Immunoglobulin class-switching recombination (CSR) occurs in or near the α switch region upstream of the μ gene and any one of the switch regions of the other heavy-chain isotype genes. (asmscience.org)
- The large number of different antibody-recognition sites is made possible by the random joining of one of the many variable (V) segments to one of the joining segments by recombination (Fig. (no-nameproductions.com)
- When a pathogen enters a healthy organism, it triggers an immune response that includes recombination of the germline genes and their random mutations. (news-medical.net)
- The breakpoints are frequently adjacent to the recombination signal sequences targeted by recombination activating genes 1 and 2 during antigen receptor assembly in pre-B cells, suggesting that these translocations might be the result of aberrant V(D)J recombination. (nih.gov)
- Class switch recombination (CSR) occurs by an intrachromosomal deletion whereby the IgM constant region gene (C μ ) is replaced by a downstream constant region gene. (rupress.org)
- This unique recombination event involves formation of double-strand breaks (DSBs) in immunoglobulin switch (S) regions, and requires activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), which converts cytosines to uracils. (rupress.org)
- The highly variable complementary determining region 3 (CDR3) of antibodies is generated through recombination of immunoglobulin heavy chain variable (IGHV), diversity, and joining genes. (scilifelab.se)
- Each immunoglobulin molecules is a tetramer of two identical light chains and two identical heavy chains linked by disulfide bonds. (uniprot.org)
- In one aspect of the invention, one or more transgenes containing sequences of unrearranged heterologous human immunoglobulin heavy chains are introduced into a non-human animal thereby forming a transgenic animal capable of functionally rearranging transgenic immunoglobulin sequences and producing a repertoire of antibodies of various isotypes encoded by human immunoglobulin genes. (freepatentsonline.com)
- Each immunoglobulin molecule consists of two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains. (genecards.org)
- V region of the variable domain of immunoglobulin heavy chains that participates in the antigen recognition (PubMed:24600447). (genecards.org)
- cDNAs for each of these IGL chains encode typical variable (V), joining (J), and constant (C) regions and Southern blot analyses and genomic sequencing show that genes encoding these isotypes, like other teleost IGL genes, are found in a cluster organization of one or two V gene segments, followed by single J and C gene segments, all in the same transcriptional orientation. (diva-portal.org)
- Synthetically randomised complementarity determining regions are included in some of the heavy chains. (biomedcentral.com)
- The antigen-binding site is composed of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains, whereas the effector site of the antibody is determined by the amino acid sequence of the heavy chain constant region. (nih.gov)
- scFv is a single chain variable fragment in a fusion protein of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains of immunoglobulin. (proteopedia.org)
- There are two types of immunoglobulin light chains in mammals, labeled lambda and kappa, with only one represented in each antibody. (proteopedia.org)
- The typical antibody molecule is made up of two immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chains and two light chains. (mhmedical.com)
- The loci for the heavy chains has around 65 different variable domain genes. (news-medical.net)
- 14 (including 4 pseudogenes) new human variable (V) gene segments of lambda light chains from a single individual. (sydlabs.com)
- Any B cell has potential of combinatorial joining of possible light and heavy chains before transcribed. (avroarrow.org)
- Dimers of immunoglobulin light chains in the urine of patients with multiple myeloma. (rxpgonline.com)
- Immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy (H) and Ig light chains of an antibody are generated from variable (V), diversity (D) and joining (J) gene segments through V(D)J rearrangements. (biomedcentral.com)
- In addition, D and J elements of the IgH chains encode the complementarity determining region (CDR) 3 that constitutes a significant part of the Ig antigen binding site. (biomedcentral.com)
- Proteins encoded by the IGK locus are the immunoglobulin kappa chains. (imgt.org)
- Data on the nucleotide composition of the first codons encoding the complementary determining region 3 (CDR3) in immunoglobulin heavy chains. (scilifelab.se)
- IG are made of two identical heavy (H) chains and two identical light (kappa or lambda) chains, encoded by genes located in three major loci: the IG heavy (IGH) locus at 14q32.33, IG kappa (IGK) locus at 2p11.2 and IG lambda (IGL) locus at 22q11.2. (genenames.org)
- The disease is definitely associated with the presence of a plasma cell clone, and is caused by extracellular deposition of misfolding-prone monoclonal immunoglobulin?light chains (LC), transported to target organs through blood. (nwointelligence.com)
- Immunoglobulin heavy locus , also known as [email protected] , is a region on human chromosome 14 that contains gene for the heavy chains of human antibodies (or immunoglobulins). (wikidoc.org)
- The invention relates to transgenic non-human animals capable of producing heterologous antibodies and transgenic non-human animals having inactivated endogenous immunoglobulin genes. (freepatentsonline.com)
- Heterologous antibodies are encoded by immunoglobulin genes not normally found in the genome of that species of non-human animal. (freepatentsonline.com)
- Immunoglobulins, also known as antibodies, are membrane-bound or secreted glycoproteins produced by B lymphocytes. (genecards.org)
- Antibodies , also known as Immunoglobulins (Ig) are gamma globulin proteins, primarily found in the blood of vertebrates. (proteopedia.org)
- The basic functional unit of an antibody is an immunoglobulin monomer, but antibodies secreted from plasma cells are typically dimeric with occasional higher order structures. (proteopedia.org)
- The variable region of the heavy chain in antibodies is different for all antibodies created by different B-cells. (proteopedia.org)
- these gene segments can be assembled in a myriad of ways to create a highly diverse repertoire of antibodies. (mhmedical.com)
- Antibodies are glycoproteins belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily . (wikipedia.org)
- The five different types of Fc regions allow antibodies to be grouped into five isotypes . (wikipedia.org)
- Though the general structure of all antibodies is very similar, a small region at the tip of the protein is extremely variable, allowing millions of antibodies with slightly different tip structures, or antigen-binding sites, to exist. (wikipedia.org)
- The genes coding for these diverse range of immunoglobulins however are limited and do not number similar to the variety of antibodies. (news-medical.net)
- To create the variety of antibodies thus the body adopts complex mechanisms from the relatively small number of antibody genes. (news-medical.net)
- Each of the genes for the antibodies are located on specific location (loci) on the chromosomes. (news-medical.net)
- When combined, these genes can yield a large variety of combinations for antibodies by permutation and combination. (news-medical.net)
- The genes coding for the antibodies in these B cells undergo high rate of point mutation or point changes in genetic codes for antibodies. (news-medical.net)
- CSR allows the generation of antibodies with the same antigen-binding variable region but with various constant regions, thereby enhancing the effectiveness of humoral immune responses. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Antibodies (also known as immunoglobulins ) are proteins that are found in blood or other bodily fluids of vertebrates , and are used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects, such as bacteria and viruses . (wikidoc.org)
- The large and diverse population of antibodies is generated by random combinations of a set of gene segments that encode different antigen binding sites (or paratopes ), followed by random mutations in this area of the antibody gene, which create further diversity. (wikidoc.org)
- Some of the immune system's power to respond to this diversity comes from the action of certain protein molecules, called antibodies or immunoglobulins. (whfreeman.com)
- The resulting immunoglobulin genes are unique and code for the unique antibodies that each mature B cell produces. (whfreeman.com)
- The variable (V)‐region heavy (H) and light (L) chain genes expressed by the variant hybridoma were amplified by polymerase chain reaction, cloned, sequenced, and compared with those of the KIM4.6 parent and other DNA‐binding and non-DNA‐binding antibodies. (uwo.ca)
- In contrast, the VH chain was completely different from the VH chain of the parent but was similar or identical, except in the diversity (D) and joining regions, to the VH chain of the systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) IgG anti‐DNA antibody T14 and SLE IgM nephritogenic anti‐DNA antibodies NE‐1 and NE‐13. (uwo.ca)
- When used in association with immunoglobulin, allotypes describe allelic variants of immunoglobulins detected by antibodies raised between members of the same species. (rxpgonline.com)
- The findings and algorithm, which were published in PLOS Computational Biology on April 27, may give scientists a more comprehensive view of how the genes that form the foundation of our immune system create a personalized repertoire of antibodies to protect against invading pathogens. (news-medical.net)
- MINING-D analyzes how those blocks, particularly the lesser-studied D gene, are shuffled and repackaged to create a large variety of antibodies. (news-medical.net)
- D genes play a critical role in creating the regions of antibodies that are responsible for recognizing pathogens. (news-medical.net)
- These recombinant antibodies are generated by the chimerization and deimmunization of the Fv region of mouse monoclonal antibody (mAb) B4. (allindianpatents.com)
- They have also been used to assess the effect of observed gene differences on the composition of the ascending strand of CDR3 associated to antibodies with an origin in different IGHV genes (Thörnqvist and Ohlin, 2018) . (scilifelab.se)
- Immunoglobulins (IG) or antibodies are antigen receptors of the B cells of the adaptive immune response, acquired by jawed vertebrates (or gnathostomata) more than 450 million years ago and found in all extant jawed vertebrate species from fishes to humans. (genenames.org)
- Within the Haynes CAVD consortium, Dr. Chen's team takes a close look at the molecular actions of the broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies, in particular, 4E10 and 2F5, which target the transiently exposed epitopes in the membrane proximal external region (MPER) of HIV-1 gp41 envelope during viral entry. (cavd.org)
- Examines the cloning of promoter sequences of two invertase genes in internal and external phloem tissues of potato. (ebscohost.com)
- Evidence to date shows that of the 110,000 gene enhancer sequences identified in the human genome, HACNS1 has undergone the most change during the evolution of humans following the split with the ancestors of chimpanzees. (wikipedia.org)
- Blomberg, B. and Tonegawa, S. DNA sequences of the joining regions of mouse λ light chain immunoglobulin genes. (springer.com)
- In several cases, however, it has been shown that such sequences are in fact the cellular homologs of v-onc genes (D er et al. (springer.com)
- In higher eukaryotes, including mammals, regulatory DNA sequences for gene transcription can activate transcription over long distances of thousands of base pairs (bp), independent of their orientation and position relative to the transcription unit. (asm.org)
- We have now analyzed tumorigenesis in mice bearing a Bcl2 transgene controlled by Vav gene regulatory sequences (VavP), which confer expression in multiple hematopoietic lineages. (bloodjournal.org)
- The antigen-binding repertoire of the surface immunoglobulin is already unique for each clone, as a result of selective usage in each cell of different variable (V), diversity (D), and joining (J) region sequences, accompanied by the generation of random-linking N sequences (via the action of terminal transferase). (bloodjournal.org)
- Evidence for genetic polymorphism of the human JH gene segments has been obtained from mature rearranged VDJ sequences. (nih.gov)
- We conducted an analysis of the published rearranged JH gene sequences and found that the JH alleles present in the two published germ-line JH region sequences were rare (approx. (nih.gov)
- Although catfish and Atlantic cod V lambda genes cluster with other vertebrate V lambda genes, their C lambda sequences cluster in a distinct group separate from other vertebrate IGL C sequences. (diva-portal.org)
- As a result, essentially all chicken V regions can be expected to have virtually identical amino acid sequences at both termini. (biomedcentral.com)
- Peripheral blood B cells of a 67-year-old person were separated into IgM+IgD+, IgM+IgD-, and IgM-IgD- subsets, and nucleotide sequences of expressed immunoglobulin light chain variable (V) regions encoded by V kappa 3 and V kappa 4 gene family members were determined from amplified cDNA. (nih.gov)
- V region sequences from IgM+IgD+ cells (the major B cell population in the blood) showed no or little somatic mutation (0.3%), in contrast to V kappa sequences from IgM+IgD- and IgM-IgD- B cells (2.0% and 3.9%, respectively). (nih.gov)
- The present invention has found that a series of peptides having sequences that substantially correspond to specific regions of the C-terminus of IL-16 can inhibit the activity of IL-16. (google.com)
- In particular, the present invention relates to the discovery of IL-16 antagonist peptides whose sequences coincide with the C-terminal region of IL-16. (google.com)
- Specific PCR primers sequences for IgH gene variable region 3, including fluorescence labeled IgH primers were used and results were compared with HRM. (biomedcentral.com)
- We demonstrate that AID acts in yeast at heterologous S and c-MYC transcribed sequences leading to double-strand breaks (DSBs) which in turn cause chromosomal translocations via Non-Homologous End Joining (NHEJ). (prolekare.cz)
- Mammalian S regions vary substantially in primary sequences but uniformly share the features of being highly repetitive and G-rich on the nontranscribed strand. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Two sets of oligonucleotide 5′-primers hybridizing the relatively conserved motifs within the signal sequences of the 15 heavy chain and 18 kappa light chain gene families. (sydlabs.com)
- A set of universal primers using conserved sequences of leader (signal peptide), framework one and constant regions of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain genes. (sydlabs.com)
- Resolution of the junctional sequences in the rearranged immunoglobulin genes expressed by a tumor can provide a specific tumor marker. (asmscience.org)
- DNA sequences in genes that interact with regulatory proteins (such as transcription factors) to determine the rate and timing of expression of the genes as well as the beginning and end of the transcript. (nap.edu)
- The raw data sets consisted of sequences of antibody heavy chain-encoding transcripts of six allergic subjects (European Nucleotide Archive accession number PRJEB18926), and paired antibody heavy and light chain variable region-encoding transcripts of memory B cells of three subjects (European Nucleotide Archive accession numbers SRX709625, SRX709626, and SRX709627). (scilifelab.se)
- These data have been used (Thörnqvist and Ohlin, 2018) to demonstrate the extent of incorporation of the 3' most bases of IGHV germline genes into rearranged immunoglobulin encoding sequences, and the extent whereby any difference in incorporation affects the specificity of inference of the 3'-end of IGHV genes from immunoglobulin-encoding transcripts. (scilifelab.se)
- The MAR sequences residing 5' of the enhancer contain topoisomerase II consensus sequences like the MAR located upstream of the kappa light chain gene enhancer. (elsevier.com)
- 150 kDa oxygen-regulated protein (ORP150) is one of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident stress proteins we have cloned and sequenced the entire human ORP150 gene covering over 15-kb. (ebscohost.com)
- In genetics, an enhancer is a short (50-1500 bp) region of DNA that can be bound by proteins (activators) to increase the likelihood that transcription of a particular gene will occur. (wikipedia.org)
- Enhancers do not act on the promoter region itself, but are bound by activator proteins. (wikipedia.org)
- These activator proteins interact with the mediator complex, which recruits polymerase II and the general transcription factors which then begin transcribing the genes. (wikipedia.org)
- Flexible billboards - less integrative, multiple proteins independently regulate gene expression and their sum is read in by the basal transcriptional machinery. (wikipedia.org)
- Thus, the particular combination of transcription factors and other DNA-binding proteins in a developing tissue controls which genes will be expressed in that tissue. (wikipedia.org)
- Bioinformatics uses computer algorithms to recognize and predict structural patterns in DNA and proteins, defining families of related genes and proteins. (google.com)
- Immunoglobulin (IG or antibody) and the T-cell receptor (TR) are pivotal proteins in the immune system of higher organisms. (biomedcentral.com)
- Open in another window Figure 3 The next-generation sequencing maps for the mutations of three genes and genes encode the proteins, tuberin and hamartin, which combine to create a complex (TSC1CTSC2 complex). (healthandwellnesssource.org)
- The PTVDC will now generate new poxvirus vaccine vectors with increased immunogenicity either by using viruses with self-limiting replication capacity or virus with deletion of genes encoding proteins involved in immune evasion. (cavd.org)
- Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are expressed in a clonally restricted manner by human natural killer (NK) cells and allow detection of aberrant cells with low major histocompatibility complex class I levels. (ebscohost.com)
- To ensure this diversity, antigen receptors, the cellular receptors that recognise the presence of pathogens, are assembled from gene segments picked from a wider selection. (eurekalert.org)
- Mix and matching the regions allows our body to create an enormous range of receptors ensuring that our immune surveillance is equipped to recognise and respond to most pathogens. (eurekalert.org)
- In the recognition phase of humoral immunity, the membrane-bound immunoglobulins serve as receptors which, upon binding of a specific antigen, trigger the clonal expansion and differentiation of B lymphocytes into immunoglobulins-secreting plasma cells. (genecards.org)
- The immunoglobulins, which serve as antigen receptors on B cells, have been well characterized with respect to gene structure, unlike the T-cell receptors. (ox.ac.uk)
- After highlighting the remarkable characteristics of naive and experienced B-cell repertoires, especially biased usage of genes encoding the B-cell receptors, we contrast methods of sequence analysis and their attempts to explain patterns of B-cell evolution. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- These molecules can be considered receptors because the primary function of the immunoglobulin molecule is to bind antigen. (mhmedical.com)
- Genes other than those for the specific receptors are usually expressed codominantly. (rxpgonline.com)
- these receptors are transcribed and translated from rearrangements of V genes. (rxpgonline.com)
- wherein said xenogeneic immunoglobulin heavy and light chain loci are expressed. (freepatentsonline.com)
- Mammalian B-cell lymphoid malignancies frequently display aberrant translocations involving the c-myc proto-oncogene and one of the immunoglobulin loci. (asm.org)
- The invention also relates to heavy and light chain immunoglobulin transgenes for making such transgenic non-human animals as well as methods and vectors for disrupting endogenous immunoglobulin loci in the transgenic animal. (freepatentsonline.com)
- In humans, the immunoglobulin heavy (IGH) locus is present at chromosome 14q32.33, and the IG light lambda (IGL) and kappa (IGK) loci are located at 22q11.2 and 2p11.2, respectively [ 1 ]. (intechopen.com)
- We investigated the organization of the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) and the T cell receptor beta chain (Tβ) gene loci in 20 ocular adnexal and four extraocular lymphoid neoplasms obtained from 18 patients presenting with an ocular adnexal lymphoid neoplasm. (elsevier.com)
- Duplication of an immunoglobulin V H gene(s) results in some haplotypes' having identical immunoglobulin V H genes belonging to distinct loci, each possibly differing from their respective alleles by one or more nucleotide base substitutions. (asmscience.org)
- Black squares represent V H gene loci that are known to be functional. (asmscience.org)
- The white boxes denote loci that apparently are functional V H genes but that rarely, if at all, are expressed into protein. (asmscience.org)
- There is striking homology between the rat and mouse Ig heavy chain loci as regards gene order and distance between CH genes. (ox.ac.uk)
- Resulting iPSCs were further characterized and deemed free of transfected DNA, integrated transgene DNA, and lack detectable gene rearrangements such as those within the immunoglobulin heavy chain and T cell receptor loci of more differentiated cell types. (pharmaceuticalintelligence.com)
- First, they are subject to intrinsic DNA rearrangements such as those that occur in B and T cells at the V, D, and J gene segments as well as T cell receptor (TCR) loci to generate a diverse repertoire of antigen-specific surface immunoglobulins. (pharmaceuticalintelligence.com)
- Genes outside of these major loci are orphons. (genenames.org)
Human immunoglobulin genes2
- The human immunoglobulin lambda-like ( IGLL ) genes, which are homologous to the human immunoglobulin lambda ( IGL ) light chain genes, are expressed only in pre-B cells and are involved in B cell development. (springer.com)
- Structural alterations in J regions of mouse immunoglobulin .lambda. (freepatentsonline.com)
- This region represents the germline organization of the lambda light chain locus. (genecards.org)
- IGL (Immunoglobulin Lambda Locus) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
- Immunoglobulin light (IGL) chain genes encoding sigma and lambda from channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, and lambda from Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, were identified by mining of expressed sequence tag databases, 5'-RACE and RT-PCR protocols. (diva-portal.org)
- However, unlike the teleost kappa genes, genes encoding catfish sigma and lambda are few in number and the two isotypes are each encoded by only two clusters. (diva-portal.org)
- Similarly, Atlantic cod lambda genes are predicted to be encoded by two or three clusters. (diva-portal.org)
- The catfish and Atlantic cod genes have typical lambda-like RSS with the V lambda RSS consisting of heptamer-23 bp spacer-nonamer and the J lambda RSS consisting of heptamer-12 bp spacer-nonamer. (diva-portal.org)
- There is a locus for the heavy chain genes that is found on chromosome 14 and a locus for lambda and kappa light chain genes that is found on chromosomes 22 and 2 respectively in humans. (news-medical.net)
- Cloning and sequencing of human immunoglobulin V lambda gene segments. (sydlabs.com)
- The first discovery of a eukaryotic enhancer was in the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene in 1983. (wikipedia.org)
- This enhancer, located in the large intron, provided an explanation for the transcriptional activation of rearranged Vh gene promoters while unrearranged Vh promoters remained inactive. (wikipedia.org)
- In eukaryotic cells the structure of the chromatin complex of DNA is folded in a way that functionally mimics the supercoiled state characteristic of prokaryotic DNA, so although the enhancer DNA may be far from the gene in a linear way, it is spatially close to the promoter and gene. (wikipedia.org)
- An enhancer may be located upstream or downstream of the gene it regulates. (wikipedia.org)
- citation needed] Additionally, an enhancer may be excised and inserted elsewhere in the chromosome, and still affect gene transcription. (wikipedia.org)
- An enhancer near the gene GADD45g has been described that may regulate brain growth in chimpanzees and other mammals, but not in humans. (wikipedia.org)
- citation needed] Traditionally, enhancers were identified by enhancer trap techniques using a reporter gene or by comparative sequence analysis and computational genomics. (wikipedia.org)
- Blomberg, B. B., Rudin, C. M., and Storb, U. Identification and localization of an enhancer for the human λL chain Ig gene complex. (springer.com)
- Banerji J, Olson L, Schaffner W (1983) A lymphocyte-specific cellular enhancer is located downstream of the joining region in immunoglobulin heavy chain genes. (springer.com)
- The first example of a cellular enhancer discovered was the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) enhancer, which was a cell-type-specific regulatory sequence since it was active only in B-lymphocyte-type cells and not in other cell types ( 1 , 9 ). (asm.org)
- Whenever an enhancerless SV40 genome acquires an active enhancer DNA via cellular DNA end-joining processes, it confers on that recombinant virus the ability to proliferate ( 20 , 33 ). (asm.org)
- Here, we show that this enhancer trap system, which before was used to select preexisting enhancers, is also able to compose new enhancers from a mixture of short DNA sequence motifs, derived either from enhancers of cytomegaloviruses or from metal-inducible genes. (asm.org)
- 5 The tumorigenic potential of Bcl2 has been explored in transgenic mouse models that mimic the translocation by expressing the gene in B cells under the control of an Igh enhancer (Eμ). (bloodjournal.org)
- A second B cell-specific enhancer 3' of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain locus, Nature 344:165-168 (1990). (freepatentsonline.com)
- We used gene targeting in mice to insert a His 6 -tagged mouse c- Myc cDNA, Myc His , head to head into the mouse immunoglobulin heavy-chain locus, Igh , just 5′ of the intronic enhancer, Eμ. (aacrjournals.org)
- Eμ: intronic enhancer, S: switch region, IGH: immunoglobulin heavy chain. (intechopen.com)
- Prior to the adoption of various genome-wide analysis tools, only the short enhancer elements in the local DNA region could be identified and studied. (molcells.org)
- One of the most conserved intron regions between rat and mouse is that spanning the Ig heavy chain enhancer (91% homology). (ox.ac.uk)
- We have recently shown that gene-targeted iMyc Eμ mice that carry a His 6 -tagged mouse Myc cDNA, Myc His , just 5' of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain enhancer, Eμ, are prone to B cell and plasma cell tumors. (biomedcentral.com)
- The specific insertion site of the Myc His transgene is in the intervening region of the Igh joining gene locus, J H , and the intronic heavy-chain enhancer, Eμ. (biomedcentral.com)
- The enhancer of the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus is flanked by presumptive chromosomal loop anchorage elements. (elsevier.com)
- Analysis of 31 kilobases spanning diversity, joining, enhancer, switch, and the mu and delta constant regions reveals that only a single 1-kilobase segment exhibits specific binding to nuclear matrices. (elsevier.com)
- It is of particular significance that the transcriptional enhancer element resides within this matrix association region (MAR). Fine structure mapping indicates that binding is mediated by A+T-rich approximately 350-base pair segments that reside on either side of the enhancer. (elsevier.com)
- The heavy chain gene MARs, however, exhibit a lower affinity for matrix association compared to the kappa gene MAR. Significantly, the juxtaposition of enhancer elements with MARs appears to be evolutionarily conserved within the immunoglobulin genes, suggesting that MARs may act as positive and/or negative regulators of enhancer function. (elsevier.com)
- The inverted segment is attached at its other end to the 5' recognition sequence of a diversity segment (D). To form this structure, three joining events must have occurred on the same chromosome. (pnas.org)
- citation needed] Enhancers can also be found at the exonic region of an unrelated gene and they may act on genes on another chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
- Consistent with the GenBank nomenclature, these human IGLL genes will be referred to as IGLL1 (14.1) , IGLL2 (16.2) , and IGLL3 (16.1) , reflecting their position on chromosome 22, as established by this report. (springer.com)
- Adams J, Gerondakis S, Webb E, Corcoran LM, Cory S (1983) Cellular myc gene is altered by chromosome translocation to immunoglobulin locus in murine plasmacytomas and is rearranged similarly in human Burkitt lymphoma. (springer.com)
- 18) chromosome translocation activates the antiapoptotic oncogene Bcl2 by linking it to the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) locus. (bloodjournal.org)
- Its characteristic t(14;18) chromosome translocation results from linkage of the gene Bcl2 to the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) locus. (bloodjournal.org)
- IGHV3-23 belongs to a cluster of approximately 40 functional variable (V) genes in the immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chain locus on chromosome 14. (genecards.org)
- The immunoglobulin heavy-chain genes are located at the telomere of chromosome 14q32.3. (mhmedical.com)
- Relating to one of a series of two or more alternate forms of a gene that occupy the same position or locus on a specific chromosome. (rxpgonline.com)
- One of the variant forms of a gene at a particular locus, or location, on a chromosome. (nap.edu)
- Indeed, the gene coding for Btk maps to the position (locus) q22 on the X chromosome, which has been identified as that involved in XLA. (78stepshealth.us)
- A role for AID in chromosome translocations between c-myc and the IgH variable region. (nih.gov)
- Chromosome translocations between oncogenes and the region spanning the immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chain (IgH) variable (V), diversity (D), and joining (J) gene segments (Ig V-J(H) region) are found in several mature B cell lymphomas in humans and mice. (nih.gov)
- SCID was thought to be inherited from a recessive gene linked to either X-chromosome or an autosome. (bmbreports.org)
- We found that the immune system begins in a highly stereotyped state with preferential use of a small number of V (variable) D (diverse) J (joining) gene segment combinations, but that this stereotypy decreases dramatically as the zebrafish mature, with many of the top VDJ combinations observed in 2-wk-old zebrafish virtually disappearing by 1 mo. (pnas.org)
- A chromosomal segment with a unique structure around the immunoglobulin heavy chain joining region (JH) has been molecularly cloned from an Abelson murine leukemia virus-transformed cell line. (pnas.org)
- Thereafter, many more cellular and viral enhancers were described, including a steroid hormone-responsive segment in mouse mammary tumor virus ( 4 ), the particularly strong enhancers associated with immediate-early genes of human and mouse cytomegaloviruses (HCMV and MCMV, respectively) ( 3 , 7 ), and zinc-responsive enhancers associated with human and mouse metallothionein genes ( 28 ). (asm.org)
- Our research showed that there is a wide range in frequency with which a particular V gene segment is utilised. (eurekalert.org)
- Protein encoded by a variable region gene (V gene / V segment). (uniprot.org)
- the C segment is later joined by splicing at the RNA level. (genecards.org)
- As an attempt to explain this discrepancy a 2.5-kb strech of DNA containing all the six heavy chain JH region genes and the most 3' DH gene segment, DHQ52, was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction from 39 individuals and analyzed for restriction fragment length polymorphism. (nih.gov)
- These new haplotypes contained the coding segment alleles that were frequent in antibody genes. (nih.gov)
- While the developing B cell is still maturing in the bone marrow, one of the 300 or more V gene segments combines with one of the 5 J gene segments and moves closer to the constant (C) gene segment. (nih.gov)
- Upon activation of the recombinase complex, first a diversity (D) region segment rearranges to one of four joining (J) segments (usually on both chromosomes), and then one of 50-100 variable (V) region genes rearranges to the D-J segment. (springer.com)
- this partially rearranged D-J gene is then joined to a V segment. (abnova.com)
- The amino acid sequence of the variable region (which is encoded by a V, D, and J segment) is different for each specific immunoglobulin and is responsible for antibody specificity. (whfreeman.com)
- The DNA segments within the heavy chain gene are rearranged and joined to produce a gene with a variable region that includes one V, D, and J segment. (whfreeman.com)
- DNA encoding the rat diversity segment (D), joining segment (JH), and constant (C) region mu, gamma 2a, gamma 1, gamma 2b, epsilon and alpha of the Ig heavy chain has been isolated from a cosmid library. (ox.ac.uk)
- Junctional diversification during gene segment joining is the imprecise joining and random insertion. (avroarrow.org)
- The variableregion component of the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene is divided into three types of gene segment. (europeanmedical.info)
- There are three groups of core immunoglobulin genes that are the building blocks of an individual's immune response: the variable (V), diversity (D) and joining (J) germline genes. (news-medical.net)
- Translation of the variable germline genes involved in the IGKV-J rearrangements are available at Protein displays . (imgt.org)
- Compared to the germline genes, the rearranged variable genes will acquire somatic mutations during the B cell differentiation in the lymph nodes, which will considerably increase their diversity. (imgt.org)
- The complete list of the human immunoglobulin and T cell receptor IMGT gene names (symbols) provides the IMGT definition (full name), the gene functionality, the IMGT accession number of the reference sequence, the number of alleles per gene, and Entrez Gene accession ID. (imgt.org)
- a) The locus definition is identical in IMGT, Entrez Gene and HUGO. (imgt.org)
- Allelic exclusion ensures that the B lymphocyte expresses immunoglobulin molecules with only one specificity. (powershow.com)
- An approach to monitoring immune responses relies on determining the range of sizes of amplified DNAs which code for the CDR3 regions of Ig or TcR molecules of one or more classes or families. (patents.com)
- Typically the relative quantity of DNAs corresponding to different CDR3 regions of the Ig or TcR molecules of a class is also determined. (patents.com)
- Much of our immune defense against invading organisms is predicated upon the tremendous diversity of immunoglobulin molecules. (mhmedical.com)
- A single person can synthesize 10 to 100 million different immunoglobulin molecules, each having a distinct antigen-binding specificity. (mhmedical.com)
- This chapter describes the structure of immunoglobulins and outlines the mechanisms by which B cells produce molecules of such tremendous diversity with defined effector functions. (mhmedical.com)
- Even if this number is an overestimate by severalfold (and it is), the number of different immunoglobulin molecules that a B cell can make is huge. (whfreeman.com)
- Polysaccharides can't get into MHC molecules.So, in the case of the tetanus vaccine, in which the tetanus toxoid is protected against, the immune system would be manufacturing IgM immunoglobulin. (dailyhudson.com)
- Resolution of immunoglobulin structure has revealed how Immunoglobulin molecules can have such great diversity in antigen-binding activities while maintaining conserved effector functions, such as complement activation. (asmscience.org)
- This arrest in B cell development is thought to be due to abnormal immuno-regulatory signals since in patients with this disease, the genes coding for immunoglobulin molecules appear to be normal, as does their expression. (78stepshealth.us)
- We have observed and characterized such a translocation in the immunoglobulin E-producing rat immunocytoma IR162 by using recombinant DNA technology. (asm.org)
- Translocation of the c-myc gene into the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus in human Burkitt lymphoma and murine plasmacytoma cells. (semanticscholar.org)
- Ligand binding to the extracellular domain of Notch triggers the proteolytic activation of the receptor and translocation of the Notch intracellular domain (NICD) to the nucleus, where it interacts with CSL (CBF1, Suppressor of Hairless, Lag-1) transcription factor to regulate the expression of Notch target genes ( 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Labeled FISH probes for identification of gene translocation using Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization Technique. (abnova.com)
- Molecular genetics: Burkitt lymphoma is defined by the presence of a C-MYC translocation with immunoglobu-lin genes. (clicktocurecancer.info)
- Interestingly, the overall position of the mutations mirrored the positions of the translocation breakpoints (compare Figs. 3 and Figs.4), supporting the idea that regions prone to SHM are susceptible to translocations. (nih.gov)
- BL is an aggressive B-cell neoplasm displaying highly characteristic clinico-diagnostic features, the biologic hallmark of which is a translocation involving immunoglobulin and c-MYC genes. (dovepress.com)
- When Polβ −/− B cells are activated to switch in culture, they switch slightly better to IgG2a, IgG2b, and IgG3 and have more S region DSBs and mutations than wild-type controls. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- The somatic mutations that occur in the immunoglobulin gene also cause increased affinity. (dailyhudson.com)
- MINING-D will help researchers study mutations in D genes, which up until this point has been a challenge,' said Vinnu Bhardwaj, the paper's lead author and a Ph.D. candidate with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Qualcomm Institute at UC San Diego. (news-medical.net)
- In this context, we have identified mutations in the VAV1 gene in lymphoma samples from peripheral T-cell lymphoma patients. (lls.org)
- However, in mature B cells undergoing activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)-dependent somatic hypermutation (SHM), duplications or deletions that would necessitate a double-strand break make up 6% of all the Ig V-J(H) region-associated somatic mutations. (nih.gov)
- Although there was no correlation between the position of the breakpoints and the RGYW motifs, which are the preferred targets of AID, the translocated Ig V-JH region was somatically mutated at a frequency of ∼0.6 × 10−3 mutations per basepair (Fig. 4). (nih.gov)
- SCID is a group of rare congenital syndromes caused by mutations in genes responsible for the development of both T and B cells. (bmbreports.org)
- SCID pig models depict numerous types of immune cell profiles due to defects in different signaling pathways and mutations in different genes. (bmbreports.org)
- Immunoglobulin (Ig) affinity maturation requires the enzyme AID, which converts cytosines (C) in Ig genes into uracils (U). This alone produces C:G to T:A transition mutations. (rupress.org)
- Rearranged Ig V(D)J genes in B cells responding to infections or vaccinations mutate somatically at an ∼1 million-fold higher rate than background mutations ( Di Noia and Neuberger, 2007 ). (rupress.org)
Segments of the human immunoglobulin1
- CSR and somatic hypermutation (SHM) of Ig variable region genes are initiated by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) ( 5 ), which converts cytosines in S regions and variable region genes to uracils ( 6 - 9 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Somatic hypermutation (SHM) happen particularly in the place that codes for the second hypervariable region is within the V-region. (avroarrow.org)
- In an effort to identify the active region of AGRP polypeptide, various peptides of the full length molecule have been prepared and tested for activity. (google.com)
- This allows the expression of the intact immunoglobulin molecule on the cell surface of the B cell. (mhmedical.com)
- The antibody recognizes a unique molecule of the pathogen, called an antigen , via the Fab's variable region . (wikipedia.org)
- I also review the recent updated knowledge on novel approaches of targeting super-enhancers for the treatment of specific diseases, such as small-molecule inhibitors and potential gene therapy. (molcells.org)
- The part of an immunoglobulin molecule that binds antigen specifically. (rxpgonline.com)
- The array comprises a substrate having a plurality of capture probes that can specifically bind to a nucleic acid molecule corresponding to a T cell receptor (TCR) gene family selected from the group consisting of the TCR gene families listed in Table 1. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
- this gene codes for the production of a cell surface molecule called the H-Y antigen. (britannica.com)
- In genetically tractable models such as the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, for example, a reporter construct such as the lacZ gene can be randomly integrated into the genome using a P element transposon. (wikipedia.org)
- We found that several oligonucleotides, cotransfected with enhancerless SV40 DNA into host cells, were incorporated into the viral genome via cellular DNA end joining. (asm.org)
- To understand the mechanisms that generate genome instability mediated by mRNP biogenesis impairment and by AID, we devised a yeast chromosomal system based on different segments of mammalian S regions and c-MYC for the analysis of chromosomal rearrangements in both wild-type and THO mutants. (prolekare.cz)
- A large number of individual V gene segments are encoded within the genome. (europeanmedical.info)
- If both the proximal and distal IGKV clusters are present, the total number of human IGK genes per haploid genome is 82 (107 genes, if the orphons are included) of which 37-42 are functional . (imgt.org)
- If only the proximal IGKV cluster is present, the total number of genes per haploid genome is 46 (71 genes, if the orphons are included) of which 23-26 genes are functional. (imgt.org)
- IMGT gene names have been approved by the Human Genome Organization (HUGO) Nomenclature Committee in 1999. (imgt.org)
- gene content and genome evolution: S.F., B.L.A., S.W., S.S. (businessdocbox.com)
- Ig heavy chain V-III region VH26 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the [email protected] gene. (wikipedia.org)
- Three IGLL genes, 14.1, 16.1, and 16.2 are present in humans as opposed to one, λ5 ( Igll ), found in the mouse. (springer.com)
- 11 - 15 However, little attention has been paid to interfollicular large B cells in humans, with the exception of cytoplasmic immunoglobulin-positive immunoblast-like B cells seen in reactive lymph nodes. (bloodjournal.org)
- The organization of the IGH chain C-region genes in humans. (intechopen.com)
- AID-dependent DSBs have been detected in Ig S regions by ligation-mediated (LM)-PCR in mice and humans ( 6 , 7 ). (rupress.org)
Mouse immunoglobulin heavy-chain1
Rearranged immunoglobulin heavy chain1
- Each Fc region of a particular antibody isotype is able to bind to its specific Fc Receptor (except for IgD, which is essentially the BCR), thus allowing the antigen-antibody complex to mediate different roles depending on which FcR it binds. (wikipedia.org)
- This process results in an immunoglobulin gene that encodes an antibody of a different isotype. (news-medical.net)
- Transcription through a particular S region is needed for CSR to the corresponding isotype, most likely to create a target for AID. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Antibody genes also re-organize in a process called class switching that changes the base of the heavy chain to another, creating a different isotype of the antibody that retains the antigen specific variable region. (wikidoc.org)
- A ψ next to the heavy-chain isotype designation indicates that the gene is a pseudogene. (asmscience.org)
- The V regions confer the antigenic specificity, and are associated with the antigen-binding site. (uniprot.org)
- Redirecting the recognition specificity of T lymphocytes to designated tumour cell surface antigens by transferring chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) genes is becoming an effective strategy to combat ca. (bioportfolio.com)
- The CDR1 and CDR2 regions encode two out of the three parts of the variable region that determine the antigenic specificity of the heavy-chain V region. (europeanmedical.info)
- detecting said interaction(s), if any, within said protein regions. (google.com)
- IGHV3-23 (Immunoglobulin Heavy Variable 3-23) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
- Center: Structure of a typical immunoglobulin (antibody) protein. (nih.gov)
- An antibody ( Ab ), also known as an immunoglobulin ( Ig ), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses . (wikipedia.org)
- This gene encodes an integral outer mitochondrial membrane protein that blocks the apoptotic death of some cells such as lymphocytes. (abnova.com)
- Sequence of the gene encoding an immunodominant microneme protein of Eimeria tenella (1991) Tomley Fiona M et al. (naver.com)
- Andersen PR, Devare SG, Tronick SR, Ellis RW, Aaronson SA, Scolnick EM (1981) Generation of BALB/MuSV and Ha-MuSV by type C virus transduction of homologous transforming genes from different species. (springer.com)
- Comparison of the C gamma CH3 domains shows that the rat C gamma 2b gene is most homologous to mouse C gamma 2a/b, whereas the rat C gamma 1 and C gamma 2a genes, both very similar to each other, are most homologous to the mouse C gamma 1 gene. (ox.ac.uk)
- In mice for example, there are 4 J genes, 10 D genes and 195 V genes in the immunoglobulin heavy chain antigen receptor. (eurekalert.org)
- Dr Daniel Bolland, senior postdoctoral researcher at the Babraham Institute and co-first author on the paper, said: "The selection of the different gene segments to create a receptor is not random. (eurekalert.org)
- Complexity of human T-cell antigen receptor beta-chain constant- and variable-region genes. (ox.ac.uk)
- We report here the characterization of cDNA and genomic clones encoding human T-cell receptor beta-chain genes. (ox.ac.uk)
- IgE's Fab paratope binds to allergic antigen , for example house dust mite particles, while its Fc region binds to Fc receptor ε. (wikipedia.org)
- High-throughput sequencing (HTS) of immunoglobulin (B-cell receptor, antibody) and T-cell receptor repertoires has increased dramatically since the technique was introduced in 2009 ( 1 - 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
- There exist 10 to the 18th different possibilities due to the T-cell receptor J region variabilities as well. (dailyhudson.com)
- Notch is a receptor that when activated by either ligand or mutation functions to regulate the expression of genes involved in cell fates, growth, survival and metabolism. (lls.org)
- which is responsable of the Immunoglobulin and T cell receptor V-J and V-D-J rearrangements. (imgt.org)
- In research just published in Cell Reports , the researchers used the technique, called VDJ-seq, to look particularly at the frequency of use of the 195 V genes in an immune cell type from mice. (eurekalert.org)
- B cells within the germinal center then perish through spontaneous apoptosis unless their surface immunoglobulin binds with high affinity to antigen (present within immune complexes) on follicular dendritic cells. (bloodjournal.org)
- Immunoglobulins recognize foreign antigens and initiate immune responses such as phagocytosis and the complement system. (genecards.org)
- First immunoglobulin to be synthesized during ontogeny and in the immune response. (powershow.com)
- The ability of an antibody to communicate with the other components of the immune system is mediated via its Fc region (located at the base of the "Y"), which contains a conserved glycosylation site involved in these interactions. (wikipedia.org)
- Such mechanism is responsible for assembly of gene fragments during development of the vertebrate immune system. (avroarrow.org)
- Safonova points out that, as in the case of flu, earlier studies showed a single mutation in a gene called IGHV1-69 resulted in an individual's reduced ability to recognize the flu virus and thus a failure to produce an immune response against it. (news-medical.net)
- Because the C H region determines the antibody effector function, class switching allows the humoral immune system to respond adaptively to a variety of different infectious organisms to produce the best antibody for elimination of each pathogen. (rupress.org)
- Therefore, understanding of Smad1 gene expression. (ebscohost.com)
- citation needed] The development, differentiation and growth of cells and tissues require precisely regulated patterns of gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
- We discuss the relevance of methylation patterns and CpG islands to expression, and the evolutionary significance of the IGLL gene duplications. (springer.com)
- genes are associated with differential gene expression, Nature 295:428-430 (1982). (freepatentsonline.com)
- The prototype of a malignant plasma cell neoplasm is myeloma, which is characterized by complex genetic alterations, best assessed by metaphase cytogenetics, fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis, and gene-expression profiling. (mhmedical.com)
- Although the promoter region of a gene-a DNA element in close proximity to the transcriptional start site (TSS)-is sufficient for the initial assembly of the transcriptional machinery for gene transcription, this step often induces only limited or basal levels of gene expression. (molcells.org)
- Cloning, expression, and modification of antibody V regions. (sydlabs.com)
- Detailed protocol for cloning and expression of immunoglobulin variable regions using PCR with redundant primers. (sydlabs.com)
- This, in turn, causes expression of genes important in cell cycle such that virtually 100% of cells are cycling. (clicktocurecancer.info)
- A heritable chemical modification of DNA (replacement of cytosine by 5-methyl cytosine) that, when present in a control region, usually suppresses expression of the corresponding gene. (nap.edu)
- Expression of a (trans)gene in a tissue where, or developmental stage when, such expression is not expected. (nap.edu)
- The expression of the inserted Myc His gene was determined using RT-PCR and qPCR. (biomedcentral.com)
- The global gene expression program of the iMyc Eμ -1 cells and the expression of 768 "pathway" genes were determined with the help of the Mouse Lymphochip © and Superarray © cDNA micro- and macroarrays, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
- The iMyc Eμ -1 cells harbored a reciprocal T(9;11) and three non-reciprocal chromosomal translocations, over-expressed Myc His at the expense of normal Myc , and exhibited gene expression changes on Mouse Lymphochip © microarrays that were consistent with Myc His -driven B-cell neoplasia. (biomedcentral.com)
- Upon activation by antigen and accessory signals, naive IgM + IgD + B cells undergo Ig class switching, which results in expression of a different heavy chain constant (C H ) region gene, while maintaining expression of the same variable region gene. (rupress.org)
- Secreted immunoglobulins mediate the effector phase of humoral immunity, which results in the elimination of bound antigens (PubMed:22158414, PubMed:20176268). (genecards.org)
- Immunoglobulin epitopes are usually located at the antigens surface. (powershow.com)
- these cells carry immunoglobulin and class II MHC (major histocompatibility complex) antigens on their surfaces. (rxpgonline.com)
- So, this chapter gives a brief overview on immunoglobulin (IG) gene organization and gene rearrangements, as well as the main mechanisms of immunoglobulin repertoire development. (intechopen.com)
- The heavy chain gene is located at 14q32.3 and the germline organization of the part of the gene that encodes for the variable region of IgH is shown at the top of Figure 20.6. (europeanmedical.info)
- Silencers are antagonists of enhancers that, when bound to its proper transcription factors called repressors, repress the transcription of the gene. (wikipedia.org)
- Silencers and enhancers may be in close proximity to each other or may even be the same region only differentiated by the transcription factor the region binds to. (wikipedia.org)
- Typical enhancers of viral or cellular genes are approximately 100 to 400 bp long and contain several transcription factor binding sites. (asm.org)
- The oligonucleotides tested included metal response elements (MREs), the binding sites for the transcription factor MTF-1, which induces gene activity in response to heavy metals. (asm.org)
- Super-enhancers are large clusters of enhancers covering the long region of regulatory DNA and are densely occupied by transcription factors, active histone marks, and co-activators. (molcells.org)
- Transcription of the switch (S) regions generates DNA intermediates in which the C-rich template strand forms stable R-loops and the non-template G-rich strand can form secondary structures (reviewed in ). (prolekare.cz)
- The arrows indicate the direction of transcription of the gene segments. (asmscience.org)
- Transcription of the S region is required for CSR ( 17 , 18 ), and current results suggest that S region transcription generates an ss DNA substrate for AID ( 9 , 19 ). (rupress.org)
- Moreover, transcription of the IL1b gene was induced by the activation of the TLR2-MyD88 pathway, whereas the processing and secretion of IL-1β were under the control of the NALP3 inflammasome. (cavd.org)
- They can be located up to 1 Mbp (1,000,000 bp) away from the gene, upstream or downstream from the start site. (wikipedia.org)
- The simultaneous change in IgG subclasses, exemplified by an absence of carbohydrate-specific IgG2 or even a lack of serum IgG2, IgG4 and IgE, suggests that these patients have a block in switching to genes downstream of IgGl. (78stepshealth.us)
- Each SHM results in one nucleotide change per variable gene with each cell division. (news-medical.net)
- Data of the nucleotide composition of these codons of rearranged genes, an indicator of the degree of contribution of the IGHV gene to CDR3 diversity, are presented in this article. (scilifelab.se)
- Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) improves the PCR-based isolation of immunoglobulin variable region genes from murine and human lymphoma cells and cell lines. (sydlabs.com)
- A reliable and versatile RACE PCR method for the isolation of VH genes from human and murine lymphoma cells, especially if consensus primer PCR fails. (sydlabs.com)
Variable region gene1
- Three overlapping genomic clones of the chicken immunoglobulin joining (J) chain were isolated and then characterized using restriction enzyme analysis, Southern blot analysis with cDNA probes, and DNA sequencing. (ebscohost.com)
- 2007). "IgVH gene mutation status and genomic imbalances in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia with increased prolymphocytes (CLL/PL)". Hematological oncology. (wikipedia.org)
- However, through the integration of chromatin immunoprecipitation and next-generation sequencing technology (ChIP-seq), whole-genomic landscapes of regulatory elements controlling specific gene sets can now be thoroughly explored. (molcells.org)
- This marker can be used to examine for any tumor-derived immunoglobulin gene fragments amplified by PCR performed on genomic DNA of lymphoid tissue. (asmscience.org)
- Analysis of genomic DNA by Southern blotting permitted identification of the C gamma 2c gene and led to the proposal of the following gene order for the rat Ig heavy chain locus: D-JH-C mu-C delta-(C gamma 2c, C gamma 2a)-C gamma 1-C gamma 2b-C epsilon-C alpha. (ox.ac.uk)
- The potential genomic IGK repertoire comprises 31 to 36 functional IGKV genes belonging to 5 subgroups, the 5 IGKJ segments, and the unique IGKC gene. (imgt.org)
Amino acid seq1
- The agouti gene was cloned in 1992 and was found to encode a 131 amino acid polypeptide (Bultman et al. (google.com)
- The V gene segments are longer than J or D segments and encode much of the framework of the variable-region domain, together with the first and second hypervariable regions (known as the complementarity-determining regions - CDR1 and CDR2). (europeanmedical.info)
- Each one of these 19 lymphoid neoplasms exhibited clonal IgH gene rearrangements upon hybridization of EcoRI- or HindIII-digested DNA to a heavy-chain joining region (J(H))-specific DNA probe. (elsevier.com)
- The bilateral ocular adnexal monoclonal B cell neoplasms occurring simultaneously in two individuals exhibited identical clonal IgH gene rearrangements, which indicated their derivation from an identical B cell clone. (elsevier.com)
- The ocular adnexal and the extraocular monoclonal B cell neoplasms occurring in two of three patients also exhibited identical clonal IgH gene rearrangements, which suggested that they too were derived from an identical B cell clone. (elsevier.com)
- Three of these five ocular adnexal lymphoid neoplasm exhibited clonal IgH gene rearrangements, which suggested the presence of monoclonal B cell populations that escaped detection by morphological and immunophenotypic examination. (elsevier.com)
- None of the 24 pathological samples exhibited clonal Tβ gene rearrangements upon hybridization of EcoRI- or BamHI-digested DNA to a Tβ gene DNA probe. (elsevier.com)
- The results of these studies demonstrate the value of Southern blot hybridization analysis for clonal IgH and Tβ gene rearrangements in the diagnosis, classification, and investigation of extranodal lymphoid neoplasms originating and/or presenting in the ocular adnexa. (elsevier.com)
- To precisely map the location of the human IGLL genes in relation to each other and to the human IGL gene locus, at 22q11.1-2, a somatic cell hybrid panel and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were used. (springer.com)
- Hybridization with a λ-like gene-specific DNA probe to somatic cell hybrids revealed that these genes reside on 22q11.2 between the breakpoint cluster region ( BCR ) and the Ewing sarcoma breakpoint at 22q12 and that gene 16.1 was located distal to genes 14.1 and 16.2 . (springer.com)
- Another category of c -one genes has been detected in the DNA of malignant cells by virtue of these genes' ability to induce neoplastic transformation when "transfected" into a mouse fibroblastic cell line in vitro (for review see C ooper 1982). (springer.com)
- Variable and constant regions are encoded by separated genes, called V genes and C genes respectively, which join during cell differentiation. (uniprot.org)
- Their anatomic location and pattern of gene mutation suggest that these cells may represent the cell of origin of some human large-cell lymphomas. (bloodjournal.org)
- A new human immunoglobulin V.sub.H family preferentially rearranged in immature B-cell tumours, Nature 331:446-449 (1988). (freepatentsonline.com)
- Analysis of homozygous mutant chimeric mice: Deletion of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain joining region blocks B-cell development and antibody production, Proc. (freepatentsonline.com)
- An antisense oligonucleotide complementary to a sequence in I.gamma.2b Increase .gamma.2b germline transcrips, stimulates B cell DNA synthesis, and inhibits immunoglobulin secretion, The Journal of Experimental Medicine 175:597-607 (1992). (freepatentsonline.com)
- The similarity of the T-cell beta-chain gene system to the immunoglobulin genes has been further demonstrated by the recent observation of variable- and constant-region gene segments as well as joining segments and putative diversity segments. (ox.ac.uk)
- The transcriptional regulation of genes determines the fate of animal cell differentiation and subsequent organ development. (molcells.org)
- When a B cell develops from a precursor cell into a mature cell, it undergoes an unusual genetic process in which it rearranges its immunoglobulin genes. (whfreeman.com)
- These genes rearrange while a B cell is immature, in a stage called a B cell precursor. (whfreeman.com)
- Antibody variable region sequencing as a method for hybridoma cell line authentication. (sydlabs.com)
- Variable region sequencing used for discrimination between hybridoma cell lines. (sydlabs.com)
- Immunophenotype: The immunophenotype is that of a mature B-cell expressing CD19, CD20, CD10, and surface immunoglobulin. (clicktocurecancer.info)
- By contrast, in female carriers of a number of X-linked immunodeficiency disorders (including X-linked agamma-globulinaemia, X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency disease, and the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome) all the active X chromosomes in the affected cell populations are those which carry the abnormal copy of the gene ( allele ). (78stepshealth.us)
- Examples include ex vivo gene transfer to modify cells, which are then infused into patients as described in "Gene Transfer and T-cell Therapies for Viral Infection and Cancer" and in the accompanying article by Aiuti and Roncarolo, beginning on page 678, and by local injection of vectors directly into sites with highly circumscribed anatomy, such as the retina. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
Polymerase chain re2
- A 10 μl aliquot of this lysate served as template for semi-nested polymerase chain reaction using variable and joining region consensus primers. (nyu.edu)
- Cloning and sequencing of immunoglobulin variable-region genes using degenerate oligodeoxyribonucleotides and polymerase chain reaction. (sydlabs.com)
- This region is known as the hypervariable region . (wikipedia.org)
- The variable domains are located on three loops known as hypervariable regions (HV-1, HV-2 and HV-3). (news-medical.net)
- The diversity generated by this mechanism is occurring in the third hypervariable region thus directly affecting combining site of the antibody. (avroarrow.org)
- These B cells probably require CD40/CD40 ligand signaling for their generation and have a unique phenotype and a post-germinal center pattern of immunoglobulin gene mutation. (bloodjournal.org)
- This rate of mutation is similar to that reported for the Ig V-JH region in B cells undergoing hypermutation (47). (nih.gov)
- So far, mutation(s) in more than 30 genes that might cause SCID have been discovered. (bmbreports.org)
- We also further checked the mutation of TSC1 and TSC2 genes from both sides of blood and tissues sequencing results and didn't find the mutation for both of these genes. (healthandwellnesssource.org)
- These results indicated which the tumor mutation burden in cases like this of primary lung LAM was low which no remarkable gene mutation was found. (healthandwellnesssource.org)
- B cells then enter the germinal centers of secondary lymphoid follicles and undergo a process of random hypermutation in theirV immunoglobulin region genes, under the influence of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), resulting in yet more diversity in the antigen-binding repertoire of their surface immunoglobulin. (bloodjournal.org)
- Because of the way in which gene conversion introduces diversity, the naïve antibody repertoire of the chicken can easily be accessed using only two sets of primers. (biomedcentral.com)
- This suggests that in the human like in the mouse, and independently of age, somatically mutated memory B cells accumulate in the compartment of IgM-IgD- cells, whereas the IgM+IgD+ subpopulation consists of cells whose antibody repertoire is mainly determined by V region gene rearrangements and N-region insertion, at the molecular level. (nih.gov)
Heavy chain gene locus1
- Bauer, Jr., T. R. and Blomberg, B. A new λ-like light chain gene, 16.2, is related to genes 14.1 and 16.1 expressed in pre-B cells. (springer.com)
- The light chain has one variable region (VL) and one constant region (CL) domain, whereas the heavy chain has one variable region (VH) and three or four constant region domains (CH1 to CH4). (uniprot.org)
- Fragment, Antigen Binding region) is composed of one constant and one variable domain from each heavy and light chain of the antibody. (proteopedia.org)
- The variable region of each immunoglobulin heavy or light chain is encoded in several pieces on the genes. (news-medical.net)