The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.
Immunoglobulin preparations used in intravenous infusion, containing primarily IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. They are used to treat a variety of diseases associated with decreased or abnormal immunoglobulin levels including pediatric AIDS; primary HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA; SCID; CYTOMEGALOVIRUS infections in transplant recipients, LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC; Kawasaki syndrome, infection in neonates, and IDIOPATHIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA.
Genes encoding the different subunits of the IMMUNOGLOBULINS, for example the IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN GENES and the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES. The heavy and light immunoglobulin genes are present as gene segments in the germline cells. The completed genes are created when the segments are shuffled and assembled (B-LYMPHOCYTE GENE REARRANGEMENT) during B-LYMPHOCYTE maturation. The gene segments of the human light and heavy chain germline genes are symbolized V (variable), J (joining) and C (constant). The heavy chain germline genes have an additional segment D (diversity).
Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
One of the types of light chains of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.
Crystallizable fragments composed of the carboxy-terminal halves of both IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fc fragments contain the carboxy-terminal parts of the heavy chain constant regions that are responsible for the effector functions of an immunoglobulin (COMPLEMENT fixation, binding to the cell membrane via FC RECEPTORS, and placental transport). This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.
Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN M. They have a molecular weight of approximately 72 kDa and they contain about 57 amino acid residues arranged in five domains and have more oligosaccharide branches and a higher carbohydrate content than the heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
One of the types of light chain subunits of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
An immunoglobulin which accounts for less than 1% of plasma immunoglobulin. It is found on the membrane of many circulating B LYMPHOCYTES.
The domains of the immunoglobulin molecules that are invariable in their amino acid sequence within any class or subclass of immunoglobulin. They confer biological as well as structural functions to immunoglobulins. One each on both the light chains and the heavy chains comprises the C-terminus half of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN FAB FRAGMENT and two or three of them make up the rest of the heavy chains (all of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN FC FRAGMENT)
Heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G having a molecular weight of approximately 51 kDa. They contain about 450 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component covalently bound to the Fc fragment constant region. The gamma heavy chain subclasses (for example, gamma 1, gamma 2a, and gamma 2b) of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G isotype subclasses (IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B) resemble each other more closely than the heavy chains of the other IMMUNOGLOBULIN ISOTYPES.
Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Gene rearrangement of the B-lymphocyte which results in a substitution in the type of heavy-chain constant region that is expressed. This allows the effector response to change while the antigen binding specificity (variable region) remains the same. The majority of class switching occurs by a DNA recombination event but it also can take place at the level of RNA processing.
A protein present in the cell wall of most Staphylococcus aureus strains. The protein selectively binds to the Fc region of human normal and myeloma-derived IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. It elicits antibody activity and may cause hypersensitivity reactions due to histamine release; has also been used as cell surface antigen marker and in the clinical assessment of B lymphocyte function.
Allelic variants of the immunoglobulin light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) or heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) encoded by ALLELES of IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.
Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A 15 kD "joining" peptide that forms one of the linkages between monomers of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A or IMMUNOGLOBULIN M in the formation of polymeric immunoglobulins. There is one J chain per one IgA dimer or one IgM pentamer. It is also involved in binding the polymeric immunoglobulins to POLYMERIC IMMUNOGLOBULIN RECEPTOR which is necessary for their transcytosis to the lumen. It is distinguished from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN JOINING REGION which is part of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of the immunoglobulin light and heavy chains.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
Abnormal immunoglobulins characteristic of MULTIPLE MYELOMA.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
The thin, yellow, serous fluid secreted by the mammary glands during pregnancy and immediately postpartum before lactation begins. It consists of immunologically active substances, white blood cells, water, protein, fat, and carbohydrates.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Specialized Fc receptors (RECEPTORS, FC) for polymeric immunoglobulins, which mediate transcytosis of polymeric IMMUNOGLOBULIN A and IMMUNOGLOBULIN M into external secretions. They are found on the surfaces of epithelial cells and hepatocytes. After binding to IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, the receptor-ligand complex undergoes endocytosis, transport by vesicle, and secretion into the lumen by exocytosis. Before release, the part of the receptor (SECRETORY COMPONENT) that is bound to IMMUNOGLOBULIN A is proteolytically cleaved from its transmembrane tail. (From Rosen et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
A segment of the immunoglobulin heavy chains, encoded by the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES in the J segment where, during the maturation of B-LYMPHOCYTES; the gene segment for the variable region upstream is joined to a constant region gene segment downstream. The exact position of joining of the two gene segments is variable and contributes to ANTIBODY DIVERSITY. It is distinguished from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN J CHAINS; a separate polypeptide that serves as a linkage piece in polymeric IGA or IGM.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Serum globulins that migrate to the gamma region (most positively charged) upon ELECTROPHORESIS. At one time, gamma-globulins came to be used as a synonym for immunoglobulins since most immunoglobulins are gamma globulins and conversely most gamma globulins are immunoglobulins. But since some immunoglobulins exhibit an alpha or beta electrophoretic mobility, that usage is in decline.
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Any discrete, presumably solitary, mass of neoplastic PLASMA CELLS either in BONE MARROW or various extramedullary sites.
Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Genes and gene segments encoding the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS. Gene segments of the heavy chain genes are symbolized V (variable), D (diversity), J (joining), and C (constant).
A programmed mutation process whereby changes are introduced to the nucleotide sequence of immunoglobulin gene DNA during development.
An immunologic deficiency state characterized by an extremely low level of generally all classes of gamma-globulin in the blood.
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.
The acquired form of infection by Toxoplasma gondii in animals and man.
The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN D. They have a molecular weight of approximately 64 kDa and they contain about 500 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component covalently bound to the Fc fragment constant region.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
A site located in the INTRONS at the 5' end of each constant region segment of a immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene where recombination (or rearrangement) occur during IMMUNOGLOBULIN CLASS SWITCHING. Ig switch regions are found on genes encoding all five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN ISOTYPES) of IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN A. They have a molecular weight of approximately 58 kDa and contain about 470 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component bound covalently to their Fc fragment constant region.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.
Allelic variants of the gamma-immunoglobulin heavy chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN GAMMA-CHAINS) encoded by ALLELES of IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.
The extracellular moiety of the POLYMERIC IMMUNOGLOBULIN RECEPTOR found alone or complexed with IGA or IGM, in a variety of external secretions (tears, bile, colostrum.) Secretory component is derived by proteolytic cleavage of the receptor during transcytosis. When immunoglobulins IgA and IgM are bound to the receptor, during their transcytosis secretory component becomes covalently attached to them generating SECRETORY IMMUNOGLOBULIN A or secretory IMMUNOGLOBULIN M.
A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Specialized forms of antibody-producing B-LYMPHOCYTES. They synthesize and secrete immunoglobulin. They are found only in lymphoid organs and at sites of immune responses and normally do not circulate in the blood or lymph. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989, p169 & Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p20)
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Antibodies found in adult RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS patients that are directed against GAMMA-CHAIN IMMUNOGLOBULINS.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
A dysgammaglobulinemia characterized by a deficiency of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
An acute infectious disease caused by the RUBELLA VIRUS. The virus enters the respiratory tract via airborne droplet and spreads to the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the first stage of differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.
Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions coding for the IMMUNOGLOBULIN CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An excess of GAMMA-GLOBULINS in the serum due to chronic infections or PARAPROTEINEMIAS.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
A group of related diseases characterized by an unbalanced or disproportionate proliferation of immunoglobulin-producing cells, usually from a single clone. These cells frequently secrete a structurally homogeneous immunoglobulin (M-component) and/or an abnormal immunoglobulin.
Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.
Autoantibodies that bind to the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor (RECEPTORS, THYROTROPIN) on thyroid epithelial cells. The autoantibodies mimic TSH causing an unregulated production of thyroid hormones characteristic of GRAVES DISEASE.
A dysgammaglobulinemia characterized by a deficiency of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.
Proteins isolated from the roots of the pokeweed, Phytolacca americana, that agglutinate some erythrocytes, stimulate mitosis and antibody synthesis in lymphocytes, and induce activation of plasma cells.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
An immunologic deficiency state characterized by selective deficiencies of one or more, but not all, classes of immunoglobulins.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
The period of recovery following an illness.
Substances, usually of biological origin, that cause cells or other organic particles to aggregate and stick to each other. They include those ANTIBODIES which cause aggregation or agglutination of particulate or insoluble ANTIGENS.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.
Genes and gene segments encoding the IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS. Gene segments of the light chain genes are designated as V (variable), J (joining), and C (constant).
The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN E. They have a molecular weight of approximately 72 kDa and they contain about 550 amino acid residues arranged in five domains and about three times more carbohydrate than the heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; and IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.
A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
An abnormal protein with unusual thermosolubility characteristics that is found in the urine of patients with MULTIPLE MYELOMA.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions coding for the kappa or lambda IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the second stage of differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The sequential activation of serum COMPLEMENT PROTEINS to create the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Factors initiating complement activation include ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES, microbial ANTIGENS, or cell surface POLYSACCHARIDES.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Heterogeneous group of immunodeficiency syndromes characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia of most isotypes, variable B-cell defects, and the presence of recurrent bacterial infections.
The in vitro formation of clusters consisting of a cell (usually a lymphocyte) surrounded by antigenic cells or antigen-bearing particles (usually erythrocytes, which may or may not be coated with antibody or antibody and complement). The rosette-forming cell may be an antibody-forming cell, a memory cell, a T-cell, a cell bearing surface cytophilic antibodies, or a monocyte possessing Fc receptors. Rosette formation can be used to identify specific populations of these cells.
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.
The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Inflammation and loss of connective tissues supporting or surrounding the teeth. This may involve any part of the PERIODONTIUM. Periodontitis is currently classified by disease progression (CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS; AGGRESSIVE PERIODONTITIS) instead of age of onset. (From 1999 International Workshop for a Classification of Periodontal Diseases and Conditions, American Academy of Periodontology)
Chemical analysis based on the phenomenon whereby light, passing through a medium with dispersed particles of a different refractive index from that of the medium, is attenuated in intensity by scattering. In turbidimetry, the intensity of light transmitted through the medium, the unscattered light, is measured. In nephelometry, the intensity of the scattered light is measured, usually, but not necessarily, at right angles to the incident light beam.
A subcomponent of complement C1, composed of six copies of three polypeptide chains (A, B, and C), each encoded by a separate gene (C1QA; C1QB; C1QC). This complex is arranged in nine subunits (six disulfide-linked dimers of A and B, and three disulfide-linked homodimers of C). C1q has binding sites for antibodies (the heavy chain of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G or IMMUNOGLOBULIN M). The interaction of C1q and immunoglobulin activates the two proenzymes COMPLEMENT C1R and COMPLEMENT C1S, thus initiating the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION via the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.
A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Carica papaya. It is also the name used for a purified mixture of papain and CHYMOPAPAIN that is used as a topical enzymatic debriding agent. EC
Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
A lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by pleomorphic B-LYMPHOCYTES including PLASMA CELLS, with increased levels of monoclonal serum IMMUNOGLOBULIN M. There is lymphoplasmacytic cells infiltration into bone marrow and often other tissues, also known as lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma. Clinical features include ANEMIA; HEMORRHAGES; and hyperviscosity.
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
Allelic variants of the kappa light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN KAPPA-CHAINS) encoded by ALLELES of IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN GENES.
Formed from pig pepsinogen by cleavage of one peptide bond. The enzyme is a single polypeptide chain and is inhibited by methyl 2-diaazoacetamidohexanoate. It cleaves peptides preferentially at the carbonyl linkages of phenylalanine or leucine and acts as the principal digestive enzyme of gastric juice.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and parasitic diseases. The parasitic infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Infections with organisms of the genus HELICOBACTER, particularly, in humans, HELICOBACTER PYLORI. The clinical manifestations are focused in the stomach, usually the gastric mucosa and antrum, and the upper duodenum. This infection plays a major role in the pathogenesis of type B gastritis and peptic ulcer disease.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
Chimeric molecules resulting from the fusion of recombinant soluble CD4 to the Fc portion of immunoglobulins. These have potential use in the therapy of AIDS since they possess both the gp120-binding and HIV-blocking properties of rCD4 as well as the long plasma half-life and Fc receptor-binding functions of immunoglobulin.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.

The role of colorstrum on the occurrence of immunoglobulin G subclasses and antibody production in neonatal goats. (1/23942)

Quantitative determinations of IgG1 and IgG2, in one group of colostrum-fed and one group of colostrum-deprived neonatal goats revealed that the occurrence of the IgG1 subclass preceeded that of the IgG2 in both cases. In the colostrum-fed animals the IgG2 appeared, on an average, in the fourth week of life whereas in the colostrum-deprived animals the IgG2 was detected as early as three weeks after birth. At the age of twelve weeks the mean concentrations for IgG, and IgG2 were higher in the animals deprived of colostrum. The immune response to human gamma globulin was studied in colostrum-fed and colostrum-deprived neonatal goats which were immunized at birth and again after four and eight weeks. Following the first two antigen administrations a significantly higher response was obtained in the colostrum-fed neonates. However, the third injection determined a similar response in both groups. A marked suppressive effect on the immune response was observed in colostrum-fed neonatal goats when specific antibodies were present in the colostrum after preimmunization of the mothers with human gamma globulin.  (+info)

Features of the immune response to DNA in mice. I. Genetic control. (2/23942)

The genetic control of the immune response to DNA was studied in various strains of mice F1 hybrids and corresponding back-crosses immunized with single stranded DNA complexed to methylated bovine serum albumin. Anti-DNA antibody response was measured by radioimmuno-logical technique. High responder, low responder, and intermediate responder strains were found and the ability to respond to DNA was characterized as a dominant genetic trait which is not linked to the major locus of histocompatibility. Studies in back-crosses suggested that this immune response is under multigenic control. High responder mice produce both anti-double stranded DNA and anti-single stranded DNA 7S and 19S antibodies, while low responder mice produce mainly anti-single stranded DNA 19S antibodies.  (+info)

VEGF is required for growth and survival in neonatal mice. (3/23942)

We employed two independent approaches to inactivate the angiogenic protein VEGF in newborn mice: inducible, Cre-loxP- mediated gene targeting, or administration of mFlt(1-3)-IgG, a soluble VEGF receptor chimeric protein. Partial inhibition of VEGF achieved by inducible gene targeting resulted in increased mortality, stunted body growth and impaired organ development, most notably of the liver. Administration of mFlt(1-3)-IgG, which achieves a higher degree of VEGF inhibition, resulted in nearly complete growth arrest and lethality. Ultrastructural analysis documented alterations in endothelial and other cell types. Histological and biochemical changes consistent with liver and renal failure were observed. Endothelial cells isolated from the liver of mFlt(1-3)-IgG-treated neonates demonstrated an increased apoptotic index, indicating that VEGF is required not only for proliferation but also for survival of endothelial cells. However, such treatment resulted in less significant alterations as the animal matured, and the dependence on VEGF was eventually lost some time after the fourth postnatal week. Administration of mFlt(1-3)-IgG to juvenile mice failed to induce apoptosis in liver endothelial cells. Thus, VEGF is essential for growth and survival in early postnatal life. However, in the fully developed animal, VEGF is likely to be involved primarily in active angiogenesis processes such as corpus luteum development.  (+info)

Interaction of inflammatory cells and oral microorganisms. III. Modulation of rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocyte hydrolase release response to Actinomyces viscosus and Streptococcus mutans by immunoglobulins and complement. (4/23942)

In the absence of antiserum, rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) released lysosomal enzymes in response to Actinomyces viscosus (19246) but not to Streptococcus mutans (6715). Antibodies had a marked modulating influence on these reactions. PMN hydrolase release was significantly enhanced to both organisms when specific rabbit antiserum and isolated immunoglobulin G (IgG) were included in the incubations. Immune complex F(ab')2 fragments of IgG directed against S. mutans agglutinated bacteria. Immune complexes consisting of S. mutans and F(ab')2 fragments of IgG directed against this organism were not effective as bacteria-IgG complexes in stimulating PMN release. The intensity of the release response to bacteria-IgG complexes was also diminished when PMNs were preincubated with isolated Fc fragments derived from IgG. Fresh serum as a source of complement components had no demonstrable effect on PMN release either alone or in conjuction with antiserum in these experiments. These data may be relevant to the mechanisms and consequences of the interaction of PMNs and plaque bacteria in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease.  (+info)

Prevention of collagen-induced arthritis by gene delivery of soluble p75 tumour necrosis factor receptor. (5/23942)

Collagen type II-induced arthritis (CIA) in DBA/1 mice can be passively transferred to SCID mice with spleen B- and T-lymphocytes. In the present study, we show that infection ex vivo of splenocytes from arthritic DBA/1 mice with a retroviral vector, containing cDNA for the soluble form of human p75 receptor of tumour necrosis factor (TNF-R) before transfer, prevents the development of arthritis, bone erosion and joint inflammation in the SCID recipients. Assessment of IgG subclass levels and studies of synovial histology suggest that down-regulating the effector functions of T helper-type 1 (Th1) cells may, at least in part, explain the inhibition of arthritis in the SCID recipients. In contrast, the transfer of splenocytes infected with mouse TNF-alpha gene construct resulted in exacerbated arthritis and enhancement of IgG2a antibody levels. Intriguingly, infection of splenocytes from arthritic DBA/1 mice with a construct for mouse IL-10 had no modulating effect on the transfer of arthritis. The data suggest that manipulation of the immune system with cytokines, or cytokine inhibitors using gene transfer protocols can be an effective approach to ameliorate arthritis.  (+info)

Variable domain-linked oligosaccharides of a human monoclonal IgG: structure and influence on antigen binding. (6/23942)

The variable-domain-attached oligosaccharide side chains of a human IgG produced by a human-human-mouse heterohybridoma were analysed. In addition to the conserved N-glycosylation site at Asn-297, an N-glycosylation consensus sequence (Asn-Asn-Ser) is located at position 75 in the variable region of its heavy chain. The antibody was cleaved into its antigen-binding (Fab) and crystallizing fragments. The oligosaccharides of the Fab fragment were released by digestion with various endo- and exoglycosidases and analysed by anion-exchange chromatography and fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis. The predominant components were disialyl- bi-antennary and tetra-sialyl tetra-antennary complex carbohydrates. Of note is the presence in this human IgG of oligosaccharides containing N-glycolylneuraminic acid and N-acetylneuraminic acid in the ratio of 94:6. Furthermore, we determined N-acetylgalactosamine in the Fab fragment of this antibody, suggesting the presence of O-linked carbohydrates. A three-dimensional structure of the glycosylated variable (Fv) fragment was suggested using computer-assisted modelling. In addition, the influence of the Fv-associated oligosaccharides of the CBGA1 antibody on antigen binding was tested in several ELISA systems. Deglycosylation resulted in a decreased antigen-binding activity.  (+info)

Zonula occludens toxin is a powerful mucosal adjuvant for intranasally delivered antigens. (7/23942)

Zonula occludens toxin (Zot) is produced by toxigenic strains of Vibrio cholerae and has the ability to reversibly alter intestinal epithelial tight junctions, allowing the passage of macromolecules through the mucosal barrier. In the present study, we investigated whether Zot could be exploited to deliver soluble antigens through the nasal mucosa for the induction of antigen-specific systemic and mucosal immune responses. Intranasal immunization of mice with ovalbumin (Ova) and recombinant Zot, either fused to the maltose-binding protein (MBP-Zot) or with a hexahistidine tag (His-Zot), induced anti-Ova serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers that were approximately 40-fold higher than those induced by immunization with antigen alone. Interestingly, Zot also stimulated high anti-Ova IgA titers in serum, as well as in vaginal and intestinal secretions. A comparison with Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) revealed that the adjuvant activity of Zot was only sevenfold lower than that of LT. Moreover, Zot and LT induced similar patterns of Ova-specific IgG subclasses. The subtypes IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b were all stimulated, with a predominance of IgG1 and IgG2b. In conclusion, our results highlight Zot as a novel potent mucosal adjuvant of microbial origin.  (+info)

The levels and bactericidal capacity of antibodies directed against the UspA1 and UspA2 outer membrane proteins of Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis in adults and children. (8/23942)

The UspA1 and UspA2 proteins from Moraxella catarrhalis share antigenic epitopes and are promising vaccine candidates. In this study, the levels and bactericidal activities of antibodies in sera from healthy adults and children toward UspA1 and UspA2 from the O35E strain were measured. Human sera contained antibodies to both proteins, and the levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies were age dependent. Adult sera had significantly higher titers of IgG than child sera (P < 0.01). The IgG3 titers to the UspA proteins were higher than the IgG1 titers in the adults' sera, while the IgG1 titers were higher than the IgG3 titers in the children's sera (P < 0.05). The IgG antibodies in the sera from 2-month-old children appeared to be maternally derived, since the mean titer was significantly higher than that in sera from 6- to 7-month-old children (P < 0.05). Serum IgA antibodies to both UspA1 and UspA2 were low during the first 7 months of age but thereafter gradually increased along with the IgG titers. Analysis of sera absorbed with UspA1 or UspA2 showed that the antibodies to UspA1 and UspA2 were cross-reactive with each other and associated with serum bactericidal activity. Examination of affinity-purified human antibodies confirmed that naturally acquired antibodies to UspA1 and UspA2 were bactericidal and cross-reactive. These results support using UspA1 and UspA2 in a vaccine to prevent M. catarrhalis infections.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Specific IgG Subclass Antibody Levels and Phagocytosis of Serotype 14 Pneumococcus Following Immunization. AU - KANIUK, A. St C.. AU - LORTAN, J. E.. AU - MONTEIL, M. A.. PY - 1992/12. Y1 - 1992/12. N2 - Complement and specific antibody directed against capsular polysaccharide are necessary for efficient phagocytosis of pneumococci. In normal adults, specific antibody to pneumococci is predominantly of the IgG2 subclass. However, the role of IgG2 in bacterial clearance is debatable. We therefore decided to investigate the relationship between specific IgG subclass antibody levels and phagocytosis of serotype 14 pneumococcus, before and after immunization with a pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide vaccine. Specific IgG subclass antibody was measured by an ELISA technique and the effect of serum on phagocytosis of radiolabelled pneumococci by normal polymorphs was determined. We found that in the presence of complement, phagocytosis correlated significantly with both specific IgGl ...
We sought to compare Pneumovax®23 responses in adults with subnormal IgG subclass concentrations. We studied adults with normal total IgG, frequent/severe respiratory infection, and subnormal IgG1, IgG3, or IgG1 + IgG3 before and after Pneumovax®23. We defined response as serotype-specific IgG | 1.3 μg/mL and aggregate response as IgG | 1.3 μg/mL for ≥70% of all serotypes tested. We compared patients with and without serotype-specific responses and performed logistic regression on aggregate responses using: age; male sex; body mass index; autoimmune condition(s); atopy; other allergies; subnormal IgGSc immunophenotypes; IgA; and IgM. There were 59 patients (mean age 44 ± 13 (SD) years; 83.1% women). Median days between pre- and post-Pneumovax®23 testing was 33 (range 19-158). The median post-vaccination summated concentration of serotype-specific IgG was higher in patients with subnormal IgG1 than subnormal IgG3 (responders and non-responders). All subnormal IgG1 + IgG3 non-responders responded
TY - JOUR. T1 - A cohort study of the association between serum immunoglobulin G concentration and preweaning health, growth, and survival in Holstein calves. AU - Pithua, P.. AU - Aly, Sharif S. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - The association between serum IgG concentration and preweaning health performance in Holstein calves were evaluated in a prospective cohort study design framework. Post colostral blood samples were collected from 561 calves and serum IgG concentrations were quantitated using a single radial immunodiffusion assay. Preweaning treatments for diarrhea, pneumonia, omphalitis and frequency of antibiotic therapy plus calf death events were recorded until calves were weaned at approximately 60 d of age. Logistic regression modeling was used to evaluate the association between failure of passive transfer of immunity (FPT, serum IgG , 10g/L) and risk of diarrhea, pneumonia, omphalitis, frequency of antibiotic therapy and death. Calves with FPT were twice as likely to suffer from scours ...
Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific antibodies (immunoglobulin M [IgM], IgE, IgG, and IgG subclasses) were determined in 164 tuberculosis patients (pulmonary involvement, n = 135; lymph node involvement, n = 29), 59 healthy household contacts (HC), and 51 healthy endemic donors (EC) by a quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for reactivity with culture filtrate. Among the isotypes, significant differences between tuberculosis patient groups with either pulmonary or lymph node involvement and healthy control groups (HC and EC) were detected only for IgG (P , 0.001) and IgG1 (P , 0.001) antibodies. Pulmonary patients also showed a significant difference with IgM (P , 0.01) and IgE (P , 0.05) antibodies. HC showed elevation of only IgM antibodies compared with EC, indicating that IgM antibodies may be an indicator of recent infection with M. tuberculosis. These results suggest that the switching of IgM antibody response to IgG1 is a critical event in disease progression. Polyclonal IgG1, ...
Dog Immunoglobulin G (IgG) ELISA kit CSB EQ028049DO Cusabio. Human Immunoglobulin G(IgG)ELISA Kit CSB E07979h Cusabio. Pig Immunoglobulin G(IgG) ELISA Kit CSB E06804p Cusabio. Mouse Immunoglobulin G,IgG ELISA Kit CSB E07980m Cusabio. Bovine Immunoglobulin G,IgG ELISA Kit CSB E12015B Cusabio ...
Lab Reagents Igg Antibody Laboratories manufactures the islet cell antibody igg reagents distributed by Genprice. The Islet Cell Antibody Igg reagent is RUO (Research Use Only) to test human serum or cell culture lab samples. To purchase these products, for the MSDS, Data Sheet, protocol, storage conditions/temperature or for the concentration, please contact igg antibody. Other Islet products are available in stock. Specificity: Islet Category: Cell Group: Antibody Igg. Antibody Igg information ...
Lab Reagents Igg Antibody Laboratories manufactures the antibodies igg igm reagents distributed by Genprice. The Antibodies Igg Igm reagent is RUO (Research Use Only) to test human serum or cell culture lab samples. To purchase these products, for the MSDS, Data Sheet, protocol, storage conditions/temperature or for the concentration, please contact igg antibody. Other Antibodies products are available in stock. Specificity: Antibodies Category: Igg Group: Igm Igm information ...
Lab Reagents Igg Serum Laboratories manufactures the serum igg concentration 1700 mg/dl reagents distributed by Genprice. The Serum Igg Concentration 1700 Mg/Dl reagent is RUO (Research Use Only) to test human serum or cell culture lab samples. To purchase these products, for the MSDS, Data Sheet, protocol, storage conditions/temperature or for the concentration, please contact IgG Serum. Other Serum products are available in stock. Specificity: Serum Category: Igg Group: Concentration 1700. Concentration 1700 information ...
PM. Normal human immunoglobulin Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation Pharmacopoeia Monograph Normal human immunoglobulin PM.
Human IgG (immunoglobulin G) is expressed on the surface of mature B cells. It is the most prevalent Ig in serum and the major Ig in extravascular spaces. Find out more and explore our range of IgG antibodies
Buy high purity Immunoglobulin G (IgG) from human plasma for diagnostic manufacturing, control, calibrator and research uses - Inquire for details!
Human IgG4 human immunoglobulin elisa kit Immunoglobulin G4 ELISA Kit from ELISA Genie is a pre-coated immunoassay with a sensitivity of 4.688 ng human immunoglobulin elisa kitml and a range of 7.813-500ng human immunoglobulin elisa kitml and has been designed to measure Human IgG4 human immunoglobulin elisa kit Immunoglobulin G4 ELISA Kit in serum, plasma & cell culture supernatant samples. The Human IgG4 human immunoglobulin elisa kit Immunoglobulin G4 ELISA Kit accurately measures natural Human IgG4 human immunoglobulin elisa kit Immunoglobulin ...
Rabbit Anti-Human IgG (H+L) Absorbed against mouse immunoglobulins, Rabbit Anti-Human IgG(H+L), Mouse ads-UNLB; N/A; N/A Rabbit Anti-Human IgG (H+L) Absorbed against mouse immunoglobulins
X-linked agamaglobulinemia (XLA) or Brutons disease is a genetic disease resulting from a mutation in the Brutons tyrosine kinase (Btk) gene. This mutation leads to B cell arrest during differentiation (1). This disease was first described by Ogden Bruton in 1952 (2). Approximately 85% of the affected subjects are male (3). This disorder is inherited as an X-linked recessive trait. Carrier females have no symptoms but have a 50% chance for transmission of the disorder to each of their sons. It is now possible to determine if the fetus of a carrier mother has XLA (4). The prevalence of the disease ranges from 1 in 10,000 to 1 in 50,000 (1). Half of the affected individuals are diagnosed during the first year of life and more than 90% of them are diagnosed up to fifth year (3). Diagnosis of the disease is suggested by lymphoid hypoplasia (minimal or no tonsillar tissue and no palpable lymph node) and total immunoglobulins level less than 100 mg/dl. Isohemagglutinins and antibodies to antigens given
After albumin, immunoglobulin G (IgG) are the most abundant proteins in human serum, with IgG1 and IgG3 being the most abundant subclasses directed against protein antigens. The quality of the IgG-Fc-glycosylation has important functional consequences, which have been found to be skewed towards low fucosylation in some antigen-specific immune responses. This increases the affinity to IgG1-Fc-receptor (FcγR)IIIa/b and thereby directly affects downstream effector functions and disease severity. To date, antigen-specific IgG-glycosylation have not been analyzed for IgG3. Here, we analyzed 30 pregnant women with anti-K alloantibodies from a prospective screening cohort and compared the type of Fc-tail glycosylation of total serum- and antigen-specific IgG1 and IgG3 using mass spectrometry. Total serum IgG1 and IgG3 Fc-glycoprofiles were highly similar. Fc glycosylation of antigen-specific IgG varied greatly between individuals, but correlated significantly with each other for IgG1 and IgG3, except for
Immunoglobulin G (IgG) that plays central role in adaptive immunity is the most abundant immunoglobulin found in human plasma. All IgG molecules are N-glycosylated. N-glycosylation of IgG contributes to the maintenance of its structure, stability, and solubility. In a large collaborative study, we analysed association between genomes and glycosylation of immunoglobulin G (IgG) in more than […]. Read full case study ...
Goat anti-human IgG recognizes human IgG F(c) fragment. This secondary antibody was purified using antigen affinity chromatography. The antibody is conjugated with Peroxidase. Human IgG F(c) fragment (PAB10704) - Products - Abnova
PM. Normal human immunoglobulin for intravenous administration Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation Pharmacopoeia Monograph Normal human
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Hi Netters, I am working on the purification of monoclonal mouse antibody IgG2b for my thesis work. I am trying to use hollow fiber modules modified with either protein A or protein G. I am also planning to immobilize anti-mouse IgG, in the near future. So far I have been unsuccessful in getting high capacities with protein A or protein G modules. I would appreciate if anyone of you could highlight me on any special conditions/buffers that I might have to use for getting high capacities. Please reply to the following e-mail address: sjwaig01 at Thanks in advance. Sincerely, Sabine ...
Goat anti-human IgG (H&L), F(ab)2 fragment, no reactivity to bovine/mouse/rabbit serum, ALP (alkaline phosphatase) conjugated secondary antibody , absorbed secondary antibody to human IgG F(ab)2 fragment, AS10 781
Goat anti-Human IgG (H+L) Secondary Antibody [Alkaline Phosphatase]. Available in 11 dyes & fluorophores. Backed by our 100% Guarantee.
Goat anti-Human IgG (H+L) Secondary Antibody, Texas Red® conjugate from Invitrogen for Flow Cytometry applications. Supplied as 100 µg purified secondary antibody (1 mg/ml) in 0.02M potassium phosphate with 10mg/ml BSA, 0.15M NaCl and 0.01% sodium azide; pH 7.2.
References for Abcams Goat Anti-Human IgG (Fab)2 (Alkaline Phosphatase) (ab87408). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
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3.3.2. Properties of Immunoglobulins. General. All immunoglobulins appear to be glycoproteins but the carbohydrate content ranges from 2-3% for IgG to 12-14% for IgM, IgD and IgE. The physicochemical proper-ties of the immunoglobulins are summarized in Table 3.2. Each class possesses a characteristic type of heavy chain. Thus IgG possesses g chains; IgM, m chains; IgA, achains, IgD, dchains and IgE, echains. Variation in heavy chain structure within a class gives rise to immunoglobulin subclasses. For example the human IgG pool consists of four subclasses reflecting four distinct types of g heavy chain. The physicochemical properties of the immunoglobulins vary between the different classes. Note that IgA occurs in a dimeric form {sigA) in association with a protein chain termed the secretory piece. The diversity of structure of the different classes suggests that they perform different functions, in addition to their primary function of antigen binding. In spite of this diver-sity all ...
Data_Sheet_1_Characterization of the C1q-Binding Ability and the IgG1-4 Subclass Profile of Preformed Anti-HLA Antibodies by Solid-Phase Assays.docx
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Collectively, our data indicate that targeting Ags to CD180 induces rapid activation of Ag-specific B cells, leading to significant IgG production within 7 d. Remarkably, a single injection of Ag-αCD180 without any additional adjuvant also led to the development of both Ab affinity maturation and immunological memory (Fig. 3). Furthermore, although severely impaired, Ag-specific IgG production and responses to secondary immunizations were retained in CD40 KO mice (Fig. 3 H), even though CD40 KO mice did not make Ag-specific IgG or develop memory Ab-producing cells in response to Ag in alum, as reported previously (Kawabe et al., 1994). The Ab responses induced required the Ags to be attached to anti-CD180 and could be induced to both haptens and protein Ags.. Why is this mode of immunization so effective in rapidly raising IgG Ab responses? Previous studies showed that i.p. inoculation of high doses of αCD180 could induce increases in plasma cells (500 µg) and polyclonal Ig production (250 ...
Does the IgG index fluctuate with MS? Would it be higher when you are having an attack or flair/many symptoms? Or is it like the csf o-bands that are a relatively permanent thing in ms? Reas...
Sheep IgG Binding Buffer (Code : BBSPG) : The Sheep IgG Binding Buffer (Code : BBSPG) will be obtained by adding 1 volume of distilled water to 1 volume of Sheep IgG Loading Buffer (Code : LBSPG ...
Anti-Human IgG Fc and IgE are purified mouse monoclonal antibodies. The goat anti-human IgG and IgA are affinity purified polyclonal antibodies.
Antibody. Computer graphic of a molecule of immunoglobulin G1, a type of antibody protein that the immune system uses to fight infections. Like all proteins, it is comprised of amino acid groups. Immunoglobulin G is the most common antibody found in blood. They are produced by lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) in response to the proteins (antigens) found on foreign cells such as bacteria and viruses. Each antibody recognises a specific antigen, either destroying or neutralising it. Immunoglobulin G can cross a mothers placenta, making it important in the immune response of a developing foetus. - Stock Image P270/0045
Goat anti-human IgG recognizes human IgA alpha heavy chain. This secondary antibody was purified using antigen affinity chromatography. Human IgA alpha heavy chain (PAB9280) - Products - Abnova
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Human IgG antibody, pre-adsorbed (TxRd) for ELISA, FACS, ICC/IF. Anti-Human IgG pAb (GTX27151) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
NPA544Ga01, Native Immunoglobulin G (IgG), 免疫球蛋白G(IgG)天然蛋白, | 仅供体外研究使用,不用于临床诊断!请索取进口关税税单及报关单!
Anti-Rabbit IgG (H&L) Biotin Antibody generated in goat detects reactivity to Rabbit IgG. Secreted as part of the adaptive immune response by plasma B cells, immunoglobulin G constitutes 75% of serum immunoglobulins. Immunoglobulin G binds to viruses, bacteria, as well as fungi and facilitates their destruction or neutralization via agglutination (and thereby immobilizing them), activation of the compliment cascade, and opsinization for phagocytosis. The whole IgG molecule possesses both the F(c) region, recognized by high-affinity Fc receptor proteins, as well as the F(ab) region possessing the epitope-recognition site. Both the Heavy and Light chains of the antibody molecule are present. Secondary Antibodies are available in a variety of formats and conjugate types. When choosing a secondary antibody product, consideration must be given to species and immunoglobulin specificity, conjugate type, fragment and chain specificity, level of cross-reactivity, and host-species source and fragment
Variations in the ability of homogeneous antibodies to absorb group a allotype antisera suggest that these V H region allotypes comprise a spectrum of specificities. While no homogeneous antibody tested would completely absorb antisera to the group a specificities, the total IgG preparations from individual rabbits was capable of doing so, including preimmune IgG from the rabbits that produced the homogeneous antibodies. Differences in the serologic reactivities of homogeneous antibodies indicate that each possesses only a portion of the spectrum of the allotypic specificities expressed by the total IgG ...
Order quality research Goat Anti-Human IgG IgA IgM [ALP],pAb from GenScript, your reliable antibody supplier for all areas of biological research and drug discovery.
Human antibodies (yellow), coloured transmission electron micrograph (TEM). The Y-shaped structures are molecules of the immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody. Antibodies are part of the immune system, helping to defend the body against infection by binding to foreign proteins. IgG antibodies are produced by B-lymphocyte blood cells, and they are found in the liquid plasma component of the blood. - Stock Image P270/0063
From: $106 Sizes: 5-20 ug labeling, 10-20 ug labeling, 20-50 ug labeling, 25-50 ug labeling, 50-100 ug labelingCatalog #: 92433, 92432, 92431, 92430, 92429, 92428, 92427, 92426, 92425, 92230, 92231, 92232, 92233, 92234, 92235, 92236, 92237, 92238, 92239, 92240, 92241, 92242, 92243, 92245, 92246, 92247, 92248, 92250, 92251, 92252, 92253, 92254, 92255, 92256, 92257, 92258, 92259, 92260, 92261, 92262, 92263, 92264, 92265, 92267, 92268, 92270, 92271, 92272, 92273, 92274, 92275, 92276, 92277, 92278, 92279, 92280, 92281, 92282, 92283, 92284, 92285, 92287, 92288, 92289, 92290, 92291, 92303, 92304, 92305, 92316, 92317, 92318, 92319, 92320, 92321, 92322, 92323, 92324, 92331, 92332, 92333, 92334, 92335, 92336, 92337, 92338, - 92339View allHide ...
Order quality research Goat Anti-Human IgG (H&L),pAb from GenScript, your reliable antibody supplier for all areas of biological research and drug discovery.
Anti-Human Interleukin-22 Receptor (N-Terminal) Antibody , Goat Anti-Human Polyclonal Antibody validated in IHC-P, IF, E (ABD11157), Abgent
HRP Conjugated Rabbit Anti-human IgG (gamma-chain specific) secondary antibody This HRP conjugated antibody is specific for human IgG and shows no cross-reactivity with rat/mouse/goat/rabbit IgG.
Following, we evaluated the result involving opsonization with various IgG subclasses for the amounts of workable intracellular bacterias. Infected THP-1 cellular material were lysed throughout 0��1% Triton X-100 as well as intracellular GDC-0449 mouse viable germs within the lysates have been and then counted through plating upon agar. Opsonization each and every in the IgG subclasses led to a greater number of recovered intra cellular feasible microorganisms than when using the non-specific control antibody. However, small, nevertheless important differences had been known while testing the different IgG subclasses individually. Opsonization using IgG3 led to the very best variety of retrieved intracellular workable germs SB-431542 (5��38?��?0��009 log10?CFU), followed tightly by IgG1 (5��29?��?0��012 log10?CFU), IgG4 (5��17?�� 0��017 log10?CFU) as well as IgG2 (5��02?��?0��011 log10?CFU). The number of recovered intra-cellular workable germs ...
These products are affinity-purified IgG antibodies that recognize the heavy and light chains (H+L) of rabbit or mouse immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies. They are provided in unlabeled form or as a conjugate with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) enzyme. The antibodies were raised in goat or rabbit using rabbit IgG (H+L) or mouse IgG (H+L), and can be used as a secondary antibody for Western blot (WB) detection, immunohistochemical (IHC) detection, or ELISAs.. ...
Use of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy to quantify immunoglobulin G concentration and an analysis of the effect of signalment on levels in canine serum
A system for production of recombinant Fc fragments of human IgG in Escherichia coli has been developed to allow for structural and functional studies of human Fc. The genes for the Fc fragments of human IgG subclasses 1 and 3, designated Fc(1) and Fc(3), were cloned from a human spleen cDNA library. The interactions to Staphylococcal protein A (SpA), a bacterial Fc receptor, that interacts with human IgG-Fc(1), but not with human IgG-Fc(3), were analyzed. To corroborate the involvement of amino acid residues in Fc, responsible for these differences in binding, two Fc variants were constructed; Fc(1(3)) and Fc(3(1)), each containing an isotypic dipeptide substitution. Production levels in E. coli of 1-10 mg/l of secreted Fc proteins, covalently linked as dimers, were routinely obtained. SpA-binding analyses of all four Fc variants using biosensor technology, showed that Fc(1) and Fc(3(1)) interact with SpA, while Fc(3) and Fc(1(3)) lack detectable SpA binding. The rendered SpA binding of the Fc ...
Lab Reagents Igg Antibody Laboratories manufactures the dengue fever virus antibodies igg and igm test reagents distributed by Genprice. The Dengue Fever Virus Antibodies Igg And Igm Test reagent is RUO (Research Use Only) to test human serum or cell culture lab samples. To purchase these products, for the MSDS, Data Sheet, protocol, storage conditions/temperature or for the concentration, please contact igg antibody. Other Dengue products are available in stock. Specificity: Dengue Category: Fever Group: Virus Antibodies. Virus Antibodies information ...
There is longstanding evidence for a role of immunoglobulin (Ig)G in protection against malarial disease and infection. IgG1 and IgG3 have been shown to be particularly efficient at associating with monocytes in potentially protective mechanisms (i.e. antibody-dependent cellular inhibition, opsonization and phagocytosis). Conversely, there is some evidence that IgG2 (and possibly IgG4) antibodies may be antagonistic to this protection. The protective effect of IgG subclass antibody activity present before the beginning of a malaria transmission season (preseason antibody levels) against severe malaria has not been tested in longitudinal studies. We measured IgG class and subclass antibody levels specific to crude Plasmodium falciparum lysates by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in a case-control study of 76 children on the coast of Kenya. The mean optical density values for both IgG class and subclass antibodies were not significantly different between the children who developed severe malaria ...
IgG subclass levels of sera from 26 patients with juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) were determined by means of mouse monoclonal antibodies. Patients were divided into three groups according to clinical activity of the disease: active disease, partial remission, and remission. One hundred and sixty four age matched, healthy children served as controls. IgG subclass concentrations were log transformed, and a robust regression method was applied to obtain expected values for the different ages. We found a significant increase of IgG3 (p less than 0.0001), IgG1 (p less than 0.002), and IgG2 (p less than 0.035) in JCA sera, while IgG4 values did not differ significantly from those of controls. When patients were divided according to clinical activity significant increases of IgG2 and IgG4 were observed in the patients in partial remission. Our data suggest that differential increase of IgG subclasses during the courses of JCA may be of relevance to the pathogenesis of the disease. ...
S. pyogenes has to employ specific strategies to avoid the action of opsonizing IgG antibodies during infection. The streptococcal cysteine proteinase IdeS represents a tailor-made defense against specific IgG antibodies (1, 12, 13, 22-25) and is widely expressed by clinically important serotypes (e.g., M1, M3, M4, and M12), as well as in newly validated serotypes, e.g., M122 (2) suggesting an important role for IdeS during S. pyogenes infections.. The main focus of this study was to characterize the immune response towards the IgG endopeptidase IdeS in acute-phase and convalescent-phase serum samples from patients suffering from streptococcal disease. In accordance with previous data (3, 12, 13), detectable levels of antibodies against IdeS were found in all samples investigated. The neutralizing abilities of these antibodies varied notably between different patient samples, but consistent results were obtained for patients suffering from pharyngotonsillitis and erysipelas, revealing that ...
Background/Aims: Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is characterised by the presence of immunoglobulin (Ig) G antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA), which are routinely detected by indirect immunofluorescence (IFL) using composite rodent tissue substrate. The IgG subclass distribution and clinical significance of IFL-detected AMA in patients with PBC have not been previously studied in detail.. Methods: We have examined IgG subclass-specific AMA detected by IFL on rodent liver, kidney and stomach tissue substrate using affinity-purified IgG subclass monospecific antisera as revealing reagents in 95 AMA-positive PBC patients from Greece.. Results: AMA of any of the IgG1, IgG2 or IgG3 subclasses were present in 89/95 (93.7%) patients. Among those 89, 55 (61.8%) had IgG1, 2, 3 AMA positivity; eight (9%) had IgG1, 2; seven (7.9%) had IgG2, 3; eight (9%) had IgG1, 3; nine (10.1%) had IgG1 subclass and two (2.2%) single IgG3 AMA reactivity. IgG4 AMA was absent. IgG3 titres were higher than IgG2 and IgG1 ...
The ability of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to passively cure an influenza virus pneumonia in the absence of endogenous T- and B-cell responses was investigated by treating C.B-17 mice, homozygous for the severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mutation, with individual monoclonal antiviral antibodies 1 day after pulmonary infection with influenza virus PR8 [A/PR/8/34 (H1N1)]. Less than 10% of untreated SCID mice survived the infection. By contrast, 100% of infected SCID mice that had been treated with a single intraperitoneal inoculation of at least 175 micrograms of a pool of virus-neutralizing (VN+) antihemagglutinin (anti-HA) MAbs survived, even if antibody treatment was delayed up to 7 days after infection. The use of individual MAbs showed that recovery could be achieved by VN+ anti-HA MAbs of the immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1), IgG2a, IgG2b, and IgG3 isotypes but not by VN+ anti-HA MAbs of the IgA and IgM isotypes, even if the latter were used in a chronic treatment protocol to compensate for ...
Goat Anti-Human kappa ( chain specific) Absorbed against mouse Igs, Goat Anti-Human Kappa, Mouse ads-TRITC; N/A Goat Anti-Human kappa ( chain specific) Absorbed against mouse Igskappa
CRIM1 Goat anti-Human, Polyclonal, R&D Systems™ 100μg; Unlabeled CRIM1 Goat anti-Human, Polyclonal, R&D Systems™ Primary Antibodies Ci to Cx
Endpoint immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) activities were identical between mice immunized via the intramuscular and epidermal (gene gun) routes with 100 and 1 micrograms, respectively, of an influenza virus nucleoprotein (NP) expression vector. However, examination of the relative levels of two IgG subclasses demonstrated that muscle inoculation resulted in predominantly IgG2a responses, whereas gene gun immunization yielded a preponderance of IgG1 antibodies. Inasmuch as these data suggested that muscle inoculation and gene gun delivery elicited Th1-like and Th2-like responses, respectively, gamma interferon release profiles from antigen-stimulated splenocytes were remarkably similar between these groups. Interleukin-4 (IL-4) production assays, on the other hand, revealed qualitative differences that could be correlated with the divergent IgG subclass data. Waning gamma interferon production in gene gun-immunized animals was countered by a marked increase in IL-4 ...
Acknowledgments: The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of the Department of the Navy, Department of Defense, Department of Health and Human Services, or of the institutions and companies affiliated with the authors. Some of the authors are employees of the U.S. Government, and this work was prepared as part of their official duties. Title 17 United States Code (U.S.C.) s105 provides that Copyright protection under this title is not available for any work of the United States Government. Title 17 U.S.C. s101 defines a U.S. Government work as a work prepared by a military service member or employee of the U.S. Government as part of that persons official duties. The Jordan-N3/2012 strain (GenBank KC776174.1) of MERS-CoV was isolated and provided by G. Defang (Naval Medical Research Unit-3, Ca7iro, Egypt) (39). The clinical sample from which the MERS-CoV Jordan-N3/2012 strain was isolated was provided by T. ...
Background/Objectives: The hallmark of cystic fibrosis (CF) is chronic lung inflammation. The severity of lung disease is closely correlated with immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels. Beyond its contribution to the bone health, the importance of vitamin D has not been fully recognized owing to the lack of human studies providing evidence of its benefit. In the context of the recently described immunomodulatory functions of vitamin D, we aimed to assess the relationship between vitamin D and IgG levels. Subjects/Methods: Eight hundred and ninety-six CF patients were included (0.53-65.9 years) from seven centers in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and total IgG were measured, spirometry was carried out and vitamin D intake data were gathered using a 7-day dietary food record. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed for IgG and forced expiratory volume in 1 lambda s (FEV1) as dependent variables, and serum 25OHD, daily food and supplemented vitamin D sources of ...
2019-nCoV IgG/IgM Rapid Test (Single Use Kit) - ELISA medical supply rapid dengue igg igm igm rapid test kit. Description 2019-nCoV IgG/IgM Rapid Tests 2019-nCoV IgG/IgM Rapid Test (Single Use Kit) The 2019-nCoV IgG/IgM Rapid Test Cassette is a lateral flow chromatographic immunoassay for the qualitative detection of IgG and IgM antibodies to 2019-nCoV in human whole blood, serum or plasma supply hot igg igm rapid test kit price ...
Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, is surrounded by an antiphagocytic capsule composed of poly-£^-D-glutamic acid (£^DPGA). Antibodies directed against the £^DPGA capsule are opsonic and protective, which makes the capsule an attractive target for vaccine development. However, antibodies of different IgG subclasses differ in their ability to activate effector functions, including activation of complement and phagocytosis. In addition, recent studies found differences in affinity and protective activity between variable region identical IgG subclass switch monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against microbial capsules or outer membrane proteins. We recently generated six mAbs against the £^DPGA capsule and found that only mAbs of IgG3 subclass were protective in a murine model of inhalational anthrax. In order to investigate the role of IgG subclass to protective activity against anthrax, the goal of the study was to generate a full IgG subclass switch family (IgG3 ,,³ ...
Objective: Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is a human polyclonal IgG preparation developed for the treatment of patients with primary immunodeficiency (PID). Because of the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of IVIG, beyond PID now IVIG is widely used in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the demographic characteristics of patients treated with IVIG treatment in the pediatric infectious diseases clinic, and to evaluate the indications, side effects and treatment outcomes of IVIG treatment. ...
Parvovirus B19 Antibodies (IgG, IgM) (Quest). Get know how much does lab test cost. Direct access testing with or without insurance.
Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is the only antibody isotype actively transferred across the placenta from around 13 weeks of gestation and increases exponentially during the third trimester such that the concentration of IgG in the newborn infant is similar to, or exceeds, that in the mother. IgG provides passive immunity to the infant in the first months of life.. The neonatal Fc receptor facilitates transcytosis of maternal IgG. IgG is transferred from maternal blood across the syncytiotrophoblast layer of the placenta, initially by endocytosis of IgG. Within the acidic endosome, IgG binds to membrane-bound neonatal Fc receptor, which is then released on the fetal side of the syncytiotrophoblast as the pH returns to physiologic pH. Neonatal Fc receptor is then recycled back to the maternal side of the syncytiotrophoblast to bind further IgG.. There are a number of factors that may affect the efficiency of IgG transcytosis, including gestation, IgG subclass and maternal infection.1 The concentration of ...
Goat Anti-Human IgA, alpha chain Antibody, Colloidal Gold Conjugated, 50 OD,Colloidal Gold Conjugated, Goat anti-human IgA (Alpha Chain) - 50 OD,medicine,medical supply,medical supplies,medical product
The 16-kDa cytosolic antigen of M. tuberculosis was purified to homogeneity by molecular sieving chromatography, and the diagnostic potential of the antigen was evaluated in various categories of patients by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgA, and IgM antibody levels to 16-kDa antigen were estimated in the two polar groups, namely, smear- and culture-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (S�C�) patients and healthy subjects (HS). Sensitivities of 62, 52 and 11% with specificities of 100, 97, and 95% were obtained for the three isotypes, respectively. The total number of positives by a combination of the three isotypes was analyzed in the polar groups, and the sensitivity improved to 83% with a specificity of 93%. Even when a combination of IgG and IgA alone was considered, the sensitivity was 82% with a specificity of 97%. Polyethylene glycol precipitation of the circulating immune complex (CIC) in sera was carried out. The CIC-bound antibodies to 16-kDa ...
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Author Summary After analysing glycans attached to human immunoglobulin G in 4,095 individuals, we performed the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) of the glycome of an individual protein. Nine genetic loci were found to associate with glycans with genome-wide significance. Of these, four were enzymes that directly participate in IgG glycosylation, thus the observed associations were biologically founded. The remaining five genetic loci were not previously implicated in protein glycosylation, but the most of them have been reported to be relevant for autoimmune and inflammatory conditions and/or haematological cancers. A particularly interesting gene, IKZF1 was found to be associated with multiple IgG N-glycans. This gene has been implicated in numerous diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We analysed N-glycans in 101 cases with SLE and 183 matched controls and demonstrated their substantial biomarker potential. Our study shows that it is possible to identify new loci that
ICP9703 The Rabbit anti-Mouse IgG antibodies are developed against affinity purified mouse immunoglobulins, and then affinity purified using the pure mouse IgG as the affinity ligand. The purified Rabbit anti-Mouse IgG antibodies are conjugated with horse radish peroxidase (HRP). This product is useful for detection, identification, quantization and localization of mouse IgG. ...
These products are affinity-purified IgG antibodies that recognize the heavy and light chains (H+L) of rabbit or mouse immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies. They are provided in unlabeled form or as a conjugate with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) enzyme. The antibodies were raised in goat or rabbit using rabbit IgG (H+L) or mouse IgG (H+L), and can be used as a secondary antibody for Western blot (WB) detection, immunohistochemical (IHC) detection, or ELISAs.. ...
In this thesis, glycosylation of immunoglobulin G (IgG) was examined in 5818 individuals ranging in age from 16 to 100 years from five different populations - four European populations and a Han Chinese population by using ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) in order to provide a comprehensive overview of changes in IgG glycosylation through lifetime. The results demonstrated that glycan profiles change in a similar way through lifetime across all examined populations. Nearly all IgG glycans were significantly associated with age. Sex differences in age-related changes in IgG glycosylation were observed. The combination of several IgG glycans was able to explain from 30 to 58% of variance in chronological age, with the remaining variance in the glycans attributed to physiological parameters. Analysis of IgG glycosylation in nearly 600 mice from the Collaborative Cross cohort ranging in age from 20 to 80 weeks showed that, generally, only the level of IgG glycan with ...
Lab Reagents Human IgG antibody Laboratories manufactures the mouse antibody isotypes reagents distributed by Genprice. The Mouse Antibody Isotypes reagent is RUO (Research Use Only) to test human serum or cell culture lab samples. To purchase these products, for the MSDS, Data Sheet, protocol, storage conditions/temperature or for the concentration, please contact mouse Antibody. Other Mouse products are available in stock. Specificity: Mouse Category: Antibody Group: Isotypes Isotypes information ...
Shop Immunoglobulin G-binding protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Immunoglobulin G-binding protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Anti-Human IgG F(ab)2 Antibody generated in goat recognizes the dimeric Fab portion of the human IgG molecule. Human IgG F(ab)2 is a proteolytic fragment of immunoglobulin G (IgG) obtained by limited digestion with the enzyme pepsin under controlled conditions of temperature, time and pH. F(ab)2 molecules lack the Fc portion of IgG and therefore receptors that bind human IgG F(c) will not bind human IgG F(ab)2 molecules. Secondary Antibodies are available in a variety of formats and conjugate types. When choosing a secondary antibody product, consideration must be given to species and immunoglobulin specificity, conjugate type, fragment and chain specificity, level of cross-reactivity, and host-species source and fragment composition.
Figure 2. HPV-16 E7-specific serum IgG antibody (1, top) and E7-specific vaginal IgA antibody (2, bottom) levels by placebo groups [cohorts 1 (A, left); 1 × 109 CFU/mL dose, cohorts 2 (B, center); 5 × 109 CFU/mL dose, and cohorts 3 (C, right); 1 × 1010 CFU/mL dose] and vaccine group [cohorts 4 (A, left); 1 × 109 CFU/mL dose, cohorts 5 (B, center); 5 × 109 CFU/mL dose, and cohorts 6 (C, right); 1 × 1010 CFU/mL dose] measured by ELISA at a serum dilution of 1:100 using goat anti-human IgG H&L (HRP) antibody and at a vaginal fluid dilution of 1:10 using goat anti-human IgA alpha chain (HRP) antibody, respectively. Results are expressed with 95% CIs for the following time points: prevaccination (day 0), days 30, 60, 90, and 240. The absorbance of each well was measured at 450 nm. Bars represent the mean ± standard error value of each group. Statistically significant differences are denoted by an asterisk between T60 and T30, T90, and T240 of vaccine groups (*, P ≤ 0.0001; **, P ≤ 0.001; ...
Unkeless, J C., The presence of two fc receptors on mouse macrophages. Evidence from a variant cell line and differential trypsin sensitivity. (1977). Subject Strain Bibliography 1977. 2386 ...
Purification of IgG from patients and controls and generation of F(ab)2 fragments. Blood or plasma exchange fluid was obtained from patients with ANCA vasculitis or healthy controls and plasma stored at -80°C. Fibrinogen was precipitated by adding 18 g/100 ml of sodium chloride and IgG was purified with protein G chromatography (GE Healthcare). The endotoxin concentration in the final IgG preparations was measured by Lonza using a LAL kinetic chromogenic assay. For all 30 polyclonal IgGs used, the endotoxin was less than 0.25 eU/250 μg IgG. The concentration of IgG used for all neutrophil and monocyte assays was 250 μg/ml. To generate F(ab)2 fragments, whole IgG was buffer exchanged using PD10 columns into 20 mM sodium acetate and digested using immobilized pepsin (Thermo Fisher Scientific). The F(ab)2 fragments were separated from undigested IgG using protein A affinity columns (GE Healthcare). SDS-PAGE demonstrated the purity of whole IgG and the F(ab)2 fragments. Before all assays, IgG ...
In this study, we describe the clinical features and treatment practices of the largest cohort of IgG4-RD in our locality. After combination of our patients with all other published cases of IgG4-RD from Hong Kong, we analysed 104 cases comprising predominantly older men (mean age, 62 ± 13 years; male-to-female ratio=3:1), which is consistent with other reports.19 20 21 22 Over 95% of patients had serum IgG4 level of ,135 mg/dL and an IgG4:IgG ratio of ,8%. Although these cut-offs are often quoted in the diagnostic criteria for IgG4-RD,4 23 it is important to note that elevated serum IgG4 levels can be seen in a variety of other conditions such as malignancies, infections, or autoimmune disorders. Serum IgG4 level and IgG4:IgG ratio alone have poor specificity and low positive predictive value. The specificity and positive predictive value of serum IgG4 and IgG4:IgG ratio have been reported to be approximately only 0.6 and 0.3, respectively.24 Of note, 4/72 (5.6%) of our patients with ...
DPP Zika IgM/IgG System Model: DPP Zika IgM/IgG System Condition: New The DPP Zika IgM/IgG System comprises single-use point-of-care (POC) assays for use with a reader for the discrete, semi-quantitative detection of Immunoglobulin M (IgM) and Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to Zika Virus.
This Goat anti-Human IgM+IgG+IgA Antibody, F(ab)2 is validated for use in ELISA for the detection of Human IgM+IgG+IgA. Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information.
Etanercept, a dimeric fusion protein consisting of the extracellular portion of the human p75 tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) receptor and the Fc receptor of human immunoglobulin G subclass 1, has been used for the treatment of a variety of rheumatological conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriatic arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.1. We report the case of a 54 year old white woman with a longstanding history of RA and type 2 diabetes mellitus who developed episodes of hypoglycaemia after initiation of etanercept treatment. The episodes occurred only on ...
Purity: >95% by SDS-PAGE. Prepared from plasma shown to be non-reactive for HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HBc, and negative for anti-HIV 1 & 2 by FDA approved tests.. Athens Research & Technology products are laboratory reagents and are not to be administered to humans or used for any drug purpose. For research or further manufacturing use only. ...
In this study, we compared the vasoactive effects of 16 intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) products from 10 different manufacturers, in anesthetized rats. Eight of the IVIG preparations showed no hypotensive effects (less than 15% decrease), whereas the other 8 had relatively strong effects (15%-50% decrease). The hypotensive effects correlated with the IgG dimer content of the preparations. Pretreatment of the rats with recombinant PAF acetylhydrolase completely prevented the hypotensive reaction on IVIG infusion, and administration after the onset of hypotension resulted in normalization of the blood pressure ...
Oliveira B.; Marangoni S.; Araujo A.L.; Soares M.A., 1985: Evidence of immunoglobulin g 1 and immunoglobulin g 2 antibodies in capivara hydrochoerus hydrochaeris
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regulation of IgG antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity in vitro by IgM antibodies. Mechanism and characterization of effector lymphocytes. AU - Perlmann, H.. AU - Perlmann, P.. AU - Moretta, L.. AU - Ronnholm, M.. PY - 1981. Y1 - 1981. N2 - IgM antibodies have previously been reported to either inhibit or induce antibody-dependent lymphocyte cytotoxicity (ADCC). Here the authors show that human lymphocytes lyse bovine erythrocytes (Eb) in the presence of either IgM or IgG anti-Eb from rabbits. Seven out of 20 IgM preparations (Sephadex G-200) were ADCC-active. IgG-dependent ADCC was inhibited by human IgG but not by IgM. In contrast, IgM ADCC was inhibited by both IgG and IgM. The effector cells in IgM ADCC were a subpopulation of lymphocytes with distinct Fc receptors for both IgG and IgM. Most of them also had sheep erythrocyte receptors. Extensive purification of the ADCC-active IgM antibody preparations indicated that very small amounts of contaminating IgG anti-Eb were ...
Recently, a new dense granule protein (GRA7) from T. gondii was described, and the corresponding gene was characterized (9). To study the potential of this protein for serological assays, the gra7 gene was expressed in E. coliwith a short mTNF fragment and hexahistidine as a fusion partner. The subsequent purification of the recombinant protein allowed evaluation of this antigen as a diagnostic tool. In an indirect IgG ELISA, a sensitivity of 81% and a specificity of 98% were reached. High-titer IgG-positive sera (IF titer, ,1/1,024) were readily detected (100%). IgM-positive sera were detected in 94% of cases, and for chronic-phase sera (IgM negative) the sensitivity was 79%. In general, chronic-stage sera with low IgG titers by IF were more difficult to detect with GRA7. These results were in the same range as those obtained for a recombinant fragment of GRA2 (75% for chronic-phase sera, 82.6% for acute-phase sera) (17) and for Tg34AR (ROP2 fragment; 89% overall sensitivity) (27). The ...
IgA subclass antibodies have been reported in a few studies in patients with CAC. IgA antibodies and IgA1 antibodies were increased in comparison with the
Tau Mouse Monoclonal IgG Antibody. Immunofluorescent (IF), Immunocytochemistry (ICC), Immunohistochemistry (IHC), and Western Blot (WB) applications. Species are human, rat, and mouse
Allergen specific antibodies of the type Immunoglobulin G (IgG) are responsible for the intermediation of allergic reactions of the cytotoxic as well as the immune complex type and for this play an important role in the extended allergy diagnostic. Antibodies, also known as immunoglobulins (Ig), play an important role in the humoral immune response to extrinsic, infectious agents. Furthermore Ig and in particular Ig of the IgG type can be generated to normally harmless antigens, e.g. inhalation antigens or food antigens. A typical disease represents the exogenic allergic alveolities (EAA), which can be caused by occupational exposition of substances in the air. Involved are normally moldy- and bacterial components but also excrements, flours or chemical components which are inhaled as dusts or aerosols during work. Farmer´s lung is caused by Thermophile Actinomycetes in moldy hay. Farmer´s lung, Malt- and Paper worker´s lung as well as Pigeon Breeder´s disease are well known to represent ...
Anti-Human IgG Fc DyLight® 594 preadsorbed (cross-adsorbed) validated for IHC-P, Flow Cyt, ICC/IF. Other DyLight® 594 secondaries available.
I was found to have an increased IgG protein level on a urinalysis my doctor recommended that I have an SPEP (Serum Protein Electrophoresis) done, maybe you should ask about having that test done and then go from there with your doctor regarding the results. Best wishes ...
... (Ig G) is a type of antibody. Representing approximately 75% of serum antibodies in humans, IgG is the most ... This repertoire of immunoglobulins is crucial for the newborns who are very sensitive to infections, especially within the ... Stadlmann J, Pabst M, Kolarich D, Kunert R, Altmann F (2008). "Analysis of immunoglobulin glycosylation by LC-ESI-MS of ... de Haan, Noortje; Falck, David; Wuhrer, Manfred (2019-07-08). "Monitoring of Immunoglobulin N- and O-glycosylation in Health ...
Immunodeficiency with hyper-immunoglobulin M Immunoglobulin M deficiency Immune system "Immunoglobulin M". The American ... Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is one of several isotypes of antibody (also known as immunoglobulin) that are produced by vertebrates. ... Immunoglobulin+M at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Immunoglobulin M Deficiency Reference ... Mestecky, J.; Zikin, J.; Butler, W. T. (1971). "Immunoglobulin M an secretory immunoglobulin A: presence of common polypeptide ...
... human normal immunoglobulin), and Flebogamma DIF (human normal immunoglobulin). In the EU human normal immunoglobulin (SCIg) ( ... Some believe that immunoglobulin therapy may work via a multi-step model where the injected immunoglobulin first forms a type ... Immunoglobulin therapy is the use of a mixture of antibodies (normal human immunoglobulin or NHIG) to treat several health ... Human normal immunoglobulin (human immunoglobulin G) (Cutaquig) was approved for medical use in Australia in May 2021. Brands ...
Specifically, anti-immunoglobulin antibodies bind to immunoglobulins that are created by B cells. Anti-immunoglobulin ... The anti-immunoglobulin antibodies are created through recombinant DNA technology. All anti-immunoglobulin antibodies are man- ... Kappa light chains are the second of the two classes of light chains present on mammalian immunoglobulins. One immunoglobulin ... The most practical use for anti-immunoglobulin antibodies is in diagnostic tests. Assays use anti-immunoglobulin antibodies to ...
... (Ig A, also referred to as sIgA in its secretory form) is an antibody that plays a role in the immune function ... Immunoglobulin+A at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Herich, R. (2017). "Is the role of IgA ... The IgA dimeric form is the most prevalent and is also called secretory IgA (sIgA). sIgA is the main immunoglobulin found in ... This represents up to 15% of total immunoglobulins produced throughout the body. IgA has two subclasses (IgA1 and IgA2) and can ...
... (IgD) is an antibody isotype that makes up about 1% of proteins in the plasma membranes of immature B- ... Immunoglobulin+D at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) (CS1 maint: uses authors parameter, All ... Rogentine GN, Rowe DS, Bradley J, Waldmann TA, Fahey JL (1966). "Metabolism of human immunoglobulin D (IgD)". J. Clin. Invest. ... Nitschke L, Kosco MH, Köhler G, Lamers MC (1993). "Immunoglobulin D-deficient mice can mount normal immune responses to thymus- ...
The immunoglobulin domain, also known as the immunoglobulin fold, is a type of protein domain that consists of a 2-layer ... SCOP listing of immunoglobulin domains of known structure This article incorporates text from the public domain Pfam and ... Immunoglobulin-like domains may be involved in protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions. Human genes encoding proteins ... Members of the immunoglobulin superfamily are found in hundreds of proteins of different functions. Examples include antibodies ...
... is expensive and hard to come by in the developing world. In the United States it is estimated to be more ... Rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) is a medication made up of antibodies against the rabies virus. It is used to prevent rabies ... The use of rabies immunoglobulin in the form of blood serum dates from 1891. Use became common within medicine in the 1950s. It ... Rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) is indicated for the passive, transient post-exposure prophylaxis of rabies infection, when given ...
... (IgE) is a type of antibody (or immunoglobulin (Ig) "isotype") that has been found only in mammals. IgE is ... November 2013). "A beneficial role for immunoglobulin E in host defense against honeybee venom". Immunity. 39 (5): 963-75. doi: ... Presence of a unique immunoglobulin as a carrier of reaginic activity". Journal of Immunology. 97 (1): 75-85. PMID 4162440. ... Winter WE, Hardt NS, Fuhrman S (September 2000). "Immunoglobulin E: importance in parasitic infections and hypersensitivity ...
The immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) is a large protein superfamily of cell surface and soluble proteins that are involved in ... Proteins of the IgSF possess a structural domain known as an immunoglobulin (Ig) domain. Ig domains are named after the ... Otherwise, the sperm-specific protein IZUMO1, a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, has also been identified as the only ... Harpaz Y, Chothia C (May 1994). "Many of the immunoglobulin superfamily domains in cell adhesion molecules and surface ...
In chickens, immunoglobulin Y is the functional equivalent to Immunoglobulin G (IgG). Like IgG, it is composed of two light and ... Immunoglobulin Y (abbreviated as IgY) is a type of immunoglobulin which is the major antibody in bird, reptile, and lungfish ... Thus, in preparations from chicken eggs, there is no contamination with Immunoglobulin A (IgA) or Immunoglobulin M (IgM). The ... after they were able to show differences between the immunoglobulins found in chicken eggs, and immunoglobulin G. Other ...
... (BiP) also known as 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP-78) or heat shock 70 kDa protein 5 ( ... GRP78 (HSPA5), also referred to as 'immunoglobulin heavy chain-binding protein' (BiP), is a member of the heat-shock protein-70 ... Corrigall VM, Vittecoq O, Panayi GS (October 2009). "Binding immunoglobulin protein-treated peripheral blood monocyte-derived ...
Naïve mature B cells produce both IgM and IgD, which are the first two heavy chain segments in the immunoglobulin locus. After ... Immunoglobulin+class+switching at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) (Articles with short ... Immunoglobulin class switching, also known as isotype switching, isotypic commutation or class-switch recombination (CSR), is a ... Laffleur B, Bardet SM, Garot A, Brousse M, Baylet A, Cogné M (2014). "Immunoglobulin genes undergo legitimate repair in human B ...
The immunoglobulin is categorized as immunoglobulin G (IgG). Since the tetanus toxin permanently binds to human tissues, only ... Anti-tetanus immunoglobulin, also known as tetanus immune globulin (TIG) and tetanus antitoxin, is a medication made up of ... unbounded molecules can be neutralized by the immunoglobulin. Use of the horse version became common in the 1910s, while the ...
The immunoglobulin light chain is the small polypeptide subunit of an antibody (immunoglobulin). A typical antibody is composed ... The immunoglobulin light chain genes in tetrapods can be classified into three distinct groups: kappa (κ), lambda (λ), and ... Immunoglobulin+Light+Chains at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Educational Resource for ... There are two types of light chain in humans: kappa (κ) chain, encoded by the immunoglobulin kappa locus ([email protected]) on chromosome 2 ...
pIgR has a strong specificity to polymeric immunoglobulins and is not responsive to monomeric immunoglobulin. The ligand's J- ... "Entrez Gene: PIGR polymeric immunoglobulin receptor". Kaetzel CS (August 2005). "The polymeric immunoglobulin receptor: ... Polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) is a transmembrane protein that in humans is encoded by the PIGR gene. It is an Fc ... Polymeric+Immunoglobulin+Receptor at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Portal: Biology This ...
The immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) is the large polypeptide subunit of an antibody (immunoglobulin). In human genome, the IgH ... There are five types of mammalian immunoglobulin heavy chain: γ, δ, α, μ and ε. They define classes of immunoglobulins: IgG, ... Each heavy chain has two regions: a constant region (which is the same for all immunoglobulins of the same class but differs ... a variable region that differs between different B cells, but is the same for all immunoglobulins produced by the same B cell ...
... , or sometimes Immunoglobulin binding protein is a generic name for any protein that binds ... Immunoglobulin-binding protein 1 (IGBP1), a protein that binds B-cells in the blood. Protein A, a 42 kDa protein originally ... It, therefore, can mean: Binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP, or heat shock 70 kDa protein 5, with an official symbol HSPA5), a ...
V-set domains are found in diverse protein families, including immunoglobulin light and heavy chains; in several T-cell ... "Phosphocholine binding immunoglobulin Fab McPC603. An X-ray diffraction study at 2.7 A". J. Mol. Biol. 190 (4): 593-604. doi: ... Immunoglobulin V-set, subgroup InterPro: IPR003596 T-cell surface antigen CD2 InterPro: IPR013285 ACAM; ACAN; ADAMTSL1; AGC1; ...
The underlying cause of MIDD is the production of monoclonal immunoglobulins. Monoclonal immunoglobulins are produced in ... The immunoglobulin heavy chain in HCDD is frequently a truncated heavy chain. HCDD is the rarest subtype of MIDD. Serum protein ... Monoclonal immunoglobulins are produced by monoclonal plasma cells, which are found in a variety of plasma cell dyscrasias. The ... Monoclonal Immunoglobulin Deposition Disorder, or MIDD, is a disease characterised by the deposition of monoclonal ...
MAdCAM-1 belongs to a subclass of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF), the members of which are ligands for integrins. The ... In molecular biology, the adhesin molecule (immunoglobulin-like) is a protein domain. This domain is found in mucosal vascular ... "The structure of immunoglobulin superfamily domains 1 and 2 of MAdCAM-1 reveals novel features important for integrin ... crystal structure of this domain has been reported; it adopts an immunoglobulin-like beta-sandwich structure, with seven ...
Selective immunoglobulin A (IgA) deficiency (SIgAD) is a genetic immunodeficiency, a type of hypogammaglobulinemia. People with ... They rarely present with severe reactions, including anaphylaxis, to blood transfusions or intravenous immunoglobulin due to ... There is an inherited inability to produce immunoglobulin A (IgA), a part of the body's defenses against infection at the ... There is a historical popularity in using intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) to treat SIgAD, but the consensus is that there is ...
I-set domains are found in several cell adhesion molecules, including vascular (VCAM), intercellular (ICAM), neural (NCAM) and mucosal addressin (MADCAM) cell adhesion molecules, as well as junction adhesion molecules (JAM). I-set domains are also present in several other diverse protein families, including several tyrosine-protein kinase receptors, the hemolymph protein hemolin, the muscle proteins titin, telokin, and twitchin, the neuronal adhesion molecule axonin-1, and the signalling molecule semaphorin 4D that is involved in axonal guidance, immune function and angiogenesis. ADAMTSL1, ADAMTSL3, ALPK3, AXL, BOC, C9orf94, CADM2, CADM4, CCDC141, CDON, CEACAM7, CHL1, CILP2, CNTN1, CNTN2, CNTN3, CNTN4, CNTN5, CNTN6, CXADR, DCC, DSCAM, DSCAML1, ESAM, FGFR1, FGFR3, FGFR4, FGFRL1, FLT1, FLT4, FSTL4, FSTL5, HMCN1, HNT, HSPG2, ICAM5, IGFBP7, IGFBPL1, IGSF10, IGSF22, IGSF9, ISLR, KALRN, KAZALD1, KDR, KIAA0626, KIRREL, KIRREL2, KIRREL3, L1CAM, LINGO1, LINGO2, LRFN2, LRFN3, LRFN4, LRFN5, LRIG1, LRIG2, ...
The leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptors (LILR) are a family of receptors possessing extracellular immunoglobulin domains. ... LAIR1 Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor David E. Sloane; Nicodemus Tedla; Muyiwa Awoniyi; Donald W. MacGlashan Jr.; Luis ... v t e v t e v t e (Protein pages needing a picture, Immunoglobulin superfamily, All stub articles, Biochemistry stubs, Receptor ... Borges; K. Frank Austen; Jonathan P. Arm (November 2004). "Leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptors: novel innate receptors for ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IGSF3 gene. The protein encoded by this gene ... "Entrez Gene: Immunoglobulin superfamily member 3". Retrieved 2018-10-06. v t e This article incorporates text from the United ... is an immunoglobulin-like membrane protein containing several V-type Ig-like domains. A mutation in this gene has been ...
C1-set domains are found almost exclusively in molecules involved in the immune system, such as in immunoglobulin light and ...
CD2 CD4 VCAM1 Smith DK, Xue H (1997). "Sequence profiles of immunoglobulin and immunoglobulin-like domains". J. Mol. Biol. 274 ... Immunoglobulin-like domains that are related in both sequence and structure can be found in several diverse protein families. ... CD4 is the primary receptor for HIV-1. CD4 has four immunoglobulin-like domains in its extracellular region that share the same ... The basic structure of immunoglobulin (Ig) molecules is a tetramer of two light chains and two heavy chains linked by ...
... (TIM) proteins are a family of cell surface immunomodulatory proteins. TIM1 Kane ...
Members of the IgSF family include the human killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) and the Immunoglobulin-like ... includes immunoglobulin-like transcripts (ILT, also known as leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptors (LIRs)), leukocyte- ... Human killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors recognize the α1 and α2 domains of class I human leukocyte antigens (HLA-A, -B ... Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs), are a family of type I transmembrane glycoproteins expressed on the plasma ...
... is a immunoglobulin gene with symbol IGHA1. It encodes a constant (C) segment of ... Immunoglobulin A is an antibody that plays a critical role in immune function in the mucous membranes. IgA shows the same ... "Entrez Gene: IGHA1 immunoglobulin heavy constant alpha 1". Kratzin, H.; Altevogt, P.; Ruban, E.; Kortt, A.; Staroscik, K.; ... "IGHA1 immunoglobulin heavy constant alpha 1 [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI". Retrieved 2016-10-16 ...
... immunoglobulin G (IgG), immunoglobulin A (IgA), immunoglobulin M (IgM), immunoglobulin D (IgD), and immunoglobulin E (IgE). The ... Serum immunoglobulin and immunoglobulin G subclasses in children with allergic colitis. West Afr J Med. 1998 Jul-Sep. 17(3):206 ... Immunoglobulin G deficiency. Changes in serum immunoglobulin G concentrations during infancy and childhood. View Media Gallery ... encoded search term (Immunoglobulin G Deficiency) and Immunoglobulin G Deficiency What to Read Next on Medscape ...
The specificity of immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M in the fluorescent antibody test for malaria parasites in mice / by F ... Evaluation of commercially available anti-dengue virus immunoglobulin M tests  Pediatric Dengue Vaccine Initiative; UNICEF/ ... Reversed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of specific anti-Plasmodium falciparum immunoglobulin M antibodies / M ...
IgG stands for immunoglobulin G. It is a type of antibody. Antibodies are proteins that your immune system makes to fight germs ... URL of this page: CSF Immunoglobulin G (IgG) Index. ... Other names: cerebrospinal fluid IgG level, cerebrospinal fluid IgG measurement, CSF IgG level, IgG (Immunoglobulin G) spinal ... Immunoglobulin G Index; [cited 2022 May 24]; [about 4 screens]. Available from: ...
In nearly all cases, the deposits contain immunoglobulin light (L) chains or L-chain fragments, termed L chain-type amyloidosis ... Immunoglobulin-related amyloidosis is a monoclonal plasma cell disorder in which the secreted monoclonal immunoglobulin protein ... encoded search term (Immunoglobulin-Related Amyloidosis) and Immunoglobulin-Related Amyloidosis What to Read Next on Medscape ... Immunoglobulin-Related Amyloidosis Clinical Presentation. Updated: Jun 28, 2022 * Author: Slavomir Urbancek, MD, PhD; Chief ...
FIGURE 1. Number of specimens (N = 568) testing positive for West Nile virus immunoglobulin M antibodies, using one lot from a ... FIGURE 2. Number of persons (N = 518) testing positive for West Nile virus immunoglobulin M antibodies using one lot from a ... Alternative Text: The figure above shows the 568 specimens testing positive for West Nile virus immunoglobulin M antibodies, ... False-Positive Results with a Commercially Available West Nile Virus Immunoglobulin M Assay --- United States, 2008. In ...
The specificity of immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M in the fluorescent antibody test for malaria parasites in mice / by F ... Evaluation of commercially available anti-dengue virus immunoglobulin M tests  Pediatric Dengue Vaccine Initiative; UNICEF/ ... Reversed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of specific anti-Plasmodium falciparum immunoglobulin M antibodies / M ...
... and switching from intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) to subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIG) can minimize these adverse effects. ... and switching from intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) to subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIG) can minimize these adverse effects. ... Although a large number of clinical trials have demonstrated that immunoglobulin is effective and well tolerated, various ... Although a large number of clinical trials have demonstrated that immunoglobulin is effective and well tolerated, various ...
E-mail your company news at:. news (at) Letters to the Editor: editor (at) Local Marketing contact:. (+99532) 2252 275 , 76 EXT: 1 (+995 558) 03 03 03 (mobile) marketing (at) Requests from abroad:. (+99532) 2252 275 , 76 EXT: 7 (+995599) 96 52 52 Email: zviadi (@) Contact video editor: E-mail: video (at) Postal address: 17 Mtskheta str. Tbilisi, Georgia 0179 The FINANCIAL ...
Antibodies (also called immunoglobulins) are proteins the immune system makes to recognize and get rid of germs. ... An IgA test measures the blood level of immunoglobulin A, one of the most common types of antibodies in the body. ...
immunoglobulin lambda constant 7provided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:5861 See related. Ensembl:ENSG00000211685 IMGT/GENE ... Structure and expression of the human immunoglobulin lambda genes. Vasicek TJ, et al. J Exp Med, 1990 Aug 1. PMID 2115572, Free ... part_of immunoglobulin complex, circulating IBA Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor. more info ... Recognition of immunoglobulins by Fcgamma receptors. Radaev S, et al. Mol Immunol, 2002 May. PMID 11955599 ...
High-throughput sequencing analysis of hypermutating immunoglobulin (IG) repertoires remains a challenging task. Here we ... This protocol enables high-throughput sequencing analysis of the full-length immunoglobulin repertoires in human and mouse ... High-quality full-length immunoglobulin profiling with unique molecular barcoding. *M A Turchaninova1,2,3 na1, ... Onset of immune senescence defined by unbiased pyrosequencing of human immunoglobulin mRNA repertoires. PLoS One 7, e49774 ( ...
On this page about Hepatitis B Immunoglobulin-VF (CSL) you will find information relating to side effects, age restrictions, ... Other medicines containing the same active ingredients: hepatitis b virus immunoglobulin *Can I take Hepatitis B Immunoglobulin ... Brand name: Hepatitis B Immunoglobulin-VF (CSL) TM. Active ingredients: hepatitis b virus immunoglobulin ... Hepatitis B Immunoglobulin-VF is indicated for post-exposure prophylaxis in persons who did not receive prior vaccination, or ...
KEY FINDINGS The global immunoglobulin market is anticipated to rise with a CAGR of 6.87% across the forecast years of 2022 to ... subsequently increasing the need for immunoglobulin products for their treatment.. REGIONAL INSIGHTS. The global immunoglobulin ... The global immunoglobulin market is anticipated to rise with a CAGR of 6.87% across the forecast years of 2022 to 2030. The ... Immunoglobulins are characterized as antibodies that are produced naturally by the bodys immune system.They primarily help ...
The role of complement in immunoglobulin G-triggered inflammation was studied in mice genetically deficient in complement ... Immunoglobulin G-mediated inflammatory responses develop normally in complement-deficient mice J Exp Med. 1996 Dec 1;184(6): ... The role of complement in immunoglobulin G-triggered inflammation was studied in mice genetically deficient in complement ...
... Classification & external resources The dimeric IgA ... Selective immunoglobulin A (IgA) deficiency is a relatively mild genetic immunodeficiency. People with this deficiency lack ... It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Selective_immunoglobulin_A_deficiency". A list of authors is available in ... There is an inherited inability to produce immunoglobulin A (IgA), a part of the bodys defenses against infection at the ...
US-10287315-B2 chemical patent summary.
Immunoglobulin (IgE). Many people have allergy-induced asthma, which means that their asthma symptoms are triggered by allergic ... These people have high levels of an allergy-causing antibody (a type of immune protein in the body) called immunoglobulin E ( ...
Mouse IgG and IgA, with reactivity to dinitrophenol conjugated to carrier protein, have been isolated from myeloma proteins by means of a variety of affinity techniques. The IgA was predominantly in the dimeric form. The in vitro and in vivo biological activities of IgA-containing immune complexes were assessed in the rat. IgA-containing immune complexes were demonstrated, in a dose-dependent manner in vitro, to activate neutrophils and to generate O.-2. In addition, these immune complexes showed evidence of complement activation in vitro, by the use of immunofixation techniques. When IgA was instilled into the airways of rats and antigen was injected intravenously, acute lung injury occurred, as reflected by increases in lung permeability and morphological changes consisting of blebbing of endothelial cells, intra-alveolar hemorrhage, and fibrin deposition. The lung changes were directly proportional to the amount of IgA instilled into the airways and failed to occur if intravenous injection of ...
As a result of this decision, all stock of Octagam intravenous immunoglobulin solutions in Australia will be recalled ... Adequate supplies of alternative intravenous immunoglobulin solution products are available for clinical use in Australia, and ... Doctors should cease using Octagam intravenous immunoglobulin solutions immediately, and switch their patients to the most ... an intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) preparation, manufactured by Octapharma in Europe. This product is supplied in Australia ...
PeproTech the producer of high quality recombinant cytokines and growth factors supports life science research, cellular therapy and regenerative medicine.
J:5763 Warner NL, et al., Allotypes of mouse IgM immunoglobulin. Nature. 1977 Feb 3;265(5593):447-9 ...
The largest anibodies and the first to respomd to infections. ...
Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is the main effector of the mucosal immune system and provides an important first line of defense ... Mucosal immunoglobulins. Immunol Rev. 64-82. Review.. 2. Woof JM. & Kerr MA., 2007. The function of immunoglobulin A in ... Immunoglobulin A (IgA). Secretory IgA and the mucosal immune system. The mucosal surfaces represent the largest area of ... Immunoglobulin A (IgA), in its secretory form, is the main effector of the mucosal immune system and provides an important ...
Intravenous Immunoglobulins (IVIGs). Intravenous Immunoglobulins (IVIGs) may be used to control SLE with organ involvement or ... See Patient Information Sheet on Intravenous Immunoglobulins (IVIGs). Source: National Institutes of Health, U.S.Dept of Health ... Copyright © 1995-2021 Photius Coutsoukis (All ...
News related to Gammaplex (Human Immunoglobulin G) and/or conditions it is approved for. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) ...
Immunoglobulins. gamma-Globulins. Immunoglobulins, Intravenous. Rho(D) Immune Globulin. Immunologic Factors. Physiological ... Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIG) for Treatment of Unexplained Secondary Recurrent Miscarriage. The safety and scientific ... This clinical study will evaluate the effectiveness of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in improving the live birth rate in ... Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIG) for Treatment of Unexplained Secondary Recurrent Miscarriage: A Prospective, Randomized, ...
According to the European Medicines Agency guideline on environmental risk assessments for pharmaceuticals (EMA/CHMP/SWP/4447/00), vitamins, electrolytes, amino acids, peptides, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids proteins, vaccines and herbal medicinal products are exempted because they are unlikely to result in significant risk to the environment. ...
More info for Fold b.1: Immunoglobulin-like beta-sandwich. Timeline for Fold b.1: Immunoglobulin-like beta-sandwich: *Fold b.1 ... Fold b.1: Immunoglobulin-like beta-sandwich appears in SCOPe 2.03. *Fold b.1: Immunoglobulin-like beta-sandwich appears in the ... Immunoglobulin-like beta-sandwich first appeared (with stable ids) in SCOP 1.55. *Fold b.1: Immunoglobulin-like beta-sandwich ... Fold b.1: Immunoglobulin-like beta-sandwich [48725] (28 superfamilies). sandwich; 7 strands in 2 sheets; greek-key. some ...
The receptors studied include the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR), the neonatal receptor (FcRn), the Fcα/μR, the ... Although albuminuria is most widely studied, higher molecular weight proteins such as immunoglobulins (Ig) are more associated ...
  • An IgA test measures the blood level of immunoglobulin A, one of the most common types of antibodies in the body. (
  • Antibodies (also called immunoglobulins) are proteins the immune system makes to recognize and get rid of germs . (
  • Immunoglobulins are characterized as antibodies that are produced naturally by the body's immune system.They primarily help fight diseases and infections. (
  • In the absence of normal IgA, the body can develop an immune response against IgA itself (anti-IgA antibodies), which can lead to severe reactions including anaphylaxis to blood transfusions or intravenous immunoglobulin . (
  • We quantitatively determined the synthesis of specific antibodies in a patient with chikungunya disease by antibody index (AI) as described by Reiber and Felgenhauer ( 6 ).The antibody index discriminates the pathologic fraction of specific brain-derived CSF immunoglobulin, considering the transfer of blood proteins into CSF. (
  • IgA-deficient patients with immunoglobulin E (IgE)-class anti-IgA antibodies are at risk for anaphylaxis if they receive blood or intravenous immunoglobulin, but this situation is extremely rare. (
  • Detection and quantification of antibodies, especially immunoglobulin G (IgG), is a cornerstone of ELISAs, many diagnostics, and the development of antibody-based drugs. (
  • Immunoglobulin therapy injects antibodies into the blood. (
  • They carry enzymes, antibodies (immunoglobulins) and other proteins. (
  • After weekslong hospitalizations and ongoing psychiatric medications, the two UCSF patients, whose cerebrospinal fluid tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and anti-neural antibodies, were treated with intravenous immunoglobulin, an immunomodulatory therapy that curbs inflammation in autoimmune disorders. (
  • Clinical manifestations of immediate hypersensitivity (allergic) diseases are caused by the release of proinflammatory mediators (histamine, leukotrienes, and prostaglandins) from immunoglobulin E (IgE)-sensitized effector cells (mast cells and basophils) when cell-bound IgE antibodies interact with allergen. (
  • Immunoglobulins are also called antibodies. (
  • The laboratory diagnosis is usually performed by testing the plasma or serum to detect the virus, viral nucleic acid or virus specific immunoglobulin M and neutralizing antibodies. (
  • Performing an early assessment of risk factors, infusing at a slow rate, premedicating, and switching from intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) to subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIG) can minimize these adverse effects. (
  • Hence, many scholars began to explore intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) preparations. (
  • The TGA has become aware of reports of a markedly increased incidence of serious adverse reactions associated with Octagam, an intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) preparation, manufactured by Octapharma in Europe. (
  • This clinical study will evaluate the effectiveness of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in improving the live birth rate in couples who suffer from secondary recurrent miscarriage. (
  • Increasing awareness of IRT options for patients with PIDs, which is given as intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) or subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIg), and the pros and cons of IVIg versus SCIg. (
  • This survey is aimed specifically at adults with PI who currently receive either Subcutaneous (SCIG) or Intravenous (IVIG) immunoglobulin replacement. (
  • Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) use in non-approved indications, the increase in consumption and its high cost recommend rationalisation in its utilisation. (
  • Purpose: Several side effects of intravenous immunoglobulin G (IVIG) therapy are known, but it has never been reported to be associated with cardiac rhythm abnormalities other than sinus tachycardia. (
  • Although timely diagnosis and treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) are critical to reduce the incidence of coronary artery aneurysms, 8 diagnosis of KD is still established based on clinical criteria supported by laboratory evidence of acute inflammation and there is no specific diagnostic test to aid the clinician. (
  • Observational benefit has been suggested from oral immunosuppressants, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), rituximab, and tocilizumab. (
  • After eliminating conditions that may increase susceptibility to infection (eg, adenoid hypertrophy, cystic fibrosis , immunosuppression), an initial workup may include CBC, quantitative serum immunoglobulins, IgG vaccine titers, and complement testing. (
  • Suspected PIDDs should be evaluated in a stepwise fashion, with initial, nonspecific testing that includes measurement of total serum immunoglobulin and evaluation of antibody titers. (
  • No defined blood test or tumour markers are currently available to diagnose this entity except serum immunoglobulin G4 which is costly and not feasible to get done in all patients especially in developing nations like India. (
  • Characterization of the optimal stimulatory effects of graves' monoclonal and serum immunoglobulin G on adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate production in fRTL-5 thyroid cells: a potential clinical assay. (
  • In this study, homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and serum immunoglobulin (Ig) A levels are found as the independent predictors of hepatic fibrosis. (
  • Description: A sandwich quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Human Immunoglobulin M (IgM) in samples from serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell lysates, cell culture supernates or other biological fluids. (
  • Serum immunoglobulins were within normal limits. (
  • Although thromboembolic events are a known rare adverse event associated with the administration of all intravenous immunoglobulin preparations, as described in the prescribing information for these products, there has recently been a steady accumulation of such events reported following administration of Octagam in Europe and the USA, with a marked increase in incidence noted during the last few months of 2010. (
  • Individuals with such an unusual profile should receive only low IgA intravenous immunoglobulin preparations. (
  • These adverse effects are associated with specific immunoglobulin preparations and individual differences. (
  • Intramuscular immunoglobulin preparations were not widely applied because of their poor tolerance. (
  • Biomeda's immunoglobulin (IgG) preparations are used for affinity columns, blocking agents, and normal controls in a variety of immuno assays. (
  • Immunoglobulin G (IgG) preparations derived from the sera of patients with hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease (TSAb) as well as a monoclonal IgG derived from heterohybridoma fusions of Graves' lymphocytes augmented cAMP levels in a continuous strain of functioning rat thyroid cells (clone FRTL-5) in culture. (
  • 2008) Subcutaneous versus intravenous immunoglobulin for primary immu-nodeficiencies: Systematic review and economic evalua-tion. (
  • A. Gardulf, (2007) Immunoglobulin treatment for primary antibody deficiencies: Advantages of the subcutaneous route. (
  • Adaptive immune responses require rearrangement of the genes responsible for the specific recognition structures, ie, immunoglobulins for humoral immunity and T-cell receptors for cellular immunity. (
  • Structure and expression of the human immunoglobulin lambda genes. (
  • They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES . (
  • Although albuminuria is most widely studied, higher molecular weight proteins such as immunoglobulins (Ig) are more associated with progression of renal disease. (
  • Immunoglobulin therapies are unique biologics and replace missing or functionally impaired proteins in individuals born with a range of genetic and often life-threatening diseases. (
  • IgG deficiencies may occur as isolated deficiencies (eg, selective IgG deficiency) or in association with deficiencies of other immunoglobulin types. (
  • For information on deficiencies of other immunoglobulin types, see the Medscape Reference articles IgA Deficiency , IgD Deficiency , and IgM Deficiency . (
  • Selective immunoglobulin A (IgA) deficiency is a relatively mild genetic immunodeficiency . (
  • People with this deficiency lack immunoglobulin A (IgA), a type of antibody that protects against infections of the mucous membranes lining the mouth, airways, and digestive tract. (
  • It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Selective_immunoglobulin_A_deficiency" . (
  • Anti-D immunoglobulin treatment for thrombocytopenia associated with primary antibody deficiency. (
  • Selective immunoglobulin A deficiency (SIgAD) is a primary immunodeficiency disease and is the most common of the primary antibody deficiencies. (
  • CD3, also known as T3, is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily that plays a role in antigen recognition, signal transduction, and T cell activation. (
  • The MRC OX-45 antigen of rat leukocytes and endothelium is in a subset of the immunoglobulin superfamily with CD2, LFA-3 and carcinoembryonic antigens. (
  • 2B4, the natural killer and T cell immunoglobulin superfamily surface protein, is a ligand for CD48. (
  • In 1952, Bruton ( 12 ) was the first to use immunoglobulin to treat a patient identified as immunodeficient, and it later became a standard therapy for immunodeficiency diseases. (
  • Patients who receive immunoglobulin therapy are often treated with immunoglobulin in repeated infusions over a long period of time, and the incidence of adverse effects related to immunoglobulin varies across a wide range. (
  • Assisting GPs, paediatricians and other medical specialists to recognise the early signs of PID and refer patients to a clinical immunologist to confirm diagnosis and initiate treatment, including immunoglobulin replacement therapy (IRT) if required. (
  • Intravenous Immunoglobulin Therapy in Patients With Painful Idiopathic Small Fiber Neuropathy," by Geerts et al. (
  • Share Your Experiences with Immunoglobulin Replacement Therapy. (
  • Dive into the research topics of 'Protein A-Nanoluciferase fusion protein for generalized, sensitive detection of immunoglobulin G'. Together they form a unique fingerprint. (
  • Recognition of immunoglobulins by Fcgamma receptors. (
  • The receptors studied include the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR), the neonatal receptor (FcRn), the Fcα/μR, the classical IgG receptors (FcγR1, γIIa, γIIb, γIII and the related FcR γ-chain) and the classical IgA receptor (FcαR). (
  • In humans, CD94/NKG2A receptor and the variable killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) recognizing HLA I molecules on target cells are common inhibitory receptors. (
  • The global immunoglobulin market is anticipated to rise with a CAGR of 6.87% across the forecast years of 2022 to 2030. (
  • Detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG) is possible within 2 weeks of infection using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test, the IgG avidity test, and the agglutination and differential agglutination tests. (
  • In September 2008, CDC, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and state health departments began a nationwide investigation into an increase in false-positive test results obtained with a commercially available West Nile virus (WNV) immunoglobulin M (IgM) capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). (
  • Establishment of an immunoglobulin A-deficient blood donor registry with a simple in-house screening enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (
  • Doctors should cease using Octagam intravenous immunoglobulin solutions immediately, and switch their patients to the most appropriate alternative treatment. (
  • Patients and health care providers should report any adverse events that have occurred following administration of Octagam intravenous immunoglobulin solution to the TGA via the Adverse Medicine Events Line (1300 134 237), online via ' Report a problem with a medicine ', or using the 'Blue Card' Prepaid Reporting Form . (
  • Data on the number of patients, immunoglobulin market shares and drug unit costs were derived from the IMS Health hospital disease database and from Belgian sources. (
  • B. Hogy, H. O. Keinecke, M. Borte, (2005) Pharma-coeconomic evaluation of immunoglobulin treatment in patients with antibody deficiencies from the perspective of the German statutory health insurance. (
  • Patients and Methods: We describe the development of cardiac dysrhythmias during intravenous immunoglobulin G infusion in two children with thrombocytopenia. (
  • Anti- Toxoplasma immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers present a 4-fold increase that peak 6-8 weeks after infection and then decline over the next 2 years, although they remain detectable for life. (
  • The role of complement in immunoglobulin G-triggered inflammation was studied in mice genetically deficient in complement components C3 and C4. (
  • Immunoglobulin has been widely used in a variety of diseases, including primary and secondary immunodeficiency diseases, neuromuscular diseases, and Kawasaki disease. (
  • Applications involving immunoglobulin have expanded to include treatment for immunodeficiency diseases, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), Kawasaki disease, and neurologic disorders (including Guillain-Barre syndrome, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, myasthenia gravis, multiple myositis, multiple sclerosis, and autoimmune encephalitis) ( 2 - 8 ). (
  • The aim of this study is to compute the budget impact of adopting Kiovig, a new ready-to-use 10% liquid immunoglobulin preparation, as a treatment for primary immunodeficiency from the perspective of the Belgian health care payer. (
  • The analysis compared the "world with Kiovig" to the "world without Kiovig" and calculated how a change in the mix of immunoglobulins used to treat primary immunodeficiency would impact drug spending during 2010-2014. (
  • This document is a source for ASCIA IRT e-training for health professionals which is available at This e-training course was developed as part of the National Prescribing Service (NPS) MedicineWise ViP Immunoglobulin project. (
  • This survey aims to learn more about how we can improve the infusion experiences for those who depend on immunoglobulin. (
  • Immunoglobulins have important roles in humoral immunity, and they consist of 5 major classes or isotypes: immunoglobulin G (IgG), immunoglobulin A (IgA), immunoglobulin M (IgM), immunoglobulin D (IgD), and immunoglobulin E (IgE). (
  • IgE is set apart from the other immunoglobulin isotypes by its very low plasma levels and short half-life. (
  • Process that minimizes or prevents immunoglobulin-associated adverse reactions. (
  • Fortunately, rabies can be prevented by administering vaccine and immunoglobulin after an exposure occurs. (
  • Predicted to enable antigen binding activity and immunoglobulin receptor binding activity. (
  • Acute lung injury in rat caused by immunoglobulin A immune complexes. (
  • The rise in the geriatric population across the world is a leading factor expected to fuel the global immunoglobulin market growth over the forecasted years.As an individual ages, their immune system tends to deteriorate and responds relatively slower. (
  • Immunoglobulin A (IgA), in its secretory form, is the main effector of the mucosal immune system and provides an important first line of defense against most pathogens that invade the body at a mucosal surface [1] . (
  • An antibody, also called immunoglobulin, is a protective protein produced by the immune system in response to the presence of a foreign substance, called an antigen. (
  • 2002. Multiple functions of immunoglobulin A in mucosal defense against viruses: an in vitro measles virus model. (
  • Recent media reports have described access issues regarding immunoglobulin (Ig) therapies relied on by people living with primary immunodeficiencies. (
  • Finally, by the same rule, B cells must first release M then G immunoglobulin on primary exposure. (
  • The best line of defense against invading pathogens in the newborn dairy calf is the immunoglobulins from colostrum that are absorbed in the small intestine. (
  • The most abundant class of immunoglobulins in the blood is IgG (73%), which has a molecular weight of 150 kd. (
  • Secretory IgA (SIgA) represents the most abundant immunoglobulin of body secretions such as saliva, tears, colostrum and gastrointestinal secretions. (
  • Although a large number of clinical trials have demonstrated that immunoglobulin is effective and well tolerated, various adverse effects have been reported. (
  • They include biomarker-immunoglobulin M (IgM) complexes, which have been found in several neoplastic diseases, such as colorectal, liver, and prostate cancer [ 1 - 3 ]. (
  • 11 ) successfully developed a process for the large-scale production of human immunoglobulin. (
  • 2007. Non-Human Transgenic Mammal for the Constant Region of the Class a Human Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain and Applications Thereof. (
  • Immunoglobulins, which are protein molecules that contain antibody activity, are produced by the terminal cells of B-cell differentiation known as plasma cells. (
  • Immunoglobulin, also known as gamma globulin, is a therapeutic preparation comprising pooled blood donated from large numbers of healthy people. (
  • What is an immunoglobulins blood test? (
  • This test measures the amount of immunoglobulins in your blood. (
  • Hence, the growth in the elderly is set to augment the prevalence of age-related diseases, subsequently increasing the need for immunoglobulin products for their treatment. (
  • Cytokines and inflammatory factors regulating immunoglobulin production in aggressive periodontitis. (
  • The aim of this treatment is to replace immunoglobulin to maintain normal Immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels, with the dose used individualised for each patient. (
  • Intravenous immunoglobulin for prophylaxis of neonatal sepsis in premature infants. (
  • B-cell immunity is mediated by the immunoglobulins and is commonly referred to as humoral immunity. (
  • 2007. The function of immunoglobulin A in immunity. (
  • They are comprised of two heavy ( IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS ) and two light chains ( IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS ) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. (
  • The competitive rivalry within the global immunoglobulin market is intense and is anticipated to remain high during the forecast period.Furthermore, the presence of numerous leading market players across various regions facilitates a higher level of competition since the industry is fragmented. (