Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.
Immunoglobulin preparations used in intravenous infusion, containing primarily IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. They are used to treat a variety of diseases associated with decreased or abnormal immunoglobulin levels including pediatric AIDS; primary HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA; SCID; CYTOMEGALOVIRUS infections in transplant recipients, LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC; Kawasaki syndrome, infection in neonates, and IDIOPATHIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA.
Genes encoding the different subunits of the IMMUNOGLOBULINS, for example the IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN GENES and the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES. The heavy and light immunoglobulin genes are present as gene segments in the germline cells. The completed genes are created when the segments are shuffled and assembled (B-LYMPHOCYTE GENE REARRANGEMENT) during B-LYMPHOCYTE maturation. The gene segments of the human light and heavy chain germline genes are symbolized V (variable), J (joining) and C (constant). The heavy chain germline genes have an additional segment D (diversity).
Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.
One of the types of light chains of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).
That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.
The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN M. They have a molecular weight of approximately 72 kDa and they contain about 57 amino acid residues arranged in five domains and have more oligosaccharide branches and a higher carbohydrate content than the heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.
The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.
One of the types of light chain subunits of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.
An immunoglobulin which accounts for less than 1% of plasma immunoglobulin. It is found on the membrane of many circulating B LYMPHOCYTES.
The domains of the immunoglobulin molecules that are invariable in their amino acid sequence within any class or subclass of immunoglobulin. They confer biological as well as structural functions to immunoglobulins. One each on both the light chains and the heavy chains comprises the C-terminus half of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN FAB FRAGMENT and two or three of them make up the rest of the heavy chains (all of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN FC FRAGMENT)
Crystallizable fragments composed of the carboxy-terminal halves of both IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fc fragments contain the carboxy-terminal parts of the heavy chain constant regions that are responsible for the effector functions of an immunoglobulin (COMPLEMENT fixation, binding to the cell membrane via FC RECEPTORS, and placental transport). This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Gene rearrangement of the B-lymphocyte which results in a substitution in the type of heavy-chain constant region that is expressed. This allows the effector response to change while the antigen binding specificity (variable region) remains the same. The majority of class switching occurs by a DNA recombination event but it also can take place at the level of RNA processing.
Heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G having a molecular weight of approximately 51 kDa. They contain about 450 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component covalently bound to the Fc fragment constant region. The gamma heavy chain subclasses (for example, gamma 1, gamma 2a, and gamma 2b) of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G isotype subclasses (IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B) resemble each other more closely than the heavy chains of the other IMMUNOGLOBULIN ISOTYPES.
Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
A 15 kD "joining" peptide that forms one of the linkages between monomers of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A or IMMUNOGLOBULIN M in the formation of polymeric immunoglobulins. There is one J chain per one IgA dimer or one IgM pentamer. It is also involved in binding the polymeric immunoglobulins to POLYMERIC IMMUNOGLOBULIN RECEPTOR which is necessary for their transcytosis to the lumen. It is distinguished from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN JOINING REGION which is part of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of the immunoglobulin light and heavy chains.
Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Allelic variants of the immunoglobulin light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) or heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) encoded by ALLELES of IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES.
Specialized Fc receptors (RECEPTORS, FC) for polymeric immunoglobulins, which mediate transcytosis of polymeric IMMUNOGLOBULIN A and IMMUNOGLOBULIN M into external secretions. They are found on the surfaces of epithelial cells and hepatocytes. After binding to IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, the receptor-ligand complex undergoes endocytosis, transport by vesicle, and secretion into the lumen by exocytosis. Before release, the part of the receptor (SECRETORY COMPONENT) that is bound to IMMUNOGLOBULIN A is proteolytically cleaved from its transmembrane tail. (From Rosen et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
A segment of the immunoglobulin heavy chains, encoded by the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES in the J segment where, during the maturation of B-LYMPHOCYTES; the gene segment for the variable region upstream is joined to a constant region gene segment downstream. The exact position of joining of the two gene segments is variable and contributes to ANTIBODY DIVERSITY. It is distinguished from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN J CHAINS; a separate polypeptide that serves as a linkage piece in polymeric IGA or IGM.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Abnormal immunoglobulins characteristic of MULTIPLE MYELOMA.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Genes and gene segments encoding the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS. Gene segments of the heavy chain genes are symbolized V (variable), D (diversity), J (joining), and C (constant).
A programmed mutation process whereby changes are introduced to the nucleotide sequence of immunoglobulin gene DNA during development.
Any discrete, presumably solitary, mass of neoplastic PLASMA CELLS either in BONE MARROW or various extramedullary sites.
The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN D. They have a molecular weight of approximately 64 kDa and they contain about 500 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component covalently bound to the Fc fragment constant region.
A site located in the INTRONS at the 5' end of each constant region segment of a immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene where recombination (or rearrangement) occur during IMMUNOGLOBULIN CLASS SWITCHING. Ig switch regions are found on genes encoding all five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN ISOTYPES) of IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS.
The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN A. They have a molecular weight of approximately 58 kDa and contain about 470 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component bound covalently to their Fc fragment constant region.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.
Serum globulins that migrate to the gamma region (most positively charged) upon ELECTROPHORESIS. At one time, gamma-globulins came to be used as a synonym for immunoglobulins since most immunoglobulins are gamma globulins and conversely most gamma globulins are immunoglobulins. But since some immunoglobulins exhibit an alpha or beta electrophoretic mobility, that usage is in decline.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The extracellular moiety of the POLYMERIC IMMUNOGLOBULIN RECEPTOR found alone or complexed with IGA or IGM, in a variety of external secretions (tears, bile, colostrum.) Secretory component is derived by proteolytic cleavage of the receptor during transcytosis. When immunoglobulins IgA and IgM are bound to the receptor, during their transcytosis secretory component becomes covalently attached to them generating SECRETORY IMMUNOGLOBULIN A or secretory IMMUNOGLOBULIN M.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
An immunologic deficiency state characterized by an extremely low level of generally all classes of gamma-globulin in the blood.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Allelic variants of the gamma-immunoglobulin heavy chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN GAMMA-CHAINS) encoded by ALLELES of IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES.
The thin, yellow, serous fluid secreted by the mammary glands during pregnancy and immediately postpartum before lactation begins. It consists of immunologically active substances, white blood cells, water, protein, fat, and carbohydrates.
Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the first stage of differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.
Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions coding for the IMMUNOGLOBULIN CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A protein present in the cell wall of most Staphylococcus aureus strains. The protein selectively binds to the Fc region of human normal and myeloma-derived IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. It elicits antibody activity and may cause hypersensitivity reactions due to histamine release; has also been used as cell surface antigen marker and in the clinical assessment of B lymphocyte function.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Specialized forms of antibody-producing B-LYMPHOCYTES. They synthesize and secrete immunoglobulin. They are found only in lymphoid organs and at sites of immune responses and normally do not circulate in the blood or lymph. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989, p169 & Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p20)
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Genes and gene segments encoding the IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS. Gene segments of the light chain genes are designated as V (variable), J (joining), and C (constant).
The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN E. They have a molecular weight of approximately 72 kDa and they contain about 550 amino acid residues arranged in five domains and about three times more carbohydrate than the heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; and IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions coding for the kappa or lambda IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the second stage of differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.
Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A dysgammaglobulinemia characterized by a deficiency of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Proteins isolated from the roots of the pokeweed, Phytolacca americana, that agglutinate some erythrocytes, stimulate mitosis and antibody synthesis in lymphocytes, and induce activation of plasma cells.
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).
Autoantibodies that bind to the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor (RECEPTORS, THYROTROPIN) on thyroid epithelial cells. The autoantibodies mimic TSH causing an unregulated production of thyroid hormones characteristic of GRAVES DISEASE.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
An excess of GAMMA-GLOBULINS in the serum due to chronic infections or PARAPROTEINEMIAS.
An immunologic deficiency state characterized by selective deficiencies of one or more, but not all, classes of immunoglobulins.
The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Allelic variants of the kappa light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN KAPPA-CHAINS) encoded by ALLELES of IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN GENES.
Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.
An abnormal protein with unusual thermosolubility characteristics that is found in the urine of patients with MULTIPLE MYELOMA.
A group of related diseases characterized by an unbalanced or disproportionate proliferation of immunoglobulin-producing cells, usually from a single clone. These cells frequently secrete a structurally homogeneous immunoglobulin (M-component) and/or an abnormal immunoglobulin.
A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
Antibodies found in adult RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS patients that are directed against GAMMA-CHAIN IMMUNOGLOBULINS.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
Abnormal immunoglobulins synthesized by atypical cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM. Paraproteins containing only light chains lead to Bence Jones paraproteinemia, while the presence of only atypical heavy chains leads to heavy chain disease. Most of the paraproteins show themselves as an M-component (monoclonal gammopathy) in electrophoresis. Diclonal and polyclonal paraproteins are much less frequently encountered.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Leukemia associated with HYPERPLASIA of the lymphoid tissues and increased numbers of circulating malignant LYMPHOCYTES and lymphoblasts.
A lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by pleomorphic B-LYMPHOCYTES including PLASMA CELLS, with increased levels of monoclonal serum IMMUNOGLOBULIN M. There is lymphoplasmacytic cells infiltration into bone marrow and often other tissues, also known as lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma. Clinical features include ANEMIA; HEMORRHAGES; and hyperviscosity.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Specific molecular sites on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes which combine with IgEs. Two subclasses exist: low affinity receptors (Fc epsilon RII) and high affinity receptors (Fc epsilon RI).
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
A dysgammaglobulinemia characterized by a deficiency of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.
Heterogeneous group of immunodeficiency syndromes characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia of most isotypes, variable B-cell defects, and the presence of recurrent bacterial infections.
Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.
An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of cytidine, forming uridine. EC 3.5.4.5.
A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors generally expressing one or more B-cell antigens or representing malignant transformations of B-lymphocytes.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A chronic form of glomerulonephritis characterized by deposits of predominantly IMMUNOGLOBULIN A in the mesangial area (GLOMERULAR MESANGIUM). Deposits of COMPLEMENT C3 and IMMUNOGLOBULIN G are also often found. Clinical features may progress from asymptomatic HEMATURIA to END-STAGE KIDNEY DISEASE.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.
Immunizing agent containing IMMUNOGLOBULIN G anti-Rho(D) used for preventing Rh immunization in Rh-negative individuals exposed to Rh-positive red blood cells.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The acquired form of infection by Toxoplasma gondii in animals and man.
A group of sporadic, familial and/or inherited, degenerative, and infectious disease processes, linked by the common theme of abnormal protein folding and deposition of AMYLOID. As the amyloid deposits enlarge they displace normal tissue structures, causing disruption of function. Various signs and symptoms depend on the location and size of the deposits.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
An epithelial outgrowth of the cloaca in birds similar to the thymus in mammals. It atrophies within 6 months after birth and remains as a fibrous remnant in adult birds. It is composed of lymphoid tissue and prior to involution, is the site of B-lymphocyte maturation.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The in vitro formation of clusters consisting of a cell (usually a lymphocyte) surrounded by antigenic cells or antigen-bearing particles (usually erythrocytes, which may or may not be coated with antibody or antibody and complement). The rosette-forming cell may be an antibody-forming cell, a memory cell, a T-cell, a cell bearing surface cytophilic antibodies, or a monocyte possessing Fc receptors. Rosette formation can be used to identify specific populations of these cells.
A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
A chronic leukemia characterized by abnormal B-lymphocytes and often generalized lymphadenopathy. In patients presenting predominately with blood and bone marrow involvement it is called chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL); in those predominately with enlarged lymph nodes it is called small lymphocytic lymphoma. These terms represent spectrums of the same disease.
Serum globulins with high molecular weight. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Stable iodine atoms that have the same atomic number as the element iodine, but differ in atomic weight. I-127 is the only naturally occurring stable iodine isotope.
Substances, usually of biological origin, that cause cells or other organic particles to aggregate and stick to each other. They include those ANTIBODIES which cause aggregation or agglutination of particulate or insoluble ANTIGENS.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.
Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.
Three regions (CDR1; CDR2 and CDR3) of amino acid sequence in the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION that are highly divergent. Together the CDRs from the light and heavy immunoglobulin chains form a surface that is complementary to the antigen. These regions are also present in other members of the immunoglobulin superfamily, for example, T-cell receptors (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL).
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A group of elongate elasmobranchs. Sharks are mostly marine fish, with certain species large and voracious.
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
Electrophoresis applied to BLOOD PROTEINS.
Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.
A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.
Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.
Lymphoid tissue on the mucosa of the small intestine.
Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.
Abnormal immunoglobulins, especially IGG or IGM, that precipitate spontaneously when SERUM is cooled below 37 degrees Celsius. It is characteristic of CRYOGLOBULINEMIA.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
The process by which the V (variable), D (diversity), and J (joining) segments of IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES or T-CELL RECEPTOR GENES are assembled during the development of LYMPHOID CELLS using NONHOMOLOGOUS DNA END-JOINING.
Chemical analysis based on the phenomenon whereby light, passing through a medium with dispersed particles of a different refractive index from that of the medium, is attenuated in intensity by scattering. In turbidimetry, the intensity of light transmitted through the medium, the unscattered light, is measured. In nephelometry, the intensity of the scattered light is measured, usually, but not necessarily, at right angles to the incident light beam.
Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
An acute infectious disease caused by the RUBELLA VIRUS. The virus enters the respiratory tract via airborne droplet and spreads to the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
An energy dependent process following the crosslinking of B CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS by multivalent ligands (bivalent anti-antibodies, LECTINS or ANTIGENS), on the B-cell surface. The crosslinked ligand-antigen receptor complexes collect in patches which flow to and aggregate at one pole of the cell to form a large mass - the cap. The caps may then be endocytosed or shed into the environment.
T-cell enhancement of the B-cell response to thymic-dependent antigens.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.

Zonula occludens toxin is a powerful mucosal adjuvant for intranasally delivered antigens. (1/5283)

Zonula occludens toxin (Zot) is produced by toxigenic strains of Vibrio cholerae and has the ability to reversibly alter intestinal epithelial tight junctions, allowing the passage of macromolecules through the mucosal barrier. In the present study, we investigated whether Zot could be exploited to deliver soluble antigens through the nasal mucosa for the induction of antigen-specific systemic and mucosal immune responses. Intranasal immunization of mice with ovalbumin (Ova) and recombinant Zot, either fused to the maltose-binding protein (MBP-Zot) or with a hexahistidine tag (His-Zot), induced anti-Ova serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers that were approximately 40-fold higher than those induced by immunization with antigen alone. Interestingly, Zot also stimulated high anti-Ova IgA titers in serum, as well as in vaginal and intestinal secretions. A comparison with Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) revealed that the adjuvant activity of Zot was only sevenfold lower than that of LT. Moreover, Zot and LT induced similar patterns of Ova-specific IgG subclasses. The subtypes IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b were all stimulated, with a predominance of IgG1 and IgG2b. In conclusion, our results highlight Zot as a novel potent mucosal adjuvant of microbial origin.  (+info)

The levels and bactericidal capacity of antibodies directed against the UspA1 and UspA2 outer membrane proteins of Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis in adults and children. (2/5283)

The UspA1 and UspA2 proteins from Moraxella catarrhalis share antigenic epitopes and are promising vaccine candidates. In this study, the levels and bactericidal activities of antibodies in sera from healthy adults and children toward UspA1 and UspA2 from the O35E strain were measured. Human sera contained antibodies to both proteins, and the levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies were age dependent. Adult sera had significantly higher titers of IgG than child sera (P < 0.01). The IgG3 titers to the UspA proteins were higher than the IgG1 titers in the adults' sera, while the IgG1 titers were higher than the IgG3 titers in the children's sera (P < 0.05). The IgG antibodies in the sera from 2-month-old children appeared to be maternally derived, since the mean titer was significantly higher than that in sera from 6- to 7-month-old children (P < 0.05). Serum IgA antibodies to both UspA1 and UspA2 were low during the first 7 months of age but thereafter gradually increased along with the IgG titers. Analysis of sera absorbed with UspA1 or UspA2 showed that the antibodies to UspA1 and UspA2 were cross-reactive with each other and associated with serum bactericidal activity. Examination of affinity-purified human antibodies confirmed that naturally acquired antibodies to UspA1 and UspA2 were bactericidal and cross-reactive. These results support using UspA1 and UspA2 in a vaccine to prevent M. catarrhalis infections.  (+info)

Fish oil feeding delays influenza virus clearance and impairs production of interferon-gamma and virus-specific immunoglobulin A in the lungs of mice. (3/5283)

Ingestion of fish oil can suppress the inflammatory response to injury and may impair host resistance to infection. To investigate the effect of a diet containing fish oil on immunity to viral infection, 148 BALB/c mice were fed diets containing 3 g/100 g of sunflower oil with either 17 g/100 g of fish oil or beef tallow for 14 d before intranasal challenge with live influenza virus. At d 1 and d 5 after infection, the mice fed fish oil had higher lung viral load and lower body weight (P < 0.05). In addition to the greater viral load and weight loss at d 5 after infection, the fish oil group consumed less food (P < 0.05) while the beef tallow group was clearing the virus, had regained their preinfection weights and was returning to their preinfection food consumption. The fish oil group had impaired production of lung interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), serum immunoglobulin (Ig) G and lung IgA-specific antibodies (all P < 0. 05) although lung IFN-alpha/beta and the relative proportions of bronchial lymph node CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes did not differ between groups after infection. The present study demonstrates a delay in virus clearance in mice fed fish oil associated with reduced IFN-gamma and antibody production and a greater weight loss and suppression of appetite following influenza virus infection. However, differences observed during the course of infection did not affect the ultimate outcome as both groups cleared the virus and returned to preinfection food consumption and body weight by d 7.  (+info)

Up-regulation of glomerular extracellular matrix and transforming growth factor-beta expression in RF/J mice. (4/5283)

BACKGROUND: RF/J mice were first reported as a murine model of spontaneous glomerulosclerosis by Gude and Lupton in 1960, but the precise histologic characteristics and immunopathological background of this mouse have not been investigated further. METHODS: Measurements of serum levels of immunoglobulins, anti-single strand DNA (anti-ss-DNA) antibody, complement (C3), and circulating immune complex (IC) were performed. Analyses of glomerular histological and immunopathological lesions in association with the detection of mRNA expression of collagen IV, TGF-beta, matrix protein turnover related enzymes, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) were also performed in young (10-week-old) and elderly (60-week-old) RF/J mice with age-matched BALB/C mice as the controls. RESULTS: High levels of serum IgA and IgG from as early as 20 weeks of age were noted in the RF/J mice. Serum anti-ss-DNA antibody of aged RF/J mice increased up to 23% of that of aged MRL-lpr/lpr mice, and serum C3 concentration significantly decreased with age, reaching lower levels than that of BALB/c mice. IgA-IC levels were significantly high compared to BALB/C mice both in the early and late stages of life, whereas IgG-IC levels were high only in mice younger than 20 weeks. Semiquantitative and quantitative analyzes of renal histopathological findings revealed significantly marked and age-related mesangial matrix expansion in RF/J mice, with increasing frequency of global glomerular sclerosis and tubulointerstitial damage. On the other hand, although precise measurements of glomerular cell numbers also showed an apparent augmentation in both young and old RF/J mice compared to BALB/C mice, glomerular cellularity decreased with age in RF/J mice. Immunohistochemical study revealed massive immunoglobulin deposition from a young age in association with significantly higher accumulation of matrix proteins, such as types I and IV collagen and laminin from the early stage of life. In addition, in these glomeruli, transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) was highly expressed both in young and old mice. The mRNA expression of MMP-2 was up-regulated only in the early stage of life. Although PDGF mRNA of RF/J mice was significantly up-regulated in the early stage of life, the differences between the mice disappeared in the late stage of life. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that in RF/J mice, an immunopathological background inducing high serum immunoglobulin and IC levels from the early stage of life is closely related to mesangioproliferative glomerular lesions mediated by PDGF, and that development of massive extracellular matrix accumulation in glomeruli was induced by up-regulated expression of TGF-beta with inappropriate regulation of protein turnover-related enzyme production.  (+info)

Human triclonal anti-IgG gammopathy. I. Iso-electric focusing characteristics of the IgG, IgA and IgM anti-IgG and their heavy and light chains. (5/5283)

Human IgG, IgA and IgM anti-IgG autoantibodies have been isolated from the serum of an individual with Felty's syndrome. These were initially noted as soluble circulating serum complexes by analytical ultracentrifugation. Isolation was accomplished by solid phase immunoadsorption and each of the three antibody populations obtained was shown to be of restricted heterogeneity by liquid and polyacrylamide gel electrofocussing methods. Type kappa light chains were obtained from each protein. Co-isoelectric focusing experiments of all possible pairs of these light chains showed them to have identical net charge characteristics. Heavy chains obtained from each protein were also monoclonal and of differing isoelectric point. The availability of this serum provides a human model with which to study the changes which may occur in autoantibodies during the autoimmune response.  (+info)

Ialpha exon-replacement mice synthesize a spliced HPRT-C(alpha) transcript which may explain their ability to switch to IgA. Inhibition of switching to IgG in these mice. (6/5283)

Antibody class switching is regulated by transcription of unrearranged C(H) genes to produce germline (GL) transcripts which direct the choice of isotype and are required for switching. However, their role is unknown. GL transcripts are initiated at the I exons located upstream of each switch region. Although deletion of the I exon by gene targeting prevents switch recombination to that CH gene, the Ialpha exon can be replaced by an entirely different DNA segment, a minigene driven by the phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) promoter and encoding hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT), oriented in the sense direction, without reducing antibody class switching to IgA. To understand why HPRT substitution of the Ialpha exon does not disrupt switch recombination, we have analyzed the structure of the transcript from the targeted allele in these mice. We identify a spliced transcript in which the HPRT exons are spliced to the C(alpha) gene segments, resulting in a structure similar to normal GL transcripts. The abundance of this transcript is similar to that of the normal alpha GL RNA. We also demonstrate that switching to the four IgG subclasses in B cells from these mice is reduced in comparison to wild-type mice. We discuss the possibility that the strong PGK promoter inserted at the Ig alpha locus may interfere with interaction of the promoters for gamma GL transcripts with the 3' IgH enhancer.  (+info)

Immunoglobulin-specific radioimmunoprecipitation assays for quantitation of nasal secretory antibodies to hemagglutinin of type A influenza viruses. (7/5283)

Radioimmunoprecipitation (RIP) assays were developed to selectively quantitate class-specific antibodies to purified hemagglutinins (HA) of type A influenza virus in nasal secretions. Rabbit anti-human secretory piece of immunoglobulin A (IgA) and rabbit anti-human IgG were used as second antibodies. A third antibody, goat anti-rabbit IgG, was incorporated into the system to separate immune complexes formed between iodinated HA, nasal wash test specimen, and second antibody. The utilization of this reagent avoided the need for large quantities of IgA and IgG antibody-negative carrier secretions. Nasal was specimens obtained from 14 adults immunized with an inactivated type A influenza virus vaccine were evaluated by RIP and viral neutralization assays. Significant homologous postvaccination secretory IgA and IgG antibody levels were demonstrable in 13 (93%) of individuals by RIP, whereas only 5 (36%) exhibited rises by viral neutralization tests. Moreover, the geometric mean IgA and IgG antibody levels were at least 20- and 37-fold greater than the neutralizing antibody titer. The pattern of heterologous immunoglobulin-specific antibody responses tended to be similar to those observed with the homologous HA subunit.  (+info)

Exposed peptide core of IgA1 hinge region in IgA nephropathy. (8/5283)

BACKGROUND: The human IgA1 hinge region is a very unique O-linked glycopeptide, and its sialylation and galactosylation recently were reported to be defective in the serum IgA1 derived from patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN). This study was performed to examine the underglycosylation of the IgA1 hinge region and consequent exposure of the peptide core in IgAN. METHODS: A polyclonal antibody against a synthetic human IgA1 hinge peptide, PVPSTPPTP SPSTPPTPSPS, (anti-sHP ab) was raised in rabbits and shown specifically to recognize the IgA1 which was treated with neuraminidase, beta-galactosidase and alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase. The reactivity of the anti-sHP ab against the purified serum IgA1 was compared among the following three groups: 39 patients with IgAN, 30 patients with other renal diseases (ORD) and 21 healthy controls (HC) using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: The reactivity was significantly higher in the IgAN group (mean +/- SD of OD 490 nm: 0.327 +/- 0.059) than in the ORD group (0.274 +/- 0.043, P=0.0002) and in the HC group (0.265 +/- 0.037, P<0.0001). No significant difference was observed between the latter two groups. The frequency of positive cases (> mean +/- 2SD of HC) was 46.2% (18/39) in the IgAN group, 6.7% (2/30) in the ORD group and 0% (0/21) in the HC group. CONCLUSIONS: It was suggested that the peptide core of the IgA1 hinge region is exposed aberrantly by a defective N-acetylgalactosaminylation and plays a possible role in the pathogenesis of IgAN.  (+info)

TY - ABST. T1 - Batf3-dependent classical dendritic cells are required for mounting optimal rotavirus-specific IgA immune responses. AU - Nakawesi, Joy. AU - Hütter, Julia. AU - Lahl, Katharina. N1 - Conference code: 44. PY - 2017. Y1 - 2017. M3 - Conference abstract in journal. VL - 86. SP - 281. JO - Scandinavian Journal of Immunology. JF - Scandinavian Journal of Immunology. SN - 0300-9475. IS - 4. M1 - A-31356. T2 - 44th Annual Meeting of the Scandinavian Society of Immunology. Y2 - 17 October 2017 through 20 October 2017. ER - ...
Rabbit monoclonal antibody raised against native human IgA. Native purified IgA from human plasma. (MAB12813) - Products - Abnova
Elson, C O.; Heck, J A.; and Strober, W, T-cell regulation of murine iga synthesis. (1979). Subject Strain Bibliography 1979. 2305 ...
The intestine is the largest lymphoid tissue in the body. One striking feature of intestinal immunity is its ability to generate great amounts of noninflammatory immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies that serve as the first line of defense against microorganisms. The basic map of IgA production includes induction of mucosal B cells in the Peyers patches, circulation through the bloodstream and homing to intestinal mucosa of IgA-commited plasma cells, and local antibody production for export across the intestinal membranes. Multiple cytokines, including TGF-{beta}, IL-10, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-6, are required to promote IgA class switching and terminal differentiation process of the B cells. Secreted IgA promotes immune exclusion by entrapping dietary antigens and microorganisms in the mucus and functions for neutralization of toxins and pathogenic microbes ...
Virus-like particles (VLPs) provide a well-established vaccine platform; however, the immunogenic properties acquired by VLP structure remain poorly understood. In this study, we showed that systemic vaccination with norovirus VLP recalls human IgA responses at higher magnitudes than IgG responses under a humanized mouse model that was established by introducing human PBMCs in severely immunodeficient mice. The recall responses elicited by VLP vaccines depended on VLP structure and the disruption of VLP attenuated recall responses, with a more profound reduction being observed in IgA responses. The IgA-focusing property was also conserved in a murine norovirus-primed model under which murine IgA responses were recalled in a manner dependent on VLP structure. Importantly, the VLP-driven IgA response preferentially targeted virus-neutralizing epitopes located in the receptor-binding domain. Consequently, VLP-driven IgA responses were qualitatively superior to IgG responses in terms of the ...
The intestine is the largest lymphoid tissue in the body. One striking feature of intestinal immunity is its ability to generate great amounts of noninflammatory immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies that serve as the first line of defense against microorganisms. The basic map of IgA production includes induction of mucosal B cells in the Peyers patches, circulation through the bloodstream and homing to intestinal mucosa of IgA-commited plasma cells, and local antibody production for export across the intestinal membranes. Multiple cytokines, including TGF-{beta}, IL-10, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-6, are required to promote IgA class switching and terminal differentiation process of the B cells. Secreted IgA promotes immune exclusion by entrapping dietary antigens and microorganisms in the mucus and functions for neutralization of toxins and pathogenic microbes ...
The intestine is the largest lymphoid tissue in the body. One striking feature of intestinal immunity is its ability to generate great amounts of noninflammatory immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies that serve as the first line of defense against microorganisms. The basic map of IgA production includes induction of mucosal B cells in the Peyers patches, circulation through the bloodstream and homing to intestinal mucosa of IgA-commited plasma cells, and local antibody production for export across the intestinal membranes. Multiple cytokines, including TGF-{beta}, IL-10, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-6, are required to promote IgA class switching and terminal differentiation process of the B cells. Secreted IgA promotes immune exclusion by entrapping dietary antigens and microorganisms in the mucus and functions for neutralization of toxins and pathogenic microbes ...
|strong|Goat F(ab)2 anti Human IgA antibody|/strong| recognizes the heavy chain of human IgA and has been cross absorbed against human IgM, IgD and IgG. Goat F(ab)2 anti Human IgA antibody might cro…
Product is the lyophilized powder of human myeloma IgA (kappa) and buffer salts. Human IgA (kappa) is purified from human myeloma serum using multi-step procedures which may include salt fractionation, gel filtration, ion-exchange chromatography and immunoabsorption.
IgA subclass antibodies have been reported in a few studies in patients with CAC. IgA antibodies and IgA1 antibodies were increased in comparison with the
We have evaluated a novel B-cell FluoroSpot assay for the analysis of antibody responses in healthy individuals vaccinated intramuscularly with Influenza A (H1N1) antigen (Pandemrix®, GlaxoSmithKline). Using the FluoroSpot assay and an ELISpot assay run in parallel for comparison, we measured the frequency of cells secreting antigen-specific as well as total IgG or IgA antibodies seven days post vaccination. The assays were based on high affinity monoclonal antibodies for capture and detection of human IgG and IgA. Whereas conventional ELISpot analyzes IgG- and IgA-secreting B cells separately, fluorescent detection enabled simultaneous enumeration of B cells secreting IgG or IgA in the same well. The FluoroSpot protocol was also simpler as the assay could be performed without the need for an amplifying detection step. While having all the advantages of a conventional ELISpot assay, including high sensitivity, robustness and ease of performance, the FluoroSpot assay adds further value in reducing costs
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| The immune system is one of the hardest working systems in the body. It is constantly working in the background, searching the body for bacterias and any potentially harmful pathogens. The first attacker in the line of defense is secretory IGA (SIgA). SIgA is the predominant immunoglobulin that is produced in the lining of the gut. SIgA Hard At Work Considering that the majority of the immune system is housed in the gut, the intestinal mucosa has to be able to recognize pathogens and other foreign objects to effectively keep them out. As previously mentioned, the first one on the scene is SIgA. This immunoglobulin differs from the other immunoglobulins the body produces (IgE, IgG, and IgM) in the way that it does not target a specific invader.
A new study gives insight into the workings of the first vaccine ever reported to modestly prevent HIV infection in people. Most vaccines work by...
We are delighted to announce that one of our long-time clients, IGas Energy, moved to the cloud with Axis. They will now enjoy additional benefits, including database and application hosting, report server hosting, SQL server database administration, a back-up service, as well as upgrades and patches. ...
References for Abcams Anti-Human IgA antibody (FITC) (ab4219). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
The goal of this proposal is to elucidate the mechanisms by which the adjuvant GM-CSF enhances vaccine induced IgG and IgA responses against SIV. These studies...
So out of my 5 kids no one tested true positive as celiac. Here are the results all together: 10yo girl: Total IgA Ref Range 52-290 mg/dL ...
To test the hypothesis that IgA nephropathy can result from a mucosal immune response, mice were orally immunized with one of three protein antigens for 14 wk. Such mice exhibited an essentially pure mucosal antibody response characterized by specific IgA-producing plasma cells in exocrine sites and specific IgA antibodies in serum. Furthermore, 73% of immunized mice had IgA and 88% had immunogen deposited in the glomerular mesangium, and 64% of immunized mice examined ultrastructurally had electron-dense mesangial deposits. All three were present concurrently in 57% of the immunized mice. No differences in regard to IgG or IgM were observed between immunized and control mice for any of these parameters. Mucosal immunization therefore can result in a specific immune response that leads to mesangial deposition of immune complexes containing IgA antibody. In its fundamental features the experimental renal lesion resembles that seen in the human disease IgA nephropathy. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Experimental IgA nephropathy in bile duct ligated rats. AU - Melvin, Tyrone. AU - Burke, Barbara. AU - Michael, Alfred F.. AU - Kim, Youngki. N1 - Funding Information: The authors wish to thank Ms. Kathy Divine, Ms. Crystal Blocher, and Ms. Kim Pinkham for technical assistance, Mr. Marshall Hoff for the preparation of figures, and Ms. Mary Jo Jansen for typing the manuscript. This work was supported in part by grants from the NIH (AM007087) and the Viking Childrens Fund. Dr. Brian Underdown kindly provided rabbit anti-rat secretory component antibody.. PY - 1983/6. Y1 - 1983/6. N2 - Polymeric IgA and polymeric IgA-containing immune complexes are transported from blood to bile through hepatocyte-bound secretory component. In order to investigate interruption of this transport and its effect on the glomerulus, Sprague-Dawley rats underwent bile duct ligation. Renal tissue obtained at the time of sacrifice was stained by immunofluorescent techniques with antibodies to IgG, IgM, and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Primary IgA nephropathy in elderly patients. AU - Cheungpasitporn, Wisit. AU - Nasr, Samih H.. AU - Thongprayoon, Charat. AU - Mao, Michael A.. AU - Qian, Qi. PY - 2015/6/1. Y1 - 2015/6/1. N2 - Aim Data on clinicopathological features, treatment and outcomes of IgA nephropathy (IgAN) in elderly patients are limited. Methods Native kidney biopsies with a pathological diagnosis of IgAN (n = 1084) from Mayo Clinic Rochester in the years 1994-2013 were examined. After exclusion of the secondary IgAN, 45 elderly IgAN patients (age ≥65 years) were identified. One hundred sixty-two younger adults (age 18-64 years) with IgAN were randomly selected for comparison. Results Compared with younger adults, elderly patients showed a higher rate of chronic hypertension (62.2 vs 27.2%), higher pulse pressures (65 ± 17 vs 51 ± 15 mmHg), requiring greater number of antihypertensive medications (2.5 ± 1.2 vs 1.7 ± 0.7) and lower blood haemoglobin (11.1 ± 2.3 vs 12.7 ± 2.1 g/dL) at time of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Circulating CD89-IgA complex does not predict deterioration of kidney function in Korean patients with IgA nephropathy. AU - Jhee, Jong Hyun. AU - Kang, Hye Young. AU - Wu, Meiyan. AU - Nam, Bo Young. AU - Chang, Tae Ik. AU - Jung, Su Young. AU - Park, Seohyun. AU - Kim, Hyoungnae. AU - Yun, Hae Ryong. AU - Kee, Youn Kyung. AU - Yoon, Chang Yun. AU - Park, Jung Tak. AU - Yoo, Tae Hyun. AU - Kang, Shin Wook. AU - Han, Seung Hyeok. PY - 2017/11/27. Y1 - 2017/11/27. N2 - Soluble CD89 (sCD89)-IgA complex plays a key role in the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy (IgAN). However, there is a lack of evidence supporting this complex as a good biomarker for disease progression. This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of sCD89-IgA complex for risk stratification of IgAN. A total of 326 patients with biopsy-proven IgAN were included. sCD89-IgA complex was measured by sandwich-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The study endpoints were a 30% decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Immune components of the intestinal mucosae of ageing and protein deficient mice. AU - Lim, T. S.. AU - Messiha, N.. AU - Watson, R. R.. PY - 1981/1/1. Y1 - 1981/1/1. N2 - The studies were designed to investigate the effect of ageing and low protein (4%) diet on antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and IgA concentration in the intestine. Both ADCC activity and IgA concentration were shown to reach mature levels at 17 weeks old. The effect of ageing was greater on ADCC activity which showed a drastic drop in activity at 75 weeks old than IgA which had only a slight decline in concentration at this age. The low protein diet has a greater suppressive effect on IgA concentration than on ADCC activity. As the duration of feeding low protein to the young mice increased, greater decline in IgA concentration in the intestine was observed. There was, however, no significant difference from the normal mice in ADCC activity and IgA concentration of aged and adult mice given ...
Summary of Facts and Submissions. I. European patent 1 210 445, based on European patent application No. 00 958 787.4 and published as International patent application WO 01/19974, was granted with 16 claims. Claims 1 and 2 read as follows:. 1. A method of enhancing expression of a desired protein at mucosal effector sites, said method comprising placing the protein to be expressed under the control of a promoter having SEQ ID NO 2 or SEQ ID NO 3 or a fragment or variant having at least 60% homology or any of these which has promoter activity, and causing expression in mucosal cells.. 2. A construct comprising a promoter selected from the PphoP and PpagC or fragments or variants thereof which can act as promoters, operatively interconnected with a nucleic acid which encodes a protein, able to induce a protective immune response against an organism, in a mammal to which it is administered, wherein said construct contains no further elements of the phoP or pagC gene.. Claims 3 to 9 were ...
Calhoun, W.J.; Christman, J.W.; Ershler, W.B.; Graham, W.G.; Davis, G.S., 1986: Raised immunoglobulin concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of healthy granite workers
The effect of rat immunoglobulins and immune complexes on the locomotor function of rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) was investigated in vitro. Rat immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1), IgG2a, IgG2b, and IgA monoclonal antibodies specific for the dinitrophenyl hapten were used. Both monomeric and polymeric IgA showed chemotactic activity in a dose-dependent manner. IgG1 and IgG2b also induced a dose-dependent locomotor response of PMN, but the nature of the induced migration was chemokinetic (enhancing random migration). IgG2a was chemotactic and induced maximal migration at a relatively low concentration. IgG1- and IgG2b-immune complexes induced stronger migration than antibody alone; however, IgA- and IgG2a-immune complexes did not. IgA was shown to modify the chemotactic movement of PMN induced by N-formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP). In the presence of both IgA and FMLP in the lower chamber, the migration towards suboptimal concentrations of FMLP was enhanced. By contrast, IgA in the ...
Human colostrum contains many bioactive factors that must promote the development of intestinal mucosal immunity in infants. Especially, the presence of certain cytokines such as transforming growth factor (TGF)-β or IL-10 has been of great interest for IgA production as a function of mucosal immune response. In the present study, we attempted to investigate whether unidentified factors inducing generation of IgA-producing cells from naive B cells might exist in colostrum. For this purpose, colostrum samples were directly added to a culture consisting of naive B cells and dendritic cells from cord blood and CD40 ligand-transfected L cells, comparing with recombinant IL-10 (rIL-10) and/or rTGF-β. It was noted that most colostrum samples alone were able to induce IgA-secreting cells at higher levels than rIL-10 and/or rTGF-β. IgA-inducing activity of colostrum was abolished by neither anti-neutralizing mAbs against IL-10 nor TGF-β, though partially by anti-IL-6 mAb. We prepared partially ...
Secretory IgA (SIgA) antibodies directed against the O-antigen (O-Ag) component of lipopolysaccharide are the primary determinants of mucosal immunity to enteric bacterial pathogens, such as Shigella flexneri and Salmonella enteric serovar Typhimurium. In this report, we demonstrate that monoclonal IgA Abs against the O-Ag are effective inhibitors of the bacterial type 3 secretion systems (T3SS) required for bacterial entry into intestinal epithelial cells. While these Abs did not affect bacterial viability, they did transiently de-energize both S. flexneri and S. Typhimurium, possibly accounting for the paralysis that has been observed in the case of S. Typhimurium, following Ab treatment. O-Ag specific IgA Abs also elicited long lasting ultrastructural changes in the bacterial outer membranes, suggesting that S. flexneri and S. Typhimurium made undergo specific adaptations in response to SIgA. These findings may have implications for understanding immune surveillance in the gut. We have ...
NEFECON is an add-on treatment to other medications for nephropathy symptoms and kidney function, including ACEI and/or ARBs. Rigorous blood pressure control will be achieved over a 6-month Run-in Phase in which ACEI and/or ARB will be dosed to target a blood pressure of ,130/80 mm Hg and UPCR ,0.5 g/g. Patients who complete the Run-in Phase, and despite optimized ACEI and/or ARB therapy, have a UPCR ≥0.5 g/g OR urine protein ≥0.75 g/24hr will be eligible for randomization and entry into the treatment phase of the trial. Patients will remain on their ACEI and/or ARB dosing regimen for the duration of the trial.. Patients entering the treatment phase will be administered NEFECON (8 mg/day OR 16 mg/day) OR placebo for a phase of 9 months. A 3-month follow-up phase will follow on from the treatment phase, of which the first 2 weeks will be used to taper the dose of those patients that received 16 mg/day dosing to 8 mg/day, with the placebo and 8 mg/day groups receiving placebo to retain ...
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Our immune system produces a number of different immunoglobulin complexes to defense against infections, allergens, etc. Among these are IgA, IgG, IgM, and IgE. In case of IgA Nephropathy, something appears to go wrong with either the form of the IgA immune complex itself, or with their production and clearance within the body, or the both. As a result, the immune complex will deposit in the glomeruli and lead to damages to the renal functional cells and tissues ...
Diarrheal diseases represent a major health burden in developing countries. Parenteral immunization typically does not induce efficient protection against enteropathogens because it does not stimulate migration of immune cells to the gut. Retinoic acid (RA) is critical for gut immunity, inducing upregulation of gut-homing receptors on activated T cells. In this study, we have demonstrated that RA can redirect immune responses elicited by s.c. vaccination of mice from skin-draining inguinal LNs (ingLNs) to the gut. When present during priming, RA induced robust upregulation of gut-homing receptors in ingLNs, imprinting gut-homing capacity on T cells. Concurrently, RA triggered the generation of gut-tropic IgA+ plasma cells in ingLNs and raised the levels of antigen-specific IgA in the intestinal lumen and blood. RA applied s.c. in vivo induced autonomous RA production in ingLN DCs, further driving efficient induction of gut-homing molecules on effector cells. Importantly, RA-supplemented s.c. ...
Mosteller, L M.; Kiyono, H; Lentz, M R.; Eldrige, J H.; M, S; C; and Mcghee, J R., T cell clones from murine peyers patches. Abstr. (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 1977 ...
Researchers from the UCSD Superfund Research Center in an impressive collaborative study, have found that chronic liver inflammation can also promote cancer by suppressing immunosurveillance - a natural defense mechanism in which its thought the immune system suppresses cancer development.. The study, led by Drs. Michael Karin (Distinguished Professor of Pharmacology and Pathology) and Shabnam Shalapour (Assistant Professor of Pharmacology), have shown that chronic inflammation and fibrosis in humans and mice with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is accompanied by accumulation of liver-resident immunoglobulin-A-producing (IgA+) cells.. Dr. Michael Karin indciated that This study provides one of the strongest and most direct demonstrations that adaptive immunity actively prevents liver cancer.. The researchers found that NASH-associated mutations provoke the immune system, including cytotoxic T cells, to recognize and attack the newly emerging cancer cells. However, chronic liver inflammation ...
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) replicates in the liver, and is excreted from the body in feces. However, the mechanisms of HAV transport from hepatocytes to the gastrointestinal tract are poorly understood, mainly due to lack of suitable in vitro models. Here, we use a polarized hepatic cell line and in vivo models to demonstrate vectorial transport of HAV from hepatocytes into bile via the apical cell membrane. Although this transport is specific for HAV, the rate of fecal excretion in inefficient, accounting for less than 1% of input virus from the bloodstream per hour. However, we also found that the rate of HAV excretion was enhanced in the presence of HAV-specific IgA. Using mice lacking the polymeric IgA receptor (pIgR(-/-)), we show that a proportion of HAV:IgA complexes are transported via the pIgR demonstrating a role for specific antibody in pathogen excretion.
Data Availability StatementThe datasets used and/or analyzed during the current research are available through the corresponding writer on reasonable demand. the condition in Saham region where in fact the MAF study was conducted. Bloodstream examples were collected from farm animals and sera were screened in parallel for antibodies using different serological tests. Results Using the RBT test, phase 1 sera showed seropositivity in sheep at 2.6%, (95% CI: 0.5C13.5%), in camel (5.9%, 1.1C27.0%), but not in sera from goats and cattle (0%). Using I-ELISA, seropositivity in goat was 3.1% (0.6C15.8%), with no positive sheep and cattle. Using c-ELISA for camel we found a seropositivity of 5.9% (1.1C27.0%). Furthermore, CFT seropositivity in goats was 21.9% (CI: 11.3C38.9), cattle and sheep sera were negative and camel was 5.9% (1.1C27.0%). In phase 2, the seropositivity in goats was 1.9% (1.4C2.6%), sheep 4.5% (3.5C5.8%), cattle 1.1%, (0.5C2.3%) and camels 18.2% (5.1C47.7%), Phase 3 sera were ...
How to deal with the IgA Nephropathy relapse? What the lifespan of IgA Nephropathy patients? Start to find the information of IgA Nephropathy basics, symptoms, treatment, Diet﹠Fitness.
Background/aims: Although the serum IgA/C3 ratio is a good biomarker to predict the diagnosis, histological findings, and prognosis of IgA nephropathy (IgAN), the chronol..
Viral proteins are highly antigenic and referred to as potent stimulators of adaptive immune responses. useful tool for the investigation of mucosal immune responses or autoimmune diseases and extends the spectrum of antibodies with specific effector functions. by hybridoma technology occur in a polymeric or dimeric form analogue to produced IgA [4]. The obtained secretory IgA antibodies were used for experimental studies of mucosal surfaces and microfold (M) cells in order to investigate bacterial and viral intestine infections. Additional investigations showed that secretory IgAs appear to have got an increased functional stability and activity than IgG counterparts [5]. For their particular effector features, IgA antibodies are of high scientific interest because they are impressive in recruiting polymorphonuclear cells for antibody reliant mobile cytotoxicity (ADCC) [6] and in improving respiratory system burst and phagocytosis of individual leukocytes [7]. These data reveal that antibodies ...
The intestinal mucosa is constantly exposed to microbial and dietary antigens, all of which are considered to induce IgA-secreting plasma cells. Thus, the limited IgA repertoire diversity predicted in previous studies (Dunn-Walters et al., 1997, 2000; Holtmeier et al., 2000; Stoel et al., 2005; Yuvaraj et al., 2009) is difficult to reconcile with the broad range of intestinal antigens. In this study, we show that in fact each individual harbors a private polyclonal and highly diverse IgA repertoire. Because we analyzed switched Ig sequences, repertoire analyses performed in this study did not require sorting of plasma cells. Instead, RNA was isolated directly from intestinal tissue, and IgA-encoding transcripts were enriched during reverse transcription. This approach was equivalent to our results obtained when RNA was isolated out of sorted plasma cells. The IgA repertoire showed characteristics reminiscent of the T cell receptor repertoire of CD8+ memory cells (Naumov et al., 2003), i.e., the ...
IgA nephropathy refers to inflammation of the filtering units in kidneys due to IgA deposition in kidneys. The following are the frequently asked questions by the patients with IgA nephropathy.
Is IgA Nephropathy hereditary? Will it be passed down to the children. I am sure many adults with IgA Nephropathy concern about this topic, so here we will give an introduction about it. Is IgA Nephropathy hereditary? IgA Nephropathy is an
IgA has two subclasses - IgA1 and IgA2, the latter lacks a specific amino acid sequence comprising the hinge region. The absence of this region confers more resistance to bacterial degradation. The majority of IgA in humans (95%) is monomeric, produced by plasma cells and freely circulates in the bloodstream. The remainder is produced by mucosal lymphoid cells and secreted in a dimeric form. The half-life is usually 4-5 days, with IgA molecules undergoing rapid hepatic metabolism ...
Background Infection with group A Streptococcus (GAS) can cause severe systemic and locally invasive disease. Invasive group A streptococcal (iGAS) disease incidence varies both seasonally and year-to-year, and it may exhibit clustered outbreaks. We observed an upswing in iGAS cases at a tertiary care Childrens Hospital, prompting further characterization of local iGAS disease. Methods Cases of iGAS disease were abstracted from the medical record by manual chart review of all positive screening tests and cultures for GAS over a 4-year span. Incidence rates per 1000 hospital admissions and per 100 positive GAS tests were calculated and compared. Selected isolates were further characterized by whole-genome sequencing. Results Significant year-to-year differences in per-admission iGAS incidence rate were observed in February and June, although per-positive test incidence rates were not significantly different. Whole-genome sequencing revealed 2 dominant serotypes-emm3 and emm6-with high rates of ...
Pharmalink has stopped a Phase IIb trial of its primary IgA nephropathy treatment early after it met its primary endpoint in a planned interim analysis. The success makes Pharmalink a rare example of a private biotech with an unpartnered, Phase III-ready asset, characteristics that inevitably lead to talk of IPOs and deals.
Blog on IgA + IgG + IgM secondary antibody product: The IgA - IgG - IgM n/a (Catalog #MBS539207) is a Secondary Antibody produced from Goat and is intended f...
Enzyme immunoassay for the detection of IgA Rheumatoid Factor in human serum or plasma. SmartEIA kit is specifically designed for automated analysis using the Agility instrument.
An Examination of Procedure for Measuring Secretory IgA in Saliva and the Relationship Between Allergy and IgA Concentration in Students. (Kawasaki Medical Welfare Journal Vol.7,No.1,1997 Abstracts) (1998 ...
IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is well identified by dominant IgA glomerular deposits; however, this immunohistologic entity can be an asymptomatic chance finding or present with an extremely variable course. The variable clinical and histologic expressions are likely to be the result of genetic and environmental factors modulating common pathogenetic and progression mechanisms.
IgA nephropathy (Bergers Disease) is a condition in which a protein (immunoglobulin A) causes damage to the kidneys. The outcome is very variable.
IgA Nephropathy progresses slowly over time, and often presents no symptoms initially. Treatments relieve symptoms & complications without curing the
This assay is designed for the in-vitro measurement of specific IgA autoantibodies against tissue transglutaminase (tTG) present in human serum, as an...
EDITOR-Clinicians are natural bayesians when it comes to diagnosis.1 They have to be. The alternative approach might be to use the methods of classical hypothesis testing, but probably only once.. The Neyman-Pearson diagnosis of coeliac disease. (Assume that the sensitivity and specificity of transglutaminase IgA are both 95%.). Parent: Well doctor, have you got the result of the test yet?. Doctor: Yes I have. … ...
The City no longer operate immunisation clinics. To find out where your local immunisation clinics are now being held please visit the Department of Health website.
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Lower urinary-interleukin-1 receptor-antagonist excretion in IgA nephropathy than in Henoch-Schönlein nephritis.: Urinary IL-1ra levels in IgAN patients were lo
What is immunoglobulin? There are five types of immunoglobulin; IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD and IgE. Levels may be increased or decreased.
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Normaalsel huntingtiini geenil on suur mRNA, pikkusega 10-11 kb ning selle kodeeriv ala määrab 3144 aminohappe pikkuse polüpeptiidi moodustumise. Lisaks paikneb igas normaalses huntingtiini geenis 9-35 koopiat korduvat CAG trinukleotiidi. Mutatsioone põhjustav huntiingeen sisaldab aga 36-121 koopiat. Suure koopiaarvu tõttu moodustub pikk polüpeptiid, mille aminoterminuse (ehk NH2-terminuse) lähedal paikneb pikk korduv polüglutamiinne ala. Muteerunud geeni trinukleotiidsete (CAG) korduste arvu suurenemine (üle 36 CAG korduse geeni 1. eksonis, 36-39 korduse korral võib tõbi avalduda aga võib ka mitte avalduda): TAC-TTA-TAG-GAG-GTA-ATA-TAT-GCC-CCT-GGT-CAG-TAC-TTA-TAG-GAG-GTA-ATA-TAT-GCC-CCT-GGT-CAG-TTA-TAT-CAG-CAG-CAG-CAG-CAG-CAG-CAG-CAG-CAG-CAG-CAG-CAG-CAG-CAG-CAG-TAC-TTA-TAG-GAG-GTA-ATA-TAT-GCC-CCT-GGT-CAG-TAG-CGT-TAC-TTA-TAG-GAG-GTA-ATA-TAT-GCC-CCT-GGT-CAG-TAG-CGT-TAC-TTA-TAG-GAG-GTA-ATA-TAT-GCC-CCT-GGT-CAG-TAG-CGT.[15] ...
Sügavalt jooksev lant peaks olema kohustuslik igas landikastis. - ujuv - sisseehitatud pikkade heidete süsteem - madalasageduslik kõristi (helijälg) - võistlusklassi kolmikkonksud ning topelt-tugevad roostevabast terasest rõngad - suurepärane koha, a
0 - ,5 months: 7-37 mg/dL. 5 - ,9 months: 16-50 mg/dL. 9 - ,15 months: 27-66 mg/dL. 15 - ,24 months: 36-79 mg/dL. 2 - ,4 years: 27-246 mg/dL. 4 - ,7: 29-256 mg/dL. 7 - ,10 years: 34-274 mg/dL. 10 - ,13 years: 42-295 mg/dL. 13 - ,16 years: 52-319 mg/dL. 16 - ,18 years: 60-337 mg/dL. ≥ 18 years: 61-356 mg/dL. ...
抗大鼠IgG+IgM+IgA (ab8519)经ELISA, Dot实验严格验证。未偶联形式。被多篇发表文献引用。其他多种未偶联二抗可供选择。品质保证,中国80%以上现货。
抗马IgG+IgM+IgA HRP (ab8533)经ELISA, Dot实验严格验证。高灵敏度及特异性。其他HRP偶联二抗可供选择。品质保证,提供全方位技术支持,中国80%以上现货。
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Intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIGs). Intravenous immunoglobulins may be used to control SLE with organ involvement, or ... "Intravenous Immunoglobulins (IVIGs) in Lupus Central Station, sourced from the National Institute of Arthritis and ... Direct immunofluorescence can detect deposits of immunoglobulins and complement proteins in the people's skin. When skin not ...
Human immunoglobulins[edit]. *Rho(D) immune globulin (anti-D immunoglobulin). *Anti-rabies immunoglobulin ...
Immunoglobulin G[edit]. Hideo Matsumoto, professor emeritus at Osaka Medical College tested Gm types, genetic markers of ... Matsumoto, Hideo (2009). "The origin of the Japanese race based on genetic markers of immunoglobulin G.". Proceedings of the ... immunoglobulin G, of Khmer people for a 2009 study.[33] The study found that the Gm afb1b3 is a southern marker gene possibly ...
Synthetic (recombinant or cell-clone) human immunoglobulins can now be made, and for several reasons (including the risk of ... known as antibodies or immunoglobulins. This was first performed (and is still sometimes performed) by taking blood from a ...
Immunoglobulin. Immunoglobulin, modulates the immune system.. IV. N/A. Varies Methotrexate. Antifolate; inhibits dihydrofolate ... Infusion-related reactions, infection, neutropenia, reduced immunoglobulin levels, arrhythmias, less commonly anaemia, ... intravenous immunoglobulin, rituximab, sirolimus, alefacept, and the tyrosine kinase inhibitors, imatinib, nilotinib, and ...
Examples include intravenous immunoglobulin and propofol. Blood-based products[edit]. Saline and 5% glucose solution (Left), ...
Normal saline (NSS, NS or N/S) is the commonly used phrase for a solution of 0.90% w/v of NaCl, 308 mOsm/L or 9.0 g per litre. Less commonly, this solution is referred to as physiological saline or isotonic saline (because it closely approximates isotonic, that is, physiologically normal, solution); although neither of those names is technically accurate (because normal saline is not exactly like blood serum), they convey the practical effect usually seen: good fluid balance with minimal hypotonicity or hypertonicity. NS is used frequently in intravenous drips (IVs) for people who cannot take fluids orally and have developed or are in danger of developing dehydration or hypovolemia. NS is also used for aseptic purpose. NS is typically the first fluid used when hypovolemia is severe enough to threaten the adequacy of blood circulation, and has long been believed to be the safest fluid to give quickly in large volumes. However, it is now known that rapid infusion of NS can cause metabolic ...
PICCs can remain in situ for extended periods of time, from seven days to 4 months [4] up to 12 months although little information is available with respect to viability timeframes. They are used in both the hospital and community settings. PICCs can be used for intravenous delivery of total parenteral nutrition (TPN), chemotherapy, antibiotics or other medications, and can also be used for blood sampling if the lumen is 4 French or larger in size (Arrow and Bard manufacturers guidelines). To maintain patency, PICC management should include regular flushing with normal saline and "locking" with Heparin or normal saline when not in use. The type of locking procedure depends on the type of PICC and bung; Groshong PICCs have a three-way valve at the tip so the use of a heparin lock is not necessary, and there are no clamps on the external length. In comparison, Arrow PICCs have clamps on the exterior line and require a heparin lock. The use of heparin to maintain line patency, though, is ...
Ringer's lactate has an osmolarity of 273 mOsm L−1.[12] The lactate is metabolized into bicarbonate by the liver, which can help correct metabolic acidosis. Ringer's lactate solution alkalinizes via its consumption in the citric acid cycle, the generation of a molecule of carbon dioxide which is then excreted by the lungs. They increase the strong ion difference in solution, leading to proton consumption and an overall alkalinizing effect.[13] The solution is formulated to have concentrations of potassium and calcium that are similar to the ionized concentrations found in normal blood plasma. To maintain electrical neutrality, the solution has a lower level of sodium than that found in blood plasma or normal saline.[4] Generally, the source of the constituent ions is a mixture of sodium chloride (NaCl), sodium lactate (CH3CH(OH)CO2Na), calcium chloride (CaCl2), and potassium chloride (KCl), dissolved into distilled water. Ringer's solution has the same constituents without the sodium lactate, ...
... immunoglobulin (TIG),[1] also called tetanus antibodies or tetanus antitoxin.[31] It can be given as intravenous ... Tetanus immunoglobulin 3 or more doses of tetanus toxoid containing vaccine AND less than 5 years since last dose No indication ... In such cases, it can be given with or without tetanus immunoglobulin (also called tetanus antibodies or tetanus antitoxin[31] ... Human tetanus immunoglobulin injected intrathecally (increases clinical improvement from 4% to 35%) ...
... (RL), also known as sodium lactate solution and Hartmann's solution, is a mixture of sodium chloride, sodium lactate, potassium chloride, and calcium chloride in water.[1] It is used for replacing fluids and electrolytes in those who have low blood volume or low blood pressure.[2] It may also be used to treat metabolic acidosis in cases other than those caused by lactic acidosis and to wash the eye following a chemical burn.[2][3] It is given by injection into a vein or applied to the affected area.[2][3]. Side effects may include allergic reactions, high blood potassium, volume overload, and high blood calcium.[2] It may not be suitable for mixing with certain medications and some recommend against use in the same infusion as a blood transfusion.[4] Ringer's lactate solution has a lower rate of acidosis as compared with normal saline.[1][4] Use is generally safe in pregnancy and breastfeeding.[2] Ringer's lactate solution is in the crystalloid family of medication.[5] ...
by immunoglobulins: immunoglobulin therapy *by monoclonal antibodies: monoclonal antibody therapy. *by urine: urine therapy ( ...
Only a limited number of emulsifiers are commonly regarded as safe to use for parenteral administration, of which the most important is lecithin.[medical citation needed] Lecithin can be biodegraded and metabolized, since it is an integral part of biological membranes, making it virtually non-toxic. Other emulsifiers can only be excreted via the kidneys,[citation needed] creating a toxic load. The emulsifier of choice for most fat emulsions used for parenteral nutrition is a highly purified egg lecithin,[36] due to its low toxicity and complete integration with cell membranes. Use of egg-derived emulsifiers is not recommended for people with an egg allergy due to the risk of reaction. In situations where there is no suitable emulsifying agent for a person at risk of developing essential fatty acid deficiency, cooking oils may be spread upon large portions of available skin for supplementation by transdermal absorption. Another type of fat emulsion Omegaven is being used experimentally within the ...
Somatic recombination of immunoglobulins, also known as V(D)J recombination, involves the generation of a unique immunoglobulin ... The membrane-bound form of an antibody may be called a surface immunoglobulin (sIg) or a membrane immunoglobulin (mIg). It is ... Further information: Immunoglobulin light chain. In mammals there are two types of immunoglobulin light chain, which are called ... An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig),[1] is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is ...
J06BB Specific immunoglobulins[szerkesztés]. J06BB01 Anti-D (rh) immunoglobulin. J06BB02 Tetanus immunoglobulin. J06BB03 ... J06BB13 Pertussis immunoglobulin. J06BB14 Morbilli immunoglobulin. J06BB15 Parotitis immunoglobulin. J06BB16 Palivizumab. ... J06BB10 Diphtheria immunoglobulin. J06BB11 Hepatitis A immunoglobulin. J06BB12 Encephalitis, tick borne immunoglobulin. ... J06BB05 Rabies immunoglobulin. J06BB06 Rubella immunoglobulin. J06BB07 Vaccinia immunoglobulin. J06BB08 Staphylococcus ...
Unlike immunoglobulins, however, TCR genes do not undergo somatic hypermutation, and T cells do not express activation-induced ... In this way the MHC-TCR-CD3 interaction for T cells is functionally similar to the antigen(Ag)-immunoglobulin(Ig)-FcR ... The TCR is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, a large group of proteins involved in binding, recognition, and adhesion ... Each chain is composed of two extracellular domains: Variable (V) region and a Constant (C) region, both of Immunoglobulin ...
... both members of the immunoglobulin superfamily with an immunoglobulin variable (IgV)-like extracellular domain connected to the ... The structure was determined to have an immunoglobulin-like beta-sandwich folding and 114 amino acid residues. 2% of the ...
Immunoproliferative immunoglobulin disorders}}. Medicine. Immune disorders, Immunoproliferative immunoglobulin disorders (D89, ...
Paired-immunoglobulin-like receptor B (PirB), an MHCI-binding receptor, is involved in the regulation of visual plasticity.[5] ...
Transmembrane receptors: immunoglobulin superfamily immune receptors. Antibody receptor:. Fc receptor. Epsilon (ε). *FcεRI ...
The immunoglobulin variable (IgV) domain of D1 adopts an immunoglobulin-like β-sandwich fold with seven β-strands in 2 β-sheets ... It has four immunoglobulin domains (D1 to D4) that are exposed on the extracellular surface of the cell: *D1 and D3 resemble ... immunoglobulin binding. • protein binding. • coreceptor activity. • interleukin-16 binding. • interleukin-16 receptor activity ... Like many cell surface receptors/markers, CD4 is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. ...
... three extracellular immunoglobulin domains of the C2-type that it uses to bind antibody, a hydrophobic transmembrane domain, ...
Surgical resection is usually ineffective because of the depth of the tumour. Treatment with irradiation and corticosteroids often only produces a partial response and tumour recurs in more than 90% of patients. Median survival is 10 to 18 months in immunocompetent patients, and less in those with AIDS. The addition of IV methotrexate and folinic acid (leucovorin) may extend survival to a median of 3.5 years. If radiation is added to methotrexate, median survival time may increase beyond 4 years. However, radiation is not recommended in conjunction with methotrexate because of an increased risk of leukoencephalopathy and dementia in patients older than 60.[10] In AIDS patients, perhaps the most important factor with respect to treatment is the use of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), which affects the CD4+ lymphocyte population and the level of immunosuppression.[11] The optimal treatment plan for patients with PCNSL has not been determined. Combination chemotherapy and radiotherapy ...
Lozano R, Naghavi M, Foreman K, Lim S, Shibuya K, Aboyans V, Abraham J, Adair T, Aggarwal R, Ahn SY, Alvarado M, Anderson HR, Anderson LM, Andrews KG, Atkinson C, Baddour LM, Barker-Collo S, Bartels DH, Bell ML, Benjamin EJ, Bennett D, Bhalla K, Bikbov B, Bin Abdulhak A, Birbeck G, Blyth F, Bolliger I, Boufous S, Bucello C, Burch M, Burney P, Carapetis J, Chen H, Chou D, Chugh SS, Coffeng LE, Colan SD, Colquhoun S, Colson KE, Condon J, Connor MD, Cooper LT, Corriere M, Cortinovis M, de Vaccaro KC, Couser W, Cowie BC, Criqui MH, Cross M, Dabhadkar KC, Dahodwala N, De Leo D, Degenhardt L, Delossantos A, Denenberg J, Des Jarlais DC, Dharmaratne SD, Dorsey ER, Driscoll T, Duber H, Ebel B, Erwin PJ, Espindola P, Ezzati M, Feigin V, Flaxman AD, Forouzanfar MH, Fowkes FG, Franklin R, Fransen M, Freeman MK, Gabriel SE, Gakidou E, Gaspari F, Gillum RF, Gonzalez-Medina D, Halasa YA, Haring D, Harrison JE, Havmoeller R, Hay RJ, Hoen B, Hotez PJ, Hoy D, Jacobsen KH, James SL, Jasrasaria R, Jayaraman S, ...
... (NHL) is a group of blood cancers that includes all types of lymphoma except Hodgkin's lymphomas.[1] Symptoms include enlarged lymph nodes, fever, night sweats, weight loss and tiredness.[1] Other symptoms may include bone pain, chest pain or itchiness.[1] Some forms are slow-growing, while others are fast-growing.[1] Lymphomas are types of cancer that develop from lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell.[2] Risk factors include poor immune function, autoimmune diseases, Helicobacter pylori infection, hepatitis C, obesity and Epstein-Barr virus infection.[1][3] The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies lymphomas into five major groups, including one for Hodgkin's lymphoma.[6] Within the four groups for NHL, there are over 60 specific types of lymphoma.[7][8] Diagnosis is by examination of a bone marrow or lymph node biopsy.[1] Medical imaging is done to help with cancer staging.[1] Treatment depends on whether the lymphoma is slow- or fast-growing and if it is in one ...
Normal B cells of a germinal center possess rearranged immunoglobulin heavy and light chain genes, and each isolated B cell ... and the production and class-switching of immunoglobulins.[11] MiRNAs influence B cell maturation, generation of pre-, marginal ...
CD5, surface immunoglobulin[1] Occurs in older adults. Usually involves lymph nodes, bone marrow and spleen. Most patients have ...
... was first described in an 1832 report by Thomas Hodgkin, although Hodgkin noted that perhaps the earliest reference to the condition was provided by Marcello Malpighi in 1666.[42][11] While occupied as museum curator at Guy's Hospital, London, Hodgkin studied seven patients with painless lymph node enlargement. Of the seven cases, two were patients of Richard Bright, one was of Thomas Addison, and one was of Robert Carswell.[42] Carswell's report of this seventh patient was accompanied by numerous illustrations that aided early descriptions of the disease.[43] Hodgkin's report on these seven patients, entitled "On some morbid appearances of the absorbent glands and spleen", was presented to the Medical and Chirurgical Society in London in January 1832 and was subsequently published in the society's journal, Medical-Chirurgical Society Transactions.[42] Hodgkin's paper went largely unnoticed, however, even despite Bright highlighting it in an 1838 publication.[42] Indeed, ...
Activated B-Cell Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma, or ABC-DLBCL, is believed to be caused by aberrant activation of a critical intracellular pathway. This intracellular signaling pathway involved in B-cell activation and proliferation stays constantly activated, driving lymphocytes to proliferate continuously. The inhibition of this pathway can be induced by a drug known as NEMO Binding Domain, or NBD, a peptide causing increased cell death of malignant lymphocytes.[citation needed] ...
The clinical presentation varies according to the type of ALCL. Two of the ALCL subtypes are systemic lymphomas, in that they usually present with enlarged lymph nodes in multiple regions of the body, or with tumors outside the lymph nodes (extranodal) such as bone, intestine, muscle, liver, or spleen. These 2 subtypes usually associate with weight loss, fevers and night sweats, and can be lethal if left untreated without chemotherapy.[2] The third type of ALCL is so-called cutaneous ALCL, and is a tumor that presents in the skin as ulcers that may persist, or occasionally may involute spontaneously, and commonly recur. This type of ALCL usually manifests in different regions of the body and may extend to regional lymph nodes, i.e., an axillary lymph node if the ALCL presents in the arm.[3] A rare subtype of ALCL has been identified in women who have textured silicone breast implants (protheses). This is known as breast implant associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma, or BIA-ALCL. It can occur ...
Antibodies (also called immunoglobulins) are proteins the immune system makes to recognize and get rid of germs. ... An IgA test measures the blood level of immunoglobulin A, one of the most common types of antibodies in the body. ...
Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a type of antibody (or immunoglobulin (Ig) "isotype") that has only been found in mammals. IgE is ... Presence of a unique immunoglobulin as a carrier of reaginic activity". J. Immunol. 97 (1): 75-85. PMID 4162440.. ... Winter WE, Hardt NS, Fuhrman S (2000). "Immunoglobulin E: importance in parasitic infections and hypersensitivity responses". ... Johansson SG, Bennich H. Immunological studies of an atypical (myeloma) immunoglobulin. Immunology 1967; 13:381-94. ...
Immunoglobulin therapy, also known as normal human immunoglobulin (NHIG), is the use of a mixture of antibodies ( ... Some believe that immunoglobulin therapy may work via a multi-step model where the injected immunoglobulin first forms a type ... Although immunoglobulin is frequently used for long periods of time and is generally considered safe, immunoglobulin therapy ... an immunoglobulin infusion may pass a virus to its recipient.[16] Some immunoglobulin solutions also contain isohemagglutinins ...
Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of antibody. Representing approximately 75% of serum antibodies in humans, IgG is the most ... The measurement of immunoglobulin G can be a diagnostic tool for certain conditions, such as autoimmune hepatitis, if indicated ... This repertoire of immunoglobulins is crucial for the newborns who are very sensitive to infections, especially within the ... Stadlmann J, Pabst M, Kolarich D, Kunert R, Altmann F (2008). "Analysis of immunoglobulin glycosylation by LC-ESI-MS of ...
Immunodeficiency with hyper-immunoglobulin M Immunoglobulin M deficiency Immune system "Immunoglobulin M". The American ... Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is one of several isotypes of antibody (also known as immunoglobulin) that are produced by vertebrates. ... Immunoglobulin+M at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Immunoglobulin M Deficiency Reference ... Mestecky, J.; Zikin, J.; Butler, W. T. (1971). "Immunoglobulin M an secretory immunoglobulin A: presence of common polypeptide ...
... one of the most common immunoglobulins, it is mainly present in body secretions and is the chief antibody in the mucous ... One of the five classes of immunoglobulins; one of the most common immunoglobulins, it is mainly present in body secretions and ... One of the five classes of immunoglobulins; ... Immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, IgM) * Immunophenotyping by Flow ...
One of the five classes of immunoglobulins; it is present in small amounts in serum and is thought to function in certain ... One of the five classes of immunoglobulins; it is present in small amounts in serum and is thought to function in certain ...
The International Symposium on the Immunoglobulin A System was organized in observance of the twenty-fifth anni- versary of the ... Immunoglobulin A was chosen as the sub- ject of the Symposium because of its broad scope in relation to all biologic sciences, ... antibody antigen bacteria dentistry genetics immune system immunity immunization immunoglobulin infection planning prevention ... The International Symposium on the Immunoglobulin A System was organized in observance of the twenty-fifth anni- versary of the ...
An IgA test measures the blood level of immunoglobulin A, one of the most common antibodies in the body. Antibodies are ...
The plasma cells switch from producing IgM to IgG or to another immunoglobulin class. The switch involves a change in the H ... The genes coding for these diverse range of immunoglobulins however are limited and do not number similar to the variety of ... The variable region of each immunoglobulin heavy or light chain is encoded in several pieces on the genes. These are called ... This process results in an immunoglobulin gene that encodes an antibody of a different isotype. ...
Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a type of protein in the body called an antibody. ... Immunoglobulin E (IgE). Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a type of protein in the body called an antibody. As part of the immune ...
Immunoglobulin genes. [T Honjo; Frederick W Alt; T H Rabbitts;] -- Immunoglobin Genes is the first comprehensive book on the ... Immunoglobulin a schema:Intangible ;. schema:name "Genes, Immunoglobulin"@en ;. . ... Immunoglobulin genes. Author:. T Honjo; Frederick W Alt; T H Rabbitts. Publisher:. London ; San Diego : Academic Press, ©1989. ... Immunoglobulin genes/T Honjo; Frederick W Alt; T H Rabbitts;; London ; San Diego : Academic Press, ©1989. ...
Immunoglobulin (IgE). Many people have allergy-induced asthma, which means that their asthma symptoms are triggered by allergic ... These people have high levels of an allergy-causing antibody (a type of immune protein in the body) called immunoglobulin E ( ...
Immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy is characterized by predominant IgA deposition in the glomerular mesangium.{ref1} It is one ... What is immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy?. Updated: Feb 15, 2018 * Author: Sohail Abdul Salim, MD, FASN, FACP; Chief Editor: ... Immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy is characterized by predominant IgA deposition in the glomerular mesangium. [1] It is one of ... Guideline] Chapter 10: Immunoglobulin A nephropathy. Kidney Int Suppl (2011). 2012 Jun. 2 (2):209-217. [Medline]. [Full Text]. ...
Immunoglobulin G (IgG) holds the highest share (44%) in the global blood plasma market, with a revenue of $9.24 billion. ... Immunoglobulin (Ig) therapies are among the oldest therapeutic moieties employed in a broad range of pathological conditions. ... Immunoglobulin G (IgG) holds the highest share (44%) in the global blood plasma market, with a revenue of $9.24 billion. ... Immunoglobulin (Ig) therapies are among the oldest therapeutic moieties employed in a broad range of pathological conditions. ...
... immunoglobulin deficiency - Answer: Most people with selective IgA (immunoglobulin) deficiency have no ... ... Home › Q & A › Questions › Immunoglobulin Deficiency -.... Immunoglobulin Deficiency - symptoms of deficiency?. Asked. 29 Nov ... Immunoglobulin Deficiency - Is ivig safe and how long do I have to use it?. Posted 23 Oct 2011 • 2 answers ... Most people with selective IgA (immunoglobulin) deficiency have no symptoms.. Some people with this condition have chronic ...
FRANGIONE, B., MILSTEIN, C. & FRANKLIN, E. Immunoglobulins: Chemical Typing of Immunoglobulins. Nature 221, 149-151 (1969). ...
For health professionals : Refer a patient : Laboratory Services : Test Table : Immunoglobulin-G, Serum ...
... Semi-Quantitative Bioassay Quantitative Chemiluminescent Immunoassay Send Out. Negative or ...
Antenatal prophylaxis with anti-D immunoglobulin. BMJ 1989; 299 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.299.6704.920 (Published 07 ...
Antenatal prophylaxis with anti-D immunoglobulin British Medical Journal 1989; 299 :920 ... Antenatal prophylaxis with anti-D immunoglobulin. British Medical Journal 1989; 299 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.299.6704. ...
The structure of immunoglobulin superfamily domains 1 and 2 of MAdCAM-1 reveals novel features important for integrin ... The structure of immunoglobulin superfamily domains 1 and 2 of MAdCAM-1 reveals novel features important for integrin ... MAdCAM-1 belongs to a subclass of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF), the members of which are ligands for integrins [PMID: ... 9655832]. The crystal structure of this domain has been reported; it adopts an immunoglobulin-like beta-sandwich structure, ...
IgG stands for immunoglobulin G, a type of antibody. Antibodies are proteins made by the immune system to fight viruses, ... URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/lab-tests/csf-immunoglobulin-g-igg-index/ CSF Immunoglobulin G (IgG) Index. ... Other names: cerebrospinal fluid IgG level, cerebrospinal fluid IgG measurement, CSF IgG level, IgG (Immunoglobulin G) spinal ... www.uwhealth.org/health/topic/medicaltest/immunoglobulins/hw41342.html#hw41354 ...
... deficiency is a defect of humoral immunity that is characterized by abnormally low serum levels of IgD immunoglobulins. Little ... encoded search term (Immunoglobulin%20D%20Deficiency) and Immunoglobulin D Deficiency What to Read Next on Medscape. Medscape ... Immunoglobulin D Deficiency. Updated: Sep 13, 2016 * Author: Camellia L Hernandez, MD; Chief Editor: Michael A Kaliner, MD more ... Immunoglobulin D (IgD) deficiency is a defect of humoral immunity that is characterized by abnormally low serum levels of IgD ...
IVIG combines immunoglobulin from the blood of many people to boost, this is used to boost the patients immune system to fight ... About Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIG) What is immunoglobulin?. An immunoglobulin is also known as an antibody. It is a ... Immunoglobulin can be collected from the plasma of donated blood. It takes the plasma from thousands of people to make a dose ... There are some immunoglobulin products that are given by an injection into the muscle (called IM) or under the skin (called ...
Make research projects and school reports about immunoglobulin easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia ... The main immunoglobulin of blood, lymph, and tissue fluid is immunoglobulin G (IgG). It binds to microorganisms, promoting ... immunoglobulin Protein found in the blood that plays a role in the immune system. Immunoglobulins act as antibodies for ... immunoglobulin An antibody secreted by B cells.. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography ...
Total immunoglobulin A deficiency (IgAD) is defined as an undetectable serum immunoglobulin A (IgA) level at a value < 5 mg/dL ... Selective immunoglobulin A deficiency (SIgAD) is a primary immunodeficiency disease and is the most common of the primary ... encoded search term (Immunoglobulin A Deficiency) and Immunoglobulin A Deficiency What to Read Next on Medscape. Related ... Immunoglobulin A Deficiency Medication. Updated: May 15, 2018 * Author: Marina Y Dolina, MD; Chief Editor: Michael A Kaliner, ...
An immunoglobulin light chain protein was isolated from the urine of an individual (BRE) with systemic amyloidosis. Complete ... An immunoglobulin light chain protein was isolated from the urine of an individual (BRE) with systemic amyloidosis. Complete ... Tertiary structure of an amyloid immunoglobulin light chain protein: a proposed model for amyloid fibril formation.. Schormann ...
An immunoglobulins test measures the levels of certain antibodies in your blood. Abnormal levels can indicate a serious health ... What is an immunoglobulins blood test?. This test measures the amount of immunoglobulins, also known as antibodies, in your ... An immunoglobulins test usually measures three specific types of immunoglobulins. They are called igG, igM, and IgA. If your ... Why do I need an immunoglobulins blood test?. You may need this test if your health care provider thinks your immunoglobulin ...
Immunoglobulin G, Qn, Serum. 2465-3. 001776. Immunoglobulin G, Qn, Serum. mg/dL. 2465-3. ... Immunoglobulin G is the major antibody containing protein fraction of blood. With significant decreases in IgG level, on either ... patients with repeated infection should have their immunoglobulins, and specifically IgG, measured. Therapy with exogenous γ- ...
  • Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of antibody. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is one of several isotypes of antibody (also known as immunoglobulin) that are produced by vertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunoglobulin E ( IgE ) is a type of antibody (or immunoglobulin (Ig) " isotype ") that has only been found in mammals . (wikipedia.org)
  • one of the most common immunoglobulins, it is mainly present in body secretions and is the chief antibody in the mucous membranes of the gastrointestinal and respiratory tract and in saliva and tears. (labtestsonline.org)
  • This process results in an immunoglobulin gene that encodes an antibody of a different isotype. (news-medical.net)
  • Retrieved on May 22, 2019 from https://www.news-medical.net/health/Antibody-Immunoglobulin-Diversity.aspx. (news-medical.net)
  • Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a type of protein in the body called an antibody. (kidshealth.org)
  • These people have high levels of an allergy-causing antibody (a type of immune protein in the body) called immunoglobulin E (IgE). (kidshealth.org)
  • An immunoglobulin is also known as an antibody. (oncolink.org)
  • Immunoglobulin M ( IgM ) is the first antibody to be produced following immunization or infection. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Immunoglobulin D ( IgD ) is present in serum in very low concentrations, but occurs on the surface of antibody-secreting B cells, whose activity it may regulate. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Anti-D immunoglobulin treatment for thrombocytopenia associated with primary antibody deficiency. (medscape.com)
  • Immunoglobulin G is the major antibody containing protein fraction of blood. (labcorp.com)
  • Immunoglobulin A ( IgA , also referred to as sIgA in its secretory form) is an antibody that plays a crucial role in the immune function of mucous membranes . (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunoglobulin, abbreviated at Ig, is also referred to as antibody. (wisegeek.com)
  • Immunoglobulin M , or IgM for short, is a basic antibody that is present on B cells . (bionity.com)
  • It is also the first immunoglobulin expressed in the fetus (around 20 weeks) and also phylogenetically the earliest antibody to develop. (bionity.com)
  • An antibody , also known as an immunoglobulin , is a large Y-shaped protein used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects such as bacteria and viruses. (phys.org)
  • the terms antibody and immunoglobulin are often used interchangeably. (phys.org)
  • The gut characteristically produces gram quantities of immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibody, which is presumed to protect the gut from pathogen attack. (sciencemag.org)
  • 9. The composition of claim 1, wherein said immunoglobulins exhibit increased antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 17. The pharmaceutical composition of claim 14, wherein said immunoglobulins comprise an antibody which binds to an antigen selected from the group consisting of growth factors, FGFR, EGFR, VEGF, leukocyte antigens, CD20, CD33, cytokines, TNF-α and TNF-β. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Immunoglobulin is a blood/plasma product, which is prepared from the serum of multiple of donors, used to treat patients with antibody deficiency. (medgadget.com)
  • Prevalence of various antibody deficiency disorders such as common variable immune deficiency (CVID), specific antibody deficiency, and hypogammaglobulinemia, increase in immunoglobulin indications, improved production & purification processes, growth in awareness towards antibody deficiency, and rare immune disorders among patient population drive the growth of the Immunoglobulin market. (medgadget.com)
  • A monoclonal anti-immunoglobulin E antibody used in the treatment of severe asthma and chronic idiopathic urticaria. (drugbank.ca)
  • Immunoglobulin D ( IgD ) is an antibody isotype that makes up about 1% of proteins in the plasma membranes of immature B-lymphocytes where it is usually coexpressed with another cell surface antibody called IgM . (wikidoc.org)
  • Allergic (extrinsic) asthma is associated with immunoglobulin E (IgE)-an antibody generated by the immune system, in this case, in response to a normally harmless substance. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Don't recommend replacement immunoglobulin therapy for recurrent infections unless impaired antibody responses to vaccines are demonstrated. (choosingwisely.org)
  • Immunoglobulin (gammaglobulin) replacement is expensive and does not improve outcomes unless there is impairment of antigen-specific IgG antibody responses to vaccine immunizations or natural infections. (choosingwisely.org)
  • Low levels of immunoglobulins (isotypes or subclasses), without impaired antigen-specific IgG antibody responses, do not indicate a need for immunoglobulin replacement therapy. (choosingwisely.org)
  • An IgA test measures the blood level of immunoglobulin A, one of the most common types of antibodies in the body. (kidshealth.org)
  • Antibodies (also called immunoglobulins) are proteins the immune system makes to recognize and get rid of germs . (kidshealth.org)
  • Immunoglobulin therapy , also known as normal human immunoglobulin ( NHIG ), is the use of a mixture of antibodies (immunoglobulins) to treat a number of health conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genes coding for these diverse range of immunoglobulins however are limited and do not number similar to the variety of antibodies. (news-medical.net)
  • immunoglobulin One of a group of proteins ( globulins ) in the body that act as antibodies . (encyclopedia.com)
  • This test measures the amount of immunoglobulins, also known as antibodies, in your blood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Immunoglobulin G antibodies are the only antibodies that pass from mother to fetus through the placenta. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Elevated immunoglobulin levels mean that the body's immune system has produced antibodies in response to a threat, such as bacteria, viruses, fungus, animal dander or cancer cells. (reference.com)
  • Immunoglobulins, also known as antibodies, attach themselves to foreign objects so that the immune system can destroy them, notes WebMD. (reference.com)
  • Produced by the body's immune system, antibodies, also known as immunoglobulins, are Y-shaped proteins that help identify and remove antigens and other for. (reference.com)
  • amysamp - I see your thinking, that you may need to replenish the IgA if it is high and therefore chronically fighting the infection therefore you might need new immunoglobulin antibodies to continue the fight. (wisegeek.com)
  • How great are these immunoglobulin antibodies? (wisegeek.com)
  • Here, we describe a method for rapid and consistent global characterization of leachable metal- or peroxide-stressed immunoglobulin (lg) G1 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). (genengnews.com)
  • An immunoglobulins test is done to measure the level of immunoglobulins, also known as antibodies , in your blood. (cigna.com)
  • PhysOrg.com) -- Like a blood-borne army, immunoglobulin G belongs to a class of antibodies that binds to viruses, fungi, bacteria and other foreign particles to initiate their destruction. (phys.org)
  • Immunoglobulins are commonly known as antibodies . (chegg.com)
  • Immunoglobulin A is one class of a group of immunoglobulin proteins known as antibodies. (embracepetinsurance.com)
  • IgA (shorthand for Immunoglobulin A) is a class of antibodies that works to protect the surfaces of the body from the most immediate, superficial kind of invaders. (embracepetinsurance.com)
  • Stimulation of resting B lymphocytes with antibodies to surface immunoglobulin (sIgD or sIgM) induces protein tyrosine phosphorylation, implicating one or more B-cell protein-tyrosine kinases (PTKs) in sIg signal transduction. (pnas.org)
  • When you are given an immunoglobulin, your body uses antibodies from other people's blood plasma to help prevent illness. (wellspan.org)
  • Treatments for some cancers can cause the body to stop producing its own antibodies, making immunoglobulin treatment necessary. (wellspan.org)
  • Zoster Immunoglobulin-VF contains protein substances called antibodies which can provide protection against the virus causing chickenpox and shingles. (nps.org.au)
  • Immunoglobulin Deficiency - Is ivig safe and how long do I have to use it? (drugs.com)
  • IVIG (Intravenous immunoglobulin)? (drugs.com)
  • OKLAHOMA CITY , Sept. 12, 2018 /PRNewswire/ -- A subset of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), who have an immune abnormality, may benefit from intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) treatment, according to new research from Richard E. Frye , MD, PhD, Chief of Neurodevelopmental Disorders at the Barrow Neurological Institute at Phoenix Children's Hospital. (prnewswire.com)
  • Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) is beneficial in other autoimmune diseases. (nih.gov)
  • To review the literature on the use and efficacy of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in glomerulonephritis and to evaluate the nephrotoxic effect of IVIG. (nih.gov)
  • What are the "off-label" uses of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in neurology? (medscape.com)
  • To determine whether high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) is more effective than placebo in restoring lost visual function (visual acuity) in optic neuritis (ON). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The TGA has become aware of reports of a markedly increased incidence of serious adverse reactions associated with Octagam, an intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) preparation, manufactured by Octapharma in Europe. (tga.gov.au)
  • Brooklyn, NY -- ( SBWIRE ) -- 11/01/2017 -- QYResearchReports.com has announced the addition of a report titled, "Global Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIg) Market Research Report 2017" to its depository. (sbwire.com)
  • The improvement in the production of IVIg on account of technological advancements is another key catalyst of the market for intravenous immunoglobulin. (sbwire.com)
  • The exorbitant costs of IVIg technology might also emerge as another restraint of the market for intravenous immunoglobulin. (sbwire.com)
  • A preparation containing immunoglobulin proteins, especially immune globulin. (yourdictionary.com)
  • The new vaccine worked well whether it contained interleukin-2 and immunoglobulin G proteins or the genes encoding these proteins. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Proteins in this superfamily contain varying numbers of immunoglobulin-like domains and are thought to participate in the regulation of interactions between cells. (nih.gov)
  • The immunoglobulin superfamily is a group of proteins, each made of one or several domains sharing key structural features with either the variable (V) or the constant (C) immunoglobulin domains. (nih.gov)
  • A purified form of human immunoglobulin G and other proteins used to treat immunodeficiency and a wide variety of autoimmune disorders. (drugbank.ca)
  • More recently, expression of engineered immunoglobulin genes in tissue culture can be used to produce IgM with specific alternations and thus to identify the molecular requirements for features of interest. (wikipedia.org)
  • The variable region of each immunoglobulin heavy or light chain is encoded in several pieces on the genes. (news-medical.net)
  • The technique should also lead to the cloning of antigen-binding specificities directly from immunoglobulin genes. (pnas.org)
  • Predicting the onset of AL is highly challenging, as each patient carries a different pathogenic LC sequence resulting from a unique rearrangement of variable (V) and joining (J) immunoglobulin genes and a unique set of somatic mutations (SMs) acquired during B cell affinity maturation 9 (Fig. 1a ). (nature.com)
  • The bovine x mouse hybrid cells can be expected to provide bovine monoclonal immunoglobulins for sequencing studies and for use as serological standards as well as to provide messenger RNA for cloning bovine immunoglobulin genes. (sciencemag.org)
  • An immunoglobulin light chain protein was isolated from the urine of an individual (BRE) with systemic amyloidosis. (rcsb.org)
  • The definition of immunoglobulin is a protein that fights against disease. (yourdictionary.com)
  • An example of an immunoglobulin is a protein that fights against strep throat. (yourdictionary.com)
  • Immunoglobulin is a type of protein that helps the body fight disease. (wisegeek.com)
  • In screening mouse cytolytic-T-cell-derived cDNA libraries, we came across cDNA clones defining a sequence, CTLA-4, which could encode a 223-amino-acid protein clearly belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily. (nih.gov)
  • Immunoglobulins are made of four protein chains. (chegg.com)
  • Anti-immunoglobulin stimulation of B lymphocytes activates src-related protein-tyrosine kinases. (pnas.org)
  • Immunoglobulin (also called gamma globulin or immune globulin) is a substance made from human blood plasma. (wellspan.org)
  • Immunoglobulins include light chains and heavy chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each immunoglobulin molecules is a tetramer of two identical light chains and two identical heavy chains linked by disulfide bonds. (uniprot.org)
  • Because of the less-than-robust response to therapy and impact on choice of optimal chemotherapy and prognosis, chronic kidney disease has drawn attention in the treatment of multiple myeloma, a malignant hematologic disorder that can produce significant amounts of monoclonal immunoglobulin free light chains (FLCs). (jci.org)
  • Serological levels of free immunoglobulin light chains (FLCs), produced in excess of heavy chains during synthesis of immunoglobulins by plasma cells, can be considered a direct marker of B cell activity in different systemic inflammatory-autoimmune conditions and may represent a useful predictor of rituximab (RTX) therapeutic efficacy, as reported for rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. (hindawi.com)
  • In systemic light chain amyloidosis (AL), pathogenic monoclonal immunoglobulin light chains (LC) form toxic aggregates and amyloid fibrils in target organs. (nature.com)
  • Systemic light-chain amyloidosis (AL) is a monoclonal gammopathy characterized by the abnormal proliferation of a plasma cell clone producing large amounts of pathogenic immunoglobulin free light chains (LCs) 1 . (nature.com)
  • Structural elements of immunoglobulin light chains are depicted on top of the sequences (FR1 = framework 1, CDR1 = complementary determining region 1, FR2 = framework 2, CDR2 = complementary determining region 2, FR3 = framework 3, CDR3 = complementary determining region 3, FR4 = framework 4). (nature.com)
  • Structural elements of immunoglobulin light chains are shown on the left. (nature.com)
  • They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. (drugbank.ca)
  • Favorable Outcome of Severe, Extensive, Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor-Induced, Corticosteroid-Resistant Sweet's Syndrome Treated With High-Dose Intravenous Immunoglobulin. (medscape.com)
  • Immunoglobulin Deficiency - symptoms of deficiency? (drugs.com)
  • Most people with selective IgA (immunoglobulin) deficiency have no symptoms. (drugs.com)
  • Immunoglobulin D (IgD) deficiency is a defect of humoral immunity that is characterized by abnormally low serum levels of IgD immunoglobulins. (medscape.com)
  • Immunoglobulin A deficiency (IgAD) has no specific treatment. (medscape.com)
  • Favre O, Leimgruber A, Nicole A, Spertini F. Intravenous immunoglobulin replacement prevents severe and lower respiratory tract infections, but not upper respiratory tract and non-respiratory infections in common variable immune deficiency. (medscape.com)
  • Immunoglobulin A Deficiency is a topic covered in the Select 5-Minute Pediatrics Topics . (unboundmedicine.com)
  • 5minute , www.unboundmedicine.com/5minute/view/Select-5-Minute-Pediatric-Consult/14162/all/Immunoglobulin_A_Deficiency. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • When IgA is determined to be deficient in dogs, the condition may be diagnosed as "selective immunoglobulin A deficiency. (embracepetinsurance.com)
  • Selective IgA deficiency is not an indication for administration of immunoglobulin. (choosingwisely.org)
  • The immunoglobulin market size accounted for $9,972.9 million in 2017, and is projected to reach $16,694.7 million by 2025, registering a CAGR of 6.6% from 2018 to 2025. (medgadget.com)
  • In the 1960s, methods were developed for inducing immunoglobulin-producing tumors (plasmacytomas) in mice, thus also providing a source of homogeneous immunoglobulins of various isotypes, including IgM (reviewed in). (wikipedia.org)
  • as such, the molecular weight of slgA is 385,000D. One of these is the J chain (joining chain), which is a polypeptide of molecular mass 15kD, rich with cysteine and structurally completely different from other immunoglobulin chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is provided an isolated immunoglobulin comprising two heavy polypeptide chains sufficient for the formation of a complete antigen binding site or several antigen binding sites, wherein the immunoglobulin is further devoid of light polypeptide chains. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The high prevalence of IgA in mucosal areas is a result of a cooperation between plasma cells that produce polymeric IgA (pIgA), and mucosal epithelial cells that express an immunoglobulin receptor called the polymeric Ig receptor (pIgR). (wikipedia.org)
  • It includes such functionally important members as the immunoglobulins themselves, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II and T-cell receptor (TCR) molecules. (nih.gov)
  • 5. The composition of claim 1, wherein said immunoglobulins exhibit decreased binding affinity for an FcγRIIb receptor. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 6. The composition of claim 1, wherein said immunoglobulins exhibit increased binding affinity for an FcγRIII receptor. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • again this FeRn receptor, is taking that immunoglobulin from the lumenside. (coursera.org)
  • After bone marrow transplant, it may be given to patients that have low levels of immunoglobulin. (oncolink.org)
  • For adults, elevated levels of immunoglobulin E or IgE are above 423 international units per milliliter of blood, according to WebMD. (reference.com)
  • this (µL)2 structure is often referred to as the IgM "monomer", as it is analogous in some ways to the structure of immunoglobulin G (IgG). (wikipedia.org)
  • The structure of immunoglobulin superfamily domains 1 and 2 of MAdCAM-1 reveals novel features important for integrin recognition. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Overall, 2% of patients who had received IV immunoglobulin for various indications were affected, compared with 4.1% of controls who had not received the treatment ( P =0.002), Howard Fillit, MD, of Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York, and colleagues reported in the July 21 issue of Neurology . (medpagetoday.com)
  • Loh RK, Vale S, Maclean-Tooke A. Quantitative serum immunoglobulin tests. (medlineplus.gov)
  • See the table of normal serum immunoglobulin ranges. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Serum immunoglobulin profiles of septicemic versus healthy neonates. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The Immunoglobulin E (IgE) ELISA Kit is for the quantitative determination of IgE in human serum. (mpbio.com)
  • Your search returned 4 immunoglobulin superfamily, member 10 Biomolecules across 2 suppliers. (biocompare.com)
  • We have designed a set of oligonucleotide primers to amplify the cDNA of mouse immunoglobulin heavy and light chain variable domains by the polymerase chain reaction. (pnas.org)
  • The V domains of normal immunoglobulin are highly heterogeneous, reflecting their role in protecting against the great variety of infectious microbes, and this heterogeneity impeded detailed structural analysis of IgM. (wikipedia.org)
  • Normal immunoglobulin E, or IgE, levels in children are 10 international units per milliliter for 1-year-olds. (reference.com)
  • [4] This represents up to 15% of total immunoglobulins produced throughout the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • To the extent that the experiments reflect the human condition, these studies offer insights into the pathogenesis of progressive kidney failure in the setting of lymphoproliferative disorders, such as multiple myeloma, that feature increased circulating levels of monoclonal immunoglobulin fragments that require metabolism by the kidney. (jci.org)
  • Restricting access of subscribers to only one or two product/formulations of replacement immunoglobulin regardless of the particular product the patient may currently be receiving poses an unjustified safety risk for patients. (primaryimmune.org)
  • Dantal J. Intravenous immunoglobulins: in-depth review of excipients and acute kidney injury risk. (medscape.com)
  • High-dose intravenous immunoglobulins: an approach to treat severe immune-mediated and autoimmune diseases of the skin. (medscape.com)
  • Intravenous immunoglobulins improve survival in monoclonal gammopathy-associated systemic capillary-leak syndrome. (medscape.com)
  • The aim of this study is to study the efficacy of intravenous immunoglobulins for inducing remission in patients relapsing of systemic vasculitides. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Human immunoglobulin therapy first occurred in the 1930s and a formulation for injection into a vein was approved for medical use in the United States in 1981. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunoglobulin therapy is also used for a number of other conditions, including in many autoimmune disorders such as dermatomyositis in an attempt to decrease the severity of symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunoglobulin therapy is also used in some treatment protocols for secondary immunodeficiencies such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), some autoimmune disorders (such as immune thrombocytopenia and Kawasaki disease ), some neurological diseases ( multifocal motor neuropathy , stiff person syndrome , multiple sclerosis and myasthenia gravis ) some acute infections and some complications of organ transplantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunoglobulin therapy is especially useful in some acute infection cases such as pediatric HIV infection and is also considered the standard of treatment for some autoimmune disorders such as Guillain-Barré syndrome . (wikipedia.org)
  • Different national bodies and medical associations have established varying standards for the use of immunoglobulin therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The National Advisory Committee on Blood and Blood Products of Canada (NAC) and Canadian Blood Services have also developed their own separate set of guidelines for the appropriate use of immunoglobulin therapy, which strongly support the use of immunoglobulin therapy in primary immunodeficiencies and some complications of HIV, while remaining silent on the issues of sepsis, multiple sclerosis, and chronic fatigue syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Replacement therapy is not practical for IgAD because of the short half-life of IgA and the relative paucity of IgA in commercial immunoglobulin preparations. (medscape.com)
  • In November 2011, the IDF Medical Advisory Committee wrote a resolution regarding formulary changes that limit a physician's ability to determine the most appropriate immunoglobulin replacement therapy. (primaryimmune.org)
  • Review of intravenous immunoglobulin replacement therapy trials for primary humoral immunodeficiency patients. (medscape.com)
  • Measurement of IgG subclasses is not routinely useful in determining the need for immunoglobulin therapy. (choosingwisely.org)
  • Global Immunoglobulin Market Size 2017 Industry Trend and Forecast. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • The Global And China Immunoglobulin Industry 2017 Market Research Report is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the Immunoglobulin industry. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • We found that a regulatory system in the prominent human commensal Bacteroides fragilis modulates its surface architecture to invite binding of immunoglobulin A (IgA) in mice. (sciencemag.org)
  • Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. (jove.com)
  • Use of intravenous immunoglobulin in human disease: a review of evidence by members of the Primary Immunodeficiency Committee of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology. (choosingwisely.org)
  • Immunoglobulin (Ig) therapies are among the oldest therapeutic moieties employed in a broad range of pathological conditions. (frost.com)
  • Is dosing of therapeutic immunoglobulins optimal? (medscape.com)
  • The Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) advises that Octapharma Australia Pty Ltd has agreed to a precautionary voluntary recall of all batches of Octagam intravenous immunoglobulin solutions from the Australian market, due to safety concerns regarding an increased incidence of thromboembolic complications associated with the use of this product in Europe and the USA. (tga.gov.au)
  • Your body makes different types of immunoglobulins to fight different types of these substances. (medlineplus.gov)
  • [2] A number of specific immunoglobulin formulations are also available including for hepatitis B , rabies , tetanus , varicella infection , and Rh positive blood exposure . (wikipedia.org)
  • In these situations, immunoglobulin infusions confer passive resistance to infection on their recipients by increasing the quantity/quality of IgG they possess. (wikipedia.org)
  • While researchers have known for years that immunoglobulin A (IgA) is important for gut health, it has remained unclear exactly what role it plays in preventing infection and disease. (news-medical.net)
  • If your immunoglobulin levels are too high, it may be a sign of an autoimmune disease, a chronic illness, an infection, or a type of cancer. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Accordingly, a novel approach in prevention and reduction of H. pylori infection has been reported based on production of urease-specific immunoglobulin that can suppress the bacterial colonization through urease-binding by anti- H. pylori urease IgY (IgY-urease). (scirp.org)
  • It was initially expected that J chain would be important for forming the polymeric immunoglobulins, and indeed polymerization of IgA depends strongly (but not absolutely) on J chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses. (drugbank.ca)
  • Genetic rearrangements occur during the maturation of B lymphocytes, eventually resulting in the surface expression of both immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgD on mature B cells. (medscape.com)
  • The interspecific fusion of normal bovine lymphocytes with a nonsecreting mouse hybridoma produced stable cell lines secreting bovine immunoglobulins. (sciencemag.org)
  • Immunoglobulins (Igs) are glycoproteins. (chegg.com)
  • The Chinese company added that the bovine immunoglobulin G (IgG) kits helps to prevent and treat blue ear disease, respiratory pneumonia, pseudorabies, swine fever and foot and mouth disease, which are common diseases affecting pig in the farming industry. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • IV immunoglobulin has been used safely for more than 20 years to treat other diseases but is thought to have an indirect effect on Alzheimer's disease by targeting beta-amyloid," Dr. Fillit said. (medpagetoday.com)
  • And if I remember correctly these diseases occur with low immunoglobulin counts so the immunoglobulin being administered via IV may be to increase the levels as opposed to replenish the levels. (wisegeek.com)
  • Intramuscular immunoglobulin for recalcitrant suppurative diseases of the skin: a retrospective review of 63 cases. (medscape.com)
  • And even though immunoglobulins are obtained from blood, they are purified so that they can't pass on diseases to the person who receives them. (wellspan.org)
  • You may be given an immunoglobulin if you are exposed to certain infectious diseases, such as hepatitis A , rubella , or measles. (wellspan.org)
  • As the number of patients suffering from pathological conditions and autoimmune diseases has been escalating by the day, the global demand for intravenous immunoglobulin is expected to multiply. (sbwire.com)
  • Barnett C, Wilson G, Barth D, Katzberg HD, Bril V. Changes in quality of life scores with intravenous immunoglobulin or plasmapheresis in patients with myasthenia gravis. (medscape.com)
  • Sorgun MH, Sener HO, Yucesan C, Yucemen N. Intravenous immunoglobulin for prophylaxis of acute exacerbation in Myasthenia Gravis. (medscape.com)
  • [1] Human immunoglobulin is made from human blood plasma . (wikipedia.org)
  • Tenders are invited for reagents for the determination of TORCH infections, hepatitis, parasites ELISA: A set of reagents for the detection of immunoglobulin G antigens opistorhysiv, Trichinella, Echinococcus and toxocara serum (plasma) of human blood by ELISA. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • An intravenous (IV) infusion of a substance made from human blood plasma (immunoglobulin) may be given. (wellspan.org)
  • Antithymocyte Globulin (ATG) is a concentrated anti-human T-lymphocyte immunoglobulin preparation derived from rabbits after immunization with a T-lympoblast cell line. (drugbank.ca)
  • however, other immunoglobulins are distributed into human milk. (drugbank.ca)
  • A wide range of human and animal immunoglobulins (Igs) for use in immunological and biochemical applications have been isolated from normal or myeloma sources. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Immunoglobulin G (IgG) holds the highest share (44%) in the global blood plasma market, with a revenue of $9.24 billion. (frost.com)
  • Immunoglobulin can be collected from the plasma of donated blood. (oncolink.org)
  • The main immunoglobulin of blood, lymph, and tissue fluid is immunoglobulin G ( IgG ). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Immunoglobulin E ( IgE ) also normally has very low concentrations in blood and connective tissues, but it plays a crucial role in allergic reactions. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Precautions must be used in the administration of IV immunoglobulin and other blood products in patients with IgAD because IV immunoglobulin preparations and other blood products contain at least small amounts of IgA. (medscape.com)
  • What is an immunoglobulins blood test? (medlineplus.gov)
  • Why do I need an immunoglobulins blood test? (medlineplus.gov)
  • You don't need any special preparations for an immunoglobulins blood test. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Immunoglobulin is sometimes used to treat immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), an immune disorder in which the body attacks the cells responsible for blood clotting (platelets), resulting in bleeding. (wellspan.org)
  • As one of the 5 immunoglobulins found in the blood, it is a long-lasting defense against most antigens. (healthtestingcenters.com)
  • As one of the 5 immunoglobulins found in the blood ,it is the first or primary immunoglobulin produced following exposure to an antigen. (healthtestingcenters.com)
  • Egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) can successfully compete with immunoglobulin (IgG) produced in the blood of mammals. (scirp.org)
  • Cultures of blood were done and serum immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA) were estimated in all the subjects. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Zoster Immunoglobulin-VF is prepared from blood obtained from voluntary donors. (nps.org.au)
  • The present study demonstrated that during the process of metabolism of immunoglobulin FLCs, ROS activated the STAT1 pathway in proximal tubule epithelium. (jci.org)
  • Explain to interested patients that this study identified an association between previous IV immunoglobulin use and a lower risk of Alzheimer's disease, but as a retrospective study subject to residual confounding, it could not prove causality. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Point out that a clinical trial is underway to evaluate the use of IV immunoglobulin in patients with Alzheimer's disease. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Small, preliminary studies of IV immunoglobulin treatment for patients with Alzheimer's disease have yielded positive results. (medpagetoday.com)
  • These patients were matched by age, gender, and risk factors for Alzheimer's disease and related disorders with 84,700 controls who had not received IV immunoglobulin. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Overall, through about four years of follow-up, 2% of patients treated with IV immunoglobulin developed Alzheimer's disease or a similar disorder, compared with 4.1% of the controls. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Doctors should cease using Octagam intravenous immunoglobulin solutions immediately, and switch their patients to the most appropriate alternative treatment. (tga.gov.au)
  • Patients and health care providers should report any adverse events that have occurred following administration of Octagam intravenous immunoglobulin solution to the TGA via the Adverse Medicine Events Line (1300 134 237), online via ' Report a problem with a medicine ', or using the 'Blue Card' Prepaid Reporting Form . (tga.gov.au)
  • Patients with immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-related disease) can present to any clinical specialty. (cmaj.ca)
  • Large patient population, lack of effective substitute treatment, and early adoption of immunoglobulin for the treatment of hypogammaglobulinemia are expected to boost the growth of this segment. (medgadget.com)
  • North America, with the U.S. at the fore, is expected to witness greatest demand for intravenous immunoglobulin over the next few years, emerging as the leading segment of the market. (sbwire.com)
  • This gene encodes a member of the immunoglobulin-like domain-containing superfamily. (nih.gov)
  • [1] [2] These conditions include primary immunodeficiency , immune thrombocytopenic purpura , chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy , Kawasaki disease , certain cases of HIV/AIDS and measles , Guillain-Barré syndrome , and certain other infections when a more specific immunoglobulin is not available. (wikipedia.org)
  • What is immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy? (medscape.com)
  • Immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy is characterized by predominant IgA deposition in the glomerular mesangium. (medscape.com)
  • Light microscopy of a glomerulus from a patient with immunoglobulin A nephropathy showing increased mesangial matrix and cellularity. (medscape.com)
  • Immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrating large mesangial immunoglobulin A (IgA) deposits diagnostic of IgA nephropathy. (medscape.com)
  • Immunoglobulin A nephropathy: a pathophysiology view. (medscape.com)
  • Immunoglobulin A ( IgA ) is found in saliva, tears, breast milk, and mucous secretions, where its role is to neutralize viruses and bacteria as they enter the body. (encyclopedia.com)
  • LITTLE FALLS, N.J., July 20 -- Intravenous immunoglobulin treatment was associated with a 42% reduced risk of developing Alzheimer's disease and similar disorders, a case-control study showed. (medpagetoday.com)
  • He cautioned, however, that "these findings do not constitute an endorsement of IV immunoglobulin treatment for Alzheimer's disease. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The aim of this study will assess the effects of intravenous immunoglobulin in ANCA+ vasculitides (Microscopic Polyangiitis, Wegener's granulomatosis and Churg-Strauss syndrome) who relapse under corticosteroid and immunosuppressant therapies or after one year post treatment. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Based on application, the global intravenous immunoglobulin market has been segmented into disease treatment, disease prevention, and disease research. (sbwire.com)
  • Some placental trophoblasts also bind to immunoglobulins, in order for them to be carried across to the fetus for providing immunity for the growing child. (chegg.com)