Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.
Immunoglobulin preparations used in intravenous infusion, containing primarily IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. They are used to treat a variety of diseases associated with decreased or abnormal immunoglobulin levels including pediatric AIDS; primary HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA; SCID; CYTOMEGALOVIRUS infections in transplant recipients, LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC; Kawasaki syndrome, infection in neonates, and IDIOPATHIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA.
Genes encoding the different subunits of the IMMUNOGLOBULINS, for example the IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN GENES and the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES. The heavy and light immunoglobulin genes are present as gene segments in the germline cells. The completed genes are created when the segments are shuffled and assembled (B-LYMPHOCYTE GENE REARRANGEMENT) during B-LYMPHOCYTE maturation. The gene segments of the human light and heavy chain germline genes are symbolized V (variable), J (joining) and C (constant). The heavy chain germline genes have an additional segment D (diversity).
Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.
One of the types of light chains of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).
That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.
The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN M. They have a molecular weight of approximately 72 kDa and they contain about 57 amino acid residues arranged in five domains and have more oligosaccharide branches and a higher carbohydrate content than the heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.
The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.
One of the types of light chain subunits of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.
An immunoglobulin which accounts for less than 1% of plasma immunoglobulin. It is found on the membrane of many circulating B LYMPHOCYTES.
The domains of the immunoglobulin molecules that are invariable in their amino acid sequence within any class or subclass of immunoglobulin. They confer biological as well as structural functions to immunoglobulins. One each on both the light chains and the heavy chains comprises the C-terminus half of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN FAB FRAGMENT and two or three of them make up the rest of the heavy chains (all of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN FC FRAGMENT)
Crystallizable fragments composed of the carboxy-terminal halves of both IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fc fragments contain the carboxy-terminal parts of the heavy chain constant regions that are responsible for the effector functions of an immunoglobulin (COMPLEMENT fixation, binding to the cell membrane via FC RECEPTORS, and placental transport). This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Gene rearrangement of the B-lymphocyte which results in a substitution in the type of heavy-chain constant region that is expressed. This allows the effector response to change while the antigen binding specificity (variable region) remains the same. The majority of class switching occurs by a DNA recombination event but it also can take place at the level of RNA processing.
Heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G having a molecular weight of approximately 51 kDa. They contain about 450 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component covalently bound to the Fc fragment constant region. The gamma heavy chain subclasses (for example, gamma 1, gamma 2a, and gamma 2b) of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G isotype subclasses (IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B) resemble each other more closely than the heavy chains of the other IMMUNOGLOBULIN ISOTYPES.
Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
A 15 kD "joining" peptide that forms one of the linkages between monomers of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A or IMMUNOGLOBULIN M in the formation of polymeric immunoglobulins. There is one J chain per one IgA dimer or one IgM pentamer. It is also involved in binding the polymeric immunoglobulins to POLYMERIC IMMUNOGLOBULIN RECEPTOR which is necessary for their transcytosis to the lumen. It is distinguished from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN JOINING REGION which is part of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of the immunoglobulin light and heavy chains.
Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Allelic variants of the immunoglobulin light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) or heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) encoded by ALLELES of IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES.
Specialized Fc receptors (RECEPTORS, FC) for polymeric immunoglobulins, which mediate transcytosis of polymeric IMMUNOGLOBULIN A and IMMUNOGLOBULIN M into external secretions. They are found on the surfaces of epithelial cells and hepatocytes. After binding to IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, the receptor-ligand complex undergoes endocytosis, transport by vesicle, and secretion into the lumen by exocytosis. Before release, the part of the receptor (SECRETORY COMPONENT) that is bound to IMMUNOGLOBULIN A is proteolytically cleaved from its transmembrane tail. (From Rosen et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
A segment of the immunoglobulin heavy chains, encoded by the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES in the J segment where, during the maturation of B-LYMPHOCYTES; the gene segment for the variable region upstream is joined to a constant region gene segment downstream. The exact position of joining of the two gene segments is variable and contributes to ANTIBODY DIVERSITY. It is distinguished from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN J CHAINS; a separate polypeptide that serves as a linkage piece in polymeric IGA or IGM.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Abnormal immunoglobulins characteristic of MULTIPLE MYELOMA.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Genes and gene segments encoding the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS. Gene segments of the heavy chain genes are symbolized V (variable), D (diversity), J (joining), and C (constant).
A programmed mutation process whereby changes are introduced to the nucleotide sequence of immunoglobulin gene DNA during development.
Any discrete, presumably solitary, mass of neoplastic PLASMA CELLS either in BONE MARROW or various extramedullary sites.
The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN D. They have a molecular weight of approximately 64 kDa and they contain about 500 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component covalently bound to the Fc fragment constant region.
A site located in the INTRONS at the 5' end of each constant region segment of a immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene where recombination (or rearrangement) occur during IMMUNOGLOBULIN CLASS SWITCHING. Ig switch regions are found on genes encoding all five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN ISOTYPES) of IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS.
The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN A. They have a molecular weight of approximately 58 kDa and contain about 470 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component bound covalently to their Fc fragment constant region.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.
Serum globulins that migrate to the gamma region (most positively charged) upon ELECTROPHORESIS. At one time, gamma-globulins came to be used as a synonym for immunoglobulins since most immunoglobulins are gamma globulins and conversely most gamma globulins are immunoglobulins. But since some immunoglobulins exhibit an alpha or beta electrophoretic mobility, that usage is in decline.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The extracellular moiety of the POLYMERIC IMMUNOGLOBULIN RECEPTOR found alone or complexed with IGA or IGM, in a variety of external secretions (tears, bile, colostrum.) Secretory component is derived by proteolytic cleavage of the receptor during transcytosis. When immunoglobulins IgA and IgM are bound to the receptor, during their transcytosis secretory component becomes covalently attached to them generating SECRETORY IMMUNOGLOBULIN A or secretory IMMUNOGLOBULIN M.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
An immunologic deficiency state characterized by an extremely low level of generally all classes of gamma-globulin in the blood.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Allelic variants of the gamma-immunoglobulin heavy chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN GAMMA-CHAINS) encoded by ALLELES of IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES.
The thin, yellow, serous fluid secreted by the mammary glands during pregnancy and immediately postpartum before lactation begins. It consists of immunologically active substances, white blood cells, water, protein, fat, and carbohydrates.
Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the first stage of differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.
Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions coding for the IMMUNOGLOBULIN CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A protein present in the cell wall of most Staphylococcus aureus strains. The protein selectively binds to the Fc region of human normal and myeloma-derived IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. It elicits antibody activity and may cause hypersensitivity reactions due to histamine release; has also been used as cell surface antigen marker and in the clinical assessment of B lymphocyte function.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Specialized forms of antibody-producing B-LYMPHOCYTES. They synthesize and secrete immunoglobulin. They are found only in lymphoid organs and at sites of immune responses and normally do not circulate in the blood or lymph. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989, p169 & Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p20)
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Genes and gene segments encoding the IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS. Gene segments of the light chain genes are designated as V (variable), J (joining), and C (constant).
The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN E. They have a molecular weight of approximately 72 kDa and they contain about 550 amino acid residues arranged in five domains and about three times more carbohydrate than the heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; and IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions coding for the kappa or lambda IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the second stage of differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.
Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A dysgammaglobulinemia characterized by a deficiency of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Proteins isolated from the roots of the pokeweed, Phytolacca americana, that agglutinate some erythrocytes, stimulate mitosis and antibody synthesis in lymphocytes, and induce activation of plasma cells.
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).
Autoantibodies that bind to the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor (RECEPTORS, THYROTROPIN) on thyroid epithelial cells. The autoantibodies mimic TSH causing an unregulated production of thyroid hormones characteristic of GRAVES DISEASE.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
An excess of GAMMA-GLOBULINS in the serum due to chronic infections or PARAPROTEINEMIAS.
An immunologic deficiency state characterized by selective deficiencies of one or more, but not all, classes of immunoglobulins.
The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Allelic variants of the kappa light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN KAPPA-CHAINS) encoded by ALLELES of IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN GENES.
Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.
An abnormal protein with unusual thermosolubility characteristics that is found in the urine of patients with MULTIPLE MYELOMA.
A group of related diseases characterized by an unbalanced or disproportionate proliferation of immunoglobulin-producing cells, usually from a single clone. These cells frequently secrete a structurally homogeneous immunoglobulin (M-component) and/or an abnormal immunoglobulin.
A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
Antibodies found in adult RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS patients that are directed against GAMMA-CHAIN IMMUNOGLOBULINS.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
Abnormal immunoglobulins synthesized by atypical cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM. Paraproteins containing only light chains lead to Bence Jones paraproteinemia, while the presence of only atypical heavy chains leads to heavy chain disease. Most of the paraproteins show themselves as an M-component (monoclonal gammopathy) in electrophoresis. Diclonal and polyclonal paraproteins are much less frequently encountered.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Leukemia associated with HYPERPLASIA of the lymphoid tissues and increased numbers of circulating malignant LYMPHOCYTES and lymphoblasts.
A lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by pleomorphic B-LYMPHOCYTES including PLASMA CELLS, with increased levels of monoclonal serum IMMUNOGLOBULIN M. There is lymphoplasmacytic cells infiltration into bone marrow and often other tissues, also known as lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma. Clinical features include ANEMIA; HEMORRHAGES; and hyperviscosity.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Specific molecular sites on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes which combine with IgEs. Two subclasses exist: low affinity receptors (Fc epsilon RII) and high affinity receptors (Fc epsilon RI).
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
A dysgammaglobulinemia characterized by a deficiency of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.
Heterogeneous group of immunodeficiency syndromes characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia of most isotypes, variable B-cell defects, and the presence of recurrent bacterial infections.
Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.
An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of cytidine, forming uridine. EC
A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors generally expressing one or more B-cell antigens or representing malignant transformations of B-lymphocytes.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A chronic form of glomerulonephritis characterized by deposits of predominantly IMMUNOGLOBULIN A in the mesangial area (GLOMERULAR MESANGIUM). Deposits of COMPLEMENT C3 and IMMUNOGLOBULIN G are also often found. Clinical features may progress from asymptomatic HEMATURIA to END-STAGE KIDNEY DISEASE.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.
Immunizing agent containing IMMUNOGLOBULIN G anti-Rho(D) used for preventing Rh immunization in Rh-negative individuals exposed to Rh-positive red blood cells.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The acquired form of infection by Toxoplasma gondii in animals and man.
A group of sporadic, familial and/or inherited, degenerative, and infectious disease processes, linked by the common theme of abnormal protein folding and deposition of AMYLOID. As the amyloid deposits enlarge they displace normal tissue structures, causing disruption of function. Various signs and symptoms depend on the location and size of the deposits.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
An epithelial outgrowth of the cloaca in birds similar to the thymus in mammals. It atrophies within 6 months after birth and remains as a fibrous remnant in adult birds. It is composed of lymphoid tissue and prior to involution, is the site of B-lymphocyte maturation.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The in vitro formation of clusters consisting of a cell (usually a lymphocyte) surrounded by antigenic cells or antigen-bearing particles (usually erythrocytes, which may or may not be coated with antibody or antibody and complement). The rosette-forming cell may be an antibody-forming cell, a memory cell, a T-cell, a cell bearing surface cytophilic antibodies, or a monocyte possessing Fc receptors. Rosette formation can be used to identify specific populations of these cells.
A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
A chronic leukemia characterized by abnormal B-lymphocytes and often generalized lymphadenopathy. In patients presenting predominately with blood and bone marrow involvement it is called chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL); in those predominately with enlarged lymph nodes it is called small lymphocytic lymphoma. These terms represent spectrums of the same disease.
Serum globulins with high molecular weight. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Stable iodine atoms that have the same atomic number as the element iodine, but differ in atomic weight. I-127 is the only naturally occurring stable iodine isotope.
Substances, usually of biological origin, that cause cells or other organic particles to aggregate and stick to each other. They include those ANTIBODIES which cause aggregation or agglutination of particulate or insoluble ANTIGENS.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.
Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.
Three regions (CDR1; CDR2 and CDR3) of amino acid sequence in the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION that are highly divergent. Together the CDRs from the light and heavy immunoglobulin chains form a surface that is complementary to the antigen. These regions are also present in other members of the immunoglobulin superfamily, for example, T-cell receptors (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL).
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A group of elongate elasmobranchs. Sharks are mostly marine fish, with certain species large and voracious.
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
Electrophoresis applied to BLOOD PROTEINS.
Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.
A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.
Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.
Lymphoid tissue on the mucosa of the small intestine.
Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.
Abnormal immunoglobulins, especially IGG or IGM, that precipitate spontaneously when SERUM is cooled below 37 degrees Celsius. It is characteristic of CRYOGLOBULINEMIA.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
The process by which the V (variable), D (diversity), and J (joining) segments of IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES or T-CELL RECEPTOR GENES are assembled during the development of LYMPHOID CELLS using NONHOMOLOGOUS DNA END-JOINING.
Chemical analysis based on the phenomenon whereby light, passing through a medium with dispersed particles of a different refractive index from that of the medium, is attenuated in intensity by scattering. In turbidimetry, the intensity of light transmitted through the medium, the unscattered light, is measured. In nephelometry, the intensity of the scattered light is measured, usually, but not necessarily, at right angles to the incident light beam.
Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
An acute infectious disease caused by the RUBELLA VIRUS. The virus enters the respiratory tract via airborne droplet and spreads to the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
An energy dependent process following the crosslinking of B CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS by multivalent ligands (bivalent anti-antibodies, LECTINS or ANTIGENS), on the B-cell surface. The crosslinked ligand-antigen receptor complexes collect in patches which flow to and aggregate at one pole of the cell to form a large mass - the cap. The caps may then be endocytosed or shed into the environment.
T-cell enhancement of the B-cell response to thymic-dependent antigens.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.

Zonula occludens toxin is a powerful mucosal adjuvant for intranasally delivered antigens. (1/5283)

Zonula occludens toxin (Zot) is produced by toxigenic strains of Vibrio cholerae and has the ability to reversibly alter intestinal epithelial tight junctions, allowing the passage of macromolecules through the mucosal barrier. In the present study, we investigated whether Zot could be exploited to deliver soluble antigens through the nasal mucosa for the induction of antigen-specific systemic and mucosal immune responses. Intranasal immunization of mice with ovalbumin (Ova) and recombinant Zot, either fused to the maltose-binding protein (MBP-Zot) or with a hexahistidine tag (His-Zot), induced anti-Ova serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers that were approximately 40-fold higher than those induced by immunization with antigen alone. Interestingly, Zot also stimulated high anti-Ova IgA titers in serum, as well as in vaginal and intestinal secretions. A comparison with Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) revealed that the adjuvant activity of Zot was only sevenfold lower than that of LT. Moreover, Zot and LT induced similar patterns of Ova-specific IgG subclasses. The subtypes IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b were all stimulated, with a predominance of IgG1 and IgG2b. In conclusion, our results highlight Zot as a novel potent mucosal adjuvant of microbial origin.  (+info)

The levels and bactericidal capacity of antibodies directed against the UspA1 and UspA2 outer membrane proteins of Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis in adults and children. (2/5283)

The UspA1 and UspA2 proteins from Moraxella catarrhalis share antigenic epitopes and are promising vaccine candidates. In this study, the levels and bactericidal activities of antibodies in sera from healthy adults and children toward UspA1 and UspA2 from the O35E strain were measured. Human sera contained antibodies to both proteins, and the levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies were age dependent. Adult sera had significantly higher titers of IgG than child sera (P < 0.01). The IgG3 titers to the UspA proteins were higher than the IgG1 titers in the adults' sera, while the IgG1 titers were higher than the IgG3 titers in the children's sera (P < 0.05). The IgG antibodies in the sera from 2-month-old children appeared to be maternally derived, since the mean titer was significantly higher than that in sera from 6- to 7-month-old children (P < 0.05). Serum IgA antibodies to both UspA1 and UspA2 were low during the first 7 months of age but thereafter gradually increased along with the IgG titers. Analysis of sera absorbed with UspA1 or UspA2 showed that the antibodies to UspA1 and UspA2 were cross-reactive with each other and associated with serum bactericidal activity. Examination of affinity-purified human antibodies confirmed that naturally acquired antibodies to UspA1 and UspA2 were bactericidal and cross-reactive. These results support using UspA1 and UspA2 in a vaccine to prevent M. catarrhalis infections.  (+info)

Fish oil feeding delays influenza virus clearance and impairs production of interferon-gamma and virus-specific immunoglobulin A in the lungs of mice. (3/5283)

Ingestion of fish oil can suppress the inflammatory response to injury and may impair host resistance to infection. To investigate the effect of a diet containing fish oil on immunity to viral infection, 148 BALB/c mice were fed diets containing 3 g/100 g of sunflower oil with either 17 g/100 g of fish oil or beef tallow for 14 d before intranasal challenge with live influenza virus. At d 1 and d 5 after infection, the mice fed fish oil had higher lung viral load and lower body weight (P < 0.05). In addition to the greater viral load and weight loss at d 5 after infection, the fish oil group consumed less food (P < 0.05) while the beef tallow group was clearing the virus, had regained their preinfection weights and was returning to their preinfection food consumption. The fish oil group had impaired production of lung interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), serum immunoglobulin (Ig) G and lung IgA-specific antibodies (all P < 0. 05) although lung IFN-alpha/beta and the relative proportions of bronchial lymph node CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes did not differ between groups after infection. The present study demonstrates a delay in virus clearance in mice fed fish oil associated with reduced IFN-gamma and antibody production and a greater weight loss and suppression of appetite following influenza virus infection. However, differences observed during the course of infection did not affect the ultimate outcome as both groups cleared the virus and returned to preinfection food consumption and body weight by d 7.  (+info)

Up-regulation of glomerular extracellular matrix and transforming growth factor-beta expression in RF/J mice. (4/5283)

BACKGROUND: RF/J mice were first reported as a murine model of spontaneous glomerulosclerosis by Gude and Lupton in 1960, but the precise histologic characteristics and immunopathological background of this mouse have not been investigated further. METHODS: Measurements of serum levels of immunoglobulins, anti-single strand DNA (anti-ss-DNA) antibody, complement (C3), and circulating immune complex (IC) were performed. Analyses of glomerular histological and immunopathological lesions in association with the detection of mRNA expression of collagen IV, TGF-beta, matrix protein turnover related enzymes, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) were also performed in young (10-week-old) and elderly (60-week-old) RF/J mice with age-matched BALB/C mice as the controls. RESULTS: High levels of serum IgA and IgG from as early as 20 weeks of age were noted in the RF/J mice. Serum anti-ss-DNA antibody of aged RF/J mice increased up to 23% of that of aged MRL-lpr/lpr mice, and serum C3 concentration significantly decreased with age, reaching lower levels than that of BALB/c mice. IgA-IC levels were significantly high compared to BALB/C mice both in the early and late stages of life, whereas IgG-IC levels were high only in mice younger than 20 weeks. Semiquantitative and quantitative analyzes of renal histopathological findings revealed significantly marked and age-related mesangial matrix expansion in RF/J mice, with increasing frequency of global glomerular sclerosis and tubulointerstitial damage. On the other hand, although precise measurements of glomerular cell numbers also showed an apparent augmentation in both young and old RF/J mice compared to BALB/C mice, glomerular cellularity decreased with age in RF/J mice. Immunohistochemical study revealed massive immunoglobulin deposition from a young age in association with significantly higher accumulation of matrix proteins, such as types I and IV collagen and laminin from the early stage of life. In addition, in these glomeruli, transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) was highly expressed both in young and old mice. The mRNA expression of MMP-2 was up-regulated only in the early stage of life. Although PDGF mRNA of RF/J mice was significantly up-regulated in the early stage of life, the differences between the mice disappeared in the late stage of life. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that in RF/J mice, an immunopathological background inducing high serum immunoglobulin and IC levels from the early stage of life is closely related to mesangioproliferative glomerular lesions mediated by PDGF, and that development of massive extracellular matrix accumulation in glomeruli was induced by up-regulated expression of TGF-beta with inappropriate regulation of protein turnover-related enzyme production.  (+info)

Human triclonal anti-IgG gammopathy. I. Iso-electric focusing characteristics of the IgG, IgA and IgM anti-IgG and their heavy and light chains. (5/5283)

Human IgG, IgA and IgM anti-IgG autoantibodies have been isolated from the serum of an individual with Felty's syndrome. These were initially noted as soluble circulating serum complexes by analytical ultracentrifugation. Isolation was accomplished by solid phase immunoadsorption and each of the three antibody populations obtained was shown to be of restricted heterogeneity by liquid and polyacrylamide gel electrofocussing methods. Type kappa light chains were obtained from each protein. Co-isoelectric focusing experiments of all possible pairs of these light chains showed them to have identical net charge characteristics. Heavy chains obtained from each protein were also monoclonal and of differing isoelectric point. The availability of this serum provides a human model with which to study the changes which may occur in autoantibodies during the autoimmune response.  (+info)

Ialpha exon-replacement mice synthesize a spliced HPRT-C(alpha) transcript which may explain their ability to switch to IgA. Inhibition of switching to IgG in these mice. (6/5283)

Antibody class switching is regulated by transcription of unrearranged C(H) genes to produce germline (GL) transcripts which direct the choice of isotype and are required for switching. However, their role is unknown. GL transcripts are initiated at the I exons located upstream of each switch region. Although deletion of the I exon by gene targeting prevents switch recombination to that CH gene, the Ialpha exon can be replaced by an entirely different DNA segment, a minigene driven by the phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) promoter and encoding hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT), oriented in the sense direction, without reducing antibody class switching to IgA. To understand why HPRT substitution of the Ialpha exon does not disrupt switch recombination, we have analyzed the structure of the transcript from the targeted allele in these mice. We identify a spliced transcript in which the HPRT exons are spliced to the C(alpha) gene segments, resulting in a structure similar to normal GL transcripts. The abundance of this transcript is similar to that of the normal alpha GL RNA. We also demonstrate that switching to the four IgG subclasses in B cells from these mice is reduced in comparison to wild-type mice. We discuss the possibility that the strong PGK promoter inserted at the Ig alpha locus may interfere with interaction of the promoters for gamma GL transcripts with the 3' IgH enhancer.  (+info)

Immunoglobulin-specific radioimmunoprecipitation assays for quantitation of nasal secretory antibodies to hemagglutinin of type A influenza viruses. (7/5283)

Radioimmunoprecipitation (RIP) assays were developed to selectively quantitate class-specific antibodies to purified hemagglutinins (HA) of type A influenza virus in nasal secretions. Rabbit anti-human secretory piece of immunoglobulin A (IgA) and rabbit anti-human IgG were used as second antibodies. A third antibody, goat anti-rabbit IgG, was incorporated into the system to separate immune complexes formed between iodinated HA, nasal wash test specimen, and second antibody. The utilization of this reagent avoided the need for large quantities of IgA and IgG antibody-negative carrier secretions. Nasal was specimens obtained from 14 adults immunized with an inactivated type A influenza virus vaccine were evaluated by RIP and viral neutralization assays. Significant homologous postvaccination secretory IgA and IgG antibody levels were demonstrable in 13 (93%) of individuals by RIP, whereas only 5 (36%) exhibited rises by viral neutralization tests. Moreover, the geometric mean IgA and IgG antibody levels were at least 20- and 37-fold greater than the neutralizing antibody titer. The pattern of heterologous immunoglobulin-specific antibody responses tended to be similar to those observed with the homologous HA subunit.  (+info)

Exposed peptide core of IgA1 hinge region in IgA nephropathy. (8/5283)

BACKGROUND: The human IgA1 hinge region is a very unique O-linked glycopeptide, and its sialylation and galactosylation recently were reported to be defective in the serum IgA1 derived from patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN). This study was performed to examine the underglycosylation of the IgA1 hinge region and consequent exposure of the peptide core in IgAN. METHODS: A polyclonal antibody against a synthetic human IgA1 hinge peptide, PVPSTPPTP SPSTPPTPSPS, (anti-sHP ab) was raised in rabbits and shown specifically to recognize the IgA1 which was treated with neuraminidase, beta-galactosidase and alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase. The reactivity of the anti-sHP ab against the purified serum IgA1 was compared among the following three groups: 39 patients with IgAN, 30 patients with other renal diseases (ORD) and 21 healthy controls (HC) using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: The reactivity was significantly higher in the IgAN group (mean +/- SD of OD 490 nm: 0.327 +/- 0.059) than in the ORD group (0.274 +/- 0.043, P=0.0002) and in the HC group (0.265 +/- 0.037, P<0.0001). No significant difference was observed between the latter two groups. The frequency of positive cases (> mean +/- 2SD of HC) was 46.2% (18/39) in the IgAN group, 6.7% (2/30) in the ORD group and 0% (0/21) in the HC group. CONCLUSIONS: It was suggested that the peptide core of the IgA1 hinge region is exposed aberrantly by a defective N-acetylgalactosaminylation and plays a possible role in the pathogenesis of IgAN.  (+info)

TY - ABST. T1 - Batf3-dependent classical dendritic cells are required for mounting optimal rotavirus-specific IgA immune responses. AU - Nakawesi, Joy. AU - Hütter, Julia. AU - Lahl, Katharina. N1 - Conference code: 44. PY - 2017. Y1 - 2017. M3 - Conference abstract in journal. VL - 86. SP - 281. JO - Scandinavian Journal of Immunology. JF - Scandinavian Journal of Immunology. SN - 0300-9475. IS - 4. M1 - A-31356. T2 - 44th Annual Meeting of the Scandinavian Society of Immunology. Y2 - 17 October 2017 through 20 October 2017. ER - ...
Rabbit monoclonal antibody raised against native human IgA. Native purified IgA from human plasma. (MAB12813) - Products - Abnova
Elson, C O.; Heck, J A.; and Strober, W, T-cell regulation of murine iga synthesis. (1979). Subject Strain Bibliography 1979. 2305 ...
The intestine is the largest lymphoid tissue in the body. One striking feature of intestinal immunity is its ability to generate great amounts of noninflammatory immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies that serve as the first line of defense against microorganisms. The basic map of IgA production includes induction of mucosal B cells in the Peyers patches, circulation through the bloodstream and homing to intestinal mucosa of IgA-commited plasma cells, and local antibody production for export across the intestinal membranes. Multiple cytokines, including TGF-{beta}, IL-10, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-6, are required to promote IgA class switching and terminal differentiation process of the B cells. Secreted IgA promotes immune exclusion by entrapping dietary antigens and microorganisms in the mucus and functions for neutralization of toxins and pathogenic microbes ...
Virus-like particles (VLPs) provide a well-established vaccine platform; however, the immunogenic properties acquired by VLP structure remain poorly understood. In this study, we showed that systemic vaccination with norovirus VLP recalls human IgA responses at higher magnitudes than IgG responses under a humanized mouse model that was established by introducing human PBMCs in severely immunodeficient mice. The recall responses elicited by VLP vaccines depended on VLP structure and the disruption of VLP attenuated recall responses, with a more profound reduction being observed in IgA responses. The IgA-focusing property was also conserved in a murine norovirus-primed model under which murine IgA responses were recalled in a manner dependent on VLP structure. Importantly, the VLP-driven IgA response preferentially targeted virus-neutralizing epitopes located in the receptor-binding domain. Consequently, VLP-driven IgA responses were qualitatively superior to IgG responses in terms of the ...
The intestine is the largest lymphoid tissue in the body. One striking feature of intestinal immunity is its ability to generate great amounts of noninflammatory immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies that serve as the first line of defense against microorganisms. The basic map of IgA production includes induction of mucosal B cells in the Peyers patches, circulation through the bloodstream and homing to intestinal mucosa of IgA-commited plasma cells, and local antibody production for export across the intestinal membranes. Multiple cytokines, including TGF-{beta}, IL-10, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-6, are required to promote IgA class switching and terminal differentiation process of the B cells. Secreted IgA promotes immune exclusion by entrapping dietary antigens and microorganisms in the mucus and functions for neutralization of toxins and pathogenic microbes ...
The intestine is the largest lymphoid tissue in the body. One striking feature of intestinal immunity is its ability to generate great amounts of noninflammatory immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies that serve as the first line of defense against microorganisms. The basic map of IgA production includes induction of mucosal B cells in the Peyers patches, circulation through the bloodstream and homing to intestinal mucosa of IgA-commited plasma cells, and local antibody production for export across the intestinal membranes. Multiple cytokines, including TGF-{beta}, IL-10, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-6, are required to promote IgA class switching and terminal differentiation process of the B cells. Secreted IgA promotes immune exclusion by entrapping dietary antigens and microorganisms in the mucus and functions for neutralization of toxins and pathogenic microbes ...
|strong|Goat F(ab)2 anti Human IgA antibody|/strong| recognizes the heavy chain of human IgA and has been cross absorbed against human IgM, IgD and IgG. Goat F(ab)2 anti Human IgA antibody might cro…
Product is the lyophilized powder of human myeloma IgA (kappa) and buffer salts. Human IgA (kappa) is purified from human myeloma serum using multi-step procedures which may include salt fractionation, gel filtration, ion-exchange chromatography and immunoabsorption.
Immunoglobulin A (IgA) has a key part in defending mucosal surfaces against assault by infectious microorganisms. serum IgA, which is principally monomeric, and secretory forms of IgA are capable of neutralising and eliminating pathogens through a range of mechanisms, including triggering the IgA Fc receptor known as FcRI or CD89 on phagocytes. The effectiveness of these removal processes can be highlighted by the actual fact that different pathogens possess evolved systems to thwart such IgA-mediated clearance. As the structureCfunction human relationships governing the assorted capabilities of the immunoglobulin class enter into significantly clear concentrate, and methods to circumvent any natural limitations are created, IgA-based monoclonal antibodies are arranged LY2801653 dihydrochloride to emerge as powerful and fresh options in the therapeutic arena. and of the genital system, such as for example type 2 IgA1 protease, while for the sort 2 enzyme, different C3 residues expected to be ...
IgA subclass antibodies have been reported in a few studies in patients with CAC. IgA antibodies and IgA1 antibodies were increased in comparison with the
We have evaluated a novel B-cell FluoroSpot assay for the analysis of antibody responses in healthy individuals vaccinated intramuscularly with Influenza A (H1N1) antigen (Pandemrix®, GlaxoSmithKline). Using the FluoroSpot assay and an ELISpot assay run in parallel for comparison, we measured the frequency of cells secreting antigen-specific as well as total IgG or IgA antibodies seven days post vaccination. The assays were based on high affinity monoclonal antibodies for capture and detection of human IgG and IgA. Whereas conventional ELISpot analyzes IgG- and IgA-secreting B cells separately, fluorescent detection enabled simultaneous enumeration of B cells secreting IgG or IgA in the same well. The FluoroSpot protocol was also simpler as the assay could be performed without the need for an amplifying detection step. While having all the advantages of a conventional ELISpot assay, including high sensitivity, robustness and ease of performance, the FluoroSpot assay adds further value in reducing costs
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| The immune system is one of the hardest working systems in the body. It is constantly working in the background, searching the body for bacterias and any potentially harmful pathogens. The first attacker in the line of defense is secretory IGA (SIgA). SIgA is the predominant immunoglobulin that is produced in the lining of the gut. SIgA Hard At Work Considering that the majority of the immune system is housed in the gut, the intestinal mucosa has to be able to recognize pathogens and other foreign objects to effectively keep them out. As previously mentioned, the first one on the scene is SIgA. This immunoglobulin differs from the other immunoglobulins the body produces (IgE, IgG, and IgM) in the way that it does not target a specific invader.
A new study gives insight into the workings of the first vaccine ever reported to modestly prevent HIV infection in people. Most vaccines work by...
We are delighted to announce that one of our long-time clients, IGas Energy, moved to the cloud with Axis. They will now enjoy additional benefits, including database and application hosting, report server hosting, SQL server database administration, a back-up service, as well as upgrades and patches. ...
References for Abcams Anti-Human IgA antibody (FITC) (ab4219). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
The goal of this proposal is to elucidate the mechanisms by which the adjuvant GM-CSF enhances vaccine induced IgG and IgA responses against SIV. These studies...
So out of my 5 kids no one tested true positive as celiac. Here are the results all together: 10yo girl: Total IgA Ref Range 52-290 mg/dL ...
To test the hypothesis that IgA nephropathy can result from a mucosal immune response, mice were orally immunized with one of three protein antigens for 14 wk. Such mice exhibited an essentially pure mucosal antibody response characterized by specific IgA-producing plasma cells in exocrine sites and specific IgA antibodies in serum. Furthermore, 73% of immunized mice had IgA and 88% had immunogen deposited in the glomerular mesangium, and 64% of immunized mice examined ultrastructurally had electron-dense mesangial deposits. All three were present concurrently in 57% of the immunized mice. No differences in regard to IgG or IgM were observed between immunized and control mice for any of these parameters. Mucosal immunization therefore can result in a specific immune response that leads to mesangial deposition of immune complexes containing IgA antibody. In its fundamental features the experimental renal lesion resembles that seen in the human disease IgA nephropathy. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Experimental IgA nephropathy in bile duct ligated rats. AU - Melvin, Tyrone. AU - Burke, Barbara. AU - Michael, Alfred F.. AU - Kim, Youngki. N1 - Funding Information: The authors wish to thank Ms. Kathy Divine, Ms. Crystal Blocher, and Ms. Kim Pinkham for technical assistance, Mr. Marshall Hoff for the preparation of figures, and Ms. Mary Jo Jansen for typing the manuscript. This work was supported in part by grants from the NIH (AM007087) and the Viking Childrens Fund. Dr. Brian Underdown kindly provided rabbit anti-rat secretory component antibody.. PY - 1983/6. Y1 - 1983/6. N2 - Polymeric IgA and polymeric IgA-containing immune complexes are transported from blood to bile through hepatocyte-bound secretory component. In order to investigate interruption of this transport and its effect on the glomerulus, Sprague-Dawley rats underwent bile duct ligation. Renal tissue obtained at the time of sacrifice was stained by immunofluorescent techniques with antibodies to IgG, IgM, and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Primary IgA nephropathy in elderly patients. AU - Cheungpasitporn, Wisit. AU - Nasr, Samih H.. AU - Thongprayoon, Charat. AU - Mao, Michael A.. AU - Qian, Qi. PY - 2015/6/1. Y1 - 2015/6/1. N2 - Aim Data on clinicopathological features, treatment and outcomes of IgA nephropathy (IgAN) in elderly patients are limited. Methods Native kidney biopsies with a pathological diagnosis of IgAN (n = 1084) from Mayo Clinic Rochester in the years 1994-2013 were examined. After exclusion of the secondary IgAN, 45 elderly IgAN patients (age ≥65 years) were identified. One hundred sixty-two younger adults (age 18-64 years) with IgAN were randomly selected for comparison. Results Compared with younger adults, elderly patients showed a higher rate of chronic hypertension (62.2 vs 27.2%), higher pulse pressures (65 ± 17 vs 51 ± 15 mmHg), requiring greater number of antihypertensive medications (2.5 ± 1.2 vs 1.7 ± 0.7) and lower blood haemoglobin (11.1 ± 2.3 vs 12.7 ± 2.1 g/dL) at time of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Circulating CD89-IgA complex does not predict deterioration of kidney function in Korean patients with IgA nephropathy. AU - Jhee, Jong Hyun. AU - Kang, Hye Young. AU - Wu, Meiyan. AU - Nam, Bo Young. AU - Chang, Tae Ik. AU - Jung, Su Young. AU - Park, Seohyun. AU - Kim, Hyoungnae. AU - Yun, Hae Ryong. AU - Kee, Youn Kyung. AU - Yoon, Chang Yun. AU - Park, Jung Tak. AU - Yoo, Tae Hyun. AU - Kang, Shin Wook. AU - Han, Seung Hyeok. PY - 2017/11/27. Y1 - 2017/11/27. N2 - Soluble CD89 (sCD89)-IgA complex plays a key role in the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy (IgAN). However, there is a lack of evidence supporting this complex as a good biomarker for disease progression. This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of sCD89-IgA complex for risk stratification of IgAN. A total of 326 patients with biopsy-proven IgAN were included. sCD89-IgA complex was measured by sandwich-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The study endpoints were a 30% decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Immune components of the intestinal mucosae of ageing and protein deficient mice. AU - Lim, T. S.. AU - Messiha, N.. AU - Watson, R. R.. PY - 1981/1/1. Y1 - 1981/1/1. N2 - The studies were designed to investigate the effect of ageing and low protein (4%) diet on antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and IgA concentration in the intestine. Both ADCC activity and IgA concentration were shown to reach mature levels at 17 weeks old. The effect of ageing was greater on ADCC activity which showed a drastic drop in activity at 75 weeks old than IgA which had only a slight decline in concentration at this age. The low protein diet has a greater suppressive effect on IgA concentration than on ADCC activity. As the duration of feeding low protein to the young mice increased, greater decline in IgA concentration in the intestine was observed. There was, however, no significant difference from the normal mice in ADCC activity and IgA concentration of aged and adult mice given ...
Summary of Facts and Submissions. I. European patent 1 210 445, based on European patent application No. 00 958 787.4 and published as International patent application WO 01/19974, was granted with 16 claims. Claims 1 and 2 read as follows:. 1. A method of enhancing expression of a desired protein at mucosal effector sites, said method comprising placing the protein to be expressed under the control of a promoter having SEQ ID NO 2 or SEQ ID NO 3 or a fragment or variant having at least 60% homology or any of these which has promoter activity, and causing expression in mucosal cells.. 2. A construct comprising a promoter selected from the PphoP and PpagC or fragments or variants thereof which can act as promoters, operatively interconnected with a nucleic acid which encodes a protein, able to induce a protective immune response against an organism, in a mammal to which it is administered, wherein said construct contains no further elements of the phoP or pagC gene.. Claims 3 to 9 were ...
Calhoun, W.J.; Christman, J.W.; Ershler, W.B.; Graham, W.G.; Davis, G.S., 1986: Raised immunoglobulin concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of healthy granite workers
The effect of rat immunoglobulins and immune complexes on the locomotor function of rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) was investigated in vitro. Rat immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1), IgG2a, IgG2b, and IgA monoclonal antibodies specific for the dinitrophenyl hapten were used. Both monomeric and polymeric IgA showed chemotactic activity in a dose-dependent manner. IgG1 and IgG2b also induced a dose-dependent locomotor response of PMN, but the nature of the induced migration was chemokinetic (enhancing random migration). IgG2a was chemotactic and induced maximal migration at a relatively low concentration. IgG1- and IgG2b-immune complexes induced stronger migration than antibody alone; however, IgA- and IgG2a-immune complexes did not. IgA was shown to modify the chemotactic movement of PMN induced by N-formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP). In the presence of both IgA and FMLP in the lower chamber, the migration towards suboptimal concentrations of FMLP was enhanced. By contrast, IgA in the ...
Human colostrum contains many bioactive factors that must promote the development of intestinal mucosal immunity in infants. Especially, the presence of certain cytokines such as transforming growth factor (TGF)-β or IL-10 has been of great interest for IgA production as a function of mucosal immune response. In the present study, we attempted to investigate whether unidentified factors inducing generation of IgA-producing cells from naive B cells might exist in colostrum. For this purpose, colostrum samples were directly added to a culture consisting of naive B cells and dendritic cells from cord blood and CD40 ligand-transfected L cells, comparing with recombinant IL-10 (rIL-10) and/or rTGF-β. It was noted that most colostrum samples alone were able to induce IgA-secreting cells at higher levels than rIL-10 and/or rTGF-β. IgA-inducing activity of colostrum was abolished by neither anti-neutralizing mAbs against IL-10 nor TGF-β, though partially by anti-IL-6 mAb. We prepared partially ...
Secretory IgA (SIgA) antibodies directed against the O-antigen (O-Ag) component of lipopolysaccharide are the primary determinants of mucosal immunity to enteric bacterial pathogens, such as Shigella flexneri and Salmonella enteric serovar Typhimurium. In this report, we demonstrate that monoclonal IgA Abs against the O-Ag are effective inhibitors of the bacterial type 3 secretion systems (T3SS) required for bacterial entry into intestinal epithelial cells. While these Abs did not affect bacterial viability, they did transiently de-energize both S. flexneri and S. Typhimurium, possibly accounting for the paralysis that has been observed in the case of S. Typhimurium, following Ab treatment. O-Ag specific IgA Abs also elicited long lasting ultrastructural changes in the bacterial outer membranes, suggesting that S. flexneri and S. Typhimurium made undergo specific adaptations in response to SIgA. These findings may have implications for understanding immune surveillance in the gut. We have ...
NEFECON is an add-on treatment to other medications for nephropathy symptoms and kidney function, including ACEI and/or ARBs. Rigorous blood pressure control will be achieved over a 6-month Run-in Phase in which ACEI and/or ARB will be dosed to target a blood pressure of ,130/80 mm Hg and UPCR ,0.5 g/g. Patients who complete the Run-in Phase, and despite optimized ACEI and/or ARB therapy, have a UPCR ≥0.5 g/g OR urine protein ≥0.75 g/24hr will be eligible for randomization and entry into the treatment phase of the trial. Patients will remain on their ACEI and/or ARB dosing regimen for the duration of the trial.. Patients entering the treatment phase will be administered NEFECON (8 mg/day OR 16 mg/day) OR placebo for a phase of 9 months. A 3-month follow-up phase will follow on from the treatment phase, of which the first 2 weeks will be used to taper the dose of those patients that received 16 mg/day dosing to 8 mg/day, with the placebo and 8 mg/day groups receiving placebo to retain ...
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Our immune system produces a number of different immunoglobulin complexes to defense against infections, allergens, etc. Among these are IgA, IgG, IgM, and IgE. In case of IgA Nephropathy, something appears to go wrong with either the form of the IgA immune complex itself, or with their production and clearance within the body, or the both. As a result, the immune complex will deposit in the glomeruli and lead to damages to the renal functional cells and tissues ...
Diarrheal diseases represent a major health burden in developing countries. Parenteral immunization typically does not induce efficient protection against enteropathogens because it does not stimulate migration of immune cells to the gut. Retinoic acid (RA) is critical for gut immunity, inducing upregulation of gut-homing receptors on activated T cells. In this study, we have demonstrated that RA can redirect immune responses elicited by s.c. vaccination of mice from skin-draining inguinal LNs (ingLNs) to the gut. When present during priming, RA induced robust upregulation of gut-homing receptors in ingLNs, imprinting gut-homing capacity on T cells. Concurrently, RA triggered the generation of gut-tropic IgA+ plasma cells in ingLNs and raised the levels of antigen-specific IgA in the intestinal lumen and blood. RA applied s.c. in vivo induced autonomous RA production in ingLN DCs, further driving efficient induction of gut-homing molecules on effector cells. Importantly, RA-supplemented s.c. ...
Mosteller, L M.; Kiyono, H; Lentz, M R.; Eldrige, J H.; M, S; C; and Mcghee, J R., T cell clones from murine peyers patches. Abstr. (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 1977 ...
Researchers from the UCSD Superfund Research Center in an impressive collaborative study, have found that chronic liver inflammation can also promote cancer by suppressing immunosurveillance - a natural defense mechanism in which its thought the immune system suppresses cancer development.. The study, led by Drs. Michael Karin (Distinguished Professor of Pharmacology and Pathology) and Shabnam Shalapour (Assistant Professor of Pharmacology), have shown that chronic inflammation and fibrosis in humans and mice with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is accompanied by accumulation of liver-resident immunoglobulin-A-producing (IgA+) cells.. Dr. Michael Karin indciated that This study provides one of the strongest and most direct demonstrations that adaptive immunity actively prevents liver cancer.. The researchers found that NASH-associated mutations provoke the immune system, including cytotoxic T cells, to recognize and attack the newly emerging cancer cells. However, chronic liver inflammation ...
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) replicates in the liver, and is excreted from the body in feces. However, the mechanisms of HAV transport from hepatocytes to the gastrointestinal tract are poorly understood, mainly due to lack of suitable in vitro models. Here, we use a polarized hepatic cell line and in vivo models to demonstrate vectorial transport of HAV from hepatocytes into bile via the apical cell membrane. Although this transport is specific for HAV, the rate of fecal excretion in inefficient, accounting for less than 1% of input virus from the bloodstream per hour. However, we also found that the rate of HAV excretion was enhanced in the presence of HAV-specific IgA. Using mice lacking the polymeric IgA receptor (pIgR(-/-)), we show that a proportion of HAV:IgA complexes are transported via the pIgR demonstrating a role for specific antibody in pathogen excretion.
Data Availability StatementThe datasets used and/or analyzed during the current research are available through the corresponding writer on reasonable demand. the condition in Saham region where in fact the MAF study was conducted. Bloodstream examples were collected from farm animals and sera were screened in parallel for antibodies using different serological tests. Results Using the RBT test, phase 1 sera showed seropositivity in sheep at 2.6%, (95% CI: 0.5C13.5%), in camel (5.9%, 1.1C27.0%), but not in sera from goats and cattle (0%). Using I-ELISA, seropositivity in goat was 3.1% (0.6C15.8%), with no positive sheep and cattle. Using c-ELISA for camel we found a seropositivity of 5.9% (1.1C27.0%). Furthermore, CFT seropositivity in goats was 21.9% (CI: 11.3C38.9), cattle and sheep sera were negative and camel was 5.9% (1.1C27.0%). In phase 2, the seropositivity in goats was 1.9% (1.4C2.6%), sheep 4.5% (3.5C5.8%), cattle 1.1%, (0.5C2.3%) and camels 18.2% (5.1C47.7%), Phase 3 sera were ...
How to deal with the IgA Nephropathy relapse? What the lifespan of IgA Nephropathy patients? Start to find the information of IgA Nephropathy basics, symptoms, treatment, Diet﹠Fitness.
Background/aims: Although the serum IgA/C3 ratio is a good biomarker to predict the diagnosis, histological findings, and prognosis of IgA nephropathy (IgAN), the chronol..
Viral proteins are highly antigenic and referred to as potent stimulators of adaptive immune responses. useful tool for the investigation of mucosal immune responses or autoimmune diseases and extends the spectrum of antibodies with specific effector functions. by hybridoma technology occur in a polymeric or dimeric form analogue to produced IgA [4]. The obtained secretory IgA antibodies were used for experimental studies of mucosal surfaces and microfold (M) cells in order to investigate bacterial and viral intestine infections. Additional investigations showed that secretory IgAs appear to have got an increased functional stability and activity than IgG counterparts [5]. For their particular effector features, IgA antibodies are of high scientific interest because they are impressive in recruiting polymorphonuclear cells for antibody reliant mobile cytotoxicity (ADCC) [6] and in improving respiratory system burst and phagocytosis of individual leukocytes [7]. These data reveal that antibodies ...
The intestinal mucosa is constantly exposed to microbial and dietary antigens, all of which are considered to induce IgA-secreting plasma cells. Thus, the limited IgA repertoire diversity predicted in previous studies (Dunn-Walters et al., 1997, 2000; Holtmeier et al., 2000; Stoel et al., 2005; Yuvaraj et al., 2009) is difficult to reconcile with the broad range of intestinal antigens. In this study, we show that in fact each individual harbors a private polyclonal and highly diverse IgA repertoire. Because we analyzed switched Ig sequences, repertoire analyses performed in this study did not require sorting of plasma cells. Instead, RNA was isolated directly from intestinal tissue, and IgA-encoding transcripts were enriched during reverse transcription. This approach was equivalent to our results obtained when RNA was isolated out of sorted plasma cells. The IgA repertoire showed characteristics reminiscent of the T cell receptor repertoire of CD8+ memory cells (Naumov et al., 2003), i.e., the ...
IgA nephropathy refers to inflammation of the filtering units in kidneys due to IgA deposition in kidneys. The following are the frequently asked questions by the patients with IgA nephropathy.
Is IgA Nephropathy hereditary? Will it be passed down to the children. I am sure many adults with IgA Nephropathy concern about this topic, so here we will give an introduction about it. Is IgA Nephropathy hereditary? IgA Nephropathy is an
IgA has two subclasses - IgA1 and IgA2, the latter lacks a specific amino acid sequence comprising the hinge region. The absence of this region confers more resistance to bacterial degradation. The majority of IgA in humans (95%) is monomeric, produced by plasma cells and freely circulates in the bloodstream. The remainder is produced by mucosal lymphoid cells and secreted in a dimeric form. The half-life is usually 4-5 days, with IgA molecules undergoing rapid hepatic metabolism ...
Background Infection with group A Streptococcus (GAS) can cause severe systemic and locally invasive disease. Invasive group A streptococcal (iGAS) disease incidence varies both seasonally and year-to-year, and it may exhibit clustered outbreaks. We observed an upswing in iGAS cases at a tertiary care Childrens Hospital, prompting further characterization of local iGAS disease. Methods Cases of iGAS disease were abstracted from the medical record by manual chart review of all positive screening tests and cultures for GAS over a 4-year span. Incidence rates per 1000 hospital admissions and per 100 positive GAS tests were calculated and compared. Selected isolates were further characterized by whole-genome sequencing. Results Significant year-to-year differences in per-admission iGAS incidence rate were observed in February and June, although per-positive test incidence rates were not significantly different. Whole-genome sequencing revealed 2 dominant serotypes-emm3 and emm6-with high rates of ...
Pharmalink has stopped a Phase IIb trial of its primary IgA nephropathy treatment early after it met its primary endpoint in a planned interim analysis. The success makes Pharmalink a rare example of a private biotech with an unpartnered, Phase III-ready asset, characteristics that inevitably lead to talk of IPOs and deals.
Blog on IgA + IgG + IgM secondary antibody product: The IgA - IgG - IgM n/a (Catalog #MBS539207) is a Secondary Antibody produced from Goat and is intended f...
Enzyme immunoassay for the detection of IgA Rheumatoid Factor in human serum or plasma. SmartEIA kit is specifically designed for automated analysis using the Agility instrument.
An Examination of Procedure for Measuring Secretory IgA in Saliva and the Relationship Between Allergy and IgA Concentration in Students. (Kawasaki Medical Welfare Journal Vol.7,No.1,1997 Abstracts) (1998 ...
IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is well identified by dominant IgA glomerular deposits; however, this immunohistologic entity can be an asymptomatic chance finding or present with an extremely variable course. The variable clinical and histologic expressions are likely to be the result of genetic and environmental factors modulating common pathogenetic and progression mechanisms.
IgA nephropathy (Bergers Disease) is a condition in which a protein (immunoglobulin A) causes damage to the kidneys. The outcome is very variable.
IgA Nephropathy progresses slowly over time, and often presents no symptoms initially. Treatments relieve symptoms & complications without curing the
This assay is designed for the in-vitro measurement of specific IgA autoantibodies against tissue transglutaminase (tTG) present in human serum, as an...
EDITOR-Clinicians are natural bayesians when it comes to diagnosis.1 They have to be. The alternative approach might be to use the methods of classical hypothesis testing, but probably only once.. The Neyman-Pearson diagnosis of coeliac disease. (Assume that the sensitivity and specificity of transglutaminase IgA are both 95%.). Parent: Well doctor, have you got the result of the test yet?. Doctor: Yes I have. … ...
The City no longer operate immunisation clinics. To find out where your local immunisation clinics are now being held please visit the Department of Health website.
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Lower urinary-interleukin-1 receptor-antagonist excretion in IgA nephropathy than in Henoch-Schönlein nephritis.: Urinary IL-1ra levels in IgAN patients were lo
What is immunoglobulin? There are five types of immunoglobulin; IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD and IgE. Levels may be increased or decreased.
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Normaalsel huntingtiini geenil on suur mRNA, pikkusega 10-11 kb ning selle kodeeriv ala määrab 3144 aminohappe pikkuse polüpeptiidi moodustumise. Lisaks paikneb igas normaalses huntingtiini geenis 9-35 koopiat korduvat CAG trinukleotiidi. Mutatsioone põhjustav huntiingeen sisaldab aga 36-121 koopiat. Suure koopiaarvu tõttu moodustub pikk polüpeptiid, mille aminoterminuse (ehk NH2-terminuse) lähedal paikneb pikk korduv polüglutamiinne ala. Muteerunud geeni trinukleotiidsete (CAG) korduste arvu suurenemine (üle 36 CAG korduse geeni 1. eksonis, 36-39 korduse korral võib tõbi avalduda aga võib ka mitte avalduda): TAC-TTA-TAG-GAG-GTA-ATA-TAT-GCC-CCT-GGT-CAG-TAC-TTA-TAG-GAG-GTA-ATA-TAT-GCC-CCT-GGT-CAG-TTA-TAT-CAG-CAG-CAG-CAG-CAG-CAG-CAG-CAG-CAG-CAG-CAG-CAG-CAG-CAG-CAG-TAC-TTA-TAG-GAG-GTA-ATA-TAT-GCC-CCT-GGT-CAG-TAG-CGT-TAC-TTA-TAG-GAG-GTA-ATA-TAT-GCC-CCT-GGT-CAG-TAG-CGT-TAC-TTA-TAG-GAG-GTA-ATA-TAT-GCC-CCT-GGT-CAG-TAG-CGT.[15] ...
Sügavalt jooksev lant peaks olema kohustuslik igas landikastis. - ujuv - sisseehitatud pikkade heidete süsteem - madalasageduslik kõristi (helijälg) - võistlusklassi kolmikkonksud ning topelt-tugevad roostevabast terasest rõngad - suurepärane koha, a
0 - ,5 months: 7-37 mg/dL. 5 - ,9 months: 16-50 mg/dL. 9 - ,15 months: 27-66 mg/dL. 15 - ,24 months: 36-79 mg/dL. 2 - ,4 years: 27-246 mg/dL. 4 - ,7: 29-256 mg/dL. 7 - ,10 years: 34-274 mg/dL. 10 - ,13 years: 42-295 mg/dL. 13 - ,16 years: 52-319 mg/dL. 16 - ,18 years: 60-337 mg/dL. ≥ 18 years: 61-356 mg/dL. ...
抗马IgG+IgM+IgA HRP (ab8533)经ELISA, Dot实验严格验证。高灵敏度及特异性。其他HRP偶联二抗可供选择。品质保证,提供全方位技术支持,中国80%以上现货。
抗大鼠IgG+IgM+IgA (ab8519)经ELISA, Dot实验严格验证。未偶联形式。被多篇发表文献引用。其他多种未偶联二抗可供选择。品质保证,中国80%以上现货。
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... (Ig G) is a type of antibody. Representing approximately 75% of serum antibodies in humans, IgG is the most ... This repertoire of immunoglobulins is crucial for the newborns who are very sensitive to infections, especially within the ... Stadlmann J, Pabst M, Kolarich D, Kunert R, Altmann F (2008). "Analysis of immunoglobulin glycosylation by LC-ESI-MS of ... de Haan, Noortje; Falck, David; Wuhrer, Manfred (2019-07-08). "Monitoring of Immunoglobulin N- and O-glycosylation in Health ...
Immunodeficiency with hyper-immunoglobulin M Immunoglobulin M deficiency Immune system "Immunoglobulin M". The American ... Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is one of several isotypes of antibody (also known as immunoglobulin) that are produced by vertebrates. ... Immunoglobulin+M at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Immunoglobulin M Deficiency Reference ... Mestecky, J.; Zikin, J.; Butler, W. T. (1971). "Immunoglobulin M an secretory immunoglobulin A: presence of common polypeptide ...
... human normal immunoglobulin), and Flebogamma DIF (human normal immunoglobulin). In the EU human normal immunoglobulin (SCIg) ( ... Some believe that immunoglobulin therapy may work via a multi-step model where the injected immunoglobulin first forms a type ... Immunoglobulin therapy is the use of a mixture of antibodies (normal human immunoglobulin or NHIG) to treat several health ... Human normal immunoglobulin (human immunoglobulin G) (Cutaquig) was approved for medical use in Australia in May 2021. Brands ...
Specifically, anti-immunoglobulin antibodies bind to immunoglobulins that are created by B cells. Anti-immunoglobulin ... The anti-immunoglobulin antibodies are created through recombinant DNA technology. All anti-immunoglobulin antibodies are man- ... Kappa light chains are the second of the two classes of light chains present on mammalian immunoglobulins. One immunoglobulin ... The most practical use for anti-immunoglobulin antibodies is in diagnostic tests. Assays use anti-immunoglobulin antibodies to ...
... (Ig A, also referred to as sIgA in its secretory form) is an antibody that plays a role in the immune function ... Immunoglobulin+A at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Herich, R. (2017). "Is the role of IgA ... The IgA dimeric form is the most prevalent and is also called secretory IgA (sIgA). sIgA is the main immunoglobulin found in ... This represents up to 15% of total immunoglobulins produced throughout the body. IgA has two subclasses (IgA1 and IgA2) and can ...
... (IgD) is an antibody isotype that makes up about 1% of proteins in the plasma membranes of immature B- ... Immunoglobulin+D at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) (CS1 maint: uses authors parameter, All ... Rogentine GN, Rowe DS, Bradley J, Waldmann TA, Fahey JL (1966). "Metabolism of human immunoglobulin D (IgD)". J. Clin. Invest. ... Nitschke L, Kosco MH, Köhler G, Lamers MC (1993). "Immunoglobulin D-deficient mice can mount normal immune responses to thymus- ...
The immunoglobulin domain, also known as the immunoglobulin fold, is a type of protein domain that consists of a 2-layer ... SCOP listing of immunoglobulin domains of known structure This article incorporates text from the public domain Pfam and ... Immunoglobulin-like domains may be involved in protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions. Human genes encoding proteins ... Members of the immunoglobulin superfamily are found in hundreds of proteins of different functions. Examples include antibodies ...
... is expensive and hard to come by in the developing world. In the United States it is estimated to be more ... Rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) is a medication made up of antibodies against the rabies virus. It is used to prevent rabies ... The use of rabies immunoglobulin in the form of blood serum dates from 1891. Use became common within medicine in the 1950s. It ... Rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) is indicated for the passive, transient post-exposure prophylaxis of rabies infection, when given ...
... (IgE) is a type of antibody (or immunoglobulin (Ig) "isotype") that has been found only in mammals. IgE is ... November 2013). "A beneficial role for immunoglobulin E in host defense against honeybee venom". Immunity. 39 (5): 963-75. doi: ... Presence of a unique immunoglobulin as a carrier of reaginic activity". Journal of Immunology. 97 (1): 75-85. PMID 4162440. ... Winter WE, Hardt NS, Fuhrman S (September 2000). "Immunoglobulin E: importance in parasitic infections and hypersensitivity ...
The immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) is a large protein superfamily of cell surface and soluble proteins that are involved in ... Proteins of the IgSF possess a structural domain known as an immunoglobulin (Ig) domain. Ig domains are named after the ... Otherwise, the sperm-specific protein IZUMO1, a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, has also been identified as the only ... Harpaz Y, Chothia C (May 1994). "Many of the immunoglobulin superfamily domains in cell adhesion molecules and surface ...
In chickens, immunoglobulin Y is the functional equivalent to Immunoglobulin G (IgG). Like IgG, it is composed of two light and ... Immunoglobulin Y (abbreviated as IgY) is a type of immunoglobulin which is the major antibody in bird, reptile, and lungfish ... Thus, in preparations from chicken eggs, there is no contamination with Immunoglobulin A (IgA) or Immunoglobulin M (IgM). The ... after they were able to show differences between the immunoglobulins found in chicken eggs, and immunoglobulin G. Other ...
... (BiP) also known as 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP-78) or heat shock 70 kDa protein 5 ( ... GRP78 (HSPA5), also referred to as 'immunoglobulin heavy chain-binding protein' (BiP), is a member of the heat-shock protein-70 ... Corrigall VM, Vittecoq O, Panayi GS (October 2009). "Binding immunoglobulin protein-treated peripheral blood monocyte-derived ...
Naïve mature B cells produce both IgM and IgD, which are the first two heavy chain segments in the immunoglobulin locus. After ... Immunoglobulin+class+switching at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) (Articles with short ... Immunoglobulin class switching, also known as isotype switching, isotypic commutation or class-switch recombination (CSR), is a ... Laffleur B, Bardet SM, Garot A, Brousse M, Baylet A, Cogné M (2014). "Immunoglobulin genes undergo legitimate repair in human B ...
The immunoglobulin is categorized as immunoglobulin G (IgG). Since the tetanus toxin permanently binds to human tissues, only ... Anti-tetanus immunoglobulin, also known as tetanus immune globulin (TIG) and tetanus antitoxin, is a medication made up of ... unbounded molecules can be neutralized by the immunoglobulin. Use of the horse version became common in the 1910s, while the ...
The immunoglobulin light chain is the small polypeptide subunit of an antibody (immunoglobulin). A typical antibody is composed ... The immunoglobulin light chain genes in tetrapods can be classified into three distinct groups: kappa (κ), lambda (λ), and ... Immunoglobulin+Light+Chains at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Educational Resource for ... There are two types of light chain in humans: kappa (κ) chain, encoded by the immunoglobulin kappa locus ([email protected]) on chromosome 2 ...
pIgR has a strong specificity to polymeric immunoglobulins and is not responsive to monomeric immunoglobulin. The ligand's J- ... "Entrez Gene: PIGR polymeric immunoglobulin receptor". Kaetzel CS (August 2005). "The polymeric immunoglobulin receptor: ... Polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) is a transmembrane protein that in humans is encoded by the PIGR gene. It is an Fc ... Polymeric+Immunoglobulin+Receptor at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Portal: Biology This ...
The immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) is the large polypeptide subunit of an antibody (immunoglobulin). In human genome, the IgH ... There are five types of mammalian immunoglobulin heavy chain: γ, δ, α, μ and ε. They define classes of immunoglobulins: IgG, ... Each heavy chain has two regions: a constant region (which is the same for all immunoglobulins of the same class but differs ... a variable region that differs between different B cells, but is the same for all immunoglobulins produced by the same B cell ...
... , or sometimes Immunoglobulin binding protein is a generic name for any protein that binds ... Immunoglobulin-binding protein 1 (IGBP1), a protein that binds B-cells in the blood. Protein A, a 42 kDa protein originally ... It, therefore, can mean: Binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP, or heat shock 70 kDa protein 5, with an official symbol HSPA5), a ...
V-set domains are found in diverse protein families, including immunoglobulin light and heavy chains; in several T-cell ... "Phosphocholine binding immunoglobulin Fab McPC603. An X-ray diffraction study at 2.7 A". J. Mol. Biol. 190 (4): 593-604. doi: ... Immunoglobulin V-set, subgroup InterPro: IPR003596 T-cell surface antigen CD2 InterPro: IPR013285 ACAM; ACAN; ADAMTSL1; AGC1; ...
The underlying cause of MIDD is the production of monoclonal immunoglobulins. Monoclonal immunoglobulins are produced in ... The immunoglobulin heavy chain in HCDD is frequently a truncated heavy chain. HCDD is the rarest subtype of MIDD. Serum protein ... Monoclonal immunoglobulins are produced by monoclonal plasma cells, which are found in a variety of plasma cell dyscrasias. The ... Monoclonal Immunoglobulin Deposition Disorder, or MIDD, is a disease characterised by the deposition of monoclonal ...
MAdCAM-1 belongs to a subclass of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF), the members of which are ligands for integrins. The ... In molecular biology, the adhesin molecule (immunoglobulin-like) is a protein domain. This domain is found in mucosal vascular ... "The structure of immunoglobulin superfamily domains 1 and 2 of MAdCAM-1 reveals novel features important for integrin ... crystal structure of this domain has been reported; it adopts an immunoglobulin-like beta-sandwich structure, with seven ...
Selective immunoglobulin A (IgA) deficiency (SIgAD) is a genetic immunodeficiency, a type of hypogammaglobulinemia. People with ... They rarely present with severe reactions, including anaphylaxis, to blood transfusions or intravenous immunoglobulin due to ... There is an inherited inability to produce immunoglobulin A (IgA), a part of the body's defenses against infection at the ... There is a historical popularity in using intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) to treat SIgAD, but the consensus is that there is ...
I-set domains are found in several cell adhesion molecules, including vascular (VCAM), intercellular (ICAM), neural (NCAM) and mucosal addressin (MADCAM) cell adhesion molecules, as well as junction adhesion molecules (JAM). I-set domains are also present in several other diverse protein families, including several tyrosine-protein kinase receptors, the hemolymph protein hemolin, the muscle proteins titin, telokin, and twitchin, the neuronal adhesion molecule axonin-1, and the signalling molecule semaphorin 4D that is involved in axonal guidance, immune function and angiogenesis. ADAMTSL1, ADAMTSL3, ALPK3, AXL, BOC, C9orf94, CADM2, CADM4, CCDC141, CDON, CEACAM7, CHL1, CILP2, CNTN1, CNTN2, CNTN3, CNTN4, CNTN5, CNTN6, CXADR, DCC, DSCAM, DSCAML1, ESAM, FGFR1, FGFR3, FGFR4, FGFRL1, FLT1, FLT4, FSTL4, FSTL5, HMCN1, HNT, HSPG2, ICAM5, IGFBP7, IGFBPL1, IGSF10, IGSF22, IGSF9, ISLR, KALRN, KAZALD1, KDR, KIAA0626, KIRREL, KIRREL2, KIRREL3, L1CAM, LINGO1, LINGO2, LRFN2, LRFN3, LRFN4, LRFN5, LRIG1, LRIG2, ...
The leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptors (LILR) are a family of receptors possessing extracellular immunoglobulin domains. ... LAIR1 Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor David E. Sloane; Nicodemus Tedla; Muyiwa Awoniyi; Donald W. MacGlashan Jr.; Luis ... v t e v t e v t e (Protein pages needing a picture, Immunoglobulin superfamily, All stub articles, Biochemistry stubs, Receptor ... Borges; K. Frank Austen; Jonathan P. Arm (November 2004). "Leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptors: novel innate receptors for ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IGSF3 gene. The protein encoded by this gene ... "Entrez Gene: Immunoglobulin superfamily member 3". Retrieved 2018-10-06. v t e This article incorporates text from the United ... is an immunoglobulin-like membrane protein containing several V-type Ig-like domains. A mutation in this gene has been ...
C1-set domains are found almost exclusively in molecules involved in the immune system, such as in immunoglobulin light and ...
CD2 CD4 VCAM1 Smith DK, Xue H (1997). "Sequence profiles of immunoglobulin and immunoglobulin-like domains". J. Mol. Biol. 274 ... Immunoglobulin-like domains that are related in both sequence and structure can be found in several diverse protein families. ... CD4 is the primary receptor for HIV-1. CD4 has four immunoglobulin-like domains in its extracellular region that share the same ... The basic structure of immunoglobulin (Ig) molecules is a tetramer of two light chains and two heavy chains linked by ...
... (TIM) proteins are a family of cell surface immunomodulatory proteins. TIM1 Kane ...
Members of the IgSF family include the human killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) and the Immunoglobulin-like ... includes immunoglobulin-like transcripts (ILT, also known as leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptors (LIRs)), leukocyte- ... Human killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors recognize the α1 and α2 domains of class I human leukocyte antigens (HLA-A, -B ... Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs), are a family of type I transmembrane glycoproteins expressed on the plasma ...
... is a immunoglobulin gene with symbol IGHA1. It encodes a constant (C) segment of ... Immunoglobulin A is an antibody that plays a critical role in immune function in the mucous membranes. IgA shows the same ... "Entrez Gene: IGHA1 immunoglobulin heavy constant alpha 1". Kratzin, H.; Altevogt, P.; Ruban, E.; Kortt, A.; Staroscik, K.; ... "IGHA1 immunoglobulin heavy constant alpha 1 [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI". Retrieved 2016-10-16 ...
Immunoglobulin G (Ig G) is a type of antibody. Representing approximately 75% of serum antibodies in humans, IgG is the most ... This repertoire of immunoglobulins is crucial for the newborns who are very sensitive to infections, especially within the ... Stadlmann J, Pabst M, Kolarich D, Kunert R, Altmann F (2008). "Analysis of immunoglobulin glycosylation by LC-ESI-MS of ... de Haan, Noortje; Falck, David; Wuhrer, Manfred (2019-07-08). "Monitoring of Immunoglobulin N- and O-glycosylation in Health ...
Total immunoglobulin A deficiency (IgAD) is defined as an undetectable serum immunoglobulin A (IgA) level at a value < 5 mg/dL ... Selective immunoglobulin A deficiency (SIgAD) is a primary immunodeficiency disease and is the most common of the primary ... 1] Total immunoglobulin A deficiency (IgAD) is defined as an undetectable serum immunoglobulin A (IgA) level at a value , 5 mg/ ... encoded search term (Immunoglobulin A Deficiency) and Immunoglobulin A Deficiency What to Read Next on Medscape ...
The specificity of immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M in the fluorescent antibody test for malaria parasites in mice / by F ... Evaluation of commercially available anti-dengue virus immunoglobulin M tests  Pediatric Dengue Vaccine Initiative; UNICEF/ ... Reversed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of specific anti-Plasmodium falciparum immunoglobulin M antibodies / M ...
IgG stands for immunoglobulin G. It is a type of antibody. Antibodies are proteins that your immune system makes to fight germs ... URL of this page: CSF Immunoglobulin G (IgG) Index. ... Other names: cerebrospinal fluid IgG level, cerebrospinal fluid IgG measurement, CSF IgG level, IgG (Immunoglobulin G) spinal ... Immunoglobulin G Index; [cited 2022 May 24]; [about 4 screens]. Available from: ...
... immunoglobulin G (IgG), immunoglobulin A (IgA), immunoglobulin M (IgM), immunoglobulin D (IgD), and immunoglobulin E (IgE). The ... Serum immunoglobulin and immunoglobulin G subclasses in children with allergic colitis. West Afr J Med. 1998 Jul-Sep. 17(3):206 ... Immunoglobulin G deficiency. Changes in serum immunoglobulin G concentrations during infancy and childhood. View Media Gallery ... encoded search term (Immunoglobulin G Deficiency) and Immunoglobulin G Deficiency What to Read Next on Medscape ...
... and switching from intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) to subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIG) can minimize these adverse effects. ... and switching from intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) to subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIG) can minimize these adverse effects. ... Although a large number of clinical trials have demonstrated that immunoglobulin is effective and well tolerated, various ... Although a large number of clinical trials have demonstrated that immunoglobulin is effective and well tolerated, various ...
E-mail your company news at:. news (at) Letters to the Editor: editor (at) Local Marketing contact:. (+99532) 2252 275 , 76 EXT: 1 (+995 558) 03 03 03 (mobile) marketing (at) Requests from abroad:. (+99532) 2252 275 , 76 EXT: 7 (+995599) 96 52 52 Email: zviadi (@) Contact video editor: E-mail: video (at) Postal address: 17 Mtskheta str. Tbilisi, Georgia 0179 The FINANCIAL ...
Antibodies (also called immunoglobulins) are proteins the immune system makes to recognize and get rid of germs. ... An IgA test measures the blood level of immunoglobulin A, one of the most common types of antibodies in the body. ...
immunoglobulin lambda constant 7provided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:5861 See related. Ensembl:ENSG00000211685 IMGT/GENE ... Structure and expression of the human immunoglobulin lambda genes. Vasicek TJ, et al. J Exp Med, 1990 Aug 1. PMID 2115572, Free ... part_of immunoglobulin complex, circulating IBA Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor. more info ... Recognition of immunoglobulins by Fcgamma receptors. Radaev S, et al. Mol Immunol, 2002 May. PMID 11955599 ...
High-throughput sequencing analysis of hypermutating immunoglobulin (IG) repertoires remains a challenging task. Here we ... This protocol enables high-throughput sequencing analysis of the full-length immunoglobulin repertoires in human and mouse ... High-quality full-length immunoglobulin profiling with unique molecular barcoding. *M A Turchaninova1,2,3 na1, ... Onset of immune senescence defined by unbiased pyrosequencing of human immunoglobulin mRNA repertoires. PLoS One 7, e49774 ( ...
FIGURE 1. Number of specimens (N = 568) testing positive for West Nile virus immunoglobulin M antibodies, using one lot from a ... FIGURE 2. Number of persons (N = 518) testing positive for West Nile virus immunoglobulin M antibodies using one lot from a ... Alternative Text: The figure above shows the 568 specimens testing positive for West Nile virus immunoglobulin M antibodies, ... False-Positive Results with a Commercially Available West Nile Virus Immunoglobulin M Assay --- United States, 2008. In ...
The specificity of immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M in the fluorescent antibody test for malaria parasites in mice / by F ... Evaluation of commercially available anti-dengue virus immunoglobulin M tests  Pediatric Dengue Vaccine Initiative; UNICEF/ ... Reversed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of specific anti-Plasmodium falciparum immunoglobulin M antibodies / M ...
On this page about Hepatitis B Immunoglobulin-VF (CSL) you will find information relating to side effects, age restrictions, ... Other medicines containing the same active ingredients: hepatitis b virus immunoglobulin *Can I take Hepatitis B Immunoglobulin ... Brand name: Hepatitis B Immunoglobulin-VF (CSL) TM. Active ingredients: hepatitis b virus immunoglobulin ... Hepatitis B Immunoglobulin-VF is indicated for post-exposure prophylaxis in persons who did not receive prior vaccination, or ...
KEY FINDINGS The global immunoglobulin market is anticipated to rise with a CAGR of 6.87% across the forecast years of 2022 to ... subsequently increasing the need for immunoglobulin products for their treatment.. REGIONAL INSIGHTS. The global immunoglobulin ... The global immunoglobulin market is anticipated to rise with a CAGR of 6.87% across the forecast years of 2022 to 2030. The ... Immunoglobulins are characterized as antibodies that are produced naturally by the bodys immune system.They primarily help ...
The role of complement in immunoglobulin G-triggered inflammation was studied in mice genetically deficient in complement ... Immunoglobulin G-mediated inflammatory responses develop normally in complement-deficient mice J Exp Med. 1996 Dec 1;184(6): ... The role of complement in immunoglobulin G-triggered inflammation was studied in mice genetically deficient in complement ...
... Classification & external resources The dimeric IgA ... Selective immunoglobulin A (IgA) deficiency is a relatively mild genetic immunodeficiency. People with this deficiency lack ... It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Selective_immunoglobulin_A_deficiency". A list of authors is available in ... There is an inherited inability to produce immunoglobulin A (IgA), a part of the bodys defenses against infection at the ...
US-10287315-B2 chemical patent summary.
Immunoglobulin (IgE). Many people have allergy-induced asthma, which means that their asthma symptoms are triggered by allergic ... These people have high levels of an allergy-causing antibody (a type of immune protein in the body) called immunoglobulin E ( ...
Mouse IgG and IgA, with reactivity to dinitrophenol conjugated to carrier protein, have been isolated from myeloma proteins by means of a variety of affinity techniques. The IgA was predominantly in the dimeric form. The in vitro and in vivo biological activities of IgA-containing immune complexes were assessed in the rat. IgA-containing immune complexes were demonstrated, in a dose-dependent manner in vitro, to activate neutrophils and to generate O.-2. In addition, these immune complexes showed evidence of complement activation in vitro, by the use of immunofixation techniques. When IgA was instilled into the airways of rats and antigen was injected intravenously, acute lung injury occurred, as reflected by increases in lung permeability and morphological changes consisting of blebbing of endothelial cells, intra-alveolar hemorrhage, and fibrin deposition. The lung changes were directly proportional to the amount of IgA instilled into the airways and failed to occur if intravenous injection of ...
As a result of this decision, all stock of Octagam intravenous immunoglobulin solutions in Australia will be recalled ... Adequate supplies of alternative intravenous immunoglobulin solution products are available for clinical use in Australia, and ... Doctors should cease using Octagam intravenous immunoglobulin solutions immediately, and switch their patients to the most ... an intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) preparation, manufactured by Octapharma in Europe. This product is supplied in Australia ...
PeproTech the producer of high quality recombinant cytokines and growth factors supports life science research, cellular therapy and regenerative medicine.
J:5763 Warner NL, et al., Allotypes of mouse IgM immunoglobulin. Nature. 1977 Feb 3;265(5593):447-9 ...
The largest anibodies and the first to respomd to infections. ...
Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is the main effector of the mucosal immune system and provides an important first line of defense ... Mucosal immunoglobulins. Immunol Rev. 64-82. Review.. 2. Woof JM. & Kerr MA., 2007. The function of immunoglobulin A in ... Immunoglobulin A (IgA). Secretory IgA and the mucosal immune system. The mucosal surfaces represent the largest area of ... Immunoglobulin A (IgA), in its secretory form, is the main effector of the mucosal immune system and provides an important ...
Intravenous Immunoglobulins (IVIGs). Intravenous Immunoglobulins (IVIGs) may be used to control SLE with organ involvement or ... See Patient Information Sheet on Intravenous Immunoglobulins (IVIGs). Source: National Institutes of Health, U.S.Dept of Health ... Copyright © 1995-2021 Photius Coutsoukis (All ...
News related to Gammaplex (Human Immunoglobulin G) and/or conditions it is approved for. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) ...
Immunoglobulins. gamma-Globulins. Immunoglobulins, Intravenous. Rho(D) Immune Globulin. Immunologic Factors. Physiological ... Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIG) for Treatment of Unexplained Secondary Recurrent Miscarriage. The safety and scientific ... This clinical study will evaluate the effectiveness of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in improving the live birth rate in ... Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIG) for Treatment of Unexplained Secondary Recurrent Miscarriage: A Prospective, Randomized, ...
According to the European Medicines Agency guideline on environmental risk assessments for pharmaceuticals (EMA/CHMP/SWP/4447/00), vitamins, electrolytes, amino acids, peptides, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids proteins, vaccines and herbal medicinal products are exempted because they are unlikely to result in significant risk to the environment. ...
More info for Fold b.1: Immunoglobulin-like beta-sandwich. Timeline for Fold b.1: Immunoglobulin-like beta-sandwich: *Fold b.1 ... Fold b.1: Immunoglobulin-like beta-sandwich appears in SCOPe 2.03. *Fold b.1: Immunoglobulin-like beta-sandwich appears in the ... Immunoglobulin-like beta-sandwich first appeared (with stable ids) in SCOP 1.55. *Fold b.1: Immunoglobulin-like beta-sandwich ... Fold b.1: Immunoglobulin-like beta-sandwich [48725] (28 superfamilies). sandwich; 7 strands in 2 sheets; greek-key. some ...
  • Performing an early assessment of risk factors, infusing at a slow rate, premedicating, and switching from intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) to subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIG) can minimize these adverse effects. (
  • Hence, many scholars began to explore intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) preparations. (
  • The TGA has become aware of reports of a markedly increased incidence of serious adverse reactions associated with Octagam, an intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) preparation, manufactured by Octapharma in Europe. (
  • This clinical study will evaluate the effectiveness of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in improving the live birth rate in couples who suffer from secondary recurrent miscarriage. (
  • Increasing awareness of IRT options for patients with PIDs, which is given as intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) or subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIg), and the pros and cons of IVIg versus SCIg. (
  • This survey is aimed specifically at adults with PI who currently receive either Subcutaneous (SCIG) or Intravenous (IVIG) immunoglobulin replacement. (
  • Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) use in non-approved indications, the increase in consumption and its high cost recommend rationalisation in its utilisation. (
  • Placebo-controlled treatment trials with high dose intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) have shown disease amelioration in some but not all patients. (
  • 1 Based on its clinical and immunological similarities with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), early treatment with high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) along with anticoagulation was recommended by the Expert Haematology Panel in March 2021 2 and supported by the National Institute for Health Care Excellence. (
  • Concentrated human immunoglobulin (IVIG) has been administered intravenously in the treatment of autoimmune disorders and to reduce anti-HLA antibodies in highly sensitized patients awaiting organ transplantation. (
  • What is intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg)? (
  • Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIg) Market Estimated to Record. (
  • Noteworthy growth in the incidences of neurological disorders and autoimmune diseases across the globe is projected to help in the expansion of the global intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) market , according to a new study published by TMR. (
  • This factor is likely to work as one of the key driver for the growth of the intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) market. (
  • The players operating in the intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) market are projected to gather prodigious avenues from the home care end-user segment. (
  • This growth of the market for of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is attributable to many factors including shifting patients' preference for improved care at home, largely in many developed countries. (
  • This scenario is creating prominent demand opportunities for home care end-user segment of the intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) market. (
  • Major enterprises in the intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) market are increasing their investments in the research and development activities. (
  • Europe, North America, Latin America, Middle East & Africa, and Asia Pacific are some of the important regions for the global intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) market. (
  • The Asia Pacific intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) market is likely to experience sizable expansion opportunities in the forthcoming years. (
  • The segmentation of the global intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) market is performed on the basis of various key aspects such as end-user, indication, and region. (
  • Based on end-user, the market for intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is classified into hospital, homecare, and clinic. (
  • In terms of indication, the intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) market is divided into idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), primary humoral immunodeficiency, myasthenia gravis, guillain-barre syndrome, Kawasaki disease, multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN), chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and hypogammaglobulinemia. (
  • IgA-deficient patients with immunoglobulin E (IgE)-class anti-IgA antibodies are at risk for anaphylaxis if they receive blood or intravenous immunoglobulin, but this situation is extremely rare. (
  • An IgA test measures the blood level of immunoglobulin A, one of the most common types of antibodies in the body. (
  • Antibodies (also called immunoglobulins) are proteins the immune system makes to recognize and get rid of germs . (
  • Immunoglobulins are characterized as antibodies that are produced naturally by the body's immune system.They primarily help fight diseases and infections. (
  • In the absence of normal IgA, the body can develop an immune response against IgA itself (anti-IgA antibodies), which can lead to severe reactions including anaphylaxis to blood transfusions or intravenous immunoglobulin . (
  • Pooled antibodies are made from immunoglobulins processed from donated blood from thousands of individuals, containing all of the various types of antibodies that neutralize the unwanted effects of ACPAs. (
  • In this study, the presence of immunoglobulins on the surface of lesion-derived amastigotes was detected by Western blotting using three different peroxidase conjugated anti-heavy chain antibodies and peroxidase conjugated anti-mouse IgG antibody. (
  • Methods Immunohistochemical staining with conformation-specific and sequence-specific antibodies was used to localize different amyloid species of light chain immunoglobulins in a case of PCNA. (
  • Hyperimmune immunoglobulin to SARS-CoV-2 (hIVIG) is obtained from the plasma of patients who recover from COVID-19 and develop neutralizing antibodies. (
  • 1 Anti-coronavirus immunoglobulin is derived from COVID-19 convalescent plasma ( but contains more SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies than found in convalescent plasma as the antibodies are highly purified and concentrated. (
  • The immunoglobulin elicits neutralizing antibodies and has a half-life of 21 days. (
  • Immunoglobulins are also called antibodies. (
  • Immunoglobulin G (Ig G) is a type of antibody. (
  • Selective immunoglobulin A deficiency (SIgAD) is a primary immunodeficiency disease and is the most common of the primary antibody deficiencies. (
  • IgG stands for immunoglobulin G. It is a type of antibody. (
  • Immunoglobulins, which are protein molecules that contain antibody activity, are produced by the terminal cells of B-cell differentiation known as plasma cells. (
  • People with this deficiency lack immunoglobulin A (IgA), a type of antibody that protects against infections of the mucous membranes lining the mouth, airways, and digestive tract. (
  • These people have high levels of an allergy-causing antibody (a type of immune protein in the body) called immunoglobulin E (IgE). (
  • An immunoglobulin E (IgE) test measures the level of IgE, a type of antibody. (
  • Suspected PIDDs should be evaluated in a stepwise fashion, with initial, nonspecific testing that includes measurement of total serum immunoglobulin and evaluation of antibody titers. (
  • A. Gardulf, (2007) Immunoglobulin treatment for primary antibody deficiencies: Advantages of the subcutaneous route. (
  • B. Hogy, H. O. Keinecke, M. Borte, (2005) Pharma-coeconomic evaluation of immunoglobulin treatment in patients with antibody deficiencies from the perspective of the German statutory health insurance. (
  • Phase I study of every 2- or 3-week dosing of ramucirumab, a human immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibody targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 in patients with advanced solid tumors. (
  • BACKGROUND: Ramucirumab is a fully human immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibody receptor antagonist designed to block the ligand-binding site of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2). (
  • Adaptive immune responses require rearrangement of the genes responsible for the specific recognition structures, ie, immunoglobulins for humoral immunity and T-cell receptors for cellular immunity. (
  • Structure and expression of the human immunoglobulin lambda genes. (
  • The study of such processes has been compromised by difficulties in reliably aligning immunoglobulin genes and in the partitioning of nucleotides between segment ends, and between N and P nucleotides. (
  • Mutations at A/T bases within immunoglobulin genes have been shown to be generated by a repair pathway involving the DNA-binding moiety of the mismatch repair complex constituted by the MSH2-MSH6 proteins, together with DNA polymerase η (pol η). (
  • wounds for doing us about the epub immunoglobulin genes. (
  • In epub immunoglobulin genes, after the Civil War, the physical button of J. Horace Lacy, the software of both the Chatham and Ellwood characters, contributed download first, because of the knowledge of his states and length of his materials. (
  • Patients self-administering subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIg) are advised to record their treatment details. (
  • Although albuminuria is most widely studied, higher molecular weight proteins such as immunoglobulins (Ig) are more associated with progression of renal disease. (
  • Immunoglobulin therapies are unique biologics and replace missing or functionally impaired proteins in individuals born with a range of genetic and often life-threatening diseases. (
  • Immunoglobulins are proteins produced by the immune system ( the body's defence system). (
  • One of the important properties of lesion-derived amastigote is thought to be the attachment of various host proteins including immunoglobulins on the surface of amastigote. (
  • Immunoglobulin response to Plasmodium falciparum RESA proteins in uncomplicated and severe malaria. (
  • This finding suggests that immunoglobulin amyloids can act as seeds capable of inducing the aggregation of heterogeneous proteins in the skin. (
  • 2008) Subcutaneous versus intravenous immunoglobulin for primary immu-nodeficiencies: Systematic review and economic evalua-tion. (
  • Recognition of immunoglobulins by Fcgamma receptors. (
  • The receptors studied include the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR), the neonatal receptor (FcRn), the Fcα/μR, the classical IgG receptors (FcγR1, γIIa, γIIb, γIII and the related FcR γ-chain) and the classical IgA receptor (FcαR). (
  • In humans, CD94/NKG2A receptor and the variable killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) recognizing HLA I molecules on target cells are common inhibitory receptors. (
  • IgG deficiencies may occur as isolated deficiencies (eg, selective IgG deficiency) or in association with deficiencies of other immunoglobulin types. (
  • For information on deficiencies of other immunoglobulin types, see the Medscape Reference articles IgA Deficiency , IgD Deficiency , and IgM Deficiency . (
  • Selective immunoglobulin A (IgA) deficiency is a relatively mild genetic immunodeficiency . (
  • It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Selective_immunoglobulin_A_deficiency" . (
  • AusPIPS is an organisation that advocates and supports people who have Primary Immune Deficiency and it has developed an immunoglobulin brochure for patients. (
  • Hong R, Gupta S. Selective immunoglobulin M deficiency in an adult with Streptococcus pneumoniae sepsis and invasive aspergillosis. (
  • Belgemen T, Suskan E, Dogu F, Ikinciogullari A. Selective Immunoglobulin M Deficiency Presenting with Recurrent Impetigo: A Case Report and Review of the Literature. (
  • Antar M, Lamarche J, Peguero A, Reiss A, Cole S. A case of selective immunoglobulin M deficiency and autoimmune glomerulonephritis. (
  • Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis in a patient with selective immunoglobulin M deficiency. (
  • Individuals with such an unusual profile should receive only low IgA intravenous immunoglobulin preparations. (
  • Although thromboembolic events are a known rare adverse event associated with the administration of all intravenous immunoglobulin preparations, as described in the prescribing information for these products, there has recently been a steady accumulation of such events reported following administration of Octagam in Europe and the USA, with a marked increase in incidence noted during the last few months of 2010. (
  • The results showed that the surface of amastigote has covered with different amount of immunoglobulins such as IgG, IgM, and IgA detected by pixel analysis software. (
  • This test measures the amount of immunoglobulins in your blood. (
  • The global immunoglobulin market is anticipated to rise with a CAGR of 6.87% across the forecast years of 2022 to 2030. (
  • Patients who receive immunoglobulin therapy are often treated with immunoglobulin in repeated infusions over a long period of time, and the incidence of adverse effects related to immunoglobulin varies across a wide range. (
  • Doctors should cease using Octagam intravenous immunoglobulin solutions immediately, and switch their patients to the most appropriate alternative treatment. (
  • Patients and health care providers should report any adverse events that have occurred following administration of Octagam intravenous immunoglobulin solution to the TGA via the Adverse Medicine Events Line (1300 134 237), online via ' Report a problem with a medicine ', or using the 'Blue Card' Prepaid Reporting Form . (
  • Data on the number of patients, immunoglobulin market shares and drug unit costs were derived from the IMS Health hospital disease database and from Belgian sources. (
  • Assisting GPs, paediatricians and other medical specialists to recognise the early signs of PID and refer patients to a clinical immunologist to confirm diagnosis and initiate treatment, including immunoglobulin replacement therapy (IRT) if required. (
  • Intravenous Immunoglobulin Therapy in Patients With Painful Idiopathic Small Fiber Neuropathy," by Geerts et al. (
  • No defined blood test or tumour markers are currently available to diagnose this entity except serum immunoglobulin G4 which is costly and not feasible to get done in all patients especially in developing nations like India. (
  • A number of resources are available to help health professionals and patients understand and manage immunoglobulin (Ig) treatment arrangements. (
  • The following resources are designed to support patients and their carers through every stage of their immunoglobulin treatment journey. (
  • The brochure explains the use of immunoglobulin replacement therapy and provides tips for new and existing patients receiving treatment. (
  • Immunoglobulin product is available in Australia at no direct cost to eligible patients under the national blood arrangements, managed by the NBA. (
  • Serum immunoglobulins were were estimated in schizophrenic patients and were age and sex matched with 40 healthy individuals, comprising the control group. (
  • Kamada is developing anti coronavirus polyclonal immunoglobulin treatment for severely ill COVID- 19 patients. (
  • Immunoglobulins have important roles in humoral immunity, and they consist of 5 major classes or isotypes: immunoglobulin G (IgG), immunoglobulin A (IgA), immunoglobulin M (IgM), immunoglobulin D (IgD), and immunoglobulin E (IgE). (
  • You can now search immunoglobulin (Ig) nucleotide sequences against the Constant region (C) gene database (Figure 1) to determine the Ig isotypes including subtypes (IgM, IgG, IgA1, etc. (
  • Predicted to enable antigen binding activity and immunoglobulin receptor binding activity. (
  • We've released a new version (1.16.0) of IgBLAST , the popular NCBI package for classifying and analyzing immunoglobulin (IG) and T cell receptor (TCR) variable domain sequences. (
  • Previous characterization of mouse immunoglobulin κ gene rearrangement products cloned from murine plasmacytomas has indicated that two recombination events can take place on a single κ allele (R. M. Feddersen and B. G. Van Ness, Proc. (
  • Feddersen, RM & Van Ness, BG 1990, ' Corrective recombination of mouse immunoglobulin kappa alleles in Abelson murine leukemia virus-transformed pre-B cells ', Molecular and cellular biology , vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 569-576. (
  • After eliminating conditions that may increase susceptibility to infection (eg, adenoid hypertrophy, cystic fibrosis , immunosuppression), an initial workup may include CBC, quantitative serum immunoglobulins, IgG vaccine titers, and complement testing. (
  • B cells and serum immunoglobulins were not detected in BCR KO animals. (
  • These adverse effects are associated with specific immunoglobulin preparations and individual differences. (
  • Background: Severe asthma in horses, known as severe equine asthma (SEA), is a prevalent, performance‐limiting disease associated with increased allergen‐specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) against a range of environmental aeroallergens. (
  • In 1952, Bruton ( 12 ) was the first to use immunoglobulin to treat a patient identified as immunodeficient, and it later became a standard therapy for immunodeficiency diseases. (
  • Share Your Experiences with Immunoglobulin Replacement Therapy. (
  • Immediate therapy, provided prior to the administration of vaccine and immunoglobulin, consists of the thorough cleaning of all bite and scratch wounds with soap and water, 2% benzalkonium chloride, and/or a virucidal agent (ie, povidone-iodine solution). (
  • Intramuscular immunoglobulin preparations were not widely applied because of their poor tolerance. (
  • Biomeda's immunoglobulin (IgG) preparations are used for affinity columns, blocking agents, and normal controls in a variety of immuno assays. (
  • Acute lung injury in rat caused by immunoglobulin A immune complexes. (
  • This study was aimed at defining molecular species of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in immune complexes with immunoglobulin M (IgM). (
  • In light chain (LC) diseases, monoclonal immunoglobulin LCs are abundantly produced with the consequence in some cases to form deposits of a fibrillar or amorphous nature affecting various organs, such as heart and kidney. (
  • Dependent on the type of the underlying B-cell disorder, they may reflect a monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance (MGUS), a smoldering or full blown multiple myeloma (MM) with exclusive (Bence Jones MM) or substantial light chain secretion in addition to the complete immunoglobulin. (
  • This document is a source for ASCIA IRT e-training for health professionals which is available at This e-training course was developed as part of the National Prescribing Service (NPS) MedicineWise ViP Immunoglobulin project. (
  • Fortunately, rabies can be prevented by administering vaccine and immunoglobulin after an exposure occurs. (
  • Contacts who were not immune were given the MMR vaccine or, if not vaccine-eligible, immunoglobulin. (
  • The DNA-binding protein CTCF limits proximal Vκ recombination and restricts κ enhancer interactions to the immunoglobulin κ light chain locus. (
  • Human immunoglobulin G subclasses. (
  • 11 ) successfully developed a process for the large-scale production of human immunoglobulin. (
  • 2007. Non-Human Transgenic Mammal for the Constant Region of the Class a Human Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain and Applications Thereof. (
  • Methods: NMO lesions were produced in mice by intracerebral injection of immunoglobulin G (IgG) isolated from NMO patient serum and human complement. (
  • Additionally, in vitro characterization of immunoglobulin oligomers and fibrils was performed to determine, through toxicity studies in a human keratinocyte cell line, which amyloidogenic form of the immunoglobulin is toxic in PCNA. (
  • Furthermore, cytotoxicity studies demonstrated that immunoglobulin oligomers, but not monomers or fibrils, are toxic to human keratinocytes. (
  • Description - Tenders are invited for the supply of a drug for medical use of human immunoglobulin against tick -borne encephalitis Global Tenders is not only confined to tenders but we also upload crucial information, from future prospects to past market records. (
  • Passive immunization with human rabies immunoglobulin (HRIG, HyperRab S/D, KedRab, Imogam Rabies-HT) provides immediate protection. (
  • Oligomers were mainly formed by lambda light chain immunoglobulins, and kappa light chain oligomers were detected in lesser amounts. (
  • B-cell immunity is mediated by the immunoglobulins and is commonly referred to as humoral immunity. (
  • Secretory IgA (SIgA) represents the most abundant immunoglobulin of body secretions such as saliva, tears, colostrum and gastrointestinal secretions. (
  • Secretory IgA, a major immunoglobulin in most bovine external secretions. (
  • The present study set out to investigate the dynamic changes in salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) and cortisol before and after acute stress, and to analyse the relationship between sIgA and cortisol trend. (
  • Process that minimizes or prevents immunoglobulin-associated adverse reactions. (
  • 2002. Multiple functions of immunoglobulin A in mucosal defense against viruses: an in vitro measles virus model. (
  • Applications involving immunoglobulin have expanded to include treatment for immunodeficiency diseases, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), Kawasaki disease, and neurologic disorders (including Guillain-Barre syndrome, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, myasthenia gravis, multiple myositis, multiple sclerosis, and autoimmune encephalitis) ( 2 - 8 ). (
  • Hence, the growth in the elderly is set to augment the prevalence of age-related diseases, subsequently increasing the need for immunoglobulin products for their treatment. (
  • The aim of this study is to compute the budget impact of adopting Kiovig, a new ready-to-use 10% liquid immunoglobulin preparation, as a treatment for primary immunodeficiency from the perspective of the Belgian health care payer. (
  • The aim of this treatment is to replace immunoglobulin to maintain normal Immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels, with the dose used individualised for each patient. (
  • Treatment of inclusion body myositis: is low-dose intravenous immunoglobulin the solution? (
  • I, like many other with ME, were given immunoglobulin injections as an experimental treatment for our disease. (
  • Immunoglobulin oligomers may prove to be targets for the treatment of PCNA. (
  • BACKGROUND: Immunoglobulin rearrangement involves random and imprecise processes that act to both create and constrain diversity. (
  • Immunoglobulin has been widely used in a variety of diseases, including primary and secondary immunodeficiency diseases, neuromuscular diseases, and Kawasaki disease. (
  • They include biomarker-immunoglobulin M (IgM) complexes, which have been found in several neoplastic diseases, such as colorectal, liver, and prostate cancer [ 1 - 3 ]. (
  • MF provided and validated data on immunoglobulin use in VITT. (
  • In September 2008, CDC, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and state health departments began a nationwide investigation into an increase in false-positive test results obtained with a commercially available West Nile virus (WNV) immunoglobulin M (IgM) capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). (
  • Eastern Equine Encephalitis Treated With Intravenous Immunoglobulins. (
  • The role of complement in immunoglobulin G-triggered inflammation was studied in mice genetically deficient in complement components C3 and C4. (
  • The amyloid deposits are found in the dermis and subcutis, and they contain clonal immunoglobulin light chains, produced by a local proliferation of plasma cells. (
  • Postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) consists of wound cleaning, vaccination, and administration of rabies immunoglobulin. (
  • Immunoglobulin A (IgA), in its secretory form, is the main effector of the mucosal immune system and provides an important first line of defense against most pathogens that invade the body at a mucosal surface [1] . (
  • The best line of defense against invading pathogens in the newborn dairy calf is the immunoglobulins from colostrum that are absorbed in the small intestine. (
  • The most abundant class of immunoglobulins in the blood is IgG (73%), which has a molecular weight of 150 kd. (
  • We have a new manuscript out in Experimental Eye Research, Natural Immunoglobulin M-based Delivery of a Complement Alternative Pathway Inhibitor in Mouse Models of Retinal Degeneration . (
  • Although a large number of clinical trials have demonstrated that immunoglobulin is effective and well tolerated, various adverse effects have been reported. (
  • Recent media reports have described access issues regarding immunoglobulin (Ig) therapies relied on by people living with primary immunodeficiencies. (
  • The analysis compared the "world with Kiovig" to the "world without Kiovig" and calculated how a change in the mix of immunoglobulins used to treat primary immunodeficiency would impact drug spending during 2010-2014. (
  • After being informed about possible infection of the donor, the transplant physicians administered immunoglobulin to the recipient intravenously. (