Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Immunoelectrophoresis, Two-Dimensional: Immunoelectrophoresis in which a second electrophoretic transport is performed on the initially separated antigen fragments into an antibody-containing medium in a direction perpendicular to the first electrophoresis.Counterimmunoelectrophoresis: Immunoelectrophoresis in which immunoprecipitation occurs when antigen at the cathode is caused to migrate in an electric field through a suitable medium of diffusion against a stream of antibody migrating from the anode as a result of endosmotic flow.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Immunoglobulin Light Chains: Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains: The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.Immunoglobulin kappa-Chains: One of the types of light chains of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.Blood Protein Electrophoresis: Electrophoresis applied to BLOOD PROTEINS.Immunoglobulins, Intravenous: Immunoglobulin preparations used in intravenous infusion, containing primarily IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. They are used to treat a variety of diseases associated with decreased or abnormal immunoglobulin levels including pediatric AIDS; primary HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA; SCID; CYTOMEGALOVIRUS infections in transplant recipients, LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC; Kawasaki syndrome, infection in neonates, and IDIOPATHIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Genes, Immunoglobulin: Genes encoding the different subunits of the IMMUNOGLOBULINS, for example the IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN GENES and the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES. The heavy and light immunoglobulin genes are present as gene segments in the germline cells. The completed genes are created when the segments are shuffled and assembled (B-LYMPHOCYTE GENE REARRANGEMENT) during B-LYMPHOCYTE maturation. The gene segments of the human light and heavy chain germline genes are symbolized V (variable), J (joining) and C (constant). The heavy chain germline genes have an additional segment D (diversity).Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Precipitins: Antibodies which elicit IMMUNOPRECIPITATION when combined with antigen.Immunoglobulin lambda-Chains: One of the types of light chain subunits of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.Coccidioidin: A sterile solution containing the by-products of growth products of COCCIDIOIDES IMMITIS, injected intracutaneously as a test for COCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Immunoglobulin A, Secretory: The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).Immunoglobulin Variable Region: That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Myeloma Proteins: Abnormal immunoglobulins characteristic of MULTIPLE MYELOMA.Immunoglobulin mu-Chains: The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN M. They have a molecular weight of approximately 72 kDa and they contain about 57 amino acid residues arranged in five domains and have more oligosaccharide branches and a higher carbohydrate content than the heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.gamma-Globulins: Serum globulins that migrate to the gamma region (most positively charged) upon ELECTROPHORESIS. At one time, gamma-globulins came to be used as a synonym for immunoglobulins since most immunoglobulins are gamma globulins and conversely most gamma globulins are immunoglobulins. But since some immunoglobulins exhibit an alpha or beta electrophoretic mobility, that usage is in decline.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Immunochemistry: Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Immunoglobulin Isotypes: The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.Macroglobulins: Serum globulins with high molecular weight. (Dorland, 28th ed)Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Pregnadienes: Pregnane derivatives containing two double bonds anywhere within the ring structures.Immunoglobulin D: An immunoglobulin which accounts for less than 1% of plasma immunoglobulin. It is found on the membrane of many circulating B LYMPHOCYTES.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Paraproteinemias: A group of related diseases characterized by an unbalanced or disproportionate proliferation of immunoglobulin-producing cells, usually from a single clone. These cells frequently secrete a structurally homogeneous immunoglobulin (M-component) and/or an abnormal immunoglobulin.Immunoglobulin Constant Regions: The domains of the immunoglobulin molecules that are invariable in their amino acid sequence within any class or subclass of immunoglobulin. They confer biological as well as structural functions to immunoglobulins. One each on both the light chains and the heavy chains comprises the C-terminus half of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN FAB FRAGMENT and two or three of them make up the rest of the heavy chains (all of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN FC FRAGMENT)Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments: Crystallizable fragments composed of the carboxy-terminal halves of both IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fc fragments contain the carboxy-terminal parts of the heavy chain constant regions that are responsible for the effector functions of an immunoglobulin (COMPLEMENT fixation, binding to the cell membrane via FC RECEPTORS, and placental transport). This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Electrophoresis, Agar Gel: Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.Chemical Precipitation: The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Isoelectric Focusing: Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Immunosorbent Techniques: Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Electrophoresis, Cellulose Acetate: Electrophoresis in which cellulose acetate is the diffusion medium.Coccidioides: A mitosporic fungal genus which causes COCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Hypergammaglobulinemia: An excess of GAMMA-GLOBULINS in the serum due to chronic infections or PARAPROTEINEMIAS.Immunoglobulin Class Switching: Gene rearrangement of the B-lymphocyte which results in a substitution in the type of heavy-chain constant region that is expressed. This allows the effector response to change while the antigen binding specificity (variable region) remains the same. The majority of class switching occurs by a DNA recombination event but it also can take place at the level of RNA processing.Paraproteins: Abnormal immunoglobulins synthesized by atypical cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM. Paraproteins containing only light chains lead to Bence Jones paraproteinemia, while the presence of only atypical heavy chains leads to heavy chain disease. Most of the paraproteins show themselves as an M-component (monoclonal gammopathy) in electrophoresis. Diclonal and polyclonal paraproteins are much less frequently encountered.Immunologic Techniques: Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.Bence Jones Protein: An abnormal protein with unusual thermosolubility characteristics that is found in the urine of patients with MULTIPLE MYELOMA.Electrophoresis: An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.Immunoglobulin gamma-Chains: Heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G having a molecular weight of approximately 51 kDa. They contain about 450 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component covalently bound to the Fc fragment constant region. The gamma heavy chain subclasses (for example, gamma 1, gamma 2a, and gamma 2b) of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G isotype subclasses (IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B) resemble each other more closely than the heavy chains of the other IMMUNOGLOBULIN ISOTYPES.Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments: Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Immunoglobulin J-Chains: A 15 kD "joining" peptide that forms one of the linkages between monomers of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A or IMMUNOGLOBULIN M in the formation of polymeric immunoglobulins. There is one J chain per one IgA dimer or one IgM pentamer. It is also involved in binding the polymeric immunoglobulins to POLYMERIC IMMUNOGLOBULIN RECEPTOR which is necessary for their transcytosis to the lumen. It is distinguished from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN JOINING REGION which is part of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of the immunoglobulin light and heavy chains.Beta-Globulins: Serum proteins with an electrophoretic mobility that falls between ALPHA-GLOBULINS and GAMMA-GLOBULINS.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Ultracentrifugation: Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Immunoglobulin Fragments: Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Immunoglobulin Allotypes: Allelic variants of the immunoglobulin light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) or heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) encoded by ALLELES of IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES.Trichloroacetic Acid: A strong acid used as a protein precipitant in clinical chemistry and also as a caustic for removing warts.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Complement C3: A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.Receptors, Polymeric Immunoglobulin: Specialized Fc receptors (RECEPTORS, FC) for polymeric immunoglobulins, which mediate transcytosis of polymeric IMMUNOGLOBULIN A and IMMUNOGLOBULIN M into external secretions. They are found on the surfaces of epithelial cells and hepatocytes. After binding to IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, the receptor-ligand complex undergoes endocytosis, transport by vesicle, and secretion into the lumen by exocytosis. Before release, the part of the receptor (SECRETORY COMPONENT) that is bound to IMMUNOGLOBULIN A is proteolytically cleaved from its transmembrane tail. (From Rosen et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Electrophoresis, Disc: Electrophoresis in which discontinuities in both the voltage and pH gradients are introduced by using buffers of different composition and pH in the different parts of the gel column. The term 'disc' was originally used as an abbreviation for 'discontinuous' referring to the buffers employed, and does not have anything to do with the shape of the separated zones.Serum Globulins: All blood proteins except albumin ( = SERUM ALBUMIN, which is not a globulin) and FIBRINOGEN (which is not in the serum). The serum globulins are subdivided into ALPHA-GLOBULINS; BETA-GLOBULINS; and GAMMA-GLOBULINS on the basis of their electrophoretic mobilities. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Danazol: A synthetic steroid with antigonadotropic and anti-estrogenic activities that acts as an anterior pituitary suppressant by inhibiting the pituitary output of gonadotropins. It possesses some androgenic properties. Danazol has been used in the treatment of endometriosis and some benign breast disorders.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Immunoglobulin Joining Region: A segment of the immunoglobulin heavy chains, encoded by the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES in the J segment where, during the maturation of B-LYMPHOCYTES; the gene segment for the variable region upstream is joined to a constant region gene segment downstream. The exact position of joining of the two gene segments is variable and contributes to ANTIBODY DIVERSITY. It is distinguished from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN J CHAINS; a separate polypeptide that serves as a linkage piece in polymeric IGA or IGM.Rickettsia typhi: The etiologic agent of murine typhus (see TYPHUS, ENDEMIC FLEA-BORNE).SepharoseImmunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Acholeplasma laidlawii: An organism originally isolated from sewage, manure, humus, and soil, but recently found as a parasite in mammals and birds.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Hypoprothrombinemias: Absence or reduced levels of PROTHROMBIN in the blood.Isoelectric Point: The pH in solutions of proteins and related compounds at which the dipolar ions are at a maximum.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Dysentery, Amebic: DYSENTERY caused by intestinal amebic infection, chiefly with ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA. This condition may be associated with amebic infection of the LIVER and other distant sites.Serum Albumin: A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.Actinomyces: A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are nonmotile. Filaments that may be present in certain species are either straight or wavy and may have swollen or clubbed heads.Complement C4: A glycoprotein that is important in the activation of CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. C4 is cleaved by the activated COMPLEMENT C1S into COMPLEMENT C4A and COMPLEMENT C4B.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Meningitis: Inflammation of the coverings of the brain and/or spinal cord, which consist of the PIA MATER; ARACHNOID; and DURA MATER. Infections (viral, bacterial, and fungal) are the most common causes of this condition, but subarachnoid hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGES, SUBARACHNOID), chemical irritation (chemical MENINGITIS), granulomatous conditions, neoplastic conditions (CARCINOMATOUS MENINGITIS), and other inflammatory conditions may produce this syndrome. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch24, p6)Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Blood Coagulation Tests: Laboratory tests for evaluating the individual's clotting mechanism.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Multiple Myeloma: A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Genes, Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain: Genes and gene segments encoding the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS. Gene segments of the heavy chain genes are symbolized V (variable), D (diversity), J (joining), and C (constant).Somatic Hypermutation, Immunoglobulin: A programmed mutation process whereby changes are introduced to the nucleotide sequence of immunoglobulin gene DNA during development.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Agglutination: The clumping together of suspended material resulting from the action of AGGLUTININS.Plasmacytoma: Any discrete, presumably solitary, mass of neoplastic PLASMA CELLS either in BONE MARROW or various extramedullary sites.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Stanozolol: A synthetic steroid that has anabolic and androgenic properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1194)Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Antithrombin III Deficiency: An absence or reduced level of Antithrombin III leading to an increased risk for thrombosis.Detergents: Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.Immunoglobulin delta-Chains: The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN D. They have a molecular weight of approximately 64 kDa and they contain about 500 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component covalently bound to the Fc fragment constant region.Immunoglobulin Switch Region: A site located in the INTRONS at the 5' end of each constant region segment of a immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene where recombination (or rearrangement) occur during IMMUNOGLOBULIN CLASS SWITCHING. Ig switch regions are found on genes encoding all five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN ISOTYPES) of IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS.Chromatography, DEAE-Cellulose: A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)alpha 1-Antitrypsin: Plasma glycoprotein member of the serpin superfamily which inhibits TRYPSIN; NEUTROPHIL ELASTASE; and other PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES.Immunoglobulin alpha-Chains: The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN A. They have a molecular weight of approximately 58 kDa and contain about 470 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component bound covalently to their Fc fragment constant region.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Immunoglobulin Idiotypes: Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.alpha-Macroglobulins: Glycoproteins with a molecular weight of approximately 620,000 to 680,000. Precipitation by electrophoresis is in the alpha region. They include alpha 1-macroglobulins and alpha 2-macroglobulins. These proteins exhibit trypsin-, chymotrypsin-, thrombin-, and plasmin-binding activity and function as hormonal transporters.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 18.104.22.168.Goats: Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Transferrin: An iron-binding beta1-globulin that is synthesized in the LIVER and secreted into the blood. It plays a central role in the transport of IRON throughout the circulation. A variety of transferrin isoforms exist in humans, including some that are considered markers for specific disease states.Peptide Hydrolases: Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.Rhamnose: A methylpentose whose L- isomer is found naturally in many plant glycosides and some gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Secretory Component: The extracellular moiety of the POLYMERIC IMMUNOGLOBULIN RECEPTOR found alone or complexed with IGA or IGM, in a variety of external secretions (tears, bile, colostrum.) Secretory component is derived by proteolytic cleavage of the receptor during transcytosis. When immunoglobulins IgA and IgM are bound to the receptor, during their transcytosis secretory component becomes covalently attached to them generating SECRETORY IMMUNOGLOBULIN A or secretory IMMUNOGLOBULIN M.Alpha-Globulins: Serum proteins that have the most rapid migration during ELECTROPHORESIS. This subgroup of globulins is divided into faster and slower alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-globulins.Latex Fixation Tests: Passive agglutination tests in which antigen is adsorbed onto latex particles which then clump in the presence of antibody specific for the adsorbed antigen. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Agammaglobulinemia: An immunologic deficiency state characterized by an extremely low level of generally all classes of gamma-globulin in the blood.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Blood Platelet Disorders: Disorders caused by abnormalities in platelet count or function.Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins: Surface glycoproteins on platelets which have a key role in hemostasis and thrombosis such as platelet adhesion and aggregation. Many of these are receptors.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Complement Activation: The sequential activation of serum COMPLEMENT PROTEINS to create the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Factors initiating complement activation include ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES, microbial ANTIGENS, or cell surface POLYSACCHARIDES.Antithrombin III: A plasma alpha 2 glycoprotein that accounts for the major antithrombin activity of normal plasma and also inhibits several other enzymes. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Hemagglutination: The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).Immunoglobulin Gm Allotypes: Allelic variants of the gamma-immunoglobulin heavy chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN GAMMA-CHAINS) encoded by ALLELES of IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Colostrum: The thin, yellow, serous fluid secreted by the mammary glands during pregnancy and immediately postpartum before lactation begins. It consists of immunologically active substances, white blood cells, water, protein, fat, and carbohydrates.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Receptors, Fc: Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Streptococcus mutans: A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.Fibrinogen: Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Concanavalin A: A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.Mice, Inbred BALB CLectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.Blood Coagulation Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, that are involved in the blood coagulation process.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Agar: A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.Gene Rearrangement, B-Lymphocyte, Heavy Chain: Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the first stage of differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.Gene Rearrangement, B-Lymphocyte: Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions coding for the IMMUNOGLOBULIN CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.von Willebrand Factor: A high-molecular-weight plasma protein, produced by endothelial cells and megakaryocytes, that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. The von Willebrand factor has receptors for collagen, platelets, and ristocetin activity as well as the immunologically distinct antigenic determinants. It functions in adhesion of platelets to collagen and hemostatic plug formation. The prolonged bleeding time in VON WILLEBRAND DISEASES is due to the deficiency of this factor.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Staphylococcal Protein A: A protein present in the cell wall of most Staphylococcus aureus strains. The protein selectively binds to the Fc region of human normal and myeloma-derived IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. It elicits antibody activity and may cause hypersensitivity reactions due to histamine release; has also been used as cell surface antigen marker and in the clinical assessment of B lymphocyte function.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate: An anionic surfactant, usually a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates, mainly the lauryl; lowers surface tension of aqueous solutions; used as fat emulsifier, wetting agent, detergent in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and toothpastes; also as research tool in protein biochemistry.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Factor VIII: Blood-coagulation factor VIII. Antihemophilic factor that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. Factor VIII is produced in the liver and acts in the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. It serves as a cofactor in factor X activation and this action is markedly enhanced by small amounts of thrombin.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.von Willebrand Diseases: Group of hemorrhagic disorders in which the VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR is either quantitatively or qualitatively abnormal. They are usually inherited as an autosomal dominant trait though rare kindreds are autosomal recessive. Symptoms vary depending on severity and disease type but may include prolonged bleeding time, deficiency of factor VIII, and impaired platelet adhesion.Teichoic Acids: Bacterial polysaccharides that are rich in phosphodiester linkages. They are the major components of the cell walls and membranes of many bacteria.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Haplorhini: A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Plasma Cells: Specialized forms of antibody-producing B-LYMPHOCYTES. They synthesize and secrete immunoglobulin. They are found only in lymphoid organs and at sites of immune responses and normally do not circulate in the blood or lymph. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989, p169 & Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p20)Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Mycobacterium: A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. Most species are free-living in soil and water, but the major habitat for some is the diseased tissue of warm-blooded hosts.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Genes, Immunoglobulin Light Chain: Genes and gene segments encoding the IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS. Gene segments of the light chain genes are designated as V (variable), J (joining), and C (constant).Immunoglobulin epsilon-Chains: The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN E. They have a molecular weight of approximately 72 kDa and they contain about 550 amino acid residues arranged in five domains and about three times more carbohydrate than the heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; and IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.
All variants of immunoelectrophoresis require immunoglobulins, also known as antibodies, reacting with the proteins to be ... Crossed immunoelectrophoresis is also called two-dimensional quantitative immunoelectrophoresis ad modum Clarke and Freeman or ... Rocket immunoelectrophoresis is one-dimensional quantitative immunoelectrophoresis. The method has been used for quantitation ... First they are rather work intensive and require some manual expertise. Second they require rather large amounts of polyclonal ...
... requires electrophoresis to migrate serum proteins in replicate. Then, specific anti-immunoglobulin antisera are ... Immunofixation as immunoelectrophoresis, takes place in two steps: The first step is identical for both techniques. It consists ... Once the immunoglobulins are separated, we can move to the next step. The second step is based on the technique used. ... Immunofixation permits the detection and typing of monoclonal antibodies or immunoglobulins in serum or urine. It is of great ...
... immunoglobulin components or immunoglobulins with structures that do not fit into any classifications in the cryoglobulins of ~ ... Complications commonly requiring this intervention include: hyperviscosity disease with severe symptoms of neurological (e.g. ... The precipitated cryoglobulins are examined by immunoelectrophoresis and immunofixation to detect and quantify the presence of ... promotes cell death by apoptosis in cells accumulating immunoglobulins) in patients with monoclonal immunoglobulin-induced ...
Somatic recombination of immunoglobulins, also known as V(D)J recombination, involves the generation of a unique immunoglobulin ... Successful recognition and eradication of many different types of microbes requires diversity among antibodies; their amino ... immunoelectrophoresis, and magnetic immunoassay. Antibodies raised against human chorionic gonadotropin are used in over the ... The membrane-bound form of an antibody may be called a surface immunoglobulin (sIg) or a membrane immunoglobulin (mIg). It is ...
Immunoelectrophoresis and immunofixation studies help identify the type of immunoglobulin, the clonality of the light chain, ... Because of its indolent nature, many patients are able to lead active lives, and when treatment is required, may experience ... WM is characterized by having high levels of a circulating antibody, immunoglobulin M (IgM), which is made and secreted by the ... Results from characterization studies of urinary immunoglobulins indicate that light chains (Bence Jones protein), usually of ...
This requires proper tissue collection, fixation and sectioning. A solution of paraformaldehyde is often used to fix tissue, ... while secondary antibodies are raised against immunoglobulins of the primary antibody species. The secondary antibody is ... Depending on the method of fixation and tissue preservation, the sample may require additional steps to make the epitopes ...
All variants of immunoelectrophoresis require immunoglobulins, also known as antibodies, reacting with the proteins to be ... Crossed immunoelectrophoresis is also called two-dimensional quantitative immunoelectrophoresis ad modum Clarke and Freeman or ... Rocket immunoelectrophoresis is one-dimensional quantitative immunoelectrophoresis. The method has been used for quantitation ... First they are rather work intensive and require some manual expertise. Second they require rather large amounts of polyclonal ...
To ensure that the product titer falls within the required range, antibody titer is standardized by microtiter plate ELISA with ... The product is tested for purity and specificity at final concentration by immunoelectrophoresis. The antibody is predominantly ... Peroxidase conjugated Goat IgG fraction to mouse immunoglobulins(IgG, IgA, IgM) is used as a reagent in enzyme immunoassays ( ... Product shows reactivity to mouse immunoglobulins (IgG,IgA,IgM); cross-reactivity to other species may exist. Antibody activity ...
Immunofixation requires electrophoresis to migrate serum proteins in replicate. Then, specific anti-immunoglobulin antisera are ... Immunofixation as immunoelectrophoresis, takes place in two steps: The first step is identical for both techniques. It consists ... Once the immunoglobulins are separated, we can move to the next step. The second step is based on the technique used. ... Immunofixation permits the detection and typing of monoclonal antibodies or immunoglobulins in serum or urine. It is of great ...
A MAT 367 and A MAT 370 can be one of the two sequences required for the B.S. in Mathematics. Students who expect to do ... immunoglobulin purification and characterization, antibody and antigen identification assays including immunodiffusion and ... immunoelectrophoresis, and enzyme-based immunoassays (ELISA). One laboratory per week, plus additional flexible time as ... One laboratory per week; additional flexible time as required. Prerequisite(s): A BIO 201, A BIO 202 and A BIO 212. Effective ...
... or immunoglobulin electrophoresis, is a method of determining the blood levels of three major immunoglobulins: immunoglobulin M ... IgM), immunoglobulin G (IgG), and immunoglobulin A (IgA). ... This test requires a blood sample.. Aftercare. Because this ... Immunoelectrophoresis Definition Immunoelectrophoresis, also called gamma globulin  electrophoresis, ... Immunoelectrophoresis. Definition. Immunoelectrophoresis, also called gamma globulin electrophoresis, or immunoglobulin ...
Skin testing was described as a direct and sensitive in-vivo method, but one that requires interpretation by an experienced ... For those who have signs and symptoms suggestive of immunoglobulin-E mediated allergic reaction (hay fever or asthma symptoms) ... The use of in-vitro assays, such as the radioallergosorbent test (RAST), counter immunoelectrophoresis assay (CIEP), enzyme ... For individuals with signs and symptoms of immunoglobulin-G reactions (fever, myalgia, malaise, or shortness of breath), then ...
All patients require a double. Human Hickman to be placed prior to the start of therapy. The protocol was originally. written ... for HIV, CMV, HSV, and VCV: immunoglobulin levels, beta-2 microglobulin and serum protein. electrophoresis as well as ... immunoelectrophoresis and bone marrow aspirates and biopsies.. These studies are all standard for multiple myeloma patients. ... written, eligible patients were required to have sensitive disease.. The protocol was revised in August 1998 to allow entry of ...
What is immunoelectrophoresis? Meaning of immunoelectrophoresis medical term. What does immunoelectrophoresis mean? ... Looking for online definition of immunoelectrophoresis in the Medical Dictionary? immunoelectrophoresis explanation free. ... Immunoelectrophoresis. Definition. Immunoelectrophoresis, also called gamma globulin electrophoresis, or immunoglobulin ... This test requires a blood sample.. Aftercare. Because this test is ordered when either very low or very high levels of ...
Very or moderately high requires a test - serum immunoelectrophoresis - to rule-out multiple myeloma. Minimally high bears ... Oligoclonal bands: These proteins are immunoglobulins usually detected by separating the proteins in an electric field-charged ...
Title (required):. Author(s) (required):. Publication year (required):. Source (Journal, Volume, Issue, Pages) (required):. ... They show a slow and fast mobility towards the anode in agar gel immunoelectrophoresis and are easily separated in DEAE- ... Oliveira B.; Marangoni S.; Araujo A.L.; Soares M.A., 1985: Evidence of immunoglobulin g 1 and immunoglobulin g 2 antibodies in ... Evidence of immunoglobulin g 1 and immunoglobulin g 2 antibodies in capivara hydrochoerus hydrochaeris. ...
The diagnosis can be challenging, requiring a biopsy and often specialized testing to confirm the subtype of systemic disease. ... Patients require anti-thrombotic prophylaxis similar to patients with multiple myeloma . Phase I/II studies combining ... Gertz MA: Immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis: 2011 update on diagnosis, risk-stratification, and management. Am J Hematol. ... is a more powerful predictor of survival in AL amyloidosis than standard immunoelectrophoresis . In 2010, the International ...
Precipitation reactions require an optimalconcentration of both antibody and antigen. Regents of the University of Michigan ... 4. 1. Antigenic determinants used to describe parts of immunoglobulins: isotypes and idiotypes.2. Immunological tests: ... Serum samples are added to Serum components are separated immunoelectrophoresis plate by electrophoresis Albumin GlobulinsSerum ... Those rabbitantibodies recognize isotypic determinants,and will react with immunoglobulins in theserum of virtually all humans ...
... require secondary antibodies that are adsorbed against other species to minimize recognition of endogenous immunoglobulins or ... Antisera are commonly used for immunoprecipitation assays such as immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis, but are not ... Antibodies against immunoglobulins from one species are likely to cross-react with a number of other species, unless they have ... They also react with the light chains that are shared among immunoglobulins, so they may also react with IgA, IgD and IgE. ...
Immunoelectrophoresis. BCH To learn the technique of immunoelectrophoresis. -Technique based on the principles of ... Rocket immunoelectrophoresis is one-dimensional quantitative immunoelectrophoresis. Second they require rather large amounts of ... electrophoresis is largely used in medical or clinical laboratories for identifying abnormal monoclonal immunoglobulins ... All variants of immunoelectrophoresis require immunoglobulinsalso known as antibodiesreacting with the proteins to be separated ...
Immunoglobulins are made up of 2 heavy chains and 2 light chains that form a "Y"-like structure and can be of the IgA, IgD, IgE ... It requires immediate medical attention.. Stringent complete response. A treatment outcome where there are no detectable plasma ... Immunoelectrophoresis. See Immunofixation electrophoresis.. Immunofixation electrophoresis (IFE). Type of electrophoresis that ... Immunoglobulin. Protein produced by a plasma cell that is generated in reaction to a foreign protein (antigen), thus producing ...
Combining counter-immunoelectrophoresis with an immunoenzymatic assay, the ELIEDA requires concentrated urine specimens, a ... Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Biomarkers/analysis , Schistosoma mansoni/drug effects , ... Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Immunoglobulin M/analysis , Serologic Tests ... Immunoglobulin M , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Laboratory Chemicals , Measles virus/pathogenicity , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent ...
Product option validation failed All options are required USD 340.00 AR00093PU-N. Human Myeloma Immunoglobulin E (IgE), kappa ... Assay by Immunoelectrophoresis resulted in a single precipitin arc against anti-Human Serum, anti-Human IgG and anti-Human IgG ... Assay by immunoelectrophoresis resulted in a single precipitin arc against anti-biotin, anti-Human Serum, anti-Human IgG and ... Specificity: A single arc was observed in Immunoelectrophoresis against antisera to whole human serum and human lambda light ...
Immunoglobulin (Ig)- Antibody such as IgM; large protein produced by B cells that recognizes and binds to a specific antigen. ... Immunoelectrophoresis- Use of an electrical field to separate proteins in a mixture (such as blood or urine), on the basis of ... Frequently, this disease produces no symptoms and does not require treatment. It has not been studied as extensively as other ... Bence-Jones protein- Light chain of an immunoglobulin that may be overproduced in Waldenstroms macroglobulinemia; it is ...
... and Pathogenesis Etiology Pathogenesis Clinical Features The Hyperviscosity Syndrome Laboratory Findings Serum Immunoglobulin ... its detection generally requires that the urine sample be concentrated prior to zonal electrophoresis or immunoelectrophoresis. ... these immunoglobulins often bear cross-reactive idiotypes that frequently are found on immunoglobulins expressed in chronic ... SERUM IMMUNOGLOBULIN AND BLOOD VISCOSITY. By definition, the serum IgM level is elevated in macroglobulinemia. The blood levels ...
... and serum immunoelectrophoresis is positive for a monoclonal immunoglobulin. Which of the following is the most characteristic ... The specific diagnosis requires tissue biopsy with presence of amyloid with specific stains. In primary amyloidosis and myeloma ...
It also reacts with the light chains of other mouse immunoglobulins. No antibody was detected against non-immunoglobulin serum ... Biotinylated antibodies require an additional reagent for visualization. We offer streptavidin and Mouse Anti-Biotin conjugated ... Based on immunoelectrophoresis and/or ELISA, the antibody reacts with whole molecule mouse IgG. ...
... of serum immunoglobulins. Immunoglobulin G binds to viruses, bacteria, as well as fungi and facilitates their destruction or ... When choosing a secondary antibody product, consideration must be given to species and immunoglobulin specificity, conjugate ... Secreted as part of the adaptive immune response by plasma B cells, immunoglobulin G constitutes 75% ... If you require a commercial license to use this material and do not have one, then return this material, unopened to: Rockland ...
ELISA: Quantification of immunoglobulins. For coating, Use Antibody without BSA. Flow Cytometry: 0.5-2.0 µg/106 cells. ... Staining of formalin-fixed tissues requires boiling tissue sections in 10mM Citrate Buffer, pH 6.0, for 10-20 min followed by ... Kochwa S. (1976) Immunoelectrophoresis. In Manual of Clinical Immunology. American Society of Microbiology. P17-35. ... This monoclonal L1C1 antibody reacts with the Kappa Light chain of Human immunoglobulin and shows no cross-reaction with Lambda ...
Immunoglobulin light-chain immunoblots of urine proteins from patients with tubular and Bence-Jones proteinuria. Clin Chim Acta ... and serum immunoelectrophoresis (IEP; Ciba Corning) showed decreased IgG, IgA, and IgM and the presence of a faint λ arc with ... he became oliguric and required chronic hemodialysis. Sixteen months after the findings described above and after therapy, the ... To identify whether these bands are attributable to monoclonal or polyclonal immunoglobulins or their fragments, UPE should be ...
... for the renal alteration secondary to activation of the alternative complement pathway by the anomalous immunoglobulin. Despite ... Accordingly, early diagnosis is fundamental, as is stopping the clonal production of immunoglobulins using specific ... with another triggering factor required, such as an infection or the presence of a circulating monoclonal immunoglobulin. ... Urine immunoelectrophoresis showed 36% monoclonal component, equivalent to 189 mg/24 h, and free kappa light chains. ...
Type of immunoglobulinSpecificityELISAMultiple myelomaImmunodiffusionManufacture of normal human immunoglobulinReactivityRocket immunoelectrophoresisAntigenAssaysPolyclonalAgarosePresence of immunoglobulinsAntiseraLevels of immunoglobulinsClasses of immunoglobulinsAssayAntigensIntravenousUrineDepositionImmunologicallyIsotypesGammaIMMUNOLOGYBiopsyOuchterlonyMyelomaEnzymeAgar gelParaproteinKappaImmobilized ligandsNephelometryLight chain proteinFragmentLymphocytesMouse serumGammopathiesQuantificationOverproductionRabbit
- Antiserum is placed alongside the slide to identify the specific type of immunoglobulin present. (encyclopedia.com)
- Immunoelectrophoresis and immunofixation studies help to identify the type of immunoglobulin, the clonality of the light chain, and the monoclonality and quantitation of the paraprotein. (medscape.com)
- Normally, a plasma cell makes one of these five major classes of immunoglobulin, and each type of immunoglobulin has a slightly different function in the body. (cancerconnect.com)
- In multiple myeloma, one type of immunoglobulin has overgrowth that crowds out the other types of immunoglobulins, which is why you may be susceptible to certain kinds of infections, like pneumonia. (myelomacrowd.org)
- The product is tested for purity and specificity at final concentration by immunoelectrophoresis. (mpbio.com)
- When choosing a secondary antibody product, consideration must be given to species and immunoglobulin specificity, conjugate type, fragment and chain specificity, level of cross-reactivity, and host-species source and fragment composition. (rockland-inc.com)
- its principal active component is immunoglobulin G (Ig G), which exhibits antibody activity of various specificity against various antigens. (pharmacopoeia.ru)
- This product is suitable for immunoblotting (western or dot blot), ELISA, and immunohistochemistry requiring extremely low background levels, lot-to-lot consistency, high titer and specificity. (novusbio.com)
- The sperm specificity of RABSA was demonstrated by double immunodiffusion, immunoelectrophoresis and ELISA against boar spermatozoa, as well as against saline extracts of boar reproductive and somatic organs. (storysteel.tk)
- The reactivity of the antiserum is directed to the Fc subunit of the major immunoglobulin isotypes (classes and subclasses) which expresses strict isotypic (class) specificity. (lsbio.com)
- To ensure that the product titer falls within the required range, antibody titer is standardized by microtiter plate ELISA with mouse gamma globulin. (mpbio.com)
- The use of in-vitro assays, such as the radioallergosorbent test (RAST), counter immunoelectrophoresis assay (CIEP), enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or radioimmunoassay (RIA), to determine immunoglobulin levels of exposed individuals was reviewed. (cdc.gov)
- For individuals with signs and symptoms of immunoglobulin-G reactions (fever, myalgia, malaise, or shortness of breath), then the CIEP, ELISA or RIA are the most suitable tests, but the simple Ouchterlony method can also be useful for screening purposes. (cdc.gov)
- Based on immunoelectrophoresis and/or ELISA, the antibody reacts with whole molecule mouse IgG. (jacksonimmuno.com)
- By immunoelectrophoresis and ELISA this antibody reacts specifically with Mouse IgM. (mybiosource.com)
- Purified human IgE may be used as a reference antigen, calibrator, coating protein in a variety of immunoassays including immunodiffusion, immunoelectrophoresis, ELISA, Western blotting, dotimmunobinding assays (DIBA). (exalpha.com)
- By immunoelectrophoresis and ELISA this antibody reacts specifically with sheep IgG and with light chains common to other sheep immunoglobulins. (bioscience.co.uk)
- Anti-RABBIT IgG F(c) (GOAT) Antibody is suitable for immunoblotting (western or dot blot), ELISA, immunoelectron microscopy and immunohistochemistry as well as other antibody based enzymatic assays requiring lot-to-lot consistency. (genwaybio.com)
- Immunoelectrophoresis is also used frequently to diagnose multiple myeloma , a disease affecting the bone marrow . (encyclopedia.com)
- Monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance (MGRS) is a clinico-pathological entity grouping renal alterations secondary to the secretion of a monoclonal immunoglobulin by a B-cell clone but which fails to reach the 10% infiltration necessary to be considered a multiple myeloma. (biomedcentral.com)
- The abnormal immunoglobulin made in multiple myeloma is called the M or (monoclonal) protein. (cancerconnect.com)
- This applies most commonly to clinical disorders that suggest multiple myeloma, Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia, or amyloidosis (AL), but also includes less frequent conditions, such as solitary plasmacytoma, POEMS syndrome, heavy-chain diseases, and immunoglobulin deposition disease. (the-medical-dictionary.com)
- Multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized by the neoplastic proliferation of plasma cells producing a monoclonal immunoglobulin. (uptodate.com)
- Finding a monoclonal immunoglobulin in the blood may be the first step in making the diagnosis of multiple myeloma. (myelomacrowd.org)
- Multiple myeloma is characterized by excessive numbers of abnormal plasma cells in the bone marrow and overproduction of intact monoclonal immunoglobulin (IgG, IgA, IgD, or IgE) or Bence-Jones protein (free monoclonal κ and λ light chains). (diff.org)
- Hypercalcemia, anemia, renal damage, increased susceptibility to bacterial infection, and impaired production of normal immunoglobulin are common clinical manifestations of multiple myeloma. (diff.org)
- Immunoprecipitation Chromatin immunoprecipitation Immunodiffusion Ouchterlony double immunodiffusion Radial immunodiffusion Immunoelectrophoresis Counterimmunoelectrophoresis. (wonderfulaustralia.info)
- 7 Jul Rocket Immunoelectrophoresis is an adaptation of radial immunodiffusion developed by Laurell. (bossanova.club)
- In immunoelectrophoresis and single and double radial immunodiffusion (Mancini, Ouchterlony) to identify the presence of immunoglobulins in mouse serum or other body fluids. (lsbio.com)
- agar gel immunodiffusion, counter-immunoelectrophoresis, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction either gel-based or real-time, reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification, reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification assays, immunochromatographic lateral flow devices, luciferase immunoprecipitation system and pseudotype-based assays. (biomedcentral.com)
- In immunoelectrophoresis and double radial immunodiffusion, using various antiserum concentrations against appropriate concentrations of IgE, a single precipitin line is obtained which shows a reaction of full identity with the precipitin line obtained with the used immunogen. (mybiosource.com)
- The manufacture of normal human immunoglobulin should be performed in accordance with established manufacture organization and medicinal product quality control requirements to guarantee preservation of the structure and function of immunoglobulin proteins responsible for the specific and viral safety of the medicinal product and precluding contamination with foreign agents. (pharmacopoeia.ru)
- This reagent primarily recognizes Mouse IgM however some light chain cross reactivity will occur against other mouse immunoglobulins. (genscript.com)
- Receptors bind the Fc portion of rabbit IgG and often this fragment is removed from immunoglobulins to minimize receptor binding and lower background reactivity. (genwaybio.com)
- The reactivity of the antiserum is directed to the heavy chains of immunoglobulin isotypes IgG, IgA, IgM and IgD. (lsbio.com)
- In somewhat chronological order: Immunoelectrophoretic analysis (one-dimensional immunoelectrophoresis ad modum Grabar), crossed immunoelectrophoresis (two-dimensional quantitative immunoelectrophoresis ad modum Clarke and Freeman or ad modum Laurell), rocket-immunoelectrophoresis (one-dimensional quantitative immunoelectrophoresis ad modum Laurell), fused rocket immunoelectrophoresis ad modum Svendsen and Harboe, affinity immunoelectrophoresis ad modum Bøg-Hansen. (wikipedia.org)
- Rocket immunoelectrophoresis is one-dimensional quantitative immunoelectrophoresis. (wikipedia.org)
- Fused rocket immunoelectrophoresis is a modification of one-dimensional quantitative immunoelectrophorsis used for detailed measurement of proteins in fractions from protein separation experiments. (wikipedia.org)
- Immunoelectrophoresis is a general name for a number of biochemical methods for separation Rocket immunoelectrophoresis is one-dimensional quantitative immunoelectrophoresis. (bossanova.club)
- Rocket immunoelectrophoresis also referred to as electroimmunoassay is a simple, quick, and reproducible method for determining the concentration of a specific protein in a protein mixture. (bossanova.club)
- 1. Process for the preparation of a cytotoxic product having a covalent disulphide bond between a cytotoxic compound and an antibody, the process comprising forming a disulphide bridge between the A chain of ricin and the antibody, the antibody being an immunoglobulin or an immunoglobulin fragment and being specific for a given antigen carried by the cells which are to be destroyed. (google.com.au)
- Using a model system with rabbit immunoglobulins against human serum amyloid P component & normal human serum as the antigen source, scientists developed a method for the identification of protein antigens captured in electroimmunoprecipitates. (biotechsupportgroup.com)
- Antigen retrieval: not required. (antibodies-online.com)
- Then, specific anti-immunoglobulin antisera are used to treat each replicate. (wikipedia.org)
- Confirmed by immunoelectrophoresis using antisera to human immunoglobulins. (exalpha.com)
- Because this test is ordered when either very low or very high levels of immunoglobulins are suspected, the patient should be alert for any signs of infection after the test, including fever , chills, rash, or skin ulcers. (encyclopedia.com)
- X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) or Bruton's agammaglobulinemia is present at birth (congenital) and is characterized by low or completely absent levels of immunoglobulins in the bloodstream. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Frequent bacterial infections, a lack of mature B cells, and low-to-nonexistent levels of immunoglobulins point to a diagnosis of XLA. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Journal of Clinical Ligand Assay The sensitivity and resolving immunoelectrophoresid of crossed immunoelectrophoresis is than that of the classical immunoelectrophoretic analysis and there are multiple variations of the immunoelectropuoresis useful for various purposes. (wonderfulaustralia.info)
- Assay by immunoelectrophoresis resulted in a single precipitin arc against anti-Goat Serum, Rabbit IgG and Rabbit Serum. (rockland-inc.com)
- The flow assay requires neither specialized training nor equipment, the assay is very easy to perform and to read, and the components are stable without a requirement for refrigeration and well standardized. (asm.org)
- The main advantage of immunoelectrophoresis is that a number of antigens can be identified in serum. (microbenotes.com)
- Adsorption: Immunoaffinity adsorbed using insolubilized antigens as required to eliminate antibody activity reacting with other components of the immunoglobulin system and to any other serum protein. (mybiosource.com)
- However sampling occurred on monthly intravenous immunoglobulin therapy material can be used. (exodusfoundation.org)
- The present Pharmacopoeia Monograph applies to normal human immunoglobulin preparations for intravenous administration. (pharmacopoeia.ru)
- Normal human immunoglobulin preparations for intravenous administration contain no preservatives and no antibiotics. (pharmacopoeia.ru)
- Normal human immunoglobulin for intravenous administration is purified and concentrated using the Cohn ethanol fractionation method (cold water - alcohol precipitation). (pharmacopoeia.ru)
- Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) was used successfully in an infant with IgA-associated autoimmune hemolytic anemia. (medscape.com)
- It consists in depositing the immunoglobulins contained in the serum or urine on a gel and then separating the immunoglobulins according to their electrophoretic mobility by making them migrate under the effect of an electric field. (wikipedia.org)
- Urine immunoelectrophoresis. (epainassist.com)
- This urine protein is the part of the immunoglobulin called the light chain. (myelomacrowd.org)
- Some tests require that you collect all of your urine for 24 hours. (adam.com)
- Urine immunoelectrophoresis is a lab test that measures immunoglobulins in a urine sample. (adam.com)
- Immunoelectrophoresis is an older method for qualitative analysis of M-proteins in serum and urine. (microbenotes.com)
- The monoclonal gammopathies, also called paraproteinemias or dysproteinemias, are a group of disorders characterized by the proliferation of one or more clones of differentiated B lymphocytes that each produce an immunologically homogeneous immunoglobulin commonly referred to as a paraprotein or monoclonal (M) protein. (diff.org)
- The diagnosis can be challenging, requiring a biopsy and often specialized testing to confirm the subtype of systemic disease. (biomedcentral.com)
- thus, diagnosis requires monoclonal protein studies and bone marrow biopsy (with or without lymph node/involved tissue biopsy). (medscape.com)
- Immunohistochemical examination of the renal tumor biopsy, and blood and serum samples, as well as immunoelectrophoresis of serum proteins, resulted in a diagnosis of EMP being proposed. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Patients with recurrent myeloma were still required to have chemotherapy sensitive disease. (knowcancer.com)
- In Sephadex gel filtration, these 2 globulins as compared to a human myeloma IgG1 protein and other IgG markers had a typical behavior of 7S IgG immunoglobulins. (eurekamag.com)
- Plasma cells of IgM myeloma have high-level expression of CD38 but weak or negligible expression of CD5, CD10, CD20, CD22, CD23, CD45, HLA-DR, FMC7, and surface immunoglobulin.8 Extramedullary plasmacytomas also may produce an excess in monoclonal IgM protein and have features in common with plasma cell myeloma. (wordpress.com)
- In some cases, the plasma cells may produce incomplete immunoglobulin (light chain myeloma), or they may not secrete them at all (non-secretory myeloma). (cancerconnect.com)
- Detects the presence and level of various proteins, including the immunoglobulin protein made by myeloma cells. (cancerconnect.com)
- The immunoglobulin produced by myeloma cells is abnormal because all of the paraprotiens are monoclonal (identical), which means they are identical clones of a single plasma cell. (myelomacrowd.org)
- Myeloma is characterized by abnormal growth of plasma cells producing monoclonal immunoglobulin or light chain (paraprotein) with subsequent development of osteolytic bone lesions, anemia, hypercalcemia, and renal failure [ 1 , 2 ]. (termedia.pl)
- Peroxidase conjugated Goat IgG fraction to mouse immunoglobulins(IgG, IgA, IgM) is used as a reagent in enzyme immunoassays (EIA), cell and tissue staining (for light microscopy), cell and tissue labeling (for electron microscopy), and blot immunostaining. (mpbio.com)
- Anti-Rabbit IgG F(c) Biotin antibody generated in goat is a proteolytic fragment of immunoglobulin G (IgG) obtained by limited digestion with the enzyme papain under controlled conditions of temperature, time and pH. (genwaybio.com)
- This Goat Anti-Mouse IgG, H&L Chain Specific Peroxidase Conjugate is validated for use in Enzyme Immunoassay, Immunoelectrophoresis for the detection of Mouse IgG, H&L Chain Specific. (emdmillipore.com)
- Antibody to the kappa light chain of immunoglobulin is reportedly useful in the identification of leukemias, plasmacytomas, and certain non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. (acris-antibodies.com)
- The heavy chain is from one of the five immunoglobulin classes G, A, M, D or E, while the light chain is either kappa or lambda in type.The monoclonal gammopathies encompass a number of diseases including. (diff.org)