A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Immunoelectrophoresis in which a second electrophoretic transport is performed on the initially separated antigen fragments into an antibody-containing medium in a direction perpendicular to the first electrophoresis.
Immunoelectrophoresis in which immunoprecipitation occurs when antigen at the cathode is caused to migrate in an electric field through a suitable medium of diffusion against a stream of antibody migrating from the anode as a result of endosmotic flow.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Electrophoresis applied to BLOOD PROTEINS.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Antibodies which elicit IMMUNOPRECIPITATION when combined with antigen.
A sterile solution containing the by-products of growth products of COCCIDIOIDES IMMITIS, injected intracutaneously as a test for COCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
Pregnane derivatives containing two double bonds anywhere within the ring structures.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.
Serum globulins with high molecular weight. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
A mitosporic fungal genus which causes COCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS.
Electrophoresis in which cellulose acetate is the diffusion medium.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
A group of related diseases characterized by an unbalanced or disproportionate proliferation of immunoglobulin-producing cells, usually from a single clone. These cells frequently secrete a structurally homogeneous immunoglobulin (M-component) and/or an abnormal immunoglobulin.
Serum globulins that migrate to the gamma region (most positively charged) upon ELECTROPHORESIS. At one time, gamma-globulins came to be used as a synonym for immunoglobulins since most immunoglobulins are gamma globulins and conversely most gamma globulins are immunoglobulins. But since some immunoglobulins exhibit an alpha or beta electrophoretic mobility, that usage is in decline.
An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.
A strong acid used as a protein precipitant in clinical chemistry and also as a caustic for removing warts.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A synthetic steroid with antigonadotropic and anti-estrogenic activities that acts as an anterior pituitary suppressant by inhibiting the pituitary output of gonadotropins. It possesses some androgenic properties. Danazol has been used in the treatment of endometriosis and some benign breast disorders.
Serum proteins with an electrophoretic mobility that falls between ALPHA-GLOBULINS and GAMMA-GLOBULINS.
Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Abnormal immunoglobulins characteristic of MULTIPLE MYELOMA.
An organism originally isolated from sewage, manure, humus, and soil, but recently found as a parasite in mammals and birds.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Electrophoresis in which discontinuities in both the voltage and pH gradients are introduced by using buffers of different composition and pH in the different parts of the gel column. The term 'disc' was originally used as an abbreviation for 'discontinuous' referring to the buffers employed, and does not have anything to do with the shape of the separated zones.
The etiologic agent of murine typhus (see TYPHUS, ENDEMIC FLEA-BORNE).
Absence or reduced levels of PROTHROMBIN in the blood.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
All blood proteins except albumin ( = SERUM ALBUMIN, which is not a globulin) and FIBRINOGEN (which is not in the serum). The serum globulins are subdivided into ALPHA-GLOBULINS; BETA-GLOBULINS; and GAMMA-GLOBULINS on the basis of their electrophoretic mobilities. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The pH in solutions of proteins and related compounds at which the dipolar ions are at a maximum.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Abnormal immunoglobulins synthesized by atypical cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM. Paraproteins containing only light chains lead to Bence Jones paraproteinemia, while the presence of only atypical heavy chains leads to heavy chain disease. Most of the paraproteins show themselves as an M-component (monoclonal gammopathy) in electrophoresis. Diclonal and polyclonal paraproteins are much less frequently encountered.
DYSENTERY caused by intestinal amebic infection, chiefly with ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA. This condition may be associated with amebic infection of the LIVER and other distant sites.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
An abnormal protein with unusual thermosolubility characteristics that is found in the urine of patients with MULTIPLE MYELOMA.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are nonmotile. Filaments that may be present in certain species are either straight or wavy and may have swollen or clubbed heads.
An excess of GAMMA-GLOBULINS in the serum due to chronic infections or PARAPROTEINEMIAS.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
One of the types of light chains of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.
Laboratory tests for evaluating the individual's clotting mechanism.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
One of the types of light chain subunits of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.
Inflammation of the coverings of the brain and/or spinal cord, which consist of the PIA MATER; ARACHNOID; and DURA MATER. Infections (viral, bacterial, and fungal) are the most common causes of this condition, but subarachnoid hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGES, SUBARACHNOID), chemical irritation (chemical MENINGITIS), granulomatous conditions, neoplastic conditions (CARCINOMATOUS MENINGITIS), and other inflammatory conditions may produce this syndrome. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch24, p6)
A synthetic steroid that has anabolic and androgenic properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1194)
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
An absence or reduced level of Antithrombin III leading to an increased risk for thrombosis.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A glycoprotein that is important in the activation of CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. C4 is cleaved by the activated COMPLEMENT C1S into COMPLEMENT C4A and COMPLEMENT C4B.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
Plasma glycoprotein member of the serpin superfamily which inhibits TRYPSIN; NEUTROPHIL ELASTASE; and other PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
The clumping together of suspended material resulting from the action of AGGLUTININS.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Glycoproteins with a molecular weight of approximately 620,000 to 680,000. Precipitation by electrophoresis is in the alpha region. They include alpha 1-macroglobulins and alpha 2-macroglobulins. These proteins exhibit trypsin-, chymotrypsin-, thrombin-, and plasmin-binding activity and function as hormonal transporters.
Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Disorders caused by abnormalities in platelet count or function.
A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A methylpentose whose L- isomer is found naturally in many plant glycosides and some gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
A plasma alpha 2 glycoprotein that accounts for the major antithrombin activity of normal plasma and also inhibits several other enzymes. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
An iron-binding beta1-globulin that is synthesized in the LIVER and secreted into the blood. It plays a central role in the transport of IRON throughout the circulation. A variety of transferrin isoforms exist in humans, including some that are considered markers for specific disease states.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Serum proteins that have the most rapid migration during ELECTROPHORESIS. This subgroup of globulins is divided into faster and slower alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-globulins.
Surface glycoproteins on platelets which have a key role in hemostasis and thrombosis such as platelet adhesion and aggregation. Many of these are receptors.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
Passive agglutination tests in which antigen is adsorbed onto latex particles which then clump in the presence of antibody specific for the adsorbed antigen. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC
A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, that are involved in the blood coagulation process.
The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A high-molecular-weight plasma protein, produced by endothelial cells and megakaryocytes, that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. The von Willebrand factor has receptors for collagen, platelets, and ristocetin activity as well as the immunologically distinct antigenic determinants. It functions in adhesion of platelets to collagen and hemostatic plug formation. The prolonged bleeding time in VON WILLEBRAND DISEASES is due to the deficiency of this factor.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
Group of hemorrhagic disorders in which the VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR is either quantitatively or qualitatively abnormal. They are usually inherited as an autosomal dominant trait though rare kindreds are autosomal recessive. Symptoms vary depending on severity and disease type but may include prolonged bleeding time, deficiency of factor VIII, and impaired platelet adhesion.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
Blood-coagulation factor VIII. Antihemophilic factor that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. Factor VIII is produced in the liver and acts in the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. It serves as a cofactor in factor X activation and this action is markedly enhanced by small amounts of thrombin.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
An anionic surfactant, usually a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates, mainly the lauryl; lowers surface tension of aqueous solutions; used as fat emulsifier, wetting agent, detergent in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and toothpastes; also as research tool in protein biochemistry.
Bacterial polysaccharides that are rich in phosphodiester linkages. They are the major components of the cell walls and membranes of many bacteria.
A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. Most species are free-living in soil and water, but the major habitat for some is the diseased tissue of warm-blooded hosts.
A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.
Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).

Homogeneous pyruvate kinase isolated from yeast by two different methods is indistinguishable from pyruvate kinase in cell-free extract. (1/2055)

In this report, we have compared homogeneous yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) pyruvate kinase to enzyme from cell-free extracts in several different ways: 1) isoelectric focusing of cell-free extracts indicates one peak of pyruvate kinase activity whose isoelectric point is the same as that of the pure enzyme; 2) antibody prepared to the pure enzyme produces a single, fused precipitin line against enzyme in the cell-free extract and pure enzyme; 3) immunoelectrophoresis of cell-free extract produces one precipitin arc which has the same mobility as that of the pure enzyme; and 4) immunoprecipitation of the pure enzyme from cell-free extract with subsequent solubilization in 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate and electrophoresis on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels produces a single protein band attributable to pyruvate kinase which co-migrates with the purified enzyme. Within the limits of the sensitivity of the methods employed, we conclude that the homogeneous pyruvate kinase prepared from yeast lysed either by Manton-Gaulin homogenization (Aust, A., Yun, S.-L., and Suelter, C. (1975) Methods Enzymol. 42, 176-182) or by toluolysis (Yun, S.-L., Aust, A.E., and Suelter, C.H. (1977) J. Biol. Chem. 251, 124-128) is identical with pyruvate kinase in cell-free extract.  (+info)

Enzymatic and immunological characterization of the Mycobacterium fortuitum complex. (2/2055)

The arylsulfatase isozymes of Mycobacterium fortuitum, M. peregrinum, M. chelonei subsp. chelonei, and M. chelonei subsp. abscessus were examined to determine the isozymal and immunological relationship among the members of the M. fortuitum complex. Cell extracts were subjected to electrophoresis on agarose and polyacrylamide gel, and arylsulfatase activity was localized using beta-naphthyl sulfate as substrate. Unique zymograms were produced for M. fortuitum, M. peregrinum, and M. chelonei which were characteristic for each species. The immunological relationship among the sulfatases was assayed by using immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis followed by sulfatase staining for the enzyme. One of the isozymes of M. fortuitum and M. peregrinum cross-reacted, showing immunological identity. Antisera to sulfatases of M. fortuitum and M. peregrinum did not react with sulfatases of M. chelonei. The characterization of sulfatase isozymes in extracts of organisms in the M. fortuitum complex suggests the division of the M. fortuitum complex into two species, M. fortuitum and M. chelonei, with subspecies designations.  (+info)

The phenoloxidases of the ascomycete Podospora anserina. Structural differences between laccases of high and low molecular weight. (3/2055)

In order to investigate the extent of the relationship between the three copper-containing glycoproteins, laccases I, II and III (Mr70000, 80000 and 390000 respectively) of Podospora anserina, the following experiments were carried out on laccases II and III: (a) determination of amino acid composition; (b) determination of N-terminal and C-terminal amino acid; (c) determination of sugar composition; (d) dissociation studies on native and denatured laccases and also after removal of copper from the enzymes; (e) digestion of the carbohydrate moieties with the aid of glycosylhydrolases. A comparison between the results of these experiments and data previously obtained with laccase I allows the following conclusions to be drawn. 1. Laccases II and III are not identical. 2. Neither of these low molecular weight laccases are as complete molecules subunits of the oligomeric laccase I. 3. The possibility of partial identity of amino acid sequences of laccases I and III can not be excluded. 4. Laccase II possibly consists of subunits of Mr37000 whereas laccase III does not. 5. Digestion of 50% of the carbohydrate content leads to complete loss of serological specificity (serological reaction and cross reaction). This finding is discussed with regard to the possible role of the carbohydrate moiety as antigenic determinants and thus as the reason for the immunological relationship. As a consequence, at least three independent structural genes for laccases must be assumed.  (+info)

Inhibition of human seminal fluid DNA polymerase by an IgG fraction of seminal plasma from vasectomized men. (4/2055)

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) was isolated from ejaculates of intact and vasectomized men by precipitation with ammonium sulphate and DEAE-cellulose ionexchange chromatography. Velocity centrifugation revealed that all of the IgG from intact males was 7S protein while less than 40% of the seminal IgG of vasectomized men cosedimented with the 7S marker; the remaining, immunologically unidentifiable, protein was considerably smaller and heterogeneous in size. Only the 7S IgG from the post-vasectomy ejaculates inhibited the activity of a DNA polymerase from the seminal fluid of an intact male. These results suggest that formation of antibody reactive with the seminal fluid DNA polymerase is one manifestation of a vasectomy-associated autoimmune response in man.  (+info)

Complement activity in middle ear effusions. (5/2055)

Evidence for complement utilization in middle ear fluids (MEF) from patients with otitis media with effusion was sought. It was found that cleavage products of C3, C4 and Factor B could be demonstrated immunochemically in MEF, and that native C3 was present in much lower concentrations than other proteins, relative to their serum concentrations. Haemolytic assays for C1-C5 showed that early complement components are inactivated in MEF. Potential mechanisms for complement utilization in MEF are discussed.  (+info)

Enterobacterial common antigen: isolation from Shigella sonnei, purification and immunochemical characterization. (6/2055)

In the studies presented the effective procedure of isolation and purification of enterobacterial common antigen from Shigella sonnei has been elaborated. The method is based on sonification of bacterial suspension in the presence of lysozyme and EDTA and subsequent extraction of the pellet with boiling water. The crude extract of common antigen was purified by fractionation with ethanol and chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20. The comparison of several extraction procedures of enterobacterial common antigen from Shigella sonnei proved that the method described above is most effective. The purified enterobacterial common antigen preparation obtained preserved full biological activity: antigenicity (precipitation and activity in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), immunogenicity in rabbits, ability to coat erythrocytes (passive hemagglutination) and inhibitory activity in passive hemagglutination. The pure enterobacterial common antigen was identified to 90% as a polymer of N-acetyl-D-mannosaminuronic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (2:1, molar ratio), O-acetylated and containing 3.2% fatty acids (C16:0 and C18:1, not oleic). It contains 5.3% nitrogen, less than 4% protein, less than 0.5% phosphorus and less than 1.6% neutral sugar; glycerol and RNA were not found in the preparation.  (+info)

Immune response in the garter snake (Thamnophis ordinoides). (7/2055)

Garter snakes (Thamnophis ordinoides) were immunized with hen egg albumin, human gamma-globulin and Keyhole limpet haemocyanin in Freund's adjuvant. Antibody was consistently detected by radioimmunoelectrophoresis and in three different gamma- and beta-globulin precipitin lines called IgM (approximately or equal to 20S), Ig-1 (approximately or equal to 9S) and Ig-2 (approximately or equal to 8-5S). Early antibody (day 31 after immunization) was frequently Ig-M whereas Ig-2 and especially Ig-1 were detectable for the longest duration (992 days). After immunization with antigen in Freund's adjuvant, Ig-1 serum concentration showed the greatest increase, from almost undetectable levels to the most prominent immunoglobulin in immune serum.  (+info)

Plant microbody proteins. Purification and glycoprotein nature of glyoxysomal isocitrate lyase from cucumber cotyledons. (8/2055)

1. Isocitrate lyase from cotyledons of cucumber seedlings (Cucumis sativus) has been purified 100-fold. Two methods of preparing the soluble glyoxylate cycle enzyme are described: an elaborated method which used crude extracts of cucumber cotyledons, and another procedure which started with purified glyoxysomes from 4-day-old cotyledons and included a separation of glyoxysomal matrix enzymes by zonal centrifugation. The product behaved as a single species when tested by (a) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of dodecyl sulfate, (b) zonal centrifugation, and (c) double immunodiffusion against rabbit antibody to isocitrate lyase. 2. Isocitrate lyase of cucumber glyoxysomes exhibited a molecular weight of 255,000 and was composed of four apparently identical subunits of Mr 64,000. An isoelectric point of 5.9 was determined. 3. It was shown that isocitrate lyase is a glycoprotein, (a) by Schiff stain on polyacrylamide gels, (b) by periodate oxidation of the enzyme, subsequent reduction with NaB[3H]4 and electrophoretic analysis of the labelled glycoprotein, and (c) by incorporation of [3H]glucosamine in vivo into a protein which could be precipitated with antibodies to isocitrate lyase and revealed a 64,000-Mr band upon electrophoresis.  (+info)

1. Experimental principle Rocket immunoelectrophoresis (RIEP) is a quantitative detection technique that combines unidirectional immunodiffusion and electrophoresis. During electrophoresis, the antibody contained in the agar gel does not move, but the antigen in the sample is caused to swim toward the positive electrode under the action of the electric field. When the antigen and antibody molecules reach the appropriate ratio, a peak of insoluble immune complex shaped like a rocket is formed, and the height of the peak is positively correlated with the antigen concentration in the sample collection. Therefore, when the antibody concentration in the agar is fixed, the standard curve is drawn with the precipitation peak formed after the standard antigens of different dilutions swimming and the antigen concentration as the abscissa. The content of the antigen to be tested can be calculated according to the length of the precipitation peak of the sample; conversely, when the concentration of the ...
Guinea pig 7S immunoglobulins (γ1 and γ2) consist of two groups of molecules (K and L) bearing different types of L chains (κ and λ). Approximately one-third of
Looking for immunoelectrophoresis? Find out information about immunoelectrophoresis. A combination of the techniques of electrophoresis and immunodiffusion used to separate the components of a mixture of antigens and make them visible by... Explanation of immunoelectrophoresis
As I told in the video that I shall explain the full details of my rocket. So I am going to explain.. For any simple model rocket, we need four things motor, a rocket body, fins, and nose cone. We also need rocket fuel. First of all, lets know what are the functions of all of these parts.. Rocket Motor. Rocket motor contains fuel. Rocket fuel is made up of fuel and an oxidizer. It has a nozzle that produces thrust. Sufficient thrust is needed to fly a rocket.. Fins. Fins keep the rocket flying straight. Without fins, the rocket would tumble out of control. Nose Cone. Nose cone carries the payload. To minimize friction, the nose cone should have a rounded or bullet shape. This gives the rocket a small frontal area.. Rocket Body. The rocket body holds the motor and payload. Fins are attached to the rocket body.. Now I am going to explain from where I get all these things. For the rocket body, I took a thin pipe from a broom. This pipe is strong but very light thats why I used it. For fins, I ...
The WS-1B rocket, with a new high-performance rocket motor and warhead, reaches a maximum speed of Mach 5.2 and maximum flight altitude of 60km, giving a minimum firing range of 60km and a maximum firing range of 180km. The probability deviation is between 1% and 1.25%. The WS-1B rocket is longer than the WS-1, with length 6.37m but the same diameter. The take-off weight is 725kg with a 150kg warhead.. The free rocket consists of the warhead and fuse, an FG-43 rocket motor and the tail section. The FG-43 rocket motor is a single chamber, solid rocket motor with an advanced hydroxy-terminated polybutadine (HTPB) composition rocket propellant.. Two types of warhead can be fitted on the WS-IB rocket, a ZDB-2 blasting warhead or an SZB-1 submunition, which are selected according to the characteristics of the target.. The ZDB-2 blasting warhead is loaded with steel balls and prefabricated fragments. The SZB-1 submunition warhead provides an effective high power weapon against massed tanks. When the ...
Rocket Labs Electron commercial satellite launcher lifted off from New Zealand on its debut test flight Thursday and soared into space on its maiden mission.. The 55-foot-tall (17-meter) launcher did not reach orbit as intended, but Rocket Lab said the Electron successfully flew through the boosters first stage burn, stage separation, second stage ignition and payload fairing separation.. The Electron is designed to loft CubeSats and other small satellites into orbit, and Rocket Lab already has launch contracts with NASA and several commercial customers.. These video clips provided by Rocket Lab show multiple views of the Electron lifting off from its commercial base in New Zealand, plus imagery captured by an on-board camera showing first stage separation, second stage ignition and the release of the rockets payload fairing.. Read our full story on the test launch for details.. Video credits: Rocket Lab. ...
Let V be the total volume of the rocket. Let Vw be the volume of water in the rocket, and Va be the volume of air. Let Vai and Vwi be the inital volumes of air and water, at the time of launch. Let p be the gauge pressure inside the rocket (i.e. the pressure above atmospheric). Let pi be the pressure at the time of launch. Well assume static fluids at all times (this is not really true, but at low escape velocities it is inconsequential). Let m be the mass of the rocket (well assume that the water is the only important mass -- the mass of the air and rocket body will be considered negligible). Let o be the exhaust hole area at the bottom of the rocket, which is considered a plane hole. Let v be the exit velocity of the water. Let h be the height of the water in the rocket ...
Stomp Rocket Jr. Glow is 100% KID powered! Run, jump and STOMP to launch these rockets up to 100 feet in the air! All-foam Jr. Glow Stomp Rockets are great for younger kids. They glow in the dark and are perfect for fun during the day, after dusk and in gloomy weather too. Stomp Rocket Jr. Glow is strong and durable, and great for active, outdoor play. Stomp Rockets have won lots of awards from industry experts, including iParenting Media, Dr. Toy and Creative Child Magazine. Includes 4 all-foam glow-in-the-dark Stomp Rockets and a Stomp Launcher. Refill rockets also available (item #20015). For kids ages 3 and up ...
BARSTOW, Calif. - A self-styled daredevil died Saturday after a rocket in which he launched himself crashed into the ground, a colleague and a witness said.. Mad Mike Hughes died after the homemade rocket crashed on private property near Barstow about 1:52 p.m. near Highway 247, the Daily Press of Victorville reported.. Waldo Stakes, a colleague who was at the rocket launch, said Hughes, 64, was killed.. It was unsuccessful, and he passed away, Stakes told The Associated Press. He declined further comment.. Justin Chapman, a freelance journalist, told the AP that he and his wife witnessed the crash.. The rocket appeared to rub against the launch apparatus, which might have torn the parachutes attached to it, Chapman said.. The rocket came straight down into the ground, Chapman said.. According to a San Bernardino County Sheriffs Department statement, deputies were called to the event.. A man was pronounced deceased after the rocket crashed in the open desert during a rocket launch event, ...
Atlas Copco Boomer Rocket Boomer M2 C Typical min. drift width 3.2 m Coverage 10 - 45 m² Rocket Boomer 282 Typical min. drift width 3.0 m Coverage 8 - 45 m² Rocket Boomer L1 C Typical min. drift width 3.2 m Rocket Boomer 281 Typical min. drift width 2.7 m Rocket Boomer 104 Typical min. drift width 1.8 m Rocket Boomer S1 L For roof heights ...
Urine immunoelectrophoresis is a lab test that measures immunoglobulins in a urine sample. Immunoglobulins are proteins that function as antibodies. Learn more.
I will use a countdown before launch, and will ensure that everyone is paying attention and is a safe distance of at least 15 feet away when I launch rockets with D motors or smaller, and 30 feet when I launch larger rockets. If I am uncertain about the safety or stability of an untested rocket, I will check the stability before flight and will fly it only after warning spectators and clearing them away to a safe distance. When conducting a simultaneous launch of more than ten rockets, I will observe a safe distance of 1.5 times the maximum expected altitude of any launched rocket ...
rocket definition: The definition of a rocket is a long circular device that is launched into the air. (noun) An example of a rocket is what helps launch a guided missile into space. An example of a rocket is a firecracker. ...
Whole IgG antibodies are isolated as intact molecules from antisera by immunoaffinity chromatography. They have an Fc portion and two antigen binding Fab portions joined together by disulfide bonds and therefore they are divalent. The average molecular weight is reported to be about 160 kDa. The whole IgG form of antibodies is suitable for the majority of immunodetection procedures and is the most cost effective.Based on immunoelectrophoresis and/or ELISA, the antibody reacts with whole molecule mouse IgG. It also reacts with the light chains of other mouse immunoglobulins. No antibody was detected against non-immunoglobulin serum proteins. The antibody has been tested by ELISA and/or solid-phase adsorbed to ensure minimal cross-reaction with bovine, chicken, goat, guinea pig, syrian hamster, horse, human, rabbit and sheep serum proteins, but it may cross-react with immunoglobulins from other species ...
The antibody was raised in Rabbit by immunizing purified Mouse IgG. These antisera were then immunoaffinity purified from the antigen specific column with minimum cross-reaction to human serum proteins. Based on immunoelectrophoresis, the antibody reacts with the heavy chains on Mouse IgG and with the light chains common to most mouse immunoglobulines. No antibody was detected against non-immunoglobulin serum proteins. ...
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Rabbit anti-sheep IgG (H/L) is specific for sheep IgG heavy and light chains. Immunoelectrophoresis resulted in a single precipitin arc ag
Still Testing was originally slated to blast off during a launch window in November of last year, but the launch was delayed after a power fault in the ground systems triggered an automatic abort just seconds before liftoff. Once again, were expecting to scrub multiple times as we wait for perfect conditions and make sure everything on the vehicle is performing as it should, said Peter Beck, founder and CEO of Rocket Lab.. The Electron rocket, built with 3D-printed engines and a mostly composite construction, is designed for rapid manufacture and a high launch rate. The relatively small launch vehicle, only 56 feet tall, is catered to the growing demand for a rocket to place smaller satellites in orbit. Ultimately, Rocket Lab wants to ramp up to about 50 Electron launches per year from its private spaceport in New Zealand. Before it can do that, however, Rocket Lab needs to complete its vehicle testing program, which could continue with a launch as early as Friday night. ...
Check Fire vs Rockets, The Hundred Mens Competition 2021, 20th Match Match scoreboard, ball by ball commentary, updates only on ESPNcricinfo.com. Check Fire vs Rockets 20th Match Videos, Reports Articles Online.
Canadian Model Rocket Store of Estes, Quest and Custom Rockets AltiTrak Altitude Tracker [302232 Box] - How high did it really go? Next time, measure it with this easy to use device. Follow the model rocket in the sights to apogee, release the trigger to lock the reading. Easy-to-read display gives you your altitude in meters along with the elevation angle. Use two AltiTraks for
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Rocket Lab successfully launched a rocket from the Hawkes Bays Mahia Peninsula on Sunday, sending its Electron satellite into orbit. The triumph means Rocket Lab will soon be ready to forge ahead in the commercial space industry. To discuss the significance of the launch were joined by Nick Rattenbury, an astrophysicist at the University of Auckland.
Rocket engines. View of the nozzles of rocket engines on the first stage of a Russian Proton-M launcher. The Proton-M has six RD-253 first-stage engines developing a total of 10.5 MN (mega-newtons) of thrust. He rocket has a payload capacity of 22 tonnes to low-earth orbit or 3.5 tonnes to geostationary orbit with the Briz upper stage. Photographed at the Baikonur space centre in Kazkhstan in 2007. - Stock Image C007/3258
How to Make a Rocket. Rockets illustrate Newtons Third Law of Motion: For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. The first rocket may have been a steam-propelled wooden pigeon invented by Archytas of Tarentum in the...
When the Rockets needed to get something going offensively late in Sundays game, coach Kevin McHale decided to throw something different at the Trail Blazers. The tactic worked, as the Rockets outscored the Trail Blazers 33-21 in the final quarter - Harden had 17 of those, and Lin had nine. The three guards did provide an offensive spark, but their defense also was key to the victory. In the last several wins for the Rockets, multiple lineups have worked in their favor.
Custom Rockets - Fiesta {Kit} (10030) By Ken Johnson An entry level rocket that suffers from some quality control problems. At first glance, the lackluster packaging had me thinking Siesta instead, but once I delved into the project, there was plenty to like about this single stage 4FNC rocket. The package was the typical plastic hanging bag that allowed most of the components to be seen without opening the bag. As a plus (or minus, ... ...
Space Rocket - Star World is a Casual Game, Download Space Rocket - Star World For PC from the direct download link on PC Grim. Space Rocket - Star World is a
How is Multiple Launch Rocket System Fire Direction System abbreviated? MLRSFDS stands for Multiple Launch Rocket System Fire Direction System. MLRSFDS is defined as Multiple Launch Rocket System Fire Direction System very rarely.
Stomp on the launch pad and generate a blast of air that propels a rocket 200 ft into the air. Rocket features a rounded nosecone made of foam for safe launches and landings. Kit includes 4 rockets and a launch pad.
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A long time ago, in a galaxy far far away (okay, really it was only over here a few years ago), I wrote an article about plot. The past couple days, Ive been reading Laurell K. Hamiltons latest book (I use that term loosely, based on the fact that it was produced by a publishing company,…
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Vassilis Spanoulis got a chance when Kirk Snyders right hand was broken Monday night, then made enough of it to extend his playing time well into the fourth quarter of a 97-90 victory over the Knicks. More than anything, Spanoulis played 13 minutes without the waves of turnovers or defensive gambles that filled his preseason minutes. Van Gundy said Spanoulis is guaranteed increased playing time as long as he can keep his turnovers to a minimum. Theres that fine line between aggression - and he needs to play aggressively on offense - and being careful with the ball, especially as we struggle through this turnover period were going through. [...] his quickness could help offset the trend toward playing two smaller, quick guards, a backcourt style that has given the Rockets trouble. To help negate his turnover tendencies, the Rockets will likely keep Spanoulis at shooting guard, rather than the point guard position he played in the preseason. Shy about shootingWith a shot that is a work in
Nov 28, 2017, 05:01pm EST , Its Not Rocket Science. x ƶ�����L�uKY #�o*Ȝ����E iI�_ݷ[email protected]����C,�a�*Ɩ�������z�o=��>�*~�`)_��cF�B���d��W�\�C���F�Ս���WB��9h�,R���3���f7��7�R�Byx googletag.pubads().setTargeting(cdo_ei, it-s-not-rocket-science); bids: [{ bidder: rubicon, params: { accountId: 17282, siteId: 162036, zoneId: 776156, position: atf }}, }, Not one of us stood up and said, Dammit, stop!. Subscribe to gain access to 3 exclusive newsletter freebies PLUS teaching tips, free resources, and updates about whats going in my Its Not Rocket Science classroom and store each month. Directions: Answer each question, you do not … 3 - Draw an arrow (or more if needed) to show the transfer of electrons and move … Make sure to show all work to receive credit. Then answer the Flow here is the process of energy moving through a system. Hi Im Rebecca and Ive been ...
Hello Rocket Poolers! Today were extremely excited to announce the launch date of our highly anticipated mainnet release. To say this is huge milestone for the team and our beloved community would…
Bonjour ! The quiz results for the rocket test module 3 are not showing correctly to me. I got all the questions right, but after I finished it the results showed 5/25 (20%). I retook the test and the same thing happenned: 5/25, even when all answers
12 of Rocket League's Battle-Cars have been miniaturized into little pull-back racers! Each one comes packaged up inside a Rocket Ball, which when opened will reveal the surprise of which racer you've got. Select cars include DLC code for in-game content!
Mina Rocket is a character role-played by minakorocket. Mina Rocket is a young lady who always seems to be happy and laughing. While her initial arrival to Los Santos was filled with some misfortune, she has managed to befriend many people around the city. Her positive outlook and generosity...
Lockout, shmockout. Big deal. Season or not, the Rockets want you to know that buying season tickets is still a safe investment. Fans wont lose a penny if any games are missed. The Rockets are offering two plans for season ticket holders. Season tic… … ...
CLEVELAND -- All-Star guard James Harden fired in 37 points in the Houston Rockets' 118-111 victory over the Cleveland Cavaliers on Saturday at Quicken Loans Arena. He hit the Cavaliers with a 17-point barrage in the third quarter, including a rare four-point play. He helped the Rockets post their
Specialist training in the operation of advanced rocket launchers. 2% bonus per level to the rate of fire of modules requiring Rocket Specialization ...
Dnepr rocket also dubbed Satan has blast off into earths orbit carrying over 30 satellites from 17 countries, including the US. The rocket itself is of Russia-Ukraine make.
Goat anti Mouse IgG antibody recognizes both the heavy and light chains of mouse IgG. Immunoelectrophoresis revealed a single precipitin a
The traditional nuclear thermal rocket probably isnt practical either. A nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) uses a nuclear reactor to heat a fluid - usually hydrogen - which is then used as exhaust. Unlike an Orion, which looks like a gigantic plate on top of an explosion, an NTR would look like a classical rocket like the Saturn-V. Like the A-plane, NTRs were the focus of a major AEC/NASA research effort in the 60s that is now largely forgotten. However, Orion drives outperform nuclear thermal rockets on every metric. If you take Orion off the table, it is theoretically possible to build a nuclear thermal rocket with a thrust/weight ratio high enough for Earth launch, but it requires either liquid oxygen augmentation - which eliminates almost all of the efficiency advantage - or materials that dont exist today, and probably wont exist in this half of the 21st century. The most we might see would be a nuclear-powered upper stage with a conventional lower stage, like the TIMBERWIND proposal in ...
Hello, Im completely new to shooters that require anything besides hitscan aim. Because of this I find aiming with rockets incredibly hard. I cant seem to hit much and most of the hits feel like random luck because I dont really know what Im doing. The only tip Ive gotten so far is to only use rockets if you can see enemys feet. What other sort of stuff should I know about? When do I aim at the floor besides them and when do I go for a direct hit? When should I jump in a rocket vs. rocket fight? How fast should I be shooting? Is there a generally accepted better crosshair to use with rockets, I always seem to aim too far up. And as if thats not hard enough - whats the logic behind dodging? What kind of positioning should I utilize? Do people jump to dodge? How to figure out your opponent while constantly getting hit? I really wish Reflex had bots and aim maps, would make practising a lot more enjoyable. Thanks ...
Many kids don't like dark rooms. Time to add some space-age whimsy (and light) to their wall with this Red Rocket. Remote controlled lights and sounds will help them not be so scared of the dark.
The $100/kg proposal is to combine the high thrust of rockets with the high exhaust velocity of ablation laser propulsion. It allows large payloads to be sent to GEO using relatively small lasers. The reason it works is that it matches the stage exhaust velocity to the mission velocity allowing small mass ratios. Of the 14 km/sec needed to GEO, the rocket part of the pop up and push will provide about 2 km/sec. (A mass ratio 3 rocket will reach its exhaust velocity, of 4k/sec, but ~2km/sec is lost to gravity and air drag.) So the laser stage has to provide about 12 km/sec of the 14 needed to get to GEO and circularize the orbit. For a mass ratio of 3, this would require an exhaust velocity of 12 km/sec, for a mass ratio of 2 about 17 km/sec. Thats between 1/3 and 1/2 payload. The laser stage is about 1/6th the mass of the chemical stage and very simple. Everybody who has looked at the rocket equation knows that matching delta V to the mission profile keeps the mass ratio reasonable.. The ...
Michael Strano set off hydrogen-fueled rockets as a kid. Today his lab is developing nanosensors, bionic plants, nanoscale ice wires, and a brand-new source of energy.
Crossed immunoelectrophoresis is also called two-dimensional quantitative immunoelectrophoresis ad modum Clarke and Freeman or ... Rocket immunoelectrophoresis is one-dimensional quantitative immunoelectrophoresis. The method has been used for quantitation ... Identification of nanomaterial interaction with C3 protein complement and 2D immunoelectrophoresis 2D immunoelectrophoresis is ... As a result, newer immunoelectrophoresis techniques have largely supplanted the conventional immunoelectrophoresis. Homburger, ...
Electrophoresis Immunoelectrophoresis Ling IT.; Cooksley S.; Bates PA.; Hempelmann E.; Wilson RJM. (1986). "Antibodies to the ... "Counter immunoelectrophoresis". Sherris, John C.; Ryan, Kenneth J.; Ray, C. L. (2004). Sherris medical microbiology: an ...
Immunoelectrophoresis Aizpurua-Olaizola, Oier; Sastre Torano, Javier; Pukin, Aliaksei; Fu, Ou; Boons, Geert Jan; de Jong, ... "rocket immunoelectrophoresis", affinity electrophoresis may be used as an alternative quantification of the protein. Some of ...
Immunoelectrophoresis Miller, Linda E. (2021). "18, Immunoproliferative Diseases: Role of the Laboratory in Evaluating ... Immunofixation as immunoelectrophoresis, takes place in two steps: The first step is identical for both techniques. It consists ...
Simple and inexpensive, immunoelectrophoresis quickly became a widely-used method of analysis in clinical biology with ... His award-winning development of Immunoelectrophoresis made it possible to identify specific bodily proteins, opening new ... In 1953 Grabar developed immunoelectrophoresis, combining electrophoresis and immunochemical analysis to create an "immuno- ... Arquembourg, Pierre C. (1975). Immunoelectrophoresis: Theory, Methods, Identifications, Interpretation. S. Karger. pp. 6, 12. ...
Trpinac, P., Bugarski, O .: Immunoelectrophoresis. Archives of Pharmacy 1959; 5: 257. Pavlović, V., Trpinac, P .: Application ...
Ayrault Jarrier M, Levy G, Polonovski J (August 1963). "[Study of Human Serum Alpha-Lipoproteins by Immunoelectrophoresis]". ...
Roy AK, Neuhaus OW (March 1966). "Identification of rat urinary proteins by zone and immunoelectrophoresis". Proceedings of the ...
Sophisticated applications include ELISA, enzyme-linked immunospot (Elispot), immunofluorescence, and immunoelectrophoresis. ... "Identification of Cytosolic Antigens from GW-39 Adenocarcinoma Cells by Crossed Immunoelectrophoresis and Immunofluorescence". ...
Solutions of sodium barbital have also been used as pH buffers for biological research, e.g., in immunoelectrophoresis or in ... Monthony JF, Wallace EG, Allen DM (October 1978). "A non-barbital buffer for immunoelectrophoresis and zone electrophoresis in ...
The technology of immunoelectrophoresis, immunoprecipitation in gel and fluorescent microscopy was introduced. In his days a ...
... immunoelectrophoresis, immunophenotyping, immunochromatographic assay and cyflometry. One of the earliest examples of ...
Goetz, DW (July 2005). "Cross-reactivity among edible nuts: double immunodiffusion, crossed immunoelectrophoresis, and human ... crossed immunoelectrophoresis, and human specific IgE serologic surveys". Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. 95 (1): 45-52 ...
Gerald Penn is a clinical immunologist, and a pioneer in the field of clinical immunoelectrophoresis. He was a student of Henry ...
"Characterization of extract of dog hair and dandruff from six different dog breeds by quantitative immunoelectrophoresis. ...
... or as immunoelectrophoresis.[citation needed] Traditionally, two classes of blood proteins are considered: serum albumin and ... or gel electrophoresis Immunoelectrophoresis Immunofixation SDD-AGE Native gel electrophoresis QPNC-PAGE Paraprotein Fast ... immunoelectrophoresis, counterelectrophoresis, and capillary electrophoresis. Each method has many variations with individual ...
Ouchterlony O (1970), Handbook of Immunodiffusion and Immunoelectrophoresis, Ann Arbor, MI: Ann Arbor-Humphrey Science ...
Allozymes, DNA-DNA hybridization, immunoelectrophoresis, restriction site analyses of mitochondrial DNA and serology were used ...
Ouchterlony O (1970), Handbook of Immunodiffusion and Immunoelectrophoresis, Ann Arbor, MI: Ann Arbor-Humphrey Science ...
Sodium barbital and barbital have also been used as pH buffers for biological research, e.g., in immuno-electrophoresis or in ...
Immunoelectrophoresis and immunofixation studies help identify the type of immunoglobulin, the clonality of the light chain, ...
Gel electrophoresis Immunodiffusion, Immunoelectrophoresis SDD-AGE Northern blot SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis ...
... is also used widely for a number of other applications, for example immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis, as the ...
The precipitated cryoglobulins are examined by immunoelectrophoresis and immunofixation to detect and quantify the presence of ...
... immunoelectrophoresis, and magnetic immunoassay. Antibodies raised against human chorionic gonadotropin are used in over the ...
Pull-down assays are a common variation of immunoprecipitation and immunoelectrophoresis and are used identically, although ...
Dielectrophoresis Electroblotting Gel electrophoresis Gel electrophoresis of nucleic acids Immunoelectrophoresis Isoelectric ...
... may refer to: Immunoelectrophoresis Inclusion-exclusion principle Integrated electric propulsion Isoelectric point ...
... two-dimensional immunoelectrophoresis MeSH H01.181.529.307.437.575 - iontophoresis MeSH H01.181.529.307.437.663 - isoelectric ... immunoelectrophoresis MeSH H01.181.529.307.437.568.250 - counterimmunoelectrophoresis MeSH H01.181.529.307.437.568.520 - ...
... commonly used to analyse proteins Immunoelectrophoresis, used to separate and characterize biomolecules on basis their ...
Serum immunoelectrophoresis is a lab test that measures proteins called immunoglobulins in the blood. Immunoglobulins are ... Serum immunoelectrophoresis is a lab test that measures proteins called immunoglobulins in the blood. Immunoglobulins are ...
... View/. Open. emhj_2001_7_6_907 ... Countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis could detect only 62.0% of cases, whereas the pathology and ultrasound results were ... The results of countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis were compared with pathology and ultrasound reports to determine whether ... ultrasound imaging or countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis?. EMHJ - Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, 7 (‎6)‎, 907-911, ...
Corradetti, A; Verolini, F; Ilardi, A; Bucci, A; World Health Organization (‎World Health OrganizationWorld Health Organization, 1966)‎ ...
LOINC Code 49274-4 Immunoelectrophoresis for Serum or Plasma Narrative ... 49274-4Immunoelectrophoresis for Serum or Plasma NarrativeActive. Fully-Specified Name. Component. Interpretation. Property. ... Immunoelectrophoresis. Additional Names. Short Name. Interpretation SerPl IEP-Imp. Display Name. Interpretation IEP Nar [Interp ...
Urine immunoelectrophoresis. Light-chain proteins are best detected and identified using immunoelectrophoresis with ... Serum protein electrophoresis and immunoelectrophoresis. These can be used to evaluate and quantitate the abnormal monoclonal ...
Detection of Bacteroides infection by counter immunoelectrophoresis test.. Authors: Lalitha, M K. Mathai, E. Elias, L. Anandi, ... Detection of Bacteroides infection by counter immunoelectrophoresis test. Indian Journal of Medical Research. 1991 May; 93(): ...
keywords = "immunoelectrophoresis, two-dimensional electrophoresis, α-GPD null mutants",. author = "Lee, {Chi Yu} and David ... Mutants which express no apparent α-GPDH activity were analyzed by two-dimensional gels and immunoelectrophoresis in an attempt ... Mutants which express no apparent α-GPDH activity were analyzed by two-dimensional gels and immunoelectrophoresis in an attempt ... Mutants which express no apparent α-GPDH activity were analyzed by two-dimensional gels and immunoelectrophoresis in an attempt ...
Immunoelectrophoresis of Cataractous Lenses. AMA Arch Ophthalmol. 1959;61(5):738-744. doi:10.1001/archopht.1959.00940090740010 ...
CIEP, counter-immunoelectrophoresis; IAT, serum iodine agglutination test; NA, samples not available; ND, assays not done; +, ...
HI, CF, NT, IFA, counter immunoelectrophoresis Footnotes. ,,,Click on the PDF icon to the left to view a copy of this virus ...
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) can be described as a collection of clinical syndromes that manifests as an acute inflammatory polyradiculoneuropathy with resultant weakness and diminished reflexes. With poliomyelitis under control in developed countries, GBS is now the most important cause of acute flaccid paralysis.
Immunoelectrophoresis * Immunoglobulin A / isolation & purification * Immunoglobulin G / isolation & purification * ...
The Diagnosis of Human Pulmonary Hydatidosis by the Immunoelectrophoresis Test Luis A. Yarzábal ...
Immunoelectrophoresis. Samples of IgM or PSA-IgM preparations (10 μL) were subjected to immunoelectrophoresis on 1% agar gel ...
Categories: Immunoelectrophoresis Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
2-D Immunoelectrophoresis use Immunoelectrophoresis. Two-Dimensional 2-D Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis use Electrophoresis ...
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common degenerative disease of the motor neuron system. The disorder is named for its underlying pathophysiology, with
6.1.3 Immunoelectrophoresis. Immunoelectrophoresis Market Estimates and Forecasts, 2014 - 2025 (USD Million). 6.1.4 ... 38 Global immunoelectrophoresis surgery market, 2014 - 2025 (USD Million) Fig. 39 Global antibody identification surgery market ...
Immunoelectrophoresis, Immunohistochemistry, Immunocytochemistry, Antibody Identification, Western Blotting), End Users ( ... 5.2.3. Immunoelectrophoresis. 5.2.4. Immunohistochemistry. 5.2.5. Immunocytochemistry. 5.2.6. Antibody Identification. 5.2.7. ... Immunoelectrophoresis. - Immunohistochemistry. - Immunocytochemistry. - Antibody Identification. - Western Blotting. Global ... Immunoelectrophoresis, Immunohistochemistry, Immunocytochemistry, Antibody Identification, Western Blotting), End Users ( ...
Antigenic Homogeneity among Legionella pneumophila Serogroups 1 to 6 Evaluated by Crossed Immunoelectrophoresis JETTE M. ... In addition, reproducibility of the antigenic profile of L. pneumophila by crossed immunoelectrophoresis was demonstrated. ... pneumophila serogroup 1 system and the polyvalent crossed immunoelectrophoresis system with L. pneumophila serogroups 1 to 6 ...
Immunoelectrophoresis (IEP) 5 * Immunofluorescence (IF) 4 * Immunofluorescence (fixed cells) (IF/ICC) 3 ...
Immunoelectrophoresis performed using serum and urine transthyretin samples revealed no monoclonal spike. The results of ...
Various electrophoresis systems, including; SDS-PAGE, Western blot and immunoelectrophoresis. *ELISA. *Fluorescence microscopy ...
... counter-immunoelectrophoresis and radio-immune precipitation assay. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects ...
The next step is to use immunoelectrophoresis to determine the exact type of proteins in the blood. During this process, ...
Additionally, serum samples were screened for anti-pseudomonal antibodies using crossed immunoelectrophoresis 13. To assess ...
Assay by immunoelectrophoresis resulted in a single precipitin arc against anti-Goat Serum. No reaction was observed against ...
Quantitative immunoelectrophoresis of proteins in human erythrocyte membranes. Analysis of protein bands obtained by sodium ...
  • RÉSUMÉ L'objectif de cette étude réalisée en Iraq était de définir la sensibilité et la spécificité d'un test ELISA commercial pour la détection de l'antigène de Giardia lamblia dans les selles. (who.int)
  • Frequencies of autoantibodies to Sm, nRNP, Ro (SSA) and La (SSB) were determined by countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis (CIE) and/or enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) in 106 whites and 60 blacks with systemic lupus erythematosus. (nih.gov)
  • Based on immunoelectrophoresis and/or ELISA, the antibody reacts with whole molecule rat IgG. (jacksonimmuno.com)
  • Most workers reacted positively with Micropolyspora-faeni antigen, but is was not possible with either ELISA or counter immunoelectrophoresis to separate the ill from the workers who were not ill. (cdc.gov)
  • Specificity By immunoelectrophoresis and ELISA, this antibody reacts specifically with human IgE. (qedbio.com)
  • 1975). An antigen detection ELISA and counter-immunoelectrophoresis have been used to detect infections of Brugia pahangi in cats (Au et al. (aavp.org)
  • Serum immunoelectrophoresis is a lab test that measures proteins called immunoglobulins in the blood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Assay by immunoelectrophoresis resulted in a single precipitin arc against anti-Goat Serum. (abcam.com)
  • Assay by immunoelectrophoresis resulted in a single precipitin arc against anti-Mouse IgA alpha and anti-Mouse serum. (novusbio.com)
  • Based on Immunoelectrophoresis, no reactivity is observed to: non-immunoglobulin rabbit serum proteins, serum proteins from bovine, human, or mouse , IgG from human or mouse. (thermofisher.com)
  • Assay by immunoelectrophoresis resulted in a single precipitin arc against anti-Peroxidase, anti- Rat IgG, anti-Rat IgG F(ab')2 and anti-Rat Serum. (rockland.com)
  • Lee, CY, Niesel, D & Bewley, GC 1980, ' Analyses of genetic variants of l-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in Drosophila melanogaster by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and immunoelectrophoresis ', Biochemical Genetics , vol. 18, no. 9-10, pp. 1003-1018. (utmb.edu)
  • Methods for detection of Bence Jone proteins include conventional high-resolution electrophoresis or capillary zone electrophoresis followed by confirmation through immunofixation electrophoresis (preferable) or immunoelectrophoresis. (richardvigilantebooks.com)
  • The proteins of 46 human bile specimens, collected by several different routes have been studied by crossed immunoelectrophoresis, by rocket immunoelectrophoresis and by radioimmunoassay. (bmj.com)
  • Rocket Immunoelectrophoresis (RIEP) also known as electro-immuno diffusion is a simple, quick and reproducible method for determining the concentration of antigen (Ag) in an unknown sample. (microbiologynote.com)
  • Diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis: ultrasound imaging or countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis? (who.int)
  • The results of countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis were compared with pathology and ultrasound reports to determine whether serological tests could be helpful for diagnosis. (who.int)
  • Countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis could detect only 62.0% of cases, whereas the pathology and ultrasound results were positive for 96.3% of cases. (who.int)
  • including immunofluorescent assay, enzyme immunoassay, counter-immunoelectrophoresis and radio-immune precipitation assay. (who.int)
  • Light-chain proteins are best detected and identified using immunoelectrophoresis with monospecific antikappa and antilambda sera. (medscape.com)
  • Mutants which express no apparent α-GPDH activity were analyzed by two-dimensional gels and immunoelectrophoresis in an attempt to identify and characterize the inactive proteins. (utmb.edu)
  • The next step is to use immunoelectrophoresis to determine the exact type of proteins in the blood. (healthline.com)
  • Quantitative immunoelectrophoresis of proteins in human erythrocyte membranes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In the past, specific proteins were analyzed using a variety of specialized methods, such as radial immunodiffusion, immunoelectrophoresis or using dedicated nephelometers. (roche.com)
  • The most valuable serologic test in the diagnosis of human hydatid disease is immunoelectrophoresis. (medscape.com)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Detection of Bacteroides infection by counter immunoelectrophoresis test. (who.int)
  • The purified enzyme was free of other known brush border enzymes and appeared homogeneous in immunoelectrophoresis and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of SDS. (nih.gov)
  • Electrophoresis and immunoelectrophoresis of concentrated urine. (brighamandwomens.org)
  • Immunoelectrophoresis (IEP) was the first practical method that combined electrophoresis and immunoprecipitation for identifying and characterizing proteins within complex mixtures. (biofron.com)
  • Comparisons of the migration patterns of various protein fractions in gels by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, line-rocket immunoelectrophoresis, and enzyme-specific staining confirmed the identity of the two strains of R . quintana and their similarity to the vole agent. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The isolated protein was homogenous by the criteria of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, gel filtration chromatography, immuno-double diffusion and immunoelectrophoresis. (ias.ac.in)
  • Anti-Apolipoprotein B, goat polyclonal, recognizes human apolipoprotein B. It is validated for Western blotting, immunoelectrophoresis, and immunoprecipitation. (merckmillipore.com)
  • Immunoelectrophoresis in which immunoprecipitation occurs when antigen at the cathode is caused to migrate in an electric field through a suitable medium of diffusion against a stream of antibody migrating from the anode as a result of endosmotic flow. (lookformedical.com)
  • Streptococcus group B typing: comparison of counter-immunoelectrophoresis with the precipitin method. (nih.gov)
  • The different elapid venoms, with the exception of that of N. naja oxiana , showed a considerable number of identical and similar precipitin components by immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis. (ajtmh.org)
  • In immunoelectrophoresis and radial immunodiffusion (Ouchterlony), using various antiserum concentrations against fresh normal swine plasma a single precipitin line is obtained which shows a reaction of identity with the precipitin line obtained with purified alpha-1antitrypsin. (lsbio.com)
  • Diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis: ultrasound imaging or countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis? (who.int)
  • The results of countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis were compared with pathology and ultrasound reports to determine whether serological tests could be helpful for diagnosis. (who.int)
  • Urine immunoelectrophoresis revealed kappa light chains. (hindawi.com)
  • Immunofixation is similar to urine immunoelectrophoresis , but it may give more rapid results. (healthing.ca)
  • In precipitating techniques as immunoelectrophoresis and single or double radial immunodiffusion to identify the presence of alpha-1antitrypsin in swine plasma or other body fluids or to determine its concentration. (lsbio.com)
  • Weak serological cross-reactivity was observed by haemagglutination and two-dimensional immunoelectrophoresis. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Minimum cross-reactivity is observed to the light chains or to non-immunoglobulin goat serum proteins based on immunoelectrophoresis. (agrisera.com)
  • Light-chain proteins are best detected and identified using immunoelectrophoresis with monospecific antikappa and antilambda sera. (medscape.com)
  • Monospecific as determined by immunoelectrophoresis (IEP) against 2X pooled human serum and neat pooled human plasma. (merckmillipore.com)
  • Protein immunoelectrophoresis of serum and urine from the proband and from 19 family members was performed to detect monoclonal immunoproteins. (nih.gov)
  • Within this family, a sibship of seven included three individuals (including the proband) with histologically verified MM and two individuals with a monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS), as determined by immunoelectrophoresis of serum and urine. (nih.gov)
  • A finding of increased rouleaux formation suggests multiple myeloma, and the workup should be directed toward immunoelectrophoresis of serum and urine. (medscape.com)
  • Antisera forms multiple arcs against normal human serum by immunoelectrophoresis. (leebio.com)
  • The affinity purified anti human haptoglobin forms a single preciptin band with human serum haptoglobin and purified human haptoglobin by immunoelectrophoresis and double diffusion. (leebio.com)
  • Summary: The partial characterization of a mouse hydrosoluble testis specific protein by crossed immunoelectrophoresis, ion‐exchange chromatography and SDS‐Page was made. (uchile.cl)
  • Serum immunoelectrophoresis showed IgM K-type monoclonal gammopathy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This antibody reacts with the heavy chains on goat IgG based on immunoelectrophoresis. (agrisera.com)
  • Specificity of hyper immune sera raised against CPS was tested by counter current immunoelectrophoresis. (ijcea.org)
  • The development of a Klebsiella serotyping method by counter-current immunoelectrophoresis (CIE) is described. (nih.gov)