Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A nitrocellulose solution in ether and alcohol. Collodion has a wide range of uses in industry including applications in the manufacture of photographic film, in fibers, in lacquers, and in engraving and lithography. In medicine it is used as a drug solvent and a wound sealant.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
Aquaporin 2 is a water-specific channel protein that is expressed in KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. The translocation of aquaporin 2 to the apical PLASMA MEMBRANE is regulated by VASOPRESSIN, and MUTATIONS in AQP2 have been implicated in a variety of kidney disorders including DIABETES INSIPIDUS.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A class of porins that allow the passage of WATER and other small molecules across CELL MEMBRANES.
Aquaporin 6 is an aquaglyceroporin that is found primarily in KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. AQP6 protein functions as an anion-selective channel.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Na-K-Cl transporter in the ASCENDING LIMB OF LOOP OF HENLE. It mediates active reabsorption of sodium chloride and is inhibited by LOOP DIURETICS such as FUROSEMIDE; and BUMETANIDE. Mutations in the gene encoding SLC12A1 are associated with a BARTTER SYNDROME.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Straight tubes commencing in the radiate part of the kidney cortex where they receive the curved ends of the distal convoluted tubules. In the medulla the collecting tubules of each pyramid converge to join a central tube (duct of Bellini) which opens on the summit of the papilla.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
A subclass of symporters that specifically transport SODIUM CHLORIDE and/or POTASSIUM CHLORIDE across cellular membranes in a tightly coupled process.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Aquaporin 3 is an aquaglyceroporin that is expressed in the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS and is constitutively localized at the basolateral MEMBRANE.
Aquaporin 1 forms a water-specific channel that is constitutively expressed at the PLASMA MEMBRANE of ERYTHROCYTES and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL. It provides these cells with a high permeability to WATER. In humans polymorphisms of this protein result in the Colton blood group antigen.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Sensitive assay using radiolabeled ANTIGENS to detect specific ANTIBODIES in SERUM. The antigens are allowed to react with the serum and then precipitated using a special reagent such as PROTEIN A sepharose beads. The bound radiolabeled immunoprecipitate is then commonly analyzed by gel electrophoresis.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
A genus of parasitic nematodes that occurs in mammals including man. Infection in humans is either by larvae penetrating the skin or by ingestion of uncooked fish.
Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
An infectious disease caused by a spirochete, BORRELIA BURGDORFERI, which is transmitted chiefly by Ixodes dammini (see IXODES) and pacificus ticks in the United States and Ixodes ricinis (see IXODES) in Europe. It is a disease with early and late cutaneous manifestations plus involvement of the nervous system, heart, eye, and joints in variable combinations. The disease was formerly known as Lyme arthritis and first discovered at Old Lyme, Connecticut.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Gram-negative helical bacteria, in the genus BORRELIA, that are the etiologic agents of LYME DISEASE. The group comprises many specific species including Borrelia afzelii, Borellia garinii, and BORRELIA BURGDORFERI proper. These spirochetes are generally transmitted by several species of ixodid ticks.
A subclass of symporters found in KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL that are the major pathway for salt resorption. Inhibition of these symporters by BENZOTHIADIAZINES is the basis of action of some DIURETICS.
The pH in solutions of proteins and related compounds at which the dipolar ions are at a maximum.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to obstruction of BILE flow (CHOLESTASIS) in the intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC; BILE DUCTS, EXTRAHEPATIC). Primary biliary cirrhosis involves the destruction of small intra-hepatic bile ducts and bile secretion. Secondary biliary cirrhosis is produced by prolonged obstruction of large intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts from a variety of causes.
The internal portion of the kidney, consisting of striated conical masses, the renal pyramids, whose bases are adjacent to the cortex and whose apices form prominent papillae projecting into the lumen of the minor calyces.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Infection caused by the protozoan parasite TOXOPLASMA in which there is extensive connective tissue proliferation, the retina surrounding the lesions remains normal, and the ocular media remain clear. Chorioretinitis may be associated with all forms of toxoplasmosis, but is usually a late sequel of congenital toxoplasmosis. The severe ocular lesions in infants may lead to blindness.
Gastrointestinal disturbances, skin eruptions, or shock due to allergic reactions to allergens in food.
Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
Immunologic techniques involved in diagnosis.
Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A chronic multi-system disorder of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. It is characterized by SCLEROSIS in the SKIN, the LUNGS, the HEART, the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, the KIDNEYS, and the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM. Other important features include diseased small BLOOD VESSELS and AUTOANTIBODIES. The disorder is named for its most prominent feature (hard skin), and classified into subsets by the extent of skin thickening: LIMITED SCLERODERMA and DIFFUSE SCLERODERMA.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Filaments 7-11 nm in diameter found in the cytoplasm of all cells. Many specific proteins belong to this group, e.g., desmin, vimentin, prekeratin, decamin, skeletin, neurofilin, neurofilament protein, and glial fibrillary acid protein.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.
A synthetic analog of the pituitary hormone, ARGININE VASOPRESSIN. Its action is mediated by the VASOPRESSIN receptor V2. It has prolonged antidiuretic activity, but little pressor effects. It also modulates levels of circulating FACTOR VIII and VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
A chronic and relatively benign subepidermal blistering disease usually of the elderly and without histopathologic acantholysis.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
Infections with nematodes of the order SPIRURIDA.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Na-Cl cotransporter in the convoluted segments of the DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE. It mediates active reabsorption of sodium and chloride and is inhibited by THIAZIDE DIURETICS.
Urination of a large volume of urine with an increase in urinary frequency, commonly seen in diabetes (DIABETES MELLITUS; DIABETES INSIPIDUS).
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.

Functional activities and epitope specificity of human and murine antibodies against the class 4 outer membrane protein (Rmp) of Neisseria meningitidis. (1/17448)

Antibodies against the class 4 outer membrane protein (OMP) from Neisseria meningitidis have been purified from sera from vaccinees immunized with the Norwegian meningococcal group B outer membrane vesicle vaccine. The human sera and purified antibodies reacted strongly with the class 4 OMP in immunoblots, whereas experiments with whole bacteria showed only weak reactions, indicating that the antibodies mainly reacted with parts of the class 4 molecule that were not exposed. The purified human anti-class 4 OMP antibodies and the monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were neither bactericidal nor opsonic against live meningococci. Three new MAbs against the class 4 OMP were generated and compared with other, previously described MAbs. Three linear epitopes in different regions of the class 4 OMP were identified by the reaction of MAbs with synthetic peptides. The MAbs showed no blocking effect on bactericidal activity of MAbs against other OMPs. However, one of the eight purified human anti-class 4 OMP antibody preparations, selected from immunoblot reactions among sera from 27 vaccinees, inhibited at high concentrations the bactericidal effect of a MAb against the class 1 OMP. However, these antibodies were not vaccine induced, as they were present also before vaccination. Therefore, this study gave no evidence that vaccination with a meningococcal outer membrane vesicle vaccine containing the class 4 OMP induces blocking antibodies. Our data indicated that the structure of class 4 OMP does not correspond to standard beta-barrel structures of integral OMPs and that no substantial portion of the OmpA-like C-terminal region of this protein is located at the surface of the outer membrane.  (+info)

Autoantibodies to RNA polymerases recognize multiple subunits and demonstrate cross-reactivity with RNA polymerase complexes. (2/17448)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the subunit specificity of autoantibody directed to RNA polymerases (RNAP) I, II, and III, which is one of the major autoantibody responses in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS: Thirty-two SSc sera with anti-RNAP antibodies (23 with anti-RNAP I/III, 5 with anti-RNAP I/III and II, and 4 with anti-RNAP II alone) were analyzed by immunoblotting using affinity-purified RNAP and by immunoprecipitation using 35S-labeled cell extracts in which RNAP complexes were dissociated. Antibodies bound to individual RNAP subunits were eluted from preparative immunoblots and were further analyzed by immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation. RESULTS: At least 15 different proteins were bound by antibodies in anti-RNAP-positive SSc sera in various combinations. All 9 sera immunoprecipitating RNAP II and all 28 sera immunoprecipitating RNAP I/III recognized the large subunit proteins of RNAP II and III, respectively. Reactivity to RNAP I large subunits was strongly associated with bright nucleolar staining by indirect immunofluorescence. Affinity-purified antibodies that recognized a 62-kd subunit protein cross-reacted with a 43-kd subunit protein and immunoprecipitated both RNAP I and RNAP III. Antibodies that recognized a 21-kd subunit protein obtained from sera that were positive for anti-RNAP I/III and II antibodies immunoprecipitated both RNAP II and RNAP III. CONCLUSION: Anti-RNAP antibodies recognize multiple subunits of RNAP I, II, and III. Moreover, the results of this study provide the first direct evidence that antibodies that recognize shared subunits of human RNAPs or epitopes present on different human RNAP subunits are responsible for the recognition of multiple RNAPs by SSc sera.  (+info)

Sulphation and secretion of the predominant secretory human colonic mucin MUC2 in ulcerative colitis. (3/17448)

BACKGROUND: Decreased synthesis of the predominant secretory human colonic mucin (MUC2) occurs during active ulcerative colitis. AIMS: To study possible alterations in mucin sulphation and mucin secretion, which could be the cause of decreased mucosal protection in ulcerative colitis. METHODS: Colonic biopsy specimens from patients with active ulcerative colitis, ulcerative colitis in remission, and controls were metabolically labelled with [35S]-amino acids or [35S]-sulphate, chase incubated and analysed by SDS-PAGE, followed by quantitation of mature [35S]-labelled MUC2. For quantitation of total MUC2, which includes non-radiolabelled and radiolabelled MUC2, dot blotting was performed, using a MUC2 monoclonal antibody. RESULTS: Between patient groups, no significant differences were found in [35S]-sulphate content of secreted MUC2 or in the secreted percentage of either [35S]-amino acid labelled MUC2 or total MUC2. During active ulcerative colitis, secretion of [35S]-sulphate labelled MUC2 was significantly increased twofold, whereas [35S]-sulphate incorporation into MUC2 was significantly reduced to half. CONCLUSIONS: During active ulcerative colitis, less MUC2 is secreted, because MUC2 synthesis is decreased while the secreted percentage of MUC2 is unaltered. Furthermore, sulphate content of secreted MUC2 is unaltered by a specific compensatory mechanism, because sulphated MUC2 is preferentially secreted while sulphate incorporation into MUC2 is reduced.  (+info)

Induction of hepatic cytochromes P450 in dogs exposed to a chronic low dose of polychlorinated biphenyls. (4/17448)

Induction of cytochrome P450 isoforms, specifically CYP1A1, and their catalytic activities are potential biomarkers of environmental contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In this study, dogs were exposed to 25 ppm or 5 ppm Aroclor 1248 (PCB mixture) daily in their diet for 10 or 20 weeks, respectively. Relative to controls, hepatic microsomes from dogs dosed with PCBs had higher levels of CYP1A1 detected in immunoblots and higher levels of EROD activity, but low levels of induction for CYP2B and PROD activity. Concentrations of 96 PCB congeners in serum and liver were evaluated using capillary chromatography. Results showed that all dogs exposed to PCB mixtures had higher levels of PCB in serum and liver. Dogs preferentially sequestered highly chlorinated PCB congeners in liver relative to serum. With these experiments, we demonstrated that EROD activity was a potentially sensitive marker of PCB exposure at 5 and 25 ppm. Furthermore, CYP1A1 and EROD activity were maximally induced in dogs consuming dietary concentrations only 2.5 times the maximal permissible level for human food (FDA). The value of CYP1A1 induction as a biomarker of PCB exposure was tenuous because neither CYP1A1 levels nor EROD activity correlated with total PCB body burden. However, a small subset of congeners were identified in liver that may strongly influence EROD and PROD induction. Finally, two dogs in the 25 ppm dose group were fasted for 48 h. After 24 h of fasting, several new congeners appeared in the serum and remained in the serum for the remainder of the fast. The fast caused a 293% increase in PCB concentration in serum. This increase has strong implications regarding mobilization of toxic PCBs in wildlife during fasting (e.g., migration, hibernation).  (+info)

Thaumatin production in Aspergillus awamori by use of expression cassettes with strong fungal promoters and high gene dosage. (5/17448)

Four expression cassettes containing strong fungal promoters, a signal sequence for protein translocation, a KEX protease cleavage site, and a synthetic gene (tha) encoding the sweet protein thaumatin II were used to overexpress this protein in Aspergillus awamori lpr66, a PepA protease-deficient strain. The best expression results were obtained with the gdhA promoter of A. awamori or with the gpdA promoter of Aspergillus nidulans. There was good correlation of tha gene dosage, transcript levels, and thaumatin secretion. The thaumatin gene was expressed as a transcript of the expected size in each construction (1.9 or 1.4 kb), and the transcript levels and thaumatin production rate decayed at the end of the growth phase, except in the double transformant TB2b1-44-GD5, in which secretion of thaumatin continued until 96 h. The recombinant thaumatin secreted by a high-production transformant was purified to homogeneity, giving one major component and two minor components. In all cases, cleavage of the fused protein occurred at the KEX recognition sequence. This work provides new expression systems in A. awamori that result in very high levels of thaumatin production.  (+info)

Immunochemical detection and isolation of DNA from metabolically active bacteria. (6/17448)

Most techniques used to assay the growth of microbes in natural communities provide no information on the relationship between microbial productivity and community structure. To identify actively growing bacteria, we adapted a technique from immunocytochemistry to detect and selectively isolate DNA from bacteria incorporating bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), a thymidine analog. In addition, we developed an immunocytochemical protocol to visualize BrdU-labeled microbial cells. Cultured bacteria and natural populations of aquatic bacterioplankton were pulse-labeled with exogenously supplied BrdU. Incorporation of BrdU into microbial DNA was demonstrated in DNA dot blots probed with anti-BrdU monoclonal antibodies and either peroxidase- or Texas red-conjugated secondary antibodies. BrdU-containing DNA was physically separated from unlabeled DNA by using antibody-coated paramagnetic beads, and the identities of bacteria contributing to both purified, BrdU-containing fractions and unfractionated, starting-material DNAs were determined by length heterogeneity PCR (LH-PCR) analysis. BrdU-containing DNA purified from a mixture of DNAs from labeled and unlabeled cultures showed >90-fold enrichment for the labeled bacterial taxon. The LH-PCR profile for BrdU-containing DNA from a labeled, natural microbial community differed from the profile for the community as a whole, demonstrating that BrdU was incorporated by a taxonomic subset of the community. Immunocytochemical detection of cells with BrdU-labeled DNA was accomplished by in situ probing with anti-BrdU monoclonal antibodies and Texas red-labeled secondary antibodies. Using this suite of techniques, microbial cells incorporating BrdU into their newly synthesized DNA can be quantified and the identities of these actively growing cells can be compared to the composition of the microbial community as a whole. Since not all strains tested could incorporate BrdU, these methods may be most useful when used to gain an understanding of the activities of specific species in the context of their microbial community.  (+info)

In situ identification of cyanobacteria with horseradish peroxidase-labeled, rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes. (7/17448)

Individual cyanobacterial cells are normally identified in environmental samples only on the basis of their pigmentation and morphology. However, these criteria are often insufficient for the differentiation of species. Here, a whole-cell hybridization technique is presented that uses horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled, rRNA-targeted oligonucleotides for in situ identification of cyanobacteria. This indirect method, in which the probe-conferred enzyme has to be visualized in an additional step, was necessary since fluorescently monolabeled oligonucleotides were insufficient to overstain the autofluorescence of the target cells. Initially, a nonfluorescent detection assay was developed and successfully applied to cyanobacterial mats. Later, it was demonstrated that tyramide signal amplification (TSA) resulted in fluorescent signals far above the level of autofluorescence. Furthermore, TSA-based detection of HRP was more sensitive than that based on nonfluorescent substrates. Critical points of the assay, such as cell fixation and permeabilization, specificity, and sensitivity, were systematically investigated by using four oligonucleotides newly designed to target groups of cyanobacteria.  (+info)

RAD53 regulates DBF4 independently of checkpoint function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (8/17448)

The Cdc7p and Dbf4p proteins form an active kinase complex in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that is essential for the initiation of DNA replication. A genetic screen for mutations that are lethal in combination with cdc7-1 led to the isolation of seven lsd (lethal with seven defect) complementation groups. The lsd7 complementation group contained two temperature-sensitive dbf4 alleles. The lsd1 complementation group contained a new allele of RAD53, which was designated rad53-31. RAD53 encodes an essential protein kinase that is required for the activation of DNA damage and DNA replication checkpoint pathways, and that is implicated as a positive regulator of S phase. Unlike other RAD53 alleles, we demonstrate that the rad53-31 allele retains an intact checkpoint function. Thus, the checkpoint function and the DNA replication function of RAD53 can be functionally separated. The activation of DNA replication through RAD53 most likely occurs through DBF4. Two-hybrid analysis indicates that the Rad53p protein binds to Dbf4p. Furthermore, the steady-state level of DBF4 message and Dbf4p protein is reduced in several rad53 mutant strains, indicating that RAD53 positively regulates DBF4. These results suggest that two different functions of the cell cycle, initiation of DNA replication and the checkpoint function, can be coordinately regulated through the common intermediate RAD53.  (+info)

1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.

2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.

3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.

4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.

5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.

6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.

7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.

8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.

9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.

10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.

Lyme disease is typically diagnosed based on a combination of physical symptoms, medical history, and laboratory tests. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, which can help to clear the infection and alleviate symptoms.

Prevention of Lyme disease involves protecting against tick bites by using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing when outdoors, and conducting regular tick checks. Early detection and treatment of Lyme disease can help to prevent long-term complications, such as joint inflammation and neurological problems.

In this definition, we have used technical terms such as 'bacterial infection', 'blacklegged tick', 'Borrelia burgdorferi', and 'antibiotics' to provide a more detailed understanding of the medical concept.

The condition is often caused by gallstones or other blockages that prevent the normal flow of bile from the liver to the small intestine. Over time, the scarring can lead to the formation of cirrhosis, which is characterized by the replacement of healthy liver tissue with scar tissue.

Symptoms of liver cirrhosis, biliary may include:

* Jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes)
* Itching
* Fatigue
* Abdominal pain
* Dark urine
* Pale stools

The diagnosis of liver cirrhosis, biliary is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as ultrasound, CT scans, and blood tests.

Treatment for liver cirrhosis, biliary depends on the underlying cause of the condition. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove gallstones or repair damaged bile ducts. Medications such as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory drugs may also be prescribed to help manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. In severe cases, a liver transplant may be necessary.

Prognosis for liver cirrhosis, biliary is generally poor, as the condition can lead to complications such as liver failure, infection, and cancer. However, with early diagnosis and appropriate treatment, it is possible to manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease.

Ocular toxoplasmosis is more common in people with compromised immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or undergoing immunosuppressive therapy following an organ transplant. It can also occur in individuals who have been exposed to the parasite through contact with contaminated soil, cat feces, or undercooked meat.

Symptoms of ocular toxoplasmosis can include blurred vision, eye pain, sensitivity to light, and floaters. If left untreated, the infection can lead to vision loss, retinal detachment, and even blindness.

Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests (such as polymerase chain reaction or serology), and imaging studies (such as ultrasonography or fluorescein angiography). Treatment typically involves antibiotics and anti-inflammatory medications, and in severe cases, surgery may be necessary.

Preventive measures include avoiding contact with cat feces, properly cooking meat, and avoiding undercooked meat, especially pork and lamb. Pregnant women should also take precautions to avoid exposure, as toxoplasmosis can be transmitted to the fetus and cause congenital infection.

There are several types of food hypersensitivity, including:

1. Food Allergy: An immune system reaction to a specific food that can cause symptoms ranging from mild hives to life-threatening anaphylaxis. Common food allergies include reactions to peanuts, tree nuts, fish, shellfish, milk, eggs, wheat, and soy.
2. Non-Allergic Food Hypersensitivity: Also known as non-IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity, this type of reaction does not involve the immune system. Symptoms can include bloating, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and headaches. Common culprits include gluten, dairy, and high-FODMAP foods.
3. Food Intolerance: A condition where the body cannot properly digest or process a specific food. Symptoms can include bloating, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and gas. Common food intolerances include lactose intolerance, fructose malabsorption, and celiac disease.
4. Food Aversion: An emotional response to a specific food that can cause avoidance or dislike of the food. This is not an allergic or physiological reaction but rather a psychological one.

The diagnosis of food hypersensitivity typically involves a thorough medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests such as skin prick testing or blood tests. Treatment options for food hypersensitivity depend on the type and severity of the reaction and may include avoidance of the offending food, medication, or immunotherapy.

There are two main types of systemic scleroderma: diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis (DCSS) and limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis (LCSS). DCSS is characterized by skin thickening and scar formation over the trunk, arms, and legs, while LCSS is characterized by skin tightening and patches of scaly skin on the hands and face.

The symptoms of systemic scleroderma can include:

* Skin hardening and tightening
* Fatigue
* Joint pain and stiffness
* Muscle weakness
* Swallowing difficulties
* Heartburn and acid reflux
* Shortness of breath
* Raynaud's phenomenon (pale or blue-colored fingers and toes in response to cold temperatures or stress)

The exact cause of systemic scleroderma is not known, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Treatment options for systemic scleroderma include medications to manage symptoms such as pain, stiffness, and swallowing difficulties, as well as physical therapy and lifestyle modifications to improve quality of life.

In summary, systemic scleroderma is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects multiple systems in the body, causing skin hardening and thickening, fatigue, joint pain, and other symptoms. While there is no cure for systemic scleroderma, treatment options are available to manage symptoms and improve quality of life.

A group of autoimmune blistering diseases that are characterized by the formation of large, tense bullae on the skin and mucous membranes. These diseases are caused by abnormal immunological responses to certain antigens, which lead to the production of autoantibodies that attack the basement membrane zone of the skin and mucous membranes, causing damage and blister formation.

There are several types of pemphigoid, bullous diseases, including:

* Pemphigoid, benign chronic
* Pemphigoid, severe
* Bullous pemphigoid
* Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita

Symptoms of pemphigoid, bullous diseases may include:

* Blisters on the skin and mucous membranes
* Redness and swelling around the blisters
* Itching or pain
* Fever

Diagnosis of pemphigoid, bullous diseases is based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and biopsy. Treatment involves the use of corticosteroids, immunosuppressive drugs, and antibiotics to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

The symptoms of spirurida infections can vary depending on the type of worm and the location of the infection. Some common symptoms include:

* Abdominal pain
* Diarrhea
* Fever
* Headache
* Joint pain
* Skin rashes
* Swelling in the affected area

The diagnosis of spirurida infections is based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment typically involves the use of anthelmintic drugs to kill the parasites.

Prevention of spirurida infections includes:

* Avoiding contact with contaminated soil or water
* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands regularly
* Avoiding eating undercooked meat or raw vegetables
* Using insecticides to control mosquitoes and other vectors

Some common types of spirurida infections include:

* Trichinosis, caused by Trichinella spiralis
* Spirometra infection, caused by Spirometra eridania
* Gnathostomiasis, caused by Gnathostoma spinigerum

Spirurida infections are relatively rare in developed countries but are more common in tropical and subtropical regions. They can be challenging to diagnose and treat, so it is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

In diabetes, polyuria is caused by high levels of glucose in the blood that cannot be properly absorbed by the body. The excess glucose spills into the urine, drawing water with it and increasing the volume of urine. This can lead to dehydration and electrolyte imbalances if left untreated.

In kidney disease, polyuria can be caused by damage to the kidneys that impairs their ability to concentrate urine. As a result, the body produces more urine than usual to compensate for the lack of concentrating ability.

Polyuria can also be a symptom of certain endocrine disorders such as diabetes insipidus, where the body produces too much antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or vasopressin, which leads to an excessive amount of urine production.

To diagnose polyuria, a healthcare provider may perform a physical examination, take a medical history, and conduct diagnostic tests such as urinalysis, blood glucose testing, and imaging studies. Treatment for polyuria depends on the underlying cause and may include medication, lifestyle changes, and in some cases, dialysis.

1. Bullous pemphigoid: This is a rare autoimmune disease that causes large, fluid-filled blisters to form on the skin.
2. Pemphigus: This is another group of rare autoimmune diseases that cause blisters and sores to form on the skin.
3. Impetigo: This is a highly contagious bacterial infection that causes red sores or blisters to form on the skin, often around the nose and mouth.
4. Herpes simplex: This is a viral infection that causes small, painful blisters to form on the skin, often around the mouth or genitals.
5. Molluscum contagiosum: This is a viral infection that causes small, firm bumps to form on the skin, which can become inflamed and itchy.

These conditions can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as biopsies or blood tests. Treatment for skin diseases, vesiculobullous depends on the underlying cause and may include antibiotics, anti-inflammatory medications, or immunosuppressive drugs. In some cases, surgical removal of the blisters or sores may be necessary. It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect you have a skin disease, vesiculobullous, as these conditions can be difficult to diagnose and treat, and can lead to complications such as infection or scarring.

The most common types of Rickettsiaceae infections include:

1. Rocky Mountain spotted fever: This is a severe and potentially life-threatening illness that is spread by the American dog tick (Dermacentor variabilis) and the wood tick (Dermacentor andersoni). Symptoms include fever, headache, and a characteristic rash.
2. Epidemic typhus: This infection is caused by Rickettsia prowazekii and is transmitted by the human louse (Pediculosis humanus corporis). Symptoms include fever, headache, and a rash.
3. Q fever: This infection is caused by Coxiella burnetii and is transmitted through contact with infected livestock or contaminated soil or airborne particles. Symptoms include fever, headache, and muscle pain.
4. Rickettsialpox: This is a rare infection caused by Rickettsia akari and is transmitted through the bite of an infected mite. Symptoms include fever, rash, and swollen lymph nodes.

Rickettsiaceae infections can be diagnosed through blood tests and other laboratory techniques. Treatment typically involves antibiotics and supportive care, such as fluids and pain management. Prevention measures include avoiding contact with infected arthropods, wearing protective clothing when outdoors, and using insect repellents.

Examples of autoimmune diseases include:

1. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA): A condition where the immune system attacks the joints, leading to inflammation, pain, and joint damage.
2. Lupus: A condition where the immune system attacks various body parts, including the skin, joints, and organs.
3. Hashimoto's thyroiditis: A condition where the immune system attacks the thyroid gland, leading to hypothyroidism.
4. Multiple sclerosis (MS): A condition where the immune system attacks the protective covering of nerve fibers in the central nervous system, leading to communication problems between the brain and the rest of the body.
5. Type 1 diabetes: A condition where the immune system attacks the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, leading to high blood sugar levels.
6. Guillain-Barré syndrome: A condition where the immune system attacks the nerves, leading to muscle weakness and paralysis.
7. Psoriasis: A condition where the immune system attacks the skin, leading to red, scaly patches.
8. Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis: Conditions where the immune system attacks the digestive tract, leading to inflammation and damage to the gut.
9. Sjögren's syndrome: A condition where the immune system attacks the glands that produce tears and saliva, leading to dry eyes and mouth.
10. Vasculitis: A condition where the immune system attacks the blood vessels, leading to inflammation and damage to the blood vessels.

The symptoms of autoimmune diseases vary depending on the specific disease and the organs or tissues affected. Common symptoms include fatigue, fever, joint pain, skin rashes, and swollen lymph nodes. Treatment for autoimmune diseases typically involves medication to suppress the immune system and reduce inflammation, as well as lifestyle changes such as dietary changes and stress management techniques.

There are several types of pemphigus, including:

1. Pemphigus vulgaris: This is the most common form of the disease and is characterized by the formation of large, painful blisters on the skin and mucous membranes.
2. Pemphigus foliaceus: This type of pemphigus is characterized by the formation of smaller, crusting sores on the skin.
3. Pemphigus erythematosus: This type of pemphigus is characterized by the formation of flat, red sores on the skin.
4. Bullous pemphigoid: This is a rare form of pemphigus that is characterized by the formation of large, fluid-filled blisters on the skin.

Treatment for pemphigus typically involves the use of corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage complications such as infection and fluid loss.

Prevention of pemphigus is difficult, but avoiding exposure to known triggers such as certain medications and taking steps to maintain good skin care can help reduce the risk of developing the disease. Early diagnosis and treatment are important to prevent complications and improve outcomes for patients with pemphigus.

The term "systemic" refers to the fact that the disease affects multiple organ systems, including the skin, joints, kidneys, lungs, and nervous system. LES is a complex condition, and its symptoms can vary widely depending on which organs are affected. Common symptoms include fatigue, fever, joint pain, rashes, and swelling in the extremities.

There are several subtypes of LES, including:

1. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): This is the most common form of the disease, and it can affect anyone, regardless of age or gender.
2. Discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE): This subtype typically affects the skin, causing a red, scaly rash that does not go away.
3. Drug-induced lupus erythematosus: This form of the disease is caused by certain medications, and it usually resolves once the medication is stopped.
4. Neonatal lupus erythematosus: This rare condition affects newborn babies of mothers with SLE, and it can cause liver and heart problems.

There is no cure for LES, but treatment options are available to manage the symptoms and prevent flares. Treatment may include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, immunosuppressive medications, and antimalarial drugs. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the disease.

It is important for people with LES to work closely with their healthcare providers to manage their condition and prevent complications. With proper treatment and self-care, many people with LES can lead active and fulfilling lives.

1. Bacterial dysentery: This type of dysentery is caused by bacteria such as Shigella or Salmonella and is typically spread through contaminated food or water. Symptoms include diarrhea, fever, abdominal cramps, and blood in the stool.
2. Amebic dysentery: This type of dysentery is caused by a parasite called Entamoeba histolytica and is typically spread through contaminated food or water. Symptoms include diarrhea, fever, abdominal pain, and blood in the stool.

Dysentery can be diagnosed through a physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as stool samples or blood tests. Treatment typically involves antibiotics for bacterial dysentery and antiparasitic medication for amebic dysentery. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage symptoms and prevent complications such as dehydration and electrolyte imbalances.

Prevention measures for dysentery include:

* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently and avoiding close contact with people who are sick
* Avoiding contaminated food and water
* Properly storing and preparing food to prevent bacterial growth
* Avoiding risky behaviors such as anal sex, which can increase the risk of contracting amebic dysentery.

The prognosis for dysentery is generally good if treated promptly and effectively. However, if left untreated, it can lead to serious complications such as dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and potentially life-threatening infections.

Some common types of connective tissue diseases include:

1. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA): A chronic autoimmune disorder that causes inflammation and joint damage.
2. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): An autoimmune disorder that can affect multiple systems in the body, including the skin, joints, and kidneys.
3. Sjogren's syndrome: An autoimmune disorder that causes dry eyes and mouth, as well as joint pain and swelling.
4. Fibromyalgia: A chronic condition characterized by widespread muscle pain and fatigue.
5. Myositis: Inflammatory diseases that affect the muscles, such as dermatomyositis and polymyositis.
6. Giant cell arteritis: A condition that causes inflammation of the blood vessels, particularly in the head and neck.
7. Takayasu arteritis: A condition that causes inflammation of the blood vessels in the aorta and its branches.
8. Polyarteritis nodosa: A condition that causes inflammation of the blood vessels, particularly in the hands and feet.
9. IgG4-related disease: A condition characterized by inflammation and damage to various organs, including the pancreas, salivary glands, and liver.

Connective tissue diseases can cause a wide range of symptoms, including joint pain and stiffness, fatigue, skin rashes, fever, and weight loss. Treatment options vary depending on the specific disease and its severity, but may include medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs). In some cases, surgery or physical therapy may also be necessary.

There are several symptoms of RA, including:

1. Joint pain and stiffness, especially in the hands and feet
2. Swollen and warm joints
3. Redness and tenderness in the affected areas
4. Fatigue, fever, and loss of appetite
5. Loss of range of motion in the affected joints
6. Firm bumps of tissue under the skin (rheumatoid nodules)

RA can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, blood tests, and imaging studies such as X-rays or ultrasound. Treatment typically involves a combination of medications, including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), and biologic agents. Lifestyle modifications such as exercise and physical therapy can also be helpful in managing symptoms and improving quality of life.

There is no cure for RA, but early diagnosis and aggressive treatment can help to slow the progression of the disease and reduce symptoms. With proper management, many people with RA are able to lead active and fulfilling lives.

The exact cause of MCTD is not known, but it is believed to be an autoimmune disorder, meaning that the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissues in the body. The disease is more common in women than men and typically affects people between the ages of 20 and 50.

Symptoms of MCTD can vary widely and may include:

* Skin rashes or lesions
* Joint pain and stiffness
* Fatigue
* Fever
* Raynaud's phenomenon (digits turn white or blue in response to cold or stress)
* Swollen lymph nodes
* Shortness of breath
* Chest pain
* Abdominal pain
* Weakness and wasting of muscles

There is no cure for MCTD, but treatment focuses on managing symptoms and preventing complications. Medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, and immunosuppressive drugs may be used to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system. Physical therapy and exercise may also be helpful in maintaining joint mobility and strength.

The prognosis for MCTD varies depending on the severity of the disease and the presence of certain complications, such as lung or heart involvement. Some people with MCTD may experience a gradual worsening of symptoms over time, while others may experience periods of remission. With appropriate treatment, many people with MCTD are able to manage their symptoms and lead active lives.

Symptoms of gnathostomiasis include skin lesions, swelling, pain, and eye problems. In severe cases, it can cause anemia, respiratory distress, and even death. Diagnosis is based on the identification of characteristic skin lesions, as well as detection of Gnathostoma larvae in tissue samples using microscopy or polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

Treatment for gnathostomiasis typically involves anti-inflammatory medications and antiparasitic drugs to kill the parasites. In severe cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to remove affected tissue or organs. Prevention of gnathostomiasis involves proper cooking of fish to an internal temperature of at least 145°F (63°C), as well as avoiding the consumption of raw or undercooked fish from contaminated waters.

Gnathostomiasis is a rare disease, but it can be a serious and potentially life-threatening condition. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent complications and improve outcomes for affected individuals.

Symptoms of choroiditis may include blurred vision, sensitivity to light, redness and pain in the affected eye, and seeing floaters or flashes of light. In severe cases, it can lead to retinal detachment, which can cause permanent vision loss if not treated promptly.

Diagnosis of choroiditis typically involves a comprehensive eye exam, including a visual acuity test, dilated eye exam, and imaging tests such as fluorescein angiography or optical coherence tomography to evaluate the retina and choroid. Treatment options for choroiditis depend on the underlying cause, but may include antibiotics or anti-inflammatory medications, corticosteroids, and in some cases, surgery.

Adenocarcinoma is a term used to describe a variety of different types of cancer that arise in glandular tissue, including:

1. Colorectal adenocarcinoma (cancer of the colon or rectum)
2. Breast adenocarcinoma (cancer of the breast)
3. Prostate adenocarcinoma (cancer of the prostate gland)
4. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (cancer of the pancreas)
5. Lung adenocarcinoma (cancer of the lung)
6. Thyroid adenocarcinoma (cancer of the thyroid gland)
7. Skin adenocarcinoma (cancer of the skin)

The symptoms of adenocarcinoma depend on the location of the cancer and can include:

1. Blood in the stool or urine
2. Abdominal pain or discomfort
3. Changes in bowel habits
4. Unusual vaginal bleeding (in the case of endometrial adenocarcinoma)
5. A lump or thickening in the breast or elsewhere
6. Weight loss
7. Fatigue
8. Coughing up blood (in the case of lung adenocarcinoma)

The diagnosis of adenocarcinoma is typically made through a combination of imaging tests, such as CT scans, MRI scans, and PET scans, and a biopsy, which involves removing a sample of tissue from the affected area and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.

Treatment options for adenocarcinoma depend on the location of the cancer and can include:

1. Surgery to remove the tumor
2. Chemotherapy, which involves using drugs to kill cancer cells
3. Radiation therapy, which involves using high-energy X-rays or other particles to kill cancer cells
4. Targeted therapy, which involves using drugs that target specific molecules on cancer cells to kill them
5. Immunotherapy, which involves using drugs that stimulate the immune system to fight cancer cells.

The prognosis for adenocarcinoma is generally good if the cancer is detected and treated early, but it can be more challenging to treat if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.

Sheep diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including bacteria, viruses, parasites, and environmental factors. Here are some common sheep diseases and their meanings:

1. Scrapie: A fatal neurological disorder that affects sheep and goats, caused by a prion.
2. Ovine Progressive Pneumonia (OPP): A contagious respiratory disease caused by Mycobacterium ovipneumoniae.
3. Maedi-Visna: A slow-progressing pneumonia caused by a retrovirus, which can lead to OPP.
4. Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD): A highly contagious viral disease that affects cloven-hoofed animals, including sheep and goats.
5. Bloat: A condition caused by gas accumulation in the rumen, which can lead to abdominal pain and death if not treated promptly.
6. Pneumonia: An inflammation of the lungs, often caused by bacteria or viruses.
7. Cryptosporidiosis: A diarrheal disease caused by Cryptosporidium parvum, which can be fatal in young lambs.
8. Babesiosis: A blood parasitic disease caused by Babesia oviparasites, which can lead to anemia and death if left untreated.
9. Fascioliasis: A liver fluke infection that can cause anemia, jaundice, and liver damage.
10. Anthrax: A serious bacterial disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, which can be fatal if left untreated.

Sheep diseases can have a significant impact on the health and productivity of flocks, as well as the economy of sheep farming. It is important for sheep farmers to be aware of these diseases and take appropriate measures to prevent and control them.

Erysipelothrix infections are relatively rare in developed countries, but they can be more common in areas with poor sanitation and hygiene. The bacteria can enter the body through contaminated soil or water, or through contact with infected animals or people.

There are several types of erysipelothrix infections, including:

1. Erysipelas: This is a superficial infection that occurs on the skin, typically on the legs or face. It can cause redness, swelling, and pain, but it is usually not serious.
2. Endocarditis: This is an infection of the heart valves, which can be caused by erysipelothrix bacteria. It can lead to serious complications such as heart failure and stroke.
3. Osteomyelitis: This is an infection of the bone, which can be caused by erysipelothrix bacteria. It can cause pain, swelling, and fever, and can lead to serious complications if left untreated.
4. Sepsis: This is a systemic infection that can occur when the bacteria enter the bloodstream and spread throughout the body. It can cause a range of symptoms, including fever, chills, and confusion, and can be life-threatening if not treated promptly.

Erysipelothrix infections are typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as blood cultures or skin swabs. Treatment usually involves antibiotics, which can help to clear the infection and prevent complications. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide appropriate care and monitoring.

Prevention is key to avoiding erysipelothrix infections. This includes practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently, especially after handling raw meat or seafood, and before preparing food. It also includes cooking food thoroughly, particularly poultry and meat, and storing it properly to prevent cross-contamination.

In conclusion, erysipelothrix infections are a serious health risk that can be caused by the bacteria Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. These infections can affect various parts of the body, including the skin, heart, and bone, and can lead to serious complications if left untreated. Prevention is key to avoiding these infections, through practicing good hygiene and proper food handling and storage.

The exact cause of NDI is not always known, but it can be due to various factors such as genetic mutations, injury to the pituitary gland or the hypothalamus (parts of the brain that regulate hormone production), certain medications, and kidney disease. The symptoms of NDI can vary in severity and may include:

Excessive thirst and drinking (polydipsia)
Frequent urination (polyuria)
Increased urine output at night (nocturia)
Dry mouth and skin
Fatigue and weakness

To diagnose NDI, a healthcare provider will typically perform a physical exam, take a medical history, and use laboratory tests to assess the levels of vasopressin and other hormones in the body. Treatment for NDI may include medications to reduce urine production, such as desmopressin (DDAVP), and addressing any underlying causes. In some cases, a kidney transplant may be necessary. With proper treatment, people with NDI can lead active lives, but they must be careful to manage their fluid intake and output to avoid dehydration or overhydration.

There are several types of colonic neoplasms, including:

1. Adenomas: These are benign growths that are usually precursors to colorectal cancer.
2. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise from the epithelial lining of the colon.
3. Sarcomas: These are rare malignant tumors that arise from the connective tissue of the colon.
4. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system that can affect the colon.

Colonic neoplasms can cause a variety of symptoms, including bleeding, abdominal pain, and changes in bowel habits. They are often diagnosed through a combination of medical imaging tests (such as colonoscopy or CT scan) and biopsy. Treatment for colonic neoplasms depends on the type and stage of the tumor, and may include surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiation therapy.

Overall, colonic neoplasms are a common condition that can have serious consequences if left untreated. It is important for individuals to be aware of their risk factors and to undergo regular screening for colon cancer to help detect and treat any abnormal growths or tumors in the colon.

1. Gonorrhea: a sexually transmitted infection caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae that can affect the reproductive tract, eyes, and throat.
2. Meningococcal disease: a serious and potentially life-threatening infection caused by Neisseria meningitidis that can affect the lining of the brain and spinal cord (meningitis) or the bloodstream (sepsis).
3. Pneumonia: an infection of the lung tissue caused by Neisseria species, often occurring in people with weakened immune systems or pre-existing medical conditions.
4. Peritonitis: an infection of the lining of the abdominal cavity caused by Neisseria species, often occurring in people with perforated ulcers or other injuries to the abdominal wall.
5. Endocarditis: an infection of the heart valves caused by Neisseria species, which can occur in people with pre-existing heart conditions.

Neisseriaceae infections are typically treated with antibiotics, and early treatment is important to prevent serious complications and improve outcomes. Prevention measures include practicing safe sex, getting vaccinated against meningococcal disease, and seeking medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

There are different types of Breast Neoplasms such as:

1. Fibroadenomas: These are benign tumors that are made up of glandular and fibrous tissues. They are usually small and round, with a smooth surface, and can be moved easily under the skin.

2. Cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that can develop in both breast tissue and milk ducts. They are usually benign and can disappear on their own or be drained surgically.

3. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS): This is a precancerous condition where abnormal cells grow inside the milk ducts. If left untreated, it can progress to invasive breast cancer.

4. Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC): This is the most common type of breast cancer and starts in the milk ducts but grows out of them and invades surrounding tissue.

5. Invasive Lobular Carcinoma (ILC): It originates in the milk-producing glands (lobules) and grows out of them, invading nearby tissue.

Breast Neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as a lump or thickening in the breast or underarm area, skin changes like redness or dimpling, change in size or shape of one or both breasts, discharge from the nipple, and changes in the texture or color of the skin.

Treatment options for Breast Neoplasms may include surgery such as lumpectomy, mastectomy, or breast-conserving surgery, radiation therapy which uses high-energy beams to kill cancer cells, chemotherapy using drugs to kill cancer cells, targeted therapy which uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack cancer cells while minimizing harm to normal cells, hormone therapy, immunotherapy, and clinical trials.

It is important to note that not all Breast Neoplasms are cancerous; some are benign (non-cancerous) tumors that do not spread or grow.

The term "erythema chronicum migrans" is derived from the Latin words "erythema," meaning redness, and "chronicum," meaning long-lasting. The term "migrans" refers to the fact that the rash typically spreads or migrates over time. ECM is considered a hallmark symptom of Lyme disease and is often used as a diagnostic criterion for the condition.

The exact cause of ECM is not fully understood, but it is thought to be due to an immune response to the bacterial infection. Treatment for ECM typically involves antibiotics to eradicate the infection, and symptoms may resolve within several weeks of treatment. However, some patients may experience persistent symptoms or develop long-term complications, such as arthritis or neurological problems.

The disease is characterized by fever, loss of appetite, weight loss, and swelling of the legs, neck, and head. It can progress to renal failure, anemia, and heart failure, leading to death within a few weeks. Diagnosis is based on clinical signs, laboratory tests, and observation of tick infestation.

Treatment is largely supportive and includes antibiotics to prevent secondary bacterial infections, fluid therapy, and restoration of electrolyte balance. Prevention involves controlling ticks and using acaricides, as well as vaccination with live or inactivated Cowdria vaccines.

In the medical field, Heartwater disease is a significant economic and public health concern in many parts of the world due to its high mortality rate and potential for transmission to humans through tick bites. It is important for veterinarians and physicians to be aware of this disease and take appropriate measures to prevent and control it.

Symptoms of ehrlichiosis typically begin within one to two weeks after the tick bite and may include fever, headache, muscle pain, joint pain, and rash. In severe cases, the infection can spread to the bloodstream and cause more serious complications, such as respiratory distress, liver failure, and kidney failure.

Ehrlichiosis is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, including a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test to detect the bacterial DNA in the blood. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, such as doxycycline or azithromycin, which are effective against the bacteria that cause ehrlichiosis.

Prevention of ehrlichiosis primarily involves avoiding tick habitats and using tick-repellent clothing and insecticides to prevent tick bites. Early detection and treatment of ehrlichiosis can help reduce the risk of serious complications and improve outcomes for infected individuals.

Sjögren's syndrome can affect people of all ages, but it most commonly occurs in women between the ages of 40 and 60. The exact cause of the disorder is not known, but it is believed to be an autoimmune response, meaning that the immune system mistakenly attacks the glands as if they were foreign substances.

Symptoms of Sjögren's syndrome can vary in severity and may include:

* Dry mouth (xerostomia)
* Dry eyes (dry eye syndrome)
* Fatigue
* Joint pain
* Swollen lymph nodes
* Rash
* Sores on the skin
* Numbness or tingling in the hands and feet
* Sexual dysfunction

There is no cure for Sjögren's syndrome, but various treatments can help manage the symptoms. These may include:

* Medications to stimulate saliva production
* Eye drops to moisturize the eyes
* Mouthwashes to stimulate saliva production
* Pain relief medication for joint pain
* Anti-inflammatory medication to reduce swelling
* Immunosuppressive medication to suppress the immune system
* Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) to treat hormonal imbalances.

Sjögren's syndrome can also increase the risk of developing other autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis or lupus. It is important for people with Sjögren's syndrome to work closely with their healthcare provider to manage their symptoms and monitor their condition over time.

Treatment with antibiotics is effective in preventing serious complications and death.

The parasite forms cysts in various organs of the body, including the brain, liver, lungs, and muscles. Symptoms of cysticercosis can vary depending on the location and size of the cysts, and may include seizures, headaches, vision problems, and movement disorders.

Diagnosis of cysticercosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, and laboratory tests to detect the presence of antibodies or parasitic elements in the body. Treatment generally involves surgical removal of the cysts, and may also involve antiparasitic drugs to kill any remaining parasites.

In some cases, cysticercosis can lead to serious complications such as inflammation of the brain (meningitis) or blockage of blood vessels, which can be life-threatening. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent these complications and improve outcomes for patients with this condition.

Overall, cysticercosis is a significant health problem in many parts of the world, particularly in areas where sanitation and hygiene are poor, and can have serious consequences if left untreated.

Treponemal infections are a group of bacterial infections caused by the bacterium Treponema. These infections are typically transmitted through contact with infected bodily fluids, such as blood or semen, and can affect various parts of the body, including the skin, eyes, and internal organs.

The most common types of treponemal infections include:

1. Syphilis: A sexually transmitted infection (STI) that can cause a range of symptoms, including sores on the genitals, rashes, and fever. If left untreated, syphilis can progress to more advanced stages and cause serious complications, such as damage to the heart, brain, and other organs.
2. Yaws: A bacterial infection that is commonly found in tropical and subtropical regions, yaws can cause skin sores, joint pain, and swollen lymph nodes. It is typically transmitted through contact with infected people or animals.
3. Pinta: A mild form of treponemal infection that is common in South America, pinta can cause skin sores and rashes. It is typically transmitted through contact with infected people.
4. Enchootic treponematosis: A rare form of treponemal infection that can affect the eyes, causing inflammation and vision loss.

Treponemal infections are typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and medical imaging studies. Treatment usually involves antibiotics to eliminate the bacteria from the body. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove infected tissue or repair damaged organs.

Prevention measures for treponemal infections include:

1. Safe sex practices: Using condoms and other barrier methods can help prevent the transmission of syphilis and other treponemal infections during sexual activity.
2. Avoiding contact with infected people or animals: In areas where treponemal infections are common, avoiding contact with people or animals that may be infected can help reduce the risk of infection.
3. Good hygiene practices: Keeping wounds and cuts clean and covered can help prevent the transmission of infection.
4. Vaccination: In some cases, vaccination against treponemal infections may be recommended, particularly for individuals who are at high risk of infection.

Overall, treponemal infections can have serious consequences if left untreated, but with prompt and appropriate treatment, many of these infections can be effectively managed and cured.

There are several types of brucellosis, including:

1. Brucella abortus: This type is primarily found in cattle and is the most common form of the disease in humans.
2. Brucella suis: This type is found in pigs and is less common in humans.
3. Brucella melitensis: This type is found in sheep, goats, and other animals, and is more virulent than B. abortus.
4. Brucella canis: This type is found in dogs and is rare in humans.

The symptoms of brucellosis can vary depending on the severity of the infection and the individual's overall health. Common symptoms include:

1. Fever
2. Headache
3. Joint pain
4. Muscle pain
5. Swelling of the lymph nodes and spleen
6. Fatigue
7. Loss of appetite
8. Weight loss

In severe cases, brucellosis can cause complications such as:

1. Endocarditis (infection of the heart valves)
2. Meningitis (inflammation of the lining around the brain and spinal cord)
3. Osteomyelitis (infection of the bone)
4. Testicular inflammation in men
5. Epididymitis (inflammation of the epididymis, a tube that carries sperm from the testicle to the penis)
6. Inflammation of the heart muscle and valves
7. Pneumonia
8. Inflammation of the liver and spleen

Brucellosis is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, and early treatment can help prevent complications. Prevention measures include avoiding contact with infected animals and ensuring proper hygiene practices when handling livestock or wild game.

The symptoms of toxoplasmosis can vary depending on the severity of the infection and the individual's overall health. In some cases, it may cause mild flu-like symptoms or no symptoms at all. However, in severe cases, it can lead to complications such as brain inflammation, eye infections, and pneumonia.

Toxoplasmosis is a significant public health concern due to its potential to affect anyone and its ability to cause serious complications, especially in certain populations such as pregnant women, people with weakened immune systems, and the elderly. It is important for individuals who may be at risk of contracting the disease to take preventive measures such as avoiding undercooked meat, washing hands frequently, and avoiding contact with cat feces.

Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis typically involves a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Laboratory tests may include blood tests or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect the parasite's DNA in the body. Imaging studies such as ultrasound or computerized tomography (CT) scans may be used to evaluate any complications of the disease.

Treatment for toxoplasmosis typically involves antibiotics to control the infection and manage symptoms. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat any complications. Prevention is key to avoiding this disease, as there is no vaccine available to protect against it.

Symptoms of congenital syphilis may include:

* Deformities of the face, skull, or bones
* Developmental delays or intellectual disability
* Seizures, blindness, or hearing loss
* Swollen lymph nodes, liver, or spleen
* Rash, fever, or other signs of syphilis infection

Diagnosis of congenital syphilis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and medical imaging studies. Treatment involves antibiotics to clear the infection and manage symptoms. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment can help prevent long-term complications and improve outcomes for infected babies.

Preventive measures include screening pregnant women for syphilis and treating those who test positive promptly to prevent transmission of the infection to their developing fetuses. Safe sexual practices, such as using condoms, can also help reduce the risk of acquiring syphilis during pregnancy.

Types of Experimental Diabetes Mellitus include:

1. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes: This type of EDM is caused by administration of streptozotocin, a chemical that damages the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas, leading to high blood sugar levels.
2. Alloxan-induced diabetes: This type of EDM is caused by administration of alloxan, a chemical that also damages the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas.
3. Pancreatectomy-induced diabetes: In this type of EDM, the pancreas is surgically removed or damaged, leading to loss of insulin production and high blood sugar levels.

Experimental Diabetes Mellitus has several applications in research, including:

1. Testing new drugs and therapies for diabetes treatment: EDM allows researchers to evaluate the effectiveness of new treatments on blood sugar control and other physiological processes.
2. Studying the pathophysiology of diabetes: By inducing EDM in animals, researchers can study the progression of diabetes and its effects on various organs and tissues.
3. Investigating the role of genetics in diabetes: Researchers can use EDM to study the effects of genetic mutations on diabetes development and progression.
4. Evaluating the efficacy of new diagnostic techniques: EDM allows researchers to test new methods for diagnosing diabetes and monitoring blood sugar levels.
5. Investigating the complications of diabetes: By inducing EDM in animals, researchers can study the development of complications such as retinopathy, nephropathy, and cardiovascular disease.

In conclusion, Experimental Diabetes Mellitus is a valuable tool for researchers studying diabetes and its complications. The technique allows for precise control over blood sugar levels and has numerous applications in testing new treatments, studying the pathophysiology of diabetes, investigating the role of genetics, evaluating new diagnostic techniques, and investigating complications.

The exact cause of osteoarthritis is not known, but it is thought to be due to a combination of factors such as genetics, wear and tear on joints over time, and injuries or trauma to the joint. Osteoarthritis can affect any joint in the body, but it most commonly affects the hands, knees, hips, and spine.

The symptoms of osteoarthritis can vary depending on the severity of the condition and which joint is affected. Common symptoms include:

* Pain or tenderness in the joint
* Stiffness, especially after periods of rest or inactivity
* Limited mobility or loss of flexibility
* Grating or crackling sensations when the joint is moved
* Swelling or redness in the affected joint
* Muscle weakness or wasting

There is no cure for osteoarthritis, but there are several treatment options available to manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. These include:

* Pain relief medications such as acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
* Physical therapy to improve mobility and strength
* Lifestyle modifications such as weight loss, regular exercise, and avoiding activities that exacerbate the condition
* Bracing or orthotics to support the affected joint
* Corticosteroid injections or hyaluronic acid injections to reduce inflammation and improve joint function
* Joint replacement surgery in severe cases where other treatments have failed.

Early diagnosis and treatment of osteoarthritis can help manage symptoms, slow the progression of the disease, and improve quality of life for individuals with this condition.

"Immunoblotting: Equality for slime molds!". BioTechniques (paper). 55 (1): 9. July 2013. Davidson, Andrew J.; King, Jason S.; ... group at the Beatson West of Scotland Cancer Centre reported an antibody-free protein visualization standard for immunoblotting ...
I. Characteristics, immunoblotting, and inhibitor studies". Journal of Protein Chemistry. 12 (2): 111-9. doi:10.1007/BF01026032 ...
Immunoblotting is the detection of specific proteins in a tissue sample or extract. Primary antibodies recognize and bind the ... Immunoblotting can be performed to detect the presence of cyclins, proteins that regulate the cell cycle. Different classes of ... Jenkins CW, Xiong Y (1996). "Immunoprecipitation and Immunoblotting in Cell Cycle Studies". Cell Cycle - Materials and Methods ...
A study using limited proteolysis and immunoblotting". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1207 (1): 102-8. doi:10.1016/0167-4838(94 ...
A more arduous method like immunoblotting is also used. For brain infection, radiological examinations including plain skull x- ...
Immunochemical techniques include: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunoblotting (e.g., Western blot assay), precipitation ...
Immunoblotting demonstrated the experimental molecular-weight to be about 25 kDa. Three experimental phosphorylation sites have ...
With this experiment, they performed a process called immunoblotting and immunofluorescence. With immunoblotting, it appeared ...
Moreover, it is detectable in horse tears by immunoblotting or by ELISA. Antibodies directed to the C-, but not N-, terminus of ...
... immunoblotting or flow cytometry can show absence of protein. Prenatal testing: It is particularly useful when a family member ...
... immunoblotting and enzyme-link immunosorbent assay (ELISA) Poot et al. 2013 determined that immunoprecipitation for antibodies ...
TBS is often used in immuno-blotting for both membrane washing and antibody dilution. Medicago AB, (2010) Tris buffered saline ...
"Antigenic profiles for the differentiation of Mobiluncus curtisii and Mobiluncus mulieris by immunoblotting technique". The New ...
"Diagnosis of bacterial endocarditis caused by Streptococcus lactis and assisted by immunoblotting of serum antibodies". J. ...
This suggestion is supported by immunoblotting analyses indicating that the two are the same species. Additional support ...
"Improved diagnostic testing for ataxia-telangiectasia by immunoblotting of nuclear lysates for ATM protein expression". ...
ELISA can also be employed which has been found to be less sensitive than immunoblotting. The pathogenic role of anti-RA33 ... Anti-RA33 antibodies can be easily detected by immunoblotting employing crude nuclear extracts or the recombinant antigen. ...
... antigens are not strain specific so that TSA56 is the main target in sophisticated diagnostic tests such as immunoblotting, ... composition and antigenic components of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting". ...
... identification of a 170-kilodalton polypeptide by activity staining and immunoblotting". Biochemistry. 26 (4): 1076-85. doi: ...
The second tier consists of standardized immunoblotting, either by using Western blots or blots striped with diagnostically ... including immunoassays and immunoblotting. Borrelia species are members of the family Spirochaetaceae, so present the ... accuracy of a two-step approach using a flagella-based ELISA and immunoblotting". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 174 (2): ...
Using microarray and immunoblotting analyses it has been shown that miR-199a* targets the Met proto-oncogene. MicroRNA hsa-miR- ...
Notatum by immunoblotting and N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis". Clinical and Experimental Allergy. 29 (5): 642-51. doi: ...
Gel electrophoresis is often performed in combination with electroblotting immunoblotting to give additional information about ...
Alcaraz C, De Diego M, Pastor MJ, Escribano JM (July 1990). "Comparison of a radioimmunoprecipitation assay to immunoblotting ...
Through immunoblotting, there is no reduction of AML1-ETO observed across the different concentrations of VPA or vorinostat. ...
Diagnosis may be confirmed by detection of antibodies against cysticerci in CSF or serum through ELISA or immunoblotting ...
The presence of LC3-II serves as a marker for autophagy and can be detected by immunofluorescence or immunoblotting. IRGM helps ...
... barley and oats recognized by immunoblotting analysis with sera from adult atopic dermatitis patients". Clin. Exp. Allergy. 24 ... barley and oats recognized by immunoblotting analysis with sera from adult atopic dermatitis patients". Int. Arch. Allergy ...
Fluorescent streptavidin reagents (e.g. streptavidin-HRP) can be used to visualize the SBP-tag by immunoblotting of SDS-PAGE. ...
SDS-Protein PAGE and Proteindetection by Silverstaining and Immunoblotting of Plasmodium falciparum proteins. in: Moll K, ...
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Tag: immunoblotting pdf Gebrek aan gevoeligheid van een IVD By Vincent juni 24, 2021 Amphibia, Assay, Bacteria, Cytomegalovirus ...
Immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation. NE-PER nuclear and cytoplasmic extraction reagents kit (Thermo Scientific, Waltham, ... 6d, f) and was paralleled by significantly increased pYAP protein expression levels, as evidenced by immunoblotting analysis of ... All antibodies used in immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation assays are listed in Supplementary Table 1. Uncropped scans of ... total cell lysates were collected at the end point of each experiment and analyzed by immunoblotting. ...
"Immunoblotting" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Immunoblotting" by people in this website by year, and whether ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Immunoblotting".. *Analytical, Diagnostic and Therapeutic ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Immunoblotting" by people in Profiles. ...
Immunoblotting. Protein extracts were prepared using RIPA buffer supplemented with Protease Inhibitor and PhosSTOP Phosphatase ... Decreased expression of PHGDH and PSAT1 in BL and MDA-MB-468 xenografts was confirmed by immunoblotting; representative cases ... Decreased expression of PHGDH and PSAT1 in BL and MDA-MB-468 xenografts was confirmed by immunoblotting; representative cases ... Individual subclones were assessed for PSAT1/PHGDH expression by immunoblotting. Short hairpin RNA (shRNA) sequences were ...
Immunoblotting. In immunoblotting experiments, the appropriate cell and tissue lysates were blotted with affinity purified anti ... A clear 185-kD band was detected in immunoblotting studies and in immunoprecipitations followed by immunoblotting with another ... However, in immunoblotting experiments the size of densin appeared to be 185 kD in the human and rat brain as well as in human ... Immunoblotting studies revealed a specific band of 185 kD in brain and cultured podocytes; in human glomerulus, densin appeared ...
We found that both PCR and IgM immunoblotting could aid the timely diagnosis of early syphilis in ~24% to 27% of patients. PCR ... Sífilis; Treponema pallidum; Humanos; Treponema pallidum/genética; Immunoblotting; Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase; ... Refining Timely Diagnosis of Early Syphilis by Using Treponema pallidum PCR or IgM Immunoblotting Next to Conventional Serology ...
Proceed to analyze by western immunoblotting or kinase activity (section D).. D. Sample Analysis. Proceed to one of the ... Analyze sample by western blot (see Western Immunoblotting Protocol).. NOTE: To minimize masking caused by denatured IgG heavy ... For Analysis by Western Immunoblotting. *Resuspend the pellet with 20-40 µl 3X SDS sample buffer, briefly vortex to mix, and ...
Cells were treated with MWCNTs or M1 inducer and subsequently used for RT-qPCR and immunoblotting analysis, and the cell-free ... interference was introduced into macrophages and incubated for 2 days and then cells were used for RT-qPCR and immunoblotting ...
Immunoblotting. Cells were grown in RPMI 1640 and treated with sunitinib or vehicle (DMSO) for 12 to 24 h ± recombinant VEGFA ... immunoblotting of phosphorylated AKT or MAPK was done in these same tumor-derived cell lines and no changes were seen with or ...
Immunoblotting analysis. Request a detailed protocol 2B4 cells expressing hDectin-1A or 1B (2×106 for glycosidase analysis, 1× ...
Immunoblotting. To confirm the apoptosis due to the effects of plant extract (25%, 50%, and 75% of the IC50 value in μg/ml) for ...
Calmodulin, calbindin-D28K and calretinin in rat and chicken pineal glands: Immunocytochemical and immunoblotting analysis. ... Calmodulin, calbindin-D28K and calretinin in rat and chicken pineal glands : Immunocytochemical and immunoblotting analysis. In ... Calmodulin, calbindin-D28K and calretinin in rat and chicken pineal glands: Immunocytochemical and immunoblotting analysis. / ... In rat pineal homogenate supernatants, calmodulin could be detected by immunoblotting using both antibodies. Some calmodulin ...
Immunoblotting. Protein gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting were done as previously described (21,22) by using polyclonal ... In contrast, immunoblotting appeared to be more useful for studies requiring quantitation or visualization of PrPres banding ... C until they were analyzed by immunoblotting. ...
Immunoblotting * Immunoenzyme Techniques * In Situ Hybridization * Integrins / genetics * Integrins / metabolism * Matrix ...
Immunoblotting Is the Subject Area "Immunoblotting" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
Immunoblotting has been used previously for analysing the antigenic proteins of filarial as well as other parasites and its ... Electrophoresis and immunoblotting analysis. Protein profiles of different antigenic preparations from S. equina were analysed ... and ours using infected human sera against CSFWA in immunoblotting may be due to either the different source of collected human ...
Quantitation of anti-RNP and anti-Sm antibodies in MCTD and SLE by immunoblotting. Clin Exp Immunol 1985;59:457-66. ... Around 50-80% of patients with SLE have IgG and IgM antihistone antibodies detectable by immunoblotting (IB) or ELISA. ELISAs ... differential detection of imunoglobulin G and M by immunoblotting. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 1986;40:532-8. ...
immunoblotting: 0.04-0.4 μg/mL. immunohistochemistry: 1:200-1:500. 免疫原序列. ...
Categories: Immunoblotting Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 1 ...
D) Immunoblotting of common EV markers HSP90, CD63, flotillin1, and syntenin1, as well as histone H3, after DNA-IP of ... Subsequent immunoblotting of DNA-IP fractions demonstrated the presence of the common EV markers HSP90, CD63, flotillin1, and ... Histone IP and immunoblotting. Concentrated conditioned media from inhibitor-treated cells were subjected to histone IP using ... Immunoblotting of EV markers. Concentrated conditioned media samples were subjected to Western blot to visualize relevant ...
Immunoblotting analysis of anti-rickettsial antibodies produced in patients of Tsutsugamushi disease. Microbiol Immunol 32 : ... Immunoblotting analysis of anti-rickettsial antibodies produced in patients of Tsutsugamushi disease. Microbiol Immunol 32. :. ...
Immunoblotting E5.478.567.320 E5.478.594.410.320. Immunodiffusion E5.478.594.760.645.350. Immunoelectrophoresis E5.478.594.760. ...
Goals and practicalities of immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry: A guide for submission to the British Journal of ...
Analytical Methods:ELISA, TLC immunoblotting. *Natural Source:rabbit. *Solubility:water. *Physical Appearance:liquid ...
... and the immunoprecipitates were subjected to phosphotyrosine immunoblotting. C, Sympathetic neurons (5 DIV) were deprived of ... and subjected the immune complexes to p60Src immunoblotting. Similar to Neuro2a cells, p60Src coimmunoprecipitated with Ret ...
  • Present strategies reminiscent of immunohistochemistry (IHC), mass spectrometry, and immunoblotting every fail to fulfill these stipulations because of their categorical nature or have to homogenize the pattern. (
  • Individual centers will establish experimental conditions for antibody use during development, including immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry in at least five species, as well as provide these data to the neurodevelopment community. (
  • Immunoblotting and qPCR examined molecular targets of miRNA-378a. (
  • She is interested in the intersection of nucleosome assembly pathways and intrinsic/innate immunity and studies this using in situ imaging techniques, immunoblotting, qPCR, and next-generation sequencing techniques. (
  • We have used rat and chicken pineal homogenate supernatants and Triton X-100-treated pellets denatured by sodium dodecyl sulfate, subjected to electrophoresis and immunoblotting using anti-calmodulin antibodies. (
  • The materials and methods states that the antibodies were measured by immunoblotting and the immunoblots are shown in figures in the results. (
  • In rat pineal homogenate supernatants, calmodulin could be detected by immunoblotting using both antibodies. (
  • were tested for the presence and level of IgG antibodies against a broad panel of periodontal bacteria using a rapid checkerboard immunoblotting technique. (
  • Completing the Immunological Fingerprint by Refractory Proteins: Autoantibody Screening via an Improved Immunoblotting Technique. (
  • 5 steps of immunoblotting-based autoantigen screening are revised: (1) alternative of protein supply, (2) protein extraction, (3) protein separation, (4) protein switch, (5) antigen detection. (
  • 11. Immunoblotting studies of linear IgA disease. (
  • Herein we display that this methodology is well optimized, yields a large dynamic vary, and is linearly quantifiable as in comparison with the gold commonplace of quantitative immunoblotting. (
  • A Novel Quantitative Multiplex Tissue Immunoblotting for Biomarkers Predicts a Prostate Cancer Aggressive Phenotype. (
  • Multiplex tissue immunoblotting (MTI) was used to assess these biomarkers in cancer and adjacent benign areas of 5 μm sections. (