Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A nitrocellulose solution in ether and alcohol. Collodion has a wide range of uses in industry including applications in the manufacture of photographic film, in fibers, in lacquers, and in engraving and lithography. In medicine it is used as a drug solvent and a wound sealant.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
Aquaporin 2 is a water-specific channel protein that is expressed in KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. The translocation of aquaporin 2 to the apical PLASMA MEMBRANE is regulated by VASOPRESSIN, and MUTATIONS in AQP2 have been implicated in a variety of kidney disorders including DIABETES INSIPIDUS.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A class of porins that allow the passage of WATER and other small molecules across CELL MEMBRANES.
Aquaporin 6 is an aquaglyceroporin that is found primarily in KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. AQP6 protein functions as an anion-selective channel.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Na-K-Cl transporter in the ASCENDING LIMB OF LOOP OF HENLE. It mediates active reabsorption of sodium chloride and is inhibited by LOOP DIURETICS such as FUROSEMIDE; and BUMETANIDE. Mutations in the gene encoding SLC12A1 are associated with a BARTTER SYNDROME.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Straight tubes commencing in the radiate part of the kidney cortex where they receive the curved ends of the distal convoluted tubules. In the medulla the collecting tubules of each pyramid converge to join a central tube (duct of Bellini) which opens on the summit of the papilla.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
A subclass of symporters that specifically transport SODIUM CHLORIDE and/or POTASSIUM CHLORIDE across cellular membranes in a tightly coupled process.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Aquaporin 3 is an aquaglyceroporin that is expressed in the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS and is constitutively localized at the basolateral MEMBRANE.
Aquaporin 1 forms a water-specific channel that is constitutively expressed at the PLASMA MEMBRANE of ERYTHROCYTES and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL. It provides these cells with a high permeability to WATER. In humans polymorphisms of this protein result in the Colton blood group antigen.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Sensitive assay using radiolabeled ANTIGENS to detect specific ANTIBODIES in SERUM. The antigens are allowed to react with the serum and then precipitated using a special reagent such as PROTEIN A sepharose beads. The bound radiolabeled immunoprecipitate is then commonly analyzed by gel electrophoresis.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
A genus of parasitic nematodes that occurs in mammals including man. Infection in humans is either by larvae penetrating the skin or by ingestion of uncooked fish.
Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
An infectious disease caused by a spirochete, BORRELIA BURGDORFERI, which is transmitted chiefly by Ixodes dammini (see IXODES) and pacificus ticks in the United States and Ixodes ricinis (see IXODES) in Europe. It is a disease with early and late cutaneous manifestations plus involvement of the nervous system, heart, eye, and joints in variable combinations. The disease was formerly known as Lyme arthritis and first discovered at Old Lyme, Connecticut.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Gram-negative helical bacteria, in the genus BORRELIA, that are the etiologic agents of LYME DISEASE. The group comprises many specific species including Borrelia afzelii, Borellia garinii, and BORRELIA BURGDORFERI proper. These spirochetes are generally transmitted by several species of ixodid ticks.
A subclass of symporters found in KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL that are the major pathway for salt resorption. Inhibition of these symporters by BENZOTHIADIAZINES is the basis of action of some DIURETICS.
The pH in solutions of proteins and related compounds at which the dipolar ions are at a maximum.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to obstruction of BILE flow (CHOLESTASIS) in the intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC; BILE DUCTS, EXTRAHEPATIC). Primary biliary cirrhosis involves the destruction of small intra-hepatic bile ducts and bile secretion. Secondary biliary cirrhosis is produced by prolonged obstruction of large intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts from a variety of causes.
The internal portion of the kidney, consisting of striated conical masses, the renal pyramids, whose bases are adjacent to the cortex and whose apices form prominent papillae projecting into the lumen of the minor calyces.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Infection caused by the protozoan parasite TOXOPLASMA in which there is extensive connective tissue proliferation, the retina surrounding the lesions remains normal, and the ocular media remain clear. Chorioretinitis may be associated with all forms of toxoplasmosis, but is usually a late sequel of congenital toxoplasmosis. The severe ocular lesions in infants may lead to blindness.
Gastrointestinal disturbances, skin eruptions, or shock due to allergic reactions to allergens in food.
Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
Immunologic techniques involved in diagnosis.
Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A chronic multi-system disorder of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. It is characterized by SCLEROSIS in the SKIN, the LUNGS, the HEART, the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, the KIDNEYS, and the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM. Other important features include diseased small BLOOD VESSELS and AUTOANTIBODIES. The disorder is named for its most prominent feature (hard skin), and classified into subsets by the extent of skin thickening: LIMITED SCLERODERMA and DIFFUSE SCLERODERMA.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Filaments 7-11 nm in diameter found in the cytoplasm of all cells. Many specific proteins belong to this group, e.g., desmin, vimentin, prekeratin, decamin, skeletin, neurofilin, neurofilament protein, and glial fibrillary acid protein.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.
A synthetic analog of the pituitary hormone, ARGININE VASOPRESSIN. Its action is mediated by the VASOPRESSIN receptor V2. It has prolonged antidiuretic activity, but little pressor effects. It also modulates levels of circulating FACTOR VIII and VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
A chronic and relatively benign subepidermal blistering disease usually of the elderly and without histopathologic acantholysis.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
Infections with nematodes of the order SPIRURIDA.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Na-Cl cotransporter in the convoluted segments of the DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE. It mediates active reabsorption of sodium and chloride and is inhibited by THIAZIDE DIURETICS.
Urination of a large volume of urine with an increase in urinary frequency, commonly seen in diabetes (DIABETES MELLITUS; DIABETES INSIPIDUS).
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.

Functional activities and epitope specificity of human and murine antibodies against the class 4 outer membrane protein (Rmp) of Neisseria meningitidis. (1/17448)

Antibodies against the class 4 outer membrane protein (OMP) from Neisseria meningitidis have been purified from sera from vaccinees immunized with the Norwegian meningococcal group B outer membrane vesicle vaccine. The human sera and purified antibodies reacted strongly with the class 4 OMP in immunoblots, whereas experiments with whole bacteria showed only weak reactions, indicating that the antibodies mainly reacted with parts of the class 4 molecule that were not exposed. The purified human anti-class 4 OMP antibodies and the monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were neither bactericidal nor opsonic against live meningococci. Three new MAbs against the class 4 OMP were generated and compared with other, previously described MAbs. Three linear epitopes in different regions of the class 4 OMP were identified by the reaction of MAbs with synthetic peptides. The MAbs showed no blocking effect on bactericidal activity of MAbs against other OMPs. However, one of the eight purified human anti-class 4 OMP antibody preparations, selected from immunoblot reactions among sera from 27 vaccinees, inhibited at high concentrations the bactericidal effect of a MAb against the class 1 OMP. However, these antibodies were not vaccine induced, as they were present also before vaccination. Therefore, this study gave no evidence that vaccination with a meningococcal outer membrane vesicle vaccine containing the class 4 OMP induces blocking antibodies. Our data indicated that the structure of class 4 OMP does not correspond to standard beta-barrel structures of integral OMPs and that no substantial portion of the OmpA-like C-terminal region of this protein is located at the surface of the outer membrane.  (+info)

Autoantibodies to RNA polymerases recognize multiple subunits and demonstrate cross-reactivity with RNA polymerase complexes. (2/17448)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the subunit specificity of autoantibody directed to RNA polymerases (RNAP) I, II, and III, which is one of the major autoantibody responses in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS: Thirty-two SSc sera with anti-RNAP antibodies (23 with anti-RNAP I/III, 5 with anti-RNAP I/III and II, and 4 with anti-RNAP II alone) were analyzed by immunoblotting using affinity-purified RNAP and by immunoprecipitation using 35S-labeled cell extracts in which RNAP complexes were dissociated. Antibodies bound to individual RNAP subunits were eluted from preparative immunoblots and were further analyzed by immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation. RESULTS: At least 15 different proteins were bound by antibodies in anti-RNAP-positive SSc sera in various combinations. All 9 sera immunoprecipitating RNAP II and all 28 sera immunoprecipitating RNAP I/III recognized the large subunit proteins of RNAP II and III, respectively. Reactivity to RNAP I large subunits was strongly associated with bright nucleolar staining by indirect immunofluorescence. Affinity-purified antibodies that recognized a 62-kd subunit protein cross-reacted with a 43-kd subunit protein and immunoprecipitated both RNAP I and RNAP III. Antibodies that recognized a 21-kd subunit protein obtained from sera that were positive for anti-RNAP I/III and II antibodies immunoprecipitated both RNAP II and RNAP III. CONCLUSION: Anti-RNAP antibodies recognize multiple subunits of RNAP I, II, and III. Moreover, the results of this study provide the first direct evidence that antibodies that recognize shared subunits of human RNAPs or epitopes present on different human RNAP subunits are responsible for the recognition of multiple RNAPs by SSc sera.  (+info)

Sulphation and secretion of the predominant secretory human colonic mucin MUC2 in ulcerative colitis. (3/17448)

BACKGROUND: Decreased synthesis of the predominant secretory human colonic mucin (MUC2) occurs during active ulcerative colitis. AIMS: To study possible alterations in mucin sulphation and mucin secretion, which could be the cause of decreased mucosal protection in ulcerative colitis. METHODS: Colonic biopsy specimens from patients with active ulcerative colitis, ulcerative colitis in remission, and controls were metabolically labelled with [35S]-amino acids or [35S]-sulphate, chase incubated and analysed by SDS-PAGE, followed by quantitation of mature [35S]-labelled MUC2. For quantitation of total MUC2, which includes non-radiolabelled and radiolabelled MUC2, dot blotting was performed, using a MUC2 monoclonal antibody. RESULTS: Between patient groups, no significant differences were found in [35S]-sulphate content of secreted MUC2 or in the secreted percentage of either [35S]-amino acid labelled MUC2 or total MUC2. During active ulcerative colitis, secretion of [35S]-sulphate labelled MUC2 was significantly increased twofold, whereas [35S]-sulphate incorporation into MUC2 was significantly reduced to half. CONCLUSIONS: During active ulcerative colitis, less MUC2 is secreted, because MUC2 synthesis is decreased while the secreted percentage of MUC2 is unaltered. Furthermore, sulphate content of secreted MUC2 is unaltered by a specific compensatory mechanism, because sulphated MUC2 is preferentially secreted while sulphate incorporation into MUC2 is reduced.  (+info)

Induction of hepatic cytochromes P450 in dogs exposed to a chronic low dose of polychlorinated biphenyls. (4/17448)

Induction of cytochrome P450 isoforms, specifically CYP1A1, and their catalytic activities are potential biomarkers of environmental contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In this study, dogs were exposed to 25 ppm or 5 ppm Aroclor 1248 (PCB mixture) daily in their diet for 10 or 20 weeks, respectively. Relative to controls, hepatic microsomes from dogs dosed with PCBs had higher levels of CYP1A1 detected in immunoblots and higher levels of EROD activity, but low levels of induction for CYP2B and PROD activity. Concentrations of 96 PCB congeners in serum and liver were evaluated using capillary chromatography. Results showed that all dogs exposed to PCB mixtures had higher levels of PCB in serum and liver. Dogs preferentially sequestered highly chlorinated PCB congeners in liver relative to serum. With these experiments, we demonstrated that EROD activity was a potentially sensitive marker of PCB exposure at 5 and 25 ppm. Furthermore, CYP1A1 and EROD activity were maximally induced in dogs consuming dietary concentrations only 2.5 times the maximal permissible level for human food (FDA). The value of CYP1A1 induction as a biomarker of PCB exposure was tenuous because neither CYP1A1 levels nor EROD activity correlated with total PCB body burden. However, a small subset of congeners were identified in liver that may strongly influence EROD and PROD induction. Finally, two dogs in the 25 ppm dose group were fasted for 48 h. After 24 h of fasting, several new congeners appeared in the serum and remained in the serum for the remainder of the fast. The fast caused a 293% increase in PCB concentration in serum. This increase has strong implications regarding mobilization of toxic PCBs in wildlife during fasting (e.g., migration, hibernation).  (+info)

Thaumatin production in Aspergillus awamori by use of expression cassettes with strong fungal promoters and high gene dosage. (5/17448)

Four expression cassettes containing strong fungal promoters, a signal sequence for protein translocation, a KEX protease cleavage site, and a synthetic gene (tha) encoding the sweet protein thaumatin II were used to overexpress this protein in Aspergillus awamori lpr66, a PepA protease-deficient strain. The best expression results were obtained with the gdhA promoter of A. awamori or with the gpdA promoter of Aspergillus nidulans. There was good correlation of tha gene dosage, transcript levels, and thaumatin secretion. The thaumatin gene was expressed as a transcript of the expected size in each construction (1.9 or 1.4 kb), and the transcript levels and thaumatin production rate decayed at the end of the growth phase, except in the double transformant TB2b1-44-GD5, in which secretion of thaumatin continued until 96 h. The recombinant thaumatin secreted by a high-production transformant was purified to homogeneity, giving one major component and two minor components. In all cases, cleavage of the fused protein occurred at the KEX recognition sequence. This work provides new expression systems in A. awamori that result in very high levels of thaumatin production.  (+info)

Immunochemical detection and isolation of DNA from metabolically active bacteria. (6/17448)

Most techniques used to assay the growth of microbes in natural communities provide no information on the relationship between microbial productivity and community structure. To identify actively growing bacteria, we adapted a technique from immunocytochemistry to detect and selectively isolate DNA from bacteria incorporating bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), a thymidine analog. In addition, we developed an immunocytochemical protocol to visualize BrdU-labeled microbial cells. Cultured bacteria and natural populations of aquatic bacterioplankton were pulse-labeled with exogenously supplied BrdU. Incorporation of BrdU into microbial DNA was demonstrated in DNA dot blots probed with anti-BrdU monoclonal antibodies and either peroxidase- or Texas red-conjugated secondary antibodies. BrdU-containing DNA was physically separated from unlabeled DNA by using antibody-coated paramagnetic beads, and the identities of bacteria contributing to both purified, BrdU-containing fractions and unfractionated, starting-material DNAs were determined by length heterogeneity PCR (LH-PCR) analysis. BrdU-containing DNA purified from a mixture of DNAs from labeled and unlabeled cultures showed >90-fold enrichment for the labeled bacterial taxon. The LH-PCR profile for BrdU-containing DNA from a labeled, natural microbial community differed from the profile for the community as a whole, demonstrating that BrdU was incorporated by a taxonomic subset of the community. Immunocytochemical detection of cells with BrdU-labeled DNA was accomplished by in situ probing with anti-BrdU monoclonal antibodies and Texas red-labeled secondary antibodies. Using this suite of techniques, microbial cells incorporating BrdU into their newly synthesized DNA can be quantified and the identities of these actively growing cells can be compared to the composition of the microbial community as a whole. Since not all strains tested could incorporate BrdU, these methods may be most useful when used to gain an understanding of the activities of specific species in the context of their microbial community.  (+info)

In situ identification of cyanobacteria with horseradish peroxidase-labeled, rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes. (7/17448)

Individual cyanobacterial cells are normally identified in environmental samples only on the basis of their pigmentation and morphology. However, these criteria are often insufficient for the differentiation of species. Here, a whole-cell hybridization technique is presented that uses horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled, rRNA-targeted oligonucleotides for in situ identification of cyanobacteria. This indirect method, in which the probe-conferred enzyme has to be visualized in an additional step, was necessary since fluorescently monolabeled oligonucleotides were insufficient to overstain the autofluorescence of the target cells. Initially, a nonfluorescent detection assay was developed and successfully applied to cyanobacterial mats. Later, it was demonstrated that tyramide signal amplification (TSA) resulted in fluorescent signals far above the level of autofluorescence. Furthermore, TSA-based detection of HRP was more sensitive than that based on nonfluorescent substrates. Critical points of the assay, such as cell fixation and permeabilization, specificity, and sensitivity, were systematically investigated by using four oligonucleotides newly designed to target groups of cyanobacteria.  (+info)

RAD53 regulates DBF4 independently of checkpoint function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (8/17448)

The Cdc7p and Dbf4p proteins form an active kinase complex in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that is essential for the initiation of DNA replication. A genetic screen for mutations that are lethal in combination with cdc7-1 led to the isolation of seven lsd (lethal with seven defect) complementation groups. The lsd7 complementation group contained two temperature-sensitive dbf4 alleles. The lsd1 complementation group contained a new allele of RAD53, which was designated rad53-31. RAD53 encodes an essential protein kinase that is required for the activation of DNA damage and DNA replication checkpoint pathways, and that is implicated as a positive regulator of S phase. Unlike other RAD53 alleles, we demonstrate that the rad53-31 allele retains an intact checkpoint function. Thus, the checkpoint function and the DNA replication function of RAD53 can be functionally separated. The activation of DNA replication through RAD53 most likely occurs through DBF4. Two-hybrid analysis indicates that the Rad53p protein binds to Dbf4p. Furthermore, the steady-state level of DBF4 message and Dbf4p protein is reduced in several rad53 mutant strains, indicating that RAD53 positively regulates DBF4. These results suggest that two different functions of the cell cycle, initiation of DNA replication and the checkpoint function, can be coordinately regulated through the common intermediate RAD53.  (+info) 0 0 Academic Web Pages Academic Web Pages2015-01-01 00:00:002020-04-17 20:05:56An analysis of critical factors for quantitative immunoblotting ...
For all experiments, primary CFU-E cells were starved and stimulated with 5 U/ml Epo. At the indicated time points, samples were subjected to quantitative immunoblotting. Experimental data (black circles) with estimated standard errors and trajectories of the best fit (solid lines) are represented. Mass spectrometry data represent replicates of four independent experiments. ...
Growth-factor deprived mCFU-E cells (5x106 cells per condition) and BaF3-EpoR cells (1x107 cells per condition) were stimulated with different Epo doses and absolute concentrations were determined for pEpoR (B), pAKT (C), ppERK (D). The scale for pS6 (E) was estimated in arbitrary units. GTP-Ras (F) and ppERK were determined upon stimulation with indicated, color-coded Epo doses. pEpoR was analyzed by immunoprecipitation followed by immunoblotting, GTP-Ras was analyzed after pulldown using a fusion protein harboring GST fused to the Ras binding domain of Raf-1 followed by detection by quantitative immunoblotting. For pAkt and ppERK, cellular lysates were subjected to quantitative immunoblotting. Calibrator proteins were used for EpoR, AKT, GTP- Ras and ERK to facilitate the conversion to nM concentrations. SED-ML simulations ...
BioAssay record AID 690837 submitted by ChEMBL: Suppression of STAT3 mediated Mcl-1 expression in human MDA-MB-468 cells by immunoblotting assay.
Wariant genu SARS-CoV-2 E zmienia charakterystykę czułości analitycznej wykrywania wirusów przy użyciu komercyjnego testu RT-PCR Diagnostic assays for detecting SARS-CoV-2 are important for affected. Read More ...
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The immunoblot test is one of the most common research techniques and our immunoblots include many loaded samples. Order your immunoblots from ProSci today!
A. Cellular Signal Transduction: Using cells KDd, KOd or mutated for AD/AR-PKD or cystic kidney syndromic genes [Identification of potential signaling defects]. 1. Measure steady state activities of cellular signal transduction pathways such as MAP kinase, Hippo, canonical Wnt and Sonic Hedgehog (previously implicated in AD- and ARPKD and ciliopathies) [Immunofluorescence and quantitative immunoblotting and mass. 2. Measure the steady-state activity and agonist-induced transcriptional response of jun, yap/taz, tcf and gli transcription factors. [qPCR]. 3. Investigate downstream activation of CREB and NFAT transcription factors that are downstream of second messenger signaling of cAMP and Ca2+, respectively [qPCR, Immunofluorescence and quantitative immunoblotting and mass spectrometry]. B. Cellular and Ciliary Dynamics: Using fluorescent protein-based localization and activity reporters [Consultation for detailed temporal measurements of signaling]. 1. Measure Hh (Smo translocation, Gli ...
Before proceeding to investigate the synaptic protein copy numbers, we tested whether the synaptosomes lost a significant proportion of their proteins during the purification procedure. We compared the amounts of 27 soluble proteins and 2 transmembrane proteins in synaptosomes and in undisturbed synapses from brain slices, using fluorescence microscopy (fig. S2, A and B). The large majority of the proteins exhibited no significant changes after synaptosome purification (fig. S2C).. Having verified that the purification procedure maintains the protein composition of the synaptic bouton, we used quantitative immunoblotting to determine the amount of protein of interest per microgram of synaptosomes for 62 synaptic proteins (Fig. 1, D and E). To transform this value into copy numbers per synaptosome, we determined the number of particles in the synaptosome preparation by fluorescence microscopy (~17 million) (fig. S3) and the fraction represented by synaptosomes by electron microscopy (fig. S1, A ...
This simple protocol describes how to detect antigens from agar-grown bacterial colonies transferred to nitrocellulose using specific antibodies. The protocol is well suitable for detection of bacterial proteins exposed on the cell surface or secreted to the extracellular space and it can be modified also for detection of intracellular proteins. The assay can distinguish bacterial clones with different expression rates (high, medium and low) from colonies that do not express target protein. We used this assay for screening of Mat fimbriae-producing Escherichia coli mutants obtained by mini-Tn5 transposon mutagenesis and immunomagnetic separation (Lehti et al., 2013).
TY - BOOK. T1 - Immunoblotting, chromatografie en electroforese. AU - Savelkoul, H.F.J.. PY - 1990. Y1 - 1990. M3 - Report. BT - Immunoblotting, chromatografie en electroforese. PB - Afdeling Immunologie, Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.. CY - Rotterdam. ER - ...
Molecular Cloning, also known as Maniatis, has served as the foundation of technical expertise in labs worldwide for 30 years. No other manual has been so popular, or so influential.
Upon quantifying band densities in ImageJ, I compared the reproducibility of p-Smad2 linker after normalization to all possible combinations of loading controls: 25 = 32 combinations. For single loading control normalization, the effect on replicate-to-replicate reproducibility heavily depended on the choice of loading control. Normalizing to GAPDH decreased the p-Smad2 linker coefficient of variation by more than twofold (21 to 9%), but normalizing to tubulin had virtually no effect (Fig. 6C). This does not imply that GAPDH is always a good loading control or that tubulin is always a bad one; rather, it emphasizes the danger of relying on a single measured variable to estimate total protein content. As higher-order combinations of loading controls were tested as normalizers, I found that the coefficient of variation of p-Smad2 linker steadily improved toward 7 to 8%, consistent with values reported previously (10, 11). This reproducibility became less dependent on the specific combination of ...
We have developed a protocol that greatly speeds preparation of C. elegans samples for analysis by immunoblotting. A key point of simplification in the protocol is standardizing the age and numbers of nematodes used for the studies. Our immunoblot analyses use 15 to 50 age-synchronized nematodes per well of 10 or 15 lane mini protein gels (Invitrogen). The exact number varies depending on the nematode age, the antigen abundance and the quality of the antibody. However, to provide investigators a benchmark from which they can further optimize their studies, we provide three examples using Actin as the antigen and hermaphrodites as the source material: L4/35 nematodes, adult day1/30 nematodes, adult day3/20 nematodes. Use of a defined number of age synchronized nematodes enables us to load exactly the same amounts of total protein from multiple samples with very minimum variation between the gel wells.. The sample preparation does not require sonication or any other mechanical method to crush the ...
Cooperativity in the structuring equilibria of FtsZ and Z-ring disassembly.The model that emerges out of the in vitro work led us to determine the amount of SulA required to inhibit Z-ring formation in vivo. SulA inhibited Z-ring formation in vivo with somewhat lower stoichiometry compared to what we observed in vitro. Quantitative immunoblotting revealed that MalE-SulA resulted in Z-ring disassembly when it reached ≤50% of the total cellular level of FtsZ. A previous study likewise found that a reduction in FtsZ levels by as little as 30 to 40% was sufficient to block cell division in E. coli (15). Why do Z rings disappear when the level of FtsZ decreases by only 30 to 50%?. It has been estimated that 30% of cellular FtsZ in E. coli is actually present in the Z ring (2). The estimates for intracellular concentration of FtsZ vary between strains but are generally 6 to 7 μM as we determined here (38, 61). This means that 2 μM of FtsZ is present in the ring with another 0.9 μM free in the ...
This manuscript details a straightforward dot blot assay for quantitation of adeno-associated virus (AAV) titers and its application to ...
HEK293T cells were transfected with the pCMV6-ENTRY control (Left lane) or pCMV6-ENTRY CYP17A1 (RC209042, Right lane) cDNA for 48 hrs and lysed. Equivalent amounts of cell lysates (5 ug per lane) were separated by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotted with anti-CYP17A1 ...
Wariant genu SARS-CoV-2 E zmienia charakterystykę czułości analitycznej wykrywania wirusów przy użyciu komercyjnego testu RT-PCR Diagnostic assays for detecting SARS-CoV-2 are important for affected. Read More ...
Definition of immunodot assay in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is immunodot assay? Meaning of immunodot assay as a finance term. What does immunodot assay mean in finance?
Protein extracts (50 mg) ended up subjected to immunoblot evaluation with antibodies against Pak1 (Mobile signal, one:one thousand, Mobile Signalling
HEK293T cells were transfected with the pCMV6-ENTRY control (Left lane) or pCMV6-ENTRY EXOSC7 (RC201419, Right lane) cDNA for 48 hrs and lysed. Equivalent amounts of cell lysates (5 ug per lane) were separated by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotted with anti-EXOSC7 ...
Abstract Recently described enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblot methods for the detection of serum IgG against Strongyloides stercoralis larval antigens were prospectively evaluated for the diagnosis of endemic strongyloidiasis. A modification of the ELISA involved preincubation of sera with Onchocerca gutturosa phosphate-buffered saline-soluble extract to remove cross-reactivity with other helminths. The sensitivity of the ELISA increased from 80% to 85% following preincubation. Similarly, there was an increase in specificity from 94% to 97%. The IgG recognition of 41-, 31-, and 28-kD filariform larval components showed sensitivities of 100%, 85%, and 65%, respectively. The specificities of recognition of these proteins were 94%, 89%, and 75%, respectively. Both the ELISA following incubation of sera with O. gutturosa extract and serum IgG reactivity to a 41-kD larval component using immunoblotting are sensitive and specific techniques for diagnosing endemic strongyloidiasis.
Expression levels of the major human sulfotransferases (SULTs) involved in xenobiotic detoxification in a range of human tissues (i.e., SULT pies) are not available in a form allowing comparison between tissues and individuals. Here we have determined, by quantitative immunoblotting, expression levels for the five principal human SULTs-SULT1A1, SULT1A3/4, SULT1B1, SULT1E1, and SULT2A1-and determined the kinetic properties toward probe substrates, where available, for these enzymes in cytosol samples from a bank of adult human liver, small intestine, kidney, and lung. We produced new isoform-selective antibodies against SULT1B1 and SULT2A1, which were used alongside antibodies against SULT1A3 and SULT1A1 previously produced in our laboratory or available commercially (SULT1E1). Expression levels were derived using purified recombinant enzymes to construct standard curves for each individual isoform and immunoblot. Substantial intertissue and interindividual differences in expression were ...
A: CST does not routinely test antibodies for fluoresecent western blotting, though many work well in this application. Performing a fluorescent western blot using CST™ antibodies requires a modified immunoblotting protocol. We find that omitting Tween® 20 detergent from the blocking step (using only 5% nonfat dry milk in TBS) and drying the membrane prior to imaging are the only necessary changes from our standard protocol. Full details can be found in our Fluorescent Western Immunoblotting Protocol (Primary Ab Incubation In BSA) and our Fluorescent Western Immunoblotting Protocol (Primary Ab Incubation In Milk). Additionally, our Prestained Protein Marker, Broad Range (Premixed Format) #7720 serves well as a marker in fluorescent western blotting because it is autofluorescent at near-infrared wavelengths.. ...
In-vitrodiagnostiek voor screening van de bloedvoorziening: de nieuwe Europese verordening voor IVD en het WHO IVD- prekwalificatieprogramma Bloedtransfusie blijft een routinematige levensreddende medische process die helpt bij het vervangen van bloed dat verloren is gegaan door een operatie, verwonding of ziekte. De kwaliteit van getransfundeerd bloed ...
Immuno Slot Blot Assay - Immuno Slot Blot Assay! Wash the blots three times with TBST for 5 min each and incubate with secondary 1:2000 goat anti-mouse IgG-HRP or 1:5000 goat anti-rabbit IgG-HRP (Santa immuno slot blot assay Cruz Biotechnology) at room temperature slot technician cruise ship jobs for 2 h.! Troubleshooting Quantitative Western Blots Hints and Tips The blocker you use may affect background bands. If you encounter high background or unexpected bands, try a different blocker. For tips on how to choose an appropriate blocker, get the Western Blot Blocker Optimization for Near-Infrared Detection protocol. Antibody cross-reactivity in a two-color Western blot Western Blot Protocol , Bio-Rad Western blot protocol detailing the procedure for western blotting, solutions and reagents to use and immunoblot method to follow.This western blot protocol provides a general procedure for use with the majority of Bio-Rad reagents. In some cases specific recommendations are ...
This is a test for the presence of antibodies to the Hepatitis C which is responsible for over 90% of hepatitis from blood transfusion. However, most cases of Hepatitis C (96%) is transmitted from intravenous drug use. Recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA) detects antibodies to four HCV antigens ...
Using immunoblotting techniques, the antigen that binds the monoclonal antibody M27 has been clearly defined in terms of apparent molecular mass and distribution. In reducing conditions it has an apparent mass of 178K (K = 10(3) Mr) and is present in the cytoplasm and membranes of all mammalian tissue culture cells so far examined. It is absent from lines derived from avian, piscine and amphibian sources. It is also absent from foetal liver of both rat and mouse, but subsequently appears after cultivation in vitro. Similarly, it can be detected on rat lymphocytes only after mitogenic stimulation. However, it is found on both hepatoma and lymphoma cells in vitro, and on in vivo tumours from murine sources. It thus appears to be associated with cell proliferation. ...
Caspase detection antibodies and assays are used to help detect and study caspase activation in Apoptotic cells via immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting techniques.
Immunofluorescence localization and immunoblotting of Gαs in oocytes in Gpr3+/+ and Gpr3−/− ovaries. (A and B) Gαs in Gpr3+/+ (A) and Gpr3−/− (B) oocy
D for densitometry analysis of immunoblots, and all measurements were normalized against GAPDH loading controls.Materials and Methods Cells cultureA549 cells,
IFI6 influences the expressions of XAF1, bcl-2 and bax.(a) Recombinant cells were infected by DENV2 (MOI = 4) for 24, 36 and 48 hrs. Immunoblotting was used to
CAS 7778-77-0, 10028-24-7, 7447-40-7, 7647-14-5 This Anti-MSH6 Mouse mAb (1F2) is validated for use in ELISA, Immunoblotting, Immunocytochemistry for the detection of MSH6. - Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information.
Grk1 expression in transgenic mouse lines. (A) The mouse lines were generated by transgenesis with a BAC containing the full-length mouse Grk1 gene and its entire flanking sequences. The eye expression levels were quantified in the three strains using real-time RT-PCR (empty bars) and quantitative immunoblotting (filled bars). For real-time RT-PCR and quantitative immunoblots the data from individual mouse samples in triplicates were averaged at various RNA or protein loads to ensure consistency. The error bars represent SEM. Relative Grk1 expression in Grk1+/− were quantified previously by Doan et al. at 0.32 ± 0.03 the WT levels using quantitative immunoblots. 11 (B) Immunoblot shows overexpression of GRK1 bands in the overexpressing Grk1+ and Grk1+b strains. The immunoblot was probed with monoclonal antibody D11 against an amino terminal domain epitope, which recognizes both full-length and presumably the alternatively spliced truncated form of GRK1 previously described. 37,38 For ...
What is Dot Blot: similar technique as western blotting for detecting proteins in samples that are spotted through circular templates directly onto the membrane.. General Methods & Techniques. Antigen-Antibody Specific Applications. Virological Applications. Tumor, Disease & Diagnostic Applications. Dot Blot Definition - A technique for detecting, analyzing, and identifying proteins, similar to the Western blot technique but differing in that protein samples are not separated electrophoretically but are spotted through circular templates directly onto the membrane or paper substrate (source: NDI Foundation).. Protocols, troubleshooting and tips for successful dot blotting - Dot blot is a technique for detecting and identifying proteins, similar to the Western blot technique but differing in that protein samples are not separated electrophoretically but are spotted through circular templates directly onto the membrane or paper substrate. Antigens may be applied directly to nitocellulose membrane ...
Find and order laboratory accessories and products like this WestClear TM Nitrocellulose Membrane on www.antibodies-onl... | Order product ABIN769944.
List of words make out of Nitrocellulose. All anagrams of Nitrocellulose. Words made after unscrambling Nitrocellulose. Scrabble Points. Puzzle Solver. Word Creation.
A bioluminescent antibody-free method to detect HiBiT-tagged proteins blotted on nitrocellulose membranes in less than 10 minutes.
Ive noticed my skin has been itchy and burns a little off and on more than usual over the last couple weeks. this morning at work it felt like my bra was maybe...
Our quantitative immunoblot data showed a significant increase of NF-H, NF-M, and NF-L by 3 wk of age in the mutant DRGs, and thus in sensory neuron cell bodies. The simplest explanation is that these NF subunits were synthesized at normal rates but were moved out of the cell bodies at reduced rates. Overall, the levels of these proteins were not significantly changed in the brain, suggesting that the cell body accumulation is not caused by up-regulation of these proteins. Elevation of NF subunit levels in the DRG was not accompanied by obvious reductions in the sciatic nerve. This behavior is as expected based on two independent lines of evidence. First, the onset of the apparent deficit in transport is observed at 3 wk of age, the age at which substantial NF deposition and radial growth in axonal caliber normally begin. Only a subset of axons in mutants examined at this time have detectable caliber deficits (∼250/3,500 total axons in the sciatic nerve). Second, although Cre-mediated excision ...
In the present study, antigenic cross-reactivity of OMPs was investigated in several species of bacterial pathogens. Heterogeneous mouse or fish antisera were used to ascertain OMPs with cross-reactivity and cluster analysis was performed to analyze the distribution of cross-antigenic OMPs in diverse bacterial strains. We interestingly found that eleven and seven bands could be reacted with four kinds of heterogeneous mouse and fish antisera, respectively, and the phenograms constructed could provide ideal targeted bacteria for candidate genes of polyvalent vaccines. Importantly, there were significant differences in reaction with bacteria between mouse and fish antisera, but commonly antigenic bands still existed between them. Our results suggest that the cross-reactivity of OMPs exists commonly in Gram-negative bacteria, which may be a promising choice for the development of polyvalent OMP vaccines. Meanwhile, cluster analysis will help to understand the relation of cross-antigenic OMPs among ...
Antigenic components of Candida albicans were extracted from whole cells with a buffer containing SDS and 2-mercaptoethanol, and separated by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The components reactive with IgG, IgA, IgM and IgE antibodies in sera from patients with (14 subjects) and without (15 subjects) C. albicans in the vagina, and from healthy females (34 subjects), were investigated by immunoblotting using immunoglobulin class-specific antibodies. Many components reacted with IgG and IgA in all sera tested; the major antigens that reacted strongly with the sera were 67, 62, 29 and 25 kDa components. Several components were observed which reacted with IgM in 63% of the sera; the 67, 62 and 25 kDa components that reacted with IgG and IgA also reacted with IgM. No components reacting with IgE were detected in any of the sera. No striking differences in antibody binding profiles to whole cell antigens were detected among the C. albicans positive and negative patients or the healthy subjects. On
Western Blot and Immunoblotting Products. Read about how to use gold nanoparticles and other noble metal nanoparticles in immunoblotting in the following tech note: Immunoblotting Using Noble Metal Nanoparticles Probes
Western Blot and Immunoblotting Products. Read about how to use gold nanoparticles and other noble metal nanoparticles in immunoblotting in the following tech note: Immunoblotting Using Noble Metal Nanoparticles Probes
Though ZNF 746 known as Parkin-interacting substrate (PARIS) was reported to repress PGC-1α and its target gene NRF-1 leading to the neurodegeneration in Parkinsons disease, its function in tumorigenesis has not been investigated until now. Thus, in the present study, the role of ZNF746 was investigated in the invasion and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in ZNF746 overexpressed H460 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Invasion assay showed that inhibition of ZNF 746 using siRNA transfection method inhibited the invasion of H460 cells using Boyden chamber. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) revealed that the silencing of ZNF 746 attenuated the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 1, MMP2 and MMP 9, but not MMP7 in H460 cells. Immunoblotting assay revealed that the expressions of E-cadherin of epithelial phenotype were up-regulated, while Slug was down-regulated in ZNF746 siRNA transfected H460 cells. Consistently, mRNA expression of E-cadherin was up-regulated ...
Ns by differential centrifugation. B and C. Immunoblot analysis of soluble/ insoluble fractions separated by differential centrifugation. FKIPS DCARD stable
BSA (bovine serum albumin) has been tested and qualified for optimum performance in immunoblotting applications with alkaline phosphatase antibody conjugates
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Cysteine string proteins: a potential link between synaptic vesicles and presynaptic Ca2+ channels is an eagle-i resource of type Journal article at eagle-i Network Shared Resource Repository.
This test is based on the principles of the immunoblot method. Various allergens are attached to the surface of nitrocellulose membranes in separate lines depending on the configuration of the panel. Allergen-specific IgE antibodies react with the appropriate allergens, if they are present in the patients samples. In a second step biotin-conjugated anti-human IgE antibodies bind to the attached antibodies. During a third incubation step the biotin binds to a streptavidin peroxidase conjugate. In a final incubation step the peroxidase turns the colorless substrate tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) into a bluish purple final product. After each individual incubation a washing step follows to remove unbound material. The intensity of the blue color is proportional to the amount of allergen-specific antibodies in the patients serum.. The sample is evaluated with a common 3D color flatbed scanner validated by R-Biopharm in combination with the software RIDA qLine® Soft. The color intensities of the ...
This is a test for the presence of antibodies to the Hepatitis C which is responsible for over 90% of hepatitis from blood transfusion. However, most cases of Hepatitis C (96%) is transmitted from intravenous drug use. Recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA) detects antibodies to four HCV antigens ...
Cysteine String Protein alpha antibody (DnaJ (Hsp40) homolog, subfamily C, member 5) for WB. Anti-Cysteine String Protein alpha pAb (GTX79403) is tested in Mouse, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Figure 1. Cdh1 phosphorylation at Cdk sites promotes Cdh1 stability. A, Schematic of nine conserved sites of potential Cdk phosphorylation in Cdh1 (S/T-P), numbered according to human Cdh1. B, Lysates of 293T cells transfected with GFP-Cdh1 WT, 9A, or 9D were immunoblotted using a polyclonal antibody to Cdh1 or Erk, the latter to serve as a loading control. Quantitation of Cdh1 levels normalized by Erk revealed that the levels of the 9D and 9A mutant proteins were, respectively, increased by 122% and reduced by 57% relative to wild-type Cdh1 in 293T cells (average of 4 experiments). C, Lysates of Neuro2A cells transfected with GFP-Cdh1 WT, 9A, or 9D and treated with MG132 (5 μm) or the vehicle control DMSO were immunoblotted for GFP or Erk. The levels of the 9D and 9A mutant proteins were, respectively, increased by 150% and reduced by 37% relative to wild-type Cdh1 in Neuro2A cells (average of 2 experiments). MG132 treatment, respectively, increased WT, 9A, and 9D levels by 80, 134, and 9%. D, ...
Immunodot für die qualitative Bestimmung von IgG Antikörpern gegen Myeloperoxidase (MPO), Proteinase 3 (PR3) und Glomeruläre Basalmembran (GBM) in humanem Serum oder Plasma ...
This RapidStep™ ECL Reagent is validated for use in Immunoblotting for the detection of RapidStep ECL Reagent. - Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information.

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  • Immunofluorescence and immunoblotting analysis were used to determine the cellular localization of the endogenous and exogenous transgelin in colon cancer cells. (
  • Autophagy was assessed by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting. (
  • Applications Reported: This PCH101 antibody has been reported for use in immunoblotting (WB) and immunohistology on frozen and paraffin- embedded tissue sections. (
  • Applications Tested: This PCH101 antibody has been tested by immunoblotting (WB) (1-5 µg/mL) of normal human peripheral blood leukocytes. (
  • To this end, nerve growth factor (NGF)-differentiated PC12 cells were treated with Aβ 1-42 in the presence and absence of CDP-Ch. We examined the levels of several autophagic markers, including LC3B, p62, Beclin-1 and also Mitofusin-2 (Mfn-2), an outer mitochondrial membrane GTPase involved in mitochondrial fusion by immunoblotting. (

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