A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Fluoroimmunoassay where detection of the hapten-antibody reaction is based on measurement of the increased polarization of fluorescence-labeled hapten when it is combined with antibody. The assay is very useful for the measurement of small haptenic antigens such as drugs at low concentrations.
An immunoenzyme test for the presence of drugs and other substances in urine and blood. The test uses enzyme linked antibodies that react only with the particular drug for which the sample is being tested.
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The use of fluorescence spectrometry to obtain quantitative results for the FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE. One advantage over the other methods (e.g., radioimmunoassay) is its extreme sensitivity, with a detection limit on the order of tenths of microgram/liter.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
Method of analyzing chemicals using automation.
Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.
Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Chemical analysis based on the phenomenon whereby light, passing through a medium with dispersed particles of a different refractive index from that of the medium, is attenuated in intensity by scattering. In turbidimetry, the intensity of light transmitted through the medium, the unscattered light, is measured. In nephelometry, the intensity of the scattered light is measured, usually, but not necessarily, at right angles to the incident light beam.
Europium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Eu, atomic number 63, and atomic weight 152. Europium is used in the form of its salts as coatings for cathode ray tubes and in the form of its organic derivatives as shift reagents in NMR spectroscopy.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Negative test results in subjects who possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of diseased persons as healthy when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Antibodies that are chemically bound to a substrate material which renders their location fixed.
Passive agglutination tests in which antigen is adsorbed onto latex particles which then clump in the presence of antibody specific for the adsorbed antigen. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A cardiotonic glycoside obtained mainly from Digitalis lanata; it consists of three sugars and the aglycone DIGOXIGENIN. Digoxin has positive inotropic and negative chronotropic activity. It is used to control ventricular rate in ATRIAL FIBRILLATION and in the management of congestive heart failure with atrial fibrillation. Its use in congestive heart failure and sinus rhythm is less certain. The margin between toxic and therapeutic doses is small. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p666)
A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.
Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
The development and use of techniques and equipment to study or perform chemical reactions, with small quantities of materials, frequently less than a milligram or a milliliter.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
An anticonvulsant that is used to treat a wide variety of seizures. It is also an anti-arrhythmic and a muscle relaxant. The mechanism of therapeutic action is not clear, although several cellular actions have been described including effects on ion channels, active transport, and general membrane stabilization. The mechanism of its muscle relaxant effect appears to involve a reduction in the sensitivity of muscle spindles to stretch. Phenytoin has been proposed for several other therapeutic uses, but its use has been limited by its many adverse effects and interactions with other drugs.
Concentration or quantity that is derived from the smallest measure that can be detected with reasonable certainty for a given analytical procedure.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Measurement of the polarization of fluorescent light from solutions or microscopic specimens. It is used to provide information concerning molecular size, shape, and conformation, molecular anisotropy, electronic energy transfer, molecular interaction, including dye and coenzyme binding, and the antigen-antibody reaction.
The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.
Form of radioimmunoassay in which excess specific labeled antibody is added directly to the test antigen being measured.
Sensitive assay using radiolabeled ANTIGENS to detect specific ANTIBODIES in SERUM. The antigens are allowed to react with the serum and then precipitated using a special reagent such as PROTEIN A sepharose beads. The bound radiolabeled immunoprecipitate is then commonly analyzed by gel electrophoresis.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Type species of CHLAMYDIA causing a variety of ocular and urogenital diseases.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.
A milky, product excreted from the latex canals of a variety of plant species that contain cauotchouc. Latex is composed of 25-35% caoutchouc, 60-75% water, 2% protein, 2% resin, 1.5% sugar & 1% ash. RUBBER is made by the removal of water from latex.(From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed). Hevein proteins are responsible for LATEX HYPERSENSITIVITY. Latexes are used as inert vehicles to carry antibodies or antigens in LATEX FIXATION TESTS.
Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
A 60-kDa extracellular protein of Streptomyces avidinii with four high-affinity biotin binding sites. Unlike AVIDIN, streptavidin has a near neutral isoelectric point and is free of carbohydrate side chains.
A genus of REOVIRIDAE, causing acute gastroenteritis in BIRDS and MAMMALS, including humans. Transmission is horizontal and by environmental contamination. Seven species (Rotaviruses A thru G) are recognized.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDIA.
The major hormone derived from the thyroid gland. Thyroxine is synthesized via the iodination of tyrosines (MONOIODOTYROSINE) and the coupling of iodotyrosines (DIIODOTYROSINE) in the THYROGLOBULIN. Thyroxine is released from thyroglobulin by proteolysis and secreted into the blood. Thyroxine is peripherally deiodinated to form TRIIODOTHYRONINE which exerts a broad spectrum of stimulatory effects on cell metabolism.
The application of medical knowledge to questions of law.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.
Polysaccharides consisting of mannose units.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
An enzyme isolated from horseradish which is able to act as an antigen. It is frequently used as a histochemical tracer for light and electron microscopy. Its antigenicity has permitted its use as a combined antigen and marker in experimental immunology.
Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique utilizing a fluorochrome conjugated to an antibody, which is added directly to a tissue or cell suspension for the detection of a specific antigen. (Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
The clear portion of BLOOD that is left after BLOOD COAGULATION to remove BLOOD CELLS and clotting proteins.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.
The beta subunit of human CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Its structure is similar to the beta subunit of LUTEINIZING HORMONE, except for the additional 30 amino acids at the carboxy end with the associated carbohydrate residues. HCG-beta is used as a diagnostic marker for early detection of pregnancy, spontaneous abortion (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS); ECTOPIC PREGNANCY; HYDATIDIFORM MOLE; CHORIOCARCINOMA; or DOWN SYNDROME.
A specific protein in egg albumin that interacts with BIOTIN to render it unavailable to mammals, thereby producing biotin deficiency.
The taking of a blood sample to determine its character as a whole, to identify levels of its component cells, chemicals, gases, or other constituents, to perform pathological examination, etc.
Any technique by which an unknown color is evaluated in terms of standard colors. The technique may be visual, photoelectric, or indirect by means of spectrophotometry. It is used in chemistry and physics. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A common inhabitant of the colon flora in human infants and sometimes in adults. It produces a toxin that causes pseudomembranous enterocolitis (ENTEROCOLITIS, PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS) in patients receiving antibiotic therapy.
Emission of LIGHT when ELECTRONS return to the electronic ground state from an excited state and lose the energy as PHOTONS. It is sometimes called cool light in contrast to INCANDESCENCE. LUMINESCENT MEASUREMENTS take advantage of this type of light emitted from LUMINESCENT AGENTS.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
A water-soluble, enzyme co-factor present in minute amounts in every living cell. It occurs mainly bound to proteins or polypeptides and is abundant in liver, kidney, pancreas, yeast, and milk.
Elements of the lanthanoid series including atomic number 57 (LANTHANUM) through atomic number 71 (LUTETIUM).
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
An acute infectious disease caused by the RUBELLA VIRUS. The virus enters the respiratory tract via airborne droplet and spreads to the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
Methods utilizing the principles of MICROFLUIDICS for sample handling, reagent mixing, and separation and detection of specific components in fluids.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.
Infection with any of the rotaviruses. Specific infections include human infantile diarrhea, neonatal calf diarrhea, and epidemic diarrhea of infant mice.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
A glycoprotein hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Thyrotropin stimulates THYROID GLAND by increasing the iodide transport, synthesis and release of thyroid hormones (THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE). Thyrotropin consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH; LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.
A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).
An analytical method for detecting and measuring FLUORESCENCE in compounds or targets such as cells, proteins, or nucleotides, or targets previously labeled with FLUORESCENCE AGENTS.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS A VIRUS such as the human hepatitis A virus (HEPATITIS A VIRUS, HUMAN).
Laboratory and other services provided to patients at the bedside. These include diagnostic and laboratory testing using automated information entry.
Immunologic techniques involved in diagnosis.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Alkaloids found in OPIUM from PAPAVER that induce analgesic and narcotic effects by action upon OPIOID RECEPTORS.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Antibodies found in adult RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS patients that are directed against GAMMA-CHAIN IMMUNOGLOBULINS.
A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
C(23)-steroids with methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and a five-membered lactone at C-17. They are aglycone constituents of CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES and must have at least one double bond in the molecule. The class includes cardadienolides and cardatrienolides. Members include DIGITOXIN and DIGOXIN and their derivatives and the STROPHANTHINS.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Immunoglobulins raised by any form of viral hepatitis; some of these antibodies are used to diagnose the specific kind of hepatitis.
A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.
Narrow pieces of material impregnated or covered with a substance used to produce a chemical reaction. The strips are used in detecting, measuring, producing, etc., other substances. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
3 beta,12 beta,14-Trihydroxy-5 beta-card-20(22)-enolide. A cardenolide which is the aglycon of digoxin. Can be obtained by hydrolysis of digoxin or from Digitalis orientalis L. and Digitalis lanata Ehrh.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.
Drugs obtained and often manufactured illegally for the subjective effects they are said to produce. They are often distributed in urban areas, but are also available in suburban and rural areas, and tend to be grossly impure and may cause unexpected toxicity.
An intermediate in the metabolism of DIAZEPAM to OXAZEPAM. It may have actions similar to those of diazepam.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
Analogs or derivatives of AMPHETAMINE. Many are sympathomimetics and central nervous system stimulators causing excitation, vasopressin, bronchodilation, and to varying degrees, anorexia, analepsis, nasal decongestion, and some smooth muscle relaxation.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Polymerized forms of styrene used as a biocompatible material, especially in dentistry. They are thermoplastic and are used as insulators, for injection molding and casting, as sheets, plates, rods, rigid forms and beads.
An acute inflammation of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA that is characterized by the presence of pseudomembranes or plaques in the SMALL INTESTINE (pseudomembranous enteritis) and the LARGE INTESTINE (pseudomembranous colitis). It is commonly associated with antibiotic therapy and CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE colonization.
An opioid analgesic with actions and uses similar to those of MORPHINE, apart from an absence of cough suppressant activity. It is used in the treatment of moderate to severe pain, including pain in obstetrics. It may also be used as an adjunct to anesthesia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1092)
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Ligand-binding assays that measure protein-protein, protein-small molecule, or protein-nucleic acid interactions using a very large set of capturing molecules, i.e., those attached separately on a solid support, to measure the presence or interaction of target molecules in the sample.
A family of galactoside hydrolases that hydrolyze compounds with an O-galactosyl linkage. EC 3.2.1.-.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
An examination of chemicals in the blood.
An inactive metabolite of PROGESTERONE by reduction at C5, C3, and C20 position. Pregnanediol has two hydroxyl groups, at 3-alpha and 20-alpha. It is detectable in URINE after OVULATION and is found in great quantities in the pregnancy urine.
Controlled operation of an apparatus, process, or system by mechanical or electronic devices that take the place of human organs of observation, effort, and decision. (From Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 1993)
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
The study of fluid channels and chambers of tiny dimensions of tens to hundreds of micrometers and volumes of nanoliters or picoliters. This is of interest in biological MICROCIRCULATION and used in MICROCHEMISTRY and INVESTIGATIVE TECHNIQUES.
The causative agent of venereal and non-venereal syphilis as well as yaws.
A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Blood proteins that bind to THYROID HORMONES such as THYROXINE and transport them throughout the circulatory system.
Silicone polymers which consist of silicon atoms substituted with methyl groups and linked by oxygen atoms. They comprise a series of biocompatible materials used as liquids, gels or solids; as film for artificial membranes, gels for implants, and liquids for drug vehicles; and as antifoaming agents.
A major metabolite of PROCAINAMIDE. Its anti-arrhythmic action may cause cardiac toxicity in kidney failure.
Examination of urine by chemical, physical, or microscopic means. Routine urinalysis usually includes performing chemical screening tests, determining specific gravity, observing any unusual color or odor, screening for bacteriuria, and examining the sediment microscopically.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A genus of small, circular RNA viruses in the family ASTROVIRIDAE. They cause GASTROENTERITIS and are found in the stools of several vertebrates including humans. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route and there are at least eight human serotypes. The type species is Human astrovirus.
The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.
The process of observing, recording, or detecting the effects of a chemical substance administered to an individual therapeutically or diagnostically.
An infection of the SMALL INTESTINE caused by the flagellated protozoan GIARDIA LAMBLIA. It is spread via contaminated food and water and by direct person-to-person contact.
The specialty of ANALYTIC CHEMISTRY applied to assays of physiologically important substances found in blood, urine, tissues, and other biological fluids for the purpose of aiding the physician in making a diagnosis or following therapy.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
Inflammation of the UTERINE CERVIX.
Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.

Immunological comparison of the proteins of chicken and rat liver ribosomes. (1/4669)

A comparison of the proteins of chicken and rat liver ribosomes using immunochemical techniques was undertaken. The procedures included quantitative precipitation, passive hemagglutination, and immunodiffusion on Ouchterlony plates. The results indicate that antisera specific for chicken or rat liver ribosomes recognize only about 20% of common determinants. While there are important reservations, the results suggest extensive differences in the proteins of rat and chicken liver ribosomes. Despite those differences, rat and chicken liver ribosomal proteins maintain some homologous sequences present in bacterial ribosomal proteins. An enriched antibody preparation against chicken 80 S ribosomes inhibited the poly(U)-directed synthesis of polyphenylalanine and the elongation factor G (EF-G)-catalyzed binding of [3H]GDP to Escherichia coli ribosomes. Thus, chicken liver ribosomes, like ribosomes from rat liver and yeast, must have proteins homologous with those of E. coli ribosomes.  (+info)

Performance and specificity of monoclonal immunoassays for cyclosporine monitoring: how specific is specific? (2/4669)

BACKGROUND: Immunoassays designed for the selective measurement of cyclosporin A (CsA) inadvertently show cross-reactivity for CsA metabolites. The extent and clinical significance of the resulting overestimation is controversial. A comprehensive assessment of old and new methods in clinical specimens is needed. METHODS: In a comprehensive evaluation, CsA was analyzed in 145 samples with the new CEDIA assay and compared with the Emit assay with the old and new pretreatments, the TDx monoclonal and polyclonal assays, the AxSYM, and HPLC. All samples were from patients with liver and/or kidney transplants. RESULTS: The CEDIA offered the easiest handling, followed by the AxSYM, which showed the longest calibration stability. The TDx monoclonal assay provided the lowest detection limit and the lowest CVs. The mean differences compared with HPLC were as follows: Emit, 9-12%; CEDIA, 18%; AxSYM, 29%; and TDx monoclonal, 57%. The CycloTrac RIA paralleled the Emit results. In contrast to the mean differences, substantial (>200%) and variable overestimations of the CsA concentration were observed in individual patient samples. Metabolic ratios, estimates of the overall concentrations of several cross-reacting metabolites (nonspecific TDx polyclonal/specific reference method), correlated with the apparent biases of the various monoclonal assays. Metabolic ratios varied up to 10-fold, which translated into biases for individual samples between -7% and +174%. The higher the cross-reactivity of an assay was, the higher was the range of biases observed. The interindividual differences markedly exceeded other factors of influence (organ transplanted, hepatic function). CONCLUSION: Because assay bias cannot be predicted in individual samples, substantially erratic CsA dosing can result. The specificity of CsA assays for parent CsA remains a major concern.  (+info)

Automated homogeneous immunoassay for gentamicin on the dimension clinical chemistry system. (3/4669)

BACKGROUND: Monitoring of the concentration of gentamicin in serum and plasma during therapy is widely recommended and practiced in hospitals. Our aim was to develop a homogeneous immunoassay based on particle-enhanced turbidimetric inhibition immunoassay technology to quantify gentamicin on the Dimension clinical chemistry system. METHODS: Assay performance was assessed on each of the Dimension models in a 15-instrument interlaboratory comparison study. A split-sample comparison (n = 1171) was also performed between the gentamicin methods on the Dimension system and the Abbott TDx analyzer, using multiple reagent and calibrator lots on multiple instruments. RESULTS: The Dimension method was linear to 25.1 micromol/L (12.0 microg/mL) with a detection limit of 0.63 micromol/L (0.3 microg/mL). Calibration was stable for 30 days. The within-run imprecision (CV) was <1.3%, and total imprecision ranged from 1.8% to 3.2% between 4.2 micromol/L (2.0 microg/mL) and 16.7 micromol/L (8.0 microg/mL) gentamicin. Linear regression analysis of the results on the Dimension method (DM) vs the Abbott TDx yielded the following equation: DM = 0.98TDx - 0.42; r = 0.987. Minimal interference was observed from structurally related compounds such as sagamicin, netilmicin, and sisomicin. CONCLUSION: The monoclonal antibody used in this method has similar reactivities toward the individual gentamicin subspecies C1, C1a, and C2, thus providing analytical recovery not significantly dependent on relative subspecies concentrations.  (+info)

Serum IGF-binding protein-6 and prostate specific antigen in breast cancer. (4/4669)

OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have demonstrated the presence of the IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) and prostate specific antigen (PSA), an IGFBP protease. in human breast tissue. We sought to investigate the differences in serum IGFs, IGFBP-1, -3 and -6, and PSA between patients with surgically proven breast cancer and patients with benign breast disease. DESIGN AND METHODS: Concentrations of IGFs, IGFBP-1, -3 and -6, and PSA were determined in the sera from 57 patients with breast cancer (CA), and 46 women with benign breast disease (BBD) using immunoassays for IGFs and IGFBPs and an ultrasensitive ELISA for PSA. RESULTS: The mean (+/- S.E.M.) serum IGFBP-6 level in the CA group, 127 (16) ng/ml, was statistically significantly lower than in the BBD group, 157 (10) ng/ml (P = 0.016). Patients with CA had an elevated geometric mean serum PSA level of 0.018 (range: 0.0015-0.107) ng/ml, compared with 0.007 (range: 0.0015-0.019) ng/ml in women with BBD (P = 0.025). Mean serum IGFBP-1 concentrations were significantly lower in the CA group, 16 (2) ng/ml, versus 37 (4) ng/ml in the BBD group (P = 0.001). Mean serum IGFBP-3 concentrations were also lower in the CA group versus the BBD group, at 1981 (65) ng/ml, versus 2603 (140) ng/ml (P = 0.002) respectively. In the CA group, statistically significant correlations between PSA and IGFBP-6 (r = 0.413; P = 0.001), and between PSA and IGFBP-1 (r = -0.329; P = 0.021) were seen. Differences in IGF-I and -II between the two groups were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Lower serum concentrations of IGFBP-6, -3 and -1, but higher PSA concentrations were seen in the breast cancer group, and collectively these would suggest that there is an increase in bioavailable IGF-I in breast cancer.  (+info)

Differential immunodiagnosis between cystic hydatid disease and other cross-reactive pathologies. (5/4669)

We assessed an Echinococcus granulosus hydatid fluid antigen-ELISA (EgHF-ELISA) as a serologic prescreening test for E. granulosus infections, supplemented by more specific confirmatory tests, including arc-5 immunoprecipitation and antigen B subunit 8-kD immunoblotting. The diagnostic sensitivity of the EgHF-ELISA was 91%. With regard to the test specificity of the EgHF-ELISA (overall = 82%), we observed relatively frequent cross-reactions in tumor patients (6%) and in patients with other parasitic diseases. Cestode-related cross-reactivity can be resolved by the complementary use of E. multilocularis-specific antigens or Taenia solium cysticercosis-specific immunoblotting. Immunoblotting based upon the detection of antibody reactivity to the 8-kD antigen of EgHF, or if appropriately detectable, to the 29-kD and 34-kD bands exhibited a 91% diagnostic sensitivity and an overall specificity of 97% or 94%, respectively. Thus, immunoblotting provided a 99% discrimination between seropositive pre-operative cystic hydatid disease cases and cross-reactive non-cestode parasitic infections or malignancies.  (+info)

An immunoluminometric assay for N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide: development of a test for left ventricular dysfunction. (6/4669)

Measurement of plasma levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) has been used to assess left ventricular dysfunction and prognosis. Levels of the N-terminus of the precursor of BNP (NT-proBNP) have been reported to be elevated to a greater extent than BNP in left ventricular dysfunction. We have devised a non-radioactive sensitive and specific assay for NT-proBNP based on a competitive ligand binding principle. The chemiluminescent label 4-(2-succinimidyloxycarbonylethyl)phenyl-10-methylacridinium 9-carboxylate fluorosulphonate was used to label peptides representing domains in the middle and C-terminal sections of NT-proBNP. Assay of the C-terminal section of NT-proBNP (amino acids 65-76) in patients with proven left ventricular dysfunction [left ventricular wall motion index median 0.9 (range 0.3-1.4)] revealed elevated values [median 639 (386-911) fmol/ml] compared with normal controls [left ventricular wall motion index of 2 in all, NT-proBNP median 159 (120-245) fmol/ml, P<0.001]. Measurement of the middle section of NT-proBNP (amino acids 37-49) was not a discriminating test. It is thus possible to derivatize small peptides with a methyl acridinium label and preserve immunodetection with specific antibodies. Such methodology may allow non-radioactive immunoluminometric assays to be devised.  (+info)

Endometrial evaluation is not predictive for in vitro fertilization treatment. (7/4669)

PURPOSE: The main purpose of this study was to evaluate ovarian function by clomiphene citrate (CC) challenge test in a group of tubal infertile women and to study endometrial morphological maturation in the early luteal phase of CC-stimulated cycles as compared to in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment outcome. METHODS AND RESULTS: Four women presented with strongly retarded, proliferative endometrium in the luteal phase. Of these, three presented with impaired ovarian function, high basal follicle-stimulating hormone, and high follicle-stimulating hormone levels after clomiphene stimulation on cycle day 10. In the remaining 30 women, showing an in-phase endometrium after CC stimulation, a comparison of six morphological characteristics did not reveal any significant differences between the 14 women who did become pregnant and the 16 who did not. No significant differences in endometrial thickness were observed between the groups. Significant differences were found when comparing estradiol and progesterone area under the curve during the luteal phase (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively) between those who did and those who did not become pregnant. CONCLUSIONS: Luteal endometrium morphology was not a sharp instrument to detect differences between women who did and women who did not become pregnant following IVF treatment, while ovarian function, as measured by hormonal markers, seemed to be a more reliable prognostic factor for IVF treatment outcome.  (+info)

Malignant transformation of human prostatic epithelium is associated with the loss of androgen receptor immunoreactivity in the surrounding stroma. (8/4669)

The cellular pathways involved in the pathogenesis of hormone resistance remain unclear. Studies evaluating the role of changes in human androgen receptor (hAR) expression in the progression of prostatic tumors have been inconclusive. Androgenic influence over prostatic growth is mediated via the regulation of interactions between stromal and epithelial cells. We hypothesized that neoplastic transformation of the prostate would be associated with alterations in hAR expression in the adjacent stroma. Using immunohistochemical techniques, we determined hAR positivity in the epithelium and adjacent stroma of sections from 17 benign and 39 malignant prostatic glands. We found that whereas the expression of the receptor decreased in both cellular compartments as the tissues dedifferentiated, the depletion was more pronounced in the stromal nuclei (P<0.0001). However, in sections from both untreated and hormone-resistant prostate cancer tissues, although heterogeneity of hAR expression in malignant epithelia was increased, there appeared to be a unique field effect around the cancerous prostate glands that resulted in a decreased expression of the receptor in the adjacent benign glands and its total loss in the surrounding stroma. The loss of hAR in the stroma adjacent to malignant prostatic epithelium may play an important role in prostate cancer progression. Furthermore, the similarity of the lack of stromal hAR expression in newly diagnosed and hormone-resistant prostate cancer (P = 0.85) may be an indication that the mechanisms responsible for the acquisition of hormone independence are established early in the malignant transformation process.  (+info)

The symptoms of chlamydia infections can vary depending on the location of the infection. In genital infections, symptoms may include:

* Discharge from the penis or vagina
* Painful urination
* Abnormal bleeding or spotting
* Painful sex
* Testicular pain in men
* Pelvic pain in women

In eye infections, symptoms can include:

* Redness and swelling of the eye
* Discharge from the eye
* Pain or sensitivity to light

In respiratory infections, symptoms may include:

* Cough
* Fever
* Shortness of breath or wheezing

If left untreated, chlamydia infections can lead to serious complications, such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in women and epididymitis in men. Chlamydia infections can also increase the risk of infertility and other long-term health problems.

Chlamydia infections are typically diagnosed through a physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as a nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) or a culture test. Treatment for chlamydia infections typically involves antibiotics, which can effectively cure the infection. It is important to note that sexual partners of someone with a chlamydia infection should also be tested and treated, as they may also have the infection.

Prevention methods for chlamydia infections include safe sex practices such as using condoms and dental dams, as well as regular screening and testing for the infection. It is important to note that chlamydia infections can be asymptomatic, so regular testing is crucial for early detection and treatment.

In conclusion, chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted bacterial infection that can cause serious complications if left untreated. Early detection and treatment are key to preventing long-term health problems and the spread of the infection. Safe sex practices and regular screening are also important for preventing chlamydia infections.

Gastroenteritis can be classified into different types based on the cause:

Viral gastroenteritis - This is the most common type of gastroenteritis and is caused by norovirus or rotavirus.

Bacterial gastroenteritis - This type is caused by bacteria such as salmonella, E. coli, or campylobacter.

Parasitic gastroenteritis - This is caused by parasites such as giardia or cryptosporidium.

Foodborne gastroenteritis - This type is caused by consuming contaminated food or water.

Gastroenteritis can be treated with antibiotics for bacterial infections, anti-diarrheal medications, and hydration therapy to prevent dehydration. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.

Prevention measures include proper hand washing, avoiding close contact with people who are sick, and avoiding contaminated food and water. Vaccines are also available for some types of gastroenteritis such as rotavirus.

Source: 'Rubella' in Duane Gubler (ed.), up-to-date online clinical reference, retrieved on March 14, 2023 from

The symptoms of rotavirus infection can range from mild to severe and may include:

* Diarrhea
* Vomiting
* Fever
* Abdominal pain
* Dehydration
* Loss of appetite
* Weight loss

In severe cases, rotavirus infection can lead to complications such as:

* Dehydration
* Malnutrition
* Electrolyte imbalance
* Acute kidney injury
* Septicemia
* Death (rare)

The diagnosis of rotavirus infection is based on a combination of clinical symptoms, laboratory tests, and medical imaging. Laboratory tests may include:

* Stool testing for the presence of rotavirus antigens or genetic material
* Blood testing for signs of dehydration or electrolyte imbalance

There is no specific treatment for rotavirus infection, but rather supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications. This may include:

* Fluid replacement therapy to prevent dehydration
* Anti-diarrheal medications to slow down bowel movements
* Pain management with medication
* Rest and hydration

Prevention is key in managing rotavirus infections. Vaccines are available to protect against rotavirus infection, and good hygiene practices such as frequent handwashing and avoiding close contact with people who are sick can also help prevent the spread of the virus.

Overall, while rotavirus infections can be severe and potentially life-threatening, with proper supportive care and prevention measures, most children recover fully within a few days to a week.

PSE can be a serious condition, especially in older adults or those with weakened immune systems, as it can lead to life-threatening complications such as inflammation of the bowel wall, perforation of the bowel, and sepsis. PSE is often diagnosed through a combination of clinical symptoms, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as X-rays or CT scans. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to eradicate the infection, as well as supportive care to manage symptoms such as fluid replacement, pain management, and wound care. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged portions of the intestine.

Prevention measures for PSE include proper hand hygiene, isolation precautions, and environmental cleaning to reduce the transmission of C. diff spores. Probiotics, which are live microorganisms that are similar to the beneficial bacteria found in the gut, have also been shown to be effective in preventing PSE recurrence.

Giardiasis is a disease caused by the protozoan parasite Giardia duodenalis, which is found in contaminated water, food, or direct contact with infected individuals. The parasite enters the small intestine and feeds on the mucosal lining, causing inflammation, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps.


Giardiasis is a common disease worldwide, affecting approximately 500 million people annually, with higher prevalence in developing countries. In the United States, it is estimated that over 1.5 million people are infected each year, with the highest incidence rates found among children and travelers to endemic areas.


The symptoms of giardiasis can vary in severity but typically include:

* Diarrhea (sometimes bloody)
* Abdominal cramps
* Weight loss
* Fatigue
* Nausea and vomiting
* Fever
* Headache

In some cases, the infection can lead to more severe complications such as:

* Malabsorption (deficiency of essential nutrients)
* Inflammation of the intestine
* Rectal prolapse


The diagnosis of giardiasis is based on a combination of clinical symptoms, laboratory tests, and medical history. The most common diagnostic techniques include:

* Microscopic examination of stool samples for the presence of Giardia eggs or trophozoites
* Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect antigens or antibodies against Giardia in stool or blood samples
* Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect the parasite's DNA in stool samples


The treatment of giardiasis typically involves the use of antiparasitic drugs, such as metronidazole or tinidazole. These medications are effective against the parasite and can be administered orally or intravenously, depending on the severity of the infection. The duration of treatment varies depending on the individual case, but it is generally between 5-10 days.


Preventing giardiasis involves avoiding exposure to contaminated water or food sources. Some measures that can be taken to prevent the infection include:

* Avoiding consumption of untreated water, especially when traveling to areas with poor sanitation
* Avoiding contact with people who have diarrhea or are infected with Giardia
* Properly storing and cooking food to kill any parasites that may be present
* Avoiding raw or undercooked meat, especially pork and wild game
* Washing hands frequently, especially before eating or preparing food

It is important to note that giardiasis can be a recurring infection, so it is important to take preventive measures consistently.

Symptoms of cervicitis may include:

* Pain or discomfort during sex
* Vaginal bleeding or spotting
* Abnormal vaginal discharge
* Itching or burning sensation in the vagina
* Pain or pressure in the lower abdomen

To diagnose cervicitis, a healthcare provider may perform a physical examination and may also use tests such as a pelvic examination, Pap smear, or vaginal swab culture to rule out other conditions.

Treatment for cervicitis typically involves antibiotics if the condition is caused by a bacterial infection. If the cause is an STI, treatment may involve antiviral or antibacterial medication. In addition, home remedies such as applying warm compresses to the area, taking over-the-counter pain relievers, and avoiding sexual intercourse until the symptoms resolve can be helpful.

Preventive measures for cervicitis include:

* Practicing safe sex by using condoms or other barrier methods
* Getting regular Pap smears to detect any abnormal cell changes in the cervix
* Avoiding douching, as it can disrupt the natural balance of bacteria in the vagina and lead to infection
* Wearing breathable cotton underwear and avoiding tight-fitting clothing that can trap moisture and bacteria close to the skin.

Multi-step assays are often called separation immunoassays or heterogeneous immunoassays. Some immunoassays can be carried out ... Immunoassays can be run in a number of different formats. Generally, an immunoassay will fall into one of several categories ... Immunoassays come in many different formats and variations. Immunoassays may be run in multiple steps with reagents being added ... "The Immunoassay Handbook", 3rd Edition, David Wild, Ed., Elsevier,2008 Immunoassay at the US National Library of Medicine ...
... (CLIA) is a type of immunoassay employing chemiluminescence. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ( ... Cinquanta L, Fontana DE, Bizzaro N (December 2017). "Chemiluminescent immunoassay technology: what does it change in ... ELISA) Wang, Chen; Wu, Jie; Zong, Chen; Xu, Jie; Ju, Huang-Xian (January 2012). "Chemiluminescent Immunoassay and its ...
An enzyme immunoassay is any of several immunoassay methods that use an enzyme bound to an antigen or antibody. These may ... include: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) Enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT) This article includes a list ...
... (MIA) is a type of diagnostic immunoassay using magnetic beads as labels in lieu of conventional enzymes ( ... Magnetic Immunoassay (MIA) is able to detect select molecules or pathogens through the use of a magnetically tagged antibody. ... This technology makes magnetic immunoassay possible in a variety of formats such as: conventional lateral flow test by ... ELISA), radioisotopes (RIA) or fluorescent moieties (fluorescent immunoassays) to detect a specified analyte. MIA involves the ...
ELISA Radio immunoassay FRET Magnetic immunoassay Fluorescence Immunoscreening Lateral flow test Cloned enzyme donor ... Fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) is a class of in vitro biochemical test used for rapid detection of antibody or ... Fluorescence polarization immunoassays employ a fluorophore bound antigen that when bound to the antibody of interest, will ... A fluorescence polarization immunoassay was first described and used in the 1960s. The competitive homogenous characteristic ...
... (MSIA) is a rapid method is used to detect and/ or quantify antigens and or antibody analytes. ... Immunoassay Immunoscreening SISCAPA US 6974704B2 Nelson, Randall W.; Krone, Jennifer R.; Bieber, Allan L.; Williams, Peter. ( ... 1995). "Mass Spectrometric Immunoassay". Analytical Chemistry. 67 (7): 1153-1158. doi:10.1021/ac00103a003. OSTI 1087876. PMID ... Nelson, Randall W.; Borges, Chad R. (2011-06-01). "Mass Spectrometric Immunoassay Revisited". Journal of the American Society ...
Turbidimetric inhibition immuno assay (TINIA) is a type of immunoassay that uses turbidimetry as the measurement principle and ... is used for many commercial immunoassays, e.g. measurement of HbA1c%, Digoxin etc. in whole blood sample in several commercial ...
A cloned enzyme donor immunoassay (CEDIA) is a competitive homogenous enzyme immunoassay. This assay makes use of two component ...
Drug tests Blood tests Screening (medicine) 1 Edwin F. Ullman "Homogeneous Immunoassay" in "The Immunoassay Handbook" 4th ... It is an immunoassay in which a drug or metabolite in the sample competes with a drug/metabolite labelled with an enzyme, to ... Immunoassays that do not conform with SAMHSA, featuring a cutoff of 20 ng/ml, have been shown to produce false positives from ... As an example the SAMHSA cutoffs for cannabinoids are 50 ng/ml for the immunoassay and 15 ng/ml as confirmed by GC/MS. ...
Immunoassay Rubenstein, R.; et al. (September 2011). "Prion Disease Detection, PMCA Kinetics, and IgG in Urine from Sheep ... Surround optical-fiber immunoassay (SOFIA) is an ultrasensitive, in vitro diagnostic platform incorporating a surround optical- ... "Surround Optical Fiber Immunoassay (SOFIA)" (PDF). Los Alamos National Laboratory. Retrieved 2011-08-19. Braithwaite, S.L. ( ... 2010). "Prion Surround optical fiber immunoassay (SOFIA): an ultra-sensitive assay for PrP detection". Journal of General ...
The unit count will often still remain in use.[clarify] Such a change has happened with the immunoassay standards for prolactin ... Ekins R (1991). "Immunoassay standardization". Scand J Clin Lab Invest Suppl. 205: 33-46. doi:10.3109/00365519109104600. PMID ... Wicher JT (1991). "Calibration is the key to immunoassay but the ideal calibrator is unattainable". Scand J Clin Lab Invest ...
That Tjien Ngo (1988). Nonisotopic immunoassay. Plenum Press. p. 71. F. Yamagishi; T. Stanford; C. van Ast (2001). "Biosensors ...
An important practical relevance of the phenomenon is as a type of interference that plagues certain immunoassays and ... Tate, Jill; Ward, Greg (2004-05-01). "Interferences in Immunoassay". The Clinical Biochemist Reviews. 25 (2): 105-120. ISSN ... Miller, James (April 2004). "Interference in immunoassays: avoiding erroneous results" (PDF). CLI Online. CLI. Retrieved 3 ... Blocking antibody Schiettecatte, Johan; Anckaert, Ellen; Smitz, Johan (2012-03-23). "Interferences in Immunoassays". Advances ...
In the heterogeneous immunoassay the separation step will wash away the free substrate unable to bind due to HAMA blocking; ... Darwish, IA (2006). "Immunoassay Methods and their Applications in Pharmaceutical Analysis: Basic Methodology and Recent ... Tate, J; Ward, G (2004). "Interferences in immunoassay". Clin Biochem Rev. 25 (2): 105-20. PMC 1904417. PMID 18458713. (All ... HAMA interferences can give false positive or negative immunoassay results. HAMA bridging interference produces artificially ...
Sarah Tiplady (2013). "7.3: Lateral Flow and Consumer Diagnostics". The Immunoassay Handbook. pp. 533-536. Retrieved 2013-10-17 ... "Chapter 7.4: Consumer Diagnostics-Clearblue Pregnancy and Fertility Testing". The Immunoassay Handbook. pp. 537-540. Retrieved ...
Kricka, Larry J (1993). "Ultrasensitive immunoassay techniques". Clinical Biochemistry. 26 (5): 325-331. doi:10.1016/0009-9120( ...
Furthermore, immunoassays on thiol-ene "synthetic paper" micropillar scaffolds have shown to generate a superior fluorescence ... Guo, W; Vilaplana, L; Hansson, J; Marco, P; van der Wijngaart, W (2020). "Immunoassays on thiol-ene synthetic paper generate a ... Silzel J. W., Cercek B., Dodson C., Tsay T., Obremski R. J. (1998). "Mass-sensing, multianalyte microarray immunoassay with ... Ekins RP (1989). "Multi-analyte immunoassay". J Pharm Biomed Anal. 7 (2): 155-68. doi:10.1016/0731-7085(89)80079-2. PMID ...
A new avidin-biotin ELISA assay for its measurement". Journal of Immunoassay. 13 (1): 47-60. doi:10.1080/15321819208019824. ... using immunoassays such as nephelometry or particle-enhanced turbidimetry. It is a more expensive test than serum creatinine ( ... "Adult cystatin C reference intervals determined by nephelometric immunoassay". Clinical Biochemistry. 40 (13-14): 1084-7. doi: ...
The Immunoassay Handbook. pp. 427-440. doi:10.1016/b978-0-08-097037-0.00029-4. ISBN 978-0-08-097037-0. Carlson, Bruce M. (2014 ...
Mills E, Potts A, Plumb G, Lambert N, Morgan M (1997). "Development of a rapid dipstick immunoassay for the detection of peanut ... In these tests, peanut allergens are measured in foods by immunoassay with human IgE antibodies. In 2003 a monoclonal antibody- ... Keating MU, Jones RT, Worley NJ, Shively CA, Yunginger JW (July 1990). "Immunoassay of peanut allergens in food-processing ... Yeung JM, Collins PG (1996). "Enzyme immunoassay for determination of peanut proteins in food products". Journal of AOAC ...
Immunoassays can also be carried out using recombinantly generated immunoglobulin derivatives or synthetically designed protein ... Examples of these methods are the MSIA (mass spectrometric immunoassay), developed by Randall Nelson in 1995, and the SISCAPA ( ... 1995). "Mass Spectrometric Immunoassay". Analytical Chemistry. 67 (7): 1153-1158. doi:10.1021/ac00103a003. ISSN 0003-2700. PMID ... The lower limit of detection with conventional immunoassay technology is the upper femtomolar range (10−13 M). Digital ...
... and immunoassay test kits. New field analytical methods are fast developing. However, some have used standard laboratory ... Immunoassay and Enzymatic Assays". "Technologies for Cleaning up Contaminated Sites" (PDF). 2015-01-27. "Archived copy" (PDF). ...
Method: Microparticle Enzyme Immunoassay. (CS1 errors: missing periodical, Webarchive template wayback links, CS1 maint: ... Method: Microparticle Enzyme Immunoassay. Lab 18 TSH - Thyroid Stimulating Hormone. 1999-2000. ...
Sykes, Jane E.; Rankin, Shelley C. (2014). "Immunoassays". Canine and Feline Infectious Diseases. pp. 10-16. doi:10.1016/B978-1 ...
... fluorescent immunoassay products (Sofia); and (5) molecular diagnostic products. These products include assays such as QuickVue ... Quidel's core competencies and capabilities include immunoassay development, automated manufacturing, monoclonal antibody ...
Immunoassay of human aldose reductase". Biochemical Pharmacology. 46 (1): 21-8. doi:10.1016/0006-2952(93)90343-U. PMID 8347133 ...
Both heterogeneous immunoassays (antigens interacting with immobilized antibodies) and homogeneous immunoassays (antigens ... have been incorporated onto DMF immunoassay platforms. The incorporation of magnetic bead-based assays onto a DMF immunoassay ... Shamsi MH, Choi K, Ng AH, Wheeler AR (February 2014). "A digital microfluidic electrochemical immunoassay". Lab on a Chip. 14 ( ... Shamsi MH, Choi K, Ng AH, Wheeler AR (February 2014). "A digital microfluidic electrochemical immunoassay". Lab on a Chip. 14 ( ...
September 2017). "Immunoassay for human serum erythroferrone". Blood. 130 (10): 1243-1246. doi:10.1182/blood-2017-04-777987. ... Erythroferrone levels in blood have been shown by immunoassay to be higher after blood loss or erythropoetin administration. ...
Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry. 43 (4): 435-451. doi:10.1080/15321819.2022.2046601. ISSN 1532-1819. Fasola, F A; ...
Shamsi MH, Choi K, Ng AH, Wheeler AR (February 2014). "A digital microfluidic electrochemical immunoassay". Lab on a Chip. 14 ( ... magnetic microparticles in the fluids replaced the typical fluorescence-based detection of droplets in the immunoassay of ...
Available iQue® Immunoassay Kits include:. iQue Qbeads® PlexScreen: These are complete, custom-built ready-to-run kits that ... iQue Qbeads® Kits for Immunoassays. iQue Qbeads® is a family of reagents that enables capture of specific proteins on distinct ...
Watch Beckman Coulter Diagnostics immunoassay webinars now. Get latest clinical insights and education on your schedule. ...
Detectable by commercial radioimmunoassay or enzyme immunoassay tests. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning -- South Dakota On October 17 ...
Immunoassays. The diagnosis of Japanese encephalitis is supported by a capture immunoassay methodology demonstrating IgM ... IgM dot enzyme immunoassays for CSF and serum are simple, portable tests that compare favorably with capture ELISA for field ... Rapid diagnosis of Japanese encephalitis by using an immunoglobulin M dot enzyme immunoassay. J Clin Microbiol. 1998 Jul. 36(7 ... Japanese encephalitis virus-specific IgM capture-enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) on serum or CSF is the standard diagnostic ...
Reference materials for immunoassay or bioassay of human FSH and LH  World Health Organization. Biologicals Unit; WHO Expert ... WHO recommends countries move away from the use of western blotting and line immunoassays in HIV testing strategies and ... Antigen-detection in the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection using rapid immunoassays: interim guidance, 11 September 2020  ... for immunoassay / B Rafferty and RE Gaines-Das  ... Immunoassays to detect HCV antibody and/or antigen  World ...
The aim of this review article is to give an update on the state of the art of the immunoassay methods for the measurement of B ... State of the art of immunoassay methods for B-type natriuretic peptides: An update Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci. 2015;52(2):56-69. doi ... The aim of this review article is to give an update on the state of the art of the immunoassay methods for the measurement of B ... Because BNP immunoassay methods show large (up to 50%) systematic differences in values, the use of identical decision values ...
... the UniCel DxI 600 Access Immunoassay System enables you have the flexibility to run both routine and specialized tests with ... With up to 50 reagents on-board, the UniCel DxI 600 Access Immunoassay System enables you have the flexibility to run both ... Standardized design of reagent packs across UniCel Access immunoassay systems. *Excellent correlation of results across ... no matter which Beckman Coulter immunoassay system performs the test. ...
Anne E. Tebo discuss Immunoassays for the Evaluation of Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS) in this May 2015 Pearl of Laboratory ... AACC.org // ... // CCTC (English) // Pearls of Laboratory Medicine // Immunoassays for the Evaluation of Antiphospholipid ... In the immunoassays, targets are immobilized on a solid surface that may be amenable for manual, semi- automated or automated ... Immunoassays other than ELISA are currently approved by regulatory authorities and in use in some clinical laboratories in the ...
Immunoassay control method based on light scattering Author(s): Olexander I. Bilyi; Eugene M. Kiselyov; R. O. Petrina; Yaroslav ...
Kavain Interference with Amphetamine Immunoassay H Madhavaram 1 , T Patel 1 , C Kyle 1 ... Kavain Interference with Amphetamine Immunoassay H Madhavaram et al. J Anal Toxicol. 2020. . ... Methods: Urine immunoassay was performed on a Beckman Coulter AU480 Analyser using CEDIA amphetamine-type substances reagent ... Additionally authentic kavain standard was also tested for cross reactivity by immunoassay and analysed by GC-MS to compare the ...
Microchannel Magneeto-Immunoassay Number: 20090227044. Year: 2009. Patent Status: Pending Authors: Kennedy, I.M. ...
28.2 Bn Cancer Biomarkers Markets, 2026 by Profiling Technology (Omics, Imaging, Immunoassay, Bioinformatics), & Application ( ... 28.2 Bn Cancer Biomarkers Markets, 2026 by Profiling Technology (Omics, Imaging, Immunoassay, Bioinformatics), & Application ( ... Immunoassay, Bioinformatics), Application (Diagnostics, R&D, Prognostics), Region - Forecast to 2026" report has been added to ... immunoassay, bioinformatics and cytogenetics. In 2020, the bioinformatics segment accounted for the highest CAGR. This can be ...
Rapid Field Immunoassay for Detecting Antibody to Sin Nombre Virus in Deer Mice. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(10):1604 ... Rapid Field Immunoassay for Detecting Antibody to Sin Nombre Virus in Deer Mice On This Page ... Rapid Field Immunoassay for Detecting Antibody to Sin Nombre Virus in Deer Mice. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(10):1604-1607. https ... Rapid Field Immunoassay for Detecting Antibody to Sin Nombre Virus in Deer Mice. Volume 13, Number 10-October 2007 ...
Mastering Critical Binding Reagents in Immunoassays: The Key to Precision, Consistency, and Success. Tom Zhang, PHD. , Andrew ...
Scientific Video Article | 準備し、彼らの最終的な分析のための乾燥血液スポット
TNFα and VEGF. This kit may be used for the analysis of the above cytokines and chemokines in rat serum, plasma, other rat biological fluids, tissue/ cell extracts, or cell culture supernatants.. All components are included in each kit (capture antibody immobilized on microspheres, detection antibody, standards, quality controls, streptavidin- PE, wash buffer, assay buffer, 96 - well microtiter filter plate, serum matrix) and are sufficient to run 38 samples ( serum, plasma or tissue culture medium) in duplicate in a 96-well microtiter plate.. ASSAY CONDITIONS: 5 μL serum/plasma, 25 μL or less for tissue culture ...
We are your preferred partner for high-quality molecular controls and immunoassay solutions for your diagnostic assays. We ...
BioVendor Research and Diagnostic Products is a developer and manufacturer of immunoassays, recombinant proteins, antibodies ... Glucagon-Like Peptide-2 - Competitive ELISA, Immobilized antibody - Immunoassays. Product filter Glucagon-Like Peptide-2 ... You are here: Home Products and Services Immunoassays ...
Diabetes Laboratory Immunoassays Market 2023 Segments Analysis by Top Key Players :Bayer AG, Jei Daniel Biotech Corp., Becton ... Diabetes Laboratory Immunoassays Market 2023 Segments Analysis by Top Key Players :Bayer AG, Jei Daniel Biotech Corp., Becton ... Diabetes Laboratory Immunoassays Market Types:. Blood Test, Glucose Tolerance Test, Glycated Hemoglobin Determination, Insulin ... Our team of research specialists at Mr Accuracy Reports has published a stunning report on the Diabetes Laboratory Immunoassays ...
Nano-immunoassay utilizing surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect is a promising analytical technique for early ... enhanced by using atomically smooth mica surface as a template for preparation of capture surface in SERS sandwich immunoassay ...
2018). Detection of Specific ZIKV IgM in Travelers Using a Multiplexed Flavivirus Microsphere Immunoassay. Viruses. 10 (5).. ... 2019). Development and Evaluation of a Multiplexed Immunoassay for Simultaneous Detection of Serum IgG Antibodies to Six Human ...
Siemens Healthcare Portugal ©2023Informação CorporativaPolítica de PrivacidadePolítica de CookiesTermos de UtilizaçãoSiemens Portugal ...
Visit our Privacy Policy for more information about our services, how GlobalData may use, process and share your personal data, including information on your rights in respect of your personal data and how you can unsubscribe from future marketing communications. Our services are intended for corporate subscribers and you warrant that the email address submitted is your corporate email address. ...
Recently, we acquired and implemented the Luminex xMAP immunoassay system, which is a multiplex in-solution ELISA assay system ... The technology is an automated capillary immunoassay platform providing quantitative profiling of proteins and their post- ... Developing and implementing nano-immunoassays to advance quantitative proteomic analysis, biomarker assessment and molecular ... we have recently developed and implemented Simple Western immunoassays in the CCR Collaborative Protein Technology Resource ...
Multiplex immunoassay. The release of trophic factors was investigated using the ProcartaPlex™ Multiplex Assay (Invitrogen) as ...
Immunoassay Testing. On-site, 60-minute Results!. Calibrated to Idexx Reference Lab/Immulite analyzer. ... Immunoassay testing is an investigative procedure to quantitatively assess and measure the presence and/or amount or functional ... Red Hills Repro does not offer veterinary advise, but rather provides data and immunoassay results that should always be ...
No widgets found. Go to Widget page and add the widget in Offcanvas Sidebar Widget Area ...
Enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) using cultured virus lysate antigens are often used to diagnose infection by demonstration of a ≥4- ... Title : A duplex recombinant viral nucleoprotein microbead immunoassay for simultaneous detection of seroresponses to human ... A duplex recombinant viral nucleoprotein microbead immunoassay for simultaneous detection of seroresponses to human respiratory ... A duplex recombinant viral nucleoprotein microbead immunoassay for simultaneous detection of seroresponses to human respiratory ...
Antibody Igg Immunoassay 39504. Lab Reagents Igg Antibody Laboratories manufactures the antibody igg immunoassay 39504 reagents ... The Antibody Igg Immunoassay 39504 reagent is RUO (Research Use Only) to test human serum or cell culture lab samples. To ...
Cholera remains a global threat to public health. Even sporadic cases of importation of the infection cause significant socio-economic damage. In connection with the current situation, the development and improvement of modern safe chemical vaccines against cholera caused by V. cholerae O1 and O139 serogroups plays an important role in reducing the incidence, which is an important and promising direction of scientific research. ...
  • IgM dot enzyme immunoassays for CSF and serum are simple, portable tests that compare favorably with capture ELISA for field diagnosis (sensitivity of 98.3% and specificity of 99.2% when compared with capture ELISA as the standard). (medscape.com)
  • The Sofia 2 SARS Antigen Fluorescent Immunoassay (FIA) uses advanced immunofluorescence-based lateral flow technology in a sandwich design for qualitative detection of nucleocapsid protein from SARS-CoV-2. (who.int)
  • Two unique test cartridges contain a single-use, digital fluorescent immunoassay antigen test that returns accurate results in 15 minutes or less. (nih.gov)
  • Urine immunoassay was performed on a Beckman Coulter AU480 Analyser using CEDIA amphetamine-type substances reagent and DRI ethanol reagent. (nih.gov)
  • The DxI 600 uses the same reagents as other UniCel Access systems, so your laboratory can deliver consistent patient results, no matter which Beckman Coulter immunoassay system performs the test. (news-medical.net)
  • To determine if the presence of MDPV can produce a false-positive PCP immunoassay result by the Synchron system, the author requested that an MDPV 'spiking' experiment be conducted at ThermoFisher's California laboratory using the PCP reagent manufactured for Beckman Coulter by ThermoFisher on the Beckman Coulter DxC analyzer. (erowid.org)
  • Japanese encephalitis virus-specific IgM capture-enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) on serum or CSF is the standard diagnostic test for Japanese encephalitis. (medscape.com)
  • Recently, we acquired and implemented the Luminex xMAP immunoassay system, which is a multiplex in-solution ELISA assay system providing complementary assays to the Simple Western platform (such as cytokine, metabolite, immune response, serum/plasma biomarker analysis, etc. (nih.gov)
  • ELISA stands for enzyme-linked immunoassay. (medlineplus.gov)
  • With up to 50 reagents on-board, the UniCel DxI 600 Access Immunoassay System enables you have the flexibility to run both routine and specialized tests with amazing simplicity. (news-medical.net)
  • In this white paper we discuss the importance of critical binding reagents and provide detailed information on critical reagent preparation, labeling, and characterization in immunoassays. (worldwide.com)
  • Bastarache JA, Koyama T, Wickersham NE, Ware LB. Validation of a multiplex electrochemiluminescent immunoassay platform in human and mouse samples. (nih.gov)
  • BACKGROUND: Despite the widespread use of multiplex immunoassays, there are very few scientific reports that test the accuracy and reliability of a platform prior to publication of experimental data. (nih.gov)
  • METHODS: In this study, our goal was to test the accuracy and reproducibility of an electrochemiluminescent multiplex immunoassay platform (Meso Scale Discovery, MSD®) and compare this platform to validated, singleplex immunoassays (R&D Systems®) using actual study subject (human plasma and mouse bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) and plasma) samples. (nih.gov)
  • The diagnosis of Japanese encephalitis is supported by a capture immunoassay methodology demonstrating IgM antibody in the CSF or the serum. (medscape.com)
  • We developed a 1-hour field enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for detecting antibody to Sin Nombre virus in deer mice ( Peromyscus maniculatus ). (cdc.gov)
  • However, when analysed by GCMS they were negative for amphetamine-type but contained kavain.The kava powders and kavain standard all cross reacted with the amphetamine immunoassay to give falsely detected results. (nih.gov)
  • Immunoassay Measurement of Serum Estradiol: fulvestrant injection can interfere with estradiol measurement by immunoassay, resulting in falsely elevated estradiol levels. (nih.gov)
  • One is a lateral flow immunoassay with a reader which delivers electronic results intended to be used in point-of-care settings. (nih.gov)
  • A lateral flow immunoassay capable of detecting SARS-CoV-2 with visually read results in 20 minutes. (nih.gov)
  • A single-use, lateral-flow test strip immunoassay that can provide results in 15 minutes or less. (nih.gov)
  • The Sofia test kit, a lateral flow immunoassay, is used with Sofia and Sofia 2 Analyzers which give electronic results within 15 minutes. (nih.gov)
  • The 2006 revised Sapporo laboratory criteria for APS as previously mentioned includes the lupus anticoagulant tests as well as immunoassays for the detection of IgG and IgM antibodies to cardiolipin (CL) and β2GPI. (aacc.org)
  • I will be addressing the rationale for these suggestions during the course of this presentation with a focus on the immunoassays for the detection of IgG and IgM antibodies to CL and β2GPI. (aacc.org)
  • Nano-immunoassay with improved performance for detection of cancer biomarkers. (nih.gov)
  • Nano-immunoassay utilizing surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect is a promising analytical technique for early detection of cancer. (nih.gov)
  • Title : A duplex recombinant viral nucleoprotein microbead immunoassay for simultaneous detection of seroresponses to human respiratory syncytial virus and metapneumovirus infections* Personal Author(s) : Zhang, Yange;Brooks, W. Abdullah;Goswami, Doli;Rahman, Mustafizur;Luby, Stephen P.;Erdman, Dean D. (cdc.gov)
  • Performance of LC-MS/MS and immunoassay based 24-h urine free cortisol in the diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome. (bvsalud.org)
  • We encountered unexpected false positive urine results in three patients for amphetamine-type substances by immunoassay, measured as part of community drug prevention programmes. (nih.gov)
  • Three different kava powders were purchased from local kava clubs and dissolved in ethanol, then evaporated and reconstituted in blank urine and analysed by immunoassay, GC-MS for amphetamine-type substances. (nih.gov)
  • The patient urine samples tested positive by CEDIA immunoassay for amphetamines. (nih.gov)
  • Based on profiling technologies, the cancer biomarkers market has been segmented into omics technologies, imaging technologies, immunoassay, bioinformatics and cytogenetics. (dutchnews.nl)
  • Comparability of antim?llerian hormone levels among commercially available immunoassays. (ucdenver.edu)
  • To address the challenges of conventional proteomic approaches, such as poor sensitivity and assay reproducibility, unreliable data quantification and lack of assay robustness, we have recently developed and implemented Simple Western immunoassays in the CCR Collaborative Protein Technology Resource core. (nih.gov)
  • The aim of this review article is to give an update on the state of the art of the immunoassay methods for the measurement of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and its related peptides. (nih.gov)
  • Because BNP immunoassay methods show large (up to 50%) systematic differences in values, the use of identical decision values for all immunoassay methods, as suggested by the most recent international guidelines, seems unreasonable. (nih.gov)
  • Since proBNP significantly cross-reacts with all commercial immunoassay methods considered specific for BNP, manufacturers should test and clearly declare the degree of cross-reactivity of glycosylated and non-glycosylated proBNP in their BNP immunoassay methods. (nih.gov)
  • Clinicians should take into account that there are large systematic differences between methods when they compare results from different laboratories that use different BNP immunoassays. (nih.gov)
  • ROC analysis revealed the highest AUC for one of the immunoassays , although differences between the three methods were not significant. (bvsalud.org)
  • Further investigation revealed that abusers of psychoactive Bath Salts in multiple states were presenting with reactive PCP screening immunoassay results. (erowid.org)
  • A number of states' Department of Corrections Probation and Parole Divisions informed one of the authors (AMM) that they had also noted a recent unexplained surge in PCP-positive screening immunoassay test results. (erowid.org)
  • As abuse of MDPV continues and additional designer compounds enter the psychoactive drug abuse arena, we recommend that all positive PCP screening immunoassay results be confirmed using additional analytical metho dologies (e.g. (erowid.org)
  • Immunoassay testing is an investigative procedure to quantitatively assess and measure the presence and/or amount or functional activity of a target analyte. (redhillsrepro.com)
  • Our team of research specialists at Mr Accuracy Reports has published a stunning report on the Diabetes Laboratory Immunoassays Market which incorporates a 360-degree idea on its Supply Chain Analysis during the estimated period of 2023-2032. (tewahanui.info)
  • The technology is an automated capillary immunoassay platform providing quantitative profiling of proteins and their post-translational modifications. (nih.gov)
  • In the present study we compared diagnostic accuracy of UFC measured with LC-MS/MS vs. immunoassay in patient with CS and patients where CS has been excluded. (bvsalud.org)
  • Direct comparison with LC-MS/MS indicates that high diagnostic accuracy can be obtained with suitable immunoassays . (bvsalud.org)
  • We demonstrate that reproducibility of the platform is enhanced by using atomically smooth mica surface as a template for preparation of capture surface in SERS sandwich immunoassay. (nih.gov)
  • Additionally authentic kavain standard was also tested for cross reactivity by immunoassay and analysed by GC-MS to compare the mass fragmentation pattern and retention time with the kava powder and patient specimens. (nih.gov)
  • Doubts have been raised regarding specificity of immunoassays , and mass spectrometric techniques have been proposed as an alternative. (bvsalud.org)
  • Detectable by commercial radioimmunoassay or enzyme immunoassay tests. (cdc.gov)