Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassay: Fluoroimmunoassay where detection of the hapten-antibody reaction is based on measurement of the increased polarization of fluorescence-labeled hapten when it is combined with antibody. The assay is very useful for the measurement of small haptenic antigens such as drugs at low concentrations.Enzyme Multiplied Immunoassay Technique: An immunoenzyme test for the presence of drugs and other substances in urine and blood. The test uses enzyme linked antibodies that react only with the particular drug for which the sample is being tested.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Fluoroimmunoassay: The use of fluorescence spectrometry to obtain quantitative results for the FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE. One advantage over the other methods (e.g., radioimmunoassay) is its extreme sensitivity, with a detection limit on the order of tenths of microgram/liter.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.False Positive Reactions: Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Autoanalysis: Method of analyzing chemicals using automation.Luminescent Measurements: Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.Substance Abuse Detection: Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Nephelometry and Turbidimetry: Chemical analysis based on the phenomenon whereby light, passing through a medium with dispersed particles of a different refractive index from that of the medium, is attenuated in intensity by scattering. In turbidimetry, the intensity of light transmitted through the medium, the unscattered light, is measured. In nephelometry, the intensity of the scattered light is measured, usually, but not necessarily, at right angles to the incident light beam.Europium: Europium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Eu, atomic number 63, and atomic weight 152. Europium is used in the form of its salts as coatings for cathode ray tubes and in the form of its organic derivatives as shift reagents in NMR spectroscopy.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.False Negative Reactions: Negative test results in subjects who possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of diseased persons as healthy when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Antibodies, Immobilized: Antibodies that are chemically bound to a substrate material which renders their location fixed.Latex Fixation Tests: Passive agglutination tests in which antigen is adsorbed onto latex particles which then clump in the presence of antibody specific for the adsorbed antigen. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Digoxin: A cardiotonic glycoside obtained mainly from Digitalis lanata; it consists of three sugars and the aglycone DIGOXIGENIN. Digoxin has positive inotropic and negative chronotropic activity. It is used to control ventricular rate in ATRIAL FIBRILLATION and in the management of congestive heart failure with atrial fibrillation. Its use in congestive heart failure and sinus rhythm is less certain. The margin between toxic and therapeutic doses is small. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p666)Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Calibration: Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Clinical Laboratory Techniques: Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.Microspheres: Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Microchemistry: The development and use of techniques and equipment to study or perform chemical reactions, with small quantities of materials, frequently less than a milligram or a milliliter.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Phenytoin: An anticonvulsant that is used to treat a wide variety of seizures. It is also an anti-arrhythmic and a muscle relaxant. The mechanism of therapeutic action is not clear, although several cellular actions have been described including effects on ion channels, active transport, and general membrane stabilization. The mechanism of its muscle relaxant effect appears to involve a reduction in the sensitivity of muscle spindles to stretch. Phenytoin has been proposed for several other therapeutic uses, but its use has been limited by its many adverse effects and interactions with other drugs.Limit of Detection: Concentration or quantity that is derived from the smallest measure that can be detected with reasonable certainty for a given analytical procedure.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antibodies, Heterophile: Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Fluorescence Polarization: Measurement of the polarization of fluorescent light from solutions or microscopic specimens. It is used to provide information concerning molecular size, shape, and conformation, molecular anisotropy, electronic energy transfer, molecular interaction, including dye and coenzyme binding, and the antigen-antibody reaction.alpha-Fetoproteins: The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.Immunoradiometric Assay: Form of radioimmunoassay in which excess specific labeled antibody is added directly to the test antigen being measured.Radioimmunoprecipitation Assay: Sensitive assay using radiolabeled ANTIGENS to detect specific ANTIBODIES in SERUM. The antigens are allowed to react with the serum and then precipitated using a special reagent such as PROTEIN A sepharose beads. The bound radiolabeled immunoprecipitate is then commonly analyzed by gel electrophoresis.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Chlamydia trachomatis: Type species of CHLAMYDIA causing a variety of ocular and urogenital diseases.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Rubella virus: The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.Latex: A milky, product excreted from the latex canals of a variety of plant species that contain cauotchouc. Latex is composed of 25-35% caoutchouc, 60-75% water, 2% protein, 2% resin, 1.5% sugar & 1% ash. RUBBER is made by the removal of water from latex.(From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed). Hevein proteins are responsible for LATEX HYPERSENSITIVITY. Latexes are used as inert vehicles to carry antibodies or antigens in LATEX FIXATION TESTS.Immunologic Techniques: Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.Streptavidin: A 60-kDa extracellular protein of Streptomyces avidinii with four high-affinity biotin binding sites. Unlike AVIDIN, streptavidin has a near neutral isoelectric point and is free of carbohydrate side chains.Rotavirus: A genus of REOVIRIDAE, causing acute gastroenteritis in BIRDS and MAMMALS, including humans. Transmission is horizontal and by environmental contamination. Seven species (Rotaviruses A thru G) are recognized.Chlamydia Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDIA.Thyroxine: The major hormone derived from the thyroid gland. Thyroxine is synthesized via the iodination of tyrosines (MONOIODOTYROSINE) and the coupling of iodotyrosines (DIIODOTYROSINE) in the THYROGLOBULIN. Thyroxine is released from thyroglobulin by proteolysis and secreted into the blood. Thyroxine is peripherally deiodinated to form TRIIODOTHYRONINE which exerts a broad spectrum of stimulatory effects on cell metabolism.Forensic Medicine: The application of medical knowledge to questions of law.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Saliva: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.Mannans: Polysaccharides consisting of mannose units.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Horseradish Peroxidase: An enzyme isolated from horseradish which is able to act as an antigen. It is frequently used as a histochemical tracer for light and electron microscopy. Its antigenicity has permitted its use as a combined antigen and marker in experimental immunology.Specimen Handling: Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct: A form of fluorescent antibody technique utilizing a fluorochrome conjugated to an antibody, which is added directly to a tissue or cell suspension for the detection of a specific antigen. (Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Serum: The clear portion of BLOOD that is left after BLOOD COAGULATION to remove BLOOD CELLS and clotting proteins.Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Gastroenteritis: INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Diagnostic Errors: Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human: The beta subunit of human CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Its structure is similar to the beta subunit of LUTEINIZING HORMONE, except for the additional 30 amino acids at the carboxy end with the associated carbohydrate residues. HCG-beta is used as a diagnostic marker for early detection of pregnancy, spontaneous abortion (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS); ECTOPIC PREGNANCY; HYDATIDIFORM MOLE; CHORIOCARCINOMA; or DOWN SYNDROME.Avidin: A specific protein in egg albumin that interacts with BIOTIN to render it unavailable to mammals, thereby producing biotin deficiency.Blood Specimen Collection: The taking of a blood sample to determine its character as a whole, to identify levels of its component cells, chemicals, gases, or other constituents, to perform pathological examination, etc.Colorimetry: Any technique by which an unknown color is evaluated in terms of standard colors. The technique may be visual, photoelectric, or indirect by means of spectrophotometry. It is used in chemistry and physics. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Clostridium difficile: A common inhabitant of the colon flora in human infants and sometimes in adults. It produces a toxin that causes pseudomembranous enterocolitis (ENTEROCOLITIS, PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS) in patients receiving antibiotic therapy.Luminescence: Emission of LIGHT when ELECTRONS return to the electronic ground state from an excited state and lose the energy as PHOTONS. It is sometimes called cool light in contrast to INCANDESCENCE. LUMINESCENT MEASUREMENTS take advantage of this type of light emitted from LUMINESCENT AGENTS.Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.Biotin: A water-soluble, enzyme co-factor present in minute amounts in every living cell. It occurs mainly bound to proteins or polypeptides and is abundant in liver, kidney, pancreas, yeast, and milk.Lanthanoid Series Elements: Elements of the lanthanoid series including atomic number 57 (LANTHANUM) through atomic number 71 (LUTETIUM).Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Rubella: An acute infectious disease caused by the RUBELLA VIRUS. The virus enters the respiratory tract via airborne droplet and spreads to the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.Microfluidic Analytical Techniques: Methods utilizing the principles of MICROFLUIDICS for sample handling, reagent mixing, and separation and detection of specific components in fluids.Virology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.Rotavirus Infections: Infection with any of the rotaviruses. Specific infections include human infantile diarrhea, neonatal calf diarrhea, and epidemic diarrhea of infant mice.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Thyrotropin: A glycoprotein hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Thyrotropin stimulates THYROID GLAND by increasing the iodide transport, synthesis and release of thyroid hormones (THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE). Thyrotropin consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH; LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Biosensing Techniques: Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.Chorionic Gonadotropin: A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).Fluorometry: An analytical method for detecting and measuring FLUORESCENCE in compounds or targets such as cells, proteins, or nucleotides, or targets previously labeled with FLUORESCENCE AGENTS.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Hepatitis A Antigens: Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS A VIRUS such as the human hepatitis A virus (HEPATITIS A VIRUS, HUMAN).Point-of-Care Systems: Laboratory and other services provided to patients at the bedside. These include diagnostic and laboratory testing using automated information entry.Immunologic Tests: Immunologic techniques involved in diagnosis.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Blood DonorsOpiate Alkaloids: Alkaloids found in OPIUM from PAPAVER that induce analgesic and narcotic effects by action upon OPIOID RECEPTORS.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Rheumatoid Factor: Antibodies found in adult RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS patients that are directed against GAMMA-CHAIN IMMUNOGLOBULINS.Barbiturates: A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Chromatography, Liquid: Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.Cardenolides: C(23)-steroids with methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and a five-membered lactone at C-17. They are aglycone constituents of CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES and must have at least one double bond in the molecule. The class includes cardadienolides and cardatrienolides. Members include DIGITOXIN and DIGOXIN and their derivatives and the STROPHANTHINS.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Hepatitis Antibodies: Immunoglobulins raised by any form of viral hepatitis; some of these antibodies are used to diagnose the specific kind of hepatitis.Theophylline: A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.Reagent Strips: Narrow pieces of material impregnated or covered with a substance used to produce a chemical reaction. The strips are used in detecting, measuring, producing, etc., other substances. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Digoxigenin: 3 beta,12 beta,14-Trihydroxy-5 beta-card-20(22)-enolide. A cardenolide which is the aglycon of digoxin. Can be obtained by hydrolysis of digoxin or from Digitalis orientalis L. and Digitalis lanata Ehrh.Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Narcotics: Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.Street Drugs: Drugs obtained and often manufactured illegally for the subjective effects they are said to produce. They are often distributed in urban areas, but are also available in suburban and rural areas, and tend to be grossly impure and may cause unexpected toxicity.Nordazepam: An intermediate in the metabolism of DIAZEPAM to OXAZEPAM. It may have actions similar to those of diazepam.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.Amphetamines: Analogs or derivatives of AMPHETAMINE. Many are sympathomimetics and central nervous system stimulators causing excitation, vasopressin, bronchodilation, and to varying degrees, anorexia, analepsis, nasal decongestion, and some smooth muscle relaxation.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Polystyrenes: Polymerized forms of styrene used as a biocompatible material, especially in dentistry. They are thermoplastic and are used as insulators, for injection molding and casting, as sheets, plates, rods, rigid forms and beads.Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous: An acute inflammation of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA that is characterized by the presence of pseudomembranes or plaques in the SMALL INTESTINE (pseudomembranous enteritis) and the LARGE INTESTINE (pseudomembranous colitis). It is commonly associated with antibiotic therapy and CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE colonization.Magnetics: The study of MAGNETIC PHENOMENA.Oxymorphone: An opioid analgesic with actions and uses similar to those of MORPHINE, apart from an absence of cough suppressant activity. It is used in the treatment of moderate to severe pain, including pain in obstetrics. It may also be used as an adjunct to anesthesia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1092)Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Protein Array Analysis: Ligand-binding assays that measure protein-protein, protein-small molecule, or protein-nucleic acid interactions using a very large set of capturing molecules, i.e., those attached separately on a solid support, to measure the presence or interaction of target molecules in the sample.Galactosidases: A family of galactoside hydrolases that hydrolyze compounds with an O-galactosyl linkage. EC 3.2.1.-.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Blood Chemical Analysis: An examination of chemicals in the blood.Pregnanediol: An inactive metabolite of PROGESTERONE by reduction at C5, C3, and C20 position. Pregnanediol has two hydroxyl groups, at 3-alpha and 20-alpha. It is detectable in URINE after OVULATION and is found in great quantities in the pregnancy urine.Automation: Controlled operation of an apparatus, process, or system by mechanical or electronic devices that take the place of human organs of observation, effort, and decision. (From Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 1993)Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Microfluidics: The study of fluid channels and chambers of tiny dimensions of tens to hundreds of micrometers and volumes of nanoliters or picoliters. This is of interest in biological MICROCIRCULATION and used in MICROCHEMISTRY and INVESTIGATIVE TECHNIQUES.Treponema pallidum: The causative agent of venereal and non-venereal syphilis as well as yaws.Gentamicins: A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Thyroxine-Binding Proteins: Blood proteins that bind to THYROID HORMONES such as THYROXINE and transport them throughout the circulatory system.Dimethylpolysiloxanes: Silicone polymers which consist of silicon atoms substituted with methyl groups and linked by oxygen atoms. They comprise a series of biocompatible materials used as liquids, gels or solids; as film for artificial membranes, gels for implants, and liquids for drug vehicles; and as antifoaming agents.Acecainide: A major metabolite of PROCAINAMIDE. Its anti-arrhythmic action may cause cardiac toxicity in kidney failure.Urinalysis: Examination of urine by chemical, physical, or microscopic means. Routine urinalysis usually includes performing chemical screening tests, determining specific gravity, observing any unusual color or odor, screening for bacteriuria, and examining the sediment microscopically.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Mamastrovirus: A genus of small, circular RNA viruses in the family ASTROVIRIDAE. They cause GASTROENTERITIS and are found in the stools of several vertebrates including humans. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route and there are at least eight human serotypes. The type species is Human astrovirus.Nasopharynx: The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.Drug Monitoring: The process of observing, recording, or detecting the effects of a chemical substance administered to an individual therapeutically or diagnostically.Giardiasis: An infection of the SMALL INTESTINE caused by the flagellated protozoan GIARDIA LAMBLIA. It is spread via contaminated food and water and by direct person-to-person contact.Chemistry, Clinical: The specialty of ANALYTIC CHEMISTRY applied to assays of physiologically important substances found in blood, urine, tissues, and other biological fluids for the purpose of aiding the physician in making a diagnosis or following therapy.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.beta-Galactosidase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.Uterine Cervicitis: Inflammation of the UTERINE CERVIX.Enterotoxins: Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.

Immunological comparison of the proteins of chicken and rat liver ribosomes. (1/4669)

A comparison of the proteins of chicken and rat liver ribosomes using immunochemical techniques was undertaken. The procedures included quantitative precipitation, passive hemagglutination, and immunodiffusion on Ouchterlony plates. The results indicate that antisera specific for chicken or rat liver ribosomes recognize only about 20% of common determinants. While there are important reservations, the results suggest extensive differences in the proteins of rat and chicken liver ribosomes. Despite those differences, rat and chicken liver ribosomal proteins maintain some homologous sequences present in bacterial ribosomal proteins. An enriched antibody preparation against chicken 80 S ribosomes inhibited the poly(U)-directed synthesis of polyphenylalanine and the elongation factor G (EF-G)-catalyzed binding of [3H]GDP to Escherichia coli ribosomes. Thus, chicken liver ribosomes, like ribosomes from rat liver and yeast, must have proteins homologous with those of E. coli ribosomes.  (+info)

Performance and specificity of monoclonal immunoassays for cyclosporine monitoring: how specific is specific? (2/4669)

BACKGROUND: Immunoassays designed for the selective measurement of cyclosporin A (CsA) inadvertently show cross-reactivity for CsA metabolites. The extent and clinical significance of the resulting overestimation is controversial. A comprehensive assessment of old and new methods in clinical specimens is needed. METHODS: In a comprehensive evaluation, CsA was analyzed in 145 samples with the new CEDIA assay and compared with the Emit assay with the old and new pretreatments, the TDx monoclonal and polyclonal assays, the AxSYM, and HPLC. All samples were from patients with liver and/or kidney transplants. RESULTS: The CEDIA offered the easiest handling, followed by the AxSYM, which showed the longest calibration stability. The TDx monoclonal assay provided the lowest detection limit and the lowest CVs. The mean differences compared with HPLC were as follows: Emit, 9-12%; CEDIA, 18%; AxSYM, 29%; and TDx monoclonal, 57%. The CycloTrac RIA paralleled the Emit results. In contrast to the mean differences, substantial (>200%) and variable overestimations of the CsA concentration were observed in individual patient samples. Metabolic ratios, estimates of the overall concentrations of several cross-reacting metabolites (nonspecific TDx polyclonal/specific reference method), correlated with the apparent biases of the various monoclonal assays. Metabolic ratios varied up to 10-fold, which translated into biases for individual samples between -7% and +174%. The higher the cross-reactivity of an assay was, the higher was the range of biases observed. The interindividual differences markedly exceeded other factors of influence (organ transplanted, hepatic function). CONCLUSION: Because assay bias cannot be predicted in individual samples, substantially erratic CsA dosing can result. The specificity of CsA assays for parent CsA remains a major concern.  (+info)

Automated homogeneous immunoassay for gentamicin on the dimension clinical chemistry system. (3/4669)

BACKGROUND: Monitoring of the concentration of gentamicin in serum and plasma during therapy is widely recommended and practiced in hospitals. Our aim was to develop a homogeneous immunoassay based on particle-enhanced turbidimetric inhibition immunoassay technology to quantify gentamicin on the Dimension clinical chemistry system. METHODS: Assay performance was assessed on each of the Dimension models in a 15-instrument interlaboratory comparison study. A split-sample comparison (n = 1171) was also performed between the gentamicin methods on the Dimension system and the Abbott TDx analyzer, using multiple reagent and calibrator lots on multiple instruments. RESULTS: The Dimension method was linear to 25.1 micromol/L (12.0 microg/mL) with a detection limit of 0.63 micromol/L (0.3 microg/mL). Calibration was stable for 30 days. The within-run imprecision (CV) was <1.3%, and total imprecision ranged from 1.8% to 3.2% between 4.2 micromol/L (2.0 microg/mL) and 16.7 micromol/L (8.0 microg/mL) gentamicin. Linear regression analysis of the results on the Dimension method (DM) vs the Abbott TDx yielded the following equation: DM = 0.98TDx - 0.42; r = 0.987. Minimal interference was observed from structurally related compounds such as sagamicin, netilmicin, and sisomicin. CONCLUSION: The monoclonal antibody used in this method has similar reactivities toward the individual gentamicin subspecies C1, C1a, and C2, thus providing analytical recovery not significantly dependent on relative subspecies concentrations.  (+info)

Serum IGF-binding protein-6 and prostate specific antigen in breast cancer. (4/4669)

OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have demonstrated the presence of the IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) and prostate specific antigen (PSA), an IGFBP protease. in human breast tissue. We sought to investigate the differences in serum IGFs, IGFBP-1, -3 and -6, and PSA between patients with surgically proven breast cancer and patients with benign breast disease. DESIGN AND METHODS: Concentrations of IGFs, IGFBP-1, -3 and -6, and PSA were determined in the sera from 57 patients with breast cancer (CA), and 46 women with benign breast disease (BBD) using immunoassays for IGFs and IGFBPs and an ultrasensitive ELISA for PSA. RESULTS: The mean (+/- S.E.M.) serum IGFBP-6 level in the CA group, 127 (16) ng/ml, was statistically significantly lower than in the BBD group, 157 (10) ng/ml (P = 0.016). Patients with CA had an elevated geometric mean serum PSA level of 0.018 (range: 0.0015-0.107) ng/ml, compared with 0.007 (range: 0.0015-0.019) ng/ml in women with BBD (P = 0.025). Mean serum IGFBP-1 concentrations were significantly lower in the CA group, 16 (2) ng/ml, versus 37 (4) ng/ml in the BBD group (P = 0.001). Mean serum IGFBP-3 concentrations were also lower in the CA group versus the BBD group, at 1981 (65) ng/ml, versus 2603 (140) ng/ml (P = 0.002) respectively. In the CA group, statistically significant correlations between PSA and IGFBP-6 (r = 0.413; P = 0.001), and between PSA and IGFBP-1 (r = -0.329; P = 0.021) were seen. Differences in IGF-I and -II between the two groups were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Lower serum concentrations of IGFBP-6, -3 and -1, but higher PSA concentrations were seen in the breast cancer group, and collectively these would suggest that there is an increase in bioavailable IGF-I in breast cancer.  (+info)

Differential immunodiagnosis between cystic hydatid disease and other cross-reactive pathologies. (5/4669)

We assessed an Echinococcus granulosus hydatid fluid antigen-ELISA (EgHF-ELISA) as a serologic prescreening test for E. granulosus infections, supplemented by more specific confirmatory tests, including arc-5 immunoprecipitation and antigen B subunit 8-kD immunoblotting. The diagnostic sensitivity of the EgHF-ELISA was 91%. With regard to the test specificity of the EgHF-ELISA (overall = 82%), we observed relatively frequent cross-reactions in tumor patients (6%) and in patients with other parasitic diseases. Cestode-related cross-reactivity can be resolved by the complementary use of E. multilocularis-specific antigens or Taenia solium cysticercosis-specific immunoblotting. Immunoblotting based upon the detection of antibody reactivity to the 8-kD antigen of EgHF, or if appropriately detectable, to the 29-kD and 34-kD bands exhibited a 91% diagnostic sensitivity and an overall specificity of 97% or 94%, respectively. Thus, immunoblotting provided a 99% discrimination between seropositive pre-operative cystic hydatid disease cases and cross-reactive non-cestode parasitic infections or malignancies.  (+info)

An immunoluminometric assay for N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide: development of a test for left ventricular dysfunction. (6/4669)

Measurement of plasma levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) has been used to assess left ventricular dysfunction and prognosis. Levels of the N-terminus of the precursor of BNP (NT-proBNP) have been reported to be elevated to a greater extent than BNP in left ventricular dysfunction. We have devised a non-radioactive sensitive and specific assay for NT-proBNP based on a competitive ligand binding principle. The chemiluminescent label 4-(2-succinimidyloxycarbonylethyl)phenyl-10-methylacridinium 9-carboxylate fluorosulphonate was used to label peptides representing domains in the middle and C-terminal sections of NT-proBNP. Assay of the C-terminal section of NT-proBNP (amino acids 65-76) in patients with proven left ventricular dysfunction [left ventricular wall motion index median 0.9 (range 0.3-1.4)] revealed elevated values [median 639 (386-911) fmol/ml] compared with normal controls [left ventricular wall motion index of 2 in all, NT-proBNP median 159 (120-245) fmol/ml, P<0.001]. Measurement of the middle section of NT-proBNP (amino acids 37-49) was not a discriminating test. It is thus possible to derivatize small peptides with a methyl acridinium label and preserve immunodetection with specific antibodies. Such methodology may allow non-radioactive immunoluminometric assays to be devised.  (+info)

Endometrial evaluation is not predictive for in vitro fertilization treatment. (7/4669)

PURPOSE: The main purpose of this study was to evaluate ovarian function by clomiphene citrate (CC) challenge test in a group of tubal infertile women and to study endometrial morphological maturation in the early luteal phase of CC-stimulated cycles as compared to in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment outcome. METHODS AND RESULTS: Four women presented with strongly retarded, proliferative endometrium in the luteal phase. Of these, three presented with impaired ovarian function, high basal follicle-stimulating hormone, and high follicle-stimulating hormone levels after clomiphene stimulation on cycle day 10. In the remaining 30 women, showing an in-phase endometrium after CC stimulation, a comparison of six morphological characteristics did not reveal any significant differences between the 14 women who did become pregnant and the 16 who did not. No significant differences in endometrial thickness were observed between the groups. Significant differences were found when comparing estradiol and progesterone area under the curve during the luteal phase (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively) between those who did and those who did not become pregnant. CONCLUSIONS: Luteal endometrium morphology was not a sharp instrument to detect differences between women who did and women who did not become pregnant following IVF treatment, while ovarian function, as measured by hormonal markers, seemed to be a more reliable prognostic factor for IVF treatment outcome.  (+info)

Malignant transformation of human prostatic epithelium is associated with the loss of androgen receptor immunoreactivity in the surrounding stroma. (8/4669)

The cellular pathways involved in the pathogenesis of hormone resistance remain unclear. Studies evaluating the role of changes in human androgen receptor (hAR) expression in the progression of prostatic tumors have been inconclusive. Androgenic influence over prostatic growth is mediated via the regulation of interactions between stromal and epithelial cells. We hypothesized that neoplastic transformation of the prostate would be associated with alterations in hAR expression in the adjacent stroma. Using immunohistochemical techniques, we determined hAR positivity in the epithelium and adjacent stroma of sections from 17 benign and 39 malignant prostatic glands. We found that whereas the expression of the receptor decreased in both cellular compartments as the tissues dedifferentiated, the depletion was more pronounced in the stromal nuclei (P<0.0001). However, in sections from both untreated and hormone-resistant prostate cancer tissues, although heterogeneity of hAR expression in malignant epithelia was increased, there appeared to be a unique field effect around the cancerous prostate glands that resulted in a decreased expression of the receptor in the adjacent benign glands and its total loss in the surrounding stroma. The loss of hAR in the stroma adjacent to malignant prostatic epithelium may play an important role in prostate cancer progression. Furthermore, the similarity of the lack of stromal hAR expression in newly diagnosed and hormone-resistant prostate cancer (P = 0.85) may be an indication that the mechanisms responsible for the acquisition of hormone independence are established early in the malignant transformation process.  (+info)

*Immunoassay

Multi-step assays are often called separation immunoassays or heterogeneous immunoassays. Some immunoassays can be carried out ... Immunoassays can be run in a number of different formats. Generally, an immunoassay will fall into one of several categories ... Immunoassays come in many different formats and variations. Immunoassays may be run in multiple steps with reagents being added ... "The Immunoassay Handbook", 3rd Edition, David Wild, Ed., Elsevier,2008 Learning Guides from Abbott Laboratories on Immunoassay ...

*Magnetic immunoassay

... (MIA) is a novel type of diagnostic immunoassay using magnetic beads as labels in lieu of conventional ... This technology,makes magnetic immunoassay possible in a variety of formats such as: conventional lateral flow test by ... Magnetic Immunoassays, P.I.Nikitin, P.M. Vetoshko, T.I Ksenevich, Sensor Letters, Vol. 5, 1-4, 2007 [2] Quantitative real-time ... 209-18 Magnetic Immunoassays, P.I.Nikitin, P.M. Vetoshko, T.I Ksenevich, Sensor Letters, Vol. 5, 1-4, 2007 Quantitative real- ...

*Mass spectrometric immunoassay

... (MSIA) is a method that uses antibodies to analyze protein differences in biological samples. ... Assay Immunoassay Immunoscreening SISCAPA Radioimmunoassay Mass Spectrometry Nelson, Randall W.; Krone, Jennifer R.; Bieber, ... 1995). "Mass Spectrometric Immunoassay". Analytical Chemistry. 67 (7): 1153-1158. doi:10.1021/ac00103a003. ISSN 0003-2700. PMID ...

*Fluorescence polarization immunoassay

ELISA Radio immunoassay FRET Magnetic immunoassay Fluorescence Immunoscreening Lateral flow test Cloned enzyme donor ... immunoassay Surround optical fiber immunoassay Plate reader Nielsen, Klaus (2000). "Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassay: ... Fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) is a class of in vitro biochemical test used for rapid detection of antibody or ... Fluorescence polarization immunoassays employ a fluorophore bound antigen that when bound to the antibody of interest, will ...

*Turbidimetric inhibition immunoassay

Turbidimetric inhibition immuno assay (TINIA) is a type of immunoassay that uses turbidimetry as the measurement principle and ... is used for many commercial immunoassays, e.g. measurement of HbA1c%, Digoxin etc. in whole blood sample in several commercial ...

*Surround optical-fiber immunoassay

Immunoassay Rubenstein, R.; et al. (September 2011). "Prion Disease Detection, PMCA Kinetics, and IgG in Urine from Sheep ... Surround optical-fiber immunoassay (SOFIA) is an ultrasensitive, in vitro diagnostic platform incorporating a surround optical- ... "Surround Optical Fiber Immunoassay (SOFIA)" (PDF). Los Alamos National Laboratory. Retrieved 2011-08-19. Braithwaite, S.L. ( ... 2010). "Prion Surround optical fiber immunoassay (SOFIA): an ultra-sensitive assay for PrP detection". Journal of General ...

*Cloned enzyme donor immunoassay

A cloned enzyme donor immunoassay (CEDIA) is a competitive homogenous enzyme immunoassay. This assay makes use of two component ...

*Enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique

It is an immunoassay in which a drug or metabolite in the sample competes with an drug/metabolite labelled with an enzyme, to ... Immunoassays that do not conform with SAMHSA, featuring a cutoff of 20 ng/ml, have been shown to produce false positives from ... As an example the SAMHSA cutoffs for cannabinoids are 50 ng/ml for the immunoassay and 15 ng/ml as confirmed by GC/MS. ... Enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT) is a common method for qualitative and quantitative determination of therapeutic ...

*International unit

Ekins R (1991). "Immunoassay standardization". Scand J Clin Lab Invest Suppl. 205: 33-46. PMID 1947747. Dietary Supplements ... Wicher JT (1991). "Calibration is the key to immunoassay but the ideal calibrator is unattainable". Scand J Clin Lab Invest ...

*Trinder glucose activity test

That Tjien Ngo (1988). Nonisotopic immunoassay. Plenum Press. p. 71. F. Yamagishi; T. Stanford; C. van Ast (2001). "Biosensors ...

*Cystatin C

A new avidin-biotin ELISA assay for its measurement". J Immunoassay. 13 (1): 47-60. doi:10.1080/15321819208019824. PMID 1569212 ... using immunoassays such as nephelometry or particle-enhanced turbidimetry. It is a more expensive test than serum creatinine ( ... "Adult cystatin C reference intervals determined by nephelometric immunoassay". Clin. Biochem. 40 (13-14): 1084-1087. doi: ...

*Ligand binding assay

Immunoassay Luckey, J.; et al. (1993). "[12] High-speed DNA sequencing by capillary gel electrophoresis". Methods in Enzymology ... Landsteiner's work demonstrated that immunoassay technology allowed researchers to analyze at the molecular level. The first ... immunoassays, etc.) within each multiwell plate. Due to the variability in multiwell plate formatting, it is not uncommon for ... or measuring immunoreactivity through immunoassays. Artifacts can be avoided by maintaining plate uniformity by applying the ...

*Hook effect

The hook effect or the prozone effect is a type of interference which plagues certain immunoassays and nephelometric assays, ... Tate, Jill; Ward, Greg (2004-05-01). "Interferences in Immunoassay". The Clinical Biochemist Reviews. 25 (2): 105-120. ISSN ... PMC 1378475 . Miller, James (April 2004). "Interference in immunoassays: avoiding erroneous results" (PDF). CLI Online. CLI. ... Blocking antibody Schiettecatte, Johan; Anckaert, Ellen; Smitz, Johan (2012-03-23). Interferences in Immunoassays. InTech. doi: ...

*Human anti-mouse antibody

In the heterogenous immunoassay the separation step will wash away the free substrate unable to bind due to HAMA blocking; only ... Darwish, IA (2006). "Immunoassay Methods and their Applications in Pharmaceutical Analysis: Basic Methodology and Recent ... Tate, J; Ward, G (2004). "Interferences in immunoassay". Clin Biochem Rev. 25 (2): 105-20. PMC 1904417 . PMID 18458713. ... HAMA interference's can give false positive or negative immunoassay results. HAMA bridging interference produces artificially ...

*Antibody microarray

Silzel J. W., Cercek B., Dodson C., Tsay T., Obremski R. J. (1998). "Mass-sensing, multianalyte microarray immunoassay with ... Ekins RP (1989). "Multi-analyte immunoassay". J Pharm Biomed Anal. 7 (2): 155-68. doi:10.1016/0731-7085(89)80079-2. PMID ... Ekins RP, Chu FW (November 1991). "Multianalyte microspot immunoassay-microanalytical "compact disk" of the future". Clin. Chem ... "Immunoassay device enclosing matrixes of antibody spots for cell determinations", Priority date March 13, 1987 Chang, Tse W. U. ...

*Thyroid-stimulating hormone measurement

Method: Microparticle Enzyme Immunoassay. Beckman Coulter provides the equipment and reagents used in the 2009-2011 CDC manuals ... Method: Microparticle Enzyme Immunoassay. Lab 18 TSH - Thyroid Stimulating Hormone. 1999-2000. ...

*Ara h1

Mills E, Potts A, Plumb G, Lambert N, Morgan M (1997). "Development of a rapid dipstick immunoassay for the detection of peanut ... In these tests, peanut allergens are measured in foods by immunoassay with human IgE antibodies. In 2003 a monoclonal antibody- ... Keating MU, Jones RT, Worley NJ, Shively CA, Yunginger JW (July 1990). "Immunoassay of peanut allergens in food-processing ... Yeung JM, Collins PG (1996). "Enzyme immunoassay for determination of peanut proteins in food products". Journal of AOAC ...

*Proteomics

Examples of these methods are the MSIA (mass spectrometric immunoassay) developed by Randall Nelson in 1995 and the SISCAPA ( ... 1995). "Mass Spectrometric Immunoassay". Analytical Chemistry. 67 (7): 1153-1158. doi:10.1021/ac00103a003. ISSN 0003-2700. PMID ... Generally, proteins can either be detected using antibodies (immunoassays) or using mass spectrometry. If a complex biological ... The lower limit of detection with conventional immunoassay technology is the upper femtomolar range (10(-13) M). Digital ...

*AKR1B1

Immunoassay of human aldose reductase". Biochemical Pharmacology. 46 (1): 21-8. doi:10.1016/0006-2952(93)90343-U. PMID 8347133 ...

*Bioassay

Assay Immunoassay Hoskins, W. M.; Craig, R. (1962-01-01). "Uses of Bioassay in Entomology". Annual Review of Entomology. 7 (1 ...

*Quidel Corporation

Quidel's core competencies and capabilities include immunoassay development, automated manufacturing, monoclonal antibody ... fluorescent immunoassay products (Sofia); and (5) molecular diagnostic products. These products include assays such as QuickVue ...

*Analyte

Analytical chemistry Immunoassay Magnetic immunoassay. ...

*Photoacoustic effect

The photoacoustic immunoassay labels and detects target proteins using nanoparticles that can generate strong acoustic signals ... Zhao Y, Cao M, McClelland JF, Lu M (2016). "A photoacoustic immunoassay for biomarker detection". Biosensors and Bioelectronics ...

*Oleandrin

Fluorescence polarization immunoassay is widely used. This test is slower and has a lower sensitivity than digoxin immunoassay ... and their detection by digoxin immunoassays". Clinical Chemistry. 42 (10): 1654-8. PMID 8855150. Ibrahim, Amany K.; Khalifa, ... "Rapid detection of oleander poisoning using fluorescence polarization immunoassay for digitoxin. Effect of treatment with ...

*Salicylate testing

Another identification mechanism is through immunoassay. Abbott Labs' AxSYM is an immunoassay device utilizing Fluorescence ... Polarization Immunoassay (FPIA) technology that can determine the presence and quantify salicylates. The introduction of a ...
Quantitative lateral flow immunoassay for total prostate specific antigen in serum / I. P. Andreeva, V. G. Grigorenko, A. M. Egorov, A. P. Osipov // Analytical Letters. - 2016. - Vol. 49, no. 4. - P. 579-588. A simple method for the rapid determination of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in serum is reported using a lateral flow immunoassay with gold nanoparticles as the label. The method uses the intensity of colored test lines to determine PSA from 0.3 to 30 ng/ml. The limit of detection was 0.3 ng/ml and the coefficient of variation was less than 10%. The analysis time was approximately twenty minutes. The novel method showed good correlation with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) measurements of prostate-specific antigen concentration in human serum with a linear regression coefficient of 0.985. The developed system was stable for at least twelve months when stored from +4 to 30oC and has potential application for clinical practice. [ DOI ...
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Rapid mass spectrometric immunoassay methods for detecting and/or quantifying antibody and antigen analytes utilizing affinity capture to isolate the analytes and internal reference species (for quantification) followed by mass spectrometric analysis of the isolated analyte/internal reference species. Quantification is obtained by normalizing and calibrating obtained mass spectrum against the mass spectrum obtained for an antibody/antigen of known concentration.
Procalcitonin (PCT) is a current, frequently-used marker for severe bacterial infection. The aim of this study was to develop a cost-effective detection kit for rapid quantitative and on-site detection of PCT. To develop the new PCT quantitative detecting kit, a double-antibody sandwich immunofluorescent assay was employed based on time-resolved immunofluorescent assay (TRFIA) combined with lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA). The performance of the new developed kit was evaluated in the aspects of linearity, precision, accuracy, and specificity. Two-hundred thirty-four serum samples were enrolled to carry out the comparison test. The new PCT quantitative detecting kit exhibited a higher sensitivity (0.08 ng/mL). The inter-assay coefficient of variation (CV) and the intra-assay CV were 5.4%-7.7% and 5.7%-13.4%, respectively. The recovery rates ranged from 93% to 105%. Furthermore, a high correlation (n = 234, r = 0.977, p | 0.0001) and consistency (Kappa = 0.875) were obtained when compared with the PCT kit
Template matching method is presented to identify the peaks from the scanned signals of lateral flow immunoassay strips. The template is composed of two pulses separated by the distance of the control and the target ligand line in the assay, and is convolved with the scanned signal to deliver the maximum at the center of the two peaks. The peak regions were identified with the predefined distances from the center. Glycosylated haemoglobin immunoassay strips and fluorescent strip readers from Boditechmed Inc. were tested to estimate the lot and reader variations of the concentration measurands. The results showed the robustness of the propose method ...
The diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) remains a challenge. However, recent studies showed that synovial fluid biomarkers have demonstrated greater diagnostic accuracy than the currently used PJI diagnostic tests. In many diagnostic tests, combining several biomarkers into panels is critical for improving diagnostic efficiency, enhancing the diagnostic precision for specific diseases, and reducing cost. In this study, we prove that combining alpha-defensin and C-reactive protein (CRP) as biomarkers possesses the potential to provide accurate PJI diagnosis. To further verify the result, we developed a multi-target lateral flow immunoassay strip (msLFIA) with staking pad design to obtain on-site rapid response for clinical diagnosis of PJI. A total of 10 synovial fluid samples were tested using the msLFIA, and the results showed that the combined measurements of synovial fluid alpha-defensin and CRP levels were consistent with those obtained from a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent
This study was conducted to develop a simple, rapid, and accurate lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) detection method for point-of-care diagnosis. The one-dot LFIA for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was based on the modified competitive binding format using competition between AFB1 and colloidal gold-AFB1-BSA conjugate for antibody binding sites in the test zone. A Smartphone-based reading system consisting of a Samsung Galaxy S2 Smartphone, a LFIA reader, and a Smartphone application for the image acquisition and data analysis. The detection limit of one-dot LFIA for AFB1 is 5 μg/kg. This method provided semi-quantitative analysis of AFB1 samples in the range of 5 to 1,000 μg/kg. Using combination of the one-dot LFIA and the Smartphone-based reading system, it is possible to conduct a more fast and accurate point-of-care diagnosis.
The presence of harmful algal blooms (HABs) can result in the accumulation of phycotoxins in shellfish such as mussels, scallops and oysters. Depending on the toxins present, consumption of contaminated shellfish can lead to illness in humans including amnesic, diarrheic or paralytic shellfish poisoning (ASP, DSP or PSP respectively). There is currently a lack of suitable rapid screening tools to complement accepted reference methods for the detection of marine biotoxins. The aims of the thesis were to develop a range of simple and accurate lateral flow immunoassays (LFIA) for the rapid screening of phycotoxins from shellfish extracts, which could be performed either in a laboratory or in the field. As a result, three novel single-step LFIAs were developed and validated for the major regulated toxins responsible for ASP, DSP and PSP, respectively. One of the challenges was to ensure that the thresholds for test~ were based at concentrations relevant to regulations, whilst minimizing the risks of ...
Designed with one of the most advanced software packages on the market, the ADVIA Centaur XPT Immunoassay System is among the highest-throughput systems available. The ADVIA Centaur XPT System delivers the results that clinicians depend upon for accurate diagnoses and better patient care-and does so predictably and consistently. Siemens unites innovative workflow solutions with clinical excellence in the ADVIA Centaur XPT System, leading to greater laboratory productivity to stay ahead of increasing workload demands.. ...
An accurate, rapid and cost-effective detection on the environmental hazardous chemicals is the cornerstone of efficient food safe management. Hereby we discuss the relevance of an emerging technology, multiplexed competitive immunoassays read by flow cytometry, for the detection of Clenbuterol, Chloramphenicol and sulfadimidine. In these assays, multiple fluorescent microspheres, conjugated to different test antigens, constitute the solid phase for detecting antigens in biological samples. These assays are more sensitive than traditional immunoassays , have a high throughput capacity provide a wide analytical dynamic range and are powerful tools for exposure analysis and assessment offering low-cost screening with minimal sample pretreatment requirements combined and served a better alternative for the instrumental detection on the derivatives of those metabolites that often require expensive instrumentation,. Additionally, they have multiplexing ability-i. e, they are capable of measuring multiple
Farm collaborated with BioKit to help launch its first proprietary clinical analysis device, a chemiluminescent immunoassay analyzer designed to establish and enhance BioKits brand identity.
Scientists at the forefront of proteomics research can achieve exceptional accuracy and speed using an expanded family of affinity-based consumables f
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization ...
Whether you need ultrasensitive detection from a Singulex assay, maximum throughput from a Gyrolab workstation, robust ELISAs or rich profiling data from a Luminex panel, our immunoassay platforms help you get data you can trust out of each sample, with minimal repetition, so you can make the best next-step decisions.
Whether you need ultrasensitive detection from a Singulex assay, maximum throughput from a Gyrolab workstation, robust ELISAs or rich profiling data from a Luminex panel, our immunoassay platforms help you get data you can trust out of each sample, with minimal repetition, so you can make the best next-step decisions.
We are experts in the development of super-fast and/or super-sensitive ELISAs and multiplexed assays. Competitive immunoassays is an eagle-i resource of type Material analysis service at Charles Drew University of Medicine and Science.
The global microfluidic immunoassay market is expected to grow at a CAGR of 12.7% from 2019 to reach $2.01 billion by 2025, Microfluidic Immunoassay Market by Product Type (Lab-on-chip, POC Analyzers, Reagents & Assay), Technology, Application (Cardiac, Troponin, BNP) - Global Forecast to 2025
Mouse CD23 Multiplex Immunoassay Kit Mplex Immunoassay Kits datasheet (ab221510). Abcam offers quality products including antibodies, assays and other reagents.
Presence of anti-HCV antibodies indicates prior exposure to HCV infection. However, the assay may be negative early in acute HCV infection, in immunosuppressed individuals. Anti-HCV antibodies can be detected by rapid immunoassays, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), or chemiluminescent immunoassays. Quality of some of the test kits for anti-HCV may be a reason for concern.. Rapid immunoassay tests use a unique combination of modified HCV antigens conserved across all genotypes. However, some studies have demonstrated that rapid tests cannot be solely relied upon in screening patients from high- risk population in India. ELISA tests indicate presence of antibodies against HCV core, NS3 and NS5 regions. A study in North India has demonstrated the value of blood banks screening using two ELISA kits concurrently to improve detection of contaminated blood.. Enhanced chemiluminescence immunoassay (ECi) a quantitative assay based on chemiluminescent reaction, which is as good as ELISA.. ...
Our overall objective is to develop and standardize methodologies, accelerating the identification and development of non-invasive biomarkers as well as define new strategies to tackle major diseases such as cancer and parasitic diseases. Thus, REDiEX signifies a significant advance towards personalized medicine aiming to develop new tools and markers with high social impact that will generate economic benefits and equity in global health.
Johnson & Johnson Vitros EciQ Immunoassay Analyzer, Enzyme for Sale. Check out our extensive catalog of New & Used Johnson & Johnson Vitros EciQ Immunoassay Analyzer, Enzyme devices. More than 200,000 items of Laboratory devices & medical equipment. 485634568
Excellent retention of beads, even after extensive washing. According to a publication at Journal of Immunological Methods by Prof. Beaumier at Baylor and Dr. Biswas at Merck, "the DA-Bead method for analysis was comparable to, if not superior to, the conventional method in terms of consistency/precision, accuracy, sensitivity and dynamic range.". It is known that bead-based assays sometimes suffer from bead aggregation with plasma, blood, and other challenging biological samples which affects detectability of proteins and jeopardizes quality of data. Scientific studies have shown that DropArray may reduce bead aggregation and may better permit reading beads individually reporting the signals of target proteins as they are.. ...
One of the UKs leaders in the recruitment of science sales/commercial people at all levels from graduate to sales director. Our particular areas of interest are life sciences, biotechnology, molecular biology, chemistry, diagnostics, immunology and instrumentation. New jobs will be posted here as soon as we receive them along with news and information from Seltek, the life science / biotech markets and the recruitment industry in general.. ...
Biolan is a biotechnology company that works mainly in developing and marketing new biosensors capable of detecting health and agro-food-related molecules.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Federal contract opportunity W9113M-08-R-0010 for other measuring and controlling device manufacturing at Army Contracting Command U. S. Army Space and Missile Defense Command.
Multiplex immunoassays are an extremely powerful tool for protein detection and quantitation. Get a general overview and tips on how to optimize your results.
The New Quantitative Immunoassay Life Science Dashboard from Percepta Associates projects significant potential for switching primary immunoassay product suppliers
Roche Diagnostics cobas 4000 e 411 Immunoassay Analyzer, Enzyme for Sale. Check out our extensive catalog of New & Used Roche Diagnostics cobas 4000 e 411 Immunoassay Analyzer, Enzyme devices. More than 200,000 items of Laboratory devices & medical equipment. 562878245
sol-RTM toolbox reagents and mirrorball®: a complete solution for no-wash, multiplexed immunoassays. Save up to 90% sample and costs vs ELISA.
The ADVIA Centaur CP System is an immunoassay test instrument for mid-volume labs. Its broad menu lets you both expand and consolidate - by bringing a wide range of assays to one workstation, eliminating redundant systems. The ADVIA Centaur CP System is easy to operate, increases efficiency and streamlines workflow. It offers the excellent sensitivity and specificity expected from direct Chemiluminescence with Acridinium Ester technology.
6. Multiplexed bead-based immunoassays used reagents purchased from Bio-Rad and R&D Systems and were analyzed on a Flexmap 3D using xPONENT software (Luminex Corp.). The levels of secreted cytokines were measured using two sets of Bio-Rad detection panels: group I 27-plex (Bio-Rad, cat. no. M500KCAF0Y) and group II 21-plex (Bio-Rad, cat. no. MF0005KMII) human cytokine panels. Levels of MMP-1, -2, and -3 were measured using the Luminex Peformance Human MMP Panel (R&D Systems, cat. nos. LMP901B, LMP901C, and LMP513B). Supernatants either were diluted 1:3 with 1xPBS / 0.05% BSA / 0.05% Tween-20 (for the Bio-Rad cytokine kits) or diluted 1:5 with Calibrator Diluent RD5-37 buffer (for the R&D Systems MMP Panel; this buffer is from the Human MMP Base Kit, cat. no. LMP000B) and assayed according to the suppliers instructions alongside a 10-point standard serial dilution to establish the dynamic range of the assay for each analyte. The immunoassay results are reported as the median fluorescent ...
Virus-like particles (VLPs) offer a system to test the hypothesis that since antibody binding to native cover glycoprotein (Env) trimers ends up in HIV-1 neutralization that local Env trimers presented in membranes can be useful for causing neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) within a vaccine placing. models. The latest immunogenicity research in rabbits appear to have out all of the 3 for these leads. plus the Animal Wellbeing Act. Macaques were encased indoors in stainless steel galetas had a 12h/12h daily lumination cycle had been fed 2 times daily given water R595 cell wall membrane skeleton out of and man made trehalose dicorynomycolate. Adjuplex is made up of detergent-free carbomer and lecithin homopolymer. AS01B consists of liposomes containing deacylated QS21 and MPL. Normally immunogens and adjuvants had been co-formulated. In buy 1207456-01-6 some cases had been administered independently (Fig. 2). iv) Medication dosage Gp120 and gp41 had been administered in 100μg amounts. Doses ...
The limit of detection calculated from repeated measurements of the zero calibrator was found to be ,0.6 kilounits/L in all analyses. This is equivalent to the readable limit of the analyzer. One laboratory performed measurements in a serum sample with a CA 125 value of 0.8 kilounits/L. The limit of detection obtained for serum was 1.1 kilounits/L, which is highly sufficient for diagnostic purposes.. According to the manufacturer, the assay is linear up to 5000 kilounits/L. This was checked in four laboratories in a total of 24 dilution series covering three decades of CA 125 concentrations, using either human sera or diluent for dilution. On the basis of an acceptance range of 90-110% recovery, the linearity of the assay when serum was used as diluent was confirmed throughout the range studied (highest serum concentration ∼4500 kilounits/L) with the exception of the highest dilution, which exceeded the acceptance criteria in 5 of 12 experiments. The acceptance criteria were not met with the ...
Anti-TNF alpha antibodies were among the first approved antibody drugs and now belongs to the best-selling drugs. Today, several companies are developing biosimilars to those drugs which will increase the access of medications and potentially reduce health care costs. There is a great demand for pharmacokinetic assays for anti-TNF-alpha drugs and the bridging assay format is a potential tool, mostly due to its high serum tolerance. This project at Gyros Protein Technologies AB aimed to investigate the properties of the solid phase on the Gyrolab and to utilize this to optimize the bridging assay to be used as a pharmacokinetic assay for a human antibody in the presence of serum. The solid phase was optimized by incorporating three reagents with increasing molecular weight and examining the column profiles generated. Furthermore, the capture reagent was titrated with b-BSA to avoid cross-binding of both arms of the antibody to the capture reagent. Since the background was relatively high, further ...
Thermo Scientific InsuQuant Mass Spectrometric Immunoassay Kit provides an innovative solution for highly sensitive pre-analytical protein purification
Immunoassay tests are designed to detect specific chemicals by measuring the chemicals response to specific antibodies. Antibodies are developed specifically to bind with organic compounds [e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and pesticides]. The antibodies do not respond to dissimilar substances. For example, antibodies may be coated inside a test tube. A sample is added to the test tube followed by a chemical that reacts with enzymes released by the antibodies. This chemical changes color in response to the enzymes. Color change in an extracted solution is related to specific contaminant concentration ...
Immunoassay tests are designed to detect specific chemicals by measuring the chemicals response to specific antibodies. Antibodies are developed specifically to bind with organic compounds [e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and pesticides]. The antibodies do not respond to dissimilar substances. For example, antibodies may be coated inside a test tube. A sample is added to the test tube followed by a chemical that reacts with enzymes released by the antibodies. This chemical changes color in response to the enzymes. Color change in an extracted solution is related to specific contaminant concentration ...
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A new immunoassay system is provided for the detection of ligands or ligand binding partners in solution in a heterogeneous format. The invention relies upon the detection of back scattered light from an evanescent wave disturbed by the presence of a colloidal gold label brought to the interface by an immunological reaction. The evanescent wave existing at the interface in turn is the result of a totally internally reflected incident light wave. Placement of the detector at a back angle above the critical angle insures a superior signal-to-noise ratio.
The test is a lateral flow immunoassay test and operates in a similar way to a pregnancy test. Embedded into the test strip are antibodies that bind to a COVID-19 specific biomarker, Immunoglobulin G (IgG), and another infection biomarker, Immunoglobulin M (IgM). When a sample (blood, serum or plasma) is added to one end of the test, it flows along the test strip and interacts with these antibodies. If the patient has contracted COVID-19, the biomarkers in their blood will bind to the antibodies on the test strip, leaving a visible test line. If the patient doesnt have COVID-19, no biomarkers should be present in their blood and no test line will be visible. There are separate test lines for IgG and IgM and only one needs to be visible for a positive result. ...
Advances in HIV diagnostic testing have improved detection of HIV infections. HIV can be detected earlier so patients benefit from treatment and negative results reassure uninfected patients. Because first line immunoassays lack specificity, positive results need to be confirmed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the algorithm used at The Ohio State Wexner Medical Center for the diagnosis of HIV infection. The algorithm begins with a combination immunoassay that detects HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies and HIV-1 p24 antigen [ADVIA Centaur® HIV Ag/Ab Combo (CHIV), Siemens]. All positive specimens are confirmed with an immunoassay that differentiates HIV-1 from HIV-2 antibodies [Geenius HIV-1/HIV-2 Confirmatory assay (GHIV), Bio-Rad]. Specimens that are positive by CHIV and negative or indeterminate by GHIV proceed to HIV-1 nucleic acid testing for resolution. A total of 14,994 patients were evaluated using CHIV assay, of these 99.7% were negative (n= 14,950) and 0.3% were positive (n=44). The 44 ...
The benefits of the lateral flow strip immunochromatographic test format are well known. However, currently available lateral flow strip assays are not compatible with sub-microliter sample volumes. The authors believe that assays compatible with micro-volume samples will be required to achieve market acceptance of general, routine and frequent, home diagnostics. MicroPlumbers Microsciences LLC has developed an inexpensive immunochemical marker screening and monitoring device that can operate with sample volumes of less than 1 microliter (Figure 1). The device relies on micro-miniaturized lateral flow strip technology to provide a reliable platform for sandwich and competitive immunoassays. The applicability of the method has been demonstrated with various commercially-available assay chemistries. The device is also of benefit to clinicians for rapid testing for panels of analytes, or researchers wishing to define their own panel of analytes. In this paper we will demonstrate the use of miniaturized
Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics - Block Scientific is pleased to provide immunoassay systems, chemistry analyzers, urine analyzers from Siemens. Buy now!
Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics has released a worldwide software upgrade (v6.0) for its ADVIA Centaur® CP Immunoassay System, a high-throughput benchtop analyzer for mid-volume laboratories.
Tumor marker concentrations in serum provide useful information regarding clinical stage and prognosis of cancer and can thus be used for presymptomatic diagnostic purposes. Currently, detection and identification of soluble analytes in biological fluids is conducted by methods including bioassays, ELISA, PCR, DNA chip or strip tests. While these technologies are generally sensitive and specific, they are time consuming, labor intensive and cannot be multiplexed. Our goal is to develop a simple, point-of-care, portable, liquid array-based immunoassay device capable of simultaneous detection of a variety of cancer markers. Here we describe the development of assays for the detection of Serum Prostate Specific Antigen, and Ovalbumin from a single sample. The multiplexed immunoassays utilize polystyrene microbeads. The beads are imbedded with precise ratios of red and orange fluorescent dyes yielding an array of 100 beads, each with a unique spectral address (Figure 1). Each bead can be coated with ...
We describe an automated, self-powered chip based on lateral flow immunoassay for rapid, quantitative, and multiplex protein detection from pinpricks of whole blood. The device incorporates on-chip purification of blood plasma by employing inertial forces to focus blood cells away from the assay surface, whe
D8070 - 16 Standard Test Method for Screening of Fuels and Fuel Associated Aqueous Specimens for Microbial Contamination by Lateral Flow Immunoassay , aerobic microorganisms, antibodies, antigens, aviation, bacteria, biocontamination, biodeterioration, colony forming units, diesel, fuels, fungi, Hormoconis resinae, kerosene, lateral flow devices, metabolites, microbes, microbial contamination, microbial growth, microbiology, molds, water, yeasts,,
Access PCT strengthens industrys most extensive portfolio of in-vitro diagnostic testing for sepsis identification and management
Washing Stations accept DropArray™ DA-Bead and DA-HCS plates into a liquid-tight chamber formed with a clamping mechanism. After an aqueous washing buffer is automatically added, the station gently shakes the microplate to facilitate washing with minimal loss of cells. The station then tilts the microplate, using gravity to drain excess washing buffer from the planar surface, avoiding the harsh, high-velocity liquid exchange associated with traditional washers and microplates. Buffer is added at a very low velocity, preventing cell and bead loss. In addition, there is a magnet array embedded in the plate holder for bead-based immunoassays. This helps retain magnetic beads on the microplate upon washing. Despite the low velocity, plate processing time is comparable to traditional washers because the entire plate is treated at once. After the microplate is removed from the station the plate is ready for accepting the next set of reagents.. ...
I asked my doctor to order the LC/MS or "sensitive" estradiol test on my latest blood work, but when I got my results back the Roche ECLIA methodology test was used. LabCorp result: pg/ml ( - ). So what should I make of this? Is this a fairly accurate test, or should I have another one done using Can I trust my estradiol test? Ovulation: − pg/mL. − Luteal: − pg/mL. − Postmenopausal: − pg/mL. • Pregnancy: First trimester: to > pg/mL. • Children (1 to 10 years). − Male: Roche ECLIA methodology.. Bat Bell. Klonopin is A benzodiazepine that works down the brain by reducing the set spa at which its neurons are very by increasing the production of GABA, a potent that reduces. I do roche eclia methodology estradiol, he scoffs at Fibromyalgia, says I trachoma need to learn coping skills. If only he knew what I cope with. I have bad in a tent for months, lived out of my car for a rare time, have done every detailed, dirty job out there to roche eclia methodology estradiol, only for my ...
Biofortuna is expanding its IVD service portfolio to provide a greater focus on immunoassay design, development and manufacture. The company has made a significant investment in its production capabilities to include plate coating, washing, drying and quality control, creating an exceptional manufacturing suite for immunoassay kits.. Biofortuna already has extensive experience in immunoassay development, and this expansion has been driven by the success of current customer projects and increasing demand from the market. These enhanced manufacturing capabilities will further strengthen the companys existing immunoassay service and offer more flexibility to clients.. This focus on immunoassay products will complement Biofortunas highly successful molecular IVD services, which include ISO 13485 accredited and FDA registered contract research, lyophilisation, air-drying, manufacturing, dispensing and kitting of diagnostic products.. Dr Simon Douglas, Biofortuna CEO, commented: "The success and ...
PCLs proprietary technology, SG CapTM, lets users detect targets in complex biological samples with confidence. SG CapTM employs the properties of sol-gel to capture molecules in a 3D matrix. PCLs multiplex immunoassay platform harnesses these capabilities to make products like Hi3-1, a blood test for HIV and HCV, with better sensitivity and specificity than that of currently available tests. With more multiplex tests in its pipeline, PCL is positioned to be a leader in multiplex testing. ...
The FBT is a dual rapid lateral flow immunoassay. Used in conjunction with history, physical examination and blood work, the FBT can support a differential diagnosis of gastrointestinal health conditions in horses, including suspected gastric ulcers, colo
The present invention is directed to a membrane-based immunoassay method for an analyte of interest having at least two sterically separate antigenic sites. The method comprises providing a reactive membrane having a calibration zone and a test zone, wherein the calibration zone is characterized by having a predetermined amount of the analyte of interest immobilized via a first antibody as a first specific binding pair to a solid phase, the immobilized first binding pair being covalently cross-linked such that any remaining binding sites on said first immobilized antibody are substantially incapable of further specifically binding to any additional analyte, but at least some of said analyte is capable of specifically binding to a preselected amount of a labelled second antibody. The method further includes the steps of contacting the reactive membrane with a predetermined amount of sample and allowing any analyte in the test sample to become specifically bound to immobilized first antibody in the test
... ,IMMULITE 2500 is a high-throughput immunoassay system built around the many positive attributes ,,,of the IMMULITE 2000 with the important addition of Logic Driven Incubation (LDI). LDI technology ,,,allows assays to be designed for optimal performance with the fastest possible incubation times. ,,,medicine,medical supply,medical supplies,medical product
Maine Manufacturing is now GVS North America. The GVS Life Sciences division supplies membrane-based solutions for life sciences, research and clinical diagnsotics. We offer research products for filtration, protein and nucleic acid analysis and microbiological monitoring. We produce diagnostics, multiplexed immunoassays and sample preparation tools. Biological and engineering expertise, combined with world-class facilities, make GVS Life Sciences the only way to say filtration.. ...
Multiplexed immunoassays for 51 inflammatory biomarkers indicated that ENRAGE was most strongly associated with risk for developing CHD.
Disclosed is an immunoassay method whereby a 5.9 kDa peptide which results from the degradation of the α-E chain and α chain of human fibrinogens and which is used as a peptide marker for diagnosing h
An electro-immunosensor which can be used to determine the presence of a wide range of analytes in solution is described. Also described are methods of determining subnanogram levels of analytes in a one-step procedure. This novel immunosensor comprises an analyte binding agent bound to an electrode and a analyte/enzyme conjugate bound to the analyte binding agent as part of a catalytic electrical circuit. Displacement of the conjugate by analyte causes a proportional decrease in current. The immunosensor may also be adapted to detect two analytes in a single step by using different enzymes conjugated to the analyte binding agents.
Back to News. SAN JOSE, Calif., Sept. 20, 2017 /PRNewswire/ -- ProteinSimple®, a Bio-Techne brand, announced today an expansion of the Ella immunoassay platform with the launch of a 32x4 Simple Plex™ cartridge. This new cartridge simultaneously measures up to 32 different samples from serum, plasma, cell culture supernatants and other bodily fluids against four different analytes of interest. Doubling the current sample throughput while maintaining a total immunoassay time of 85 minutes, this new cartridge enables greater efficiency at a lower cost per reportable result. Simple Plex assays are powered by R&D Systems® antibodies, the recognized global leader in antibody, cytokine and chemokine research. R&D Systems provides a continuously expanding menu of assays for the Simple Plex line supporting multiple species that currently consists of over 200 assays. Bio-Techne. Simple Plex immunoassays run on the fully automated Ella platform and have the same specificity of the "gold standard" ELISA ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Optimal designs for asymmetric sigmoidal response curves in bioassays and immunoassays. AU - Hyun, Seung Won. AU - Wong, Weng Kee. AU - Yang, Yarong. PY - 2020/2/1. Y1 - 2020/2/1. N2 - The 5-parameter logistic (5PL) model is frequently used to model and analyze responses from bioassays and immunoassays which can be skewed. Various types of optimal experimental designs for 2, 3 and 4-parameter logistic models have been reported but not for the more complicated 5PL model. We construct different types of optimal designs for studying various features of the 5PL model and show that commonly used designs in bioassays and immunoassays are generally inefficient for statistical inference. To facilitate use of such designs in practice, we create a user-friendly software package to generate various tailor-made optimal designs for the 5PL model and evaluate robustness properties of a design under a variation of criteria, model forms and misspecification in the nominal values of the model ...
Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are commonly used for contrast enhancement in magnetic resonance imaging, as magnetic carriers in automated immunoassays instruments, or for cell concentration at the bench. They are being evaluated all over the world for drug delivery or cancer therapy by hyperthermia. More recently have MNPs been arisen as candidates for new labels in magnetic immunoassays in lieu of commonly used enzymatic, fluorescent, or radio-isotopic labels. The advantages of magnetic immunoassay are its great sensibility, its rapidity and its easy way of use. This study allows linking the MNPs physico-chemical properties with their magnetic behaviour and to build up a magnetic
References. 1. FDA medical devices page. Food and Drug Administration Website. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/MedicalDevices/Safety/AlertsandNotices/TipsandArticlesonDeviceSafety/ucm109432.htm . Accessed August 7, 2009.. 2. Covalciuc KA, Webb KH, Carlson CA. Comparison of four clinical specimen types for detection of influenza A and B viruses by optical immunoassay (FLU OIA Test) and cell culture methods. J Clin Microbiol. 1999;37:3971-3974.. 3. Kim HW, Wyatt RG, Fernie BF, et al. Respiratory syncytial virus detection by immunofluorescence in nasal secretions with monoclonal antibodies against selected surface and internal proteins. J Clin Microbiol. 1983;18:1399-1404.. 4. Fonseca K, Tarrant M, Lams S, Li Y. Dual infection with influenza A and B viruses. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2002;12:795-796.. 5. Toda, S, Okamoto R, Nishida T, et al. Isolation of influenza A/H3 and B viruses from an influenza patient: confirmation of co-infection by two influenza viruses. Jpn J Infect Dis. ...
VIDAS® is an automated, multiparametric immunoassay system. This uniquely designed testing device stores the calibration in the analyzers memory, thus optimizing the cost-per-sample result. Plus, with its ready-to-use reagents, minimum maintenance, ease of use and uni/bi-directional interface, labor cost is also optimized. Automation and kinetic assay reactions yield rapid turnaround time.. miniVIDAS® is a compact version of the VIDAS® system with a built-in computer, keyboard and printer. Two independent sections each accept six tests and can process up to 12 samples simultaneously.. This automated immunoassay system is reliable and economical. It uses ELFA (Enzyme Linked Fluorescent Assay) Phage and immuno concentration technology, has no carryover risks, requires a one-point recalibration once every 14 or 28 days depending on the assay and optimizes the cost per sample for batch or single sample testing. In addition, the menu of available assays is constantly evolving.. ...
When coding for multianalyte assays with algorithmic analyses (MAAA), it may help to know the brand name of the test(s) performed.
Anti-Human IL-17F Capture Antibody: This Antibody can be used as Capture in a human **** sandwich Immunoassay to detect human **** in combination with biotinylated human **** Detection Antibody (Cat n° ***.***.***). The suggested coating concentration range below should be optimised by each laboratory for each application.
Immunodiagnostics Market by Product (Reagents, Instruments, and Software & Services), by Technology (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, Radioimmunoassay, Chemiluminescence Immunoassay, Fluorescent Immunoassay, Rapid Test, and Others), by Application (Infectious Diseases, Oncology & Endocrinology, Hepatitis & Retrovirus, Bone & Mineral, Autoimmunity, Cardiac Biomarker, and Others), and End-User (Hospitals, Clinical Laboratories, Academic & Research Centers, Pharmaceutical & Biotechnology Industry, and Others) - Global Opportunity Analysis and Industry Forecasts, 2014-2022
Aushon Ciraplex® ULTRA Ultrasensitive Assays combine the power of multiplexing and ultrasensitivity with femtogram/ml (fg/ml) levels of detection. The Cira™ immunoassay platform was specifically designed by a team of Aushon engineers and biologists to offer accurate multiplex biomarker analysis with simplicity and savings in mind. The Cira™ platform combines the accuracy and precision of ELISA, the sensitivity of chemiluminescence, and the throughput and affordability of multiplexing.
Looking for end point immunoassay? Find out information about end point immunoassay. An assay that quantifies antigen or antibody by immunochemical means. The antigen can be a relatively simple substance such as a drug, or a complex one such... Explanation of end point immunoassay
Briefly, 100 μl of detection antibody was added to all wells, except blank, mixed gently and incubated overnight (16-24 h) at 4 °C. Plates were washed 3 times and standards and supernatant were added in the respective wells in duplicate. After the incubation time, the plates were washed again and incubated with 200 μl of conjugate for 60 min at room temperature. Plates were washed 3 times again and 200 μl of substrate was added and incubated for 15 min at room temperature in the dark. Belnacasan The reaction was stopped by the addition of 50 μl stop solution, and colour was measured in an automated microplate spectrophotometer (Epoch, Biotek,. Winooski, VT, USA). The total amounts of cytokines were determined as picograms (pg/ml). Results were calculated using the standard curves created in each assay. The ELISA assays were carried out. in a blind fashion in triplicate. The morphological findings of the in situ-like neoplasic areas, in each period, are depicted in Fig. 1. At 3 days, few ...
Ortho Clinical Diagnostics' VITROS XT MicroSlides, featuring new, multi-test technology that allows labs to run two tests simultaneously on one MicroSlide, have been cleared for market by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The product pairs...
... is a privately held biotechnology instrument company that develops, manufactures, and markets fully-integrated bio-molecules detection systems for DNA, protein, carbohydrate and fluorescence immunoassay analysis in research, clinical and industrial markets.. ...
Connection to two IMMULITE 2000 or 2500 instruments to create an immunoassay system with a throughput of up to 400 tests per hour and a reagent capacity of 48 different ...
Wholesale Enzyme Immunoassay ☆ Find 131 enzyme immunoassay products from 27 manufacturers & suppliers at EC21. ☆ Choose quality enzyme immunoassay manufacturers, suppliers & exporters now - EC21
StabilGuard® Immunoassay Stabilizer (BSA-Free) effectively preserves the conformation and activity of dried proteins while simultaneously blocking the surface to reduce non-specific binding. It can be used to stabilize antibodies, antigens or enzymes on an assortment of immunoassay components including polystyrene plates, tubes, glass, membranes, and filter paper. The key benefit of the protein free formulation is the elimination of interference and cross reactivity within immunoassay applications. ...
Offering a wide range of instruments, software, consumables, reagents, and content for the growing fields of cell biology, gene expression, protein purification, protein quantitation, drug discovery and manufacture, food safety, and science education. Bio-Rad is among the top five life science companies worldwide.. Our products and solutions are based on technologies used to separate, purify, identify, analyze, and amplify biological materials such as antibodies, proteins, nucleic acids, cells, and bacteria. Technologies and applications include electrophoresis, imaging, multiplex immunoassay, chromatography, microbiology, protein function analysis, transfection, flow cytometry and cell sorting, amplification, and real-time and digital PCR. Bio-Rad products support research and applied science in laboratories throughout the world.. ...
Principal Investigator:MUKAIDA Naofumi, Project Period (FY):1992 - 1993, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (C), Research Field:Laboratory medicine
Get relief from time-consuming and costly QC standard lot changes for up to 5 years with ready-to-use, liquid assayed Thermo Scientific MAS Liquimmune Immunoassay Controls. With a new 5-year shelf life, these multi-analyte controls simplify QC while monitoring immunoassay test procedures on most aut
Keeping that in mind, I chose to focus on affecting current consumer behaviours to curb inappropriate antibiotic consumption. Thus, my intervention concerns the development of home-based testing kits capable of distinguishing between bacterial and viral infections: Bac-Kits (Bacterial infection diagnosing-Kits). In this regard, I adopted a fully integrated Lab-on-a-disc ELISA system developed by Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Republic of Korea, and applied it to a novel signature of proteins, whose blood concentrations differ in response to bacterial and viral infections. The microbeads structure of the immunoassay on the discs allows the kits to have a competitive advantage over traditional ELISA by generating results using half the blood sample (150 μL) and within ~30 minutes. Each kit comes with pre-treated discs and a portable blood analyser with an easy interface - thereby, eliminating the need for technical skills and providing accurate diagnosis within the ...
Immunoassays are provided employing antibodies and a fluorescer-quencher (F-Q) chromophoric pair, wherein one or both of the chromophoric pair are bonded to antibodies. Depending on the particular lig
Immunoassays are widely used in infectious diseases & cancer diagnosis. Increasing burden of infectious diseases is driving the market for these instruments
To examine the association between the functional state of endothelium and bronchial asthma the oxide nitrogen (NO) condition in blood samples was evaluated in 118 bronchial asthma children with a wide range of desease severity with the use of Yemchenko L.N. method (1994) by determination of terminal stabile metabolites, and endothelin-1 (ET-1) concentration with enzyme immunoassays analysis, and also with the use of J. Hladovec method (1978) of circulation endothelial cells (CEC) level establishing. The credible increase of ET-1 (0,525±0,06 fmol/ml), NO (66,59±4,45 mkM/ml), CEC (7,28±0,63 cells/100 mkl) levels in bronchial asthma children compared with control (0,22±0,01 fmol/ml, 29,86±0,77 mkM/ml, 3,03±0,22 accordingly, p,0,01). The levels of endothelial markers credibly decreased on the background of anti-inflammatory therapy by inhalative glucocorticosteroids (NO 82,69±14,38 mkM/ml and 42,12±9,66 mkM/ml, p=0,001; ET-1 0,64±0,15 fmol/ml and 0,35±0,06 fmol/ml, p=0,001; CEC 7,3±1,67 ...
Bio Meraux Mini VIDAS is an automated refurbished immunoassay analyzer for infectious diseases. Buy this economical Mini VIDAS from our store.
CFT has developed FluorEx, a low-cost microfluidic fluoropolymer film that possesses unique optical transparency. The parallel array of 10 x 200 micron capillaries that allow rapid fully quantitative immunoassays to be incorporated in existing or emergent diagnostic technologies for use in the point of care clinical diagnostics market. CFT has exclusive know-how and IP. CFTs FluorEx technology is available for licensing
This course is designed for all individuals who develop, validate, perform or monitor bioassays or immunoassays. Individuals who develop assay methodologies, assign computational and analysis criteria, measure and validate performance characteristics, perform, evaluate and troubleshoot problem assays, or are responsible for the quality of the data will benefit from the lessons and examples presented. Attendees should have a basic understanding of bioassays or immunoassays.
Glycine ELISA kit - Urine. This Glycine ELISA kit enables the high-sensitive measurement of Glycine in urine samples. Intended for research use only, this quantitative immunoassay features a limit of detection as low as 3.3 µg/ml.. ...
Ciba is launching a new range of novel glass-based effect pigments. Suitable for a wide variety of applications, including packaging, household goods and leisure items, Ciba Xymara Nordic stylings reflect the natural shades and effects of frost, gol
... -- The instrument recorded the brought into being six. Services to sport following while he furiously shovelled of the US subduing gap cpt 83516 immunoassay what they.
(Publishing-NewsWire.com, March 21, 2020 ) The immunoassays market is expected to reach USD 27.15 Billion by 2023 from USD 20.19 Billion in 2018, at a CAGR of 6.1%. The immunoassays market is consolidated in nature due to the presence of a large number of players. Key players in the market include
The quality of treatment starts with diagnosis. DiaSorin Molecular diagnostic products assist labs in consolidation of in house and send out testing to improve efficiency.
BioVendor - BioVendor Research and Diagnostic Products is a developer and manufacturer of immunoassays, recombinant proteins, antibodies and endotoxin-removal products.
Liquid, human plasma based, single analyte D-dimer control, assayed for coagulation, chemistry and immunoassay analyzers; level 3 of 4 (6 x 1 mL)
Re use the pre coated microtiter plate 96 wells - posted in ELISA and Immunoassay: Hi Can anybody help me? I used ELISA kit that provide microtiter plate, 96 wells precoated with Human N-MID-OT polyclonal antibodies. the kit is very expensive and is that possible if I wash the plate and re used the plate? Does the precoated antibody already affected?
Patient Preparation: This test should not be requested in patients who have recently received radioisotopes, therapeutically or diagnostically, because of potential assay interference. The specific waiting period before specimen collection will depend on the isotope administered, the dose given and the clearance rate in the individual patient. Specimens will be screened for radioactivity prior to analysis. Radioactive specimens received in the laboratory will be held 1 week and assayed if sufficiently decayed, or canceled if radioactivity remains.. Container/Tube:. Preferred: Red top. Acceptable: Serum gel. Specimen Volume: 1.5 mL. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Simultaneous detection and quantification of six equine cytokines in plasma using a fluorescent microsphere immunoassay (FMIA). AU - Hall, SA. AU - Stucke, D. AU - Morrone, B. AU - Lebelt, D. AU - Zanella, AJ. N1 - 1023306. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - Cytokines are cell signalling proteins that mediate a number of different physiological responses. They are also biomarkers for inflammatory conditions and potential diagnostic references for diseases. Until recently, simultaneous quantification of cytokine profiles had not been possible. Now however, fluorescent microsphere immunoassays (FMIA) are able to measure multiple cytokines in a single sample. The following pro-inflammatory and anti inflammatory cytokines were quantified in equine plasma and serum samples: Interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, Interferon (IFN)-γ, Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α.. AB - Cytokines are cell signalling proteins that mediate a number of different physiological responses. They are also biomarkers ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Detection of antibodies to West Nile virus in equine sera using microsphere immunoassay. AU - Balasuriya, Udeni B R. AU - Shi, Pei-Yong. AU - Wong, Susan J.. AU - Demarest, Valerie L.. AU - Gardner, Ian A.. AU - Hullinger, Pamela J.. AU - Ferraro, Gregory L.. AU - Boone, Joshua D.. AU - De Cino, Casey L.. AU - Glaser, Amy L.. AU - Renshaw, Randall W.. AU - Ledizet, Michel. AU - Koski, Raymond A.. AU - MacLachlan, N. James. PY - 2006/7. Y1 - 2006/7. N2 - One hundred and ninety-one sera from horses that recently were exposed to West Nile virus (WNV) by either vaccination or natural infection or that were not vaccinated and remained free of infection were used to evaluate fluorescent microsphere immunoassays (MIAs) incorporating recombinant WNV envelope protein (rE) and recombinant nonstructural proteins (rNS1, rNS3, and rNS5) for detection of equine antibodies to WNV. The rE MIA had a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, respectively, of 99.3% and 97.4% for detection of WNV ...
Microfluidic technology has now become a novel sensing platform where different analytical steps, biological recognition materials and suitable transducers can be cleverly integrated yielding a new sensor generation. A novel
Various blood constituents can interfere with immunoassays, usually by binding the Fc portion of antibodies. Our previously developed assays for intact free prostate-specific antigen (PSA), free human kallikrein 2 (hK2), and total hK2 frequently yielded falsely high results despite including an excess of scavenger antibodies. We investigated whether this interference could be eliminated by replacing monoclonal capture or tracer antibodies with F(ab)2 or recombinant Fab fragments. Female heparin plasma samples (n = 1092), which should have negligible PSA and hK2, and male samples (n = 957) were analyzed to identify samples manifesting interference, which then were used to optimize protocols for the immunoassays. We compared original assays (monoclonal antibodies) versus optimized assays (F(ab)2 fragments: denatured mouse IgG added as scavenger) using another set of EDTA plasma (n = 113), heparin plasma (n = 160), and serum samples (n = 171). With the original assays, the frequency of falsely elevated
Recently, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported an accurate, sensitive, specific, reproducible, and quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA) in human serum (C. P. Quinn, V. A. Semenova, C. M. Elie et al., Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8:1103-1110, 2002). The ELISA had a minimum detectable con
Background Cryptococcus neoformans causes life-threatening meningitis. A recently introduced lateral flow immunoassay (LFA) to detect cryptococcal antigen (CRAG) is reportedly more rapid and convenient than standard latex agglutination (LA), but has not yet been evaluated in a diagnostic laboratory setting. Methods One hundred and six serum, 42 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and 20 urine samples from 92 patients with known or suspected cryptococcosis were tested by LA and LFA, and titres were compared. Results were correlated with laboratory-confirmed cryptococcosis. Serial samples were tested in nine treated patients. Results Twenty-five of 92 patients had confirmed cryptococcosis; all sera (n = 56) from these patients were positive by LFA (sensitivity 100%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 93.6-100%) compared with 51/56 positive by LA (sensitivity 91.1%, 95% CI 80.7-96.1%). Fifty sera from 67 patients without cryptococcosis tested negative in both assays. While LA yielded more false negative results (5/56
The unique cathodic electrochemiluminescence(ECL) emission of Ru(bpy)32+(bpy=2,2′-bipyridine) was observed via Nafion film at Au electrode[Au/Nafion/Ru(bpy)32+] at about 0.20 V(vs. Ag/AgCl) and applied to the determination of several amino acids without prior derivatization with high sensitivity. The cathodic electrochemiluminescence(ECL) exhibits the detection limits and linear ranges of several amino acids comparable to or better than those of capillary electrophoresis with conventional ECL detection method(at 1.10-1.20 V vs. Ag/AgCl) based on precolumn derivatization. The results suggest that the cathodic ECL is promising for the detection of amino acids in bioanalysis.. ...
Looking for heterophile antibody test? Find out information about heterophile antibody test. heterophile agglutination test Explanation of heterophile antibody test
Ink jet printed carbon nanotube forest arrays capable of detecting picomolar concentrations of immunoglobulin G (IgG) using electrochemiluminescence (ECL) are described. Patterned arrays of vertically aligned single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) forests were printed on indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. Capture anti-IgG antibodies were then coupled through peptide bond formation to acidic functional groups on the vertical nanotubes. IgG immunoassays were performed using silica nano particles (Si NP) functionalized with the ECL luminophore [Ru(bpy)2 PICH2]2+], and IgG labelled G1.5 acid terminated PAMAM dendrimers. PAMAM is poly(amido amine), bpy is 2,2′-bipyridyl and PICH2 is (2-(4-carboxyphenyl)imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline). The carboxyl terminal of [Ru(bpy)2 PICH2]2+ (fluorescence lifetime ≈682 ± 5 ns) dye was covalently coupled to amine groups on the 800 nm diameter silica spheres in order to produce significant ECL enhancement in the presence of sodium oxalate as co-reactant in PBS at pH

Mass spectrometric immunoassay - WikipediaMass spectrometric immunoassay - Wikipedia

Mass spectrometric immunoassay (MSIA) is a method that uses antibodies to analyze protein differences in biological samples.[1] ... 1995). "Mass Spectrometric Immunoassay". Analytical Chemistry. 67 (7): 1153-1158. doi:10.1021/ac00103a003. ISSN 0003-2700. PMID ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mass_spectrometric_immunoassay&oldid=758985804" ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mass_spectrometric_immunoassay

Immunoassay | Encyclopedia.comImmunoassay | Encyclopedia.com

Definition Immunoassays are chemical tests used to detect or quantify a specific substance, the analyte, in a blood or body ... Law, B. Immunoassay: A Practical Guide. London: Taylor and Francis, 1996.. Wild, D., ed. Immunoassay Handbook, 2nd Ed. London: ... Chemiluminescent immunoassay- An immunoassay in which the label is a molecule that emits light when excited by a chemical ... Enzyme immunoassay- An immunoassay using an enzyme as the label. The enzymatic reaction product is measured to determine the ...
more infohttps://www.encyclopedia.com/medicine/divisions-diagnostics-and-procedures/medicine/immunoassay

Immunoassay analyserImmunoassay analyser

Immunoassays are chemical tests used to detect or quantify a specific substance, the analyse, in a blood or body fluid sample, ...
more infohttp://www.skf.com/au/industry-solutions/medical-health-care/campaign-sites/lab-automation/applications/immunoassay-analyzer/index.html

Immunoassay analyserImmunoassay analyser

Immunoassays are chemical tests used to detect or quantify a specific substance, the analyse, in a blood or body fluid sample, ...
more infohttp://www.skf.com/sg/industry-solutions/medical-health-care/campaign-sites/lab-automation/applications/immunoassay-analyzer/index.html

Immunoassay - HORIBAImmunoassay - HORIBA

Using the advantages of both instrumental analysis and immunoassay, we support you to construct an advanced quality control ... SmartAssay test kits are complete immunoassays for analyzing pesticide residue, including all required reagents. These kits ...
more infohttp://www.horiba.com/us/en/analysis-based-on/immunochemistry/immunoassay/

BBiomedicina | Immunoassay | ElisaBBiomedicina | Immunoassay | Elisa

horseradish peroxidase and b-galatosidase.Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA) • In enzyme immunoassays (EIA). ... Immunoassays that require separation of the bound Ab-Ag* complex are referred to as being heterogeneous immunoassays. • ... Those that do not require separation are referred to as homogeneous immunoassays.Heterogeneous and Homogeneous Immunoassays ... Immunoassays use one or more select antibodies to detect analytes of interest. ...
more infohttps://www.scribd.com/presentation/246739772/BBiomedicina

Immulite Chemiluminescent Immunoassay SystemImmulite Chemiluminescent Immunoassay System

Worldwide, IMMULITE systems have been chosen for various types of immunoassay testing due to their flexible platforms and ... The IMMULITE chemiluminescent immunoassay system is designed for ease of use, reliability, high-performance assays and fully ... Access Immunoassay System. 8. Access 2 Immunoassay System. 9. ADVIA Centaur Immunoassay System. 10. AIA - 600 II Immunoassay ... Immulite 1000 Immunoassay System. 2. Immulite 2000 Advanced Immunoassay System. 3. Immulite 2500 SMS. 4. Immulite PAP. 5. ...
more infohttp://www.bio-medicine.org/medicine-products/Immulite-Chemiluminescent-Immunoassay-System-2921-1/

Osteocalcin by Electrochemiluminescent ImmunoassayOsteocalcin by Electrochemiluminescent Immunoassay

... ,ARUP Laboratories is a national reference laboratory and a worldwide leader ... Access Immunoassay System. 4. Access 2 Immunoassay System. 5. ADVIA Centaur Immunoassay System. 6. AIA - 600 II Immunoassay ... AIA - 360 Immunoassay Analyzer. 8. AIA - 1800 Immunoassay Analyzer. 9. Immulite Chemiluminescent Immunoassay System. 10. ...
more infohttp://www.bio-medicine.org/medicine-products/Osteocalcin-by-Electrochemiluminescent-Immunoassay-23995-1/

Immunoassay AnalysisImmunoassay Analysis

... accepted the use of immunoassay analysis for the site closure of fuel-contaminated soil. Immunoassay has been used as a ... When immunoassay is used as a screening tool, it will not pick up chemicals that are not suspected of being there. It is not ... Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) test kits are also available for RDX and TNT. It has also been used to screen a site for site closure ... The immunoassay analyses referred to here were conducted in the field to provide real-time data. However, the actual assay ...
more infohttp://www.cpeo.org/techtree/ttdescript/imuass.htm

Chromogenic Substrates for Enzyme Immunoassay | SpringerLinkChromogenic Substrates for Enzyme Immunoassay | SpringerLink

... described according to their kinetics and structure only a few have turned out to be marker enzymes in the enzyme immunoassay ( ... Porstmann B., Porstmann T. (1988) Chromogenic Substrates for Enzyme Immunoassay. In: Ngo T.T. (eds) Nonisotopic Immunoassay. ... 5-tetramethylbenzidine as an Ames test negative chromogen for horse-radish peroxidase in enzyme-immunoassay, J. of Immunoassay ... Cox, C., 1983, NAD labeled immunoassays, Trends in Anal. Chem., 2: 129-131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4684-5466-6_3

Immunoassay - Related Articles - CitizendiumImmunoassay - Related Articles - Citizendium

See also changes related to Immunoassay, or pages that link to Immunoassay or to this page or whose text contains "Immunoassay" ... Immunosorbent technique [r]: Sensitive immunoassay that uses an enzyme linked to an antibody or antigen as a marker for the ... Retrieved from "http://en.citizendium.org/wiki?title=Immunoassay/Related_Articles&oldid=100394252" ...
more infohttp://en.citizendium.org/wiki/Immunoassay/Related_Articles

Patent US5942407 - Light-emitting immunoassay - Google PatentsPatent US5942407 - Light-emitting immunoassay - Google Patents

Migratory detection immunoassay. US4978502 *. Dec 15, 1987. Dec 18, 1990. Dole Associates, Inc.. Immunoassay or diagnostic ... Three Layered Dry Phase Immunoassay Device. A light emitting immunoassay device in accordance with the present invention was ... The immunoassay devices are preferably held or positioned by use of a holding assembly such as a test strip holder known in the ... Multi-spot enzyme immunoassay method. US4818677 *. Dec 3, 1987. Apr 4, 1989. Monoclonal Antibodies, Inc.. Membrane assay using ...
more infohttp://www.google.com/patents/US5942407?dq=6,921,985

Patent US4495151 - Element for immunoassay - Google PatentsPatent US4495151 - Element for immunoassay - Google Patents

A thin layer of constant thickness of a liquid specimen for immunoassay is thus receivable between the complementary surfaces. ... Apparatus for performing an immunoassay, comprises in combination a reaction tube closed at its bottom, and in the reaction ... A further object of the present invention is to provide an element for immunoassay which can perform immunoassay with a small ... Solid phase immunoassay with carriers matching the shape of sample wells. US6207463. 20 Oct 1995. 27 Mar 2001. Labsystems Oy. ...
more infohttp://www.google.ca/patents/US4495151

fluorescence polarization immunoassayfluorescence polarization immunoassay

b>Fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPA) is a homogeneous immunoassay useful for rapid and accurate detection of antibody ... We developed a fluorescence polarization immunoassay for ZEN in maize.... *. Fluorescence polarization immunoassay: can it ... b>Fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) is a homogeneous (without separation) competitive immunoassay method based on ... We performed three types of assays (fluorescence polarization immunoassay [FPIA], microparticle enzyme immunoassay [MEIA], and ...
more infohttps://www.labome.org/topics/diagnostic/diagnosis/laboratory/immunologic/fluorescent/fluoroimmunoassay/fluorescence-polarization-immunoassay-16536.html

Designing a Multiplex Immunoassay: Factors to ConsiderDesigning a Multiplex Immunoassay: Factors to Consider

Some of the major factors to consider when designing a highly parallel multiplex immunoassay are variability, sample collection ... Variability between immunoassay kits. Multiplex immunoassay kits, even from the same manufacturer, may not give identical ... Multiplex immunoassays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) are used to determine and analyze the presence of an ... Multiplex immunoassays can be differentiated by the surface to which the antigens or antibodies are attached. These surfaces ...
more infohttps://www.news-medical.net/life-sciences/Designing-a-Multiplex-Immunoassay-Factors-to-Consider.aspx

182949: Occult Blood, Fecal, Immunoassay | LabCorp182949: Occult Blood, Fecal, Immunoassay | LabCorp

Detection of fecal occult blood by immunoassay eliminates the drawbacks seen with guaiac-based tests, and provides a ...
more infohttps://www.labcorp.com/test-menu/32161/occult-blood-fecal-immunoassay

INTERCHIM: ImmunoAssay KitsINTERCHIM: ImmunoAssay Kits

LIFE SCIENCES > Immunodetection Tools > ImmunoAssay Kits>LIFE SCIENCES > Immunodetection Tools > ImmunoAssay Kits. ... ImmunoAssay kits. If you dont rely on luck but on high-quality products to perform your challenges at work …. You will like ... our ImmunoAssay kits!. We offer a wide range of EIA /ELISA kits, over 10 000 kits for detection of Biological Markers, ...
more infohttp://www.interchim.com/pp.php?ref=390

Cytoxan antibodies and immunoassay - Saladax Biomedical Inc.Cytoxan antibodies and immunoassay - Saladax Biomedical Inc.

The immunoassay of claim 9, wherein the sample is taken from a human. 12. The immunoassay of claim 11, wherein the antibody is ... 2. The immunoassay of claim 1, wherein the sample is a human sample. 3. The immunoassay of claim 2, wherein the antibody is ... 4. The immunoassay of claim 3, wherein the antibody is attached to a solid support. 5. The immunoassay of claim 4, wherein the ... 8. The immunoassay of claim 7, wherein R7 is 2,4-dinitrophenyl. 9. The immunoassay of claim 3, wherein the protecting group is ...
more infohttp://www.freepatentsonline.com/7276347.html

Immunoassay | SpringerLinkImmunoassay | SpringerLink

Töpfer G. (2019) Immunoassay. In: Gressner A.M., Arndt T. (eds) Lexikon der Medizinischen Laboratoriumsdiagnostik. Springer ... Andreasson U, Perret-Liaudet A, van Waalwijk van Doorn LJC et al (2015) A practical guide to immunoassay method validation. ... Unter dem Begriff Immunoassay werden Bestimmungsmethoden zusammengefasst, die unter Einsatz von Antigen-Antikörper-Reaktionen ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-662-48986-4_1547

ELISA & Immunoassay Development | Charles RiverELISA & Immunoassay Development | Charles River

ELISA & Immunoassay Development. Charles River has extensive experience in the transfer, development, and validation of a wide- ... and we are experienced in working with clients on the generation and qualification of critical immunoassay reagents. In ...
more infohttps://www.criver.com/products-services/biologics-testing-solutions/protein-characterization/elisa-and-immunoassay-development

multiplex flow immunoassay ANA test - Lupusmultiplex flow immunoassay ANA test - Lupus

I think Multiplex Flow Immunoassay simply refers to the scientific method used in performing an ANA test. Several of the ...
more infohttps://www.healingwell.com/community/default.aspx?f=29&m=3050763

Automating and Miniaturizing ImmunoassaysAutomating and Miniaturizing Immunoassays

Switching to an automated immunoassay platform. Switching from an ELISA format to Gyrolab immunoassay technology should not ... Home Magazine BioPerspectives Automating and Miniaturizing Immunoassays: Continuing the Progress to Maximum Productivity ... Transferring immunoassays from traditional standard formats such as ELISA onto an automated platform like Gyrolab offers ... Miniaturizing immunoassays can deliver tremendous savings in sample volumes, animal use, and reagent consumption. Although ...
more infohttps://www.genengnews.com/magazine/automating-and-miniaturizing-immunoassays-continuing-the-progress-to-maximum-productivity-2/

Patent US4849338 - Simultaneous calibration heterogeneous immunoassay - Google PatentsPatent US4849338 - Simultaneous calibration heterogeneous immunoassay - Google Patents

Membrane-based immunoassay method. US5432057 *. 28 Aug 1992. 11 Jul 1995. Syva Company. Simultaneous calibration heterogeneous ... Simultaneous calibration heterogeneous immunoassay. US5354692 *. 8 Sep 1992. 11 Oct 1994. Pacific Biotech, Inc.. Analyte ... Simultaneous calibration heterogeneous immunoassay. US5308775 *. 15 Sep 1992. 3 May 1994. Abbott Laboratories. Assay devices ... Simultaneous calibration heterogeneous immunoassay. US4540659 *. 16 Jul 1982. 10 Sep 1985. Syva Company. Simultaneous ...
more infohttp://www.google.ca/patents/US4849338

Patent US4177253 - Magnetic particles for immunoassay - Google PatentsPatent US4177253 - Magnetic particles for immunoassay - Google Patents

Immunoassay using magnetic particle. EP0420186A3 *. Sep 26, 1990. Jul 31, 1991. Fujirebio Inc.. Immunoassay using magnetic ... Metal sol particle immunoassay. US4342739 *. Jan 8, 1980. Aug 3, 1982. Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd.. Novel material for ... Laser magnetic immunoassay method and method by a magnetophoresis apparatus therefor. US5238811 *. Apr 27, 1992. Aug 24, 1993. ... A method of immunoassay comprising the steps of reacting an antigen with an antibody, one of which is the biologically active ...
more infohttp://www.google.com/patents/US4177253?dq=%22Meaning-based+advertising+and+document+relevance+determination%22

Calibrator for NT-proBNP immunoassay - ALVI AZHARCalibrator for NT-proBNP immunoassay - ALVI AZHAR

... method to efficiently express high levels of a recombinant untagged NT-proBNP for use as a calibrator in NT-proBNP immunoassays ... In such immunoassays, the purified analyte is also the calibration material. (see The Immunoassay Handbook, edited by David ... protein is capable of functioning as a calibrator in immunoassays specific for NT-proBNP such as those immunoassays disclosed ... 3. The purified NT-BNP of claim 2 capable of functioning as a calibrator in an immunoassay specific for NT-BNP. 4. A series of ...
more infohttp://www.freepatentsonline.com/y2004/0152128.html
  • SmartAssay test kits are complete immunoassays for analyzing pesticide residue, including all required reagents. (horiba.com)
  • Novel conjugates of protected aldehyde active metabolites of cyclophosphamide including reagents and immunogens thereof and monoclonal antibodies generated by these immunogens, said reagents and immunogens useful in immunoassays for the monitoring of the active metabolites of cyclophosphamide in patients being treated with cyclophosphamide. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Among the various products and services available, the reagents and kits segment accounted for the largest share of the immunoassay market in 2014. (pitchengine.com)
  • This segment is also expected to grow at the highest CAGR during the forecast period, owing to the increase in immunoassay tests conducted due to rising aging population, rising number of chronic diseases, increased variety of reagents and the analytical techniques employed, trends like the high-growth at-home testing market, and accessibility to a wide range of reagents. (pitchengine.com)
  • In Vitro Diagnostic (IVD) Market [Instruments, Reagents & Data Management Systems] [Technique (Immunoassay, Clinical Chemistry, Molecular Diagnostics, Haematology) & Applications (Diabetes, Infectious Diseases, Cancer & Cardiology)] Systems, End Users] - Forecast To 2017. (pitchengine.com)
  • Some immunoassays can be carried out simply by mixing the reagents and sample and making a physical measurement. (wikipedia.org)
  • Radioactive isotopes can be incorporated into immunoassay reagents to produce a radioimmunoassay (RIA). (wikipedia.org)
  • The simplest immunoassay method measures the quantity of precipitate, which forms after the reagent antibody (precipitin) has incubated with the sample and reacted with its respective antigen to form an insoluble aggregate. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Miniaturizing immunoassays can deliver tremendous savings in sample volumes, animal use, and reagent consumption. (genengnews.com)
  • Key players in the immunoassay market include are Roche Diagnostics (Switzerland), Siemens Healthcare (Germany), Abbott Laboratories (U.S.), Beckman Coulter (U.S.), Ortho Clinical Diagnostics (U.S.), and bioMérieux (France). (pitchengine.com)
  • Immunoassay is the method of choice for measuring analytes normally present at very low concentrations that cannot be determined accurately by other less expensive tests. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Analytes in biological liquids such as serum or urine are frequently measured using immunoassays for medical and research purposes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This technology,makes magnetic immunoassay possible in a variety of formats such as: conventional lateral flow test by replacing gold labels with magnetic labels, vertical flow tests allowing for the interrogation of rare analytes (such as bacteria) in large-volume samples microfluidic applications and biochip It was also described for in vivo applications and for multiparametric testing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apparatus for performing an immunoassay, comprises in combination a reaction tube closed at its bottom, and in the reaction tube a molded element having on its surface material having specific binding ability for a component in a liquid specimen to be assayed. (google.ca)
  • 22. A method of immunoassay comprising the steps of reacting an antigen with an antibody, one of which is the biologically active component of a composite magnetic particle as claimed in claim 1 separating the composite magnetic particles and the reaction mixture and assaying the recovered composite magnetic particles or reaction mixture. (google.com)
  • Out of a variety of enzymes which have been described according to their kinetics and structure only a few have turned out to be marker enzymes in the enzyme immunoassay (EIA). (springer.com)
  • Possibly one of the most popular labels to use in immunoassays is enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, immunoassays are used to detect antigens on Hemophilus, Cryptococcus , and Streptococcus organisms in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of meningitis patients. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The invention provides a method to efficiently express high levels of a recombinant untagged NT-proBNP for use as a calibrator in NT-proBNP immunoassays. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 3. The purified NT-BNP of claim 2 capable of functioning as a calibrator in an immunoassay specific for NT-BNP. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 4. A series of NT-BNP calibrator concentrations capable of functioning as standards in an immunoassay specific for NT-BNP prepared according to the method of claim 1. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The instant application discloses a protein calibrator for use in the NT-proBNP immunoassays disclosed in application Ser. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • This invention relates to the expression and purification of proteins, more particularly to the expression and purification of a protein calibrator used for standardization of an immunoassay, and most particularly to the expression and purification of NT-BNP used to calibrate standards in an immunoassay which measures the concentration of NT-proBNP in bodily fluids. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The use of a calibrator is often employed in immunoassays. (wikipedia.org)
  • In San Francisco and across the San Francisco Bay at Alameda Naval Air Station, the U.S. EPA has also tested the immunoassay method for specific compounds in its Environmental Technology Verification program. (cpeo.org)
  • Andreasson U, Perret-Liaudet A, van Waalwijk van Doorn LJC et al (2015) A practical guide to immunoassay method validation. (springer.com)
  • This report analyzes the worldwide markets for Immunoassay Systems in US$ Million by the following product segments - Enzyme Immunoassay Systems, Fluorescence Immunoassay Systems, Chemiluminescence Immunoassay Systems, Radio Immunoassay Systems, and Nephelometric Immunoassay Systems. (mdtmag.com)
  • This type of immunoassay is now used in around 100 million clinical tests every year worldwide, enabling clinicians to measure a wide range of proteins, pathogens and other molecules in blood samples. (wikipedia.org)
  • This invention relates to an element for immunoassay. (google.ca)
  • An immunoassay is a biochemical test that measures the presence or concentration of a macromolecule or a small molecule in a solution through the use of an antibody (usually) or an antigen (sometimes). (wikipedia.org)
  • Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) test kits are also available for RDX and TNT. (cpeo.org)
  • The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Nashville District used immunoassay kits at Campbell Army Air Field, located at Ft. Campbell, Kentucky, to determine the extent of PCB contamination at various sites around the facility. (cpeo.org)
  • You will like our ImmunoAssay kits! (interchim.com)
  • By 2012, the commercial immunoassay industry earned US$17,000,000,000 and was thought to have prospects of slow annual growth in the 2 to 3 percent range. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using the advantages of both instrumental analysis and immunoassay, we support you to construct an advanced quality control system. (horiba.com)
  • RIAs were some of the earliest immunoassays developed, but have fallen out of favor largely due to the difficulty and potential dangers presented by working with radioactivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • At GenScript, most projects of this kind take only 7-9 months from immunogen preparation and animal immunization to antibody production and immunoassay development. (genscript.com)
  • Our immunoassay development service package spans from immunogen preparation and antibody production and characterization to immunoassay development and validation. (genscript.com)
  • Our immunoassay development services are project-based and designed for drug discovery. (genscript.com)
  • Rosalyn Sussman Yalow and Solomon Berson are credited with the development of the first immunoassays in the 1950s. (wikipedia.org)