Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.
Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.
Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.
A disease caused by tetanospasmin, a powerful protein toxin produced by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI. Tetanus usually occurs after an acute injury, such as a puncture wound or laceration. Generalized tetanus, the most common form, is characterized by tetanic muscular contractions and hyperreflexia. Localized tetanus presents itself as a mild condition with manifestations restricted to muscles near the wound. It may progress to the generalized form.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.
A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.
A combined vaccine used to prevent MEASLES; MUMPS; and RUBELLA.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.
The formaldehyde-inactivated toxin of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It is generally used in mixtures with TETANUS TOXOID and PERTUSSIS VACCINE; (DTP); or with tetanus toxoid alone (DT for pediatric use and Td, which contains 5- to 10-fold less diphtheria toxoid, for other use). Diphtheria toxoid is used for the prevention of diphtheria; DIPHTHERIA ANTITOXIN is for treatment.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).
Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.
An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.
The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.
Resistance to a disease agent resulting from the production of specific antibodies by the host, either after exposure to the disease or after vaccination.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Administration of a vaccine to large populations in order to elicit IMMUNITY.
An antigen solution emulsified in mineral oil. The complete form is made up of killed, dried mycobacteria, usually M. tuberculosis, suspended in the oil phase. It is effective in stimulating cell-mediated immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and potentiates the production of certain IMMUNOGLOBULINS in some animals. The incomplete form does not contain mycobacteria.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by MUMPS VIRUS. Best known is the live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had mumps or been immunized with live mumps vaccine. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
A live attenuated virus vaccine of duck embryo or human diploid cell tissue culture origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of nonpregnant adolescent and adult females of childbearing age who are unimmunized and do not have serum antibodies to rubella. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.
Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.
A localized infection of mucous membranes or skin caused by toxigenic strains of CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE. It is characterized by the presence of a pseudomembrane at the site of infection. DIPHTHERIA TOXIN, produced by C. diphtheriae, can cause myocarditis, polyneuritis, and other systemic toxic effects.
An acute infectious disease of humans, particularly children, caused by any of three serotypes of human poliovirus (POLIOVIRUS). Usually the infection is limited to the gastrointestinal tract and nasopharynx, and is often asymptomatic. The central nervous system, primarily the spinal cord, may be affected, leading to rapidly progressive paralysis, coarse FASCICULATION and hyporeflexia. Motor neurons are primarily affected. Encephalitis may also occur. The virus replicates in the nervous system, and may cause significant neuronal loss, most notably in the spinal cord. A rare related condition, nonpoliovirus poliomyelitis, may result from infections with nonpoliovirus enteroviruses. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp764-5)
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Preparations of pathogenic organisms or their derivatives made nontoxic and intended for active immunologic prophylaxis. They include deactivated toxins. Anatoxin toxoids are distinct from anatoxins that are TROPANES found in CYANOBACTERIA.
Techniques where DNA is delivered directly into organelles at high speed using projectiles coated with nucleic acid, shot from a helium-powered gun (gene gun). One of these techniques involves immunization by DNA VACCINES, which delivers DNA-coated gold beads to the epidermis.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed protozoa administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious protozoan disease.
Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infections with STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.
Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.
Aluminum metal sulfate compounds used medically as astringents and for many industrial purposes. They are used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of ulcerative stomatitis, leukorrhea, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, metritis, and minor wounds.
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.
A live vaccine containing attenuated poliovirus, types I, II, and III, grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture, used for routine immunization of children against polio. This vaccine induces long-lasting intestinal and humoral immunity. Killed vaccine induces only humoral immunity. Oral poliovirus vaccine should not be administered to immunocompromised individuals or their household contacts. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
A respiratory infection caused by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS and characterized by paroxysmal coughing ending in a prolonged crowing intake of breath.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.
Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Vaccines used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS. They include inactivated (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, INACTIVATED) and oral vaccines (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, ORAL).
The insertion of drugs into the rectum, usually for confused or incompetent patients, like children, infants, and the very old or comatose.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.
Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
Contraceptive methods based on immunological processes and techniques, such as the use of CONTRACEPTIVE VACCINES.
Active immunization where vaccine is administered for therapeutic or preventive purposes. This can include administration of immunopotentiating agents such as BCG vaccine and Corynebacterium parvum as well as biological response modifiers such as interferons, interleukins, and colony-stimulating factors in order to directly stimulate the immune system.
Combined vaccines consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and an acellular form of PERTUSSIS VACCINE. At least five different purified antigens of B. pertussis have been used in various combinations in these vaccines.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.
An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
An acute infectious disease caused by the RUBELLA VIRUS. The virus enters the respiratory tract via airborne droplet and spreads to the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.
The various ways of administering a drug or other chemical to a site in a patient or animal from where the chemical is absorbed into the blood and delivered to the target tissue.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Delivery of a drug or other substance into the body through the epithelium lining of MUCOUS MEMBRANE involved with absorption and secretion.
The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.
A species of PLASMODIUM causing malaria in rodents.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat ALZHEIMER DISEASE.
An acute infectious disease caused by RUBULAVIRUS, spread by direct contact, airborne droplet nuclei, fomites contaminated by infectious saliva, and perhaps urine, and usually seen in children under the age of 15, although adults may also be affected. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
An antitoxin used for the treatment of TETANUS.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.
The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
A live, attenuated varicella virus vaccine used for immunization against chickenpox. It is recommended for children between the ages of 12 months and 13 years.
Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.
Organized services to provide health care for children.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
Groups set up to advise governmental bodies, societies, or other institutions on policy. (Bioethics Thesaurus)
Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).
Suspensions of attenuated or killed fungi administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious fungal disease.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).
Vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER and/or PARATYPHOID FEVER which are caused by various species of SALMONELLA. Attenuated, subunit, and inactivated forms of the vaccines exist.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent conception.
Systems used to prompt or aid the memory. The systems can be computerized reminders, color coding, telephone calls, or devices such as letters and postcards.
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.
Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with ROTAVIRUS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent SAIDS; (SIMIAN ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME); and containing inactivated SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS or type D retroviruses or some of their component antigens.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
A type of H. influenzae isolated most frequently from biotype I. Prior to vaccine availability, it was a leading cause of childhood meningitis.
A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.
A compound with many biomedical applications: as a gastric antacid, an antiperspirant, in dentifrices, as an emulsifier, as an adjuvant in bacterins and vaccines, in water purification, etc.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
A formulation for presenting an antigen to induce specific immunologic responses. It consists of an assembly of antigens in multimeric form. The assembly is attached to a matrix with a built-in adjuvant, saponin. ISCOMs induce strong serum antibody responses, and are used as highly immunogenic forms of subunit vaccines.
A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The product of meiotic division of zygotes in parasitic protozoa comprising haploid cells. These infective cells invade the host and undergo asexual reproduction producing MEROZOITES (or other forms) and ultimately gametocytes.
Serum globulins that migrate to the gamma region (most positively charged) upon ELECTROPHORESIS. At one time, gamma-globulins came to be used as a synonym for immunoglobulins since most immunoglobulins are gamma globulins and conversely most gamma globulins are immunoglobulins. But since some immunoglobulins exhibit an alpha or beta electrophoretic mobility, that usage is in decline.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Human vaccines are intended to reduce the incidence of UTERINE CERVICAL NEOPLASMS, so they are sometimes considered a type of CANCER VACCINES. They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS.
A combined vaccine used to prevent infection with diphtheria and tetanus toxoid. This is used in place of DTP vaccine (DIPHTHERIA-TETANUS-PERTUSSIS VACCINE) when PERTUSSIS VACCINE is contraindicated.
Infections with bacteria of the genus HAEMOPHILUS.

Amplification of the antibody response by C3b complexed to antigen through an ester link. (1/1592)

Complement C3 has been described as playing an important role in the cell-mediated immune response. C3b has the capacity to covalently bind Ag and then to stimulate in vitro Ag presentation to T lymphocytes. To verify this observation in vivo, we prepared and purified covalent human C3b-Ag complexes using lysozyme (HEL) as Ag. The characterization of these HEL-C3b complexes indicates that they are representative of those susceptible to be generated in physiological conditions. Mice were immunized with 0.1 to 0.6 microgram of either free HEL, HEL + C3b, HEL-C3b, or HEL + CFA. Response was assessed after two i.p. injections by quantification of specific Ab production. Immunization with either HEL-C3b complexes or HEL + CFA leads to anti-HEL IgG production whereas free HEL or HEL + C3b was ineffective. Either HEL-C3b or HEL + CFA immunizations led to a similar Ig subclass patterns, including IgG1, IgG2a, IgA, and IgM. Our experiments provide the first evidence for modulation of specific Ab response by C3b when it is bound to Ag through a physiological-like link. Taken together with previous data concerning Ab response following recombinant HEL-C3d immunization, cellular events such as processing of C3b-Ag by APC and recognition by T lymphocytes, this present result underlines the importance of C3b and its fragments in stimulation of the immune system, through the multiplicity and complementarity of its interactions.  (+info)

Immunity to Brucella in mice vaccinated with a fraction (F8) or a killed vaccine (H38) with or without adjuvant. Level and duration of immunity in relation to dose of vaccine, recall injection and age of mice. (2/1592)

Immunity to Brucella in the mouse, assessed by bacterial spleen counts 15 days after intraperitoneal inoculation of a standard challenge of B. abortus 544, has been studied with two vaccines, one experimental, composed of a fraction of the bacterial cell-wall (F8) extracted from B. abortus 99, the other of killed whole bacteria, B. melitensis 53 H38, taken as reference (H38). The level of primary immunity depended on the dose of vaccine, the presence of oil adjuvant and the age of the mouse. The presence of adjuvant enabled the immunization to F8 to continue beyond the first month, to reach its maximum around the fourth month, and to remain stable for at least 7 months. A booster injection 3 or 6 months after the primary vaccination reinforced existing immunity but did not increase it beyond a certain level. The effect of the recall injection was clearly demonstrated with low doses which gave a lower level of primary immunity.  (+info)

Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine primes for polysaccharide-inducible IgG2 antibody response in children with recurrent otitis media acuta. (3/1592)

Children with frequent recurrent episodes of otitis media may have a deficient IgG2 antibody response to polysaccharide antigens. Five otitis-prone children were vaccinated with heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. While all had an IgG1 antibody response to all pneumococcal serotypes included in the conjugate vaccine, the IgG2 response, especially to serotypes 6B, 9V, 19F, and 23F, was poor. However, vaccination with a 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine 6 months after conjugate vaccination induced an 11.5- to 163-fold increase in IgG2 anti-polysaccharide antibody titers. Thus, an IgG2 polysaccharide antibody deficiency can be overcome by priming with a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine followed by a booster with a polyvalent polysaccharide vaccine.  (+info)

Activation of CD4 T cells by somatic transgenesis induces generalized immunity of uncommitted T cells and immunologic memory. (4/1592)

Cellular immune responses were analyzed in vivo after a single intraspleen inoculation of DNA coding for a 12-residue Th cell determinant associated with a 12-residue B cell epitope, a process termed somatic transgene immunization. We show that CD4 T cells are readily activated and produce IL-2, IFN-gamma and IL-4, characteristics of an uncommitted phenotype. Linked recognition of the two epitopes coded in the same transgene promoted IgM-IgG1 switch and enhanced the total Ab response but had no effect on IgG2a Abs. Although originating in the spleen, T cell responsiveness was found to spread immediately and with similar characteristics to all lymph nodes in the body. A single inoculation was also effective in establishing long term immunologic memory as determined by limiting dilution analysis, with memory T cells displaying a cytokine profile different from that of primary effector T cells. These studies provide evidence that by initiating immunity directly in secondary lymphoid organs, an immune response is generated with characteristics that differ from those using vaccines of conventional DNA or protein in adjuvant administered in peripheral sites. Somatic transgene immunization can therefore be used to probe T cell responsiveness in vivo and represents a tool to further understanding of the nature of the adaptive immune response.  (+info)

Induction of mucosal immunity by inactivated poliovirus vaccine is dependent on previous mucosal contact with live virus. (5/1592)

The inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) is used for protection against poliomyelitis in The Netherlands. It is not clear, however, whether IPV vaccination can lead to priming of the mucosal immune system and the induction of IgA. It has been demonstrated that IPV vaccination is able to induce strong memory IgA responses in the serum of persons who have been naturally exposed to wild-type poliovirus. This has led to the hypothesis that IPV vaccination is able to induce poliovirus-specific IgA at mucosal sites in persons who have been previously primed with live poliovirus at mucosal sites. To test this hypothesis, the kinetics of the IgA response in serum and saliva after IPV vaccination were examined in persons previously vaccinated with oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) or IPV. ELISA and enzyme-linked immunospot assays were used for the detection of poliovirus-specific IgA responses. In addition, B cell populations were separated on the basis of the expression of mucosal (alpha4beta7 integrin) and peripheral homing receptors (L-selectin). Parenteral IPV vaccination was able to boost systemic and mucosal IgA responses in previously OPV-vaccinated persons only. None of the previously vaccinated IPV recipients responded with the production of IgA in saliva. In agreement with this finding, a large percentage of the poliovirus-specific IgA-producing lymphocytes detected in previous OPV recipients expressed the alpha4beta7 integrin. It is concluded that IPV vaccination alone is insufficient to induce a mucosal IgA response against poliovirus. In mucosally (OPV-) primed individuals, however, booster vaccination with IPV leads to a strong mucosal IgA response.  (+info)

Reimmunization after blood or marrow stem cell transplantation. (6/1592)

Protective immunity to diseases preventable by routine vaccination is lost over time following allogeneic and autologous blood and marrow transplantation. Adoptive transfer of immunity from donors to recipients after allogeneic transplantation is not sufficient to prevent this decline. Systematic reimmunization is necessary at appropriate time intervals following transplantation to re-establish immunity. Response to vaccination depends upon the type of transplant, the source of cells, the immune status of the patient, and the vaccine being used. While inactivated or subunit vaccines are safe in all transplant recipients, live vaccines are generally contraindicated. Reimmunization practices vary widely amongst transplant centers. This comprehensive review summarizes published data on post-transplant vaccination, and based upon these, suggests guidelines which may be used as a framework for development of reimmunization protocols.  (+info)

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass distribution and IgG1 avidity of antibodies in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals after revaccination with tetanus toxoid. (7/1592)

In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals the amount of antibodies formed after vaccination with T-cell-dependent recall antigens such as tetanus toxoid is proportional to the peripheral blood CD4(+) T-lymphocyte counts. To investigate whether the immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass distribution and avidity of the antibodies produced after vaccination are affected as well, we gave 13 HIV-infected adults with low CD4(+) T-lymphocyte counts (<200 x 10(6)/liter; group I), 11 HIV-infected adults with intermediate CD4(+) T-lymphocyte counts (>/=200 x 10(6)/liter; group II), and 5 healthy controls booster immunizations with tetanus toxoid. The prevaccination antibody concentrations against tetanus toxoid were similar in the HIV-infected and healthy adults. After vaccination the total IgG and the IgG1 anti-tetanus toxoid antibody concentrations were significantly lower in group I than in group II and the controls. The avidity of the IgG1 anti-tetanus toxoid antibodies formed by HIV-infected adults was within the range for healthy controls, irrespective of their CD4(+) T-lymphocyte counts.  (+info)

Immunization with a peptide of Sm B/B' results in limited epitope spreading but not autoimmune disease. (8/1592)

An experimental model of systemic lupus erythematosus has recently been described in normal animals. We sought to confirm and extend this model, which involved immunization of normal rabbits and mice with a peptide of Sm B/B', PPPGMRPP. This peptide is an early target of the immune response in anti-Sm-positive patients with lupus. The peptide was used in a multiple Ag peptide format, with multiple copies of PPPGMRPP bound to an inert lysine backbone. New Zealand White rabbits and A/J and C57BL/10ScSn mouse strains were immunized with PPPGMRPP-MAP. Pepscan assays were used to determine the epitope spreading of the anti-PPPGMRPP-MAP response to other octamers of SmB/B' following immunization. We obtained high titer anti-PPPGMRPP-MAP IgG responses in the New Zealand White rabbits and A/J mice. The rabbits immunized with PPPGMRPP-MAP showed varying degrees of epitope spreading, while the A/J mice showed no spreading. We observed no autoantibodies to dsDNA or other anti-nuclear autoantibodies in our animals by ELISA or immunofluorescence, although anti-nuclear autoantibodies were found by Western blotting in some of the rabbits. No evidence of clinical disease was seen in our normal animals. These data underline the difficulties often associated with the reproduction of animal models in different laboratories.  (+info)

The primary purpose of this study is to assess the preventive vaccine efficacy (VE), safety and tolerability of a heterologous prime/boost regimen utilizing Ad26.Mos4.HIV and aluminum-phosphate adjuvanted Clade C gp140 for the prevention of Human Immuno Virus (HIV) infection in HIV-seronegative women residing in sub-Saharan Africa from confirmed HIV-1 infections diagnosed between the Month 7 and Month 24 visits ...
In an effort to make affordable vaccines suitable for the regions most affected by HIV-1, we have constructed stable vaccines that express an HIV-1 subtype C mosaic Gag immunogen (BCG-GagM, MVA-GagM and DNA-GagM). Mosaic immunogens have been designed to address the tremendous diversity of this virus. Here we have shown that GagM buds from cells infected and transfected with MVA-GagM and DNA-GagM respectively and forms virus-like particles. Previously we showed that a BCG-GagM prime MVA-GagM boost generated strong cellular immune responses in mice. In this study immune responses to the DNA-GagM and MVA-GagM vaccines were evaluated in homologous and heterologous prime-boost vaccinations. The DNA homologous prime boost vaccination elicited predominantly CD8+ T cells while the homologous MVA vaccination induced predominantly CD4+ T cells. A heterologous DNA-GagM prime MVA-GagM boost induced strong, more balanced Gag CD8+ and CD4+ T cell responses and that were predominantly of an effector memory ...
Heterologous priming-boosting vaccination regimens involving priming with plasmid DNA antigen constructs and inoculating (boosting) with the same recombinant antigen expressed in replication-attenuated poxviruses have recently been demonstrated to induce immunity, based on CD4(+)- and CD8(+)-T-cell responses, against several diseases in both rodents and primates. We show that similar priming-boosting vaccination strategies using the 85A antigen of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are effective in inducing antigen-specific gamma interferon-secreting CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, detected by a bovine enzyme-linked immunospot assay, in Bos indicus cattle. T-cell responses induced by priming with either plasmid DNA or fowlpox virus 85A constructs were enhanced by boosting with modified vaccinia virus Ankara expressing the same antigen administered intradermally. On the basis of the data, it appears that intradermal priming was more effective than intramuscular delivery of the priming dose for boosting with ...
As countries around the world continue to fight the coronavirus pandemic, the World Health Organization (W.H.O.) is calling for a moratorium on vaccine boosters. W.H.O. director general Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus announced this morning at a news…
Wijesundara, D & RANASINGHE, C 2012, Prime boost regimens for enhancing immunity: magnitude, quality of mucosal and systemic gene vaccines, in J Thalhamer, R Weiss, S Scheiblhofer (ed.), Gene Vaccines, Landes Bioscience/Springer Science+Business Media, New York, pp. 183-204. ...
It is a Phase I, multicenter primary/booster therapeutic vaccination study to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of ChAdV63.HIVcons and MVA.HIVconsv HIV-1 vaccines, delivered intramuscularly according to a 0-8 weeks or a 0-24 weeks schedule to recently HIV-1 infected individuals with early viral suppression 6 months after initiation of Tenofovir/Emtricitabine plus Raltegravir.. 24 patients who meet all eligibility criteria will be enrolled, first 10 individuals will be assigned in the 0-24 week prime/boost regimen (ARM A). The next 10 volunteers will be assigned in the 0-8 week prime/boost regimen (ARM B).Four additional volunteers will be included as back-up and assigned 2 in ARM A and 2 in ARM B to cover a possible 10% of patients who drop-off during the follow-up. Purpose of staging of 2 study arms is just to shorten overall study duration (from screening of first volunteer to 6 months after last immunisation of last volunteer).. Lastly, 24 patients who also meet all eligibility ...
Swadling L, Halliday J, Kelly C, Brown A, Capone S, Ansari MA, Bonsall D, Richardson R, Hartnell F, Collier J, Ammendola V, Del Sorbo M, Von Delft A, Traboni C, Hill AVS, Colloca S, Nicosia A, Cortese R, Klenerman P, Folgori A, Barnes E et al. 2016. Highly-Immunogenic Virally-Vectored T-cell Vaccines Cannot Overcome Subversion of the T-cell Response by HCV during Chronic Infection. Vaccines (Basel), 4 (3), pp. 27-27. , Show Abstract , Read more An effective therapeutic vaccine for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, as an adjunct to newly developed directly-acting antivirals (DAA), or for the prevention of reinfection, would significantly reduce the global burden of disease associated with chronic HCV infection. A recombinant chimpanzee adenoviral (ChAd3) vector and a modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA), encoding the non-structural proteins of HCV (NSmut), used in a heterologous prime/boost regimen induced multi-specific, high-magnitude, durable HCV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ ...
By Julie Steenhuysen. CHICAGO (Reuters) -U.S. officials preparing to roll out COVID-19 booster shots in the face of waning vaccine protection and surging hospitalizations and deaths caused by the highly contagious Delta variant are hoping boosters might prevent mild cases as well.. In theory, that could reduce virus transmission - a goal officials have been less explicit about - and hasten Americas recovery.. It is not the primary reason (for boosters), but it could actually be a very positive offshoot, Dr. Anthony Fauci, one of the Biden Administrations COVID-19 advisers and the nations top infectious disease doctor told Reuters.. The main reason for boosters, Fauci said in a telephone interview, is to reverse the trend of rising breakthrough infections among people who are fully vaccinated, a point that many experts dispute. Available data has shown that most severe breakthrough cases have occurred in people over 65 or among those who are immunocompromised. That latter group is already ...
Two of Modernas COVID-19 vaccine booster shots under study induced an immune response against SARS-CoV-2 and variants first identified in South Africa and Brazil, the company announced Wednesday. A variant-specific booster shot resulted in higher levels of neutralizing antibodies against the concerning South African variant with fewer side effects than a third shot of the original vaccine.. The early findings stem from a Phase 2 trial, administering 50 µg dose of mRNA-1273 or the variant-specific shot, mRNA-1273.351, given as a booster to previously vaccinated individuals. Another vaccine under study involves a 50-50 mix of the previously authorized vaccine and the variant-specific booster shot in a single vaccine.. As we seek to defeat the ongoing pandemic, we remain committed to being proactive as the virus evolves. We are encouraged by these new data, which reinforce our confidence that our booster strategy should be protective against these newly detected variants, said Stéphane ...
GENEVA (AP) - The head of the World Health Organization called Wednesday for a moratorium on administering booster shots of COVID-19 vaccines as a way to help ensure that doses are available in countries where few people have received their first shots. WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus made the appeal mostly to wealthier countries that have far outpaced the developing world in numbers of vaccinations. He said richer countries have administered about 100 doses of coronavirus vaccin
More than 40% of those fully vaccinated but hospitalized in breakthrough COVID cases have been labeled to be immunocompromised. Organizers with the Rochester group Lifespan believe a third booster shot for people in this group will be key protection.
RANASINGHE, C & Ramshaw, I 2009, Genetic heterologous prime-boost vaccination strategies for improved systemic and mucosal immunity, Expert Review of Vaccines, vol. 8, no. 9, pp. 1171-1181. ...
Dr. Anthony Fauci, the governments infectious disease expert, said Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine booster doses could obtain official regulatory approval, but Modernas booster could take longer
Synonyms for booster injection at with free online thesaurus, antonyms, and definitions. Dictionary and Word of the Day.
In response to questions posed in the first part of this article, veterinary vaccinologists have recommended new protocols for dogs and cats. These include: 1) giving the puppy or kitten vaccine series followed by a booster at one year of age; 2) administering further boosters in a combination vaccine every three years or as split components alternating every other year until; 3) the pet reaches geriatric age, at which time booster vaccination is likely to be unnecessary and may be unadvisable for those with aging or immunologic disorders. In the intervening years between booster vaccinations, and in the case of geriatric pets, circulating humoral immunity can be evaluated by measuring serum vaccine antibody titers as an indication of the presence of immune memory. This latter phrase is more correct that protective immunity, because protection against disease means survival after challenge with the infectious agent and may not correlate with the serum antibody titer. Titers do not ...
Wealthy nations shouldnt be giving COVID-19 vaccine booster shots to their citizens while poor nations struggle to get first doses of vaccines, the World Health Organization (WHO) said Wednesday.
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When it comes to vaccinating pets, there are many different views. Learn about core and non-core vaccines, vaccine boosters, and when and why you should vaccinate.
We have measured the energy spread of the Booster beam at its injection energy of 400 MeV by three different methods: (1) creating a notch of about 40 nsec wide in the beam immediately after multiple turn injection and measuring the slippage time required for high and low momentum particles for a grazing touch in line-charge distribution, (2) injecting partial turn beam and letting it to debunch, and (3) comparing the beam profile monitor data with predictions from MAD simulations for the 400 MeV injection beam line. The measurements are repeated under varieties of conditions of rf systems in the ring and in the beam transfer line. ...
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The Biden administration said Wednesday it is ready to begin offering booster COVID-19 shots on Sept. 20 to Americans who completed their vaccination course
While physician distrust and congressional criticism of the Clinton administrations Vaccines for Children program continue to dim prospects for a successful national immunization effort, providers are finding their own ways to protect the newest crop of toddlers. Soaring costs and lack of…
Three reports published Wednesday support the argument that people may need a booster dose of Pfizers Covid-19 vaccine over time, and suggest such boosters would be safe.. ...
LONDON (AP) - The U.K. said Tuesday it will offer a third dose of COVID-19 vaccine to everyone over age 50 and other vulnerable people after an an expert panel said the boosters were needed to protect against waning immunity this winter.. Health Secretary Sajid Javid told lawmakers that the government had accepted the recommendation of the Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunization and would start offering booster shots next week. The World Health Organization has asked wealthy nations to delay booster shots until every country has vaccinated at least 40% of their populations.. The JCVI is advising that a booster dose be offered to the more vulnerable, to maximize individual protection ahead of an unpredictable winter, Professor Wei Shen Lim, the panels chair, said during a media briefing. Most of these people will also be eligible for the annual flu vaccine and we strongly advise them to take up this offer as well.. The JCVI said booster shots were needed to ensure vulnerable people ...
This phase IB follow-up study to assess the long-term safety, immunological and clinical activity of continued AFFITOPE PD01A vaccinations in patients with
This trial investigated the long-term persistence of a booster dose of Hib-meningococcal group C vaccine conjugate [Menitorix; GlaxoSmithKline] versus
It comes days before the FDAs advisory committee will discuss booster shots. September 15, 2021, 2:15 PM • 6 min read Share to Facebook Share to Twitter Email…
Scientists have found that the third booster dose will not only be an effective way to protect people from the currently circulating lethal variants of the virus but also against the probable future variants.
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It is generally accepted that if one should complete a primary series of vaccines, he needs only get a booster at the recommended intervals.
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The standard dosage for Hiberix is one injection given between 15 months and four years of age. This eMedTV Web page offers more information on how dosing works for the booster vaccine and explains why it may not be needed in some children.
Buy GSM Network Booster LCD 1200 GD to get rid of interrupted calls! This booster is for large area up to 1200 m2 and it functions at 900+1800 Mhz (GSM).
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UK govt poised to announced large-scale COVID-19 booster campaign today, using Pfizer and BioNTech shot, despite calls to funnel supplies to other parts of the world in need
This feature is powered by text-to-speech technology. Want to see it on more articles? Give your feedback below or email [email protected] All signs are pointing to COVID-19 booster shots for …
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Moderna Announces Positive Initial Booster Data Against SARS-CoV-2 Variants of Concern - read this article along with other careers information, tips and advice on BioSpace
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The institution reported a second-quarter nonaccomplishment of $352.3 million, oregon $4.75 a share, compared with a nonaccomplishment of $17.5 million, oregon 30 cents a share, successful the year-ago period. Revenue soared to $298 cardinal from $35.5 cardinal successful the year-ago 4th due to the fact that of services performed for the U.S. authorities and nether Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations agreements. Analysts surveyed by FactSet, however, had forecast a nonaccomplishment of $3.63 a stock connected gross of $387.9 million. The institution besides announced its COVID-19 vaccine booster fixed astatine six months aft an archetypal two-dose regimen accrued virus-fighting antibodies by 4 times, and by six times for those that fought the delta variant, according to results from a caller study. Novavax said it filed with regulators successful India, Indonesia, and the Philippines to person an exigency usage support for its NVX-CoV2373 vaccine.. We presumption these submissions ...
The American Academy of Pediatrics now recommends that 16-year-olds receive a booster dose of the meningococcal conjugate vaccine.
We now use modern vaccinations that require fewer injections. For kittens there is an initial vaccination at 8-9 weeks of age and then a single booster at 12 weeks of age. There is no need for a third kitten vaccination like in the old regime. For older cats, or cats with unknown vaccination status, we give an initial vaccination and then a booster 4 weeks later.. The big difference for annual boosters with our vaccination regime is that the Parvovirus component only needs to be given every 3 years. We firmly believe fewer vaccinations are healthier and safer for your cat. After starting vaccinations with us, your cat just needs a booster for cat flu (called an F2 vaccination) for the next two years. The Parvovirus vaccination is then only given every third year as an F3 vaccination.. Unlike the old regime we can reduce the number of vaccinations your kitten needs initially, and also for the rest of its life. This newer vaccination allows your kitten to be fully vaccinated earlier and have good ...
Encouraging efficacy data have been obtained in the hepatitis C virus (HCV) chimpanzee model using prophylactic vaccines comprising adjuvanted recombinant envelope gpE1/gpE2 glycoproteins or prime/boost immunization regimens using defective adenoviruses and plasmid DNA expressing non-structural genes. While usually not resulting in sterilizing immunity after experimental challenge, the progression to chronic, persistent infection (which is responsible for HCV-associated pathogenicity in human) is inhibited. These and other vaccine candidates are in clinical development for both prophylactic as well as possible therapeutic applications. Given that other vaccines tested in the chimpanzee model may be possibly increasing the rate of chronicity, it is very important that this model continues to be available and used prior to initiation of clinical development. Several vaccine monotherapy trials in chronically infected HCV patients are resulting in small declines in viral load, suggesting that in ...
Encouraging efficacy data have been obtained in the hepatitis C virus (HCV) chimpanzee model using prophylactic vaccines comprising adjuvanted recombinant envelope gpE1/gpE2 glycoproteins or prime/boost immunization regimens using defective adenoviruses and plasmid DNA expressing non-structural genes. While usually not resulting in sterilizing immunity after experimental challenge, the progression to chronic, persistent infection (which is responsible for HCV-associated pathogenicity in human) is inhibited. These and other vaccine candidates are in clinical development for both prophylactic as well as possible therapeutic applications. Given that other vaccines tested in the chimpanzee model may be possibly increasing the rate of chronicity, it is very important that this model continues to be available and used prior to initiation of clinical development. Several vaccine monotherapy trials in chronically infected HCV patients are resulting in small declines in viral load, suggesting that in ...
A U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) advisory panel on Friday declined to endorse the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine booster shot for people ages 16 years and older at least six months following the second dose. The vote was 2-16. The vote will now go before the FDA to issue a final decision. During the deliberations, …. FDA panel rejects Pfizers COVID-19 vaccine booster in people 16 years and older Read More ». ...
This week more shame was heaped upon the discredited British researcher whose work gave rise to the childhood-vaccines-cause-autism movement, as a prominent medical journal published a report th...
Two chimpanzees were vaccinated intramuscularly against malaria using plasmid DNA expressing the pre-erythrocytic antigens thrombospondin related adhesion protein (PfTRAP) and liver stage specific antigen-1 (PfLSA-1) of Plasmodium falciparum together with GM-CSF protein. A recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) expressing PfTRAP was injected intramuscularly 6 weeks later to boost the immune response. This sequence of antigen delivery induced a specific and long-lasting T cell and antibody response to PfTRAP as detected by ELISPOT assay and ELISA. Antibody responses were detected after four DNA injections, and were boosted by injection of recombinant MVA expressing PfTRAP. Interferon-gamma secreting antigen-specific T cells were detected in both animals, but only after boosting with recombinant MVA. By screening a panel of PfTRAP-derived peptides, an epitope was identified that was recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes in one of the chimpanzees studied. T cells specific for this epitope were
Homologous prime-boost vaccination with OVA entrapped in self-adjuvanting archaeosomes induces high numbers of OVA-Specific CD8+ T cells that protect against subcutaneous B16-OVA melanoma
A vaccine that elicits broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) against HIV-1 is likely to be protective, but this has not been achieved. To explore immunization regimens that might elicit bNAbs, we produced and immunized mice expressing the predicted germline PGT121, a bNAb specific for the V3-loop and surrounding glycans on the HIV-1 spike. Priming with an epitope-modified immunogen designed to activate germline antibody-expressing B cells, followed by ELISA-guided boosting with a sequence of directional immunogens, native-like trimers with decreasing epitope modification, elicited heterologous tier-2-neutralizing responses. In contrast, repeated immunization with the priming immunogen did not. Antibody cloning confirmed elicitation of high levels of somatic mutation and tier-2-neutralizing antibodies resembling the authentic human bNAb. Our data establish that sequential immunization with specifically designed immunogens can induce high levels of somatic mutation and shepherd antibody ...
To the editor: In their paper Repeated Immunization: Possible Adverse Effects, White, Adler, and McGann (1) report on less than 10% of 700 male employees at Fort Derrick who since 1956 had received multiple immunizations; despite some interesting minor laboratory abnormalities in this group, the authors conclude that chronic stimulation of the immunoglobulin-stimulating system in the human seems to cause no adverse effects, unlike amyloid disease, myeloma, and hypersensitivity reported in laboratory animals. As in a similar study referred to, that is, the soldiers receiving influenza vaccine, the subjects studied were always or almost always men well above adolescent age. ...
A malaria vaccine is a public health priority. In order to produce an effective vaccine, a multi-stage approach targeting both the blood and the liver stage infection is desirable. The vaccine candidates also need to induce balanced immune responses including antibodies, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Protein-based subunit vaccines like RTS,S are able to induce strong antibody response but poor cellular reactivity. Adenoviral vectors have been effective inducing protective CD8+ T cell responses in several models including malaria; nonetheless this vaccine platform exhibits a limited induction of humoral immune responses. Two approaches have been used to improve the humoral immunogenicity of recombinant adenovirus vectors, the use of heterologous prime-boost regimens with recombinant proteins or the genetic modification of the hypervariable regions (HVR) of the capsid protein hexon to express B cell epitopes of interest. In this study, we describe the development of capsid modified Ad5 vectors that ...
This week we have significant news on the status of a third COVID-19 vaccine booster dose, as well as news for an encephalitis vaccine, another Jardiance indication, an FDA warning concerning patient wristbands, and Jemperli gets accelerated approval. ...
A Phase I study, called RV262, recently began to evaluate a combination DNA prime/MVA vector boost vaccine regimen that was developed to protect against diverse subtypes of HIV-1 prevalent in North America, Europe, Africa and South America.
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Following interim advice from the Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation (JCVI), millions of those most vulnerable to COVID-19 may be offered a booster vaccination from September to ensure the protection they have from first and second doses is maintained ahead of the winter and against new variants, JCVI advice will be published before September and will take into account the latest epidemiological situation, additional scientific data from trials such as Cov-Boost and real-time surveillance of the effectiveness of the vaccines over time and emerging variants. There is good evidence that two doses of any COVID-19 vaccine used in the UK will provide strong protection against severe disease for at least six months for the majority, and there is some evidence that longer lasting protection may be afforded to some. As is common with flu, winter will lead to rising cases and further pressure on the NHS. JCVIs interim position on booster vaccinations is to ensure the protection that has ...
UNICEF will commemorate World Immunisation Week and support routine immunisation outreach so babies from birth to 12 months receive all vital vaccines, by providing four vehicles to Vanuatus Ministry of
Vaccines are effective enough at preventing severe cases of Covid-19 that there is no current need for the general population to be given third doses, according to a report in The Lancet published Monday. ಕೊರೊನಾ ಸೋಂಕನ್ನು ತಡೆಗಟ್ಟಲು ಕೊರೊನಾ ಲಸಿಕೆ ಎರಡು ಡೋಸ್‌ಗಳು ಸಾಕು, ಮೂರನೇ ಡೋಸ್‌ನ ಅಗತ್ಯವಿಲ್ಲ ಎಂದು ಲ್ಯಾನ್ಸೆಟ್ ವರದಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಉಲ್ಲೇಖಿಸಲಾಗಿದೆ.
Effect of elapsed time between BCG priming and AdHu5Ag85A boost immunization on Ag-specific responses boosted by AdHu5Ag85A boost immunization.Infant and adult
Immunisation in Australia isnt compulsory - and doesnt need to be controversial. Most Australians recognise the incredible benefits that vaccination provides to prevent serious disease.
Improved sanitation, hygiene, and other living conditions have created a generally healthier environment and reduced the risks for disease exposure and infection in the United States. But the dramatic and long-term decrease of diseases is primarily a result of widespread immunizations throughout the U.S. population.. Even though some diseases, such as polio, rarely affect people in the U.S., all of the recommended childhood immunizations and booster vaccines are still needed. These diseases still exist in other countries. Travelers can unknowingly bring these diseases into the U.S. and infect people who have not been immunized. Without the protection from immunizations, these diseases could be imported and could quickly spread through the population, causing epidemics. Nonimmunized people living in healthy conditions are not protected from disease. Your bodys immune system can fight a disease better and faster if you have had the infection before or if you get immunized. ...
New PDC World Darts Champion, Gerwyn Price, expressed surprise at being asked to boost the rate of vaccinations in his native Wales. It was totally unexpected,
In one of the largest private sector donations of its kind, the Mastercard Foundation announced it will give $1.3 billion over the next three years to vaccinate 50 million people in Africa. Fewer than 2 percent of the people there have gotten a single dose of the COVID-19 vaccine, far lower than many wealthy countries. Ajay Banga, Mastercards executive chairman, joins Amna Nawaz to discuss.
The International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) is a global not-for-profit organization whose mission is to ensure the development of safe, effective, accessible, preventive HIV vaccines for use throughout the world.
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Janssen and Bavarian Nordic are to develop and commercialise a heterologous prime-boost vaccine for the treatment of HPV infection.
A method of distributing jump-start booster packs. The method includes furnishing a jump-start booster pack without an internal booster battery at an origin location and packaging the jump-start booster pack at the origin location. The jump-start booster pack is then shipped to a remote location.
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Every year, thousands of American children go through the tearful, teeth-gritting ordeal of getting their vaccinations, only to be forced to do it all over again. The vaccines were duds, ruined by poor refrigeration.
Ten researchers from the CDCs NCIRD released a paper arguing that because the immune-boosting effects of breastmilk, nursing mothers should delay breastfeeding their infants.
Ten researchers from the CDCs NCIRD released a paper arguing that because the immune-boosting effects of breastmilk, nursing mothers should delay breastfeeding their infants.
Jordan, B. B. (1999). Secondary immunization. New York: Berkley Prime Crime. ISBN 978-0425171189. OCLC 42654221. Jordan, B. B ... in Secondary Immunization (1999) she uncovers a conspiracy that uses the immune systems of patients to carry information for a ...
Immunization Rates, on which a country must have immunization coverage above 90% or the median, whichever is lower; Political ... ". "Girls' Secondary Education Enrollment Rate". "Primary Education Expenditures Indicator". "Natural Resource Protection". ... The remaining 4 indicators (Political Rights, Civil Liberties, Immunization Rates (if the median is above 90%, otherwise it is ... ". "Immunization Rates Indicator". "Health Expenditures Indicator". "Girls' Primary Education Completion Rate Indicator ...
"CUDO - B3 :: Secondary School Averages of Full-Time, First Year Students". Retrieved 18 August 2019. "Quality ... The school also received a $499,935 grant from the Public Health Agency of Canada's Immunization Partnership Fund to engage ... As of 2016, the secondary school average for first year, full-time students at the University of Waterloo was at 90.1 percent. ... "Ontario Secondary School Applicants presenting the Ontario High School Curriculum" (PDF). University of Waterloo. Archived from ...
Secondary measles vaccine failure in healthcare workers exposed to infected patients. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1993;14(2): ... Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recomm Rep 2005;54(RR-8):1-40. Weinstock DM, ... Vaccinia (smallpox) vaccine: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2001. MMWR Recomm Rep ... recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recomm Rep 1998;47(RR-8):157. Fleischauer AT, ...
Primary and secondary education were boosted greatly. He specially supported the polytechnic university. Ruiz equipped the ... Therefore, he fought malnutrition among children and promoted an immunization campaign. Ruiz Cortines turned his attention to ... but did his secondary educational studies at the Colegio de los Jesuitas, and at the age twelve, he attended the reputed ...
This effect is usually overcome by secondary responses to booster immunization. Maternal antibodies protect against some ... Passive immunization is used when there is a high risk of infection and insufficient time for the body to develop its own ... Passive immunization can be provided when people cannot synthesize antibodies, and when they have been exposed to a disease ... Immunization is often required shortly following birth to prevent diseases in newborns such as tuberculosis, hepatitis B, polio ...
Doja A, Roberts W (November 2006). "Immunizations and autism: a review of the literature". The Canadian Journal of Neurological ... 1 March 2014). "Addressing the Academic Needs of Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorder in Secondary Education". Remedial ... Baxter AJ, Krenzelok EP (December 2008). "Pediatric fatality secondary to EDTA chelation". Clinical Toxicology. 46 (10): 1083-4 ... help with transitions after secondary schooling, requiring extra qualifications for special education teachers, and creating a ...
Vaccinations within the immunization schedule are given for free at immunization services within the public sector. When given ... Therefore, most people have received their core vaccines by the time they finish secondary school. Mexico has a multi-year ... World Immunization Week Vaccination requirements for international travel "State Immunization Laws for Healthcare Workers and ... "Global Immunization Vision and Strategy". Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals. World Health Organization. 1 December 2013. ...
... has a school (Boggabilla Central School with preparatory, primary, and secondary grades) and a TAFE (a campus of ... The nurses at Boggabilla Health Centre provide services such as preschool screening and immunisation. ...
He worked on immunizations and antitoxins against diseases, including tetanus and diphtheria, and, later, chemical weapons. His ... In 1921 he and H. J. Südmersen discovered the primary and secondary immune response. In the same paper they also briefly ...
Levels of child immunisation were raised from 25% of the population to 92%. A new leadership elite were formed, who often ... In 1980, Zimbabwe had just 177 secondary schools, by 2000 this number had risen to 1,548. During that period, the adult ... He taught at Apowa Secondary School, also at Takoradi, after obtaining his local certification at Achimota College (1958-1960 ...
"NWT Immunization Schedule" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 October 2020. Retrieved 15 August 2020. "Immunization ... To ensure high uptake, the vaccine is administered to teenagers aged 12-13 in their first year of secondary school, with the ... Immunization as of 2017 is free for males and females aged 9 to 26 years. The public funding began on 1 September 2008. The ... "Immunization Schedule Newfoundland and Labrador" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 July 2020. Retrieved 15 August ...
The immunisation coverage is at 61% and still below the national target of 90%. HIV prevalence is at 3.5% below the national ... There are 1054 ECD centres 803 primary schools and 229 secondary schools. The county has also 1 teachers training colleges, 6 ...
Students spend five years in Primary, five years in Secondary, two years in Higher Secondary, and four to nine years in ... The district has 100% Expanded Program on Immunization coverage, 96% sanitation coverage, and 96% pure drinking water coverage ...
Routine immunizations against common childhood infections and annual influenza immunization can also help prevent any secondary ...
He supported a theory of immunization as depletion, in the subject, of a substance necessary for the infectious agent. This ... in which human patients were deliberately infected with syphilis in order to prove the infectious nature of secondary syphilis ...
The National Basic Health Insurance Law, introduced in 2014, provides access to a basic package of primary, secondary, and ... Primary care is focused on immunization, prevention of malnutrition, pregnancy, child birth, postnatal care, and treatment of ... Patients who receive specialized care or have complicated illnesses are referred to secondary (often located in district and ...
These secondary electrons also are accelerated, creating larger numbers of free electrons. The resulting exponential growth of ... A virus (for example COVID-19, or smallpox) typically will spread exponentially at first, if no artificial immunization is ...
... in this case the secondary lymph nodes. This is the reason why parenteral immunization with non-replicating antigens is ... The primary immunization program may be repeated, if reinfection or relapse occurs. Common side effects include pain, redness ... A number of studies have been published on the humoral responses to primary and booster immunization in serum and in the ... An at least threefold elevation of the agglutination titres following primary immunization was detected in the serum of 93.8% ...
... upon secondary contact to the same parasite. Social immunisation has been so far described in a dampwood termite-fungus system ... social immunisation'. Social immunisation occurs when some proportion of the group's members are exposed to a parasite, which ... In social animals, immunisation is not restricted to the level of the individual, but can also occur at the society level, via ... This method of immunisation parallels variolation, an early form of human vaccination, which used live pathogens to protect ...
The Gender sub-category includes seven indicators measuring Gender Equality, Gender Balance in Primary and Secondary Education ... The Health sub-category includes six indicators measuring Maternal Mortality, Child Mortality, Immunization (Measles & DPT), ... Progression to Secondary School, Tertiary Enrollment, and Literacy. ...
Secondary school pupils in England are "strongly advised" to wear face coverings in communal areas. On the eve of the ... But the Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation is reported to have concerns about the effect of the COVID vaccine on ... Nationally the rate has risen from one in 85 to one in 70, the rise having been driven by the secondary school increase. ... "Covid: Secondary school pupils in England advised to wear masks". BBC News. 28 November 2021. Retrieved 30 November 2021. " ...
Epstein-Barr virus is also known to induce dsDNA antibodies, as seen after immunisation of animals with EBNA-1 epitopes. Anti- ... Upon incubation with serum containing anti-dsDNA antibodies and fluorescent labelled secondary antibodies, homogeneous staining ... the antibodies will bind to the DNA and can then be visualised using enzyme-linked secondary antibodies. This assay can be ... the antibodies will bind and fluorescent labelled secondary antibodies will be used for detection. The beads are run through a ...
"The optimal age of measles immunisation in low-income countries: a secondary analysis of the assumptions underlying the current ... Immunization with OPV was also shown to lead to a faster healing of genital herpes lesions. Immunization with OPV was found to ... "Expanded programme on immunization (EPI). Safety of high titre measles vaccines". Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 67 (48): 357-61. 1992. ... National Immunization Campaigns with Oral Polio Vaccine Reduce All-Cause Mortality: A Natural Experiment within Seven ...
Examples of risk factors includes decreased immune system secondary to disease, compromised circulation secondary to peripheral ... Immunization is another common medical intervention for those who are at high risk for infection. Hand washing is the best way ... and their immunization history. They should also be assessed for objective signs such as the presence of wounds, fever, or ... vascular disease, compromised skin integrity secondary to surgery, or repeated contact with contagious agents. The patient ...
As a secondary result, the company was forced to conduct a reverse stock split in order to maintain Nasdaq minimum ... the vaccine was also in 2016 being tested against infant RSV infection through the route of maternal immunization. In 2019, ... to support the development of a vaccine against human respiratory syncytial virus for infants via maternal immunization. In May ...
St.Johns Girls secondary school is in Kaloleni. In 2009 construction of a new dormitory was completed with the support of the ... immunization and treatment of childhood diseases, and tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment. Kaloleni Junior academy in Kaloleni ...
This began with the immunization of all children in kindergartens and primary and secondary schools followed by the vaccination ... "Free influenza immunisation proprosed". 12 February 1969. p. 8. Retrieved 8 February 2022. "Govt unlikely to give mass flu ' ... "Immunization against infectious disease 1968". Stephen B. Thacker CDC Library Collection. 1968 - via CDC. "Morbidity and ... About 100,000 doses were designated for the mass immunization of schoolchildren. In Denmark, the influenza department at the ...
On the other hand, both public and private sectors work together in the provision of the secondary and tertiary lines of care. ... integrated management of childhood immunization (IMCI), management of common diseases and prescribing the essential medications ... Another notifiable weakness regarding PHC, is that unlike the secondary and tertiary services that are increasing in number, ... The health services provided in Sudan follow the classical three basic arrangements, primary, secondary, tertiary health care. ...
DNA immunization is also being investigated as a means of developing antivenom sera. DNA immunization can be used as a ... Transfected Langerhans cells migrate out of the skin (within 12 hours) to the draining lymph node where they prime secondary B ... immunization with recombinant protein and immunization with pDNA are summarised in Table 4. DNA-raised antibody responses rise ... DNA immunization can be used to bias the TH profile of the immune response and thus the antibody isotype, which is not possible ...
ImmunizationEdit. Historically, infectious disease has been the leading cause of death in the human population. Over the last ... are specialized in helping B cell humoral immunity as they are uniquely capable of migrating to follicular B cells in secondary ... The principle behind immunization is to introduce an antigen, derived from a disease-causing organism, that stimulates the ... century, two important factors have been developed to combat their spread: sanitation and immunization.[5] Immunization ( ...
Prevention of oligomerization of Aβ has been exemplified by active or passive Aβ immunization. In this process antibodies to Aβ ... has significant secondary and tertiary structure.[1] Replica exchange molecular dynamics studies suggested that amyloid beta ... show a collapsed coil structure devoid of significant secondary structure content.[68] However, the most recent (2012) NMR ...
At the time, the Victorian government did not maintain its own system of secondary schools. Children from families who could ... "Maternity Allowance 1912 to 1978, and 1996 to 2004, Maternity Immunisation Allowance from 1998, Maternity Payment from 2004" ... not afford private school fees could only receive a secondary education if they won a scholarship, usually after ranking highly ...
Holmes C, Boche D, Wilkinson D. Long-term Effects of Abeta42 Immunisation in Alzheimer's Disease: Follow-up of a Randomised, ... Hsu, David; Marshall, Gad A. Primary and Secondary Prevention Trials in Alzheimer Disease: Looking Back, Moving Forward. ...
Jurado RL, Campbell J, Martin PD (November 1993). "Prozone phenomenon in secondary syphilis. Has its time arrived?". Arch. ... unexpectedly decreased when immunization was used to induce a heightened antibody response.[10] In other words, getting the ...
Primary and secondary prevention trials in Alzheimer disease: looking back, moving forward. Current Alzheimer research. 2017;14 ... Long-term Effects of Abeta42 Immunisation in Alzheimer's Disease: Follow-up of a Randomised, Placebo-controlled Phase I Trial ...
Vaccine and Immunizations: TB Vaccine (BCG) [online]. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011 [cit. 2011-06-13]. ... Nicas, M., Nazaroff, W. W., Hubbard, A. Toward understanding the risk of secondary airborne infection: emission of respirable ... WHO/UNICEF Review of National Immunization Coverage 1980-2005: South Africa [online]. Světová zdravotnická organizace, 2006-08 ... Tuberculin reactivity after newborn BCG immunization in mono‐ and dizygotic twins. Tubercle and Lung Disease. 1994, roč. 75, ...
At the prenatal and neonatal stages of life, the presence of antibodies is provided by passive immunization from the mother. ... other foreign antigen exposure or passive immunization. These antibodies can activate the classical complement pathway leading ... "Immunization". Immunology - Chapter 14. University of South Carolina School of Medicine. Archived from the original on 18 ... Secondary antibodies. *Single-domain antibody. *Slope spectroscopy. *Synthetic antibody. *Western blot normalization ...
臨床結核病(clinical tuberculosis)中,一般感染後5年內發病者,為原發性結核病(primary tuberculosis),超過5年者為次發性結核病(secondary tuberculosis)[60]。原發性肺結核在肺部好發的部位 ... Vaccine and Immunizations: TB Vaccine (BCG). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2011 [2011-07-26]. (原始内容存档于2011-
Vaccine and Immunizations: TB Vaccine (BCG). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011). Iliwekwa mnamo 26 July 2011. ... Nicas M, Nazaroff WW, Hubbard A (2005). "Toward understanding the risk of secondary airborne infection: emission of respirable ...
He addressed the audience, saying that: This idea of anti-immunisation has killed children around the world, and actually will ... By November 2016, 4000 children in approximately 35 early childhood centres, Kōhanga Reo, primary, intermediate and secondary ... for courageous and highly visible contributions to the promotion of immunisation and vaccination in New Zealand. Communicator ... continue to kill children whose parents are put off immunisation because of misinformation - misinformation based on lies, ...
Immunisation services have been provided since the last century. Council libraries began in the district with the Bentleigh ... Rd into the Central Business District East Bentleigh Primary School Tucker Road Bentleigh Primary School Bentleigh Secondary ... Primary School Glen Eira College Caulfield South Primary School Caulfield Primary School Caulfield Park Community Secondary ... School Caulfield Junior College Glen Huntly Primary School Carnegie Primary School Ripponlea Primary School McKinnon Secondary ...
... have expanded modern family planning practices in many rural areas Health care programs that have supported child immunization ... practices and protect the environment Teacher training programs that have included 6,000 educators at the primary and secondary ...
... that requires children and adolescents under the age of 18 to receive certain vaccinations to attend primary and secondary ... "Immunization". Government of Ontario. 2018-07-04. Archived from the original on 2021-08-12. Retrieved 2021-11-02. "Immunization ... "Immunization of School Pupils Act, RSO 1990, c I.1". Canadian Partnership Against Cancer. Archived from the original on 2021-11 ... "Immunization Requirements for School". Windsor-Essex County Health Unit. Archived from the original on 2021-11-03. Retrieved ...
But it does have advantages over IPV in that it provides intestinal immunity and provides secondary spread of the vaccine to ... Childhood immunizations are key in preventing diseases with epidemic potential. As with all medications, vaccines are ... "Immunization Schedules". CDC. Retrieved 16 September 2014. "Possible Side effects from Vaccines". CDC. CDC. Retrieved 10 April ... Immunization Action Coalition. Retrieved 1 November 2020. "Transmission of Mumps". CDC. CDC. Retrieved 11 April 2014. "Signs & ...
President Johnson's Great Society initiatives focused on the country on the less fortunate, and the Elementary and Secondary ... and higher immunization rates. Neighborhood - Six programs reported lower violence rates and also safer streets in their ...
It is more often that hypogammaglobulinemia develops as a result of another condition, which are called secondary or acquired ... take precautionary measures when traveling to regions with endemic disease or poor sanitation such as receiving immunizations, ... Prevention of secondary immunodeficiency involves monitoring patients carefully with high risk of developing ... Hypogammaglobulinemia can be caused by either a primary or secondary immunodeficiency. Primary immunodeficiencies are caused by ...
National Centre for Immunisation Research and Surveillance. 16 (2): 119-126. doi:10.1016/j.prrv.2014.01.003. PMID 24630149. ... These preventive measures such as social-distancing and self-isolation prompted the widespread closure of primary, secondary, ... and post-secondary schools in more than 120 countries. As of 23 March 2020, more than 1.2 billion learners were out of school ... if secondary COVID-19 waves appear. In 1995, a cordon sanitaire was used to control an outbreak of Ebola virus disease in ...
After completing secondary school, Menten attended the University of Toronto where she earned a bachelor of arts degree in 1904 ... that were used in a successful immunisation program against scarlet fever in Pittsburgh in the 1930s - 1940s. She also ...
The ASHA brings children to immunisation sessions held by the ANM. The ASHA act as bridge between the ANM and the village. " ... after 10th class/higher secondary level). However, only a few states of India have made the ANM course a vocational course at ... Along with maternity care, the committee recommended that the ANM's work include child health (immunization) and primary ... immunisation for the control of communicable diseases, treatment of minor injuries, and first aid in emergencies and disasters ...
2] Peter Hobbins, '"Immunisation is as popular as a death adder": the Bundaberg tragedy and the politics of medical science in ... went on to complete his secondary education at Melbourne Church of England Grammar School, 1901-06. Following school he went to ... both vindicating the Commonwealth's diphtheria immunisation programme and drawing international attention to Kellaway's ...
Craig Kielburger Secondary School (9-12) E. C. Drury School for the Deaf (JK-12) Elsie MacGill Secondary School (9-12) ... Services for seniors Paramedic services Public health Immunizations and preventable diseases Food safety Police services Major ... Bishop Reding Catholic Secondary School (9-12) St. Francis Xavier Catholic Secondary School (9-12) Guardian Angels Catholic ... Freight trains on the main Montreal-Toronto-Chicago CP line and a secondary CN line are a common sight in Milton. The town at ...
Post-Secondary Education, Technology Access, Special Initiatives, and Family Homelessness, Early Childhood Learning, and ... the British-American Project and has previously been an active board member for Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization ( ...
If they had places of worship, they were secondary to the medical side of the hospital. Islamicate hospitals, along with ... The care of the sick and wounded had also been revolutionized by new medical technologies, such as active immunization against ...
From 2016, he was a member of the Parliamentary Team for the Safety of the Immunization Program for Children and Adults. In the ... An IT technician by education, in 2002 he graduated from the Post-Secondary Vocational College. He studied, among others law at ...
Sweet liquid by mouth moderately reduces the rate and duration of crying caused by immunization injection in children between ... and pain that is distinctly located also activates primary and secondary somatosensory cortex. Spinal cord fibers dedicated to ...
Today, the league does more than give women a voice in government; it is responsible for immunisation campaigns for babies and ... She spent about 30 years teaching at secondary schools including Hato Petera and Auckland Girls' Grammar. "Maori league bars ...
In addition, to ensure sustainability of immunization and efficient implementation of the National Immunization Plan, UNICEF ... UNICEF also promotes introduction of Life Skills-based education in upper grades of secondary schools with particular focus on ... 13 Immunization Rate - 90% Percentage of children under 6 months exclusively breastfed - 33 Percentage of households consuming ...
События, связанные с безопасностью вакцин, и то, как мы на них реагируем, могут повлиять на степень доверия общества к вакцинам и органам управления здравоохранения. Такие события могут быть, а могут и не быть связаны с ...
General Best Practice Guidelines for Immunization. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) ... Secondary. HIV/AIDS. OPV(b). Smallpox. BCG. LAIV. Ty21a. MMRV. DEN4-CYD Withhold MMR, and varicella in severely ... Advisory committee on immunization practices recommended immunization schedule for adults aged 19 years or older-United States ... Advisory committee on immunization practices recommended immunization schedules for persons aged 0 through 18 years-United ...
Immunization, Secondary [‎1]‎. Intersectoral Collaboration [‎4]‎. Occupational Health [‎4]‎. Organization and Administration [‎ ...
Rotz LD, Dotson DA, Damon IK, Becher JA; Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. Vaccinia (smallpox) vaccine: ... Secondary. 24/M. Feb 27. Military vaccinee. Wrestling. ≈Mar 1. Face, neck, chin, eye. None. No‡. ≈3. ... Secondary. 26/M. Feb 27. Military vaccinee. Wrestling. Mar 1. Face, neck, chest. None. No. ≈3. ... Secondary and Tertiary Transmission of Vaccinia Virus from US Military Service Member Gregory E. Young. , Christina M. Hidalgo ...
Antibiotics may prevent or alleviate secondary bacterial infection.. For patients of all ages azithromycin is the preferred ... Child/Adolescent Immunization Work Group. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices Recommended Immunization Schedule for ... Immunization. Prevention through immunization remains the best defense in the fight against pertussis. However, because nearly ... Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices Recommended Immunization Schedule for Adults Aged 19 Years or Older - United ...
Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis: Ask the Experts (Immunization Action Coalition) * DTaP Vaccine (Diphtheria, Tetanus, and ... Article: Acute adverse events following immunization with DTP-HB-Hib pentavalent vaccine in the... ...
Secondary individual 8,189 0. Primary family 46 1-9. Secondary family 63 A-2 Relationship to Reference Person 0 &. Reference ... Immunization, 1992. DSN: CC37.NHIS92.IMMUNIZE ABSTRACT 1992 NATIONAL HEALTH INTERVIEW SURVEY (NHIS) IMMUNIZATION PUBLIC USE ... CHILDHOOD IMMUNIZATION FILE 1992 Information on childhood immunizations was collected from adult respondents (often the mother ... Because the Immunization survey included only one child per NHIS family, the weight on this file is different from the weight ...
Bayside Secondary School. 1247 Old Highway 2. Belleville, K8R 0B1. Phone: +1 613 966-2922. Fax: +1 613 966-4565. Email: [email ...
Vaccinia (smallpox) vaccine: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2001. MMWR 2001;50(No ... He confirmed that no secondary lesions had occurred and reported that the secondary patient was his only sexual contact during ... Secondary Vaccinia Case. On June 24, a man went to a private hospital in San Diego County with a painful perianal rash of 3 ... The secondary patient had detectable antivaccinia antibodies in the pre-VIGIV serum specimen, and the tertiary patient did not ...
Categories: Immunization, Secondary Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Immunization Records. Tips for locating immunization records (PDF). Secondary Sidebar. #advanced_sidebar_menu- ... are required to submit health forms and immunization records. All forms and a list of required immunizations are found on the ... Full-time undergraduate students are subject to a fine of $200 for incomplete immunization records. ...
In the last 4 years, substantial progress has been made in development of products for active and passive immunization against ... Higher or Secondary Education Establishments Links Contact the organisation Opens in new window. Website Opens in new window. ...
Determinants of compliance with child immunization among mothers of children under five years of age in Ekiti State, Nigeria - ... Many of the respondents (51.4 percent) were between 27 and 38 years, 71.9 percent had above secondary school certificate and ... 2. PAN Advisory Committee on Immunisation. Paediatric Association of Nigeria (PAN) recommended routine immunization schedule ... The two significant determinants of compliance with childhood immunization are: knowledge of mothers on childhood immunization ...
... , HIV Prophylaxis of Secondary Infection. ... Immunizations *See Immunization in HIV. IV. Management: Antibiotic Prophylaxis * CD4 Count ,200/mm3 or Thrush: Pneumocystis ... Prevention of Secondary Infection in HIV. Prevention of Secondary Infection in HIV Aka: Prevention of Secondary Infection in ... These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Prevention of Secondary Infection in HIV." Click on the ...
Immunization with live viral vaccines. *The safety of immunization with live viral vaccines during or following treatment has ... Secondary malignancies may develop; monitor patient life-long for secondary malignancies. Owing to the potential for ...
Immunizations should be administered in accordance with AAP guidelines. [34] Universal immunization against Hib infection has ... Increased ICP secondary to cerebral edema is rarely a management problem in infants. Monitor blood gas levels closely to ensure ... Immunizations should be administered according to AAP guidelines. The polysaccharide vaccine is generally used for those with ... Antithrombotic therapy for secondary stroke prevention in bacterial meningitis in children. J Pediatr. 2014 Oct. 165(4):799-806 ...
Immunizations. Skip Over Breadcrumbs and Secondary Navigation. Breadcrumb Navigation. *Student Health Services ... National Immunization Information Database The National Immunization Information Database can be used for students to check and ... Per USF Policy 33-002, it is mandatory for non degree-seeking students to submit all required immunization documentation and ... A hold preventing registration will remain on your account until you have fulfilled the requirements listed on Immunization ...
Immunization - TDAP AND VZV Pinellas Secondary School and Immunization. Comments (-1) * Americas Most Active School Pinellas ...
Immunization Schedule* * Immunization, Secondary* * Middle Aged * Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic * SARS-CoV-2 / ... Secondary efficacy analyses included cases occuring at least 22 days after the first dose. Antibody responses measured by ...
Routine vaccination at age 11 or 12 years has been recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) since ... Persons with primary or secondary immunocompromising conditions that might reduce cell-mediated or humoral immunity (see also: ... Dosing schedules. For persons initiating vaccination before their 15th birthday, the recommended immunization schedule is 2 ... For persons initiating vaccination on or after their 15th birthday, the recommended immunization schedule is 3 doses of HPV ...
Immunization ploys. Doctors and health authorities may deceive you regarding vaccines. Here are their strategies of deception. ... The mans heart couldnt be restarted, and he died from the secondary infection. Then, to clinch our emotions, we are told that ... See Immunization Theory vs. Reality for a list of citations.]. 1. Calling the Shots "Immunizations." Numerous studies indicate ... Immunization Ploys Are Parents Being Manipulated?. 30 Dirty Tricks Used by the Medical Profession. to Hoodwink the Public ...
Secondary measles vaccine failure in healthcare workers exposed to infected patients. Department of Pediatrics, Childrens ... "My data proves that the studies used to support immunization are so flawed that it is impossible to say if immunization ... 32] Natural immunization is a complex phenomenon involving many organs and systems; it cannot be fully replicated by the ... Another component of immunization theory is "herd immunity," which states that when enough people in a community are immunized ...
Prevention of secondary complications: Evaluation by a pulmonologist and cardiologist before surgeries; pneumococcal and ... influenza immunizations annually; nutrition assessment; physical therapy to promote mobility and prevent contractures; sunshine ... Prevention of Secondary Complications. Cardiorespiratory *. Evaluation by pulmonary and cardiac specialists before surgeries [ ... DMD-associated DCM generally presents with congestive heart failure secondary to an increase in ventricular size and impairment ...
This effect is usually overcome by secondary responses to booster immunization.[5] Maternal antibodies protect against some ... FDA approved products for passive immunization and immunotherapy Disease. Product[a]. Source. Use ... "Passive Immunization - Infectious Diseases". Merck Manuals Professional Edition. Retrieved 2015-11-12.. ... Immunization is often required shortly following birth to prevent diseases in newborns such as tuberculosis, hepatitis B, polio ...
  • Wharton M , Strikas RA , Harpaz R , Rotz LD , Schwartz B , Casey CG , Recommendations for using smallpox vaccine in a pre-event vaccination program: supplemental recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC). (
  • Routine vaccination at age 11 or 12 years has been recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) since 2006 for females and since 2011 for males ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • When my son began his routine vaccination series at age 2 months, I did not know there were any risks associated with immunizations. (
  • Notably, the distribution of time since the last vaccination/booster/infection among positive secondary cases was nearly identical across the two variations. (
  • The study results have significant implications for the increasing number of low- and middle-income countries in the tropics and sub-tropics which over the last decade have begun introducing seasonal influenza vaccination into their immunization programs or are expanding their programs to include maternal influenza immunization, especially in the Latin American region. (
  • Travellers can access their digital immunization records anywhere, Governments can use it for counterfeit deterrent strategy for enforcing proof of vaccination, Universities to verify immunization status of international students, Doctors to verify your credentials and connect you to the ever-growing community of travellers, Clinics to manage medical staff who administer vaccines and Vaccine Manufacturers to monitor the vaccine supply chain to ensure no fake vaccines are administered. (
  • A descriptive experience report on the implementation of an intervention plan to expand vaccination coverage of two National Vaccination Campaigns in 2020 in a Family Health Unit (FHU) during the Curricular Internship I (EC-I). The results were based on epidemiological bulletins and on the Immunization Information System and the Municipal Information System - Rede Bem Estar. (
  • Individuals with complications following initial/secondary vaccination and serious adverse events from previous vaccinations for other reasons. (
  • The challenge for clinicians and other health-care providers is assessing the safety and effectiveness of vaccines for conditions associated with primary or secondary immunodeficiency, especially when new therapeutic modalities are being used and information about the safety and effectiveness of vaccines has not been characterized fully in persons receiving these drugs ( Table 8-1 ). (
  • The influenza vaccine yellow bar for "health-care personnel" annually reviews the recommended Adult Immunization Schedule indicates that health-care personnel can receive either trivalent to ensure that the schedule reflects current recommendations for inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) or live, attenuated influenza the licensed vaccines. (
  • Immunization Ploys: Are Vaccines Safe? (
  • Children and adolescents who have received all recommended vaccines as per the immunization schedule will not require any further immunizations. (
  • Immunizations and Risks associated with Live Vaccines: Immunizations may be ineffective. (
  • Public Health runs the Grade 7 immunization campaign and catch-up clinics for vaccines children need to attend school in Ontario at participating schools. (
  • The latter is done by immunizations and vaccines. (
  • This effect is usually overcome by secondary responses to booster immunization. (
  • This study also assessed the efficacy of booster immunization in reducing virus transmission rates. (
  • Vaccinia (smallpox) vaccine: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2001. (
  • The US Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) updated recommended risk categories and preexposure prophylaxis based on evolving rabies epidemiology, availability and logistics of rabies vaccine administration (especially prior to planned travel), and optimized cost-to-benefit ratio. (
  • One of the attempts made by the South African Department of Health at addressing the challenge of ECC was by including oral health examinations in the Road to Health immunization programme for children. (
  • The objectives of this study were to explore barriers to immunization in a Pacific island community from the perspectives of community members and health professionals and to conduct a pilot programme whereby immunization catch-up clinics were held in a Samoan church in western Sydney. (
  • It is vaccine preventable, with a safe and effective vaccine available since the 1930s that has been introduced into the Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI) of many countries ( Region V, 2003 ). (
  • Prevention through immunization remains the best defense in the fight against pertussis. (
  • Secondary prevention of cervical cancer is by screening for precancerous lesions and early diagnosis followed by adequate treatment. (
  • These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Prevention of Secondary Infection in HIV. (
  • Treatable mortality" refers to deaths that could be treated through secondary and tertiary prevention efforts, such as effective screening and treatment of an existing disease. (
  • Secondary prevention usually takes place when a stressor agent crosses the defense line and starts causing a reaction. (
  • Therefore, secondary prevention aims at detecting this as early as possible in order to prevent any further damages. (
  • In Nigeria, the government has made a lot of effort to provide immunizations against these childhood diseases. (
  • In fact, infectious diseases declined steadily for decades prior to vaccinations, U.S. doctors report thousands of serious vaccine reactions each year including hundreds of deaths and permanent disabilities, fully vaccinated populations have experienced epidemics, and researchers attribute dozens of chronic immunological and neurological conditions to mass immunization programs. (
  • [1] Passive immunization is used when there is a high risk of infection and insufficient time for the body to develop its own immune response, or to reduce the symptoms of ongoing or immunosuppressive diseases. (
  • Immunization is often required shortly following birth to prevent diseases in newborns such as tuberculosis , hepatitis B , polio , and pertussis , however, maternal IgG can inhibit the induction of protective vaccine responses throughout the first year of life. (
  • and Provide completed immunization report showing current immunization and free of communicable diseases, including Negative TB skin test or chest x ray (form provided by college). (
  • Ontario's Immunization of School Pupils Act (ISPA) requires that children and adolescents attending primary or secondary school be appropriately immunized against designated diseases, unless they have a valid exemption . (
  • In the last decade, for example, there was an objective in the Immunization and Infectious Diseases topic area. (
  • Immunization prevents diseases by enabling the body to rapidly respond to an attack and enhancing the production of an immune response via immune cells to a particular harmful organism. (
  • Singer argues that as many people as possible ought to be immunised not just against flu, but also against secondary infectious diseases like bacterial pneumonia, which account for a significant proportion of the sickness and death associated with a pandemic. (
  • b) Subject to Subsections (b-1) and (c), the executive commissioner of the Health and Human Services Commission may modify or delete any of the immunizations in Subsection (a) or may require immunizations against additional diseases as a requirement for admission to any elementary or secondary school. (
  • it was necessary to think about ways to intervene in face of so many challenges, understanding that expanding immunization coverage is the most effective and safe way to control infectious and contagious diseases. (
  • Immunization is the most relevant cost-effective intervention for the global control of infectious diseases, through which it is possible to promote the reduction of mortality and the incidence of preventable diseases 1,2 . (
  • We must recall Dr Tedros' warning and continue to maintain the safe delivery of routine immunizations against all deadly vaccine-preventable diseases like cervical cancer despite disruptions caused by COVID-19. (
  • Overcrowding, poor health, substandard living conditions, incomplete immunization, and immunocompromised states facilitate susceptibility to diphtheria and are risk factors for transmission of this disease. (
  • Please see Ontario's publicly funded immunization schedule to verify that your clients have received all necessary immunizations. (
  • e) A person may be provisionally admitted to an elementary or secondary school if the person has begun the required immunizations and if the person continues to receive the necessary immunizations as rapidly as is medically feasible. (
  • Full-time undergraduate students are subject to a fine of $200 for incomplete immunization records. (
  • It is however sad to note that many children still do not complete their routine immunization. (
  • Over 122 countries have implemented mumps vaccine routine immunization programs, mostly via Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) vaccine. (
  • The use of routine immunization data by health care professionals in low- and middle-income countries remains an underutilized resource in decision-making. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Pulse and routine immunization against poliomyelitis. (
  • Gov. Andrew Cuomo vetoed four bills yesterday, including one that would have exempted post-secondary students who graduated from New York high schools from having to provide colleges with certificates of immunization against measles, mumps and rubella. (
  • Childhood immunization is a key method of reducing childhood morbidity and mortality [5] , and reducing the number and severity of communicable disease outbreaks [6] . (
  • Countries near the equator often identify influenza throughout the year and had secondary peaks. (
  • The secondary objective of this project is to determine the immunogenicity of 4 dosage levels of monovalent surface antigen (SA) influenza A/H9N2 virus vaccine given with or without MF59 adjuvant. (
  • Proof of immunity to rubeola (measles) and rubella (German measles), or proof of MMR immunization. (
  • Examples of secondary immunodeficiency include HIV infection, hematopoietic malignancies, treatment with radiation, and treatment with immunosuppressive drugs. (
  • Antibiotics may prevent or alleviate secondary bacterial infection. (
  • The patient with the secondary vaccinia virus infection reported having experienced the perianal rash at the time he had sexual intercourse with a different male partner on June 22. (
  • The chances of secondary infection were higher in cases where the primary case, which was the first individual within a household to test positive, was with the Delta VOC rather than with the Omicron VOC. (
  • Generally, leave wounds to heal by secondary intention to permit drainage of wound fluids and prevent infection. (
  • Secondary outcomes were immunogenicity and vaccine efficacy against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and disease, assessed in the per-protocol population. (
  • In the case of infants, pneumonia can develop as a secondary infection, especially in those with HIV infections by birth, or those born prematurely. (
  • Hygiene practices and cleanliness can prevent many infections and illnesses, thus also helping prevent pneumonia as a secondary infection. (
  • Most of the training, daycare and boarding facilities ask for proof of immunization to prevent infection. (
  • This study reports a case of a patient who presented clinical manifestations compatible with varicella zoster infection exacerbated by the use of homemade remedies, resulting in a secondary infection and facial scarring. (
  • Please remind parents to report their child's immunization records to their local public health unit. (
  • To enrol your child, we need a completed Enrolment Form, a copy of your child's Birth Certificate and Immunisation Certificate. (
  • Infections resulting from secondary transmission of vaccinia virus from the smallpox vaccinee to the patient and subsequent tertiary transmission of the virus from the patient to the unvaccinated partner were confirmed by the County of San Diego Public Health Laboratory. (
  • DSN: CC37.NHIS92.IMMUNIZE ABSTRACT 1992 NATIONAL HEALTH INTERVIEW SURVEY (NHIS) IMMUNIZATION PUBLIC USE DATA FILE Guidelines for Citation of Data With the goal of mutual benefit, the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) requests that recipients of data files cooperate in certain actions related to their use. (
  • The objectives of the project were to empower TBAs and assess the use of a culturally adapted audio-visual workshop intervention to change their knowledge, attitude and willingness to promote immunization uptake. (
  • and consequently, their willingness to always promote immunization uptake. (
  • Attaining optimal immunization coverage in the rural areas remain a challenge and this may be associated with uptake factors rooted in cultural, traditional and religious beliefs which may vary within different parts of a region or country. (
  • This situation of less than optimal coverage, observed especially in the rural communities may be compounded by the high proportion of home birth deliveries undertaken by traditional birth attendants (TBAs) as this reduces the contact of mothers with the health facilities where immunization sensitization and uptake usually takes place. (
  • Uptake of child immunization showed one-third decrease. (
  • The sessions help promote better child feeding practices, regular immunizations, and antenatal and postnatal care of women. (
  • CHILDHOOD IMMUNIZATION FILE 1992 Information on childhood immunizations was collected from adult respondents (often the mother) for one sample child under 6 years of age per National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) family with age-eligible children in the household. (
  • A self-structured validated questionnaire containing items to explore demographic characteristics of respondents, compliance with child immunization (Cronbach's α =0.92) and determinants of compliance (Cronbach's α =0.83) was the instrument for data collection. (
  • A partnership with a local Samoan church was established to provide an accessible venue for immunization catch-up clinics. (
  • The important role of the church within the community was emphasized in the interviews, and as a result, two immunization catch-up clinics were held in a Samoan church in western Sydney. (
  • Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen. (
  • All undergraduate students and health sciences graduate students (MPAM, DPT, and MSAT) are required to submit health forms and immunization records. (
  • The National Immunization Information Database can be used for students to check and see if their vaccine records are on file with another state. (
  • Then, when 76 cases of the disease broke out, researchers claimed that "vaccine failure was associated with immunizations that could not be documented in the provider's records. (
  • Records of student scores on State examinations such as the Individual Student Score Reports, Nonpublic Secondary Examination Report, Comprehensive Information Report. (
  • You are responsible for records retention, reporting and deadline requirements for other Elementary, Secondary and Continuing Education offices (e.g. (
  • b) Each public school shall cooperate in transferring students' immunization records to other schools. (
  • You must submit all official transcripts from your high school/or all post-secondary records. (
  • Syria is experiencing a protracted political and socio-economic crisis that has immunization coverage. (
  • Adequate immunization coverage in rural communities remain a challenge in Nigeria. (
  • These indicators are important to determine the strategies to be carried out by the National Immunization Program and the Health Surveillance at the municipal level. (
  • Students should bring their personal immunization record (yellow card) on clinic day. (
  • Additionally, students attending CLPS can get free immunizations through our Ascension School-Based Health Clinic located in Center Line High School. (
  • Committee on Immunization Practices, the American Academy of Family Physicians, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and the American College of Physicians. (
  • b-1) Each year, the Department of State Health Services shall prepare a list of the immunizations required under this section for admission to public schools and of any additional immunizations the department recommends for school-age children. (
  • Additionally, an official transcript must be submitted if you have attended other post-secondary institutions or universities. (
  • Algoma University President and Vice-Chancellor Asima Vezina said all post-secondary institutions are focussing on the same thing. (
  • In the immunization sector, data use is recognized as lacking in the design and implementation of programs, leading to calls for more evidence regarding effective strategies to improve data use [ 3 ]. (
  • Mother and child oral health programs at immunization facilities were piloted in two Gauteng Districts in 2015 in order to address the burden of disease. (
  • This helps prepare students through both social and educational programs for their transition to secondary school. (
  • April 8, 2020 - Thirty million children are at risk of disease and death because of the secondary impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, a new report warns. (
  • In mid-June 2020 case numbers started to increase before reaching a secondary peak in early August 2020. (
  • Are you in high school or considering a post-secondary education? (
  • All immunization requirements for school attendance align with Ontario's publicly funded immunization schedule . (
  • NYS Department of Health regarding the State School Immunization Program). (
  • The Department of State Health Services shall adopt rules relating to the provisional admission of persons to an elementary or secondary school. (
  • f) A person who has not received the immunizations required by this section for reasons of conscience, including because of the person's religious beliefs, may be excluded from school in times of emergency or epidemic declared by the commissioner of public health. (
  • a) Each public school shall keep an individual immunization record during the period of attendance for each student admitted. (
  • Recently I was invited to a panel discussion for celebration of the Fiftieth Anniversary of Yangchenphug Higher Secondary School and I was one of the panelists from the adult-side. (
  • If you are unsure you have the transfer credits, please submit your secondary school transcripts as well). (
  • According to Macomb County Health Department, a child may not start school without proof of immunizations. (
  • Primary and secondary immunodeficiencies might include a combination of deficits in both cellular and humoral immunity. (
  • [2] Passive immunization can be provided when people cannot synthesize antibodies, and when they have been exposed to a disease that they do not have immunity against. (
  • [2] Immunity derived from passive immunization lasts for a few weeks to three to four months. (
  • The fact that the clinical picture in children is seriously different from adults may be that their immune system responds more quickly than adults, or it may depend on the immunity they have gained through the extended immunization program. (
  • There are hundreds of published medical studies documenting vaccine failure and adverse effects, and dozens of books written by doctors, researchers, and independent investigators that reveal serious flaws in immunization theory and practice. (
  • Per USF Policy 33-002, it is mandatory for non degree-seeking students to submit all required immunization documentation and sign the official Medical History Form prior to course registration. (
  • Requires immunization of certain post-secondary students for COVID-19. (
  • Section 1 of the bill amends section 2165 of the Public Health Law ("Immunization of certain post-secondary students") to require students attending colleges and universities in New York to demonstrate proof of immunization against COVID-19. (
  • The purpose of the immunization legislation, according to the bill sponsors, was to reduce the administrative burden on students, families, physicians and the colleges and universities. (
  • Households are given additional support for every 0-6 year-old child (LE 60), primary student (LE 80), preparatory stage student (LE 100) and secondary stage students (LE 140). (
  • c) The Texas Education Agency and the Texas Department of Health shall develop the form for a required annual report of the immunization status of students. (
  • Our Grade 6 students participate in a transition and orientation program with Wonthaggi Secondary College each year. (
  • Some provide enrichment opportunities for elementary or secondary students while others offer two or four-year degrees in a college or university environment. (
  • Cranbourne Secondary College wishes to congratulate our Year 7 and 9 students who participated in the online NAPLAN tests in May. (
  • Public Use File Documentation, National Health Interview Survey of Immunization, 1992 (machine readable data file and documentation), National Center for Health Statistics, Hyattsville, Maryland. (
  • Here, household secondary attack rate (SAR) was estimated using data from Danish registers. (
  • A total of 66 articles reported on immunization data use interventions and 36 articles reported on data use interventions for other health sectors. (
  • Among the research evidence from the immunization sector, 32 articles reported intermediate outcomes related to data quality and availability, data analysis, synthesis, interpretation, and review. (
  • Few immunization data use interventions have been rigorously studied or evaluated. (
  • To address this gap, we conducted a realist systematic review of existing research evidence on immunization data use interventions in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). (
  • What are the most effective interventions to improve the use of data for immunization program and policy decision-making? (
  • We performed a secondary analysis of data from the 2015 Mozambique Immunization indicators, Malaria and HIV/AIDS (IMASIDA 2015). (
  • This study used mostly secondary data from various sources, such as government agencies, news articles and investigative reports from local and international organizations. (
  • The secondary data were complemented with key informant interviews of former and current government officials and other individuals involved in the CCT program and the WoD. (
  • The outcomes of the interviews and the subsequent clinics highlighted the potential of churches as a venue for providing public health interventions such as catch-up immunization. (
  • In both primary and secondary care there are unwarranted variations in practice and in resulting outcomes that cannot be explained by the characteristics o. (
  • Secondary outcomes were pulmonary tuberculosis, extrapulmonary tuberculosis, and mortality. (
  • Mother and Child oral health programmes were then proposed at various immunization sites at District Primary Health Care facilities. (
  • Disparities in getting care quickly and immunizations are smaller among beneficiaries with greater disease burden, perhaps as a function of integration into the health care system gained through management of health issues. (
  • Outreach is needed to ensure that minority beneficiaries who have no major health problems have broad access to care, including access to information about health plans and immunization. (
  • It) also determined the Ministry of Colleges and Universities does not have a clear strategy or long-term vision for the post-secondary sector,' the Office of the Auditor General of Ontario said in a news release Wednesday. (
  • The purpose of this paper is to determine factors which influence mothers' compliance with childhood immunization. (
  • Multiple regression analysis was used to identify determinants of mothers' compliance with childhood immunization. (
  • The level of compliance of mothers with childhood immunization was high (80 percent). (
  • The two factors which contributed significantly to mothers' compliance were the mothers' knowledge of childhood immunization ( β weight= 0.243) and mothers' educational status ( β weight=0.169). (
  • Having good knowledge of childhood immunization and a high educational status positively influence a mothers' compliance with child immunization. (
  • Konwea, P.E. , David, F.A. and Ogunsile, S.E. (2018), "Determinants of compliance with child immunization among mothers of children under five years of age in Ekiti State, Nigeria", Journal of Health Research , Vol. 32 No. 3, pp. 229-236. (
  • In addition, please bring your immunization record and identification card. (
  • These drugs do nothing to cure flu themselves, but can be needed if sufferers develop secondary bacterial infections like pneumonia or bronchitis. (
  • Patients are usually young children, people with advanced age and related health issues, or those suffering other ailments like Cancer and or HIV, where the body cannot protect against secondary infections effectively. (
  • The veterinarian subscribes antibiotics to prevent secondary infections and cough medication to ease the coughing. (
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate disease burden and its possible impact on racial/ethnic health disparities for measures of secondary and tertiary access to health care, such as access to health plan information, obtaining recommended care in a timely manner, and immunization. (
  • The oral health examinations are conducted at five initial immunization visits and the mother and child pairs are provided with oral health care and diet advice and sent home with a free toothbrush, fluoridated toothpaste and an educational pack. (
  • You'll most likely be referred to a secondary or tertiary health care centres if you need specialize medical attention. (
  • The Tertiary Health Care System also helps to coordinate the activities of the other lower healthcare tiers such as secondary and primary healthcare. (
  • d) The Department of State Health Services shall provide the required immunization to children in areas where no local provision exists to provide those services. (
  • The links below will provide you with information on immunizations and the many resources provided by Macomb County Health Department. (