Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.
Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.
Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.
A disease caused by tetanospasmin, a powerful protein toxin produced by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI. Tetanus usually occurs after an acute injury, such as a puncture wound or laceration. Generalized tetanus, the most common form, is characterized by tetanic muscular contractions and hyperreflexia. Localized tetanus presents itself as a mild condition with manifestations restricted to muscles near the wound. It may progress to the generalized form.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.
A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.
A combined vaccine used to prevent MEASLES; MUMPS; and RUBELLA.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.
The formaldehyde-inactivated toxin of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It is generally used in mixtures with TETANUS TOXOID and PERTUSSIS VACCINE; (DTP); or with tetanus toxoid alone (DT for pediatric use and Td, which contains 5- to 10-fold less diphtheria toxoid, for other use). Diphtheria toxoid is used for the prevention of diphtheria; DIPHTHERIA ANTITOXIN is for treatment.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).
Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.
An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.
The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.
Resistance to a disease agent resulting from the production of specific antibodies by the host, either after exposure to the disease or after vaccination.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Administration of a vaccine to large populations in order to elicit IMMUNITY.
An antigen solution emulsified in mineral oil. The complete form is made up of killed, dried mycobacteria, usually M. tuberculosis, suspended in the oil phase. It is effective in stimulating cell-mediated immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and potentiates the production of certain IMMUNOGLOBULINS in some animals. The incomplete form does not contain mycobacteria.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by MUMPS VIRUS. Best known is the live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had mumps or been immunized with live mumps vaccine. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
A live attenuated virus vaccine of duck embryo or human diploid cell tissue culture origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of nonpregnant adolescent and adult females of childbearing age who are unimmunized and do not have serum antibodies to rubella. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.
Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.
A localized infection of mucous membranes or skin caused by toxigenic strains of CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE. It is characterized by the presence of a pseudomembrane at the site of infection. DIPHTHERIA TOXIN, produced by C. diphtheriae, can cause myocarditis, polyneuritis, and other systemic toxic effects.
An acute infectious disease of humans, particularly children, caused by any of three serotypes of human poliovirus (POLIOVIRUS). Usually the infection is limited to the gastrointestinal tract and nasopharynx, and is often asymptomatic. The central nervous system, primarily the spinal cord, may be affected, leading to rapidly progressive paralysis, coarse FASCICULATION and hyporeflexia. Motor neurons are primarily affected. Encephalitis may also occur. The virus replicates in the nervous system, and may cause significant neuronal loss, most notably in the spinal cord. A rare related condition, nonpoliovirus poliomyelitis, may result from infections with nonpoliovirus enteroviruses. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp764-5)
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Preparations of pathogenic organisms or their derivatives made nontoxic and intended for active immunologic prophylaxis. They include deactivated toxins. Anatoxin toxoids are distinct from anatoxins that are TROPANES found in CYANOBACTERIA.
Techniques where DNA is delivered directly into organelles at high speed using projectiles coated with nucleic acid, shot from a helium-powered gun (gene gun). One of these techniques involves immunization by DNA VACCINES, which delivers DNA-coated gold beads to the epidermis.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed protozoa administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious protozoan disease.
Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infections with STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.
Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.
Aluminum metal sulfate compounds used medically as astringents and for many industrial purposes. They are used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of ulcerative stomatitis, leukorrhea, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, metritis, and minor wounds.
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.
A live vaccine containing attenuated poliovirus, types I, II, and III, grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture, used for routine immunization of children against polio. This vaccine induces long-lasting intestinal and humoral immunity. Killed vaccine induces only humoral immunity. Oral poliovirus vaccine should not be administered to immunocompromised individuals or their household contacts. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
A respiratory infection caused by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS and characterized by paroxysmal coughing ending in a prolonged crowing intake of breath.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.
Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Vaccines used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS. They include inactivated (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, INACTIVATED) and oral vaccines (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, ORAL).
The insertion of drugs into the rectum, usually for confused or incompetent patients, like children, infants, and the very old or comatose.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.
Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
Contraceptive methods based on immunological processes and techniques, such as the use of CONTRACEPTIVE VACCINES.
Active immunization where vaccine is administered for therapeutic or preventive purposes. This can include administration of immunopotentiating agents such as BCG vaccine and Corynebacterium parvum as well as biological response modifiers such as interferons, interleukins, and colony-stimulating factors in order to directly stimulate the immune system.
Combined vaccines consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and an acellular form of PERTUSSIS VACCINE. At least five different purified antigens of B. pertussis have been used in various combinations in these vaccines.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.
An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
An acute infectious disease caused by the RUBELLA VIRUS. The virus enters the respiratory tract via airborne droplet and spreads to the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.
The various ways of administering a drug or other chemical to a site in a patient or animal from where the chemical is absorbed into the blood and delivered to the target tissue.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Delivery of a drug or other substance into the body through the epithelium lining of MUCOUS MEMBRANE involved with absorption and secretion.
The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.
A species of PLASMODIUM causing malaria in rodents.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat ALZHEIMER DISEASE.
An acute infectious disease caused by RUBULAVIRUS, spread by direct contact, airborne droplet nuclei, fomites contaminated by infectious saliva, and perhaps urine, and usually seen in children under the age of 15, although adults may also be affected. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
An antitoxin used for the treatment of TETANUS.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.
The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
A live, attenuated varicella virus vaccine used for immunization against chickenpox. It is recommended for children between the ages of 12 months and 13 years.
Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.
Organized services to provide health care for children.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
Groups set up to advise governmental bodies, societies, or other institutions on policy. (Bioethics Thesaurus)
Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).
Suspensions of attenuated or killed fungi administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious fungal disease.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).
Vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER and/or PARATYPHOID FEVER which are caused by various species of SALMONELLA. Attenuated, subunit, and inactivated forms of the vaccines exist.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent conception.
Systems used to prompt or aid the memory. The systems can be computerized reminders, color coding, telephone calls, or devices such as letters and postcards.
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.
Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with ROTAVIRUS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent SAIDS; (SIMIAN ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME); and containing inactivated SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS or type D retroviruses or some of their component antigens.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
A type of H. influenzae isolated most frequently from biotype I. Prior to vaccine availability, it was a leading cause of childhood meningitis.
A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.
A compound with many biomedical applications: as a gastric antacid, an antiperspirant, in dentifrices, as an emulsifier, as an adjuvant in bacterins and vaccines, in water purification, etc.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
A formulation for presenting an antigen to induce specific immunologic responses. It consists of an assembly of antigens in multimeric form. The assembly is attached to a matrix with a built-in adjuvant, saponin. ISCOMs induce strong serum antibody responses, and are used as highly immunogenic forms of subunit vaccines.
A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The product of meiotic division of zygotes in parasitic protozoa comprising haploid cells. These infective cells invade the host and undergo asexual reproduction producing MEROZOITES (or other forms) and ultimately gametocytes.
Serum globulins that migrate to the gamma region (most positively charged) upon ELECTROPHORESIS. At one time, gamma-globulins came to be used as a synonym for immunoglobulins since most immunoglobulins are gamma globulins and conversely most gamma globulins are immunoglobulins. But since some immunoglobulins exhibit an alpha or beta electrophoretic mobility, that usage is in decline.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Human vaccines are intended to reduce the incidence of UTERINE CERVICAL NEOPLASMS, so they are sometimes considered a type of CANCER VACCINES. They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS.
A combined vaccine used to prevent infection with diphtheria and tetanus toxoid. This is used in place of DTP vaccine (DIPHTHERIA-TETANUS-PERTUSSIS VACCINE) when PERTUSSIS VACCINE is contraindicated.
Infections with bacteria of the genus HAEMOPHILUS.

Amplification of the antibody response by C3b complexed to antigen through an ester link. (1/1592)

Complement C3 has been described as playing an important role in the cell-mediated immune response. C3b has the capacity to covalently bind Ag and then to stimulate in vitro Ag presentation to T lymphocytes. To verify this observation in vivo, we prepared and purified covalent human C3b-Ag complexes using lysozyme (HEL) as Ag. The characterization of these HEL-C3b complexes indicates that they are representative of those susceptible to be generated in physiological conditions. Mice were immunized with 0.1 to 0.6 microgram of either free HEL, HEL + C3b, HEL-C3b, or HEL + CFA. Response was assessed after two i.p. injections by quantification of specific Ab production. Immunization with either HEL-C3b complexes or HEL + CFA leads to anti-HEL IgG production whereas free HEL or HEL + C3b was ineffective. Either HEL-C3b or HEL + CFA immunizations led to a similar Ig subclass patterns, including IgG1, IgG2a, IgA, and IgM. Our experiments provide the first evidence for modulation of specific Ab response by C3b when it is bound to Ag through a physiological-like link. Taken together with previous data concerning Ab response following recombinant HEL-C3d immunization, cellular events such as processing of C3b-Ag by APC and recognition by T lymphocytes, this present result underlines the importance of C3b and its fragments in stimulation of the immune system, through the multiplicity and complementarity of its interactions.  (+info)

Immunity to Brucella in mice vaccinated with a fraction (F8) or a killed vaccine (H38) with or without adjuvant. Level and duration of immunity in relation to dose of vaccine, recall injection and age of mice. (2/1592)

Immunity to Brucella in the mouse, assessed by bacterial spleen counts 15 days after intraperitoneal inoculation of a standard challenge of B. abortus 544, has been studied with two vaccines, one experimental, composed of a fraction of the bacterial cell-wall (F8) extracted from B. abortus 99, the other of killed whole bacteria, B. melitensis 53 H38, taken as reference (H38). The level of primary immunity depended on the dose of vaccine, the presence of oil adjuvant and the age of the mouse. The presence of adjuvant enabled the immunization to F8 to continue beyond the first month, to reach its maximum around the fourth month, and to remain stable for at least 7 months. A booster injection 3 or 6 months after the primary vaccination reinforced existing immunity but did not increase it beyond a certain level. The effect of the recall injection was clearly demonstrated with low doses which gave a lower level of primary immunity.  (+info)

Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine primes for polysaccharide-inducible IgG2 antibody response in children with recurrent otitis media acuta. (3/1592)

Children with frequent recurrent episodes of otitis media may have a deficient IgG2 antibody response to polysaccharide antigens. Five otitis-prone children were vaccinated with heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. While all had an IgG1 antibody response to all pneumococcal serotypes included in the conjugate vaccine, the IgG2 response, especially to serotypes 6B, 9V, 19F, and 23F, was poor. However, vaccination with a 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine 6 months after conjugate vaccination induced an 11.5- to 163-fold increase in IgG2 anti-polysaccharide antibody titers. Thus, an IgG2 polysaccharide antibody deficiency can be overcome by priming with a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine followed by a booster with a polyvalent polysaccharide vaccine.  (+info)

Activation of CD4 T cells by somatic transgenesis induces generalized immunity of uncommitted T cells and immunologic memory. (4/1592)

Cellular immune responses were analyzed in vivo after a single intraspleen inoculation of DNA coding for a 12-residue Th cell determinant associated with a 12-residue B cell epitope, a process termed somatic transgene immunization. We show that CD4 T cells are readily activated and produce IL-2, IFN-gamma and IL-4, characteristics of an uncommitted phenotype. Linked recognition of the two epitopes coded in the same transgene promoted IgM-IgG1 switch and enhanced the total Ab response but had no effect on IgG2a Abs. Although originating in the spleen, T cell responsiveness was found to spread immediately and with similar characteristics to all lymph nodes in the body. A single inoculation was also effective in establishing long term immunologic memory as determined by limiting dilution analysis, with memory T cells displaying a cytokine profile different from that of primary effector T cells. These studies provide evidence that by initiating immunity directly in secondary lymphoid organs, an immune response is generated with characteristics that differ from those using vaccines of conventional DNA or protein in adjuvant administered in peripheral sites. Somatic transgene immunization can therefore be used to probe T cell responsiveness in vivo and represents a tool to further understanding of the nature of the adaptive immune response.  (+info)

Induction of mucosal immunity by inactivated poliovirus vaccine is dependent on previous mucosal contact with live virus. (5/1592)

The inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) is used for protection against poliomyelitis in The Netherlands. It is not clear, however, whether IPV vaccination can lead to priming of the mucosal immune system and the induction of IgA. It has been demonstrated that IPV vaccination is able to induce strong memory IgA responses in the serum of persons who have been naturally exposed to wild-type poliovirus. This has led to the hypothesis that IPV vaccination is able to induce poliovirus-specific IgA at mucosal sites in persons who have been previously primed with live poliovirus at mucosal sites. To test this hypothesis, the kinetics of the IgA response in serum and saliva after IPV vaccination were examined in persons previously vaccinated with oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) or IPV. ELISA and enzyme-linked immunospot assays were used for the detection of poliovirus-specific IgA responses. In addition, B cell populations were separated on the basis of the expression of mucosal (alpha4beta7 integrin) and peripheral homing receptors (L-selectin). Parenteral IPV vaccination was able to boost systemic and mucosal IgA responses in previously OPV-vaccinated persons only. None of the previously vaccinated IPV recipients responded with the production of IgA in saliva. In agreement with this finding, a large percentage of the poliovirus-specific IgA-producing lymphocytes detected in previous OPV recipients expressed the alpha4beta7 integrin. It is concluded that IPV vaccination alone is insufficient to induce a mucosal IgA response against poliovirus. In mucosally (OPV-) primed individuals, however, booster vaccination with IPV leads to a strong mucosal IgA response.  (+info)

Reimmunization after blood or marrow stem cell transplantation. (6/1592)

Protective immunity to diseases preventable by routine vaccination is lost over time following allogeneic and autologous blood and marrow transplantation. Adoptive transfer of immunity from donors to recipients after allogeneic transplantation is not sufficient to prevent this decline. Systematic reimmunization is necessary at appropriate time intervals following transplantation to re-establish immunity. Response to vaccination depends upon the type of transplant, the source of cells, the immune status of the patient, and the vaccine being used. While inactivated or subunit vaccines are safe in all transplant recipients, live vaccines are generally contraindicated. Reimmunization practices vary widely amongst transplant centers. This comprehensive review summarizes published data on post-transplant vaccination, and based upon these, suggests guidelines which may be used as a framework for development of reimmunization protocols.  (+info)

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass distribution and IgG1 avidity of antibodies in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals after revaccination with tetanus toxoid. (7/1592)

In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals the amount of antibodies formed after vaccination with T-cell-dependent recall antigens such as tetanus toxoid is proportional to the peripheral blood CD4(+) T-lymphocyte counts. To investigate whether the immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass distribution and avidity of the antibodies produced after vaccination are affected as well, we gave 13 HIV-infected adults with low CD4(+) T-lymphocyte counts (<200 x 10(6)/liter; group I), 11 HIV-infected adults with intermediate CD4(+) T-lymphocyte counts (>/=200 x 10(6)/liter; group II), and 5 healthy controls booster immunizations with tetanus toxoid. The prevaccination antibody concentrations against tetanus toxoid were similar in the HIV-infected and healthy adults. After vaccination the total IgG and the IgG1 anti-tetanus toxoid antibody concentrations were significantly lower in group I than in group II and the controls. The avidity of the IgG1 anti-tetanus toxoid antibodies formed by HIV-infected adults was within the range for healthy controls, irrespective of their CD4(+) T-lymphocyte counts.  (+info)

Immunization with a peptide of Sm B/B' results in limited epitope spreading but not autoimmune disease. (8/1592)

An experimental model of systemic lupus erythematosus has recently been described in normal animals. We sought to confirm and extend this model, which involved immunization of normal rabbits and mice with a peptide of Sm B/B', PPPGMRPP. This peptide is an early target of the immune response in anti-Sm-positive patients with lupus. The peptide was used in a multiple Ag peptide format, with multiple copies of PPPGMRPP bound to an inert lysine backbone. New Zealand White rabbits and A/J and C57BL/10ScSn mouse strains were immunized with PPPGMRPP-MAP. Pepscan assays were used to determine the epitope spreading of the anti-PPPGMRPP-MAP response to other octamers of SmB/B' following immunization. We obtained high titer anti-PPPGMRPP-MAP IgG responses in the New Zealand White rabbits and A/J mice. The rabbits immunized with PPPGMRPP-MAP showed varying degrees of epitope spreading, while the A/J mice showed no spreading. We observed no autoantibodies to dsDNA or other anti-nuclear autoantibodies in our animals by ELISA or immunofluorescence, although anti-nuclear autoantibodies were found by Western blotting in some of the rabbits. No evidence of clinical disease was seen in our normal animals. These data underline the difficulties often associated with the reproduction of animal models in different laboratories.  (+info)

The primary purpose of this study is to assess the preventive vaccine efficacy (VE), safety and tolerability of a heterologous prime/boost regimen utilizing Ad26.Mos4.HIV and aluminum-phosphate adjuvanted Clade C gp140 for the prevention of Human Immuno Virus (HIV) infection in HIV-seronegative women residing in sub-Saharan Africa from confirmed HIV-1 infections diagnosed between the Month 7 and Month 24 visits ...
In an effort to make affordable vaccines suitable for the regions most affected by HIV-1, we have constructed stable vaccines that express an HIV-1 subtype C mosaic Gag immunogen (BCG-GagM, MVA-GagM and DNA-GagM). Mosaic immunogens have been designed to address the tremendous diversity of this virus. Here we have shown that GagM buds from cells infected and transfected with MVA-GagM and DNA-GagM respectively and forms virus-like particles. Previously we showed that a BCG-GagM prime MVA-GagM boost generated strong cellular immune responses in mice. In this study immune responses to the DNA-GagM and MVA-GagM vaccines were evaluated in homologous and heterologous prime-boost vaccinations. The DNA homologous prime boost vaccination elicited predominantly CD8+ T cells while the homologous MVA vaccination induced predominantly CD4+ T cells. A heterologous DNA-GagM prime MVA-GagM boost induced strong, more balanced Gag CD8+ and CD4+ T cell responses and that were predominantly of an effector memory ...
Heterologous priming-boosting vaccination regimens involving priming with plasmid DNA antigen constructs and inoculating (boosting) with the same recombinant antigen expressed in replication-attenuated poxviruses have recently been demonstrated to induce immunity, based on CD4(+)- and CD8(+)-T-cell responses, against several diseases in both rodents and primates. We show that similar priming-boosting vaccination strategies using the 85A antigen of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are effective in inducing antigen-specific gamma interferon-secreting CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, detected by a bovine enzyme-linked immunospot assay, in Bos indicus cattle. T-cell responses induced by priming with either plasmid DNA or fowlpox virus 85A constructs were enhanced by boosting with modified vaccinia virus Ankara expressing the same antigen administered intradermally. On the basis of the data, it appears that intradermal priming was more effective than intramuscular delivery of the priming dose for boosting with ...
Wijesundara, D & RANASINGHE, C 2012, Prime boost regimens for enhancing immunity: magnitude, quality of mucosal and systemic gene vaccines, in J Thalhamer, R Weiss, S Scheiblhofer (ed.), Gene Vaccines, Landes Bioscience/Springer Science+Business Media, New York, pp. 183-204. ...
It is a Phase I, multicenter primary/booster therapeutic vaccination study to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of ChAdV63.HIVcons and MVA.HIVconsv HIV-1 vaccines, delivered intramuscularly according to a 0-8 weeks or a 0-24 weeks schedule to recently HIV-1 infected individuals with early viral suppression 6 months after initiation of Tenofovir/Emtricitabine plus Raltegravir.. 24 patients who meet all eligibility criteria will be enrolled, first 10 individuals will be assigned in the 0-24 week prime/boost regimen (ARM A). The next 10 volunteers will be assigned in the 0-8 week prime/boost regimen (ARM B).Four additional volunteers will be included as back-up and assigned 2 in ARM A and 2 in ARM B to cover a possible 10% of patients who drop-off during the follow-up. Purpose of staging of 2 study arms is just to shorten overall study duration (from screening of first volunteer to 6 months after last immunisation of last volunteer).. Lastly, 24 patients who also meet all eligibility ...
Swadling L, Halliday J, Kelly C, Brown A, Capone S, Ansari MA, Bonsall D, Richardson R, Hartnell F, Collier J, Ammendola V, Del Sorbo M, Von Delft A, Traboni C, Hill AVS, Colloca S, Nicosia A, Cortese R, Klenerman P, Folgori A, Barnes E et al. 2016. Highly-Immunogenic Virally-Vectored T-cell Vaccines Cannot Overcome Subversion of the T-cell Response by HCV during Chronic Infection. Vaccines (Basel), 4 (3), pp. 27-27. , Show Abstract , Read more An effective therapeutic vaccine for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, as an adjunct to newly developed directly-acting antivirals (DAA), or for the prevention of reinfection, would significantly reduce the global burden of disease associated with chronic HCV infection. A recombinant chimpanzee adenoviral (ChAd3) vector and a modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA), encoding the non-structural proteins of HCV (NSmut), used in a heterologous prime/boost regimen induced multi-specific, high-magnitude, durable HCV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ ...
Two of Modernas COVID-19 vaccine booster shots under study induced an immune response against SARS-CoV-2 and variants first identified in South Africa and Brazil, the company announced Wednesday. A variant-specific booster shot resulted in higher levels of neutralizing antibodies against the concerning South African variant with fewer side effects than a third shot of the original vaccine.. The early findings stem from a Phase 2 trial, administering 50 µg dose of mRNA-1273 or the variant-specific shot, mRNA-1273.351, given as a booster to previously vaccinated individuals. Another vaccine under study involves a 50-50 mix of the previously authorized vaccine and the variant-specific booster shot in a single vaccine.. As we seek to defeat the ongoing pandemic, we remain committed to being proactive as the virus evolves. We are encouraged by these new data, which reinforce our confidence that our booster strategy should be protective against these newly detected variants, said Stéphane ...
RANASINGHE, C & Ramshaw, I 2009, Genetic heterologous prime-boost vaccination strategies for improved systemic and mucosal immunity, Expert Review of Vaccines, vol. 8, no. 9, pp. 1171-1181. ...
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In response to questions posed in the first part of this article, veterinary vaccinologists have recommended new protocols for dogs and cats. These include: 1) giving the puppy or kitten vaccine series followed by a booster at one year of age; 2) administering further boosters in a combination vaccine every three years or as split components alternating every other year until; 3) the pet reaches geriatric age, at which time booster vaccination is likely to be unnecessary and may be unadvisable for those with aging or immunologic disorders. In the intervening years between booster vaccinations, and in the case of geriatric pets, circulating humoral immunity can be evaluated by measuring serum vaccine antibody titers as an indication of the presence of immune memory. This latter phrase is more correct that protective immunity, because protection against disease means survival after challenge with the infectious agent and may not correlate with the serum antibody titer. Titers do not ...
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When it comes to vaccinating pets, there are many different views. Learn about core and non-core vaccines, vaccine boosters, and when and why you should vaccinate.
We have measured the energy spread of the Booster beam at its injection energy of 400 MeV by three different methods: (1) creating a notch of about 40 nsec wide in the beam immediately after multiple turn injection and measuring the slippage time required for high and low momentum particles for a grazing touch in line-charge distribution, (2) injecting partial turn beam and letting it to debunch, and (3) comparing the beam profile monitor data with predictions from MAD simulations for the 400 MeV injection beam line. The measurements are repeated under varieties of conditions of rf systems in the ring and in the beam transfer line. ...
While physician distrust and congressional criticism of the Clinton administrations Vaccines for Children program continue to dim prospects for a successful national immunization effort, providers are finding their own ways to protect the newest crop of toddlers. Soaring costs and lack of…
This phase IB follow-up study to assess the long-term safety, immunological and clinical activity of continued AFFITOPE PD01A vaccinations in patients with
This trial investigated the long-term persistence of a booster dose of Hib-meningococcal group C vaccine conjugate [Menitorix; GlaxoSmithKline] versus
It is generally accepted that if one should complete a primary series of vaccines, he needs only get a booster at the recommended intervals.
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The standard dosage for Hiberix is one injection given between 15 months and four years of age. This eMedTV Web page offers more information on how dosing works for the booster vaccine and explains why it may not be needed in some children.
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Moderna Announces Positive Initial Booster Data Against SARS-CoV-2 Variants of Concern - read this article along with other careers information, tips and advice on BioSpace
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Metabolism booster pills help you burn calories without exercising. Many products make this claim, but only a few ingredients are actually effective,...
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The American Academy of Pediatrics now recommends that 16-year-olds receive a booster dose of the meningococcal conjugate vaccine.
We now use modern vaccinations that require fewer injections. For kittens there is an initial vaccination at 8-9 weeks of age and then a single booster at 12 weeks of age. There is no need for a third kitten vaccination like in the old regime. For older cats, or cats with unknown vaccination status, we give an initial vaccination and then a booster 4 weeks later.. The big difference for annual boosters with our vaccination regime is that the Parvovirus component only needs to be given every 3 years. We firmly believe fewer vaccinations are healthier and safer for your cat. After starting vaccinations with us, your cat just needs a booster for cat flu (called an F2 vaccination) for the next two years. The Parvovirus vaccination is then only given every third year as an F3 vaccination.. Unlike the old regime we can reduce the number of vaccinations your kitten needs initially, and also for the rest of its life. This newer vaccination allows your kitten to be fully vaccinated earlier and have good ...
Encouraging efficacy data have been obtained in the hepatitis C virus (HCV) chimpanzee model using prophylactic vaccines comprising adjuvanted recombinant envelope gpE1/gpE2 glycoproteins or prime/boost immunization regimens using defective adenoviruses and plasmid DNA expressing non-structural genes. While usually not resulting in sterilizing immunity after experimental challenge, the progression to chronic, persistent infection (which is responsible for HCV-associated pathogenicity in human) is inhibited. These and other vaccine candidates are in clinical development for both prophylactic as well as possible therapeutic applications. Given that other vaccines tested in the chimpanzee model may be possibly increasing the rate of chronicity, it is very important that this model continues to be available and used prior to initiation of clinical development. Several vaccine monotherapy trials in chronically infected HCV patients are resulting in small declines in viral load, suggesting that in ...
Encouraging efficacy data have been obtained in the hepatitis C virus (HCV) chimpanzee model using prophylactic vaccines comprising adjuvanted recombinant envelope gpE1/gpE2 glycoproteins or prime/boost immunization regimens using defective adenoviruses and plasmid DNA expressing non-structural genes. While usually not resulting in sterilizing immunity after experimental challenge, the progression to chronic, persistent infection (which is responsible for HCV-associated pathogenicity in human) is inhibited. These and other vaccine candidates are in clinical development for both prophylactic as well as possible therapeutic applications. Given that other vaccines tested in the chimpanzee model may be possibly increasing the rate of chronicity, it is very important that this model continues to be available and used prior to initiation of clinical development. Several vaccine monotherapy trials in chronically infected HCV patients are resulting in small declines in viral load, suggesting that in ...
This week more shame was heaped upon the discredited British researcher whose work gave rise to the childhood-vaccines-cause-autism movement, as a prominent medical journal published a report th...
Two chimpanzees were vaccinated intramuscularly against malaria using plasmid DNA expressing the pre-erythrocytic antigens thrombospondin related adhesion protein (PfTRAP) and liver stage specific antigen-1 (PfLSA-1) of Plasmodium falciparum together with GM-CSF protein. A recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) expressing PfTRAP was injected intramuscularly 6 weeks later to boost the immune response. This sequence of antigen delivery induced a specific and long-lasting T cell and antibody response to PfTRAP as detected by ELISPOT assay and ELISA. Antibody responses were detected after four DNA injections, and were boosted by injection of recombinant MVA expressing PfTRAP. Interferon-gamma secreting antigen-specific T cells were detected in both animals, but only after boosting with recombinant MVA. By screening a panel of PfTRAP-derived peptides, an epitope was identified that was recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes in one of the chimpanzees studied. T cells specific for this epitope were
Homologous prime-boost vaccination with OVA entrapped in self-adjuvanting archaeosomes induces high numbers of OVA-Specific CD8+ T cells that protect against subcutaneous B16-OVA melanoma
A vaccine that elicits broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) against HIV-1 is likely to be protective, but this has not been achieved. To explore immunization regimens that might elicit bNAbs, we produced and immunized mice expressing the predicted germline PGT121, a bNAb specific for the V3-loop and surrounding glycans on the HIV-1 spike. Priming with an epitope-modified immunogen designed to activate germline antibody-expressing B cells, followed by ELISA-guided boosting with a sequence of directional immunogens, native-like trimers with decreasing epitope modification, elicited heterologous tier-2-neutralizing responses. In contrast, repeated immunization with the priming immunogen did not. Antibody cloning confirmed elicitation of high levels of somatic mutation and tier-2-neutralizing antibodies resembling the authentic human bNAb. Our data establish that sequential immunization with specifically designed immunogens can induce high levels of somatic mutation and shepherd antibody ...
To the editor: In their paper Repeated Immunization: Possible Adverse Effects, White, Adler, and McGann (1) report on less than 10% of 700 male employees at Fort Derrick who since 1956 had received multiple immunizations; despite some interesting minor laboratory abnormalities in this group, the authors conclude that chronic stimulation of the immunoglobulin-stimulating system in the human seems to cause no adverse effects, unlike amyloid disease, myeloma, and hypersensitivity reported in laboratory animals. As in a similar study referred to, that is, the soldiers receiving influenza vaccine, the subjects studied were always or almost always men well above adolescent age. ...
A malaria vaccine is a public health priority. In order to produce an effective vaccine, a multi-stage approach targeting both the blood and the liver stage infection is desirable. The vaccine candidates also need to induce balanced immune responses including antibodies, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Protein-based subunit vaccines like RTS,S are able to induce strong antibody response but poor cellular reactivity. Adenoviral vectors have been effective inducing protective CD8+ T cell responses in several models including malaria; nonetheless this vaccine platform exhibits a limited induction of humoral immune responses. Two approaches have been used to improve the humoral immunogenicity of recombinant adenovirus vectors, the use of heterologous prime-boost regimens with recombinant proteins or the genetic modification of the hypervariable regions (HVR) of the capsid protein hexon to express B cell epitopes of interest. In this study, we describe the development of capsid modified Ad5 vectors that ...
A Phase I study, called RV262, recently began to evaluate a combination DNA prime/MVA vector boost vaccine regimen that was developed to protect against diverse subtypes of HIV-1 prevalent in North America, Europe, Africa and South America.
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UNICEF will commemorate World Immunisation Week and support routine immunisation outreach so babies from birth to 12 months receive all vital vaccines, by providing four vehicles to Vanuatus Ministry of
Effect of elapsed time between BCG priming and AdHu5Ag85A boost immunization on Ag-specific responses boosted by AdHu5Ag85A boost immunization.Infant and adult
Immunisation in Australia isnt compulsory - and doesnt need to be controversial. Most Australians recognise the incredible benefits that vaccination provides to prevent serious disease.
In one of the largest private sector donations of its kind, the Mastercard Foundation announced it will give $1.3 billion over the next three years to vaccinate 50 million people in Africa. Fewer than 2 percent of the people there have gotten a single dose of the COVID-19 vaccine, far lower than many wealthy countries. Ajay Banga, Mastercards executive chairman, joins Amna Nawaz to discuss.
The International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) is a global not-for-profit organization whose mission is to ensure the development of safe, effective, accessible, preventive HIV vaccines for use throughout the world.
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Every year, thousands of American children go through the tearful, teeth-gritting ordeal of getting their vaccinations, only to be forced to do it all over again. The vaccines were duds, ruined by poor refrigeration.
Ten researchers from the CDCs NCIRD released a paper arguing that because the immune-boosting effects of breastmilk, nursing mothers should delay breastfeeding their infants.
Ten researchers from the CDCs NCIRD released a paper arguing that because the immune-boosting effects of breastmilk, nursing mothers should delay breastfeeding their infants.
Actually, it would be more believable if you posted articles not by Classen. Because this link says: The only evidence suggesting a relationship between vaccination and diabetes comes from Dr. John B. Classen, who has suggested that certain vaccines if given at birth may decrease the occurrence of diabetes, whereas if initial vaccination is performed after 2 months of age the occurrence of diabetes increases. Dr. Classens studies have a number of limitations and have not been verified by other researchers.. Delete ...
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Without a record of immunization (or proof of immunity to a disease), a person is considered unimmunized and unprotected and should generally be vaccinated (or revaccinated) to ensure protection. It is safe to repeat vaccines. You can also have your blood tested for antibodies to determine your immunity to certain diseases. Your health care provider can help you determine what is best for you. ...
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Naturally, you can achieve some of these benefits, especially weight loss and building lean muscle, by working out and eating right as well as supplementing with PrimeMale. But even if you dont, just taking PrimeMale by itself is enough to raise your testosterone to levels you enjoyed 5, 10, even 20 years ago or more! But be careful when shopping for a testosterone booster. Some T-boosters contain only marginal amounts of too many nonessential ingredients, so they appear to have more T-boosting nutrients, but actually the doses are too small to do you any good. Other testosterone boosters have too-large mega doses of key vitamins and minerals. This not only wastes your money, but in some cases may be harmful to your health. And never buy any supplement that doesnt list all the ingredients and dosages on their web site! Only the formulators of PrimeMale have carefully selected the 12 natural testosterone-boosting compounds backed by extensive clinical research, in the optimal daily dosages. ...
Jordan, B. B. (1999). Secondary immunization. New York: Berkley Prime Crime. ISBN 978-0425171189. OCLC 42654221. Jordan, B. B ... in Secondary Immunization (1999) she uncovers a conspiracy that uses the immune systems of patients to carry information for a ...
Secondary measles vaccine failure in healthcare workers exposed to infected patients. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1993;14(2): ... Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recomm Rep 2005;54(RR-8):1-40. Weinstock DM, ... Vaccinia (smallpox) vaccine: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2001. MMWR Recomm Rep ... recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recomm Rep 1998;47(RR-8):157. Fleischauer AT, ...
... to require immunization against human papillomavirus or other immunizations for a person's admission to elementary or secondary ... Canadian Immunization Committee. Recommendations for human papillomavirus immunization programs. Canada Communicable Disease ... Voluntary immunization for women not yet sexually active Denmark[93] 1 January 2009 F 12 Fully financed by national health ... HPV Immunization Launched Archived 2007-10-13 at the Wayback Machine *^ "McGuinty Government Launches Life-Saving HPV ...
Primary and secondary education were boosted greatly. He specially supported the polytechnic university. Ruiz equipped the ... Therefore, he fought malnutrition among children and promoted an immunization campaign. Ruiz Cortines turned his attention to ... but did his secondary educational studies at the Colegio de los Jesuitas, and at the age twelve, he attended the reputed ...
This effect is usually overcome by secondary responses to booster immunization. Maternal antibodies protect against some ... Passive immunization is used when there is a high risk of infection and insufficient time for the body to develop its own ... Passive immunization can be provided when people cannot synthesize antibodies, and when they have been exposed to a disease ... Immunization is often required shortly following birth to prevent diseases in newborns such as tuberculosis, hepatitis B, polio ...
... has a school (Boggabilla Central School with preparatory, primary, and secondary grades) and a TAFE (a campus of New ... The nurses at Boggabilla Health Centre provide services such as preschool screening and immunisation. ...
It has a complete secondary school which offers agro - industrial technology and basic academic requirements. Also, Las Navas ... It is through this government organization where health care and family planning including immunization are implemented. ...
Levels of child immunisation were raised from 25% of the population to 92%. A new leadership elite were formed, who often ... In 1980, Zimbabwe had just 177 secondary schools, by 2000 this number had risen to 1,548. During that period, the adult ... He taught at Apowa Secondary School, also at Takoradi, after obtaining his local certification at Achimota College (1958-1960 ...
... and Labrador Childhood Immunizations Yukon to offer free HPV immunization to boys NWT Immunization Schedule Immunization ... To ensure high uptake, the vaccine is administered to teenagers aged 12-13 in their first year of secondary school, with the ... Disease and Vaccines Manitoba's Immunization Program: Vaccines Offered Free-of-Charge Immunization Schedule Newfoundland ... Immunization as of 2017 is free for males and females aged 9 to 26 years. The public funding began on 1 September 2008. The ...
The immunisation coverage is at 61% and still below the national target of 90%. HIV prevalence is at 3.5% below the national ... There are 1054 ECD centres 803 primary schools and 229 secondary schools. The county has also 1 teachers training colleges, 6 ...
Routine immunizations against common childhood infections and annual influenza immunization can also help prevent any secondary ...
He worked on immunizations and antitoxins against diseases, including tetanus and diphtheria, and, later, chemical weapons. His ... In 1921 he and H. J. Südmersen discovered the primary and secondary immune response. In the same paper they also briefly ...
These secondary electrons also are accelerated, creating larger numbers of free electrons. The resulting exponential growth of ... A virus (for example COVID-19, or smallpox) typically will spread exponentially at first, if no artificial immunization is ...
... in this case the secondary lymph nodes. This is the reason why parenteral immunization with non-replicating antigens is ... The primary immunization program may be repeated, if reinfection or relapse occurs. Common side effects include pain, redness ... A number of studies have been published on the humoral responses to primary and booster immunization in serum and in the ... An at least threefold elevation of the agglutination titres following primary immunization was detected in the serum of 93.8% ...
Zimbabwe had just 177 secondary schools, by 2000 this number had risen to 1,548.[181] During that period, the adult literacy ... rate rose from 62% to 82%, one of the best records in Africa.[181] Levels of child immunisation were raised from 25% of the ... He taught at Apowa Secondary School, also at Takoradi, after obtaining his local certification at Achimota College (1958-1960 ...
... upon secondary contact to the same parasite. Social immunisation has been so far described in a dampwood termite-fungus system ... social immunisation'. Social immunisation occurs when some proportion of the group's members are exposed to a parasite, which ... In social animals, immunisation is not restricted to the level of the individual, but can also occur at the society level, via ... This method of immunisation parallels variolation, an early form of human vaccination, which used live pathogens to protect ...
In addition, libraries and a career guidance centre would be set up in all corporation high and higher secondary schools.[38] ... Administration of maternity and child welfare centers, family welfare and immunization programmes ... Administration of schools from elementary to higher secondary levels, community colleges and nutritious meals centers ...
The Gender sub-category includes seven indicators measuring Gender Equality, Gender Balance in Primary and Secondary Education ... The Health sub-category includes six indicators measuring Maternal Mortality, Child Mortality, Immunization (Measles & DPT), ... Progression to Secondary School, Tertiary Enrolment and Literacy. ...
Epstein-Barr virus is also known to induce dsDNA antibodies, as seen after immunisation of animals with EBNA-1 epitopes. Anti- ... Upon incubation with serum containing anti-dsDNA antibodies and fluorescent labelled secondary antibodies, homogeneous staining ... the antibodies will bind to the DNA and can then be visualised using enzyme-linked secondary antibodies. This assay can be ... the antibodies will bind and fluorescent labelled secondary antibodies will be used for detection. The beads are run through a ...
Secondary preventionEdit. Secondary prevention deals with latent diseases and attempts to prevent an asymptomatic disease from ... Childhood immunization policies Despite nationwide controversies over childhood vaccination and immunization, there are ... Immunization Action Coalition. (2018). State mandates on immunization and vaccine-preventable diseases. Accessed 3/18/18 from ... whereas secondary prevention aims to detect and treat a disease early on.[32] Secondary prevention consists of "early diagnosis ...
Examples of risk factors includes decreased immune system secondary to disease, compromised circulation secondary to peripheral ... Immunization is another common medical intervention for those who are at high risk for infection. Hand washing is the best way ... and their immunization history. They should also be assessed for objective signs such as the presence of wounds, fever, or ... vascular disease, compromised skin integrity secondary to surgery, or repeated contact with contagious agents. The patient ...
As a secondary result, the company was forced to conduct a reverse stock split in order to maintain Nasdaq minimum ... the vaccine was also in 2016 being tested against infant RSV infection through the route of maternal immunization. In 2019, ... 89 million research grant from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation for development of vaccines for maternal immunization. In ... to support the development of a vaccine against human respiratory syncytial virus for infants via maternal immunization. In ...
St.Johns Girls secondary school is in Kaloleni. In 2009 construction of a new dormitory was completed with the support of the ... immunization and treatment of childhood diseases, and tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment. Kaloleni Junior academy in Kaloleni ...
On the other hand, both public and private sectors work together in the provision of the secondary and tertiary lines of care. ... integrated management of childhood immunization (IMCI), management of common diseases and prescribing the essential medications ... Another notifiable weakness regarding PHC, is that unlike the secondary and tertiary services that are increasing in number, ... The health services provided in Sudan follow the classical three basic arrangements, primary, secondary, tertiary health care. ...
This antigenic drift may have led to immunization failure and may explain the current prevalence of the H9N2 influenza virus in ... It makes chickens more susceptible to secondary infections, especially Escherichia coli infections with a mortality rate of at ...
Phase 2, completed in March 2014, continued the progress of phase 1 and expanded the targeted number of secondary schools to ... Additionally, the project increased prenatal care coverage, newborn hepatitis B immunization, primary care utilization per ... Phase 1 targeted preschools and secondary education in 7 out of Uzbekistan's 12 oblasts. The project was completed in February ... 2011 and resulted in 80% of targeted schools receiving improved materials, effecting 1,501 secondary schools and 598 preschools ...
MHC class II thus mediates immunization to-or, if APCs polarize Th0 cells principally to Treg cells, immune tolerance of-an ... by skewing the immune response that memory Th cells coordinate when their memory recall is triggered upon secondary exposure to ... as well as one's susceptibility to autoimmune diseases via cross-reacting immunization. In a cell, protein molecules of the ...
Students can be excluded from school unless they comply with all the State Department of Health's extensive immunization ... Mid Valley Secondary Center, 2013 Pennsylvania Department of Education (December 4, 2014). "Mid Valley Secondary Center Fast ... At Mid Valley Secondary Center just 11% of the students who took an AP course earned a 3 or better on the exam. AYP History In ... Mid Valley Secondary Center offers a free or reduced-price lunch to children in low income families. All students attending the ...
She completed her secondary studies with honors in 1933, but was not allowed to study medicine. Encouraged by Károly Jármai, a ... The purpose of the institute was to develop immunization processes and controls for developing and administering vaccines and ... Active Immunization". Acta veterinaria. Budapest: Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae. 18 (3): 245-250. ISSN 0001-7205. Simonyi, ... Under her leadership, the Institute focused on developing immunization processes and control procedures for administering and ...
... immunization with recombinant protein and immunization with pDNA are summarised in Table 4. DNA-raised antibody responses rise ... Transfected Langerhans cells migrate out of the skin (within 12 hours) to the draining lymph node where they prime secondary B ... DNA immunization can be used to bias the TH profile of the immune response and thus the antibody isotype, which is not possible ... Wunderlich G, Moura IC, del Portillo HA (October 2000). "Genetic immunization of BALB/c mice with a plasmid bearing the gene ...
"Spinal manipulation for primary and secondary dysmenorrhoea". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 3 (3): CD002119. doi: ... Russell ML, Injeyan HS, Verhoef MJ, Eliasziw M (2004). "Beliefs and behaviours: understanding chiropractors and immunization". ... Wardle, Jon; Frawley, Jane; Steel, Amie; Sullivan, Elizabeth (2016). "Complementary medicine and childhood immunisation: A ... "secondary effects" of subluxations) to be unnecessary for chiropractic treatment.[36] Thus, straight chiropractors are ...
ImmunizationEdit. Ovandrotone albumin (Fecundin, Ovastim) and Androvax (androstenedione albumin) are immunogens and vaccines ... the development of masculine secondary sexual characteristics like male-pattern facial and body hair growth (or hirsutism), ...
safe sex - safer sex - salmonella - salvage therapy - SAMHSA - sarcoma - seborrheic dermatitis - secondary prophylaxis - sepsis ... immunization - immunocompetent - immunocompromised - immunodeficiency - immunogen - immunogenicity - immunoglobulin (Ig) - ...
Reduced funding for immunisation leaves only 43.5% of the young fully immunised. A study conducted by the Future Health Systems ... secondary and tertiary care. In twelfth plan period entire Below Poverty Line(BPL) population will be covered through RSBY ... "Barriers to access immunisation services: a study in Murshidabad, West Bengal". FHS Research Brief (3). "Medical and Healthcare ... absent or inadequately trained health workers and low perceived need for immunization. Infrastructure like hospitals, roads, ...
Primary care is focused on immunization, prevention of malnutrition, pregnancy, child birth, postnatal care, and treatment of ... Patients who receive specialized care or have complicated illnesses are referred to secondary (often located in district and ...
Nicas M, Nazaroff WW, Hubbard A (2005). "Toward understanding the risk of secondary airborne infection: emission of respirable ... "Vaccine and Immunizations: TB Vaccine (BCG)". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2011.. ...
TNF can be produced ectopically in the setting of malignancy and parallels parathyroid hormone both in causing secondary ... Beutler B, Milsark IW, Cerami AC (August 1985). "Passive immunization against cachectin/tumor necrosis factor protects mice ...
Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)". MMWR. Recommendations and Reports. 54 (RR-8): 1-40 ... Occasionally, influenza can cause severe illness including primary viral pneumonia or secondary bacterial pneumonia.[31][32] ... A 2018 Cochrane review of children in good general health found that the live immunization seemed to lower the risk of getting ... In later pandemics antibiotics were available to control secondary infections and this may have helped reduce mortality ...
Vaccine and Immunizations: TB Vaccine (BCG) [online]. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011 [cit. 2011-06-13]. ... Nicas, M., Nazaroff, W. W., Hubbard, A. Toward understanding the risk of secondary airborne infection: emission of respirable ... WHO/UNICEF Review of National Immunization Coverage 1980-2005: South Africa [online]. Světová zdravotnická organizace, 2006-08 ... Tuberculin reactivity after newborn BCG immunization in mono‐ and dizygotic twins. Tubercle and Lung Disease. 1994, roč. 75, ...
There is also a high likelihood of chronic sleep disorders secondary to both physical and environmental factors.[38] Children ... CP is partly preventable through immunization of the mother and efforts to prevent head injuries in children such as through ... The neurological lesion is primary and permanent while orthopedic manifestations are secondary and progressive. In cerebral ... the role of the occupational therapist in preventing secondary disability". American Journal of Occupational Therapy. 45 (10): ...
repositories of data from completed clinical trials (for secondary analyses). History[edit]. Worldwide use of computer ... In part, this was due to some areas of health services (for example the immunization and vaccination of children) still being ... Interoperation between primary and secondary care systems is rather primitive. It is hoped that a focus on interworking (for ... The degree of computerization in NHS secondary care was quite high before NPfIT, and the programme stagnated further ...
In the 1870s, he applied this immunization method to anthrax, which affected cattle, and aroused interest in combating other ... Pasteur attended secondary school at the Collège d'Arbois.[15] In October 1838, he left for Paris to join the Pension Barbet, ...
FDA Product Approval - Immunization Action Coalition Archived 2017-04-15 at the Wayback Machine ... Fever is rare and should raise suspicion for secondary infection. Patients can be lethargic and might have sunken eyes, dry ... The WHO recommends immunization of high-risk groups, such as children and people with HIV, in countries where this disease is ...
Pain management, tetanus immunization, laboratory evaluation, and medical supervision in the case of complications are ... as an allergic reaction and secondary infection are always possible. ...
1999). Issues relating to the use of BCG in immunization programs. Geneva: World Health Organization. ... Nicas M, Nazaroff WW, Hubbard A (2005). "Toward understanding the risk of secondary airborne infection: emission of respirable ...
... reduce invironmental stress factors such as gases and air currents use immunizations and preventive medications for secondary ... Many pigs affected by the circovirus also seem to develop secondary bacterial infections, like Glässer disease (Haemophilus ...
in: Immunisation Against Infectious Disease, 2006 (PDF). Edinburgh: Stationery Office. str. 313-29. ISBN 0-11-322528-8.. CS1 ... Davis L; Bodian D; Price D; Butler I; Vickers J (1977). "Chronic progressive poliomyelitis secondary to vaccination of an ... Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation (Salisbury A, Ramsay M, Noakes K (eds.) (2006). Chapter 26:Poliomyelitis. ... "Polio immunisation rate in Syria close to pre-war level -WHO". Reuters ...
ImmunizationEdit. Historically, infectious disease has been the leading cause of death in the human population. Over the last ... Sadd BM, Schmid-Hempel P (June 2006). "Insect immunity shows specificity in protection upon secondary pathogen exposure". ... The principle behind immunization is to introduce an antigen, derived from a disease-causing organism, that stimulates the ... century, two important factors have been developed to combat their spread: sanitation and immunization.[5] Immunization ( ...
At the prenatal and neonatal stages of life, the presence of antibodies is provided by passive immunization from the mother. ... Secondary antibodies. *Single-domain antibody. *Slope spectroscopy. *Western blot normalization. References[edit]. *^ a b c d ... other foreign antigen exposure or passive immunization. These antibodies can activate the classical complement pathway leading ... "Immunization". Immunology - Chapter 14. University of South Carolina School of Medicine. Archived from the original on 18 ...
By law, all Pennsylvania secondary school students must complete a project as a part of their eligibility to graduate from high ... 10-984 School Immunizations; Communicable and Noncommunicable Diseases". York Dispatch (February 4, 2016). "All PA high schools ... Students can be excluded from school unless they comply with all the State Department of Health's extensive immunization ... public school students must demonstrate successful completion of secondary level course work in Algebra I, Biology, and English ...
"Child, Adolescent & "Catch-up" Immunization Schedules". Immunization Schedules. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. ... either direct viral pneumonia or secondary bacterial pneumonia),[58] bronchitis (either viral bronchitis or secondary bacterial ... Routine immunization of children is recommended in many countries.[10] Immunization within three days of exposure may improve ... A second dose is recommended five years after the initial immunization.[36] A vaccinated person is likely to have a milder case ...
However, upon immunization with SRBC (sheep red blood cells), these mice demonstrated a deficiency in the maturation of an ... It is important to know how primary and secondary necrotic cells can be distinguished by analysis of supernatant for caspases, ...
2006). "Secondary degeneration reduced by inosine after spinal cord injury in rats". Spinal Cord 44 (7): 421-6. PMID 16317421. ... Rutschmann, OT; McCrory, DC; Matchar, DB; Immunization Panel of the Multiple Sclerosis Council for Clinical Practice Guidelines ... Dec 2002). "Immunization and MS: a summary of published evidence and recommendations". Neurology 59 (12): 1837-1843. PMID ...
Vaccine and Immunizations: TB Vaccine (BCG). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2011. Hentet 26. juli 2011.. ... Nicas M, Nazaroff WW, Hubbard A (2005). "Toward understanding the risk of secondary airborne infection: emission of respirable ...
Immunization[edit]. An animal's exposure to the antigens of a different member of the same or similar species is ... At secondary exposure, these crossreactive antibody molecules interact with aspects of innate immunity-soluble immune proteins ... a secondary exposure. This is typical of minor blood group exposure (e.g. Kell) following allogenic blood transfusion or trauma ... and the patient eventually succumbs to pulmonary insufficiency or secondary acute infection. ...
Students can be excluded from school unless they comply with all the State Department of Health's extensive immunization ... all Pennsylvania secondary school students must complete a project as a part of their eligibility to graduate from high school ... 10-984 School Immunizations; Communicable and Noncommunicable Diseases". Pennsylvania Department of Health (2014). "School ... public school students must demonstrate successful completion of secondary level course work in Algebra I, Biology, and English ...
secondary care follow up to first aid in remote settings, such as expeditions ... Immunizations for travel. *Tick-borne illness, malaria and tropical diseases. *Parasites and protozoal infections in the ... evaluation of experience and issuance of updated protocols for first response and secondary care ...
Primary immunization consisted of 3 injections at 6 week intervals, and 148 women known to be previously fertile completed ... Immunity against GnRH thus lessens FSH and LH production which in turn attenuates gamete production and secondary sexual ... O'Rand, MG; J Beavers; E Widgren; K Tung (1993). "Inhibition of fertility in female mice by immunization with a B-cell epitope ... doi:10.1111/j.1600-0897.2011.01002.x. Miller, LA; BE Johns; GJ Killian (1999). "Long-term effects of PZP immunization on ...
Whenever the Allies open a second front on the Continent, it will be decidedly a secondary front to that of Russia; theirs will ... "Implications of the Diphtheria Epidemic in the Former Soviet Union for Immunization Programs". Journal of Infectious Diseases ... See also: List of primary and secondary sources on the Cold War ...
Evaluation of immunization rates and AEFIs [Adverse Events Following Immunization] among children with mitochondrial disorders ... characterization of these sources as being unreliable based solely on the perception that they are primary and not secondary? ... Regarding the research that has gone on, per the CDC scientific agenda (pdf above): "CISA [the CDC's Clinical Immunization ... Here are the details: In its 5-year scientific agenda, released February 2011, the Centers for Disease Control's Immunization ...
Incremental cost effectiveness of supplementary immunization activities to prevent neonatal tetanus in Pakistan / Ulla K. ...
Cellular and Humoral Immune Response to Primary and Secondary Immunization With Subvirion H5N1 Vaccines. The safety and ... Evaluation of the Safety and Cellular and Humoral Immune Response to Primary and Secondary Immunization With Subvirion H5N1 ... Secondary Outcome Measures : *Levels of HAI antibody recognizing A/Indonesia/05 (Clade 2), A/Vietnam/04 (Clade 1) and ... The secondary objective is to: determine the effects of priming with a clade 1 vaccine on antibody responses to revaccination ...
2020 at Gananoque Secondary School, Gananoque, ON. Find event and ticket information. ... Grenville and Lanark District Health Unit presents Gananoque Secondary School Immunization Clinic - Sunday, November 1, ... Gananoque Secondary School Immunization Clinic at Gananoque Secondary School 175 William Street, Gananoque, ON K7G 1S8, Canada ... Gananoque Secondary School Immunization Clinic. by Leeds, Grenville and Lanark District Health Unit ...
A, p18-specific CD8+ T cells generated following the secondary immunization. B, Fold increase in the level of secondary CD8+ T ... C, Two weeks after the secondary immunization, splenocytes were exposed for 6 h to medium alone (Med.) or p18 peptide (2 μg/ml ... Elimination of the ear pinnae 5 days after the priming immunization was associated with a secondary response that was similar ... Duration of Antigen Expression In Vivo following DNA Immunization Modifies the Magnitude, Contraction, and Secondary Responses ...
Detection and Enumeration of Immunocytes Producing Different Classes of Vibriolysins after Primary and Secondary Immunization ... Detection and Enumeration of Immunocytes Producing Different Classes of Vibriolysins after Primary and Secondary Immunization ... Detection and Enumeration of Immunocytes Producing Different Classes of Vibriolysins after Primary and Secondary Immunization ... Detection and Enumeration of Immunocytes Producing Different Classes of Vibriolysins after Primary and Secondary Immunization ...
... Palgen, J.-L., ... "Innate and secondary humoral responses are improved by increasing the time between MVA vaccine immunizations" npj Vaccines ( ... Indeed, the time-interval between immunizations may influence B and T cells, as well as innate responses. We compared two ... 2 weeks apart led to an impaired secondary antibody response and similar innate myeloid responses to both immunizations. In ...
Publication types, MeSH terms, Secondary source ID, Grant support. Publication types. *Randomized Controlled Trial ... Among children needing immunizations, 18.7% became UTD in Pop-recall versus 12.8% in PCP-recall counties (P , .001); 31.8% had ... This cluster-randomized trial involved children aged 19 to 35 months needing immunizations in 8 rural and 6 urban Colorado ... In Pop-recall counties, recall was conducted centrally using the Colorado Immunization Information System (CIIS). In PCP-recall ...
Publication type, MeSH terms, Substances, Secondary source ID. Publication type. *Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt ... Pandemic influenza immunization in primary antiphospholipid syndrome (PAPS): a trigger to thrombosis and autoantibody ... and three weeks and six months after immunization remained unchanged in patients (p = 0.89) and controls (p = 0.83). The ...
menuToggle Secondary Menu Enrollment in ALERT IIS *ALERT IIS. *Enrollment in ALERT IIS ... Generating verified immunization reports for schools and child care facilities. Authorized Users of ALERT IIS. All health care ... Calculating the immunization status of the providers patient base. *Helping to prevent missed opportunities or over- ... Clarifying complex, changing immunization schedules and emerging vaccine combinations. *Helping to reduce the spread of vaccine ...
... awardees to raise immunization coverage levels, reduce missed opportunities to vaccinate, and improve standards of practices at ... Immunization Provider Information. *AFIX Immunization Assessment System. menuToggle Secondary Menu AFIX Immunization Assessment ... Clinic workflow around immunizations. How does AFIX work?. Participating clinics receive an assessment of their immunization ... Immunization coverage rates; patients better protected against vaccine preventable diseases *Consistency in immunization ...
Secondary Source. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Source Reference: Lu PJ, et al "State-Specific Influenza Vaccination ... Flu Vaccine Supply Rebounds but Immunization Rates Dont. ATLANTA -- Influenza vaccination rates have not rebounded after ... For healthcare providers, this means strict adherence to the CDCs recommended adult immunization practices and a willingness ...
École Handsworth Secondary. 1044 Edgewood Road, North Vancouver, BC, V7R 1Y7 ,. Phone: 604.903.3600 Fax: 604.903.3601 , Email: ... Student were asked to return their Immunization form to the main school office before the Clinic. This assisted in the ... If your student missed getting their immunizations at the school on October 7, please contact the Public Health Nurse.. ... The 2020-2021 Handsworth Grade 9 Immunization Clinic were held on Wednesday, October 7, 2020 ...
General Best Practice Guidelines for Immunization. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) ... Secondary. HIV/AIDS. OPV(b). Smallpox. BCG. LAIV. MMRVWithhold MMR, varicella, and zoster in severely immunocompromised ... Advisory committee on immunization practices recommended immunization schedule for adults aged 19 years or older-United States ... Advisory committee on immunization practices recommended immunization schedules for persons aged 0 through 18 years-United ...
title = "Immunization of children with secondary immunodeficiency",. abstract = "The main causes of secondary immunodeficiency ... Immunization of children with secondary immunodeficiency. Together they form a unique fingerprint. * Immunization Medicine & ... Immunization of children with secondary immunodeficiency. In: Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics. 2015 ; Vol. 11, No. 11. pp ... Esposito S, Prada E, Lelii M, Castellazzi L. Immunization of children with secondary immunodeficiency. Human Vaccines and ...
Student Wellbeing , One of our goals at Mill Park Secondary College is to ensure that every student is known. Read More ... Our College , At Mill Park Secondary College, we encourage all of our students to Create your future. Read More ...
Secondary immunisation. The first booster dose. Children aged 4 to 5 years are given a booster dose of tetanus vaccine as part ... In 1st year of secondary school, students are given a booster dose of tetanus vaccine which is contained in theTDaP vaccine ... Tetanus is rare because the tetanus vaccine is part of the routine childhood immunisation programme. ...
CHAPTER 2 - ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION. ARTICLE 16 - STUDENTS. PART 3 - HEALTH. § 20-2-771 - Immunization of students. ... Immunization of students (a) As used in this Code section, the term:. (1) "Certificate of immunization" means certification by ... the immunization may be required in cases when such disease is in epidemic stages. For a child to be exempt from immunization ... Justia US Law US Codes and Statutes Georgia Code 2010 Georgia Code TITLE 20 - EDUCATION CHAPTER 2 - ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY ...
Report your childs vaccines to Public Health Provide a copy of your childs yellow immunization card or a record from their ... Secondary Menu. Clinics & Services. Alcohol, Drug & Gambling Clinics & Programs. Breastfeeding Services & Supports. Cancer ...
For the secondary analyses, exposure is defined as either:. *. AIR-documented receipt of one or more doses of wP at any age or ... A re-evaluation of immunisation coverage estimates from the Australian Childhood Immunisation Register. Commun Dis Intell 2000; ... For secondary analyses: (1), a childs exposure will be coded as either:. aP_only: all pertussis vaccine doses as aP, none as ... For secondary analyses: (2), a childs exposure will also be coded as either:. aP_only: all pertussis vaccine doses as aP, none ...
Immunisation Consent Cards for Year 10 Students. All Year 10 Immunisation Consent cards are due to be returned to the Home ... The immunisation is on Wednesday, 26th June, but we need to be organised well ahead. Any queries should be checked out with ... The cards need to be filled in and signed in the appropriate section whether or not your child is having the immunisation. ...
For information on the Victorian Secondary School Immunisation Program and what free vaccinations adults may be eligible for in ... As most students are now learning from home, the secondary school immunisation program will change for Term 2. ... International secondary students. If youre an international student in Year 7 of secondary school, you are eligible for school ... Childhood vaccinations - after 1996: Australian Immunisation Register. *Other vaccinations, e.g. secondary school vaccinations ...
Immunization billing when Medicare is secondary payer. Q. My patient has another insurance primary to Medicare that does not ... cover immunizations. Do I have to bill that insurance and get a denial before billing Medicare? ...
Vaccines & Immunizations. 01/16/2019 Vaccines & Immunizations Partnership to supercharge vaccine production ... Higher Incidence of Secondary Breast Cancer Seen Among Black Women Regardless of Age. ...
secondary packaging or secondary carton. A carton which contains a number of individual primary containers. Most countries have ... immunization device. An instrument or apparatus adapted for a specific purpose related to immunization. WHO-prequalified ... immunization product. Item of equipment created for use in immunization programmes. WHO-prequalified products include ... secondary chemical reference substance. A secondary chemical reference substance is a substance whose characteristics are ...
The Canadian Immunization Guide is a comprehensive resource on immunization. The guide consists of 54 chapters organized into 5 ... Routine immunization. Health care workers. Travellers to destinations outside North America. Students in post-secondary ... Refer to Immunization of adults for additional information about routinely recommended immunization for adults as well as ... Refer to Immunization of immunocompromised persons and Post-exposure immunization and outbreak control for more information. ...
Secondary navigation. *Students. *Faculty/Staff. * Quick Links * Quick Links. *Hours *After Hours ... Immunizations. Occupational Health provides immunization for employees if there is a health and safety mandate by OSHA, or it ... Immunizations not provided by OHC:. Employees are referred to their primary caregiver or to the International Travel Clinic at ... Immunizations that are provided at no cost to an employee or department, and are routinely stocked by OHC, include:. *Tetanus/ ...
Secondary Schools. From 1 April 2018, secondary schools became subject to the same immunisation requirements that previously ... If an Immunisation History Statement, AIR Immunisation History Form or an AIR Immunisation Medical Exemption form is ... The only acceptable evidence of immunisation is an Australian Immunisation Register (AIR) Immunisation History Statement (see ... Secondary students should be recorded as unimmunised if they present with:. an AIR Immunisation History Statement that lists ...
Secondary navigation. *Students. *Faculty/Staff. * Quick Links * Quick Links. *Hours *After Hours ... Why Does UC Berkeley have a TB and Immunization Mandate? Why Does UC Berkeley have a TB and Immunization Mandate?. Video of Why ... Enter your documented immunization dates and upload records of all self-reported immunizations on eTang under "Medical ... For those that were remote in Fall 2020 or Spring 2021, the TB and Immunization requirements were put on hold. At this time for ...
contagion; infectious diseases; developing countries; risk factors; immunization; air transport. Descriptors (secondary). ...
Communication research on immunisation. A collection of ECDC resources on research related to communicating about immunisation. ... Communication toolkit on immunisation. Supporting EU/EEA countries in their communication initiatives to increase immunisation ... Communication guides on immunisation. A collection of ECDC guides related to communicating about immunisation. ... Secondary Navigation. * News & events * Publications & data * Tools * About us * Search Search. Search. ...
  • There are many diseases and infections that the City of Greater Dandenong immunisation service protects your child against for free as part of the National Immunisation Program. (
  • There are several vaccinations recommended for secondary school students according to the National Immunisation Program, and these are given at school, by council's qualified nurse immunisers. (
  • In contrast, rates of adherence to immunisations on the National Immunisation Program (NIP) Schedule are high, even among this target population. (
  • The National Immunisation Committee (NIC) provides policy and program advice on the National Immunisation Program (NIP) to the Commonwealth. (
  • The U.S. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) has created a schedule of vaccines that should be administered at various intervals. (
  • 4 , ,5 Thus, in 1997 the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommended that poliovirus vaccine in the United States be delivered via a sequential IPV/OPV schedule, a change from the all-OPV schedule previously endorsed. (
  • Polio-myelitis prevention in the United States: introduction of a sequential schedule of inactivated poliovirus vaccine followed by oral poliovirus vaccine: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. (
  • The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) has recommended cocooning with Tdap vaccine since 2005 and has continued to recommend this strategy for all those with expected close contact with infants. (
  • In the United States , recommendations for vaccine use are made by the Public Health Service Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, in conjunction with the American Academy of Pediatrics, American Academy of Family Practice, American College of Physicians (representing adult medicine specialists), and other professional organizations. (
  • Other vaccinations, e.g. secondary school vaccinations - before 2016: contact the service provider that administered the vaccine. (
  • The City of Casey Immunisation Service holds records for people that received vaccinations through our service. (
  • All newly arrived families who have had any vaccinations overseas must attend this specific Monday morning service, as this 'catch-up' advice cannot be provided at a general immunisation session. (
  • The Australian Childhood Immunisation Register (ACIR) routinely send out an updated immunisation certificate to parents of all four year olds after they have received their 4 year old vaccinations. (
  • Other vaccinations may be given (based on age and/or CD4 cell measurement, and immunization status) for PCV at entry and 2 months, and measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine and PPV at 4 months. (
  • ATLANTA, Jan. 11 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ -- Updated immunization recommendations for childhood influenza and adolescent meningococcal vaccinations are included in the 2008 Childhood and Adolescent Immunization Schedules released jointly today by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), and the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP). (
  • August is designated as National Immunization Awareness Month and serves as an excellent reminder for parents to ensure that vaccinations are up to date, particularly as children head back to school. (
  • While certain vaccinations are mandatory for children to attend school, preschool, day care, or child care facilities, the overall benefits of these immunizations for all individuals should never be underestimated. (
  • To consent for secondary school vaccinations please click here . (
  • The Trust has a dedicated School Aged Immunisation Team made up of professionals who are highly skilled and experienced in giving vaccinations. (
  • The service follows the national immunisation programme and offers vaccinations to protect against Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Meningococcal ACWY and school leavers booster of Diphtheria, Tetanus and Polio (Td/IPV) . (
  • Every year, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issues guidance on the vaccines to be administered and immunization schedules for children, adolescents, and adults, based on recommendations from ACIP. (
  • Background - Publication of population-based analyses of medication use after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) could encourage the use of effective secondary prevention medications. (
  • Of the three drugs recommended for secondary prevention, overall utilization rates for beta-blockers were highest in Nova Scotia, lowest in British Columbia, and similar in Quebec and Ontario. (
  • Background - The benefits of statins for the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease are well established. (
  • The National Immunization Program at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is responsible for calculating the official Public Health Service coverage level estimates. (
  • Secondary prevention of cervical cancer is by screening for precancerous lesions and early diagnosis followed by adequate treatment. (
  • Thomas J. Flottemesch of HealthPartners Research Foundation suggests that preventive services at the primary and secondary levels yields mixed results in terms of net medical savings to the healthcare system, highlighting the importance of expanding the conversation on prevention beyond costs alone to include value and benefits not captured by pure dollars. (
  • With cooperation from the teachers in charge of each class and grade, Hasegawa visited each class to talk about the diseases and the importance of immunization. (
  • Click here for more information about vaccine safety and the importance of immunization. (
  • Parents of children enrolling in primary or secondary schools must be asked for an approved immunisation certificate, but if this is not available, the student may still be enrolled, subject to required procedures (e.g. unvaccinated children may be excluded from school for the duration of an outbreak of a vaccine-preventable disease). (
  • Recommended Immunization Schedule for HIV-Infected. (
  • Pandemic influenza immunization in primary antiphospholipid syndrome (PAPS): a trigger to thrombosis and autoantibody production? (
  • The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends annual influenza immunization for all children with high-risk conditions who are 6 months of age and older, for all healthy children ages 6 through 59 months, for all household contacts and out-of-home caregivers of children with high-risk conditions and of healthy children younger than 5 years, and for all health care professionals. (
  • To more fully protect against the morbidity and mortality of influenza, increased efforts are needed to identify and immunize all children at high risk and all healthy children ages 6 through 59 months and to inform their parents when annual immunizations are due. (
  • Because the influenza season often extends into March, immunization against influenza is recommended to continue through late winter and early spring. (
  • Young children are at higher risk of hospitalization for influenza infection than are healthy 50- to 64-year-old adults, for whom routine immunization has been recommended since 2000. (
  • Immunization offers the best protection from influenza infection. (
  • This analysis examines if the type of main source of household income in low-income groups affects influenza immunization uptake. (
  • Overall, 32.5% of respondents reported receiving influenza immunization. (
  • In multivariable analysis of universal publicly funded influenza immunization programs, those reporting social assistance (AOR 1.24, 95% CI 1.02-1.51) or seniors' benefits (AOR 1.56, 95% CI 1.23-1.98) were more likely to be immunized compared to those reporting employment earnings. (
  • Among the low-income sample, overall influenza immunization coverage is low. (
  • However, CCHS data was collected during the H1N1 pandemic influenza, thus results may not be generalizable to influenza immunization in non-pandemic years. (
  • Delivery of influenza immunization programs occurs at the provincial level. (
  • We performed a secondary analysis of data from the Mother's Gift project, a randomized study designed to test the effectiveness of inactivated influenza and pneumococcal vaccines during pregnancy. (
  • We performed a secondary analysis of outcomes following maternal influenza immunization during two periods: when influenza virus was not circulating (September 2004 through January 2005) and when influenza virus was circulating (February through October 2005). (
  • During the period with circulating influenza virus, maternal immunization during pregnancy was associated with a lower proportion of infants who were small for gestational age and an increase in mean birth weight. (
  • Influenza infection in young infants is common and results in high rates of hospital admission, 1 but infection can be prevented by immunization of the mother during pregnancy. (
  • The Mother's Gift project is a randomized trial designed to assess the safety and efficacy of maternal pneumococcal and influenza immunization in Bangladesh. (
  • 2 In the current article, we report the results of a secondary analysis to assess the hypothesis that influenza immunization influenza the outcomes of infants whose mothers were exposed to influenza during pregnancy. (
  • This integrated analysis reveals a deep impact of the timing between immunizations, and highlights the importance of early but also late innate responses involving phenotypical changes, in shaping humoral immunity. (
  • Primary and secondary immunodeficiencies might include a combination of deficits in both cellular and humoral immunity. (
  • Immunization is the induction of immunity against an infectious disease by a means other than experiencing the natural infection. (
  • Passive immunization refers to temporary immunity resulting from antibodies developed by someone else, either through administration of immune globulin (e.g., gamma globulin , rabies immune globulin) or through the natural transfer across the placenta of antibodies developed by the mother, which provide protection to the newborn infant. (
  • The main causes of secondary immunodeficiency at a pediatric age include infectious diseases (mainly HIV infection), malignancies, haematopoietic stem cell or solid organ transplantation and autoimmune diseases. (
  • Children with secondary immunodeficiency have an increased risk of severe infectious diseases that could be prevented by adequate vaccination coverage, but vaccines administration can be associated with reduced immune response and an increased risk of adverse reactions. (
  • c) The Department of Community Health shall promulgate rules and regulations specifying those diseases against which immunization is required and the standards for such immunizations. (
  • Measles is one of the most highly communicable infectious diseases with greater than 90% secondary attack rates among susceptible persons. (
  • Immunisation not only protects your child from serious diseases, but also other children in the community. (
  • It has been long known that immunization is an effective way to prevent both diseases. (
  • In populations with high prevalence of RHD, delivery of secondary prophylaxis should be the major priority for control of GAS diseases. (
  • As the incidence of vaccine-preventable diseases has declined because of the widespread use of immunizations, potential adverse effects of the vaccines themselves have taken on greater saliency among stakeholders. (
  • ACIP recommends immunization with vaccines that protect young children (age 6 years and under) against 14 pathogens (see Appendix A ) and strives to protect children at the youngest age necessary to shield them from diseases when they are the most vulnerable. (
  • Although we can now protect more children against more vaccine- preventable diseases than ever before, the immunization schedules can be confusing for parents and physicians," said Dr. Anne Schuchat, director of the National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases at CDC. (
  • There are 3 vaccines offered to children in their first year of secondary school to protect them from infectious diseases. (
  • The NIC leads policy development and evaluation of the NIP, and consults and collaborates with stakeholders and other peak immunisation related committees (including the Australian Technical Advisory Group on Immunisation [ATAGI] and the Communicable Diseases Network Australia [CDNA]) on the development of national immunisation priorities, strategies and service delivery. (
  • Schools have played a key role in the control of vaccine-preventable diseases in the United States, because state-based school entry vaccination laws have contributed to achieving high rates of immunization among the pediatric patient population. (
  • Immunization data were abstracted from the medical records of children 8 to 35 months old seen consecutively for any reason in the offices of practicing pediatricians who are members of the Pediatric Research in Office Settings network of the American Academy of Pediatrics or the National Medical Association. (
  • Pneumococcal Vaccine: Childhood Immunization Programme has a new recruit ( The chief medical officer Sir Liam Don. (
  • The chief medical officer, Sir Liam Donaldson, has announced the introduction of the routine pneumococcal vaccine into the childhood immunization programme , with a motive to prevent children from falling ill, and thus saving many lives. (
  • For 2020/2021 the school immunization program will be conducted at host schools throughout Leeds, Grenville and Lanark. (
  • For those that were remote in Fall 2020 or Spring 2021, the TB and Immunization requirements were put on hold. (
  • For the 2019/2020 school year girls in 2nd - 6th year of secondary school can still join the girls only programme. (
  • Two subcutaneous injections 2 weeks apart led to an impaired secondary antibody response and similar innate myeloid responses to both immunizations. (
  • Immunization Strategy With Intra-tumoral Injections of Pexa-Vec With Ipilimumab in Metastatic / Advanced Solid Tumors. (
  • With the current schedule, children may receive up to 24 immunizations by age 2 years and up to 5 injections in a single visit. (
  • CTLs could reproducably be induced by immunization with three injections of as few as 10 5 infectious units of SFV-E6E7. (
  • The booster immunizations were performed on day 37, by either s.c. injections or TCI patches. (
  • The team will add your child's vaccination details to the immunisation passport and give it back to them so they can bring it home. (
  • If anything changes with regards to your child's health in the meantime, please contact the Childhood Immunisation Service so that we have up-to-date health information for your child. (
  • Active immunization involves administration of an antigenic substance that then induces development of protective antibodies by the person immunized. (
  • Substances used for active immunization include vaccines and toxoids. (
  • Menveo is a vaccine indicated for active immunization to prevent invasive meningococcal disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, C, Y, and W-135. (
  • Due to coronavirus restrictions, you need to book a time online before coming to a public immunisation session. (
  • Council runs a number of public immunisation sessions every month at a range of local community centres. (
  • If you haven't received an updated certificate you may obtain one (if your child is still under 7), by contacting the Australian Childhood Immunisation Register (ACIR) on 1800 653 809 and request that a certificate be sent out to you, or visit a Medicare office. (
  • The full set of childhood immunisation coverage data from 2015 onwards for Primary Health Network (PHN) and Statistical Areas Level 3 (SA3). (
  • The Childhood Immunisation team is a nurse led service that provides routine childhood immunisations for children and young people aged 5-19 years living in or attending school in North Yorkshire and the City of York. (
  • The Childhood Immunisation team will also offer catch up immunisations to children and young people over the routine age. (
  • The online consent form you completed will be retained by the childhood immunisation team and we will catch your child up the next time we go into school. (
  • For children who are particularly anxious about having an injection, the Childhood Immunisation Service runs clinics which can be attended with a parent or carer. (
  • Clinic appointments can be booked by contacting the Childhood Immunisation Team. (
  • f) During an epidemic or a threatened epidemic of any disease preventable by an immunization required by the Department of Community Health, children who have not been immunized may be excluded from the school or facility until (1) they are immunized against the disease, unless they present valid evidence of prior disease, or (2) the epidemic or threat no longer constitutes a significant public health danger. (
  • Occupational Health provides immunization for employees if there is a health and safety mandate by OSHA, or it is determined through a risk assessment that there is a high risk of potential exposure to a vaccine-preventable disease due to work exposures (e.g., researchers, health care workers, police). (
  • However, concerns about vaccine safety have contributed to increases in the delay or refusal of immunization, which have, in turn, contributed to a reemergence of vaccine-preventable illnesses. (
  • In the past, most GAS control activities have fallen under the categories of register-based rheumatic heart disease (RHD) secondary prophylaxis programs, and management of acute rheumatic fever (ARF), RHD and sore throat / GAS pharyngitis. (
  • Examples of secondary immunodeficiency include HIV infection, hematopoietic malignancies, treatment with radiation, and treatment with immunosuppressive drugs. (
  • However, the same pattern can also be seen with acute secondary infection in a previously vaccinated person, as measles IgM can be falsely negative especially with commercial IgM assays. (
  • Low IgG avidity is seen with acute primary infection, whereas high IgG avidity is observed with acute secondary measles, with prior infection, or after vaccination. (
  • Immunization with CspZ alone does not protect mice from infection, which we speculate is because FH-binding cloaks potentially protective epitopes. (
  • Serum antibody titers specific for BHV-1 tgD and tgB 8 days after secondary immunization (Imm 2) and 11 days after viral infection (postchallenge. (
  • Treatment for shingles is focused on pain-reduction and limiting secondary infection. (
  • We compared the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of population-based recall (Pop-recall) versus practice-based recall (PCP-recall) at increasing immunizations among preschool children. (
  • This cluster-randomized trial involved children aged 19 to 35 months needing immunizations in 8 rural and 6 urban Colorado counties. (
  • Population-based recall conducted centrally was more effective and cost-effective at increasing immunization rates in preschool children. (
  • In December 2013, ALERT IIS is beginning a process to recall all 22-month-old children who are past the recommended date for immunizations. (
  • AFIX (Assessment, Feedback, Incentives, and eXchange) is a quality improvement program used by Vaccines for Children (VFC) awardees to raise immunization coverage levels, reduce missed opportunities to vaccinate, and improve standards of practices at the provider level. (
  • The school or facility shall maintain on file the certificates of immunization for all children attending the school or facility. (
  • The report shall be filed on forms prepared by the Department of Community Health and shall state the number of children attending the school or facility, the number of children who did not submit certificates of immunization within the waiver period, and the number of children who are exempted from the certification requirement for medical or religious reasons. (
  • we include in the cohort children listed on Australia's comprehensive population-based immunisation register as having received a first dose of either pertussis vaccine by 16 weeks old. (
  • Measles-containing vaccine is recommended for routine immunization of children and for immunization of children and adolescents who missed measles immunization on the routine schedule. (
  • NSW Department of Education inspectors will continue to check, as part of routine regulatory activities, that each early childhood education service complies with public health provisions relating to record keeping - i.e. that the service has recorded the vaccination status of children at enrolment in an immunisation register template in the approved form. (
  • Immunisation is a free service provided by the City of Greater Dandenong to protect the health and wellbeing of your children. (
  • The degree to which children on HAART are protected by prior immunizations and are responsive to new immunizations is still largely undefined. (
  • The immune responses to prior immunizations and responsiveness to booster doses of vaccines against measles, pertussis, and hepatitis B virus of children on HAART will also be examined. (
  • The childhood immunization schedule (defined in this report as the immunization schedule covering children from birth through age 6 years) immunizes children in a manner consistent with demonstrated efficacy, safety, and feasibility but also permits some degree of flexibility to accommodate individual preferences and logistics. (
  • Immunization coverage among children entering kindergarten currently exceeds 90 percent for most recommended vaccines. (
  • To determine whether the change from an all oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) schedule to an inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV)-containing schedule has adversely affected the immunization status of young children in the United States. (
  • The results of this national study indicate that the implementation of an IPV-containing poliovirus vaccine schedule has not had an adverse effect on the immunization status of young children who were vaccinated in the offices of practicing pediatricians. (
  • The AAFP recommends that physicians and parents jointly decide on the most appropriate vaccine for routine immunization of their normal children against poliomyelitis. (
  • CHILDHOOD IMMUNIZATION FILE 1992 Information on childhood immunizations was collected from adult respondents (often the mother) for one sample child under 6 years of age per National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) family with age-eligible children in the household. (
  • DSN: CC37.NHIS96.IMMUNIZE 1996 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) Childhood Immunization File In the 1996 NHIS, information on childhood immunizations was collected from adult respondents (often the mother) for a sample child under 6 years of age in the NHIS household sample with age-eligible children. (
  • Estimation of immunization coverage levels (i.e., the percentage of children who are 'up-to-date' for a particular vaccine type or a series of vaccines) is complicated. (
  • The Immunization file is based on a sample of children under 6 identified in the NHIS sample. (
  • These resources provide facts about the safety of vaccines, the protection that immunisation gives to children and the community, and the importance of vaccinating on time. (
  • The recommended schedule of immunizations in the year 2000 for infants and young children is shown in Figure 1. (
  • The immunisation teams cover all school aged children living in Nottingham City, County and Bassetlaw. (
  • Our department provides all recommended immunization services to Putnam County children through the Vaccines for Children (VFC) program. (
  • Insurance coverage (Medicaid or Medicaid-Managed Care Plan, American Indian or Alaskan Native children, children without health insurance, children seen at a Federally Qualified Health Center or a Rural Health Center and under-insured families whose health insurance does not cover immunizations). (
  • MMR vaccine or human immune globulin (Ig) may be used for measles post-exposure immunization in susceptible persons. (
  • Those who are at the greatest risk of measles exposure (travellers to destinations outside of North America, health care workers, students in post-secondary educational settings, and military personnel) should receive 2 doses of MMR vaccine. (
  • The diagnosis of secondary measles can be confirmed by IgG avidity testing. (
  • For attenuated secondary measles cases in particular, it is important to consult with your public health laboratory to obtain optimal testing. (
  • While measles IgM tests are reasonably accurate in acute primary measles cases, false-positive IgM results can occur in uninfected patients, and false-negative IgM results can occur in previously vaccinated patients with acute secondary measles. (
  • Additionally, a booster dose of Hib vaccine is being included in the childhood immunization programme, as a routine at 12 months to extend protection against Hib disease. (
  • All the vaccines given in the schools' immunisation programme are free. (
  • The Health Information and Quality Authority (HIQA) did not recommend a catch-up programme for boys who have already completed the first year of secondary school. (
  • The School Aged Immunisation Team delivers the school based vaccination programme in Nottinghamshire County, Nottingham City and Bassetlaw. (
  • As of June 2009, 18 states had school mandates for the meningococcal vaccine for elementary and secondary schools.10 Currently, no states have mandates for the rotavirus vaccines. (
  • In Australia, a rise in hospitalisations among infants coded as anaphylaxis to foods coincided with the replacement of whole-cell pertussis (wP) vaccine with subunit acellular pertussis (aP) vaccine on the national immunisation schedule in the late 1990s. (
  • The Victorian Immunisation Schedule states which vaccines your child needs when they get to high school. (
  • Each new vaccine considered for inclusion in the immunization schedule is tested within the context of the existing schedule and reviewed by clinical researchers, who analyze the balance of demonstrated benefits and risks. (
  • Thus, each new vaccine is approved on the basis of a detailed evaluation of both the vaccine itself and the immunization schedule. (
  • and the feasibility of incorporation of the vaccine into the existing immunization schedule. (
  • This revised statement provides information from the American Academy of Family Physicians in addition to the Recommended Childhood Immunization Schedule-January 1998 to December 1998. (
  • More information on the latest immunization schedule is available at (
  • Of the available control strategies, secondary prophylaxis (defined as the delivery of regular doses of penicillin to ARF/RHD patients to prevent recurrent ARF and worsening RHD) is the only one that has been shown to be both effective and cost-effective at the community/population level. (
  • The vibriolytic plaque-forming cell (PFC) assay was used to study the kinetics of the primary and secondary immune responses of mice and rabbits immunized with heat-killed cholera vibrios. (
  • Immunization of mice with SFV-E6E7 resulted in an efficient in vivo priming of HPV-specific CTL activity. (
  • Immunization with 5 × 10 6 SFV-E6E7 particles protected 40% of the mice from tumor challenge. (
  • protective Immune Responses Induced by the Immunization of Mice with a Recombinant Bacteriophage Displaying a Epitope of the Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus" Virology 234: 118-122 (1997). (
  • Participating clinics receive an assessment of their immunization rates, based on data submitted to the ALERT IIS Registry. (
  • All persons attending immunization clinics are asked about insurance status and offered referrals to WIC, Child Health Plus, Medicaid and NYS Health Insurance as needed. (
  • These late phenotypic modifications were associated with an enhanced ex vivo cytokine production (including IL-12/23 and IL-1β) by PBMCs short after the second immunization, linking phenotype and functions. (
  • A specific immunization program should be administered according to the clinical and immunological status of each of these conditions to ensure a sustained immune response without any risks to the patients' health. (
  • As most students are now learning from home, the secondary school immunisation program will change for Term 2. (
  • Immunization records All applicants must have completed a first year 1200 hour or equivalent program to be admitted. (
  • Search Transfer Alberta for course and program transfer information including transfer agreements between post-secondary schools in Alberta, British Columbia, Northwest Territories, Nunavut and Yukon. (
  • For now, you'll need to contact state health department immunization program websites to find this information. (
  • If you are not eligible for a funded program, we charge a nominal administrative fee, in addition to the cost of the vaccine for our immunization services. (
  • In this study, we controlled the duration of Ag expression by excising the ear pinnae following intradermal ear pinnae DNA immunization. (
  • These findings suggest that the magnitude and the contraction phase of the CD8 + T cell response following intradermal DNA immunization is regulated by the duration rather than the initial exposure to Ag. (
  • Complete protective efficacy after intradermal immunisation was observed with the adenovirus prime-MVA boost regime. (
  • The response rate to the 1996 Immunization Survey was 88.3 percent and was calculated as follows: The response rate to the NHIS Core questionnaire was 93.8 percent. (
  • DSN: CC37.NHIS92.IMMUNIZE ABSTRACT 1992 NATIONAL HEALTH INTERVIEW SURVEY (NHIS) IMMUNIZATION PUBLIC USE DATA FILE Guidelines for Citation of Data With the goal of mutual benefit, the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) requests that recipients of data files cooperate in certain actions related to their use. (
  • However, due to the design of the NHIS and the weighting procedure, there may be some records on the Immunization file which have very large weights (e.g., 29,000). (
  • Principal Journal of Experimental Zoology Part A Ecological Genetics and Physiology The effect of primary and secondary immunization on the lymphoid tissues of the carp, Cyprinus carpio. (
  • The secondary objective is to: determine the effects of priming with a clade 1 vaccine on antibody responses to revaccination with a clade 2 vaccine. (
  • The secondary endpoints are: levels of HAI antibody recognizing A/Indonesia/05 (Clade 2), A/Vietnam/04 (Clade 1) and representative Clade 2 subclade viruses, and levels of neutralizing antibody assessed by neutralization tests using the rgA/Indonesia/5/05 virus prior to and Days 3, 7, 14, and 28 after each vaccination. (
  • The magnitude and quality of the secondary antibody response correlated with the abundance of these neutrophils, monocytes, and dendritic cells that were modified phenotypically and enriched prior to revaccination at 2 months, but not 2 weeks. (
  • The overall frequencies of aPL antibody at pre-vaccination, and three weeks and six months after immunization remained unchanged in patients (p = 0.89) and controls (p = 0.83). (
  • Some patients may be administered DTaP at a 6-month visit on the basis of age, previous immunization history, and negative tetanus antibody status. (
  • We also offer a unique top-quality secondary antibody targeting V H H's. (
  • At Eurogentec, llama or alpaca immunizations are conducted using customized protocols and antigens to produce heavy chain only antibodies. (
  • We provide labeled (biotin, R-PE or custom labeled) and unlabeled secondary antibodies to target llama IgG1 or IgG2/3 immunoglobulins with high precision and sensitivity. (
  • H3L, an intracellular mature virion envelope protein, was consistently recognized by high-titer antibodies in the majority of human donors, particularly after secondary immunization. (
  • An immunisation status certificate will be requested by kindergartens and primary schools on enrolment. (
  • The information you provide is handled by Council's immunisation service provider under Council's privacy policy . (
  • Personal information gathered through the online booking system will also be used by Council's immunisation service provider to pre-fill some personal details on your electronic vaccination record ahead of your session. (
  • We also recommend contacting Council's Immunisation Team on 9705 5200 to check that we have the vaccine you need in stock. (
  • Secondary immunodeficiency is acquired and is defined by loss or qualitative deficiency in cellular or humoral immune components that occurs as a result of a disease process or its therapy. (
  • After immunization, host cellular machinery facilitates the expression of plasmid-encoded genes, which leads to the generation of foreign antigens that can be processed and presented on both major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II molecules. (
  • If you have any updated information concerning this table, please call (651) 647-9009 or email [email protected] This table was compiled by the Immunization Action Coalition using information provided by state health departments. (
  • If your child misses a dose at school, you can bring them along to any of the monthly Council immunisation sessions . (
  • Dose escalation step will define the MTD and RP2D of that in situ immunization strategy. (
  • although an effective priming dose (or route) may not be optimal for the secondary response (Rijkers et al, '80). (
  • however, the immunization may be required in cases when such disease is in epidemic stages. (
  • AFF008 E:Observational Follow-up Extension Study to Evaluate Long-term Safety and Tolerability of Immunization With AFFITOPE® PD01A Applied During AFF008 in Patients With Parkinson's Disease. (
  • Thus, during a large- ic care facility personnel, are at high risk for contracting scale immunization campaign coinciding with rapid symptomatic and asymptomatic COVID-19 and might national increase in COVID-19 cases, some immu- become infected at home or nosocomially while caring nized persons likely will develop clinical disease. (
  • These indicators include infant and maternal mortality, child malnutrition, junior secondary school enrollment, school transition rates and learning outcomes. (
  • In solid injectable refractory/relapsing metastatic tumors, we make the hypothesis that the addition of Pexa-Vec to IT ipilimumab (anti-CTLA4 Ab) will overcome primary/secondary resistance to standard therapy and/or immunotherapy with a better in situ tumor antigen specific T-cell priming. (
  • a) Antigen-specific proliferative responses of PBMC 3 days before (day 50 after primary immunization) and 8 days after (day 61 after primary immunization) BHV-1 challenge. (
  • For healthcare providers, this means strict adherence to the CDC's recommended adult immunization practices and a willingness to continue vaccinating throughout the flu season, they said. (
  • 48 h by antibiotic treatment does not affect the magnitude of the elicited CD8 + T cell population, the kinetics of contraction of those cells, or their ability to generate a secondary immune response ( 5 , 6 , 7 ). (
  • In situ immunization is a strategy where immunomodulatory products such as pathogens are injected into one tumor site in order to trigger a systemic anti-tumor immune response. (
  • screenings, immunizations, etc. (
  • Although primary preventive services, such as daily aspirin use and alcohol and tobacco use screenings, could have yielded net savings of nearly $1.5 billion in his analysis, the use of secondary preventive services, such as mammograms and depression screenings, actually results in net costs of almost $2 billion. (
  • Secondary prophylaxis. (
  • RHD control programs appear to be the most effective method for delivering secondary prophylaxis and have the added benefit of improving clinical follow-up of patients and providing a mechanism for delivery of targeted health promotional messages. (
  • This article compares strategies used to implement and improve ARF secondary prophylaxis with those used in the NIP. (
  • Some successful NIP strategies, such as Service Incentive Payment for health providers, home-visiting delivery models and integration into the National Immunisation Register, if applied to ARF secondary prophylaxis have the potential to improve benzathine penicillin G adherence. (
  • Altered immunocompetence, a term often used synonymously with immunosuppression, immunodeficiency, and immunocompromise, can be classified as primary or secondary. (
  • The challenge for clinicians and other health-care providers is assessing the safety and effectiveness of vaccines for conditions associated with primary or secondary immunodeficiency, especially when new therapeutic modalities are being used and information about the safety and effectiveness of vaccines has not been characterized fully in persons receiving these drugs ( Table 8-1 ). (
  • b) No child shall be admitted to or attend any school or facility in this state unless the child shall first have submitted a certificate of immunization to the responsible official of the school or facility. (
  • and upon expiration of the waiver, the child shall not be admitted to or be permitted to attend the school or facility unless the child submits a certificate of immunization. (
  • For a child to be exempt from immunization on religious grounds, the parent or guardian must first furnish the responsible official of the school or facility an affidavit in which the parent or guardian swears or affirms that the immunization required conflicts with the religious beliefs of the parent or guardian. (
  • The cards need to be filled in and signed in the appropriate section whether or not your child is having the immunisation. (
  • Requirements for immunisation vary according to the level of education in which a child/student is enrolling. (
  • On the day of vaccination, your child will need to give their immunisation passport to the school vaccination team. (
  • If you do not have an immunisation passport, a member of the immunisation team will give one to your child after they have been vaccinated. (
  • Note: If your child is already enrolled in a DPCDSB elementary feeder school, they will be automatically enrolled in their local Catholic secondary school for Grade 9. (
  • ALERT IIS can also send patient immunization records and recommendations that can be imported directly into some EHR systems. (
  • Enter your documented immunization dates and upload records of all self-reported immunizations on eTang under "Medical Clearances. (
  • That day at Hasaki high, the students also learned that first-year middle school students and high school seniors who needed to be immunized would receive a letter in the mail stating so, and that some universities require applicants to have complete immunization records. (
  • Most of the sampling weights for records on the Immunization file are between 1000 and 6000. (
  • Immunization records Mature Admission 1. (