Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.
Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.
Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.
Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.
Tetanus toxoid is a purified and chemically inactivated form of the tetanus toxin, used as a vaccine to induce active immunity against tetanus disease by stimulating the production of antibodies.
A suspension of formalin-inactivated poliovirus grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture and used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS.
Administration of a vaccine to large populations in order to elicit IMMUNITY.
Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.
A combined vaccine used to prevent MEASLES; MUMPS; and RUBELLA.
A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.
A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A live, attenuated varicella virus vaccine used for immunization against chickenpox. It is recommended for children between the ages of 12 months and 13 years.
A disease caused by tetanospasmin, a powerful protein toxin produced by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI. Tetanus usually occurs after an acute injury, such as a puncture wound or laceration. Generalized tetanus, the most common form, is characterized by tetanic muscular contractions and hyperreflexia. Localized tetanus presents itself as a mild condition with manifestations restricted to muscles near the wound. It may progress to the generalized form.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infections with STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.
A live vaccine containing attenuated poliovirus, types I, II, and III, grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture, used for routine immunization of children against polio. This vaccine induces long-lasting intestinal and humoral immunity. Killed vaccine induces only humoral immunity. Oral poliovirus vaccine should not be administered to immunocompromised individuals or their household contacts. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A live attenuated virus vaccine of duck embryo or human diploid cell tissue culture origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of nonpregnant adolescent and adult females of childbearing age who are unimmunized and do not have serum antibodies to rubella. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A type of H. influenzae isolated most frequently from biotype I. Prior to vaccine availability, it was a leading cause of childhood meningitis.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
An acute infectious disease of humans, particularly children, caused by any of three serotypes of human poliovirus (POLIOVIRUS). Usually the infection is limited to the gastrointestinal tract and nasopharynx, and is often asymptomatic. The central nervous system, primarily the spinal cord, may be affected, leading to rapidly progressive paralysis, coarse FASCICULATION and hyporeflexia. Motor neurons are primarily affected. Encephalitis may also occur. The virus replicates in the nervous system, and may cause significant neuronal loss, most notably in the spinal cord. A rare related condition, nonpoliovirus poliomyelitis, may result from infections with nonpoliovirus enteroviruses. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp764-5)
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.
A highly contagious infectious disease caused by the varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN). It usually affects children, is spread by direct contact or respiratory route via droplet nuclei, and is characterized by the appearance on the skin and mucous membranes of successive crops of typical pruritic vesicular lesions that are easily broken and become scabbed. Chickenpox is relatively benign in children, but may be complicated by pneumonia and encephalitis in adults. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
An infant during the first month after birth.
An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
Infections with bacteria of the genus HAEMOPHILUS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "India" is not a medical term that can be defined in a medical context. It is a geographical location, referring to the Republic of India, a country in South Asia. If you have any questions related to medical topics or definitions, I would be happy to help with those!
Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
Family in the order COLUMBIFORMES, comprised of pigeons or doves. They are BIRDS with short legs, stout bodies, small heads, and slender bills. Some sources call the smaller species doves and the larger pigeons, but the names are interchangeable.
Inbred BALB/c mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to be genetically identical to each other, making them useful for scientific research and experiments due to their consistent genetic background and predictable responses to various stimuli or treatments.
Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
A listing of established professional service charges, for specified dental and medical procedures.
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
The strengthening of a conditioned response.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.
Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.
Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Animal searching behavior. The variable introductory phase of an instinctive behavior pattern or sequence, e.g., looking for food, or sequential courtship patterns prior to mating.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Inbred C57BL mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and homozygosity, making them widely used for biomedical research, including studies on genetics, immunology, cancer, and neuroscience.
The formaldehyde-inactivated toxin of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It is generally used in mixtures with TETANUS TOXOID and PERTUSSIS VACCINE; (DTP); or with tetanus toxoid alone (DT for pediatric use and Td, which contains 5- to 10-fold less diphtheria toxoid, for other use). Diphtheria toxoid is used for the prevention of diphtheria; DIPHTHERIA ANTITOXIN is for treatment.
Physiological or psychological effects of periods of work which may be fixed or flexible such as flexitime, work shifts, and rotating shifts.
A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by MUMPS VIRUS. Best known is the live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had mumps or been immunized with live mumps vaccine. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).
Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.
Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A localized infection of mucous membranes or skin caused by toxigenic strains of CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE. It is characterized by the presence of a pseudomembrane at the site of infection. DIPHTHERIA TOXIN, produced by C. diphtheriae, can cause myocarditis, polyneuritis, and other systemic toxic effects.
An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.
Hemocyanin is a copper-containing, oxygen-carrying protein found primarily in the blood of mollusks and arthropods, functioning to reversibly bind and transport oxygen in a manner analogous to hemoglobin in vertebrates.
Resistance to a disease agent resulting from the production of specific antibodies by the host, either after exposure to the disease or after vaccination.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
An antigen solution emulsified in mineral oil. The complete form is made up of killed, dried mycobacteria, usually M. tuberculosis, suspended in the oil phase. It is effective in stimulating cell-mediated immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and potentiates the production of certain IMMUNOGLOBULINS in some animals. The incomplete form does not contain mycobacteria.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Preparations of pathogenic organisms or their derivatives made nontoxic and intended for active immunologic prophylaxis. They include deactivated toxins. Anatoxin toxoids are distinct from anatoxins that are TROPANES found in CYANOBACTERIA.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.

Role of schools in the transmission of measles in rural Senegal: implications for measles control in developing countries. (1/1242)

Patterns of measles transmission at school and at home were studied in 1995 in a rural area of Senegal with a high level of vaccination coverage. Among 209 case children with a median age of 8 years, there were no deaths, although the case fatality ratio has previously been 6-7% in this area. Forty percent of the case children had been vaccinated against measles; the proportion of vaccinated children was higher among secondary cases (47%) than among index cases (33%) (prevalence ratio = 1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.76). Vaccinated index cases may have been less infectious than unvaccinated index cases, since they produced fewer clinical cases among exposed children (relative risk = 0.55, 95% CI 0.29-1.04). The secondary attack rate was lower in the schools than in the homes (relative risk = 0.31, 95% CI 0.20-0.49). The school outbreaks were protracted, with 4-5 generations of cases being seen in the two larger schools. Vaccine efficacy was found to be 57% (95% CI -23 to 85) in the schools and 74% (95% CI 62-82) in the residential compounds. Measles infection resulted in a mean of 3.8 days of absenteeism per case, though this did not appear to have an impact on the children's grades. Among the index cases, 56% of children were probably infected by neighbors in the community, and 7% were probably infected at health centers, 13% outside the community, and 24% in one of the three schools which had outbreaks during the epidemic. However, most of the school-related cases occurred at the beginning and therefore contributed to the general propagation of the epidemic. To prevent school outbreaks, it may be necessary to require vaccination prior to school entry and to revaccinate children in individual schools upon detection of cases of measles. Multidose measles vaccination schedules will be necessary to control measles in developing countries.  (+info)

I(2/1242)

nvited commentary: vaccine failure or failure to vaccinate?  (+info)

W(3/1242)

aning of vaccine-induced immunity: is it a problem in Africa?  (+info)

Congo polio immunisation campaign gets go ahead.(4/1242)

 (+info)

Immunogenicity of hepatitis B vaccine in preterm infants. (5/1242)

AIM: To assess the immunogenicity of hepatitis B vaccine in preterm and term infants, given in a sequence of three doses beginning soon after birth. METHOD: The immunogenicity of hepatitis B vaccine was assessed in 176 preterm infants (< 35 weeks of gestation), immunised soon after birth, and compared with that in 46 term infants. Titres of hepatitis B antibodies were determined one to two months after the third vaccine. The significance of the differences between the term and preterm groups was determined using Student's t test. RESULTS: A similar proportion of infants in both preterm and term groups attained protective titres of hepatitis B antibodies (88.7% vs 93.4%, respectively; p = NS). However, the term infants had a higher geometric mean titre of antibodies after the third vaccine than did the preterm infants (701.2 (745.0) vs 469.1 (486.2) mU/ml, respectively; p < 0.03). CONCLUSION: Hepatitis B vaccine is effective in most preterm infants when given soon after birth. It may be advisable to determine the immune response at 12-24 months of age to booster the non-responders.  (+info)

Reimmunization after blood or marrow stem cell transplantation. (6/1242)

Protective immunity to diseases preventable by routine vaccination is lost over time following allogeneic and autologous blood and marrow transplantation. Adoptive transfer of immunity from donors to recipients after allogeneic transplantation is not sufficient to prevent this decline. Systematic reimmunization is necessary at appropriate time intervals following transplantation to re-establish immunity. Response to vaccination depends upon the type of transplant, the source of cells, the immune status of the patient, and the vaccine being used. While inactivated or subunit vaccines are safe in all transplant recipients, live vaccines are generally contraindicated. Reimmunization practices vary widely amongst transplant centers. This comprehensive review summarizes published data on post-transplant vaccination, and based upon these, suggests guidelines which may be used as a framework for development of reimmunization protocols.  (+info)

Rotavirus vaccine for the prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis among children. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). (7/1242)

These recommendations represent the first statement by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) on the use of an oral, live rotavirus vaccine licensed by the Food and Drug Administration on August 31, 1998, for use among infants. This report reviews the epidemiology of rotavirus, describes the licensed rotavirus vaccine, and makes recommendations regarding its use for the routine immunization of infants in the United States. These recommendations are based on estimates of the disease burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis among children in the United States and on the results of clinical trials of the vaccine. Rotavirus affects virtually all children during the first 5 years of life in both developed and developing countries, and rotavirus infection is the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis in the United States and worldwide. In the United States, rotavirus is a common cause of hospitalizations, emergency room visits, and outpatient clinic visits, and it is responsible for considerable health-care costs. Because of this large burden of disease, several rotavirus vaccines have been developed. One of these vaccines - an oral, live, tetravalent, rhesus-based rotavirus vaccine (RRV-TV) -- was found to be safe and efficacious in clinical trials among children in North America, South America, and Europe and on the basis of these studies is now licensed for use among infants in the United States. The vaccine is an oral, live preparation that should be administered to infants between the ages of 6 weeks and 1 year. The recommended schedule is a three-dose series, with doses to be administered at ages 2, 4, and 6 months. The first dose may be administered from the ages of 6 weeks to 6 months; subsequent doses should be administered with a minimum interval of 3 weeks between any two doses. The first dose should not be administered to children aged > or =7 months because of an increased rate of febrile reactions after the first dose among older infants. Second and third doses should be administered before the first birthday. Implementation of these recommendations in the United States should prevent most physician visits for rotavirus gastroenteritis and at least two-thirds of hospitalizations and deaths related to rotavirus.  (+info)

The radiation-attenuated schistosome vaccine induces high levels of protective immunity in the absence of B cells. (8/1242)

Radiation-attenuated cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni elicit consistently high levels of protective immunity in mice. The cell-mediated pulmonary effector mechanisms have been well characterized but the role of B cells and antibodies remains ill defined. We have compared the immune responses of B-cell-deficient (muMT) mice and their wild-type (WT) counterparts following exposure to the attenuated vaccine. Both groups mounted a T helper type 1 (Th1)-biased response in the skin-draining lymph nodes after vaccination. Interferon-gamma was the dominant cytokine secreted by airway leucocytes after challenge in both muMT and WT mice, but there was a somewhat greater Th2 component in the former animals. The cellular infiltrates observed in the airways, and the pulmonary effector foci, were of similar composition in the two groups although some large foci were present in the muMT mice. There was a marked dichotomy in the protection induced in muMT animals by a single vaccination, with two-thirds showing levels similar to their WT counterparts, demonstrating that cell-mediated mechanisms alone can provide adequate protection. The remaining muMT mice had a mean worm burden identical to that of their challenge controls. A possible explanation is that a proportion of the muMT animals have a genetic defect closely associated with the mu-heavy-chain locus on chromosome 12, which affects their ability to mount a protective cell-mediated response. Three vaccinations enhanced the immunity of WT animals, most likely by augmenting antibody-mediated mechanisms. In contrast, no enhancement was seen in muMT mice, suggesting that the cell-mediated response is not boosted by multiple exposures to attenuated larvae.  (+info)

An immunization schedule is a series of planned dates when a person, usually a child, should receive specific vaccines in order to be fully protected against certain preventable diseases. The schedule is developed based on scientific research and recommendations from health organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

The immunization schedule outlines which vaccines are recommended, the number of doses required, the age at which each dose should be given, and the minimum amount of time that must pass between doses. The schedule may vary depending on factors such as the individual's age, health status, and travel plans.

Immunization schedules are important for ensuring that individuals receive timely protection against vaccine-preventable diseases, and for maintaining high levels of immunity in populations, which helps to prevent the spread of disease. It is important to follow the recommended immunization schedule as closely as possible to ensure optimal protection.

Immunization is defined medically as the process where an individual is made immune or resistant to an infectious disease, typically through the administration of a vaccine. The vaccine stimulates the body's own immune system to recognize and fight off the specific disease-causing organism, thereby preventing or reducing the severity of future infections with that organism.

Immunization can be achieved actively, where the person is given a vaccine to trigger an immune response, or passively, where antibodies are transferred to the person through immunoglobulin therapy. Immunizations are an important part of preventive healthcare and have been successful in controlling and eliminating many infectious diseases worldwide.

Immunization programs, also known as vaccination programs, are organized efforts to administer vaccines to populations or communities in order to protect individuals from vaccine-preventable diseases. These programs are typically implemented by public health agencies and involve the planning, coordination, and delivery of immunizations to ensure that a high percentage of people are protected against specific infectious diseases.

Immunization programs may target specific age groups, such as infants and young children, or populations at higher risk of certain diseases, such as travelers, healthcare workers, or individuals with weakened immune systems. The goals of immunization programs include controlling and eliminating vaccine-preventable diseases, reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these diseases, and protecting vulnerable populations from outbreaks and epidemics.

Immunization programs may be delivered through a variety of settings, including healthcare facilities, schools, community centers, and mobile clinics. They often involve partnerships between government agencies, healthcare providers, non-governmental organizations, and communities to ensure that vaccines are accessible, affordable, and acceptable to the populations they serve. Effective immunization programs require strong leadership, adequate funding, robust data systems, and ongoing monitoring and evaluation to assess their impact and identify areas for improvement.

A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular infectious disease. It typically contains an agent that resembles the disease-causing microorganism and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins, or one of its surface proteins. The agent stimulates the body's immune system to recognize the agent as a threat, destroy it, and "remember" it, so that the immune system can more easily recognize and destroy any of these microorganisms that it encounters in the future.

Vaccines can be prophylactic (to prevent or ameliorate the effects of a future infection by a natural or "wild" pathogen), or therapeutic (to fight disease that is already present). The administration of vaccines is called vaccination. Vaccinations are generally administered through needle injections, but can also be administered by mouth or sprayed into the nose.

The term "vaccine" comes from Edward Jenner's 1796 use of cowpox to create immunity to smallpox. The first successful vaccine was developed in 1796 by Edward Jenner, who showed that milkmaids who had contracted cowpox did not get smallpox. He reasoned that exposure to cowpox protected against smallpox and tested his theory by injecting a boy with pus from a cowpox sore and then exposing him to smallpox, which the boy did not contract. The word "vaccine" is derived from Variolae vaccinae (smallpox of the cow), the term devised by Jenner to denote cowpox. He used it in 1798 during a conversation with a fellow physician and later in the title of his 1801 Inquiry.

Combined vaccines are defined in medical terms as vaccines that contain two or more antigens from different diseases, which are given to provide protection against multiple diseases at the same time. This approach reduces the number of injections required and simplifies the immunization schedule, especially during early childhood. Examples of combined vaccines include:

1. DTaP-Hib-IPV (e.g., Pentacel): A vaccine that combines diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (whooping cough), Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease, and poliovirus components in one injection to protect against these five diseases.
2. MMRV (e.g., ProQuad): A vaccine that combines measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella (chickenpox) antigens in a single injection to provide immunity against all four diseases.
3. HepA-HepB (e.g., Twinrix): A vaccine that combines hepatitis A and hepatitis B antigens in one injection, providing protection against both types of hepatitis.
4. MenACWY-TT (e.g., MenQuadfi): A vaccine that combines four serogroups of meningococcal bacteria (A, C, W, Y) with tetanus toxoid as a carrier protein in one injection for the prevention of invasive meningococcal disease caused by these serogroups.
5. PCV13-PPSV23 (e.g., Vaxneuvance): A vaccine that combines 13 pneumococcal serotypes with PPSV23, providing protection against a broader range of pneumococcal diseases in adults aged 18 years and older.

Combined vaccines have been thoroughly tested for safety and efficacy to ensure they provide a strong immune response and an acceptable safety profile. They are essential tools in preventing various infectious diseases and improving overall public health.

Vaccination is a simple, safe, and effective way to protect people against harmful diseases, before they come into contact with them. It uses your body's natural defenses to build protection to specific infections and makes your immune system stronger.

A vaccination usually contains a small, harmless piece of a virus or bacteria (or toxins produced by these germs) that has been made inactive or weakened so it won't cause the disease itself. This piece of the germ is known as an antigen. When the vaccine is introduced into the body, the immune system recognizes the antigen as foreign and produces antibodies to fight it.

If a person then comes into contact with the actual disease-causing germ, their immune system will recognize it and immediately produce antibodies to destroy it. The person is therefore protected against that disease. This is known as active immunity.

Vaccinations are important for both individual and public health. They prevent the spread of contagious diseases and protect vulnerable members of the population, such as young children, the elderly, and people with weakened immune systems who cannot be vaccinated or for whom vaccination is not effective.

The Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis (DTaP) vaccine is a combination immunization that protects against three bacterial diseases: diphtheria, tetanus (lockjaw), and pertussis (whooping cough).

Diphtheria is an upper respiratory infection that can lead to breathing difficulties, heart failure, paralysis, or even death. Tetanus is a bacterial infection that affects the nervous system and causes muscle stiffness and spasms, leading to "lockjaw." Pertussis is a highly contagious respiratory infection characterized by severe coughing fits, which can make it difficult to breathe and may lead to pneumonia, seizures, or brain damage.

The DTaP vaccine contains inactivated toxins (toxoids) from the bacteria that cause these diseases. It is typically given as a series of five shots, with doses administered at 2 months, 4 months, 6 months, 15-18 months, and 4-6 years of age. The vaccine helps the immune system develop protection against the diseases without causing the actual illness.

It is important to note that there are other combination vaccines available that protect against these same diseases, such as DT (diphtheria and tetanus toxoids) and Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis), which contain higher doses of the diphtheria and pertussis components. These vaccines are recommended for different age groups and may be used as booster shots to maintain immunity throughout adulthood.

Haemophilus vaccines are vaccines that are designed to protect against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), a bacterium that can cause serious infections such as meningitis, pneumonia, and epiglottitis. There are two main types of Hib vaccines:

1. Polysaccharide vaccine: This type of vaccine is made from the sugar coating (polysaccharide) of the bacterial cells. It is not effective in children under 2 years of age because their immune systems are not yet mature enough to respond effectively to this type of vaccine.
2. Conjugate vaccine: This type of vaccine combines the polysaccharide with a protein carrier, which helps to stimulate a stronger and more sustained immune response. It is effective in infants as young as 6 weeks old.

Hib vaccines are usually given as part of routine childhood immunizations starting at 2 months of age. They are administered through an injection into the muscle. The vaccine is safe and effective, with few side effects. Vaccination against Hib has led to a significant reduction in the incidence of Hib infections worldwide.

Secondary immunization, also known as "anamnestic response" or "booster," refers to the enhanced immune response that occurs upon re-exposure to an antigen, having previously been immunized or infected with the same pathogen. This response is characterized by a more rapid and robust production of antibodies and memory cells compared to the primary immune response. The secondary immunization aims to maintain long-term immunity against infectious diseases and improve vaccine effectiveness. It usually involves administering additional doses of a vaccine or booster shots after the initial series of immunizations, which helps reinforce the immune system's ability to recognize and combat specific pathogens.

"Hepatitis B vaccines are vaccines that prevent infection caused by the hepatitis B virus. They work by introducing a small and harmless piece of the virus to your body, which triggers your immune system to produce antibodies to fight off the infection. These antibodies remain in your body and provide protection if you are exposed to the real hepatitis B virus in the future.

The hepatitis B vaccine is typically given as a series of three shots over a six-month period. It is recommended for all infants, children and adolescents who have not previously been vaccinated, as well as for adults who are at increased risk of infection, such as healthcare workers, people who inject drugs, and those with certain medical conditions.

It's important to note that hepatitis B vaccine does not provide protection against other types of viral hepatitis, such as hepatitis A or C."

Tetanus toxoid is a purified and inactivated form of the tetanus toxin, which is derived from the bacterium Clostridium tetani. It is used as a vaccine to induce active immunity against tetanus, a potentially fatal disease caused by this toxin. The toxoid is produced through a series of chemical treatments that modify the toxic properties of the tetanus toxin while preserving its antigenic qualities. This allows the immune system to recognize and develop protective antibodies against the toxin without causing illness. Tetanus toxoid is often combined with diphtheria and/or pertussis toxoids in vaccines such as DTaP, Tdap, and Td.

Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated (IPV) is a vaccine used to prevent poliomyelitis (polio), a highly infectious disease caused by the poliovirus. IPV contains inactivated (killed) polioviruses of all three poliovirus types. It works by stimulating an immune response in the body, but because the viruses are inactivated, they cannot cause polio. After vaccination, the immune system recognizes and responds to the inactivated viruses, producing antibodies that protect against future infection with wild, or naturally occurring, polioviruses. IPV is typically given as an injection in the leg or arm, and a series of doses are required for full protection. It is a safe and effective way to prevent polio and its complications.

Mass vaccination is a coordinated effort to administer vaccine doses to a large portion of a population in a short amount of time. This strategy is often used during outbreaks of infectious diseases, such as influenza or measles, to quickly build up community immunity (herd immunity) and reduce the spread of the disease. Mass vaccination campaigns can also be implemented as part of public health initiatives to control or eliminate vaccine-preventable diseases in a population. These campaigns typically involve mobilizing healthcare workers, volunteers, and resources to reach and vaccinate as many people as possible, often through mobile clinics, community centers, and other accessible locations.

Conjugate vaccines are a type of vaccine that combines a part of a bacterium with a protein or other substance to boost the body's immune response to the bacteria. The bacterial component is usually a polysaccharide, which is a long chain of sugars that makes up part of the bacterial cell wall.

By itself, a polysaccharide is not very immunogenic, meaning it does not stimulate a strong immune response. However, when it is conjugated or linked to a protein or other carrier molecule, it becomes much more immunogenic and can elicit a stronger and longer-lasting immune response.

Conjugate vaccines are particularly effective in protecting against bacterial infections that affect young children, such as Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and pneumococcal disease. These vaccines have been instrumental in reducing the incidence of these diseases and their associated complications, such as meningitis and pneumonia.

Overall, conjugate vaccines work by mimicking a natural infection and stimulating the immune system to produce antibodies that can protect against future infections with the same bacterium. By combining a weakly immunogenic polysaccharide with a protein carrier, these vaccines can elicit a stronger and more effective immune response, providing long-lasting protection against bacterial infections.

The Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) vaccine is a combination immunization that protects against three infectious diseases: measles, mumps, and rubella. It contains live attenuated viruses of each disease, which stimulate an immune response in the body similar to that produced by natural infection but do not cause the diseases themselves.

The MMR vaccine is typically given in two doses, the first at 12-15 months of age and the second at 4-6 years of age. It is highly effective in preventing these diseases, with over 90% effectiveness reported after a single dose and near 100% effectiveness after the second dose.

Measles is a highly contagious viral disease that can cause fever, rash, cough, runny nose, and red, watery eyes. It can also lead to serious complications such as pneumonia, encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), and even death.

Mumps is a viral infection that primarily affects the salivary glands, causing swelling and tenderness in the cheeks and jaw. It can also cause fever, headache, muscle aches, and fatigue. Mumps can lead to serious complications such as deafness, meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord), and inflammation of the testicles or ovaries.

Rubella, also known as German measles, is a viral infection that typically causes a mild fever, rash, and swollen lymph nodes. However, if a pregnant woman becomes infected with rubella, it can cause serious birth defects such as hearing impairment, heart defects, and developmental delays in the fetus.

The MMR vaccine is an important tool in preventing these diseases and protecting public health.

A reinforcement schedule is a concept in behavioral psychology that refers to the timing and pattern of rewards or reinforcements provided in response to certain behaviors. It is used to shape, maintain, or strengthen specific behaviors in individuals. There are several types of reinforcement schedules, including:

1. **Fixed Ratio (FR):** A reward is given after a fixed number of responses. For example, a salesperson might receive a bonus for every 10 sales they make.
2. **Variable Ratio (VR):** A reward is given after an unpredictable number of responses. This schedule is commonly used in gambling, as the uncertainty of when a reward (winning) will occur keeps the individual engaged and motivated to continue the behavior.
3. **Fixed Interval (FI):** A reward is given after a fixed amount of time has passed since the last reward, regardless of the number of responses during that time. For example, an employee might receive a paycheck every two weeks, regardless of how many tasks they completed during that period.
4. **Variable Interval (VI):** A reward is given after an unpredictable amount of time has passed since the last reward, regardless of the number of responses during that time. This schedule can be observed in foraging behavior, where animals search for food at irregular intervals.
5. **Combined schedules:** Reinforcement schedules can also be combined to create more complex patterns, such as a fixed ratio followed by a variable interval (FR-VI) or a variable ratio followed by a fixed interval (VR-FI).

Understanding reinforcement schedules is essential for developing effective behavioral interventions in various settings, including healthcare, education, and rehabilitation.

A measles vaccine is a biological preparation that induces immunity against the measles virus. It contains an attenuated (weakened) strain of the measles virus, which stimulates the immune system to produce antibodies that protect against future infection with the wild-type (disease-causing) virus. Measles vaccines are typically administered in combination with vaccines against mumps and rubella (German measles), forming the MMR vaccine.

The measles vaccine is highly effective, with one or two doses providing immunity in over 95% of people who receive it. It is usually given to children as part of routine childhood immunization programs, with the first dose administered at 12-15 months of age and the second dose at 4-6 years of age.

Measles vaccination has led to a dramatic reduction in the incidence of measles worldwide and is considered one of the greatest public health achievements of the past century. However, despite widespread availability of the vaccine, measles remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in some parts of the world, particularly in areas with low vaccination coverage or where access to healthcare is limited.

The chickenpox vaccine, also known as varicella vaccine, is a preventive measure against the highly contagious viral infection caused by the varicella-zoster virus. The vaccine contains a live but weakened form of the virus, which stimulates the immune system to produce a response without causing the disease itself.

The chickenpox vaccine is typically given in two doses, with the first dose administered between 12 and 15 months of age and the second dose between 4 and 6 years of age. In some cases, the vaccine may be given to older children, adolescents, or adults who have not previously been vaccinated or who have never had chickenpox.

The chickenpox vaccine is highly effective at preventing severe cases of the disease and reducing the risk of complications such as bacterial infections, pneumonia, and encephalitis. It is also effective at preventing transmission of the virus to others.

Like any vaccine, the chickenpox vaccine can cause mild side effects such as soreness at the injection site, fever, or a mild rash. However, these side effects are generally mild and short-lived. Serious side effects are rare but may include allergic reactions or severe immune responses.

Overall, the chickenpox vaccine is a safe and effective way to prevent this common childhood disease and its potential complications.

Tetanus is a serious bacterial infection caused by the bacterium Clostridium tetani. The bacteria are found in soil, dust and manure and can enter the body through wounds, cuts or abrasions, particularly if they're not cleaned properly. The bacterium produces a toxin that affects the nervous system, causing muscle stiffness and spasms, often beginning in the jaw and face (lockjaw) and then spreading to the rest of the body.

Tetanus can be prevented through vaccination, and it's important to get vaccinated if you haven't already or if your immunization status is not up-to-date. If tetanus is suspected, medical attention should be sought immediately, as it can be a life-threatening condition if left untreated. Treatment typically involves administering tetanus immune globulin (TIG) to neutralize the toxin and antibiotics to kill the bacteria, as well as supportive care such as wound cleaning and management, and in some cases, mechanical ventilation may be necessary to assist with breathing.

Pneumococcal vaccines are immunizing agents that protect against infections caused by the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae, also known as pneumococcus. These vaccines help to prevent several types of diseases, including pneumonia, meningitis, and bacteremia (bloodstream infection).

There are two main types of pneumococcal vaccines available:

1. Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV): This vaccine is recommended for children under 2 years old, adults aged 65 and older, and people with certain medical conditions that increase their risk of pneumococcal infections. PCV protects against 13 or 20 serotypes (strains) of Streptococcus pneumoniae, depending on the formulation (PCV13 or PCV20).
2. Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine (PPSV): This vaccine is recommended for adults aged 65 and older, children and adults with specific medical conditions, and smokers. PPSV protects against 23 serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

These vaccines work by stimulating the immune system to produce antibodies that recognize and fight off the bacteria if an individual comes into contact with it in the future. Both types of pneumococcal vaccines have been proven to be safe and effective in preventing severe pneumococcal diseases.

Meningococcal vaccines are vaccines that protect against Neisseria meningitidis, a type of bacteria that can cause serious infections such as meningitis (inflammation of the lining of the brain and spinal cord) and septicemia (bloodstream infection). There are several types of meningococcal vaccines available, including conjugate vaccines and polysaccharide vaccines. These vaccines work by stimulating the immune system to produce antibodies that can protect against the different serogroups of N. meningitidis, including A, B, C, Y, and W-135. The specific type of vaccine used and the number of doses required may depend on a person's age, health status, and other factors. Meningococcal vaccines are recommended for certain high-risk populations, such as infants, young children, adolescents, and people with certain medical conditions, as well as for travelers to areas where meningococcal disease is common.

Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral (OPV) is a vaccine used to prevent poliomyelitis (polio). It contains live attenuated (weakened) polioviruses, which stimulate an immune response in the body and provide protection against all three types of wild, infectious polioviruses. OPV is given by mouth, usually in drops, and it replicates in the gastrointestinal tract, where it induces a strong immune response. This response not only protects the individual who receives the vaccine but also helps to stop the spread of poliovirus in the community, providing indirect protection (herd immunity) to those who are not vaccinated. OPV is safe, effective, and easy to administer, making it an important tool for global polio eradication efforts. However, due to the risk of vaccine-associated paralytic polio (VAPP), inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) is recommended for routine immunization in some countries.

Rubella vaccine is a preventive measure used to immunize individuals against rubella, also known as German measles. It contains inactivated or weakened forms of the rubella virus that stimulate an immune response when introduced into the body. The two types of rubella vaccines available are:

1. Live Attenuated Rubella Vaccine (RAV): This vaccine contains a weakened form of the rubella virus, which triggers an immune response without causing the disease. It is the most commonly used rubella vaccine and is often combined with measles and mumps vaccines to create the Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) or Measles-Mumps-Rubella-Varicella (MMRV) vaccines.

2. Inactivated Rubella Vaccine: This vaccine contains a killed rubella virus, which is less commonly used but can still provide immunity against the disease.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that children receive one dose of MMR vaccine at 12-15 months of age and another dose at 4-6 years of age. This schedule ensures optimal protection against rubella and other diseases included in the vaccines.

It is important to note that pregnant women should not receive the rubella vaccine, as it can potentially harm the developing fetus. Women who are planning to become pregnant should ensure they have had their rubella immunization before conceiving.

Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is a bacterial subtype that can cause serious infections, particularly in children under 5 years of age. Although its name may be confusing, Hib is not the cause of influenza (the flu). It is defined medically as a gram-negative, coccobacillary bacterium that is a member of the family Pasteurellaceae.

Hib is responsible for several severe and potentially life-threatening infections such as meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord), epiglottitis (swelling of the tissue located at the base of the tongue that can block the windpipe), pneumonia, and bacteremia (bloodstream infection).

Before the introduction of the Hib vaccine in the 1980s and 1990s, Haemophilus influenzae type b was a leading cause of bacterial meningitis in children under 5 years old. Since then, the incidence of invasive Hib disease has decreased dramatically in vaccinated populations.

Synthetic vaccines are artificially produced, designed to stimulate an immune response and provide protection against specific diseases. Unlike traditional vaccines that are derived from weakened or killed pathogens, synthetic vaccines are created using synthetic components, such as synthesized viral proteins, DNA, or RNA. These components mimic the disease-causing agent and trigger an immune response without causing the actual disease. The use of synthetic vaccines offers advantages in terms of safety, consistency, and scalability in production, making them valuable tools for preventing infectious diseases.

A viral vaccine is a biological preparation that introduces your body to a specific virus in a way that helps your immune system build up protection against the virus without causing the illness. Viral vaccines can be made from weakened or inactivated forms of the virus, or parts of the virus such as proteins or sugars. Once introduced to the body, the immune system recognizes the virus as foreign and produces an immune response, including the production of antibodies. These antibodies remain in the body and provide immunity against future infection with that specific virus.

Viral vaccines are important tools for preventing infectious diseases caused by viruses, such as influenza, measles, mumps, rubella, polio, hepatitis A and B, rabies, rotavirus, chickenpox, shingles, and some types of cancer. Vaccination programs have led to the control or elimination of many infectious diseases that were once common.

It's important to note that viral vaccines are not effective against bacterial infections, and separate vaccines must be developed for each type of virus. Additionally, because viruses can mutate over time, it is necessary to update some viral vaccines periodically to ensure continued protection.

Poliomyelitis, also known as polio, is a highly infectious disease caused by a virus that invades the body through the mouth, usually from contaminated water or food. The virus multiplies in the intestine and can invade the nervous system, causing paralysis.

The medical definition of Poliomyelitis includes:

1. An acute viral infection caused by the poliovirus.
2. Characterized by inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord (poliomyelitis), leading to muscle weakness, and in some cases, paralysis.
3. The disease primarily affects children under 5 years of age.
4. Transmission occurs through the fecal-oral route or, less frequently, by respiratory droplets.
5. The virus enters the body via the mouth, multiplies in the intestines, and can invade the nervous system.
6. There are three types of poliovirus (types 1, 2, and 3), each capable of causing paralytic polio.
7. Infection with one type does not provide immunity to the other two types.
8. The disease has no cure, but vaccination can prevent it.
9. Two types of vaccines are available: inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) and oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV).
10. Rare complications of OPV include vaccine-associated paralytic polio (VAPP) and circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs).

Bacterial antibodies are a type of antibodies produced by the immune system in response to an infection caused by bacteria. These antibodies are proteins that recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of the bacterial cells, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Bacterial antibodies can be classified into several types based on their structure and function, including IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE. They play a crucial role in the body's defense against bacterial infections and provide immunity to future infections with the same bacteria.

Antibodies, viral are proteins produced by the immune system in response to an infection with a virus. These antibodies are capable of recognizing and binding to specific antigens on the surface of the virus, which helps to neutralize or destroy the virus and prevent its replication. Once produced, these antibodies can provide immunity against future infections with the same virus.

Viral antibodies are typically composed of four polypeptide chains - two heavy chains and two light chains - that are held together by disulfide bonds. The binding site for the antigen is located at the tip of the Y-shaped structure, formed by the variable regions of the heavy and light chains.

There are five classes of antibodies in humans: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Each class has a different function and is distributed differently throughout the body. For example, IgG is the most common type of antibody found in the bloodstream and provides long-term immunity against viruses, while IgA is found primarily in mucous membranes and helps to protect against respiratory and gastrointestinal infections.

In addition to their role in the immune response, viral antibodies can also be used as diagnostic tools to detect the presence of a specific virus in a patient's blood or other bodily fluids.

Measles, also known as rubeola, is a highly infectious viral disease that primarily affects the respiratory system. It is caused by the measles virus, which belongs to the family Paramyxoviridae and the genus Morbillivirus. The virus is transmitted through direct contact with infected individuals or through airborne droplets released during coughing and sneezing.

The classic symptoms of measles include:

1. Fever: A high fever (often greater than 104°F or 40°C) usually appears before the onset of the rash, lasting for about 4-7 days.
2. Cough: A persistent cough is common and may become severe.
3. Runny nose: A runny or blocked nose is often present during the early stages of the illness.
4. Red eyes (conjunctivitis): Inflammation of the conjunctiva, the mucous membrane that covers the inner surface of the eyelids and the white part of the eye, can cause redness and irritation.
5. Koplik's spots: These are small, irregular, bluish-white spots with a red base that appear on the inside lining of the cheeks, usually 1-2 days before the rash appears. They are considered pathognomonic for measles, meaning their presence confirms the diagnosis.
6. Rash: The characteristic measles rash typically starts on the face and behind the ears, then spreads downward to the neck, trunk, arms, and legs. It consists of flat red spots that may merge together, forming irregular patches. The rash usually lasts for 5-7 days before fading.

Complications from measles can be severe and include pneumonia, encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), and ear infections. In rare cases, measles can lead to serious long-term complications or even death, particularly in young children, pregnant women, and individuals with weakened immune systems.

Vaccination is an effective way to prevent measles. The measles vaccine is typically administered as part of the Measles, Mumps, and Rubella (MMR) vaccine, which provides immunity against all three diseases.

Chickenpox is a highly contagious viral infection caused by the varicella-zoster virus. It is characterized by an itchy, blister-like rash that typically covers the body and can also affect the mouth, eyes, and scalp. The rash progresses through various stages, from red bumps to fluid-filled blisters to scabs, before ultimately healing.

Chickenpox is usually a mild disease in children but can be more severe in adults, pregnant women, and individuals with weakened immune systems. Common symptoms include fever, fatigue, headache, and loss of appetite, which often precede the onset of the rash. The infection typically lasts about 1-2 weeks, and once a person has had chickenpox, they usually develop immunity to future infections.

A vaccine is available to prevent chickenpox, and it is routinely administered to children as part of their childhood vaccination schedule. In some cases, the vaccine may be recommended for adults who have not had chickenpox or been vaccinated previously.

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of antibody, which is a protective protein produced by the immune system in response to foreign substances like bacteria or viruses. IgG is the most abundant type of antibody in human blood, making up about 75-80% of all antibodies. It is found in all body fluids and plays a crucial role in fighting infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and toxins.

IgG has several important functions:

1. Neutralization: IgG can bind to the surface of bacteria or viruses, preventing them from attaching to and infecting human cells.
2. Opsonization: IgG coats the surface of pathogens, making them more recognizable and easier for immune cells like neutrophils and macrophages to phagocytose (engulf and destroy) them.
3. Complement activation: IgG can activate the complement system, a group of proteins that work together to help eliminate pathogens from the body. Activation of the complement system leads to the formation of the membrane attack complex, which creates holes in the cell membranes of bacteria, leading to their lysis (destruction).
4. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC): IgG can bind to immune cells like natural killer (NK) cells and trigger them to release substances that cause target cells (such as virus-infected or cancerous cells) to undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death).
5. Immune complex formation: IgG can form immune complexes with antigens, which can then be removed from the body through various mechanisms, such as phagocytosis by immune cells or excretion in urine.

IgG is a critical component of adaptive immunity and provides long-lasting protection against reinfection with many pathogens. It has four subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) that differ in their structure, function, and distribution in the body.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

Bacterial capsules are slimy, gel-like layers that surround many types of bacteria. They are made up of polysaccharides, proteins, or lipopolysaccharides and are synthesized by the bacterial cell. These capsules play a crucial role in the virulence and pathogenicity of bacteria as they help the bacteria to evade the host's immune system and promote their survival and colonization within the host. The presence of a capsule can also contribute to the bacteria's resistance to desiccation, phagocytosis, and antibiotics.

The chemical composition and structure of bacterial capsules vary among different species of bacteria, which is one factor that contributes to their serological specificity and allows for their identification and classification using methods such as the Quellung reaction or immunofluorescence microscopy.

Passive immunization is a type of temporary immunity that is transferred to an individual through the injection of antibodies produced outside of the body, rather than through the active production of antibodies in the body in response to vaccination or infection. This can be done through the administration of preformed antibodies, such as immune globulins, which contain a mixture of antibodies that provide immediate protection against specific diseases.

Passive immunization is often used in situations where individuals have been exposed to a disease and do not have time to develop their own active immune response, or in cases where individuals are unable to produce an adequate immune response due to certain medical conditions. It can also be used as a short-term measure to provide protection until an individual can receive a vaccination that will confer long-term immunity.

Passive immunization provides immediate protection against disease, but the protection is typically short-lived, lasting only a few weeks or months. This is because the transferred antibodies are gradually broken down and eliminated by the body over time. In contrast, active immunization confers long-term immunity through the production of memory cells that can mount a rapid and effective immune response upon re-exposure to the same pathogen in the future.

Haemophilus infections are caused by bacteria named Haemophilus influenzae. Despite its name, this bacterium does not cause the flu, which is caused by a virus. There are several different strains of Haemophilus influenzae, and some are more likely to cause severe illness than others.

Haemophilus infections can affect people of any age, but they are most common in children under 5 years old. The bacteria can cause a range of infections, from mild ear infections to serious conditions such as meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord) and pneumonia (infection of the lungs).

The bacterium is spread through respiratory droplets when an infected person coughs or sneezes. It can also be spread by touching contaminated surfaces and then touching the mouth, nose, or eyes.

Prevention measures include good hygiene practices such as handwashing, covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing, and avoiding close contact with people who are sick. Vaccination is also available to protect against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) infections, which are the most severe and common form of Haemophilus infection.

An AIDS vaccine is a type of preventive vaccine that aims to stimulate the immune system to produce an effective response against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The goal of an AIDS vaccine is to induce the production of immune cells and proteins that can recognize and eliminate HIV-infected cells, thereby preventing the establishment of a persistent infection.

Despite decades of research, there is still no licensed AIDS vaccine available. This is due in part to the unique challenges posed by HIV, which has a high mutation rate and can rapidly evolve to evade the immune system's defenses. However, several promising vaccine candidates are currently being tested in clinical trials around the world, and researchers continue to explore new approaches and strategies for developing an effective AIDS vaccine.

A "Drug Administration Schedule" refers to the plan for when and how a medication should be given to a patient. It includes details such as the dose, frequency (how often it should be taken), route (how it should be administered, such as orally, intravenously, etc.), and duration (how long it should be taken) of the medication. This schedule is often created and prescribed by healthcare professionals, such as doctors or pharmacists, to ensure that the medication is taken safely and effectively. It may also include instructions for missed doses or changes in the dosage.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "India" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country in South Asia, the second-most populous country in the world, known for its rich history, diverse culture, and numerous contributions to various fields including medicine. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to help answer them!

Pneumococcal infections are illnesses caused by the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae, also known as pneumococcus. This bacterium can infect different parts of the body, including the lungs (pneumonia), blood (bacteremia or sepsis), and the covering of the brain and spinal cord (meningitis). Pneumococcal infections can also cause ear infections and sinus infections. The bacteria spread through close contact with an infected person, who may spread the bacteria by coughing or sneezing. People with weakened immune systems, children under 2 years of age, adults over 65, and those with certain medical conditions are at increased risk for developing pneumococcal infections.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

Hepatitis B is a viral infection that attacks the liver and can cause both acute and chronic disease. The virus is transmitted through contact with infected blood, semen, and other bodily fluids. It can also be passed from an infected mother to her baby at birth.

Acute hepatitis B infection lasts for a few weeks to several months and often causes no symptoms. However, some people may experience mild to severe flu-like symptoms, yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice), dark urine, and fatigue. Most adults with acute hepatitis B recover completely and develop lifelong immunity to the virus.

Chronic hepatitis B infection can lead to serious liver damage, including cirrhosis and liver cancer. People with chronic hepatitis B may experience long-term symptoms such as fatigue, joint pain, and depression. They are also at risk for developing liver failure and liver cancer.

Prevention measures include vaccination, safe sex practices, avoiding sharing needles or other drug injection equipment, and covering wounds and skin rashes. There is no specific treatment for acute hepatitis B, but chronic hepatitis B can be treated with antiviral medications to slow the progression of liver damage.

Columbidae is the family that includes all pigeons and doves. According to the medical literature, there are no specific medical definitions associated with Columbidae. However, it's worth noting that some species of pigeons and doves are commonly kept as pets or used in research, and may be mentioned in medical contexts related to avian medicine, zoonoses (diseases transmissible from animals to humans), or public health concerns such as bird-related allergies.

BALB/c is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The strain was developed at the Institute of Cancer Research in London by Henry Baldwin and his colleagues in the 1920s, and it has since become one of the most commonly used inbred strains in the world.

BALB/c mice are characterized by their black coat color, which is determined by a recessive allele at the tyrosinase locus. They are also known for their docile and friendly temperament, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory.

One of the key features of BALB/c mice that makes them useful for research is their susceptibility to certain types of tumors and immune responses. For example, they are highly susceptible to developing mammary tumors, which can be induced by chemical carcinogens or viral infection. They also have a strong Th2-biased immune response, which makes them useful models for studying allergic diseases and asthma.

BALB/c mice are also commonly used in studies of genetics, neuroscience, behavior, and infectious diseases. Because they are an inbred strain, they have a uniform genetic background, which makes it easier to control for genetic factors in experiments. Additionally, because they have been bred in the laboratory for many generations, they are highly standardized and reproducible, making them ideal subjects for scientific research.

I could not find a specific medical definition for "Vaccines, DNA." However, I can provide you with some information about DNA vaccines.

DNA vaccines are a type of vaccine that uses genetically engineered DNA to stimulate an immune response in the body. They work by introducing a small piece of DNA into the body that contains the genetic code for a specific antigen (a substance that triggers an immune response). The cells of the body then use this DNA to produce the antigen, which prompts the immune system to recognize and attack it.

DNA vaccines have several advantages over traditional vaccines. They are relatively easy to produce, can be stored at room temperature, and can be designed to protect against a wide range of diseases. Additionally, because they use DNA to stimulate an immune response, DNA vaccines do not require the growth and culture of viruses or bacteria, which can make them safer than traditional vaccines.

DNA vaccines are still in the experimental stages, and more research is needed to determine their safety and effectiveness. However, they have shown promise in animal studies and are being investigated as a potential tool for preventing a variety of infectious diseases, including influenza, HIV, and cancer.

Antibody formation, also known as humoral immune response, is the process by which the immune system produces proteins called antibodies in response to the presence of a foreign substance (antigen) in the body. This process involves several steps:

1. Recognition: The antigen is recognized and bound by a type of white blood cell called a B lymphocyte or B cell, which then becomes activated.
2. Differentiation: The activated B cell undergoes differentiation to become a plasma cell, which is a type of cell that produces and secretes large amounts of antibodies.
3. Antibody production: The plasma cells produce and release antibodies, which are proteins made up of four polypeptide chains (two heavy chains and two light chains) arranged in a Y-shape. Each antibody has two binding sites that can recognize and bind to specific regions on the antigen called epitopes.
4. Neutralization or elimination: The antibodies bind to the antigens, neutralizing them or marking them for destruction by other immune cells. This helps to prevent the spread of infection and protect the body from harmful substances.

Antibody formation is an important part of the adaptive immune response, which allows the body to specifically recognize and respond to a wide variety of pathogens and foreign substances.

A fee schedule in a medical context refers to a list of fees that healthcare providers charge for various procedures, services, or treatments. It is essentially a price list that outlines the cost of each service offered by the healthcare provider. Fee schedules can be established by individual practitioners, hospitals, clinics, or insurance networks and may vary based on factors such as location, specialty, and complexity of the procedure.

In some cases, fee schedules are negotiated between healthcare providers and insurance companies to determine the allowed amount for reimbursement. This helps ensure that patients receive consistent and predictable pricing for medical services while also allowing healthcare providers to maintain a sustainable practice. Additionally, fee schedules can help patients understand their financial responsibilities before undergoing medical procedures or treatments.

Intranasal administration refers to the delivery of medication or other substances through the nasal passages and into the nasal cavity. This route of administration can be used for systemic absorption of drugs or for localized effects in the nasal area.

When a medication is administered intranasally, it is typically sprayed or dropped into the nostril, where it is absorbed by the mucous membranes lining the nasal cavity. The medication can then pass into the bloodstream and be distributed throughout the body for systemic effects. Intranasal administration can also result in direct absorption of the medication into the local tissues of the nasal cavity, which can be useful for treating conditions such as allergies, migraines, or pain in the nasal area.

Intranasal administration has several advantages over other routes of administration. It is non-invasive and does not require needles or injections, making it a more comfortable option for many people. Additionally, intranasal administration can result in faster onset of action than oral administration, as the medication bypasses the digestive system and is absorbed directly into the bloodstream. However, there are also some limitations to this route of administration, including potential issues with dosing accuracy and patient tolerance.

Immunologic adjuvants are substances that are added to a vaccine to enhance the body's immune response to the antigens contained in the vaccine. They work by stimulating the immune system and promoting the production of antibodies and activating immune cells, such as T-cells and macrophages, which help to provide a stronger and more sustained immune response to the vaccine.

Immunologic adjuvants can be derived from various sources, including bacteria, viruses, and chemicals. Some common examples include aluminum salts (alum), oil-in-water emulsions (such as MF59), and bacterial components (such as lipopolysaccharide or LPS).

The use of immunologic adjuvants in vaccines can help to improve the efficacy of the vaccine, particularly for vaccines that contain weak or poorly immunogenic antigens. They can also help to reduce the amount of antigen needed in a vaccine, which can be beneficial for vaccines that are difficult or expensive to produce.

It's important to note that while adjuvants can enhance the immune response to a vaccine, they can also increase the risk of adverse reactions, such as inflammation and pain at the injection site. Therefore, the use of immunologic adjuvants must be carefully balanced against their potential benefits and risks.

Operant conditioning is a type of learning in which behavior is modified by its consequences, either reinforcing or punishing the behavior. It was first described by B.F. Skinner and involves an association between a response (behavior) and a consequence (either reward or punishment). There are two types of operant conditioning: positive reinforcement, in which a desirable consequence follows a desired behavior, increasing the likelihood that the behavior will occur again; and negative reinforcement, in which a undesirable consequence is removed following a desired behavior, also increasing the likelihood that the behavior will occur again.

For example, if a child cleans their room (response) and their parent gives them praise or a treat (positive reinforcement), the child is more likely to clean their room again in the future. If a child is buckling their seatbelt in the car (response) and the annoying buzzer stops (negative reinforcement), the child is more likely to buckle their seatbelt in the future.

It's important to note that operant conditioning is a form of learning, not motivation. The behavior is modified by its consequences, regardless of the individual's internal state or intentions.

Mucosal immunity refers to the immune system's defense mechanisms that are specifically adapted to protect the mucous membranes, which line various body openings such as the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and urogenital tracts. These membranes are constantly exposed to foreign substances, including potential pathogens, and therefore require a specialized immune response to maintain homeostasis and prevent infection.

Mucosal immunity is primarily mediated by secretory IgA (SIgA) antibodies, which are produced by B cells in the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). These antibodies can neutralize pathogens and prevent them from adhering to and invading the epithelial cells that line the mucous membranes.

In addition to SIgA, other components of the mucosal immune system include innate immune cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils, which can recognize and respond to pathogens through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). T cells also play a role in mucosal immunity, particularly in the induction of cell-mediated immunity against viruses and other intracellular pathogens.

Overall, mucosal immunity is an essential component of the body's defense system, providing protection against a wide range of potential pathogens while maintaining tolerance to harmless antigens present in the environment.

Influenza vaccines, also known as flu shots, are vaccines that protect against the influenza virus. Influenza is a highly contagious respiratory illness that can cause severe symptoms and complications, particularly in young children, older adults, pregnant women, and people with certain underlying health conditions.

Influenza vaccines contain inactivated or weakened viruses or pieces of the virus, which stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies that recognize and fight off the virus. The vaccine is typically given as an injection into the muscle, usually in the upper arm.

There are several different types of influenza vaccines available, including:

* Trivalent vaccines, which protect against three strains of the virus (two A strains and one B strain)
* Quadrivalent vaccines, which protect against four strains of the virus (two A strains and two B strains)
* High-dose vaccines, which contain a higher amount of antigen and are recommended for people aged 65 and older
* Adjuvanted vaccines, which contain an additional ingredient to boost the immune response and are also recommended for people aged 65 and older
* Cell-based vaccines, which are produced using cultured cells rather than eggs and may be recommended for people with egg allergies

It's important to note that influenza viruses are constantly changing, so the vaccine is updated each year to match the circulating strains. It's recommended that most people get vaccinated against influenza every year to stay protected.

Inactivated vaccines, also known as killed or non-live vaccines, are created by using a version of the virus or bacteria that has been grown in a laboratory and then killed or inactivated with chemicals, heat, or radiation. This process renders the organism unable to cause disease, but still capable of stimulating an immune response when introduced into the body.

Inactivated vaccines are generally considered safer than live attenuated vaccines since they cannot revert back to a virulent form and cause illness. However, they may require multiple doses or booster shots to maintain immunity because the immune response generated by inactivated vaccines is not as robust as that produced by live vaccines. Examples of inactivated vaccines include those for hepatitis A, rabies, and influenza (inactivated flu vaccine).

Attenuated vaccines consist of live microorganisms that have been weakened (attenuated) through various laboratory processes so they do not cause disease in the majority of recipients but still stimulate an immune response. The purpose of attenuation is to reduce the virulence or replication capacity of the pathogen while keeping it alive, allowing it to retain its antigenic properties and induce a strong and protective immune response.

Examples of attenuated vaccines include:

1. Sabin oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV): This vaccine uses live but weakened polioviruses to protect against all three strains of the disease-causing poliovirus. The weakened viruses replicate in the intestine and induce an immune response, which provides both humoral (antibody) and cell-mediated immunity.
2. Measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine: This combination vaccine contains live attenuated measles, mumps, and rubella viruses. It is given to protect against these three diseases and prevent their spread in the population.
3. Varicella (chickenpox) vaccine: This vaccine uses a weakened form of the varicella-zoster virus, which causes chickenpox. By introducing this attenuated virus into the body, it stimulates an immune response that protects against future infection with the wild-type virus.
4. Yellow fever vaccine: This live attenuated vaccine is used to prevent yellow fever, a viral disease transmitted by mosquitoes in tropical and subtropical regions of Africa and South America. The vaccine contains a weakened form of the yellow fever virus that cannot cause the disease but still induces an immune response.
5. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine: This live attenuated vaccine is used to protect against tuberculosis (TB). It contains a weakened strain of Mycobacterium bovis, which does not cause TB in humans but stimulates an immune response that provides some protection against the disease.

Attenuated vaccines are generally effective at inducing long-lasting immunity and can provide robust protection against targeted diseases. However, they may pose a risk for individuals with weakened immune systems, as the attenuated viruses or bacteria could potentially cause illness in these individuals. Therefore, it is essential to consider an individual's health status before administering live attenuated vaccines.

Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is a type of antibody that plays a crucial role in the immune function of the human body. It is primarily found in external secretions, such as saliva, tears, breast milk, and sweat, as well as in mucous membranes lining the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. IgA exists in two forms: a monomeric form found in serum and a polymeric form found in secretions.

The primary function of IgA is to provide immune protection at mucosal surfaces, which are exposed to various environmental antigens, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and allergens. By doing so, it helps prevent the entry and colonization of pathogens into the body, reducing the risk of infections and inflammation.

IgA functions by binding to antigens present on the surface of pathogens or allergens, forming immune complexes that can neutralize their activity. These complexes are then transported across the epithelial cells lining mucosal surfaces and released into the lumen, where they prevent the adherence and invasion of pathogens.

In summary, Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is a vital antibody that provides immune defense at mucosal surfaces by neutralizing and preventing the entry of harmful antigens into the body.

Appetitive behavior is a term used in the field of psychology and neuroscience to refer to actions or behaviors that are performed in order to obtain a reward or positive reinforcement. These behaviors are often driven by basic biological needs, such as hunger, thirst, or the need for social interaction. They can also be influenced by learned associations and past experiences.

In the context of medical terminology, appetitive behavior may be used to describe a patient's level of interest in food or their desire to eat. For example, a patient with a good appetite may have a strong desire to eat and may seek out food regularly, while a patient with a poor appetite may have little interest in food and may need to be encouraged to eat.

Appetitive behavior is regulated by a complex interplay of hormonal, neural, and psychological factors. Disruptions in these systems can lead to changes in appetitive behavior, such as increased or decreased hunger and eating. Appetitive behavior is an important area of study in the field of obesity research, as it is thought that understanding the underlying mechanisms that drive appetitive behavior may help to develop more effective treatments for weight management.

Oral administration is a route of giving medications or other substances by mouth. This can be in the form of tablets, capsules, liquids, pastes, or other forms that can be swallowed. Once ingested, the substance is absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract and enters the bloodstream to reach its intended target site in the body. Oral administration is a common and convenient route of medication delivery, but it may not be appropriate for all substances or in certain situations, such as when rapid onset of action is required or when the patient has difficulty swallowing.

"Intramuscular injections" refer to a medical procedure where a medication or vaccine is administered directly into the muscle tissue. This is typically done using a hypodermic needle and syringe, and the injection is usually given into one of the large muscles in the body, such as the deltoid (shoulder), vastus lateralis (thigh), or ventrogluteal (buttock) muscles.

Intramuscular injections are used for a variety of reasons, including to deliver medications that need to be absorbed slowly over time, to bypass stomach acid and improve absorption, or to ensure that the medication reaches the bloodstream quickly and directly. Common examples of medications delivered via intramuscular injection include certain vaccines, antibiotics, and pain relievers.

It is important to follow proper technique when administering intramuscular injections to minimize pain and reduce the risk of complications such as infection or injury to surrounding tissues. Proper site selection, needle length and gauge, and injection technique are all critical factors in ensuring a safe and effective intramuscular injection.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

Diphtheria toxoid is a modified form of the diphtheria toxin that has been made harmless but still stimulates an immune response. It is used in vaccines to provide immunity against diphtheria, a serious bacterial infection that can cause breathing difficulties, heart failure, and paralysis. The toxoid is typically combined with other components in a vaccine, such as tetanus toxoid and pertussis vaccine, to form a combination vaccine that protects against multiple diseases.

The diphtheria toxoid is made by treating the diphtheria toxin with formaldehyde, which modifies the toxin's structure and makes it nontoxic while still retaining its ability to stimulate an immune response. When the toxoid is introduced into the body through vaccination, the immune system recognizes it as a foreign substance and produces antibodies against it. These antibodies then provide protection against future infections with the diphtheria bacteria.

The diphtheria toxoid vaccine is usually given as part of a routine childhood immunization schedule, starting at 2 months of age. Booster shots are recommended throughout childhood and adolescence, and adults may also need booster shots if they have not received them previously or if their immune status has changed.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Work Schedule Tolerance" is not a recognized term in the medical field. It may be a term used in occupational health or human resources to refer to an employee's ability to adapt to different work schedules, such as night shifts, rotating shifts, or irregular hours. However, it is not a medical diagnosis or condition. If you have any concerns about your work schedule and how it affects your health, I would recommend speaking with a healthcare provider or occupational health professional.

A Pertussis vaccine is a type of immunization used to protect against pertussis, also known as whooping cough. It contains components that stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies against the bacteria that cause pertussis, Bordetella pertussis. There are two main types of pertussis vaccines: whole-cell pertussis (wP) vaccines and acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines. wP vaccines contain killed whole cells of B. pertussis, while aP vaccines contain specific components of the bacteria, such as pertussis toxin and other antigens. Pertussis vaccines are often combined with diphtheria and tetanus to form combination vaccines, such as DTaP (diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis) and TdaP (tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis). These vaccines are typically given to young children as part of their routine immunization schedule.

Cellular immunity, also known as cell-mediated immunity, is a type of immune response that involves the activation of immune cells, such as T lymphocytes (T cells), to protect the body against infected or damaged cells. This form of immunity is important for fighting off infections caused by viruses and intracellular bacteria, as well as for recognizing and destroying cancer cells.

Cellular immunity involves a complex series of interactions between various immune cells and molecules. When a pathogen infects a cell, the infected cell displays pieces of the pathogen on its surface in a process called antigen presentation. This attracts T cells, which recognize the antigens and become activated. Activated T cells then release cytokines, chemicals that help coordinate the immune response, and can directly attack and kill infected cells or help activate other immune cells to do so.

Cellular immunity is an important component of the adaptive immune system, which is able to learn and remember specific pathogens in order to mount a faster and more effective response upon subsequent exposure. This form of immunity is also critical for the rejection of transplanted organs, as the immune system recognizes the transplanted tissue as foreign and attacks it.

The Mumps Vaccine is a biological preparation intended to induce immunity against mumps, a contagious viral infection that primarily affects the salivary glands. The vaccine contains live attenuated (weakened) mumps virus, which stimulates the immune system to develop a protective response without causing the disease.

There are two types of mumps vaccines available:

1. The Jeryl Lynn strain is used in the United States and is part of the Measles, Mumps, and Rubella (MMR) vaccine and the Measles, Mumps, Rubella, and Varicella (MMRV) vaccine. This strain is derived from a clinical isolate obtained from the throat washings of a child with mumps in 1963.
2. The Urabe AM9 strain was used in some countries but has been discontinued in many places due to an increased risk of meningitis as a rare complication.

The MMR vaccine is typically given to children at 12-15 months of age and again at 4-6 years of age, providing long-lasting immunity against mumps in most individuals. The vaccine has significantly reduced the incidence of mumps and its complications worldwide.

The spleen is an organ in the upper left side of the abdomen, next to the stomach and behind the ribs. It plays multiple supporting roles in the body:

1. It fights infection by acting as a filter for the blood. Old red blood cells are recycled in the spleen, and platelets and white blood cells are stored there.
2. The spleen also helps to control the amount of blood in the body by removing excess red blood cells and storing platelets.
3. It has an important role in immune function, producing antibodies and removing microorganisms and damaged red blood cells from the bloodstream.

The spleen can be removed without causing any significant problems, as other organs take over its functions. This is known as a splenectomy and may be necessary if the spleen is damaged or diseased.

An "injection, intradermal" refers to a type of injection where a small quantity of a substance is introduced into the layer of skin between the epidermis and dermis, using a thin gauge needle. This technique is often used for diagnostic or research purposes, such as conducting allergy tests or administering immunizations in a way that stimulates a strong immune response. The injection site typically produces a small, raised bump (wheal) that disappears within a few hours. It's important to note that intradermal injections should be performed by trained medical professionals to minimize the risk of complications.

Bacterial antigens are substances found on the surface or produced by bacteria that can stimulate an immune response in a host organism. These antigens can be proteins, polysaccharides, teichoic acids, lipopolysaccharides, or other molecules that are recognized as foreign by the host's immune system.

When a bacterial antigen is encountered by the host's immune system, it triggers a series of responses aimed at eliminating the bacteria and preventing infection. The host's immune system recognizes the antigen as foreign through the use of specialized receptors called pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which are found on various immune cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils.

Once a bacterial antigen is recognized by the host's immune system, it can stimulate both the innate and adaptive immune responses. The innate immune response involves the activation of inflammatory pathways, the recruitment of immune cells to the site of infection, and the production of antimicrobial peptides.

The adaptive immune response, on the other hand, involves the activation of T cells and B cells, which are specific to the bacterial antigen. These cells can recognize and remember the antigen, allowing for a more rapid and effective response upon subsequent exposures.

Bacterial antigens are important in the development of vaccines, as they can be used to stimulate an immune response without causing disease. By identifying specific bacterial antigens that are associated with virulence or pathogenicity, researchers can develop vaccines that target these antigens and provide protection against infection.

Immunoglobulin A (IgA), Secretory is a type of antibody that plays a crucial role in the immune function of mucous membranes. These membranes line various body openings, such as the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, and serve to protect the body from potential pathogens by producing mucus.

Secretory IgA (SIgA) is the primary immunoglobulin found in secretions of the mucous membranes, and it is produced by a special type of immune cell called plasma cells located in the lamina propria, a layer of tissue beneath the epithelial cells that line the mucosal surfaces.

SIgA exists as a dimer, consisting of two IgA molecules linked together by a protein called the J chain. This complex is then transported across the epithelial cell layer to the luminal surface, where it becomes associated with another protein called the secretory component (SC). The SC protects the SIgA from degradation by enzymes and helps it maintain its function in the harsh environment of the mucosal surfaces.

SIgA functions by preventing the attachment and entry of pathogens into the body, thereby neutralizing their infectivity. It can also agglutinate (clump together) microorganisms, making them more susceptible to removal by mucociliary clearance or peristalsis. Furthermore, SIgA can modulate immune responses and contribute to the development of oral tolerance, which is important for maintaining immune homeostasis in the gut.

Maternally-acquired immunity (MAI) refers to the passive immunity that is transferred from a mother to her offspring, typically through the placenta during pregnancy or through breast milk after birth. This immunity is temporary and provides protection to the newborn or young infant against infectious agents, such as bacteria and viruses, based on the mother's own immune experiences and responses.

In humans, maternally-acquired immunity is primarily mediated by the transfer of antibodies called immunoglobulins (IgG) across the placenta to the fetus during pregnancy. This process begins around the 20th week of gestation and continues until birth, providing the newborn with a range of protective antibodies against various pathogens. After birth, additional protection is provided through breast milk, which contains secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA) that helps to prevent infections in the infant's gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts.

Maternally-acquired immunity is an essential mechanism for protecting newborns and young infants, who have not yet developed their own active immune responses. However, it is important to note that maternally-acquired antibodies can also interfere with the infant's response to certain vaccines, as they may neutralize the vaccine antigens before the infant's immune system has a chance to mount its own response. This is one reason why some vaccines are not recommended for young infants and why the timing of vaccinations may be adjusted in cases where maternally-acquired immunity is present.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is a type of analytical biochemistry assay used to detect and quantify the presence of a substance, typically a protein or peptide, in a liquid sample. It takes its name from the enzyme-linked antibodies used in the assay.

In an ELISA, the sample is added to a well containing a surface that has been treated to capture the target substance. If the target substance is present in the sample, it will bind to the surface. Next, an enzyme-linked antibody specific to the target substance is added. This antibody will bind to the captured target substance if it is present. After washing away any unbound material, a substrate for the enzyme is added. If the enzyme is present due to its linkage to the antibody, it will catalyze a reaction that produces a detectable signal, such as a color change or fluorescence. The intensity of this signal is proportional to the amount of target substance present in the sample, allowing for quantification.

ELISAs are widely used in research and clinical settings to detect and measure various substances, including hormones, viruses, and bacteria. They offer high sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility, making them a reliable choice for many applications.

Antibody specificity refers to the ability of an antibody to bind to a specific epitope or antigenic determinant on an antigen. Each antibody has a unique structure that allows it to recognize and bind to a specific region of an antigen, typically a small portion of the antigen's surface made up of amino acids or sugar residues. This highly specific binding is mediated by the variable regions of the antibody's heavy and light chains, which form a pocket that recognizes and binds to the epitope.

The specificity of an antibody is determined by its unique complementarity-determining regions (CDRs), which are loops of amino acids located in the variable domains of both the heavy and light chains. The CDRs form a binding site that recognizes and interacts with the epitope on the antigen. The precise fit between the antibody's binding site and the epitope is critical for specificity, as even small changes in the structure of either can prevent binding.

Antibody specificity is important in immune responses because it allows the immune system to distinguish between self and non-self antigens. This helps to prevent autoimmune reactions where the immune system attacks the body's own cells and tissues. Antibody specificity also plays a crucial role in diagnostic tests, such as ELISA assays, where antibodies are used to detect the presence of specific antigens in biological samples.

A subunit vaccine is a type of vaccine that contains a specific piece or component of the microorganism (such as a protein, sugar, or part of the bacterial outer membrane), instead of containing the entire organism. This piece of the microorganism is known as an antigen, and it stimulates an immune response in the body, allowing the development of immunity against the targeted infection without introducing the risk of disease associated with live vaccines.

Subunit vaccines offer several advantages over other types of vaccines. They are generally safer because they do not contain live or weakened microorganisms, making them suitable for individuals with weakened immune systems or specific medical conditions that prevent them from receiving live vaccines. Additionally, subunit vaccines can be designed to focus on the most immunogenic components of a pathogen, potentially leading to stronger and more targeted immune responses.

Examples of subunit vaccines include the Hepatitis B vaccine, which contains a viral protein, and the Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine, which uses pieces of the bacterial polysaccharide capsule. These vaccines have been crucial in preventing serious infectious diseases and reducing associated complications worldwide.

Subcutaneous injection is a route of administration where a medication or vaccine is delivered into the subcutaneous tissue, which lies between the skin and the muscle. This layer contains small blood vessels, nerves, and connective tissues that help to absorb the medication slowly and steadily over a period of time. Subcutaneous injections are typically administered using a short needle, at an angle of 45-90 degrees, and the dose is injected slowly to minimize discomfort and ensure proper absorption. Common sites for subcutaneous injections include the abdomen, thigh, or upper arm. Examples of medications that may be given via subcutaneous injection include insulin, heparin, and some vaccines.

An epitope is a specific region on the surface of an antigen (a molecule that can trigger an immune response) that is recognized by an antibody, B-cell receptor, or T-cell receptor. It is also commonly referred to as an antigenic determinant. Epitopes are typically composed of linear amino acid sequences or conformational structures made up of discontinuous amino acids in the antigen. They play a crucial role in the immune system's ability to differentiate between self and non-self molecules, leading to the targeted destruction of foreign substances like viruses and bacteria. Understanding epitopes is essential for developing vaccines, diagnostic tests, and immunotherapies.

Diphtheria is a serious bacterial infection caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It typically affects the respiratory system, including the nose, throat, and windpipe (trachea), causing a thick gray or white membrane to form over the lining of these areas. This can lead to breathing difficulties, heart complications, and neurological problems if left untreated.

The bacteria can also produce a powerful toxin that can cause damage to other organs in the body. Diphtheria is usually spread through respiratory droplets from an infected person's cough or sneeze, or by contact with contaminated objects or surfaces. The disease is preventable through vaccination.

Cholera toxin is a protein toxin produced by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, which causes the infectious disease cholera. The toxin is composed of two subunits, A and B, and its primary mechanism of action is to alter the normal function of cells in the small intestine.

The B subunit of the toxin binds to ganglioside receptors on the surface of intestinal epithelial cells, allowing the A subunit to enter the cell. Once inside, the A subunit activates a signaling pathway that results in the excessive secretion of chloride ions and water into the intestinal lumen, leading to profuse, watery diarrhea, dehydration, and other symptoms associated with cholera.

Cholera toxin is also used as a research tool in molecular biology and immunology due to its ability to modulate cell signaling pathways. It has been used to study the mechanisms of signal transduction, protein trafficking, and immune responses.

Hemocyanin is a copper-containing protein found in the blood of some mollusks and arthropods, responsible for oxygen transport. Unlike hemoglobin in vertebrates, which uses iron to bind oxygen, hemocyanins have copper ions that reversibly bind to oxygen, turning the blood blue when oxygenated. When deoxygenated, the color of the blood is pale blue-gray. Hemocyanins are typically found in a multi-subunit form and are released into the hemolymph (the equivalent of blood in vertebrates) upon exposure to air or oxygen. They play a crucial role in supplying oxygen to various tissues and organs within these invertebrate organisms.

Active immunity is a type of immunity that occurs when the body's own immune system produces a response to an antigen. This can happen in two ways: naturally or artificially.

Natural active immunity occurs when a person is exposed to a pathogen, such as a virus or bacteria, and their immune system mounts a response to fight off the infection. As part of this response, the immune system produces specific proteins called antibodies that recognize and bind to the antigen, neutralizing it and preventing future infections by the same pathogen. This type of immunity can last for years or even a lifetime, as memory cells are created that remain on alert for future encounters with the same antigen.

Artificial active immunity, also known as vaccination, involves introducing a weakened or killed form of a pathogen into the body, or pieces of the pathogen such as proteins or sugars, to stimulate an immune response. This triggers the production of antibodies and the creation of memory cells, providing protection against future infections by the same pathogen. Vaccines are a safe and effective way to induce active immunity and prevent the spread of infectious diseases.

T-lymphocytes, also known as T-cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the adaptive immune system's response to infection. They are produced in the bone marrow and mature in the thymus gland. There are several different types of T-cells, including CD4+ helper T-cells, CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells, and regulatory T-cells (Tregs).

CD4+ helper T-cells assist in activating other immune cells, such as B-lymphocytes and macrophages. They also produce cytokines, which are signaling molecules that help coordinate the immune response. CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells directly kill infected cells by releasing toxic substances. Regulatory T-cells help maintain immune tolerance and prevent autoimmune diseases by suppressing the activity of other immune cells.

T-lymphocytes are important in the immune response to viral infections, cancer, and other diseases. Dysfunction or depletion of T-cells can lead to immunodeficiency and increased susceptibility to infections. On the other hand, an overactive T-cell response can contribute to autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammation.

Freund's adjuvant is not a medical condition but a substance used in laboratory research to enhance the body's immune response to an antigen or vaccine. It is named after its developer, Jules T. Freund.

There are two types of Freund's adjuvants: complete and incomplete. Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) contains killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria, which causes a strong inflammatory response when injected into the body. This makes it an effective adjuvant for experimental vaccines, as it helps to stimulate the immune system and promote a stronger and longer-lasting immune response.

Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FIA) is similar to FCA but does not contain Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It is less potent than FCA but still useful for boosting the immune response to certain antigens.

It is important to note that Freund's adjuvants are not used in human vaccines due to their potential to cause adverse reactions, including granulomas and other inflammatory responses. They are primarily used in laboratory research with animals.

An antigen is a substance (usually a protein) that is recognized as foreign by the immune system and stimulates an immune response, leading to the production of antibodies or activation of T-cells. Antigens can be derived from various sources, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, and tumor cells. They can also come from non-living substances such as pollen, dust mites, or chemicals.

Antigens contain epitopes, which are specific regions on the antigen molecule that are recognized by the immune system. The immune system's response to an antigen depends on several factors, including the type of antigen, its size, and its location in the body.

In general, antigens can be classified into two main categories:

1. T-dependent antigens: These require the help of T-cells to stimulate an immune response. They are typically larger, more complex molecules that contain multiple epitopes capable of binding to both MHC class II molecules on antigen-presenting cells and T-cell receptors on CD4+ T-cells.
2. T-independent antigens: These do not require the help of T-cells to stimulate an immune response. They are usually smaller, simpler molecules that contain repetitive epitopes capable of cross-linking B-cell receptors and activating them directly.

Understanding antigens and their properties is crucial for developing vaccines, diagnostic tests, and immunotherapies.

Toxoids are inactivated bacterial toxins that have lost their toxicity but retain their antigenicity. They are often used in vaccines to stimulate an immune response and provide protection against certain diseases without causing the harmful effects associated with the active toxin. The process of converting a toxin into a toxoid is called detoxication, which is typically achieved through chemical or heat treatment.

One example of a toxoid-based vaccine is the diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DT) or diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis toxoids (DTaP or TdaP) vaccines. These vaccines contain inactivated forms of the diphtheria and tetanus toxins, as well as inactivated pertussis toxin in the case of DTaP or TdaP vaccines. By exposing the immune system to these toxoids, the body learns to recognize and mount a response against the actual toxins produced by the bacteria, thereby providing immunity and protection against the diseases they cause.

Cross reactions, in the context of medical diagnostics and immunology, refer to a situation where an antibody or a immune response directed against one antigen also reacts with a different antigen due to similarities in their molecular structure. This can occur in allergy testing, where a person who is allergic to a particular substance may have a positive test result for a different but related substance because of cross-reactivity between them. For example, some individuals who are allergic to birch pollen may also have symptoms when eating certain fruits, such as apples, due to cross-reactive proteins present in both.

Antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the presence of a foreign substance, such as a bacterium or virus. They are capable of identifying and binding to specific antigens (foreign substances) on the surface of these invaders, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Antibodies are also known as immunoglobulins and come in several different types, including IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM, each with a unique function in the immune response. They are composed of four polypeptide chains, two heavy chains and two light chains, that are held together by disulfide bonds. The variable regions of the heavy and light chains form the antigen-binding site, which is specific to a particular antigen.

CD8-positive T-lymphocytes, also known as CD8+ T cells or cytotoxic T cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the adaptive immune system. They are named after the CD8 molecule found on their surface, which is a protein involved in cell signaling and recognition.

CD8+ T cells are primarily responsible for identifying and destroying virus-infected cells or cancerous cells. When activated, they release cytotoxic granules that contain enzymes capable of inducing apoptosis (programmed cell death) in the target cells. They also produce cytokines such as interferon-gamma, which can help coordinate the immune response and activate other immune cells.

CD8+ T cells are generated in the thymus gland and are a type of T cell, which is a lymphocyte that matures in the thymus and plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity. They recognize and respond to specific antigens presented on the surface of infected or cancerous cells in conjunction with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules.

Overall, CD8+ T cells are an essential component of the immune system's defense against viral infections and cancer.

The immunisation schedule continues when the child is 4 years old, and then into adolescent years. The program is not ... The Australian National Immunisation Program Schedule sets out the immunisations Australians are given at different stages in ... The National Immunisation Program Schedule includes vaccines that are funded for children, adolescents and adults. Additional ... "Immunisation schedules , NCIRS". www.ncirs.org.au. Retrieved 2020-01-30. Health, Australian Government Department of (2017-12- ...
The schedule for childhood immunizations in the United States is published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ( ... "Immunization Schedules". CDC. Retrieved 16 September 2014. "Possible Side effects from Vaccines". CDC. CDC. Retrieved 10 April ... Childhood immunizations are key in preventing diseases with epidemic potential. As with all medications, vaccines are ... Immunization Action Coalition. Retrieved 1 November 2020. "Transmission of Mumps". CDC. CDC. Retrieved 11 April 2014. "Signs & ...
The standard routine immunization schedule for infants in the Philippines is adopted to provide maximum immunity against the ... If the vaccination schedule is interrupted, it is not necessary to restart. Instead, the schedule should be resumed using ... Zimmerman, Richard Kent (2000-01-01). "Practice Guidelines - The 2000 Harmonized Immunization Schedule". American Family ... Every Wednesday is designated as immunization day and is adopted in all parts of the country. Immunization is done monthly in ...
"Child, Adolescent & "Catch-up" Immunization Schedules". Immunization Schedules. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 11 ... The vaccine is part of the routine immunization schedule in the US. Some European countries include it as part of universal ... Routine immunization of children is recommended in many countries. Immunization within three days of exposure may improve ... Before routine immunization the number of cases occurring each year was similar to the number of people born. Since ...
"Immunization Schedules". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Archived from the original on November 5, 2014 ... "Vaccination schedules generally require a primary course of two doses, 3-6 weeks apart, followed by boosters at 6-12 month ... As well as protecting mother and child from the effects of an influenza infection, the immunization of pregnant women tends to ... Canadian Immunization Guide Chapter on Influenza and Statement on Seasonal Influenza Vaccine for 2019-2020 (PDF) (Report). ...
"Immunization schedules by antigens". apps.who.int. "Immunization schedules by diseases". apps.who.int. Retrieved 2019-11-27. " ... "The UK immunisation schedule". National Health Service. Retrieved 2006-11-03. USA National Center for Immunization and ... "Immunization in Pregnancy and Postpartum" (PDF). May 2014. "Immunisation schedule". National Health Service. Retrieved 2013-03- ... UN World Health Organization: "Immunization schedules by antigens". apps.who.int. Europe Vaccine schedules in all countries of ...
"Birth-18 Years Immunization Schedule". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 5 February 2019. Archived from the ... In 2021, at least 183 countries provided two doses in their routine immunization schedule. It is on the World Health ... Institute of Medicine (US) Immunization Safety Review Committee (17 May 2004). Immunization Safety Review: Vaccines and Autism ... "Measles vaccine: Canadian immunization guide". Public Health Agency of Canada. 18 July 2007. Archived from the original on 17 ...
"Immunization Schedules for Healthcare Professionals". United States Centers for Disease Control. Retrieved 2017-04-08. Fell B, ... Some may have received immunizations as part of their overseas exam, and some may have received no immunizations. ... Refugees arrive in their new countries with a variety of immunization needs. While refugees may have had vaccinations in their ... Recommendations by the World Health Organization's (WHO) Expanded Program on Immunizations (EPI) are generally followed by ...
"Immunization schedule in India 2016". Superbabyonline. Retrieved 5 May 2016. Guimarães, L. E.; Baker, B.; Perricone, C.; ...
"Birth-18 Years Immunization Schedule". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 2020. Retrieved 30 July 2020. " ... "Vaccine Timeline: Historic Dates and Events Related to Vaccines and Immunization". Immunization Action Coalition. 17 May 2013. ... individuals should be vaccinated on the schedule in accordance with the vaccination "catch up schedule" provided by the CDC. ... The standard immunization regimen for children within the United States is five doses of DTaP between the ages of two months ...
"Birth-18 Years Immunization Schedule , CDC". www.cdc.gov. 25 January 2021. Archived from the original on 11 April 2021. ... Misinformation related to immunization and the use of vaccines circulates in mass media and social media in spite of the fact ... "Vaccines and immunization: Myths and misconceptions". World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 14 December 2020 ... Facebook also said it would elevate posts from the World Health Organization and UNICEF in order to increase immunization rates ...
The countries of the world who have included the Hib vaccine in their immunization schedules typically begin the series at the ... CDC (2022-02-17). "Immunization Schedules for 18 & Younger". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 2022-11-08. ... Before Haemophilus influenzae (Hib) immunization children of two to four were most commonly affected. With immunization about ... Historically it was most often caused by Haemophilus influenzae type B, but with the availability of immunization this is no ...
"Your child's immunisation schedule". Australian Childhood Immunisation Register for health professionals. Australian Government ... This is part of the National Immunisation Program Schedule. In an effort to boost vaccination rates in Australia, the ... The government maintains an immunization schedule. The CSIRO predicts that the additional results in Australia of a temperature ... The government began the Immunise Australia Program to increase national immunisation rates. They fund a number of different ...
"Birth-18 Years Immunization Schedule - Shell , CDC". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved 2017-04-07. "Administering vaccines: Dose, route, ... site, and needle size" (PDF). Immunization Action Coalition, St. Paul, MN. 1 August 2019. Retrieved 13 April 2020. "Office of ...
"Immunization Schedules for Heplisav-B Vaccine , CDC". www.cdc.gov. 8 June 2022. Retrieved 4 December 2022. "Hepatitis B Facts ...
See Vaccination schedule for the schedule recommended in the United States. All fifty states in the U.S. mandate immunizations ... Vaccinations within the immunization schedule are given for free at immunization services within the public sector. When given ... "Recommended immunization schedules: Canadian Immunization Guide". 18 July 2007. Archived from the original on 16 May 2022. ... There is a National committee on immunizations that updates the national recommended immunization schedule, with input from the ...
... vaccination schedule is a vaccination schedule differing from the schedule endorsed by the Advisory Committee on Immunization ... A 2016 study identified five different types of alternative vaccine schedules: Sears' schedule, a shot-limiting schedule, ... Robison, S. G.; Groom, H.; Young, C. (18 June 2012). "Frequency of Alternative Immunization Schedule Use in a Metropolitan Area ... Opel, Douglas J.; Marcuse, Edgar K. (1 March 2013). "The Enigma of Alternative Childhood Immunization Schedules". JAMA ...
Some municipalities recommend an earlier immunization schedule. Thailand: In Thailand, the BCG vaccine is given routinely at ... The characteristic raised scar that BCG immunization leaves is often used as proof of prior immunization. This scar must be ... BCG immunization generally causes some pain and scarring at the site of injection. The main adverse effects are keloids-large, ... The United States has never used mass immunization of BCG due to the rarity of tuberculosis in the US, relying instead on the ...
The first systematic immunization schedule for the provinces of Spain was established in 1975 and has continuously been updated ... "Immunisation Schedules in Spain". Vaccination ASP. Asociacíon Españada De Pediatría, Comité Asesor De Vacunas. Retrieved 15 ... at which point they are incorporated into the National Immunization Schedule. The Spanish Association of Pediatrics, in ... For 2016, the schedule plans to propose a vaccine against varicella in children at 12-15 months and 3-4 years. Furthermore, the ...
Immunisation schedule for the UK. Published by the UK Department of Health. (PDF) CDC.gov - 'National Immunization Program: ... Immunization Action Coalition' (nonprofit working to increase immunization rates) WHO.int - 'Immunizations, vaccines and ... This is a false assumption, since diseases held in check by immunization programs can and do still return if immunization is ... The first rabies immunization was given by Louis Pasteur to a child after he was bitten by a rabid dog. Since its discovery, ...
"National Immunization Schedule under Universal Immunization Programme (UIP), India". The Pharmapedia. 2021-02-27. Retrieved ... India's Universal Immunization Programme (UIP) began in 1985. The UIP covers: BCG vaccine for Tuberculosis DPT vaccine for ... India's implementation of the rotavirus vaccine in its Universal Immunisation Programme has saved many children's lives. Nearly ... "Adverse Events following Immunization". The government agency which manages this program is responsible for both increasing ...
Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (November 2007). "Recommended adult immunization schedule: United States, October ... The absolute decrease in risk of herpes zoster following immunization over three and a half years is 3.3% (3.54% down to 0.28 ... The need for re-vaccination after the first full vaccine schedule is complete remains to be confirmed. Zostavax was shown to ... In 2006, the US Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended that the live vaccine be given to all adults ...
... a Microsoft Outlook calendar, etc. Calendar Time management "AAP Immunization Reminder and Recall Systems Guidance" (PDF). ... "Health Care Providers - Immunization". Retrieved 2019-06-17. "Increasing Immunization Coverage at the Health Facility Level". ... The vaccinator can then find the names of all the children with immunizations due on any particular month and direct her or his ... Modern systems are usually maintained in computerized databases or with simple tools such as a Unix "calendar" file, ...
"Vaccination Schedule". Vaccination as per the National Immunization schedule by Government of India. Retrieved 15 June 2020. " ... and other vaccinations for the childhood vaccination schedule. The company has partnered with the British-Swedish multinational ...
"Immunization Schedules for the New Human Diploid Cell Vaccine Against Rabies". American Journal of Epidemiology. 103 (1): 75-80 ... Plotkin, S. A.; Cornfeld, D.; Ingalls, T. H. (October 1965). "Studies of immunization with living rubella virus. Trials in ... "Successful Immunization of Primates With Rabies Vaccine Prepared in Human Diploid Cell Strain WI-38". Proceedings of the ...
... recommended routine immunization schedule for Nigerian children". Nigerian Journal of Paediatrics. 39 (4). doi:10.4314/njp. ...
... recommended routine immunization schedule for Nigerian children". Nigerian Journal of Paediatrics. 39 (4). doi:10.4314/njp. ...
... some have shown good results and are used in local immunization schedules. Two new vaccines, both approved in 2014, are ... Similarly, immunization against mumps has led to a sharp fall in the number of cases of mumps meningitis, which prior to ... A quadrivalent vaccine now exists, which combines four vaccines with the exception of B; immunization with this ACW135Y vaccine ... Some forms of meningitis are preventable by immunization with the meningococcal, mumps, pneumococcal, and Hib vaccines. Giving ...
In the 1980s, the benefit of multiple doses was recognized, so a two-dose immunization schedule was widely adopted. With MMR-2 ... "Changes in the Immunization Schedule Recommended by the Japan Pediatric Society" (PDF). Japan Pediatric Society. Japan ... Most countries include mumps vaccination in their immunization programs, and the MMR vaccine, which also protects against ... which is recommended for at-risk persons by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices of the Centers for Disease Control ...
Horgan announced an immunization schedule to vaccinate individuals by demographic. On January 25, B.C. tracked six VOC 202012/ ... On March 4, Henry said that new vaccine approvals would hasten the schedule. On March 9, a new COVID-19 outbreak was declared ... On the week of December 13, 2020, B.C. began the four-phase mass COVID-19 immunization plan, starting with individuals who were ... Kotyk, Alyse (January 22, 2021). "COVID-19 vaccines: Here's B.C.'s full immunization timeline through September". British ...
View and print CDC immunization schedules for adults 19 years and older. ... Vaccines in the Adult Immunization Schedule*. adult vaccine schedule. Vaccine. Abbreviation(s). Trade name(s). ... Note: Current COVID-19 schedule available at www.cdc.gov/vaccines/covid-19/downloads/COVID-19-immunization-schedule-ages- ... This schedule is recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) and approved by the Centers for Disease ...
The Centers for Disease Control and Preventions Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices has updated its vaccination ... The committee approved the Adult Immunization Schedule for 2014 in October 2013; the schedule was also reviewed and approved by ... The immunization schedule is being simultaneously published in the February 4 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine and on ... Cite this: ACIP Issues 2014 Immunization Schedule for Adults - Medscape - Feb 03, 2014. ...
Use this immunization schedule as a handy reference. ... This schedule of recommended immunizations may vary depending ... Hib: This third dose may be needed, depending on the brand of vaccine used in previous Hib immunizations. ... RV: This third dose may be needed, depending on the brand of vaccine used in previous RV immunizations. ...
Review the CDCs 2022 immunization schedules for families. ... Schedule for Infants and Children (Birth - 6 Years) *Schedule ...
The immunisation schedule continues when the child is 4 years old, and then into adolescent years. The program is not ... The Australian National Immunisation Program Schedule sets out the immunisations Australians are given at different stages in ... The National Immunisation Program Schedule includes vaccines that are funded for children, adolescents and adults. Additional ... "Immunisation schedules , NCIRS". www.ncirs.org.au. Retrieved 2020-01-30. Health, Australian Government Department of (2017-12- ...
Immunization Clinic. Tue, September 19, 2023 • 12:00pm - 2:00pm (2h) • Student Health and Counseling (SHAC) - Ground Davis ...
However, some differences in the two schedules persisted. The unification of these childhood immunization schedules is ... National Immunization Program Summary The need for a single childhood immunization schedule prompted the unification of ... Recommended Childhood Immunization Schedule -- United States, 1995 MMWR 44(RR-5);1-9 Publication date: 06/16/1995. Table of ... The recommended childhood immunization schedule will be updated and published annually. Since the development of these ...
... released the 2021 immunization schedules for children, adolescents and adults. ... The CDCs Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, together with the AAFP and several other medical organizations, ... CDC Updates Immunization Schedules for 2021. Family Physician Offers Tips in Light of Pandemic. ... Additional adult immunization schedule updates that family physicians should be aware of included the following:. *The note for ...
These immunizations are provided free of charge for children up to the age of 18. Some adult vaccines are available. Please ... call 624-6466 to schedule an appointment All clinics are held at: 1528 Elm Stre... ... All children should receive adequate immunizations. These immunizations are provided free of charge for children up to the age ... Please call 624-6466 to schedule an appointment. All clinics are held at: 1528 Elm Street, Health Department is in the back of ...
Immunizations are provided at no cost for children through the age of 18. Some adult vaccines are also available. No ... Immunizations are provided at no cost for children through the age of 18. Some adult vaccines are also available. No ...
Recommended Immunization Schedules for Individuals NOT Previously Immunized. ... The following immunization schedules can be used for those who:. *have never been immunized or do not have a record of ... Recommended Immunization Schedules for Individuals NOT Previously Immunized. Updated February 2020 It is never too late to be ... Catch up schedules for partially immunized individuals must be created in accordance with the current Canadian Immunization ...
immunizations~The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) provides the currently recommended immunization schedules. ... Should all children and teens follow the same recommended vaccine schedule?. Yes. The schedule is considered the ideal schedule ... Recommended Childhood and Adolescent Immunization Schedule For 2023. * Taking the Fear and Pain Out of Needles-For You And Your ... The schedule also recommends the age when children and teens should receive each vaccine. Following this schedule gives ...
Immunization Schedule 2023-2024. On September 12, 2023, the CDC recommended everyone aged 6 months and older get an updated ... Please refer to the CDC Interim 2023-24 COVID-19 Immunization Schedule for full details. ... The CDC vaccine schedule suggests a longer interval (ie, 8 weeks) between the first and second primary series doses of Moderna ... The FDA temporarily paused use of Ad26.COV2.S in mid-April 2021 to allow the CDCs Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices ...
This schedule card provides recommended vaccines and schedule points under the National Immunisation Program from 1 July 2023 ... National Immunisation Program schedule. Download [Publication] National Immunisation Program schedule (PDF) as PDF - 264.37 KB ... National Immunisation Program schedule. This schedule card provides recommended vaccines and schedule points under the National ... Download [Publication] National Immunisation Program schedule (Word) as Word - 41.2 KB - 2 pages ...
Schedule is a series of immunisations given at specific times throughout your life. The immunisations range from birth through ... WA adult schedule, WA childhood schedule. International immunisation schedules. The World Health Organization (WHO) provides ... National Immunisation Program schedule This schedule card provides recommended vaccines and schedule points under the National ... National Immunisation Program Schedule. The National Immunisation Program (NIP) Schedule is a series of immunisations given at ...
Check out immunization schedule information directly from the Center for Disease Control. Click here to learn more. ... CDC recommended Child & adolescent immunization schedules Download the CDCs recommended child & adolescent immunization ... Get immunization schedule information directly from the Center for Disease Control.. * * ... If you plan to schedule these doses as future shipments, youll need to checkout separately for each location. ...
Basic vaccination schedule recommended by the Superior Health Council - June 2021 ... Basic vaccination schedule recommended by the Superior Health Council - June 2021. The Superior Health Council has revised the ... Implementing this schedule should provide optimal protection to healthy children, teenagers and adults.. (Only available in ... basic vaccination schedule in the light of its latest advisory reports.. The recommended basic vaccination schedule takes into ...
... January 1, 2003. Article ... Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices updates influenza vaccine recommendations. September 18th 2023 ... Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices updates influenza vaccine recommendations. September 18th 2023 ... Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices updates influenza vaccine recommendations. September 18th 2023 ...
Over the past several years, there have been significant changes to the immunization schedules for children, adolescents, and ... The introduction of new vaccines and additional changes to the immunization schedules make it increasingly more difficult for ... This course will focus on the immunization schedules for children, adolescents, and adults, with an emphasis on vaccinations ... There have been significant changes to the immunization schedules for children, adolescents, and adults, and the approval of ...
Recommended Immunization Schedules for Persons Aged 0 Through 18 Years, U.S., 2014. This six-page schedule, which was published ... CDC Recommended SchedulesCurrent child/adolescent and adult immunization schedules from CDC; updated annually ... CDC Recommended Schedules. Current child/adolescent and adult immunization schedules from CDC; updated annually ... immunization schedules for children and teens as well as for adults. These updated schedules reflect changes that were made in ...
... January 17, 2023. Lauren Biscaldi, MS, Managing Editor ... The following tables have been created using the recommended immunization schedules for 2023. As always, visit cdc.gov/vaccines ... Table 3. Recommended Child and Adolescent Immunization Schedule for Ages 18 Years or Younger, United States, 2023 ... Table 4. Recommended Adult Immunization Schedule by Age Group, United States, 2023 ...
Find out about how to get laminated versions of the 2020 immunization schedules. ... CDC Immunization Schedules for Healthcare Providers webpage. *CDCs Recommended Child and Adolescent Immunization Schedule for ... child/adolescent immunization schedule and the 2020 U.S. adult immunization schedule. Theyre available on the Shop IAC webpage ... Technically Speaking: Now Available to Order! IACs Laminated Versions of CDCs 2020 Immunization Schedules. Published on Mar ...
... introducing IPV into its routine immunization programme at a ceremony presided over by the Minister of State, Ministry of ... "Adding at least one dose of IPV to the routine immunization schedule is the best possible way to protect your children from ... Pakistan , News , In focus , Pakistan second endemic country to introduce IPV into routine immunization schedule ... The vaccine has been successfully introduced into routine immunization schedules in 36 districts in Lahore, Punjub province, ...
The NIP website recently posted information about the 2006 National Adult Immunization Awareness Week (NAIAW), which is ... The NIP website recently posted information about the 2006 National Adult Immunization Awareness Week (NAIAW), which is ...
Immunisation rates for vaccines in the national schedule (children). Definition: The proportion of 1-, 2- and 5-year-olds who ... A human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is included in the national schedule for adolescents. The HPV immunisation rate for 15- ... Australias health 2018 Immunisation rates for vaccines in the national schedule (children) ... In 2017, the immunisation rate for 1- and 2-year-old Indigenous children was lower than the rate for all children of the same ...
The current state of introduction of human papillomavirus vaccination into national immunisation schedules in Europe: first ... The current state of introduction of human papillomavirus vaccination into national immunisation schedules in Europe: first ...
Schedule of adult (ages 19 and up) immunizations as recommended by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). ...
Analytical, Diagnostic, and Therapeutic Techniques and ...
HPV Immunization Schedule. The vaccine is recommended for girls and boys 9 to 11 years old, and for older kids who arent yet ... When to Delay or Avoid HPV Immunization. The vaccine is not recommended if:. *Your child is currently sick. But simple colds or ... Caring for Your Child After HPV Immunization. Your child may have a fever, soreness, and some swelling and redness in the area ... other minor illnesses should not prevent immunization.. *Your child had a serious allergic reaction to the first dose of HPV ...
  • vaccine footnote to clarify the timing between the second and third doses and to harmonize language between the pediatric and adult immunization schedules. (medscape.com)
  • February 24, 2021, 10:30 am Michael Devitt - The CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, together with the AAFP and several other medical organizations, released the 2021 adult and childhood immunization schedules on Feb. 12. (aafp.org)
  • For both the child/adolescent and adult immunization schedules, updates to tetanus, diphtheria and toxoid containing vaccines (Td and Tdap) in the management of wound infections were made with added guidance for use of Tdap for all pregnant women. (aafp.org)
  • Released by CDC on February 3, this five-page schedule for adult vaccination provides recommendations by age group as well as by medical condition, two pages of essential footnotes, and a final page summarizing the contraindications and precautions for adult vaccine use. (immunize.org)
  • These summaries distill the ACIP recommendations for child, teen and adult immunization into two easy-to-use documents. (immunize.org)
  • Now the Immunization Action Coalition (IAC) announces the availability of its user-friendly laminated versions of both the 2020 U.S. child/adolescent immunization schedule and the 2020 U.S. adult immunization schedule . (chop.edu)
  • The child/adolescent schedule is eight pages (four double-sided pages) and the adult schedule is six pages (three double-sided pages), but both schedules fold down to a convenient 8.5″ x 11″ size. (chop.edu)
  • The NIP website recently posted information about the 2006 National Adult Immunization Awareness Week (NAIAW), which is scheduled for September 24-30. (migrantclinician.org)
  • Schedule of adult (ages 19 and up) immunizations as recommended by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (healthyms.com)
  • Describe the current context of adult immunization including the CDC recommended schedule, vaccination rates, and burden of disease. (surveymonkey.com)
  • Provide information on recently updated Standards for Adult Immunization Practice. (surveymonkey.com)
  • Provide an overview of CDC research on adult immunization communication. (surveymonkey.com)
  • The adult immunization schedules were also approved in early February. (americanmobile.com)
  • In February, CDC and partner organizations released the 2018 child/adolescent and adult immunization schedules . (medscape.com)
  • Each year, CDC sets the US child/adolescent and adult immunization schedules on the basis of recommendations from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), a group of medical and public health experts that make immunization recommendations. (medscape.com)
  • Note: ZVL has replaced the term HZV (herpes zoster vaccine) that was used in past adult immunization schedules to refer to the live zoster vaccine. (medscape.com)
  • MPSV4 (4-valent meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine) is no longer available and has been removed from the adult immunization schedule. (medscape.com)
  • The 2018 childhood and adult immunization schedules in full with footnotes are available at the CDC immunization schedule website . (medscape.com)
  • Catch up schedules for partially immunized individuals must be created in accordance with the current Canadian Immunization Guide and the Vaccines Offered Free-of-Charge ( Eligibility Criteria for Publicly-Funded Vaccines ). (gov.mb.ca)
  • For more information, refer to the Canadian Immunization Guide (CIG) Summary . (canada.ca)
  • Updated vaccination recommendations for adults aged 19 years and older for 2014 have been released by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) Advisory Committee on Immunization. (medscape.com)
  • The immunization schedule is being simultaneously published in the February 4 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine and on the CDC's Web site. (medscape.com)
  • Download the CDC's recommended child & adolescent immunization schedules. (vaccineshoppe.com)
  • At their October 2022 meeting, members of the CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) voted to approve the 2023 editions of the Recommended Child and Adolescent Immunization Schedule. (drugtopics.com)
  • According to the CDC's "Recommended Immunization Schedule" for kids up to 6 years old, children may receive up to 24 vaccinations to protect them from up to 14 different diseases by the time they're 2 years of age. (mackoulpediatrics.com)
  • The following tables summarize the 2023-2024 COVID-19 vaccine schedule, including those who are immunocompromised. (medscape.com)
  • Please refer to the CDC Interim 2023-24 COVID-19 Immunization Schedule for full details. (medscape.com)
  • This schedule card provides recommended vaccines and schedule points under the National Immunisation Program from 1 November 2023. (health.gov.au)
  • The following tables have been created using the recommended immunization schedules for 2023. (drugtopics.com)
  • The schedule is approved by the American Academy of Pediatrics, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and other health care organizations. (healthychildren.org)
  • It will address the current recommendations, the rationale for the addition of new vaccines and for several potential new changes, contraindications, and precautions as identified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), and methods to increase vaccination coverage in outpatient practice. (netce.com)
  • At the beginning of each year, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in collaboration with professional societies, releases updated versions of the recommended U.S. immunization schedules for children and teens as well as for adults. (immunize.org)
  • In the United States, these include the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD), and the Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment Network, all sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), as well as the Post-Licensure Rapid Immunization Safety Monitoring System (PRISM), which is part of the FDA-sponsored Mini-Sentinel Initiative. (nationalacademies.org)
  • After getting approval from several expert groups, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends the following immunization schedule for adults. (cloudapp.net)
  • Tuka Pediatrics follows the immunization guidelines recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (tukapediatrics.com)
  • In the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) publishes the vaccine schedule. (medlineplus.gov)
  • For approximately 30 years, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) and the Committee on Infectious Diseases (COID) of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) -- the two groups responsible for developing vaccine recommendations for the public and private sectors -- worked to develop similar schedules for routine childhood vaccination. (cdc.gov)
  • This course will focus on the immunization schedules for children, adolescents, and adults, with an emphasis on vaccinations that are routine for most healthy persons. (netce.com)
  • This six-page schedule, which was published on the CDC website on January 31, 2014 includes the age-based routine vaccination schedule for children and teens and the approved catch-up immunization schedule for people age 4 months through 18 years who start vaccination late or who are more than one month behind. (immunize.org)
  • Each summary includes the routine schedule, spacing between doses, schedules for catch-up vaccination, routes of administration, and contraindications and precautions for all routinely recommended vaccines in the United States. (immunize.org)
  • Pakistan's national introduction of IPV marks the fulfilment of the global commitment to meet one of the 4 major objectives of the Polio Endgame Strategy that calls on all oral polio vaccine (OPV)-only using countries to introduce at least one dose of IPV into routine immunization schedules by the end of 2015, strengthen routine immunization and withdraw OPV in a phased manner, starting with type 2-containing OPV. (who.int)
  • Real celebration will come when we are able to achieve optimal levels of routine immunization," said Mrs Saira Afzal Tarar, Minister of State. (who.int)
  • The vaccine has been successfully introduced into routine immunization schedules in 36 districts in Lahore, Punjub province, alongside the OPV, large-scale use of which has reduced the incidence of polio by more than 99% worldwide. (who.int)
  • Adding at least one dose of IPV to the routine immunization schedule is the best possible way to protect your children from life-long polio paralysis, while the disease is being eradicated from the remaining endemic hotspots. (who.int)
  • The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) develops written recommendations for the routine administration of vaccines, along with schedules regarding the appropriate timing, dosage, and contraindications. (iowa.gov)
  • Universal immunisation is the cornerstone of preventive medicine for children, The World Health Organisation (WHO) recommends diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine administered at 6, 10 and 14 weeks of age as part of routine immunisation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Your trip is a good occasion to make sure your routine immunizations are up-to-date. (iamat.org)
  • Nine-valent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine (9vHPV) has been added to the schedule and can be used for routine vaccination of females and males against HPV. (americanmobile.com)
  • Each year, recommendations for routine use of vaccines in children, adolescents, and adults in the United States are developed by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). (montgomerycountyhealthky.gov)
  • Alberta Health Services provides routine immunization for infants and children across Alberta. (albertahealthservices.ca)
  • For the routine immunization schedule, go to immunizealberta.ca . (albertahealthservices.ca)
  • The campaign will be a launch pad to introduce the measles-rubella vaccine into the country's routine immunization schedule. (who.int)
  • This campaign does NOT replace the routine immunization schedule. (who.int)
  • This is particularly important because of the declining trend in routine immunization coverage in the country. (who.int)
  • Cite this: ACIP Issues 2014 Immunization Schedule for Adults - Medscape - Feb 03, 2014. (medscape.com)
  • The National Immunisation Program Schedule includes vaccines that are funded for children, adolescents and adults. (wikipedia.org)
  • Implementing this schedule should provide optimal protection to healthy children, teenagers and adults. (belgium.be)
  • Over the past several years, there have been significant changes to the immunization schedules for children, adolescents, and adults. (netce.com)
  • A new year means it's time for new vaccine schedules for children, adolescents, and adults. (drugtopics.com)
  • On February 3, 2020, CDC published its 2020 immunization schedules for children/adolescents and adults on its website. (chop.edu)
  • Since 2005, a single dose of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine has been recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) for adolescents and adults (1,2). (nih.gov)
  • By Every year, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) publishes immunization recommendation schedules for children and adolescents, age birth through 18 years, and for adults. (americanmobile.com)
  • When developing vaccine recommendations for children and adults, ACIP considers many factors, including disease epidemiology, vaccine safety and effectiveness, feasibility of program implementation, and economics of immunization policy. (medscape.com)
  • This year, for the first time, recommended immunization schedules for persons aged 0 through 18 years and adults aged 19 years and older are being published together. (montgomerycountyhealthky.gov)
  • It's important for both children and adults to get their vaccines according to the schedule. (medlineplus.gov)
  • However, few controlled studies have investigated the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of MenB-4C in older adolescents and young adults to compare various vaccination schedules ( 10 - 13 ). (cdc.gov)
  • A human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is included in the national schedule for adolescents. (aihw.gov.au)
  • These situations include decennial Td booster doses, tetanus prophylaxis when indicated for wound management in persons who had previously received Tdap, and for multiple doses in the catch-up immunization schedule for persons aged ≥7 years with incomplete or unknown vaccination history. (nih.gov)
  • One member of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices reports relevant financial relationships with Sanofi Pasteur, GlaxoSmithKline, Merck, Novartis, and Pfizer but declares that all relationships with industry were terminated before he became a voting member, and one member who reports receiving a grant from Merck. (medscape.com)
  • The need for a single childhood immunization schedule prompted the unification of previous vaccine recommendations made by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). (cdc.gov)
  • For the most current immunization recommendations from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, visit www.immunize.org/acip/acip_vax.asp . (immunize.org)
  • 1. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). (drugtopics.com)
  • The Australian National Immunisation Program Schedule sets out the immunisations Australians are given at different stages in their life. (wikipedia.org)
  • The National Immunisation Program was first introduced in Australia in 1997. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most recent update to the National Immunisation Program was effective since 1 April 2019. (wikipedia.org)
  • The National Immunisation Program (NIP) Schedule is a series of immunisations given at specific times throughout your life. (health.gov.au)
  • The inactivated poliovirus rows of the catch-up schedule have been edited to clarify the catch-up recommendations for children 4 years of age and older, and the poliovirus vaccine footnote was revised to include updated guidance for persons who received oral polio vaccine as part of their vaccination series. (medscape.com)
  • We appeal to all parents, caregivers and guardians to take your children younger than 15 years for immunization against measles, rubella and polio during this mass exercise. (who.int)
  • Also, the recommended schedule is designed to work best with a child's immune system at certain ages and at specific time intervals between doses. (healthychildren.org)
  • If you plan to schedule these doses as future shipments, you'll need to checkout separately for each location. (vaccineshoppe.com)
  • Infants aged 6 weeks will be randomised to one of five primary vaccination schedules based on age at first DTwP-vaccination (6 versus 8 weeks of age), number of doses in the DTwP priming series (two versus three), and spacing of priming series vaccinations (4 versus 8 weeks). (biomedcentral.com)
  • During MenB outbreaks, MenB-4C has been administered in 2 doses at varying schedules, including 0 and 30 days, 0 and 6-8 weeks, 0 and 2 months, and 0 and 10 weeks ( 7 - 9 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Recommendations were added to the general information on childhood immunizations schedules to address the decline in outpatient pediatric visits resulting in declining immunization rates during the COVID-19 pandemic. (aafp.org)
  • In addition to presenting the newly recommended schedule for the administration of vaccines during childhood, this report addresses the previous differences between the AAP and ACIP childhood vaccination schedules and the rationale for changing previous recommendations. (cdc.gov)
  • The objective of this working group was to develop a single, scientifically valid childhood immunization schedule -- presented in an easily comprehensible format -- that would accommodate the current recommendations of both ACIP and AAP and ensure the timely vaccination of preschool-age children. (cdc.gov)
  • This report presents the recommended childhood immunization schedule (approved by ACIP, AAP, and AAFP) ( Table 1 ) and the rationale for changing the previous recommendations. (cdc.gov)
  • In 1994, the substantial differences between the recommended AAP and ACIP schedules included the schedule for infant hepatitis B vaccination and the timing of the third dose of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) and the second dose of MMR ( Table 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • To make your job easier, the Immunization Action Coalition (IAC) has designed two user-friendly documents that summarize the guidance contained in the current CDC/ACIP recommendations. (immunize.org)
  • For example, the CDC guidance on the use of combination vaccines is as follows: "A combination vaccine may be used when one or more components are indicated, none of the other components are contraindicated, and if the combination vaccine is approved by FDA or recommended by a national advisory group (such as ACIP) for that dose in the schedule, unless this would lead to a needed vaccine dose being withheld. (immunizationinfo.org)
  • The 2016 immunization schedules for ages 0-18, and the "catch-up" immunization schedules, were approved in early February by the ACIP, the American Academy of Pediatrics ( AAP ), the American Academy of Family Physicians ( AAFP ), and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists ( ACOG ). (americanmobile.com)
  • For further guidance on the use of each vaccine included in the schedules, healthcare providers should refer to specific ACIP vaccine recommendations . (medscape.com)
  • The OptImms trial will assess whether antibody titres against pertussis and other antigens in childhood can be maintained whilst adjusting the current Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI) schedule to provide space for the introduction of new vaccines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Following the success of the smallpox eradication programme, the World Health Organisation Expanded Programme on Immunisation (WHO EPI) began in 1974, with the aim that all children in all countries could benefit from life-saving vaccines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) aims to vaccinate children aged 0-15 months against 12 Vaccine Preventable Diseases (VPDs), & pregnant women. (gov.pk)
  • This was an update from the 2007 schedule, one change including the introduction of meningococcal ACWY vaccination for adolescents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Td/Tdap: The tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis (Tdap) and tetanus, diphtheria (Td) vaccines footnote was edited to harmonize with the language used in the pediatric immunization schedule. (medscape.com)
  • Immunizations socpa southern orange county pediatric. (rendement-in-asset-management.nl)
  • Child vaccine schedule chart elmwood pediatric rochester. (rendement-in-asset-management.nl)
  • The program aims to reduce the number of preventable disease cases in Australia by increasing national immunisation coverage. (wikipedia.org)
  • But we do know that any length of time without immunizations is a time without protection against vaccine preventable diseases. (healthychildren.org)
  • The working group also addressed the number of antigens and injections that should be administered at each visit, the number of visits required for children by 2 years of age, the availability of combined diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis (DTP)-Hib vaccines, and the capacity of the schedule to accommodate newly licensed vaccines (e.g., varicella vaccine). (cdc.gov)
  • Perceptions of caregivers and providers regarding the potential introduction of the varicella vaccine to the childhood immunisation schedule in New Zealand: A qualitative exploratory study. (bvsalud.org)
  • The varicella vaccine has been proposed to be added to the childhood immunisation schedule in New Zealand as the fourth injectable at the 15-month event. (bvsalud.org)
  • Should the varicella vaccine be introduced as proposed, our findings recommend an educational campaign to address both caregiver and provider concerns about multiple injections and how to manage alternative immunisation schedules . (bvsalud.org)
  • Following this schedule gives children the best protection from diseases. (healthychildren.org)
  • There is no research to show that a child would be equally protected against diseases with a very different schedule. (healthychildren.org)
  • If many people in a community decide to follow an alternative schedule or skip vaccines, diseases can spread much more quickly. (healthychildren.org)
  • The recommended basic vaccination schedule takes into account the epidemiology of diseases, the characteristics of the vaccines and the organizational arrangements of the preventive facilities that carry out group vaccinations. (belgium.be)
  • New vaccines for other diseases continue to be introduced into the infant immunisation schedule, resulting in an increasingly crowded schedule. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Immunization is a way of preventing infectious diseases. (gov.pk)
  • Following the schedule allows them to get protection from the diseases at exactly the right time. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The Government of Uganda acknowledges the importance of immunization against various diseases to attain Sustainable Development Goal 3, which underlines the need for good health and well-being. (who.int)
  • These recommendations include strategies to separate well visits from sick visits, highlight the importance of in-person newborn visits, continued developmental surveillance and early childhood screenings, and the recommendation to identify children who have missed well-child visits and/or recommended vaccinations to contact them and schedule vaccine appointments. (aafp.org)
  • Immunizations are provided at no cost for children through the age of 18. (manchesternh.gov)
  • All children should receive adequate immunizations. (manchesternh.gov)
  • These immunizations are provided free of charge for children up to the age of 18. (manchesternh.gov)
  • The schedule also recommends the age when children and teens should receive each vaccine. (healthychildren.org)
  • Should all children and teens follow the same recommended vaccine schedule? (healthychildren.org)
  • The schedule is considered the ideal schedule for healthy children. (healthychildren.org)
  • Children need to get their vaccines on schedule so they can benefit from all the protection that vaccines give. (healthychildren.org)
  • Find out more about NIP vaccines for children aged up to 4 years and pregnant women on the Sharing Knowledge About Immunisation (SKAI) website . (health.gov.au)
  • Immunization schedule for children everything you need to. (rendement-in-asset-management.nl)
  • Although the development, evaluation, and use of combination vaccines is complex, these types of vaccines should simplify the immunization schedule and reduce the number of injections that children receive. (immunizationinfo.org)
  • Provides immunization for infants and preschool children at Community / Public Health Centres across Alberta. (albertahealthservices.ca)
  • Immunizations are free of charge for infants and children who live in Alberta. (albertahealthservices.ca)
  • For Children schedule and it should be repeated after recovery. (who.int)
  • Parents, caregivers and all concerned must ensure that all children receive and complete all the vaccines specified on our immunization schedule after the campaign," said Dr Jane Ruth Aceng, Uganda Minister of Health. (who.int)
  • the schedule was also reviewed and approved by the American Academy of Family Physicians, American College of Physicians, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and American College of Nurse-Midwives. (medscape.com)
  • If varicella occurred after 2004, a self-reported history or health care provider diagnosis cannot be considered a reliable correlate of immunity because one-dose immunization programs had a marked impact on the prevalence of wild-type varicella. (gov.mb.ca)
  • The HPV immunisation rate for 15-year-old females rose from 72% in 2012 to 79% in 2016, and from 62% in 2014 to 73% in 2016 for 15-year-old males. (aihw.gov.au)
  • Getting your child vaccinated on the recommended schedule is the best way to protect them and keep them healthy. (healthychildren.org)
  • For vaccine recommendations for persons 18 years of age or younger, see the Recommended Child and Adolescent Immunization Schedule . (cdc.gov)
  • The unification of these childhood immunization schedules is essential to issuing consistent recommendations for both private and public health practitioners and for parents. (cdc.gov)
  • Both schedules underwent a number of changes and contain updates on several vaccines for each population, including recommendations on vaccination against COVID-19. (aafp.org)
  • Additionally, immunization recommendations differ for people who are moderately to severely immunocompromised. (medscape.com)
  • These updated schedules reflect changes that were made in vaccination recommendations during the previous year. (immunize.org)
  • The pneumococcal polysaccharide bar has been moved to the bottom of the schedule because this vaccine is not routinely indicated for any population. (americanmobile.com)
  • For both schedules, the "Special Situations" section of notes on the influenza vaccination were revised for all patients who have egg allergy with symptoms other than hives, and for situations in which quadrivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine should not be used. (aafp.org)
  • If using an influenza vaccine other than RIV4 (quadrivalent recombinant influenza vaccine/Flublok) or ccIIV4 (cell culture-based quadrivalent recombinant influenza vaccine/Flucelvax)," the schedule says, "administer in medical setting under supervision of health care provider who can recognize and manage severe allergic reactions. (aafp.org)
  • That is way more than the antigens in any combination of vaccines on the current schedule (about 150 for the whole schedule). (healthychildren.org)
  • Secondary outcomes include antibodies against other vaccine antigens in the primary schedule and their safety. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These data show trends in vaccination coverage for Bahrain by selected antigens over time based on WHO/UNICEF Estimates of National Immunization Coverage (WUENIC) updated annually in July. (who.int)
  • Additional vaccines were included in the national schedule in late 2014 and 2017 which most affected the rates over this period. (aihw.gov.au)
  • The rate of full immunisation for 5-year-olds increased from 74% in 2005 to 94% in 2017. (aihw.gov.au)
  • In 2009 the European Centre for Disease Control reviewed evidence for the optimal timing of DTP immunisation and due to the lack of available data, called for new studies to assess the differing schedules [ 9 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our findings shed new light into how HIV-1 evades detection from B cells that can produce bNAbs and also provides information that is relevant for the design of optimal immunization strategies. (plos.org)
  • After all, doctors, researchers, and many other public health experts have worked long and hard to come up with optimal vaccination schedules to give your child the best and safest protection possible. (mackoulpediatrics.com)
  • Birth 18 years immunization schedule cdc. (rendement-in-asset-management.nl)
  • The HealthHub app houses our children's immunisation and vaccination records right from birth. (theasianparent.com)
  • WHO recommends the following schedule in endemic countries: Birth, 6, vaccine beyond an acceptable level. (who.int)
  • The schedule also includes three pages of essential explanatory footnotes. (immunize.org)
  • The immunisation schedule continues when the child is 4 years old, and then into adolescent years. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each year, top disease experts-including pediatricians-work together to decide which vaccines to include in the Recommended Child and Adolescent Immunization Schedule for ages 18 years or younger. (healthychildren.org)
  • Otherwise, the schedule calls for the quadrivalent meningococcal vaccine for anyone between 11 and 12 years of age, with a booster at age 16 years. (americanmobile.com)
  • We conducted a randomized, controlled, multicenter, observer-blinded trial comparing immunogenicity and tolerability of an accelerated vaccine schedule of 0 and 21 days to a longer interval of 0 and 60 days for 4-component MenB vaccine (MenB-4C) in students 17-25 years of age. (cdc.gov)
  • The introduction of new vaccines and additional changes to the immunization schedules make it increasingly more difficult for physicians to ensure that patients receive the recommended preventive care. (netce.com)
  • Current COVID-19 schedule available at www.cdc.gov/vaccines/covid-19/downloads/COVID-19-immunization-schedule-ages-6months-older.pdf . (cdc.gov)
  • The schedule would identify a specified age for administering each vaccine dose and provide an acceptable range of ages to ensure flexibility for health-care providers. (cdc.gov)
  • The maximum ages for administration of the first dose (14 weeks, 6 days) and last dose (8 months, 0 days) of the rotavirus series have been added to the rotavirus vaccine row of the catch-up schedule. (medscape.com)
  • The current accelerated EPI schedule begins at 6 weeks of age and is designed to provide early protection against pertussis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • With the current immunization schedule it is possible that a child could receive as many as 5 separate injections during a single office visit. (immunizationinfo.org)
  • This schedule of recommended immunizations may vary depending upon where you live, your child's health, the type of vaccine, and the vaccines available. (kidshealth.org)
  • IAC's laminated schedules are ideal for use in any busy healthcare setting where vaccinations are given. (chop.edu)
  • Bring your child's immunization record to the appointment, especially if your child was immunized in another province or country. (albertahealthservices.ca)