Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.
Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.
Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.
An evanescent cutaneous reaction occurring when antibody is injected into a local area on the skin and antigen is subsequently injected intravenously along with a dye. The dye makes the rapidly occurring capillary dilatation and increased vascular permeability readily visible by leakage into the reaction site. PCA is a sensitive reaction for detecting very small quantities of antibodies and is also a method for studying the mechanisms of immediate hypersensitivity.
Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.
A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.
A disease caused by tetanospasmin, a powerful protein toxin produced by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI. Tetanus usually occurs after an acute injury, such as a puncture wound or laceration. Generalized tetanus, the most common form, is characterized by tetanic muscular contractions and hyperreflexia. Localized tetanus presents itself as a mild condition with manifestations restricted to muscles near the wound. It may progress to the generalized form.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.
Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.
A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.
Resistance to a disease agent resulting from the production of specific antibodies by the host, either after exposure to the disease or after vaccination.
Movement of a body part initiated and maintained by a mechanical or electrical device to restore normal range of motion to joints, muscles, or tendons after surgery, prosthesis implantation, contracture flexion, or long immobilization.
A combined vaccine used to prevent MEASLES; MUMPS; and RUBELLA.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
The formaldehyde-inactivated toxin of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It is generally used in mixtures with TETANUS TOXOID and PERTUSSIS VACCINE; (DTP); or with tetanus toxoid alone (DT for pediatric use and Td, which contains 5- to 10-fold less diphtheria toxoid, for other use). Diphtheria toxoid is used for the prevention of diphtheria; DIPHTHERIA ANTITOXIN is for treatment.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.
The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.
An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.
An antigen solution emulsified in mineral oil. The complete form is made up of killed, dried mycobacteria, usually M. tuberculosis, suspended in the oil phase. It is effective in stimulating cell-mediated immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and potentiates the production of certain IMMUNOGLOBULINS in some animals. The incomplete form does not contain mycobacteria.
Administration of a vaccine to large populations in order to elicit IMMUNITY.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Preparations of pathogenic organisms or their derivatives made nontoxic and intended for active immunologic prophylaxis. They include deactivated toxins. Anatoxin toxoids are distinct from anatoxins that are TROPANES found in CYANOBACTERIA.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by MUMPS VIRUS. Best known is the live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had mumps or been immunized with live mumps vaccine. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine.
Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.
A live attenuated virus vaccine of duck embryo or human diploid cell tissue culture origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of nonpregnant adolescent and adult females of childbearing age who are unimmunized and do not have serum antibodies to rubella. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A localized infection of mucous membranes or skin caused by toxigenic strains of CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE. It is characterized by the presence of a pseudomembrane at the site of infection. DIPHTHERIA TOXIN, produced by C. diphtheriae, can cause myocarditis, polyneuritis, and other systemic toxic effects.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
An acute infectious disease of humans, particularly children, caused by any of three serotypes of human poliovirus (POLIOVIRUS). Usually the infection is limited to the gastrointestinal tract and nasopharynx, and is often asymptomatic. The central nervous system, primarily the spinal cord, may be affected, leading to rapidly progressive paralysis, coarse FASCICULATION and hyporeflexia. Motor neurons are primarily affected. Encephalitis may also occur. The virus replicates in the nervous system, and may cause significant neuronal loss, most notably in the spinal cord. A rare related condition, nonpoliovirus poliomyelitis, may result from infections with nonpoliovirus enteroviruses. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp764-5)
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Techniques where DNA is delivered directly into organelles at high speed using projectiles coated with nucleic acid, shot from a helium-powered gun (gene gun). One of these techniques involves immunization by DNA VACCINES, which delivers DNA-coated gold beads to the epidermis.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.
Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed protozoa administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious protozoan disease.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infections with STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.
Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.
Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A respiratory infection caused by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS and characterized by paroxysmal coughing ending in a prolonged crowing intake of breath.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Aluminum metal sulfate compounds used medically as astringents and for many industrial purposes. They are used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of ulcerative stomatitis, leukorrhea, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, metritis, and minor wounds.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.
A live vaccine containing attenuated poliovirus, types I, II, and III, grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture, used for routine immunization of children against polio. This vaccine induces long-lasting intestinal and humoral immunity. Killed vaccine induces only humoral immunity. Oral poliovirus vaccine should not be administered to immunocompromised individuals or their household contacts. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.
Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.
Active immunization where vaccine is administered for therapeutic or preventive purposes. This can include administration of immunopotentiating agents such as BCG vaccine and Corynebacterium parvum as well as biological response modifiers such as interferons, interleukins, and colony-stimulating factors in order to directly stimulate the immune system.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Contraceptive methods based on immunological processes and techniques, such as the use of CONTRACEPTIVE VACCINES.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Vaccines used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS. They include inactivated (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, INACTIVATED) and oral vaccines (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, ORAL).
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
The insertion of drugs into the rectum, usually for confused or incompetent patients, like children, infants, and the very old or comatose.
Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.
An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Combined vaccines consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and an acellular form of PERTUSSIS VACCINE. At least five different purified antigens of B. pertussis have been used in various combinations in these vaccines.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
An acute infectious disease caused by the RUBELLA VIRUS. The virus enters the respiratory tract via airborne droplet and spreads to the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
The various ways of administering a drug or other chemical to a site in a patient or animal from where the chemical is absorbed into the blood and delivered to the target tissue.
Delivery of a drug or other substance into the body through the epithelium lining of MUCOUS MEMBRANE involved with absorption and secretion.
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
A species of PLASMODIUM causing malaria in rodents.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat ALZHEIMER DISEASE.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.
The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.
An antitoxin used for the treatment of TETANUS.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.
The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
A giant elastic protein of molecular mass ranging from 2,993 kDa (cardiac), 3,300 kDa (psoas), to 3,700 kDa (soleus) having a kinase domain. The amino- terminal is involved in a Z line binding, and the carboxy-terminal region is bound to the myosin filament with an overlap between the counter-connectin filaments at the M line.
Serum globulins that migrate to the gamma region (most positively charged) upon ELECTROPHORESIS. At one time, gamma-globulins came to be used as a synonym for immunoglobulins since most immunoglobulins are gamma globulins and conversely most gamma globulins are immunoglobulins. But since some immunoglobulins exhibit an alpha or beta electrophoretic mobility, that usage is in decline.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed fungi administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious fungal disease.
Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
An acute infectious disease caused by RUBULAVIRUS, spread by direct contact, airborne droplet nuclei, fomites contaminated by infectious saliva, and perhaps urine, and usually seen in children under the age of 15, although adults may also be affected. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).
A live, attenuated varicella virus vaccine used for immunization against chickenpox. It is recommended for children between the ages of 12 months and 13 years.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Organized services to provide health care for children.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.
Groups set up to advise governmental bodies, societies, or other institutions on policy. (Bioethics Thesaurus)
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.
A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.
Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
Vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER and/or PARATYPHOID FEVER which are caused by various species of SALMONELLA. Attenuated, subunit, and inactivated forms of the vaccines exist.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent conception.
A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
Systems used to prompt or aid the memory. The systems can be computerized reminders, color coding, telephone calls, or devices such as letters and postcards.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.

Suppression of Moloney sarcoma virus immunity following sensitization with attenuated virus. (1/2803)

Murine sarcoma virus (Moloney strain) (MSV-M)-induced tumors are unusual in that they regularly appear less than 2 weeks after virus inoculation, progress for 1 to 2 weeks, and are rejected by normal adult BALB/c mice. Rejectio leaves the animals immune to tumor induction. In the present study, presensitization of normal adult BALB/c mice with attenuated MSV-M resulted in an altered pattern of tumor immunity. Injection of active MSV-M into the presensitized animals resulted in tumor induction and rejection similar to that observed in normal animals, but rejection failed to produce protection against the secondary inoculation with MSV-M. After the second inoculation with active MSV-M, tumors appeared and progressed but ultimately were rejected. Over 80% of the mice died, 25% after the primary challenge and the remainder after the secondary challenge. At death, all mice had histological evidence of leukemia which was the probable cause of death. The animals that died following the secondary challenge also had evidence of disseminated MSV-M. Solid tumor nodules were found in skeletal muscle distant from the original site of inoculation, and active MSV-M was isolated from spleen and lungs. The possibility that the results were produced by specific suppression of MSV-Moloney leukemia virus immunity is discussed.  (+info)

Antitumor effect of allogenic fibroblasts engineered to express Fas ligand (FasL). (2/2803)

Fas ligand is a type II transmembrane protein which can induce apoptosis in Fas-expressing cells. Recent reports indicate that expression of FasL in transplanted cells may cause graft rejection and, on the other hand, tumor cells may lose their tumorigenicity when they are engineered to express FasL. These effects could be related to recruitment of neutrophils by FasL with activation of their cytotoxic machinery. In this study we investigated the antitumor effect of allogenic fibroblasts engineered to express FasL. Fibroblasts engineered to express FasL (PA317/FasL) did not exert toxic effects on transformed liver cell line (BNL) or colon cancer cell line (CT26) in vitro, but they could abrogate their tumorigenicity in vivo. Histological examination of the site of implantation of BNL cells mixed with PA317/FasL revealed massive infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils and mononuclear cells. A specific immune protective effect was observed in animals primed with a mixture of BNL or CT26 and PA317/FasL cells. Rechallenge with tumor cells 14 or 100 days after priming resulted in protection of 100 or 50% of animals, respectively. This protective effect was due to CD8+ cells since depletion of CD8+ led to tumor formation. In addition, treatment of pre-established BNL tumors with a subcutaneous injection of BNL and PA317/FasL cell mixture at a distant site caused significant inhibition of tumor growth. These data demonstrate that allogenic cells engineered with FasL are able to abolish tumor growth and induce specific protective immunity when they are mixed with neoplastic cells.  (+info)

Using monoclonal antibodies to prevent mucosal transmission of epidemic infectious diseases. (3/2803)

Passive immunization with antibodies has been shown to prevent a wide variety of diseases. Recent advances in monoclonal antibody technology are enabling the development of new methods for passive immunization of mucosal surfaces. Human monoclonal antibodies, produced rapidly, inexpensively, and in large quantities, may help prevent respiratory, diarrheal, and sexually transmitted diseases on a public health scale.  (+info)

Fungal prophylaxis by reduction of fungal colonization by oral administration of bovine anti-Candida antibodies in bone marrow transplant recipients. (4/2803)

Candida overgrowth and invasion constitute a serious threat with a high mortality in BMT recipients. Currently available topical antifungal prophylaxis is largely ineffective, and as resistance to existing, absorbable drugs for systemic use is rapidly developing, new forms of therapy are needed. We investigated the effect of oral treatment of BMT recipients with a bovine immunoglobulin product derived from animals immunized against several Candida species. The natural Candida colonization was first followed in 19 patients to establish the colonization pattern. Half of the patients were found to be colonized prior to transplantation and altogether 72% were colonized at some point during follow-up. Those with a high pre-transplant concentration of Candida in saliva (>100 CFU/ml) remained colonized throughout the BMT treatment period. The therapeutic effect was monitored in two other patient groups. The first group consisted of nine patients, where, due to a low number of primary colonized patients, response in colonized patients was suggestive of a therapeutic effect. In the second group, 10 patients with a high level of colonization (>100 CFU/ml) were given 10 g daily of the product in three divided doses. The results suggest a treatment-related reduction in Candida colonization in a majority (7/10) of patients and one patient became completely negative. As no adverse effects were noted, our findings encourage additional studies in immunocompromised, transplant patients.  (+info)

Immunological characterization of a protective antigen of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae: identification of the region responsible for protective immunity. (5/2803)

The gene encoding a protective protein antigen of the gram-positive bacterium Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, an important veterinary pathogen responsible for erysipelas in swine and a variety of diseases in animals, was cloned and sequenced. The gene encodes a polypeptide of 597 amino acids plus a putative signal sequence of 29 amino acids, resulting in a mature protein with a molecular mass of 69,017 Da. Sequence analysis of the gene product revealed a C-terminal region composed of nine tandem repeats of 20 amino acids and a total sequence that is nearly identical to that of the 64-kDa cell surface protein (SpaA) of the bacterium. Because of this similarity, the protein was designated SpaA.1. In this study, we examined whether the SpaA.1 protein could induce protective antibodies and whether we could identify the region involved in protective immunity. Both the mature SpaA.1 protein and its C-terminal repeat region, but not the N-terminal segment, were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified as a histidine-tagged fusion recombinant protein. Rabbit antiserum raised against the mature SpaA.1 protein passively protected mice from lethal challenge with a virulent homologous strain, Fujisawa-SmR, suggesting that protection is mediated by humoral antibodies. To determine which domain of the SpaA.1 protein is responsible for the observed protection, mice were actively immunized with either the mature SpaA. 1 protein or the C-terminal repeat region and then challenged with Fujisawa-SmR. The result showed that mice immunized with the mature SpaA.1 protein, but not the C-terminal repeat region, were protected, suggesting that the protection-eliciting epitope(s) is located within the N-terminal two-thirds of the SpaA.1 molecule. This was confirmed by passive immunization experiments in which the protective activity of rabbit antiserum, raised against mature SpaA. 1 protein, was not abolished by absorption with the purified recombinant C-terminal repeat region. In addition, antibodies specific for the C-terminal repeat region were unable to protect mice from lethal challenge. These results show that the N-terminal two-thirds of the SpaA.1 molecule may constitute a good vaccine candidate against erysipelas.  (+info)

Oral transmission of primate lentiviruses. (6/2803)

Oral transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is well documented in children who become infected postnatally through breast milk. In contrast, epidemiologic surveys have yielded conflicting data regarding oral HIV-1 transmission among adults, even though case reports have described seroconversion and the development of AIDS in adults whose only risk was oral-genital contact. To study oral virus transmission in primate models, we exposed rhesus macaques of various ages to cell-free simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), including uncloned and molecularly cloned viruses. In neonates, viremia and AIDS developed after nontraumatic oral exposure to several SIV strains. Furthermore, chimeric simian human immunodeficiency viruses containing the HIV-1 envelope can also cross intact upper gastrointestinal mucosal surfaces in neonates. In adult macaques, infection and AIDS have resulted from well-controlled, nontraumatic, experimental oral exposure to different strains of SIV. These findings have implications for the risks of HIV-1 transmission during oral-genital contact.  (+info)

Role of nonagglutinating antibody in the protracted immunity of vaccinated mice to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. (7/2803)

Effective immunization against infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa is difficult to evaluate because agglutinin levels decline rapidly. Because fractionation of hyperimmune sera often yields more specific antibody than can be accounted for by direct agglutination tests, an immunoglobulin-specific assay based on antiglobulin augmentation was used to characterize antibody responses of C3H/HeJ mice vaccinated with P. aeruginosa type 2 lipopolysaccharide. Nonagglutinating antibodies, initially detected at 2 weeks post-primary vaccination, were predominantly immunoglobulin G after 5 weeks, and they remained elevated at levels usually 32-fold higher than the direct titer throughout the 4-month study period. The sequential production of immunoglobulin M, then immunoglobulin G, followed that found in orthodox immunological responses. Sera that contained nonagglutinating antibodies but not direct agglutinins (14 to 16 weeks) enhanced phagocytosis of P. aeruginosa type 2 by macrophages from unimmunized mice and passively immunized mice against lethal challenge doses; bactericidal activity of these sera was not demonstrated in the presence or absence of complement. When challenged with 1, 10, and 100 50% lethal doses at 16 weeks, survival rates of actively immunized mice were significantly higher than those of unvaccinated mice (P < 0.001). Thus, at a time when no direct agglutinins were detectable, the augmented system detected nonagglutinating antibodies that could confer protracted resistance in vaccinated mice to pseudomonas infection.  (+info)

Effects of anti-IgE in asthmatic subjects. (8/2803)

A humanized murine monoclonal antibody directed to the Fc epsilon R1-binding domain of human IgE (rhuMAb-E25) has been shown to inhibit the binding of IgE to mast cells without provoking mast cell activation. To examine the effects of neutralizing IgE on allergic airway responses, we assessed the effects of 9 wk of treatment with rhuMAb-E25 in a parallel group, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 19 allergic asthmatic subjects. We found that treatment with rhuMAb-E25 reduced the serum IgE, increased the dose of allergen needed to provoke an early asthmatic response, reduced the mean maximal fall in FEV1 during the early response (30 +/- 10% at baseline to 18.8 +/- 8%, versus 33 +/- 8% at baseline to 34 +/- 4% after placebo; p = 0.01), and reduced the mean maximal fall in FEV1 during the late response (24 +/- 20% at baseline to 9 +/- 10% versus 20 +/- 17% at baseline to 18 +/- 17% after placebo; p = 0.047). We conclude that an anti-IgE monoclonal antibody, which inhibits binding of IgE to its receptor, suppresses the early- and late-phase responses to inhaled allergen in allergic asthmatic subjects. Targeting IgE with rhuMAb-E25 might be a useful treatment for allergic asthma.  (+info)

passive vaccination News: Latest and Breaking News on passive vaccination. Explore passive vaccination profile at Times of India for photos, videos and latest news of passive vaccination. Also find news, photos and videos on passive vaccination
Passive administration of antibodies to 80kDa HSA and its peptides NT, 1, 2 and 4 resulted in agglutination of epididymal spermatozoa with loss of motility but had no effect on sperm count or weights of the reproductive organs. These animals failed to impregnate normal female rats. Passive administration of these antibodies to female rats also resulted in infertility. The presence of antibodies was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in uterine secretions of animals treated with antipeptide antibody. The presence of agglutinated spermatozoa was observed in the post-coital vaginal smears of these animals. The immunized females were found to be ovulating normally and the number of corpora lutea were unaltered. Of the four antipeptide antibodies studied, antibodies to peptides NT and 1 were most effective in inhibiting fertility both in male as well as female rats. Hence, the antifertility studies were further confirmed by passive administration of 10 and 40 μg of purified ...
Explain how the event of immunization works and explain the difference between active and passive immunization. What is - Answered by a verified Tutor
1, 2 CDC. Summary of notifiable diseases, United States, 1997. MMWR 1998; 46:1-87..CDC. Prevention of hepatitis A through active and passive immunization. MMWR 1999;48 (No. RR-12): 5.. 3 Jacobs J. The cost effectiveness of childhood hepatitis A vaccination. Presentation at American Liver Foundation Meeting Strategic Directions for Reducing Hepatitis A in High Endemic States, St Louis, MO, June 10, 2000.. 4 CDC. Prevention of hepatitis A through active and passive immunization. MMWR 1999; 48 (No. RR-12): 1. 5 de Vincent-Hayes N. Hepatitis. Current Health 1995; 22(4): 20.. 6 CDC. Summary of notifiable diseases, United States, 1997. MMWR 1998; 46:1-87.. 7 CDC. Prevention of hepatitis A through active and passive immunization. MMWR 1999; 48(No. RR-12): 5. 8 CDC. Prevention of hepatitis A through active and passive immunization. MMWR 1999; 48(No. RR-12): 4. 9 Hutin YJ, et al. A multistate, food borne outbreak of hepatitis A. N Engl J Med 1999; 340(8): 595-602.. 10 CDC. Prevention of hepatitis A ...
Pertussis, or whooping cough, is a disease that claims the lives of 195,000 children across the globe annually. Jennifer Maynard, a chemical engineer at the University of Texas at Austin, is working on a better way to treat it. Her team is on the cusp of a therapeutic injection to treat the symptoms of pertussis and the painful coughing fits that come with the illness. Maynards passive immunization techniques gives babies who??ve had exposure to pertussis ??instant immunity?%9D using a mixture of two antibodies. The first binds to the whooping cough toxin, preventing it from attaching to healthy cells. The second stops the toxin from reaching its target within a healthy cell. ??It gives this one-two punch to deal with the toxin,?%9D says Maynard. The therapeutic can also help babies who??ve contracted the disease by alleviating their symptoms, which are caused by toxin, in conjunction with antibiotics that eliminate the bacteria that causes the illness.
Of four potential passive immunotherapies, scientists heading the Alzheimers Prevention Initiative chose the relative newcomer crenezumab for an upcoming secondary prevention trial in asymptomatic people carrying familial Alzheimers disease mutations (see ARF related news story). The first published data on the anti-Aβ antibody seems to justify that decision. In the July 11 Journal of Neuroscience, scientists led by Ryan Watts at Genentech, San Francisco, California, report that the antibody binds all forms of Aβ, including toxic oligomers. Watts, together with colleagues at Genentech and AC Immune, Lausanne, Switzerland, explains how the unique antibody backbone stimulates microglia just enough to clear Aβ, but not so much to induce inflammatory responses, making it safer at high doses than other passive immunotherapies. The paper also outlines Phase 1 clinical trial safety results. Some of these data have been presented previously at conferences.. I had been a little skeptical about the ...
A research team at BYU-Harvard-Stanford has identified a molecule that is key to mothers ability to pass along immunity to intestinal infections to their babies through breast milk.
This study has broader implications beyond simply being another preexposure passive transfer experiment using recently developed broad and potent anti-HIV neutralizing mAbs. It reaches the optimistic conclusion that if an immunogen can be identified/designed to elicit the breadth of anti-HIV neutralizing activity possessed by some of the new generation of mAbs, a vaccine containing such an immunogen may only have to generate modest protective titers to prevent the establishment of infection. It should be noted that the challenge virus inoculum size (3-5 AID50) used in this study was selected to ensure that all of the monkeys would be infected after a single IR inoculation. This challenge dose is orders of magnitude higher than that estimated to establish an HIV-1 infection after vaginal exposure in humans (4-8 per 10,000 exposures; Patel et al., 2014). If, in fact, the calculated 50% protective titer of ∼1:100 against a virus challenge of 3-5 AID represents a gross overestimate, then the true ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Passive administration of monoclonal antibodies against H. capsulatum and other fungal pathogens.. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
We review aspects of the antibody response to SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of the COVID- 19 pandemic. The topics we cover are relevant to immunotherapy with plasma from recovered patients and with monoclonal antibodies against the viral S-protein. The development of vaccines against SARS-CoV-2, an essential public health tool, will also be informed by an understanding of the antibody response in infected patients. Although virus-neutralizing antibodies are likely to protect, antibodies could potentially trigger immunopathogenic events in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients or enhance infection. An awareness of these possibilities may benefit clinicians and the developers of antibody-based therapies and vaccines.
Passive immunization involves the transfer of antibodies generated by one person directly to another to provide protection, which is shorter-lived.
Most successful vaccines elicit neutralizing antibodies and this property is a high priority when developing an HIV vaccine. Indeed, passively administered neutralizing antibodies have been shown to protect against HIV challenge in some of the best available animal models. For example, antibodies gi …
Therapeutic antibodies have revolutionised treatment of some cancers and improved prognosis for many patients. Over half of those available are approved for haematological malignancies, but efficaciou
Convalescent Plasma (CP), also called Passive Antibody Therapy for the treatment of COVID-19 infected patients was approved by the US-FDA on August 23, ...
Passive transfer of DENV2 E85-VRP-immune serum or adoptive transfer of DENV2 E85-VRP-immune B cells can increase the viral RNA levels in the liver upon infectio
Liu J, Ghneim K, Sok D, Bosche WJ, Li Y, Chipriano E, Berkemeier B, Oswald K, Borducchi E, Cabral C, Peter L, Brinkman A, Shetty M, Jimenez J, Mondesir J, Lee B, Giglio P, Chandrashekar A, Abbink P, Colantonio A, Gittens C, Baker C, Wagner W, Lewis MG, Li W, Sekaly RP, Lifson JD, Burton DR, Barouch DH. Antibody-mediated protection against SHIV challenge includes systemic clearance of distal virus. Science. 2016 09 02; 353(6303):1045-1049 ...
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IVIG Diseases, Intravenous Immunoglobulin Therapy - We treat IVIG diseases. Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for IVIG diseases.
The precise mechanism by which immunoglobulin therapy suppresses harmful inflammation is likely multifactorial. For example, it has been reported that immunoglobulin therapy can block Fas-mediated cell death.[23] Perhaps a more popular theory is that the immunosuppressive effects of immunoglobulin therapy are mediated through IgGs Fc glycosylation. By binding to receptors on antigen presenting cells, IVIG can increase the expression of the inhibitory Fc receptor, FcgRIIB, and shorten the half-life of auto-reactive antibodies.[24][25][26] The ability of immunoglobulin therapy to suppress pathogenic immune responses by this mechanism is dependent on the presence of a sialylated glycan at position CH2-84.4 of IgG.[24] Specifically, de-sialylated preparations of immunoglobulin lose their therapeutic activity and the anti-inflammatory effects of IVIG can be recapitulated by administration of recombinant sialylated IgG1 Fc.[24] There are several other proposed mechanisms of action and the actual ...
The article by Pfeifer et al. describes the exacerbation of cerebral hemorrhages seen in an aged APP-transgenic model following passive administration of anti-Aβ antibodies directed to amino acids 3-6. This particular transgenic mouse, called APP23, is described by the authors in a previous paper as a spontaneous hemorrhagic stroke mouse model (Winkler et al., 2001). At approximately 19 months of age onward, the mouse exhibits severe cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), which is associated with recurrent hemorrhages as the mice age. Moderate to severe cerebral vascular amyloid also exists in approximately 26 percent of Alzheimers disease patients, as well, though the rate of hemorrhages is less than that seen in the APP23 mouse (approximately five percent of AD cases; see Greenberg et al., 1998).. When the authors gave 21-month-old APP23 mice a monoclonal antibody directed to Aβ3-6 once a week for five months, they saw that the rate of hemorrhages increased about twofold above baseline. The ...
Abstract Myasthenia gravis (MG) with antibodies to muscle‐specific kinase (MuSK) is characterized by fluctuating fatigable weakness. In MuSK MG, involvement of bulbar muscles, neck, and shoulde ...
To study the effect of passive immunotherapy (PIT) over the HIV-viral load and the CD4 T+-cell counts in patients who have failed to respond to three different Highly-Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART), and who have at the moment less than 100 CD4+-T cells/ml and a viral load over 20,000 copies/ml ...
TY - CONF. T1 - Evaluating Passive Immunotherapy using Aged Transgenic Animals of Tauopathy. AU - Al Lahham, Rabab. AU - Bittar, Alice. AU - Montalbano, Mauro. AU - Carretero Murillo, Mariana. AU - McAllen, Salome. AU - Bhatt, Nemil. AU - Ellsworth, Anna. AU - Kayed, Rakez. PY - 2018/4. Y1 - 2018/4. M3 - Poster. ER - ...
Definition of adoptive immunity. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Includes medical terms and definitions.
PDF-1.3 %���� Therapeutic cancer vaccines are also divided into active and passive types - the latter being sub-divided into specific and non-specific vaccines. 0000006944 00000 n 0000010558 00000 n 0000018055 00000 n }�-=y�.K^��罟ns5�S�I)%J)���>�1M�3y*&����0n�6�4�^�M �,�����B��2 #�ط����i�!jhژ��5U0#� �S:X�����������P�Ք��4ZI�e ��dJ6�E�#N�b�M[Nzb76�S*���q�����*L�N���d�B 0000018194 00000 n 0000004122 00000 n The … 0000016065 00000 n The response was also better … Most of the time, you got them from your Mom when you were born. • Passive immunity can be transferred artificially by injecting antibodies from an animal that is already immune to a disease into another animal. Medical student participating in a polio vaccine campaign in Mexico. Active immunization with M1 Sse significantly protects mice against lethal subcutaneous infection ...
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic Gram-negative pathogen, which causes serious debilitating infections in patients with compromised lung function. The mechanism by which P. aeruginosa is cleared from the lung is not fully defined, although our previous studies have established a role for cellular immunity in protection against P. aeruginosa infections. This study aimed to evaluate the role of P. aeruginosa-specific IgG in protection against P. aeruginosa in a rat model of acute pulmonary infection. Immunoaffinity chromatography was used to purify total rat IgG from rat immune serum (rats immunised with P. aeruginosa) and non-immune serum. Untreated recipient rats were injected intravenously with different concentrations of pure IgG prepared from serum of unimmunised rats (non-immune IgG) or from rats immunised intestinally with killed P. aeruginosa (immune IgG) and infected intratracheally with P. aeruginosa 18 h later. The protective capability of the purified IgG against P. aeruginosa ...
Immunoglobulin Therapy can help people with weakened immune systems or other diseases fight off infections. Intravenous immunoglobulin
Explore the research topics touched on by this project. These labels are generated based on the underlying awards/grants. Together they form a unique fingerprint ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Short communication: Effect of feeding pooled and nonpooled high-quality colostrum on passive transfer of immunity, morbidity, and mortality in dairy calves. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Passive administration of therapeutic antitumor cytotoxic antibodies likely results in the in vivo generation of immune complexes (Fig. 3), and recent studies have investigated whether such antibodies initiate a vaccinal effect that is characterized by an antitumor cellular immune response. Examples of cytotoxic antibody-induced vaccinal effects from the clinic include patients treated with anti-MUC1 mAbs or anti-HER2/Neu mAbs, who generated MUC1-specific and HER2-specific T-cell responses, respectively (54, 55). Because a single course of treatment with anti-CD20 mAb (rituximab) can result in long-lasting, durable responses, it has been hypothesized that treatment with this mAb may also induce a vaccinal effect in patients with lymphoma (56). In support of this, lymphoma-specific anti-idiotype T-cell responses were detected in some patients treated with anti-CD20 rituximab (57, 58). Anti-CD20 mAb treatment of lymphoma cells in vitro stimulates DC maturation and CD8 T-cell activation (59), and ...
Reinforcing Method for the Protective Capacities of Dispersal and Combat Facilities using Logistic Regression - explosion verification test;finite element analysis;logistic regression;protective capacity reinforcement;dispersal facility;combat facility;
Circovac emulsion and suspension for emulsion for injection for pigs (25 dose). For the passive immunisation of piglets via the colostrum, after active immunisation of sows and gilts.
Prophylaxis: (1) Routine active immunization by 3 injections of 1 cc of toxoid to susceptable individiuals. (2) Booster dose for patients. whome are actively immunized within the previous 10 years. (3) Passive immunization by antitetanic serum . 3000 I.U. are given I.M. after sensitivity tests. (4) Antitetanic human globulin 200 U are given I.M. Treatment: 1- Care of respiration . 2- Nursing care. 3- Control of spasms. 4- Control of
Maximizing your potential to live well with multiple sclerosis should be the goal. Learning more about MS, including treatment options, allows you to make better decisions that can affect you now and in the future.
PSEUDOID: Identification and evaluation of peptides for active and passive immunization against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (DFG - German Science Foundation). In this project, we try to find surface structures conserved in all strains of Pseudomonas aeroginosa that are useful as vaccine targets and diagnostic biomarkers. We use both bioinformatics and biochemistry methods to identify and characterize relevant surface proteins.. ...
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PASSIVE PEOPLESome people think and analyze a lot and act little. Others, however, without so much thought, are more prone to action. The firsts tend to be passive, ...
Passive aggressive behaviour is seriously unfavourable and intolerable. It is always difficult to be around a person who has passive aggression.
Is active recovery more important than passive recovery? Experts say both are important, but it seems active recovery may be king.
Choose Connection for ACP-EP Memory Cables. Buy a ACP-EP Dell Compatible 40GBase-CU QSFP+ to QSFP+ Passive Twinax Direct Attach Cable, 3m and get great service and fast delivery.
Capsule and pneumolysin (PLY) are two major virulence factors of Streptococcus pneumoniae. S. pneumoniae is one of the leading causes of bacterial endophthalmitis. The aim of this study is to determine whether passive immunization with the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (Pneumovax® 23; PPSV23) or PLY protects against pneumococcal endophthalmitis. New Zealand white rabbits were passively immunized with antiserum to PLY, PPSV23, a mixture of PPSV23/PLY, or PBS (mock). Vitreous was infected with a clinical strain of S. pneumoniae. In a separate group of experiments, vancomycin was injected 4 hours post-infection (PI) for each passively immunized group. Severity of infection, bacterial recovery, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and percent loss of retinal function were determined. Passive immunization with each antiserum significantly lowered clinical severity compared to mock immunization (PPSV23 = 9.19, PPSV23/PLY = 10.45, PLY = 8.71, Mock = 16.83; P = 0.0467). A significantly higher
We have identified and characterized nine antigenic epitopes on the E envelope of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) by using mAb. Passive administration of most of the anti-JEV mAb protected mice from i.v. challenge with 1.5 x 10(3) plaque-forming units of JEV, JaGAr-01 strain. Some mAb, which possess high neutralization activity in vitro, showed high protection, and JEV-specific N mAb 503 was found the most protective. Even an injection of 2.5 micrograms/mouse of mAb 503 protected all mice from JEV infection. Furthermore, an injection of about 200 micrograms of mAb 503 on day 5 postinfection protected 82% of the mice, even when JEV was detected in more than 85% of the infected mouse brains. Synergism of protection was observed with mixtures of several mAb directed against different epitopes. Although in a murine macrophage cell line, all of the mAb groups showed antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of JEV infectivity in vitro, and only two flavivirus cross-reactive mAb groups showed ADE of ...
Fish, D C.; Gilden, R V.; Bare, R M.; Trimmer, R M.; and Huebner, R J., Prevention of spontaneous leukemia in akr mice by passive immunization and type specificity of this protection. (1979). Subject Strain Bibliography 1979. 2794 ...
Immunotherapies that block CD47 stimulate macrophage phagocytosis of cancer, and they synergize with anti-CD20 passive immunotherapy in preclinical human models. CD47-blocking therapies are now under investigation in clinical trials for patients with solid and hematologic malignancies. For this presentation, I will describe our work applying these concepts to preclinical models of canine lymphoma. We validated the canine CD47/SIRPα axis as an immunotherapeutic target for canine cancer, and we have identified therapeutic agents that block canine CD47 and stimulate macrophage phagocytosis of canine lymphoma cells. We found that CD47-blocking therapies could enhance the efficacy of a speciated anti-canine CD20 antibody that is under development for canine lymphoma. The data will provide justification for testing CD47-blocking therapies in combination with anti-CD20 passive immunotherapy in companion animals. Since canine and human lymphoma bear remarkable similarity and treatment strategies, application
The potential threat of biological warfare with a specific agent is proportional to the susceptibility of the population to that agent. Preventing disease after exposure to a biological agent is partially a function of the immunity of the exposed individual. The only available countermeasure that can provide immediate immunity against a biological agent is passive antibody. Unlike vaccines, which require time to induce protective immunity and depend on the hosts ability to mount an immune response, passive antibody can theoretically confer protection regardless of the immune status of the host. Passive antibody therapy has substantial advantages over antimicrobial agents and other measures for postexposure prophylaxis, including low toxicity and high specific activity. Specific antibodies are active against the major agents of bioterrorism, including anthrax, smallpox, botulinum toxin, tularemia, and plague. This article proposes a biological defense initiative based on developing, producing, and
HCMV is the leading infectious cause of mental retardation and deafness in infants with congenital HCMV infection. Primary HCMV infections during pregnancy carry the highest risk of fetal infection and disease. No intervention of proven efficacy is available in case of primary HCMV infection in pregnancy. However, a study published in 2005 (Nigro et al., NEJM 353:1350-62, 2005) reported that in pregnant women with primary HCMV infection treated with HCMV-specific hyperimmune globulin (Cytotect®, Biotest) the risk of transmitting the infection to the fetus was reduced from 40% to 16%. Unfortunately, since the study was conducted with inadequate controls, the actual efficacy of hyperimmune globulin could not be properly assessed.. In the present randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial pregnant women with ascertained primary HCMV infection at 4-26 weeks of gestation will be randomized to receive Cytotect® or placebo intravenously within 6 weeks after the presumed onset of ...
Free Online Library: Passive antibody administration (immediate immunity) as a specific defense against biological weapons. (Perspective). by Emerging Infectious Diseases; Health, general Antibodies Physiological aspects Biological weapons Usage Immune response Regulation Immune response regulation
Adoptive immunization of syngeneic, immunosuppressed recipients infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM) virus causes fatal neurologic disease within 2 to 4 days of cell transfer, providing that donors are sampled when the in vitro 51Cr release assay shows maximal specific activity of sensitized thymus-derived lymphocytes (T cells). Prior treatment of immune spleen cells with AKR anti-θ ascitic fluid and complement causes total abrogation of this in vivo activity. Fatal neurologic disease is induced only when donor and recipient share at least one set of H-2 antigenic specificities. Parent → F1 and F1 → parent combinations are as effective as syngeneic systems, but mice given allogeneic immune cells survive as long as controls. Differences at the M-locus in H-2 compatible mice do not inhibit effector activity. Homing of transferred lymphocytes to spleen is similar in syngeneic or allogeneic recipients, but only syngeneic immune cells cross the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Challenges in designing HIV env immunogens for developing a vaccine. AU - Srivastava, Indresh K.. AU - Holland Cheng, R.. PY - 2008/1/1. Y1 - 2008/1/1. N2 - HIV continues to be a major health problem worldwide; however, the situation is particularly serious in Asian and Sub-Saharan countries. Development of an effective HIV vaccine could help to reduce the severity of the disease and prevent infection. Over the last two decades significant efforts have been made toward inducing potent humoral and cellular immune responses by vaccination; however, it appears that either antibodies or CTL may not be sufficient alone for the induction of sterilizing immunity or long-term control of viral replication. Therefore, it is generally believed that both humoral and cellular responses will be needed for an effective HIV vaccine. It has been shown in passive transfer experiments using broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAb) such as b12, 2F5, and 2G12 that these mAbs either alone or ...
38 TABLE III-Continued. Age, in Days, at Inoculation Age, at in Days, Bleeding 5E Titers 5F 5G 2A 17 0 0 0 0 19 - 22 0 0 0 0 23 - - 26 - - - 30 0 0 0 0 33 0 - - 0 37 - - - - 40 40 640 0 0 40 44 - - 50 160 - - 53 40 10 - 78 320 320 0 320 84 - - 85 160 320 160 87 - - - - 88 320 , 4 0 640 92 - - - 95 - - - - 99 - 16000 0 16000 107 8000 8000 32000 180 500 ...
HIV hyperimmune globulin: do not confuse with HivIg used as abbreviation for hyperimmune intravenous immunoglobulins if not raised against human immunodeficiency viruses (index as IG IV coord with the appropriate organism or antigen)
OBJECTIVES To assess the safety, tolerance, pharmacokinetics, and virologic and immunologic changes associated with the use of Ugandan HIV hyperimmune globulin (HIVIGLOB) in HIV infected pregnant Ugandan women and their infants. DESIGN A prospective, phase I/II, three-arm dose escalation trial of HIVIGLOB. METHODS HIVIGLOB was prepared from discarded HIV infected units of blood collected from the National Blood Bank in Kampala. From June 1996 to April 1997, 31 HIV positive pregnant women were enrolled with HIVIGLOB infusions given at 37 weeks gestation and within 16 h of birth for infants. The first 10 mother-infant pairs were infused at a dose of 50 mg/kg, followed by 11 pairs at 200 mg/kg, and 10 pairs at 400 mg/kg. Study participants were followed for 30 months. RESULTS Thirty-one women and 29 infants were infused with HIVIGLOB. The infusions were safe and well tolerated by the women and their infants at all doses. There were no significant changes in virologic or immunologic parameters after
Current treatment options for Alzheimers disease (AD) are limited to medications that reduce dementia symptoms. Given the rapidly ageing populations in most areas of the world, new therapeutic interventions for AD are urgently needed. In recent years, a number of drug candidates targeting the amyloid-ss (A ss) peptide have advanced into clinical trials; however, most have failed because of safety issues or lack of efficacy. The A ss peptide is central to the pathogenesis, and immunotherapy against A ss has attracted considerable interest. It offers the possibility to reach the target with highly specific drugs. Active immunization and passive immunization have been the most widely studied approaches to immunotherapy of AD. A favourable aspect of active immunization is the capacity for a small number of vaccinations to generate a prolonged antibody response. A potential disadvantage is the variability in the antibody response across patients. The potential advantages of passive immunotherapy ...
Publishers Accepted Manuscript: Proper accounting of mass transfer resistances in forward osmosis: Improving the accuracy of model predictions of structural parameter ...
Passive immunity results when antibodies are transferred to a person who has never been exposed to the pathogen. Passive immunity lasts only as long as the antibodies survive in body fluids. This is usually between a few days and a few months. Passive immunity may be acquired by a fetus through its mothers blood ...
Intravenous Immunoglobulin Therapy - Clinical Benefits and Future Prospects (New York: The Parthenon Publishing Group, 1995). ISBN: 1850706484 (hardcover). [medical] ...
These results suggest that a combination of protective antibodies with either the same or different isotypes can produce either an additive or a suppressive effect in passive immunization. This phenomenon may be important in better understanding immunity in this experimental mouse model of malaria.. ...
Immune deficiencies are treated with immunoglobulin therapy or gamma interferon therapy, according to Mayo Clinic. Immunoglobulin therapy involves introducing antibody proteins the immune system...
Lecture 18 Humoral Immune Response. The Antibody Response. Antibody Protection of the Host. Immunologic Memory. Virgin lymphocyte pool . PRIMARY RESPONSE . effector cells . memory cell pool . SECONDARY RESPONSE. effector cells . memory cell pool . Immunologically Naive. Slideshow 158264 by elina
Despite decades of research, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) remains a highly prevalent childhood pathogen without an approved vaccine.1 There is a marketed prophylactic-Synagis palivizumab-to prevent severe disease caused by RSV in at-risk infants, but the passive immunization provided by the antibody does not last from season to season, and its high cost precludes its use in other patient populations.
Active vs Passive Immunity Throughout the world, people are now more aware of the dangers of viral outbreaks and the effects to humanity. All of us were aghast
According to the manufacturer, besides anti-D, WinRho SDF TM contains trace amounts of anti-C, -E, -A and -B.9 However, Rushin et al.13 found addition...
Paragon Healthcare has a dedicated team of pharmacists and nurses uniquely qualified in immunoglobulin therapy, focusing on both acute and chronic therapies. We are able to provide IVIG and SCIG.. We are a proud member of the Immunoglobulin Nursing Society (IgNS) validating our ongoing commitments to provide excellent services to our patients. Our clinical staff is dedicated to maintaining a high standard of care for multidisciplinary clinical indications.. Every patient receiving IgG therapy is assigned a specialized team dedicated to managing his or her therapy.. ...
Hempel launched two new intumescent coatings for passive protection of steel structures in cellulosic fires. With the introduction of the new coatings, Hempel can now offer customers a full package coating solution for protecting buildings, including
Passive Dehydration Systems (PDS) are CROFTs preferred alternative to a glycol dehydrator. Our PDS has zero operational emissions & no moving parts.
Hammon WM (1955). "Passive immunization against poliomyelitis". Monograph Series. World Health Organization. 26: 357-70. PMID ... Passive immunization. In 1950, William Hammon at the University of Pittsburgh purified the gamma globulin component of the ... "Passive immunization against poliomyelitis: the Hammon gamma globulin field trials, 1951-1953". American Journal of Public ... in: Immunisation Against Infectious Disease, 2006 (PDF). Edinburgh: Stationery Office. pp. 313-29. ISBN 978-0-11-322528-6. . ...
Rinaldo C (2005). "Passive Immunization Against Poliomyelitis: The Hammon Gamma Globulin Field Trials, 1951-1953". Am J Public ... Hammon W (1955). "Passive immunization against poliomyelitis". Monogr Ser World Health Organ. 26: 357-70. PMID 14374581. ... Massage and passive motion exercises were also used to treat polio victims. Most of these treatments proved to be of little ... Following the development of oral polio vaccine, a second wave of mass immunizations led to a further decline in the number of ...
Hammon WM (1955). "Passive immunization against poliomyelitis". Monograph Series. World Health Organization. 26: 357-70. PMID ... Rinaldo CR (May 2005). "Passive immunization against poliomyelitis: the Hammon gamma globulin field trials, 1951-1953". ... In Syria difficulties in executing immunization programs in the ongoing civil war led to a return of polio, probably in 2012, ... in: Immunisation Against Infectious Disease, 2006 (PDF). Edinburgh: Stationery Office. pp. 313-29. ISBN 978-0-11-322528-6. ...
Sacco, AG (1979). "Inhibition of fertility in mice by passive immunization with antibodies to isolated zonae pellucidae". J ... Naz, RK; R Changanamkandath (2004). "Passive immunization for immunocontraception: lessons learned from infectious diseases". ... there has been research into the approach of contraception through passive immunization as an alternative that would be of less ... In passive immunity the desired antibody titers are achieved by injecting antibodies directly into an animal. The efficacy of ...
Baxter, D (2014). "Active and passive immunization for cancer". Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics. 10 (7): 2123-9. doi: ... Brody, David L.; Holtzman, David M. (2008-06-17). "Active and Passive Immunotherapy for Neurodegenerative Disorders". Annual ... while immunotherapies that administer antibodies directly to the system are classified as passive immunotherapies. Active ...
Hammon W (1955). "Passive immunization against poliomyelitis". Monograph Series. World Health Organization 26: 357-70. PMID ... "Passive Immunization Against Poliomyelitis: The Hammon Gamma Globulin Field Trials, 1951-1953". American Journal of Public ... in: Immunisation Against Infectious Disease, 2006 (PDF). Edinburgo: Office of Public Sector Information. pp. 313-29. ISBN 0-11- ... The Immunological Basis for Immunization Series. Xenebra: OMS. Arquivado dende o orixinal (PDF) o 02 de febreiro de 2014. ...
Manfredsson, Fredric P.; Tansey, Malú G.; Golde, Todd E. (1 October 2018). "Challenges in Passive Immunization Strategies to ...
I. The demonstration of resistance conferred by passive immunization". Journal of Immunology. 117 (1): 191-6. PMID 778261. ...
Beutler B, Milsark IW, Cerami AC (August 1985). "Passive immunization against cachectin/tumor necrosis factor protects mice ...
the activity of toxins, enabling passive immunization. von Behring and Kitasato (1890)[4] ...
Antibodies in mother's milk protect children against giardiasis (passive immunization). The major aspect of adaptive immune ...
Rietveld E, Steyerberg EW, Polder JJ, Veeze HJ, Vergouwe Y, Huysman MW, de Groot R, Moll HA (July 2010). "Passive immunisation ... This is called passive immunotherapy. However, these treatments have inherent problems; passive antibody exposes the body to ... Bakker JM, Bleeker WK, Parren PW (September 2004). "Therapeutic antibody gene transfer: an active approach to passive immunity ...
Young, Megan K; Nimmo, Graeme R; Cripps, Allan W; Jones, Mark A (1 April 2014). "Post-exposure passive immunisation for ... and the loss of passive, inherited antibodies before the age of routine immunization. Once the measles virus gets onto the ... Despite these trends, rates of disease and deaths increased from 2017 to 2019 due to a decrease in immunization. Play media ... Abramson B (2018). Vaccine, vaccination, and immunization law. Bloomberg Law. pp. 10-30. ISBN 9781682675830. White LK, Yoon JJ ...
Newborns are probably protected by passive immunisation. The age group most frequently affected appear to be children between ...
... known as passive immunization. In mice expressing APP, both active and passive immunization of anti-Aβ antibodies has been ... but several clinical trials using passive and active immunization approaches by development of certain drugs approved by the ... Passive anti-Aβ mAb treatment can be used for preventive attempts to modify AD progression before it causes extensive brain ... Passive monoclonal antibody therapy can ensure consistent antibody concentration, and can control for adverse reactions by ...
Rinaldo CR (2005). "Passive Immunization Against Poliomyelitis: The Hammon Gamma Globulin Field Trials, 1951-1953". American ... Enders JF, Hammon WM (1940). "Active and passive immunization against the virus of malignant pan leucopenia of cats". Proc Soc ...
Its relation to virulence and to active and passive immunisation". Lancet. ii: 186-191. "The pathogenic and immunogenic ...
Athanasas-Platsis S, Quinn KA, Wong TY, Rolfe BE, Cavanagh AC, Morton H (Nov 1989). "Passive immunization of pregnant mice ...
Beutler, B; Milsark, IW; Cerami, AC (1 July 2008). "Passive immunization against cachectin/tumor necrosis factor protects mice ...
Passive immunization against cachectin/tumor necrosis factor protects mice from lethal effect of endotoxin. Science 229(4716): ...
In susceptible people passive immunization, in the form of Polyclonal immunoglobulins appears effective up to the fifth day ... Young, Megan K; Cripps, Allan W; Nimmo, Graeme R; van Driel, Mieke L (9 September 2015). "Post-exposure passive immunisation ... Universal immunisation producing a high level of herd immunity is important in the control of epidemics of rubella. In the UK, ... The immunisation program has been quite successful. Cuba declared the disease eliminated in the 1990s, and in 2004 the Centers ...
Different methods for acute treatment of the disease have been shown not to be very successful; passive immunization after the ... "WHO supports the immunization of 874 000 people against yellow fever in Nigeria. News Release". World Health Organization. 16 ... Department of Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals. WHO reference number: WHO/YF/SAGE/16.1". World Health Organization. 20 ... early diagnosis of cases and immunization of large parts of the population are important to prevent outbreaks.[3] Once infected ...
Another strategy is to use antibodies to neutralize specific proteins by active or passive immunization. In some proteopathies ...
2000). "Passive or active immunization with myelin basic protein promotes recovery from spinal cord contusion". Journal of ...
Botulinum antitoxin consists of antibodies that neutralize botulinum toxin in the circulatory system by passive immunization. ...
... continued his efforts and created a passive immunization vaccine that was based on horse serum. Test trials for ... the passive immunization vaccine showed no beneficial results or immunity to the infection. These setbacks led Shiga to stop ...
Prevention of oligomerization of Aβ has been exemplified by active or passiveimmunization. In this process antibodies to Aβ ... Schilling S, Rahfeld JU, Lues I, Lemere CA (May 2018). "Passive Aβ Immunotherapy: Current Achievements and Future Perspectives ...
"Passive immunization of chickens against Eimeria maxima infection with a monoclonal antibody developed against a gametocyte ...
At the prenatal and neonatal stages of life, the presence of antibodies is provided by passive immunization from the mother. ... other foreign antigen exposure or passive immunization. These antibodies can activate the classical complement pathway leading ... These diseases are often treated by inducing a short term form of immunity called passive immunity. Passive immunity is ... The only antibody capable of crossing the placenta to give passive immunity to the fetus.. ...
Beutler B, Milsark IW, Cerami AC (1985). „Passive immunization against cachectin/tumor necrosis factor protects mice from ...
Russell ML, Injeyan HS, Verhoef MJ, Eliasziw M (2004). "Beliefs and behaviours: understanding chiropractors and immunization". ... Spinal manipulation is a passive manual maneuver during which a three-joint complex is taken past the normal range of movement ... Wardle, Jon; Frawley, Jane; Steel, Amie; Sullivan, Elizabeth (2016). "Complementary medicine and childhood immunisation: A ... chiropractors found that about a third believed there was no scientific proof that immunization prevents disease.[27] The ...
"Immunization". UNICEF.. *^ Palmer, Guy H.; McElwain, Terry F. (1995). "Molecular basis for vaccine development against ... This is known as passive immunity, and the serum that is isolated from one subject and injected into another is sometimes ... The use of simple molecules such as toxoids for immunization tends to produce a low response by the immune system, and thus ... giving it passive immunity to whatever its mother became immune to.[18][22][23] This allows some protection for the young while ...
... passive immunity - passive immunotherapy - pathogen - pathogenesis - PBMC - PCP - PCR - Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trial Group ( ... immunization - immunocompetent - immunocompromised - immunodeficiency - immunogen - immunogenicity - immunoglobulin (Ig) - ...
Most are passive intermediaries, making money by simply channelling funds from regional OMS funds to healthcare providers. ... Primary care is focused on immunization, prevention of malnutrition, pregnancy, child birth, postnatal care, and treatment of ...
CP is partly preventable through immunization of the mother and efforts to prevent head injuries in children such as through ... Children with cerebral palsy are at risk of learned helplessness and becoming passive communicators, initiating little ...
They receive no passive transfer of immunity via the placenta before birth, so any antibodies that they need have to be ... Antibodies towards the specific pathogens or antigens that were used in the immunization are present in higher levels than in ... Sawyer, M.; Willadsen, C. H.; Osburn, B. I.; McGuire, T. C. (1977). "Passive transfer of colostral immunoglobulins from ewe to ... have shown that if the immunization is by surface antigens of the bacteria, the Bovine Colostrum Powder [71] can be used to ...
Immunization. *Infant and toddler safety. *Infant bathing. *Infant food safety. *Infant formula ...
Recommendations of the Immunization Practices Advisory committee (ACIP)". MMWR Recomm Rep. 40 (RR-10): 1-28. doi:10.1542/peds. ... If the mother has been vaccinated against tetanus, the infants acquire passive immunity and are thus protected.[12] It usually ... Tetanus can be prevented by immunization with the tetanus vaccine.[1] In those who have a significant wound and have had less ... In 1897, Edmond Nocard showed that tetanus antitoxin induced passive immunity in humans, and could be used for prophylaxis and ...
Beutler B, Milsark IW, Cerami AC (August 1985). "Passive immunization against cachectin/tumor necrosis factor protects mice ...
Passive memoryEdit. Passive memory is usually short-term, lasting between a few days and several months. Newborn infants have ... ImmunizationEdit. Historically, infectious disease has been the leading cause of death in the human population. Over the last ... Passive - Antibodies pass from mother to fetus via placenta or infant via the mother's milk.. Passive - Preformed antibodies in ... Several layers of passive protection are provided by the mother. In utero, maternal IgG is transported directly across the ...
... money played a passive role within the state sector since the planners focused on physical allocation.[121] ... "Implications of the Diphtheria Epidemic in the Former Soviet Union for Immunization Programs". Journal of Infectious Diseases ...
en:Continuous passive motion (2). *en:Corneal collagen cross-linking (3). *en:Coronary artery disease (52) → 관상동맥질환 ... en:Immunization (22). *en:Indication (medicine) (15). *en:Indigestion (39) → 소화불량 *en:Infection control (8) → 감염 관리 ...
Main article: Passive immunity. ದೇಹವು ಪ್ರತಿರಕ್ಷಿತ ವ್ಯವಸ್ಥೆಯ ಪೂರ್ವ-ಸಂಶ್ಲೇಷಿಸಿದ ಘಟಕಗಳನ್ನು ತನ್ನಷ್ಟಕ್ಕೇ ಉತ್ಪಾದನೆ ಮಾಡಲು ... For financial immunization, see Immunization (finance).. ಈ ಲೇಖನದಿಂದ ಬೇರೆ ಯಾವುದೇ ಲೇಖನಕ್ಕೆ ಬಾಹ್ಯ ಸಂಪರ್ಕ ಹೊಂದಿಲ್ಲ. ಈ ಲೇಖನಕ್ಕೆ ...
Diluted snake venom is often used as an antiserum to give passive immunity to snake venom itself.[10][11] ... They had to be in perfect medical condition for the immunization, and the quarantine facility ensured that they were free of ... Antiserum is human or nonhuman blood serum containing monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies that is used to spread passive ... Even though they tried to empower the immune system of the horses during this immunization with painstaking care, most of the ...
Passive immunity[edit]. Main article: Passive immunity. Individual immunity can also be gained passively, in which antibodies ... National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (2011). "General recommendations on immunization - recommendations of ... Wolfe, R. M. (2012). "Update on adult immunizations". The Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine. 25 (4): 496-510. ... Munoz, F. M. (2013). "Maternal immunization: An update for pediatricians". Pediatric Annals. 42 (8): 153-8. doi:10.3928/ ...
the activity of toxins, enabling passive immunization. von Behring and Kitasato (1890)[4]. ...
Childhood Immunization Policies Despite nationwide controversies over childhood vaccination and immunization, there are ... Tobacco control policies have been ineffective as China is home to 350 million regular smokers and 750 million passive smokers ... Immunization Action Coalition. (2018). State mandates on immunization and vaccine-preventable diseases. Accessed 3/18/18 from ... Childhood immunizations are largely responsible for the increase in life expectancy in the 20th century. From an economic ...
Zingher, Abraham . THE DICK TEST AND ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION WITH SCARLET FEVER STREPTOCOCCUS TOXIN *. American Journal of Public ... When the antitoxin is obtained from the blood, it is purified and injected into a human or other animal, inducing passive ...
Prevention: primary immunization (DPT) Dental trismus is characterized by a difficulty in opening the jaw. It is a temporary ... Treatment requires treating the underlying condition with dental treatments, physical therapy, and passive range of motion ...
Immunization. *Infant and toddler safety. *Infant bathing. *Infant food safety. *Infant formula ...
... and breastfeeding can reduce fever rate after infant immunization. However, smallpox and yellow fever vaccines increase the ... - Immunization Action Coalition' (nonprofit working to increase immunization rates). * - 'Immunizations, ... While vaccination provides a lasting effect, it usually takes several weeks to develop, while passive immunity (the transfer of ... "WHO - World Immunization Week 2012". *^ a b "Anti-Vaccination Movement Causes a Deadly Year in the U.S". Healthline. ... "Global Immunization Data" (PDF).. *^ Ehreth J (January 2003). "The global value of vaccination". Vaccine. 21 (7-8): 596-600. ...
Antibodies for passive immunization (e.g., to treat a virus infection). *Human breast milk ...
Some forms of meningitis are preventable by immunization with the meningococcal, mumps, pneumococcal, and Hib vaccines.[2] ... In a person with a positive Kernig's sign, pain limits passive extension of the knee. A positive Brudzinski's sign occurs when ... Since the 1980s, many countries have included immunization against Haemophilus influenzae type B in their routine childhood ... immunization with this ACW135Y vaccine is now a visa requirement for taking part in Hajj.[56] Development of a vaccine against ...
Theyre calling it "passive immunization," and it could be the next step on the path to a cure. ...
WHO Expert Committee on the Use of Human Immunoglobulin; World Health Organization (‎Genève : Organisation mondiale de la Santé, 1966)‎ ...
... this paper provokes thought because passive immunization is sometimes considered safer than active immunization. ... Scientists led by Mathias Jucker at the University of Basel, Switzerland, report that passive immunization of APP23-transgenic ... Clinical progress with immunization of Aβ42 (AN 1792) recently suffered a setback when a subset of treated patients developed ... Cerebral hemorrhage after passive anti-Abeta immunotherapy. Science. 2002 Nov 15;298(5597):1379. PubMed. ...
Active and passive immunization protects against lethal, extreme drug resistant-Acinetobacter baumannii infection. *Luo G ... These results define active and passive immunization strategies to prevent and treat highly lethal, XDR A. baumannii infections ... Active and passive immunization protects against lethal, extreme drug resistant-Acinetobacter baumannii infection. PLoS ONE, 7( ... Passive transfer with immune sera recapitulated protection. Immune sera did not enhance complement-mediated killing but did ...
Prevention of HIV infection by passive immunization with HIV immunoglobulin.. Prince AM1, Reesink H, Pascual D, Horowitz B, ...
Recombinant IgA production for mucosal passive immunization, advancing beyond the hurdles.. Virdi V1,2, Juarez P3,4, Boudolf V3 ... Did you mean: recombinant siga production for mucosal passive immunization, advancing beyond the hurdles (1 items) ... Did you mean: recombinant siga production for mucosal passive immunization, advancing beyond the hurdles (1 items) ... Mucosal passive immunization, i.e. the application of pathogen-specific SIgAs at the mucosae, can be an effective alternative ...
Passive Immunization of Farmed Fish. Binoy Rajan, Guro Løkka, Erling Olaf Koppang and Lars Austbø ... Table I. Characteristics of Ig classes and fragments significant for passive immunization in aquaculture. ...
Passive immunization involves the transfer of antibodies generated by one person directly to another to provide protection, ... They had examined "passive immunization" as an alternative to an HIV vaccine, which experts fear may still be years off. A ... "Passive immunization" involves the transfer of antibodies generated by one person directly to another to provide protection, ...
WHO South-East Asia Regional Immunization Technical Advisory Group (‎SEAR-ITAG)‎: Report of the Ninth Meeting, New Delhi, India ...
Prevention of Hepatitis A Through Active or Passive Immunization: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization ... Hepatitis A Through Active or Passive Immunization -- Recommendations , , of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices ( ... Simultaneous active and passive immunization against hepatitis A studied in a population of travellers. Vaccine 1993;11:1027-32 ... Until recently, the primary methods used for preventing hepatitis A have been hygienic measures and passive immunization with ...
Ichor Medical Systems Awarded DARPA Contract for Development of TriGrid Platform for Passive Immunization ... While active immunization with traditional vaccines is effective at stimulating the immune system to generate protective ...
The History of Passive Immunization Antibodies were first used to treat disease in the late 19th century as the field of ... Passive immunization, however, has an advantage in that it is quick acting, producing an immune response within hours or days, ... Passive Immunization Today. Today, patients may be treated with antibodies when they are ill with diphtheria or cytomegalovirus ... Additionally, passive immunization can override a deficient immune system, which is especially helpful in someone who does not ...
Passive immunization with this Moab A7S8 resulted in a significant reduced plaque volume formation in LDLr−/− mice when ... In this study, we hypothesised that passive immunization with anti-oxLDL IgM antibodies specific for hypochlorite (HOCl) may be ... Conclusion Our data show that passive immunization with a natural IgM antibody, directed to HOCl-oxLDL, can reduce ... Passive immunization Is the Subject Area "Passive immunization" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
Passive immunization against misfolded toxic proteins is a promising approach to treat neurodegenerative disorders. For ... Recent Advances in Anti-Amyloid Passive Immunization. Permalink Read 9 Comments Add a Comment Posted by Reason ... Success against amyloid β using antibodies and passive immunization would mean that success against other forms of ... A subcutaneous cellular implant for passive immunization against amyloid-β reduces brain amyloid and tau pathologies ...
As in passive immunization.. Active immunization is what an effective vaccine does. It stimulates the recipient to make ... Theres No HIV Vaccine Yet But Passive Immunization Is Being Studied: Injecting Anti-HIV Antibodies : Goats and Soda The idea ... Momentum behind the passive immunization against HIV is growing. Eight human studies are underway using the approach. ... Two other findings improve the prospects that passive immunization may work in the real world:. *It can be given by ...
... OVERVIEW. Circulating adenovirus-specific central memory CD4 T cells are ...
As in passive immunization.. Active immunization is what an effective vaccine does. It stimulates the recipient to make ... Chasing A New Way To Prevent HIV: Passive Immunization. This content is provided by National Public Radio. ... Momentum behind the passive immunization against HIV is growing. Eight human studies are underway using the approach. ... Two other findings improve the prospects that passive immunization may work in the real world:. *It can be given by ...
Passive immunisation (giving antibodies) for preventing rubella (German measles) after contact with it. Background and review ... Young MK, Cripps AW, Nimmo GR, van Driel M. Post-exposure passive immunisation for preventing rubella and congenital rubella ...
A one-page document describing passive immunization, the transfer of pre-made antibodies, and its potential for HIV prevention. ... A one-page document describing passive immunization, the transfer of pre-made antibodies, and its potential for HIV prevention. ... AIDS Vaccine Science for Busy Advocates - Passive Immunization: An important piece of the puzzle. ...
Passive immunization against cachectin/tumor necrosis factor protects mice from lethal effect of endotoxin ... Passive immunization against cachectin/tumor necrosis factor protects mice from lethal effect of endotoxin ... Passive immunization against cachectin/tumor necrosis factor protects mice from lethal effect of endotoxin ... Passive immunization against cachectin/tumor necrosis factor protects mice from lethal effect of endotoxin ...
Passive immunization protects cynomolgus macaques against Puumala hantavirus challenge. - Jonas Klingström, Malin Stoltz, Jonas ... Passive immunization protects cynomolgus macaques against Puumala hantavirus challenge.. Abstract. BACKGROUND: Hantaviruses ... Here, we studied the effect of passive immunization on the course of infection in cynomolgus macaques challenged with wild-type ... The results show that passive immunization in monkeys, using serum from previously hantavirus-infected monkeys, can induce ...
... and passive immunization with WNV-immune serum; all were tested by using a hamster model of the disease. Each product protected ... Immunization strategies evaluated included a killed virus veterinary vaccine, a live attenuated chimeric virus vaccine ... from clinical illness and death when challenged with a hamster-virulent wild-type WNV strain 1 month after initial immunization ... Results of experiments evaluating the efficacy of three immunization strategies for the prevention of West Nile virus (WNV) ...
Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices ... Prevention of Hepatitis A Through Active or Passive Immunization: ... Prevention of Hepatitis A Through Active or Passive Immunization: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization ... Hepatitis A Through Active or Passive Immunization -- Recommendations , , of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices ( ...
Impact of passive and active immunization against Ixofin3D-PF on B. burgdorferi burden in ticks and in murine skin.A-C: Rabbit ... ppat-1004278-g005: Impact of passive and active immunization against Ixofin3D-PF on B. burgdorferi burden in ticks and in ... ppat-1004278-g005: Impact of passive and active immunization against Ixofin3D-PF on B. burgdorferi burden in ticks and in ... Bottom Line: Immunization against Ixofin3D and RNA interference-mediated reduction in expression of Ixofin3D resulted in ...
... and therapeutic immune serums for therapeutic use and passive immunization ... ... Antitoxins, antivenoms, immune globulins, and therapeutic immune serums for therapeutic use and passive immunization excluding ... and Therapeutic Immune Serums for Therapeutic Use and Passive Immunization Excluding Diagnostics in the United States *June ... and therapeutic immune serums for therapeutic use and passive immunization excluding diagnostics in the United States.. 1.3.1 ...
... by IOS Press ... Passive immunization may slow down SARS-CoV-2, boost immunity in patients, buy time for vaccine. ... Citation: Passive immunization may slow down SARS-CoV-2, boost immunity in patients, buy time for vaccine (2020, May 12) ... ...
Implications for Active and Passive Immunization. DSpace/Manakin Repository. * DASH Home ... Features of Recently Transmitted HIV-1 Clade C Viruses that Impact Antibody Recognition: Implications for Active and Passive ... Features of Recently Transmitted HIV-1 Clade C Viruses that Impact Antibody Recognition: Implications for Active and Passive ... "Features of Recently Transmitted HIV-1 Clade C Viruses that Impact Antibody Recognition: Implications for Active and Passive ...
Preventing severe respiratory syncytial virus disease: passive, active immunisation and new antivirals ... Preventing severe respiratory syncytial virus disease: passive, active immunisation and new antivirals ...
... - ... Explain how the event of immunization works and explain the difference between active and passive immunization. What is an ...
  • A different type of immunity, called passive immunity, results when a person is given someone else's antibodies. (
  • Natural Infants benefit from passive immunity acquired when their mothers' antibodies and pathogen-fighting white cells cross the placenta to reach the developing children, especially in the third trimester. (
  • Artificial Passive immunity can be induced artificially when antibodies are given as a medication to a nonimmune individual. (
  • Fc receptors are required in passive and active immunity to melanoma. (
  • Hepatitis B immunoglobulin is prepared specifically from pooled plasma with high titre of hepatitis B surface antibody and may confer temporary passive immunity under certain defined conditions. (
  • Immunization is the induction of immunity against an infectious disease by a means other than experiencing the natural infection. (
  • Passive immunization refers to temporary immunity resulting from antibodies developed by someone else, either through administration of immune globulin (e.g., gamma globulin , rabies immune globulin) or through the natural transfer across the placenta of antibodies developed by the mother, which provide protection to the newborn infant. (
  • Passive immunity usually lasts only a few weeks to a few months. (
  • Passive immunity can be transferred artificially by injecting antibodies from an animal that is already immune to a disease into another animal. (
  • 0000015736 00000 n Active immunization is the induction of immunity after exposure to an antigen. (
  • Active immu-nization utilizes an immunogen to generate a host response designed to eliminate the malignant cells, whereas in passive immunization preformed antibodies or cells are administered Only active immunity is long-lasting. (
  • stream 0000010580 00000 n 0000017176 00000 n The two main types of immunity are active and passive immunity. (
  • ll��▖��5VP�����QP�H3 immunity, active and passive. (
  • Like active immunization, vaccination involves administration of antigenic material to produce immunity to a disease, which will prevent or ameliorate the effects of infection by a pathogen. (
  • Passive immunity is immediately effective, but doesn't last for long. (
  • Passive immunization, a well-established tool to determine the correlates of protective immunity, thus identified protective epitopes. (
  • Individuals who are exposed to the virus, either through infection or by immunization with polio vaccine, develop immunity . (
  • Immunisation is a technique that is used to increase immunity to specific diseases. (
  • Immunisation is a technique that is used to increase immunity to specific diseases in humans by exposing the individual to an anti-gen in order to raise ant-bodies to that anti-gen. (
  • The 2 types of immunity-active and passive immunity-are both different. (
  • Active immunity is different to passive immunity as active immunity is when the body makes its own anti-bodies while passive immunity is obtained by ready-made anti-bodies which are injected into the body through a serum. (
  • People are born with passive immunity but this immunity is short-lived as the amount of anti-bodies transferred is limited and it doesn't involve any anti-body production by the child itself. (
  • 5] Immunization Vaccination Passive immunity Miller, Elizabeth (2015). (
  • Can Passive Immunization be the Next HIV Vaccine Alternative? (
  • They had examined "passive immunization" as an alternative to an HIV vaccine, which experts fear may still be years off. (
  • While active immunization with traditional vaccines is effective at stimulating the immune system to generate protective antibodies, such responses are not immediate and may require multiple doses of the vaccine. (
  • Active immunization is what an effective vaccine does. (
  • Instead of the lifelong protection from a really good vaccine, passive immunization is a temporary bulwark against infection. (
  • A potential interim solution reported in the International Journal of Risk & Safety in Medicine may be a passive vaccine, or passive immummization (PI), which can provide instant, short-term fortification against infectious agents. (
  • In the United States , recommendations for vaccine use are made by the Public Health Service Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, in conjunction with the American Academy of Pediatrics, American Academy of Family Practice, American College of Physicians (representing adult medicine specialists), and other professional organizations. (
  • Active immunization with living or inactivated vaccine induces development of pathogen-specific memory cells that allow a rapid and specific immune response when re-exposed to the pathogen. (
  • The continued public health impact of JE in the region has led to efforts in Thailand and more recently in Vietnam to implement programs of childhood immunization and vaccine production. (
  • doi:10.1016/j.phrp.2011.11.022 Strategies for Control of Pandemic Influenza: Active and Passive Immunization Huan H. Nguyen Head of the Viral Immunology Section, International Vaccine Institute, Seoul, Korea. (
  • Novel vaccine strategies for early response include the use of attenuated vaccines/vectors administered via novel mucosal immunization routes, therapeutic anti-virals and passive immunization with virus-specific antibodies (Abs). (
  • We assessed immunization records for both valid documentation of receipt of vaccine and comparability with the recommended US schedule. (
  • Among the 178 children with documented overseas immunizations, 167 (94%) had valid records and some vaccine doses that were acceptable and UTD under the US schedule. (
  • 4 This document stated that "the acceptability of vaccinations received outside the United States depends primarily on whether receipt of the vaccine was adequately documented and whether the immunization schedule was comparable with that recommended in the United States. (
  • More in particular, the invention relates to means and methods to identify, select and isolate a vaccine component for passive and/or active immunisation against a microorganism that can be killed by opsonophagocytic cells. (
  • The invention relates to a method to identify an opsonophagocytosis inducing antigen as a vaccine component for immunisation against a microorganism. (
  • Hi, After many user suggestions, MedHelp is pleased to announce the opening of our Immunization & Vaccine Medical Community. (
  • Other molecules can be used for immunization as well, for example in experimental vaccines against nicotine (NicVAX) or the hormone ghrelin in experiments to create an obesity vaccine. (
  • Until the 1880s vaccine/vaccination referred only to smallpox, but Louis Pasteur developed immunization methods for chicken cholera and anthrax in animals and for human rabies, and suggested that the terms vaccine/vaccination should be extended to cover the new procedures. (
  • The ability to grow hepatitis A virus (HAV) in cell culture has resulted in the development of vaccines that prevent HAV infection following preexposure immunization (2-4). (
  • passive administration of the monoclonal antibody VRC01, and active immunization with a clade C modified RV144-like vaccines. (
  • Substances used for active immunization include vaccines and toxoids. (
  • PDF-1.3 %���� Therapeutic cancer vaccines are also divided into active and passive types - the latter being sub-divided into specific and non-specific vaccines. (
  • Immunization has proved to be one of the most cost-effective public health measures available (Breslow 2002), with vaccines providing the means for eradicating smallpox and bringing into sight the goal of making the world free from polio , measles , and other serious diseases. (
  • Appropriate immunization of internationally adopted children provides a challenge to pediatricians who must evaluate documentation of vaccines administered overseas and fulfill the recommended US childhood immunization schedule. (
  • 2 Differences between the US immunization schedule and those recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for other countries include the vaccines administered, the recommended ages of administration, and the number of doses and dose intervals recommended. (
  • The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) first addressed the acceptability of vaccines administered outside the United States in the 1994 General Recommendations. (
  • Prevention of HIV infection by passive immunization with HIV immunoglobulin. (
  • Passive immunotherapy involves the delivery of an agent, such as a monoclonal antibody , that spurs the immune system to attack specific targets. (
  • These results support the use of encapsulated cell implants for passive immunotherapy against the misfolded proteins, which accumulate in Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders . (
  • Our data also show that targeting these oligomers with passive immunotherapy leads to some improvement in motor coordination in SCA1 mice and to a modest increase in their life span. (
  • Despite these advances, it is not clear whether a mostly nuclear protein like ATXN1 will propagate from cell-to-cell in vivo and whether passive immunotherapy targeting oligomers will modify disease course. (
  • In the present study, we report that polyQ ATXN1 oligomers act as a seed by inducing disease propagation to neighboring but not to distal cells and demonstrate that this cell-to-cell spread can be blocked using passive immunotherapy. (
  • While active immunization elicits a lasting immune response by the body, passive immunotherapy transiently equips the body with exogenously generated immunological effectors in the form of either target-specific antibodies or lymphocytes functionalized with target-specific receptors. (
  • Starting with an introduction into passive immunotherapy, this review summarizes the current status of IVT mRNA technology and its application to such immunological interventions. (
  • Passive immunization with antiserum to a nontoxic alpha-toxin mutant from Staphylococcus aureus is protective in a murine model. (
  • Passive immunization of mice with rabbit antiserum conferred protection against lethal challenge with wild-type alpha-toxin and against acute lethal challenge with a high-alpha-toxin -producing S. aureus strain. (
  • The substance taken from the immunized animal or person for passive immunization is called antiserum. (
  • Test polyclonal antiserum, raised against the toxin pneumolysin, for the passive treatment of pneumococcal keratitis. (
  • The serum from the rabbit producing the highest ELISA titer of pneumolysin antiserum was chosen for passive immunization. (
  • Passive immunization with pneumolysin antiserum significantly reduced the symptoms of S. pneumoniae keratitis. (
  • This report updates CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices' (ACIP) 1996 recommendations on the prevention of hepatitis A through immunization (MMWR 1996;45[RR-15]. (
  • The acceptability of vaccinations received outside the United States was addressed by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices in 1994, but few population-based studies assessing these vaccinations have been reported. (
  • Current recommendations of the US Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) indicate that intramuscular (IM) vaccinations given to children 3 years of age and older should be administered in the deltoid, and for toddlers aged 12 months to 2 years the anterolateral thigh muscle is preferred, but the deltoid can be used if the muscle mass is adequate. (
  • Recommendations for use of passive and active immunization after exposure to an animal suspected of having rabies have been detailed by the U.S. Public Health Service Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). (
  • Passive immunization of chickens against Eimeria maxima infection with a monoclonal antibody developed against a gametocyte antigen. (
  • When a specially prepared antigen is injected into a person, it is called active immunization. (
  • Typically, this involves exposure to an agent ( antigen or immunogen) that is designed to fortify the person's immune system against that agent or similar infectious agents (active immunization). (
  • Active immunization can occur naturally when a microbe or other antigen is received by a person who has not yet come into contact with the microbe and has no pre-made antibodies for defense. (
  • Pruett, T 1997, ' Primary transplant treatment of hepatitis B: Hepatitis B immunoglobulin (Passive immunization) ', Liver Transplantation and Surgery , vol. 3, no. (
  • Recombinant IgA production for mucosal passive immunization, advancing beyond the hurdles. (
  • Recombinant IgA production for mucosal passive immunization, a. (
  • Mucosal passive immunization , i.e. the application of pathogen-specific SIgAs at the mucosae, can be an effective alternative to achieve mucosal protection. (
  • Interest in anti-HIV-1 nAbs was renewed when passive immunization with human neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (nmAbs) completely protected macaques after intravenous and mucosal challenges with simian-human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIVs) encoding HIV-1 env. (
  • Immunization can be achieved in an active or passive manner: vaccination is an active form of immunization. (
  • The term immunization often is used interchangeably with vaccination and inoculation, all of which use a viable infecting agent. (
  • While vaccination is used today in the same sense as immunization, in a strict sense the term refers to its original meaning, which is protection conferred against smallpox by material taken from cow infected with Cowpox virus, which is related to the vaccinia virus (Blakemore and Jennett 2001). (
  • Influenza and Hepatitis A vaccination is also recommended for certain at-risk groups as part of the National Immunisation Program Schedule. (
  • Some of the main concerns over the years regarding immunization and vaccination as a whole throughout the West has been its rumored association with the onset of autism. (
  • 3] Throughout the twentieth century and thus far throughout the beginning of the 21st century, the effective active immunization associated with the Polio vaccination has contributed to the disease almost being eradicated worldwide. (
  • Immunization is done through various techniques, most commonly vaccination. (
  • Scientists led by Mathias Jucker at the University of Basel, Switzerland, report that passive immunization of APP23-transgenic mice caused an increase in small hemorrhages in those brain areas that had abundant amyloid deposits in their blood vessels. (
  • Results: Anti-Aβ immunization decreased both the load of fibrillar plaques and the load of Aβ immunopositive plaques in mice of all APOE backgrounds. (
  • The immunization stimulated phagocytic activation of microglia, which magnitude adjusted for the post-treatment plaque load was the greatest in APP/ε4 mice implying association between the ε4 allele and impaired Aβ phagocytosis. (
  • Anti-Aβ immunization significantly reduced VAβ burden but increased the number of hemosiderin deposits across all APOE genotypes with the strongest and the weakest effect in APP/ε2 and APP/ε3 mice, respectively. (
  • Active immunization with M1 Sse significantly protects mice against lethal subcutaneous infection with virulent M1 and M3 strains and inhibits GAS invasion of mouse skin tissue. (
  • Immunization with CspZ alone does not protect mice from infection, which we speculate is because FH-binding cloaks potentially protective epitopes. (
  • Immunizing mice with modified VLP-CspZ cleared spirochete infection, as did passive transfer of elicited antibodies. (
  • We also examined 17 month old 3 × tg AD female mice with intermediate pathology to determine the effect of amyloid burden on responses to passive immunization. (
  • These data suggest that passive immunization with PFA1 in 3 × tg AD mice with intermediate disease burden, regardless of sex, is effective in mediating potentially therapeutic effects such as lowering brain Aβ. (
  • In contrast, passive immunization of mice with a more advanced amyloid burden may result in potentially adverse effects (encephalitis and vasogenic edema) mediated by certain proinflammatory cytokines. (
  • In addition, these children's countries of origin often have immunization policies and schedules that differ from the recommended childhood immunization schedule in the United States. (
  • Until recently, the primary methods used for preventing hepatitis A have been hygienic measures and passive immunization with immune globulin (IG) to provide short-term preexposure or postexposure protection (1). (
  • Passive immunization protects cynomolgus macaques against Puumala hantavirus challenge. (
  • Immunization not only protects children against deadly diseases but also helps in developing children's immune systems. (
  • Diphtheria has largely been eliminated in the United States since immunization became widespread. (
  • With the ban on sub-therapeutic antibiotic usage in Europe and the increasingly strictness of the European legislation on food hygiene, passive immunization by oral administration of pathogen-specific hen egg yolk antibody (IgY) may be a useful and attractive alternative. (
  • Here, we studied the effect of passive immunization on the course of infection in cynomolgus macaques challenged with wild-type Puumala hantavirus (PUUV-wt). (
  • Future experiments will reveal whether other conserved HIV-1 Env epitopes exist, antibodies against which will be broadly neutralizing in vitro, protective as passive immunization in SHIV-challenged macaques, but lacking autoreactivity. (
  • Passive immunization" involves the transfer of antibodies generated by one person directly to another to provide protection, which is shorter-lived. (
  • Passive transfer of antibodies of maternal origin from blood to cerebrospinal fluid in infants. (
  • These observations suggest that an important source of immunoglobulins in c.s.f. is passive transfer of antibodies from serum which should be considered in interpreting serological studies with c.s.f. (
  • These results strongly support a strategy of passive immunization against soluble Abeta oligomers in early Alzheimer's disease. (
  • Immunization (or immunisation in British English) is the process of conferring increased resistance to an infectious disease by a means other than experiencing the natural infection. (
  • Passive immunization involves the direct injection of antibodies extracted from survivors of a particular infection. (
  • Active immunization involves administration of an antigenic substance that then induces development of protective antibodies by the person immunized. (
  • Passive protective effect of chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins against experimental enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection in neonatal piglets. (
  • They are focused on the potential of virus-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to treat COVID-19 by passive immunization. (
  • These in vivo observations appear to be analogous to the previous characterization of C-independent bactericidal mAbs isolated following immunization with Borrelia burgdorferi or Borrelia hermsii ( 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 ). (
  • Section 1 According to, immunisation is the administration of antigenic components of an infectious agent to stimulate a protective immune response. (
  • These results define active and passive immunization strategies to prevent and treat highly lethal, XDR A. baumannii infections. (
  • Explain how the event of immunization works and explain the difference between active and passive immunization. (
  • describes the exacerbation of cerebral hemorrhages seen in an aged APP-transgenic model following passive administration of anti-Aβ antibodies directed to amino acids 3-6. (
  • Passive immunization with antibodies directed to Aβ decreases brain Aβ/amyloid burden and preserves memory in transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). (
  • The program will fund the development and clinical assessment of Ichor's TriGrid™ electroporation system as a DNA-based antibody delivery platform to produce protective antibodies for passive immunoprophylaxis. (
  • Immunization also can include providing the subject with protective antibodies developed by someone else or another organism (passive immunization). (
  • However, several of the protective nmAbs were found to exhibit autoreactivity, raising the possibility that B-cell responses against the cognate epitopes may be difficult to induce by active immunization. (
  • Here, we describe a panel of six highly protective sheep monoclonal antibodies (SMAbs) derived from sheep immunized with BoNT/A1 toxoid (SMAbs 2G11, 4F7) or BoNT/A1 heavy chain C-terminus (HcC) (SMAbs 1G4, 5E2, 5F7, 16F9) with or without subsequent challenge immunization with BoNT/A1 toxin. (
  • The anti-pneumolysin serum used for passive immunization produced an ELISA titer of approximately 50,000, and the control serum had a background titer of 200. (
  • Our goal was to determine the acceptability of overseas vaccinations for meeting US immunization requirements. (
  • A common example of this form of active immunization is vaccinations, which have led to several controversies in the past and even present regarding their safety. (
  • Success against amyloid β using antibodies and passive immunization would mean that success against other forms of extracellular aggregate that contribute to the aging process is also plausible via this methodology. (
  • Amyloid beta protein dimer-containing human CSF disrupts synaptic plasticity: prevention by systemic passive immunization. (
  • Passive immunization studies show similar efficacy in reducing brain Aβ/amyloid and preserving memory in transgenic mouse models of AD [ 13 , 14 ], but the passive immunization approach is also limited by excessive neuroinflammation and vasogenic edema in a subset of treated individuals with AD. (
  • Rabies is the ideal disease for passive immunization because the exact moment, the exact source, and the exact location of exposure usually are known. (
  • The level of the mother's and father's education significantly influenced the exposure of children to passive smoking" studies have shown. (
  • This study covers the latent demand outlook for antitoxins, antivenoms, immune globulins, and therapeutic immune serums for therapeutic use and passive immunization excluding diagnostics across the states and cities of the United States. (
  • Using econometric models which project fundamental economic dynamics within each state and city, latent demand estimates are created for antitoxins, antivenoms, immune globulins, and therapeutic immune serums for therapeutic use and passive immunization excluding diagnostics. (
  • This study gives, however, my estimates for the latent demand, or potential industry earnings (P.I.E.), for antitoxins, antivenoms, immune globulins, and therapeutic immune serums for therapeutic use and passive immunization excluding diagnostics in the United States. (
  • In order to estimate the latent demand for antitoxins, antivenoms, immune globulins, and therapeutic immune serums for therapeutic use and passive immunization excluding diagnostics across the states and cities of the United States, I used a multi-stage approach. (
  • The use of antibodies to treat specific diseases led to attempts to develop immunizations against the diseases. (
  • Passive immunization in infectious diseases Passive immunization as general process. (
  • Medical researchers have developed diverse immunization processes for a vast number of diseases, beginning on a large scale about a century ago. (
  • This chapter deals with these fascinating and sometimes contrasting aspects of prion biology, with an emphasis on the immunization protocols developed for prophylaxis and treatment of prion diseases. (
  • Immunisation is a way of protecting against serious diseases such as tuberculosis and polio. (
  • Also the National Immunisation Program has ensured that diseases like tetanus and polio have disappeared in the UK there's still the chance that it could return. (
  • Should there really be a distinction between passive and active immunization when responding to diseases and infections therapeutically? (
  • Through the use of immunizations, some infections and diseases have almost completely been eradicated throughout the United States and the World. (
  • JE outbreaks gradually diminished in size and frequency in Japan and more recently in Korea, paralleling various secular changes associated with development, including widespread immunization. (
  • Summary of the findings: The immunization of extremely premature very low birth weight infants is a huge challenge for pediatricians because there is insufficient knowledge about the efficacy of immune responses and undesirable reactions. (
  • Targeting of alpha-hemolysin by active or passive immunization decreases severity of USA300 skin infection in a mouse model. (
  • Passive immunization against misfolded toxic proteins is a promising approach to treat neurodegenerative disorders. (
  • The invention also discloses the use of antibodies against said proteins for passive immunization and diagnosis. (
  • In many reports of the clinical trials of passive immunization at various hospitals across the province, the National Institute of Cardiovascular Disease (NIVCD) has become one of six institutes chosen to carry out trials by the Sindh government. (
  • The passive immunization trials have also been registered with the World Health Organisation and the United States National Institute of Health. (
  • The direct delivery of bNAbs into the body-passive immunization-is being explored in several trials. (
  • The protection offered by passive immunization is short-lived, usually lasting only a few weeks or months. (
  • This response lasts for as long as the agents are consistently delivered as a therapy, and most are short-lived molecules, meaning that passive immunotherapies are easily halted. (
  • Lung-targeting lentiviral vector for passive immunisation against influenza. (
  • These data suggest that rSIV.F/HN could be used as a vector for passive immunisation against influenza and other respiratory pathogens. (