Meningococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.Meningitis, Meningococcal: A fulminant infection of the meninges and subarachnoid fluid by the bacterium NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS, producing diffuse inflammation and peri-meningeal venous thromboses. Clinical manifestations include FEVER, nuchal rigidity, SEIZURES, severe HEADACHE, petechial rash, stupor, focal neurologic deficits, HYDROCEPHALUS, and COMA. The organism is usually transmitted via nasopharyngeal secretions and is a leading cause of meningitis in children and young adults. Organisms from Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, B, C, Y, and W-135 have been reported to cause meningitis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp689-701; Curr Opin Pediatr 1998 Feb;10(1):13-8)Meningitis: Inflammation of the coverings of the brain and/or spinal cord, which consist of the PIA MATER; ARACHNOID; and DURA MATER. Infections (viral, bacterial, and fungal) are the most common causes of this condition, but subarachnoid hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGES, SUBARACHNOID), chemical irritation (chemical MENINGITIS), granulomatous conditions, neoplastic conditions (CARCINOMATOUS MENINGITIS), and other inflammatory conditions may produce this syndrome. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch24, p6)Meningococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.Meningitis, Bacterial: Bacterial infections of the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space, frequently involving the cerebral cortex, cranial nerves, cerebral blood vessels, spinal cord, and nerve roots.Neisseria meningitidis: A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA. It is a commensal and pathogen only of humans, and can be carried asymptomatically in the NASOPHARYNX. When found in cerebrospinal fluid it is the causative agent of cerebrospinal meningitis (MENINGITIS, MENINGOCOCCAL). It is also found in venereal discharges and blood. There are at least 13 serogroups based on antigenic differences in the capsular polysaccharides; the ones causing most meningitis infections being A, B, C, Y, and W-135. Each serogroup can be further classified by serotype, serosubtype, and immunotype.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Meningitis, Pneumococcal: An acute purulent infection of the meninges and subarachnoid space caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, most prevalent in children and adults over the age of 60. This illness may be associated with OTITIS MEDIA; MASTOIDITIS; SINUSITIS; RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS; sickle cell disease (ANEMIA, SICKLE CELL); skull fractures; and other disorders. Clinical manifestations include FEVER; HEADACHE; neck stiffness; and somnolence followed by SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits (notably DEAFNESS); and COMA. (From Miller et al., Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p111)Meningitis, Aseptic: A syndrome characterized by headache, neck stiffness, low grade fever, and CSF lymphocytic pleocytosis in the absence of an acute bacterial pathogen. Viral meningitis is the most frequent cause although MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; RICKETTSIA INFECTIONS; diagnostic or therapeutic procedures; NEOPLASTIC PROCESSES; septic perimeningeal foci; and other conditions may result in this syndrome. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p745)Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Meningitis, Viral: Viral infections of the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space. TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RUBELLA; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORBIVIRUS infections; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RHABDOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; JC VIRUS infections; and RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS may cause this form of meningitis. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, neck pain, vomiting, PHOTOPHOBIA, and signs of meningeal irritation. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp1-3)Meningitis, Fungal: Meningitis caused by fungal agents which may occur as OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS or arise in immunocompetent hosts.Meningitis, Haemophilus: Infections of the nervous system caused by bacteria of the genus HAEMOPHILUS, and marked by prominent inflammation of the MENINGES. HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE TYPE B is the most common causative organism. The condition primarily affects children under 6 years of age but may occur in adults.Neisseria meningitidis, Serogroup B: Strains of Neisseria meningitidis which are the most common ones causing infections or disease in infants. Serogroup B strains are isolated most frequently in sporadic cases, and are less common in outbreaks and epidemics.Neisseria meningitidis, Serogroup C: Strains of Neisseria meningitidis responsible for most sporadic cases in teenagers and almost all outbreaks of disease in this age group. These strains are less common in infants.Meningitis, Cryptococcal: Meningeal inflammation produced by CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS, an encapsulated yeast that tends to infect individuals with ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunocompromised states. The organism enters the body through the respiratory tract, but symptomatic infections are usually limited to the lungs and nervous system. The organism may also produce parenchymal brain lesions (torulomas). Clinically, the course is subacute and may feature HEADACHE; NAUSEA; PHOTOPHOBIA; focal neurologic deficits; SEIZURES; cranial neuropathies; and HYDROCEPHALUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp721-2)Immunization Schedule: Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.Neisseria meningitidis, Serogroup A: Strains of Neisseria meningitidis responsible for most outbreaks of meningococcal disease in Western Europe and the United States in the first half of the 20th century. They continue to be a major cause of disease in Asia and Africa, and especially localized epidemics in Sub-Sahara Africa.Immunization Programs: Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.Cerebrospinal Fluid: A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Vaccines, Conjugate: Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.Tuberculosis, Meningeal: A form of bacterial meningitis caused by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS or rarely MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. The organism seeds the meninges and forms microtuberculomas which subsequently rupture. The clinical course tends to be subacute, with progressions occurring over a period of several days or longer. Headache and meningeal irritation may be followed by SEIZURES, cranial neuropathies, focal neurologic deficits, somnolence, and eventually COMA. The illness may occur in immunocompetent individuals or as an OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTION in the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunodeficiency syndromes. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp717-9)Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Immunization, Secondary: Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.Neisseria meningitidis, Serogroup W-135: Strains of Neisseria meningitidis found mostly in Africa.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Blood Bactericidal Activity: The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Meningitis, Listeria: Inflammation of the meninges caused by LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES infection, usually occurring in individuals under the age of 3 years or over the age of 50 years. It may occur at any age in individuals with IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES. Clinical manifestations include FEVER, altered mentation, HEADACHE, meningeal signs, focal neurologic signs, and SEIZURES. (From Medicine 1998 Sep;77(5):313-36)Neisseria lactamica: A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA commonly found in the NASOPHARYNX of infants and children, but rarely pathogenic. It is the only species to produce acid from LACTOSE.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Neisseria meningitidis, Serogroup Y: Strains of Neisseria meningitidis which, in the United States, causes disease in mostly adults and the elderly. Serogroup Y strains are associated with PNEUMONIA.Carrier State: The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Bacterial Capsules: An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.Bacteria, AnaerobicMeningitis, Escherichia coli: A form of gram-negative meningitis that tends to occur in neonates, in association with anatomical abnormalities (which feature communication between the meninges and cutaneous structures) or as OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS in association with IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES. In premature neonates the clinical presentation may be limited to ANOREXIA; VOMITING; lethargy; or respiratory distress. Full-term infants may have as additional features FEVER; SEIZURES; and bulging of the anterior fontanelle. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp398-400)Mice, Inbred BALB CNiger: A republic in western Africa, north of NIGERIA and west of CHAD. Its capital is Niamey.Sepsis: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Porins: Porins are protein molecules that were originally found in the outer membrane of GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA and that form multi-meric channels for the passive DIFFUSION of WATER; IONS; or other small molecules. Porins are present in bacterial CELL WALLS, as well as in plant, fungal, mammalian and other vertebrate CELL MEMBRANES and MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANES.Bacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.Tetanus ToxoidGram-Negative Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Immunity, Herd: The non-susceptibility to infection of a large group of individuals in a population. A variety of factors can be responsible for herd immunity and this gives rise to the different definitions used in the literature. Most commonly, herd immunity refers to the case when, if most of the population is immune, infection of a single individual will not cause an epidemic. Also, in such immunized populations, susceptible individuals are not likely to become infected. Herd immunity can also refer to the case when unprotected individuals fail to contract a disease because the infecting organism has been banished from the population.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Spinal Puncture: Tapping fluid from the subarachnoid space in the lumbar region, usually between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Mice, Inbred C57BLEnzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Bacteria, AerobicVaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Streptococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Listeriosis: Infections with bacteria of the genus LISTERIA.Diphtheria Toxoid: The formaldehyde-inactivated toxin of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It is generally used in mixtures with TETANUS TOXOID and PERTUSSIS VACCINE; (DTP); or with tetanus toxoid alone (DT for pediatric use and Td, which contains 5- to 10-fold less diphtheria toxoid, for other use). Diphtheria toxoid is used for the prevention of diphtheria; DIPHTHERIA ANTITOXIN is for treatment.Mass Vaccination: Administration of a vaccine to large populations in order to elicit IMMUNITY.Serum Bactericidal Antibody Assay: Procedures for identification and measurement of IMMUNOGLOBULINS in the blood that initiate lysis of bacteria.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Vaccines, Combined: Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Echovirus Infections: Infectious disease processes, including meningitis, diarrhea, and respiratory disorders, caused by echoviruses.Listeria monocytogenes: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.Haemophilus influenzae: A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Haemophilus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Haemophilus influenzae type b: A type of H. influenzae isolated most frequently from biotype I. Prior to vaccine availability, it was a leading cause of childhood meningitis.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Neisseria: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, coccoid bacteria whose organisms are part of the normal flora of the oropharynx, nasopharynx, and genitourinary tract. Some species are primary pathogens for humans.Ceftriaxone: A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic with a very long half-life and high penetrability to meninges, eyes and inner ears.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Transferrin-Binding Proteins: A class of carrier proteins that bind to TRANSFERRIN. Many strains of pathogenic bacteria utilize transferrin-binding proteins to acquire their supply of iron from serum.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.Immunity, Mucosal: Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Pneumococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Vaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.Fever: An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.Burkina Faso: A republic in western Africa, south and east of MALI and west of NIGER. Its capital is Ouagadougou. It was formerly called Upper Volta until 1984.Meninges: The three membranes that cover the BRAIN and the SPINAL CORD. They are the dura mater, the arachnoid, and the pia mater.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Haemophilus Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus HAEMOPHILUS.Serum Bactericidal Test: Method of measuring the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy. It is used to monitor the therapy in BACTERIAL ENDOCARDITIS; OSTEOMYELITIS and other serious bacterial infections. As commonly performed, the test is a variation of the broth dilution test. This test needs to be distinguished from testing of the naturally occurring BLOOD BACTERICIDAL ACTIVITY.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Nasopharynx: The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Shock, Septic: Sepsis associated with HYPOTENSION or hypoperfusion despite adequate fluid resuscitation. Perfusion abnormalities may include, but are not limited to LACTIC ACIDOSIS; OLIGURIA; or acute alteration in mental status.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Purpura: Purplish or brownish red discoloration, easily visible through the epidermis, caused by hemorrhage into the tissues. When the size of the discolorization is >2-3 cm it is generally called Ecchymoses (ECCHYMOSIS).Angiostrongylus cantonensis: A species of parasitic nematodes distributed throughout the Pacific islands that infests the lungs of domestic rats. Human infection, caused by consumption of raw slugs and land snails, results in eosinophilic meningitis.Pneumococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infections with STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Pharynx: A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Streptococcus agalactiae: A bacterium which causes mastitis in cattle and occasionally in man.Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Blood: The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.Calcitonin: A peptide hormone that lowers calcium concentration in the blood. In humans, it is released by thyroid cells and acts to decrease the formation and absorptive activity of osteoclasts. Its role in regulating plasma calcium is much greater in children and in certain diseases than in normal adults.Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine: A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Immunity: Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria: A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Penicillins: A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)Pseudomonas Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.Tetanus: A disease caused by tetanospasmin, a powerful protein toxin produced by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI. Tetanus usually occurs after an acute injury, such as a puncture wound or laceration. Generalized tetanus, the most common form, is characterized by tetanic muscular contractions and hyperreflexia. Localized tetanus presents itself as a mild condition with manifestations restricted to muscles near the wound. It may progress to the generalized form.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis Vaccines: Combined vaccines consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and an acellular form of PERTUSSIS VACCINE. At least five different purified antigens of B. pertussis have been used in various combinations in these vaccines.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Bacterial Load: Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Influenza Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Opsonin Proteins: Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteins: Proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid, normally albumin and globulin present in the ratio of 8 to 1. Increases in protein levels are of diagnostic value in neurological diseases. (Brain and Bannister's Clinical Neurology, 7th ed, p221)Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Fimbriae, Bacterial: Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).Adhesins, Bacterial: Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.Pneumonia, Bacterial: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Sulfadiazine: One of the short-acting SULFONAMIDES used in combination with PYRIMETHAMINE to treat toxoplasmosis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and in newborns with congenital infections.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Measles Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Gram-Negative Anaerobic Bacteria: A large group of anaerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the Gram-staining method.Neisseria gonorrhoeae: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria primarily found in purulent venereal discharges. It is the causative agent of GONORRHEA.Penicillin G: A penicillin derivative commonly used in the form of its sodium or potassium salts in the treatment of a variety of infections. It is effective against most gram-positive bacteria and against gram-negative cocci. It has also been used as an experimental convulsant because of its actions on GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID mediated synaptic transmission.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Antibiotic Prophylaxis: Use of antibiotics before, during, or after a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure to prevent infectious complications.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Toll-Like Receptor 4: A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.Lipid A: Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides: Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.Disease Notification: Notification or reporting by a physician or other health care provider of the occurrence of specified contagious diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV infections to designated public health agencies. The United States system of reporting notifiable diseases evolved from the Quarantine Act of 1878, which authorized the US Public Health Service to collect morbidity data on cholera, smallpox, and yellow fever; each state in the US has its own list of notifiable diseases and depends largely on reporting by the individual health care provider. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine: A combined vaccine used to prevent MEASLES; MUMPS; and RUBELLA.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Ampicillin: Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.Toll-Like Receptor 2: A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with other TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS. It interacts with multiple ligands including PEPTIDOGLYCAN, bacterial LIPOPROTEINS, lipoarabinomannan, and a variety of PORINS.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Mumps Vaccine: Vaccines used to prevent infection by MUMPS VIRUS. Best known is the live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had mumps or been immunized with live mumps vaccine. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine.
Meningococcal meningitis is a bacterial infection caused by the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis, also known as meningococcus. ... Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC) recommendations regarding immunization of health-care workers ... Prevention of systemic infections, especially meningitis, caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b. Impact on public health and ... Peaks of meningococcal disease (usually caused by serogroup A or C) occur regularly during the dry season (i.e., December ...
Epidemics of meningococcal A meningitis, which is a bacterial infection of the thin lining surrounding the brain and spinal ... Immunization with MenAfriVac has led to the control and near elimination of deadly meningitis A disease in the African " ... During the 2012 meningitis season no cases of the meningococcus sub-type serogroup A caused disease in places where mass ... for use in sub-Saharan Africa for children and adults between 9 months and 29 years of age against meningococcal bacterium ...
Meningitis[edit]. Meningococcal meningitis is a form of bacterial meningitis. Meningitis is a disease caused by inflammation ... Meningococcal disease describes infections caused by the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis (also termed meningococcus). It has a ... Primary immunization against meningococcal disease with meningitis A, C, Y and W-135 vaccines is recommended for all young ... Meningococcal disease causes life-threatening meningitis and sepsis conditions. In the case of meningitis, bacteria attack the ...
... it may indicate a particular cause of meningitis; for instance, meningitis caused by meningococcal bacteria may be accompanied ... This type of meningitis is usually caused by viruses but it may be due to bacterial infection that has already been partially ... Some forms of meningitis are preventable by immunization with the meningococcal, mumps, pneumococcal, and Hib vaccines.[2] ... Meningitis is typically caused by an infection with microorganisms. Most infections are due to viruses,[16] with bacteria, ...
Symptoms of meningococcal meningitis are easily confused with those caused by other bacteria, such as Haemophilus influenzae ... bacterial pathogens by facilitating repair of DNA damages produced by the oxidative defenses of the host during infection. With ... "Meningitis A Nearly Eliminated in Africa through Vaccination, Reaching more than 235 Million People". Immunization Africa. 22 ... As an exclusively human pathogen it is the main cause of bacterial meningitis in children and young adults, causing ...
This bacteria can cause many types of illnesses including ear infections and meningitis. This vaccine protects from more than ... Meningococcal Septicemis (aka. Meningococcemia) is a bloodstream infection caused by the Neisseria meningitidis bacteria. This ... bacterial infections of the skin and soft tissues in children including Group A streptococcal infections blood stream ... Haemphilus Influenza Type B is caused by the bacteria Haemophilus influenzae. This can cause severe infection which occurs ...
Hib was a leading cause of childhood meningitis, pneumonia, and epiglottitis in the United States, causing an estimated 20,000 ... infection. In countries that include it as a routine vaccine, rates of severe Hib infections have decreased more than 90%. It ... Recommendations of the immunization practices advisory committee (ACIP)". MMWR Recomm Rep. 40 (RR-1): 1-7. Jan 11, 1991. PMID ... Haemophilus influenzae type b is a bacterium with a polysaccharide capsule; the main component of this capsule is polyribosyl ...
As a more modest example, infections caused by Haemophilus influenzae, a major cause of bacterial meningitis and other serious ... Immunization Safety Review Committee (2004). Immunization Safety Review: Vaccines and Autism. The National Academies Press. ... Unknowingly, American soldiers acted as agents of disease transmission, fostering bacteria in their haphazardly made camps. ... Because disease follows soldiers, they had to receive vaccines preventing cholera, influenza, measles, meningococcal, plague, ...
Efficacy of bacterial polysaccharide immune globulin (BPIG) for prevention of bacteremic pneumococcal infections in Apache ... "Placental and breast transfer of antibodies after maternal immunization with polysaccharide meningococcal vaccine: a randomized ... "Endotoxin neutralization with rabbit antisera to Escherichia coli J5 and other gram-negative bacteria". Infection and Immunity ... Hausdorff, WP; Bryant, J; Paradiso, PR; Siber, GR (Jan 2000). "Which pneumococcal serogroups cause the most invasive disease: ...
Meningococcal meningitis. Meningococcal vaccine. Serotype C: Neisvac C and Meningitec. Serotypes A/C/W-135/Y: Mencevax, ... Bacterial diseases[edit]. Bacterium. Diseases or conditions. Vaccine(s). Brands Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax. Anthrax vaccines. ... Artificial induction of immunity / Immunization: Vaccines, Vaccination, Infection, Inoculation (J07). Development. *Adjuvants ... A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism, and is often made from weakened or killed ...
In the African meningitis belt efforts to immunize all people between the ages of one and thirty with the meningococcal A ... Meningococcal vaccine refers to any of the vaccines used to prevent infection by Neisseria meningitidis. Different versions are ... issued an interim position statement recommending against adoption of Bexsero as part of a routine meningococcal B immunisation ... FDA approves new combination vaccine that protects children against two bacterial diseases Archived 2012-06-16 at the Wayback ...
... , also known simply as typhoid, is a bacterial infection due to Salmonella typhi that causes symptoms.[3] Symptoms ... Bacteria[edit]. The cause is the bacterium Salmonella Typhi, also known as Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi.[17] ... Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, United States, 2015". Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 64 (11): 305-308. PMID 25811680.. ... Meningococcal disease, Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome, Meningococcal septicaemia. M−. *Neisseria gonorrhoeae/gonococcus * ...
Bacterial infection of the small intestine. Cholera. A person with severe dehydration due to cholera causing sunken eyes and ... Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.[3][2] Symptoms may range from ... FDA Product Approval - Immunization Action Coalition Archived 2017-04-15 at the Wayback Machine. ... Meningococcal disease, Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome, Meningococcal septicaemia. M−. *Neisseria gonorrhoeae/gonococcus * ...
CDC Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices Recommends HibMenCY for Infants at Increased Risk for Meningococcal Disease ... Meningococcal disease is a serious, vaccine-preventable bacterial infection caused by Neisseria meningitidis bacteria. The two ... most severe common illnesses caused by these bacteria include meningitis and bloodstream infections. Infants with certain ... The majority of infant cases are caused by a type of the bacteria that are not prevented by meningococcal vaccines. Also, the ...
Like meningococcal disease, pneumococcal disease can cause both meningitis and blood infection and it can be serious or fatal. ... Meningitis is most often caused by either a virus or one of several types of bacteria:. *Bacterial forms of meningitis can be ... The U.S. immunization schedule for children includes a series of vaccines to help protect them from pneumococcal infection. ... Major Bacterial Types of Meningitis. The three main types of bacterial meningitis in the U.S. are:. Meningococcal disease ( ...
... for meningitis and other bloodstream infections caused by the meningococcal group B bacteria will allow for the immunization of ... An improved vaccine for bacterial meningitis and bloodstream infections. Neuroscience News. June 28, 2019. ... Researchers Identify Virus and Two Types of Bacteria as Major Causes of Alzheimers. ... The new vaccine also addresses several limitations of the current meningitis vaccine. ... Read More... ...
What causes meningitis and encephalitis? Who is at risk for encephalitis and meningitis? How are these disorders transmitted? ... What are the signs and symptoms? How are meningitis and encephalitis diagnosed? How are these infections treated? Can ... Immunizations are available for certain strains of the pneumococcal bacteria.. *Meningococcal meningitis is caused by the ... Meningitis. Bacterial meningitis is a rare but potentially fatal disease. Several types of bacteria can first cause an upper ...
Meningitis Definition Meningitis is a potentially fatal inflammation of the meninges, the thin, membranous covering of the ... Bacterial meningitis -Meningitis caused by bacteria. Depending on the type of bacteria responsible for the infection, bacterial ... It is a leading cause of bacterial meningitis in young children.. *Neisseria meningitidis. Also called meningococcal meningitis ... Immunization is the best defense against bacterial meningitis. Vaccines are available that protect against Haemophilus ...
Official immunization news, vaccine recommendations, and vaccination resources from ACIP, CDC, FDA, WHO, and more. ... Meningococcal disease is a serious, vaccine-preventable bacterial infection caused by Neisseria meningitidis bacteria. The two ... most severe common illnesses caused by these bacteria include meningitis and bloodstream infections. Infants with certain ... CDC Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices Recommends HibMenCY for Infants at Increased Risk for Meningococcal Disease. ...
Bacterial meningitis -Meningitis caused by bacteria. Depending on the type of bacteria responsible for the infection, bacterial ... Meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae and related strains (A, B C, Y, and W135) is also called meningococcal meningitis. ... immunization programs), the virus that causes chickenpox , the rabies virus, and a number of viruses that are acquired through ... Causes and symptoms The bacteria which cause bacterial meningitis live in the back of the nose and throat region and are ...
Bacteria and viruses are the most common causes of brain infections. An abscess is a localized collection of infectious ... or parasitic infection of the tissue of the brain itself or the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord (meninges). ... A brain infection is a bacterial, viral, fungal, ... Brain Infection Causes. Causes of bacterial meningitis: Three ... Severe forms of bacterial meningitis, particularly meningococcal, can cause shock with complete loss of consciousness and coma ...
Meningitis is usually caused by a viral or bacterial infection. Its flu-like symptoms make diagnosis difficult. Viral ... also called meningococcal meningitis) or Hib.. Bacterial meningitis can be treated with a number of effective antibiotics. It ... However, sometimes the bacteria that cause meningitis have spread to other people who have had close or prolonged contact with ... Meningococcal disease or meningitis is an infection of the fluid of a persons spinal cord and the fluid that surrounds the ...
It can be viral or bacterial. In childhood, the main bacteria causing meningitis are Hemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), ... Yet, the risk of meningococcal meningitis infection increases dramatically during adolescence. That is why the Advisory ... Committee on Immunization Practices recommends one dose of the MCV4 meningitis vaccine for all pre-teens (11 or 12 years old) ... Deaths and illnesses caused by meningitis, influenza (the seasonal flu), H1N1 (2009 pandemic flu) and other communicable ...
Meningitis is usually caused by a viral or bacterial infection. Knowing whether meningitis is caused by a virus or bacterium is ... also called meningococcal meningitis) or Hib. People in the same household or day care center, or anyone with direct contact ... but new vaccines being given to all children as part of their routine immunizations have reduced the occurrence of invasive ... For bacterial meningitis, it is also important to know which type of bacteria is causing the meningitis because antibiotics can ...
... it may indicate a particular cause of meningitis; for instance, meningitis caused by meningococcal bacteria may be accompanied ... pneumococci or mumps virus infections) may be prevented by immunization. ... Ultrasound and algorithms to diagnose bacterial meningitis in babies. Currently the only test to diagnose bacterial meningitis ... The inflammation may be caused by infection with viruses, bacteria, or other microorganisms, and less commonly by certain drugs ...
... including causes, symptoms, treatment and prevention strategies including vaccines. ... Why is meningococcal infection so dangerous?. This particular bacteria is quite dangerous because in addition to causing ... What are the causes of bacterial meningitis?. In children over 3 to 4 months, the main bacteria that cause meningitis are:. * ... A Streptococcus pneumoniae vaccine has been developed and recommended for all children as part of their routine immunization. ...
... is treatable, but can be serious. So its important to know the symptoms, and get medical care right away if you ... Many different types of bacteria can cause bacterial meningitis. In newborns, the most common causes are group B strep, E. coli ... Your Childs Immunizations: Meningococcal Vaccines. *Immunization Schedule. *Why Is Hand Washing So Important? ... Meningitis symptoms vary, depending on the persons age and the cause of the infection. The first symptoms can come on quickly ...
Jane Ellison has announced that all newborn babies in England and Scotland are to be offered a vaccine to combat meningitis B ... of the meningococcal group-B bacteria strains circulating in the UK.. Meningitis B is a bacterial infection that particularly ... If the infection is left untreated, Men B can cause severe brain damage and blood poisoning - and in some cases, it can kill.. ... The vaccine will be offered alongside other routine infant vaccines through the NHS childhood immunisation programme, the ...
... quick immunizations for adults and kids, no appointment or prescription needed! ... Meningitis). Meningitis is a bacterial infection in the fluid surrounding the brain and the spinal cord. Meningitis can cause ... Pneumonia is an infection caused by either bacteria or a virus. It can lead to serious infections in your lungs, blood and ... Meningococcal ( ... Tetanus infection is caused by bacteria. It produces a ...
Meningococcal. *The bacterium that causes the meningococcal disease is the most common cause of bacterial meningitis in older ... The bacterium can be found in the throats of 10 percent of healthy people at any given time without causing infection. It is ... Typhoid is a life-threatening illness caused by the bacterium Salmonella typhi. Typhoid causes high fevers, stomach pains, ... Pertussis is caused by the spread of bacteria contained in tiny droplets expelled through sneezing or coughing. The vaccine is ...
Older kids need a few new immunizations starting at age 11, including a shot to guard against the worrisome resurgence of ... This fast-moving bacteria can cause meningitis or a bloodstream infection. Its fortunately rare, causing fewer than 2,000 ... While older kids usually recover, whooping cough can cause weeks of misery and worse, they can easily spread the bacterial ... A first dose of whats called meningococcal conjugate vaccine between ages 11 and 12, with a booster dose at 16. ...
Meningococcal disease is a bacterial infection that can cause septicaemia ("blood poisoning") and meningitis (inflammation of ... Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is a type of bacteria which can cause severe diseases like pneumonia, meningitis ( ... invade the lining of the brain to cause meningitis, or cause chest infections (pneumonia). Until recently, no effective vaccine ... The term invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) refers to the most serious types of infection caused by the bacterium ...
Meningitis is an infection of the thin lining that surrounds the brain and spinal cord called the meninges. ... Viral and bacterial infections are the most common cause but bacterial meningitis is much more serious due to its rapid onset ... Several different bacteria can cause meningitis. Neisseria meningitidis is the one with the potential to cause large epidemics ... Before 2010 and the mass preventive immunization campaigns, Group A meningococcus accounted for an estimated 80-85% of all ...
Meningococcal infections are serious bacterial infections that cause bloodstream infections or meningitis. ,/p,,h3,MMR: Measles ... Immunization schedule. I. Immunization schedule. Immunization schedule. English. Prevention. Child (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 ... and meningitis. The pneumococcal vaccine protects against the thirteen types of pneumococcal bacteria that cause most of these ... Meningococcal infections are serious bacterial infections that cause bloodstream infections or meningitis. ,/p,,h3,MMR: Measles ...
... is most often caused by the bacteria Neisseria meningitides. Bacterial meningitis is an infection of the meninges, the thin ... to respiratory infections and are among some of the reasons behind the Meningitis Belts high burden of meningococcal disease. ... However, in the African Meningitis Belt, routine immunization is not practical, as the vaccine typically protects for only 3-5 ... PRO/EDR, Meningitis, bacterial - Africa (02): Nigeria, WHO meningitis regionhttp://apex.oracle.com/pls/otn/f?p=2400:1001: ...
Meningococcal Groups C and Y and Haemophilus b Tetanus Toxoid Conjugate Vaccine]. ... About Meningococcal Disease. Meningococcal disease is a rare but serious bacterial infection caused by the bacterium N. ... Haemophilus influenzae type b, which most commonly presents as meningitis. Hib was the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in ... "MenHibrix gives healthcare providers the option of combining Hib immunization with meningococcal C and Y immunization without ...
... viral meningitis from the Cleveland Clinic, including potential treatment options, prognosis, research & more. ... There are immunizations available for certain strains of the Pneumococcal bacteria.. Meningococcal meningitis is caused by the ... Meningitis. Meningitis is most often caused by a bacterial or viral infection. It also may be caused by a fungal infection, ... Bacterial meningitis is a rare but potentially fatal disease. It can be caused by several types of bacteria that first cause an ...
4. For the Prevention of Meningococcal infections:. Meningococcal infection can cause meningitis, which is a severe bacterial ... Tetanus bacteria can infect small wounds and cause a fatal infection. The risk is the same throughout the world. Most people ... Typhoid fever is a prolonged febrile illness caused by infection with Salmonella Typhi bacteria. An almost identical illness, ... JE virus can cause a severe and often fatal infection of the brain. There has been a single case report of JE in a French ...
  • Tetanus is caused by a germ that enters the body through a cut or wound. (vt.edu)
  • Tetanus (lockjaw) is caused by toxins produced by a bacteria found in soil that can contaminate cuts and wounds, especially wounds containing foreign objects (like wood splinters) or wounds following burns, animal bites, trauma or fractures. (nsw.gov.au)
  • Tetanus may cause widespread muscle stiffness, muscle spasms and difficulties in breathing. (nsw.gov.au)
  • Unfortunately, the bacteria responsible for tetanus are everywhere, so any person who is not adequately immunised can get tetanus. (nsw.gov.au)
  • It is even possible to get tetanus twice, as natural infection does not always result in immunity. (nsw.gov.au)
  • Immunization against diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (whooping cough) is important, since all of these diseases can be deadly. (aboutkidshealth.ca)
  • Tetanus infection can occur in any cut in the skin. (thebody.com)
  • Injecting drug users have a higher risk of a tetanus infection. (thebody.com)
  • The relatively poorly immunogenic sugar components from the meningococcal capsule were chemically linked to a protein vaccine (e.g. tetanus or diphtheria toxoid), a process called conjugation, making a much more effective vaccine, particularly for young children. (nibsc.org)
  • When attending Boy Scouts of America programs or activities that require an annual health and medical record or specialty physical exam to be completed, it is required to have current tetanus immunization. (scouting.org)
  • Exceptions to tetanus immunization will be accepted for medical, religious, or philosophical reasons. (scouting.org)
  • That is why the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends one dose of the MCV4 meningitis vaccine for all pre-teens (11 or 12 years old) or, if they did not have it as a pre-teen, teens up to 18 years at the earliest opportunity. (denverpost.com)