Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Protection from an infectious disease agent that is mediated by B- and T- LYMPHOCYTES following exposure to specific antigen, and characterized by IMMUNOLOGIC MEMORY. It can result from either previous infection with that agent or vaccination (IMMUNITY, ACTIVE), or transfer of antibody or lymphocytes from an immune donor (IMMUNIZATION, PASSIVE).
Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.
Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.
The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.
Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.
The non-susceptibility to infection of a large group of individuals in a population. A variety of factors can be responsible for herd immunity and this gives rise to the different definitions used in the literature. Most commonly, herd immunity refers to the case when, if most of the population is immune, infection of a single individual will not cause an epidemic. Also, in such immunized populations, susceptible individuals are not likely to become infected. Herd immunity can also refer to the case when unprotected individuals fail to contract a disease because the infecting organism has been banished from the population.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.
Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
A large family of cell surface receptors that bind conserved molecular structures (PAMPS) present in pathogens. They play important roles in host defense by mediating cellular responses to pathogens.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.
Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.
Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Infections with bacteria of the genus LISTERIA.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Experimentally induced tumor that produces MELANIN in animals to provide a model for studying human MELANOMA.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed protozoa administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious protozoan disease.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Occasions to commemorate an event or occasions designated for a specific purpose.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Protection conferred on a host by inoculation with one strain or component of a microorganism that prevents infection when later challenged with a similar strain. Most commonly the microorganism is a virus.
The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).
A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
Form of adoptive transfer where cells with antitumor activity are transferred to the tumor-bearing host in order to mediate tumor regression. The lymphoid cells commonly used are lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). This is usually considered a form of passive immunotherapy. (From DeVita, et al., Cancer, 1993, pp.305-7, 314)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Bacteriocins elaborated by strains of Escherichia coli and related species. They are proteins or protein-lipopolysaccharide complexes lethal to other strains of the same species.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.
A species of gram-negative, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It is differentiated into approximately 50 pathovars with different plant pathogenicities and host specificities.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
Methods used by pathogenic organisms to evade a host's immune system.
An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.
The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.
A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.
An intracellular signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR and INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTORS signal transduction. It forms a signaling complex with the activated cell surface receptors and members of the IRAK KINASES.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Active immunization where vaccine is administered for therapeutic or preventive purposes. This can include administration of immunopotentiating agents such as BCG vaccine and Corynebacterium parvum as well as biological response modifiers such as interferons, interleukins, and colony-stimulating factors in order to directly stimulate the immune system.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Diseases of plants.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.
A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.
An acute, highly contagious, often fatal infectious disease caused by an orthopoxvirus characterized by a biphasic febrile course and distinctive progressive skin eruptions. Vaccination has succeeded in eradicating smallpox worldwide. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with other TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS. It interacts with multiple ligands including PEPTIDOGLYCAN, bacterial LIPOPROTEINS, lipoarabinomannan, and a variety of PORINS.
Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.
The bovine variety of the tubercle bacillus. It is called also Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
A species of PLASMODIUM causing malaria in rodents.
Aluminum metal sulfate compounds used medically as astringents and for many industrial purposes. They are used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of ulcerative stomatitis, leukorrhea, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, metritis, and minor wounds.
A disease caused by tetanospasmin, a powerful protein toxin produced by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI. Tetanus usually occurs after an acute injury, such as a puncture wound or laceration. Generalized tetanus, the most common form, is characterized by tetanic muscular contractions and hyperreflexia. Localized tetanus presents itself as a mild condition with manifestations restricted to muscles near the wound. It may progress to the generalized form.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed fungi administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious fungal disease.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
A genus of protozoan parasites of the subclass COCCIDIA. Various species are parasitic in the epithelial cells of the liver and intestines of man and other animals.
Class I-restricted activation of CD8-POSITIVE LYMPHOCYTES resulting from ANTIGEN PRESENTATION of exogenous ANTIGENS (cross-presentation). This is in contrast to normal activation of these lymphocytes (direct-priming) which results from presentation of endogenous antigens.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.
A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.
Alteration of the immune system or of an immune response by agents that activate or suppress its function. This can include IMMUNIZATION or administration of immunomodulatory drugs. Immunomodulation can also encompass non-therapeutic alteration of the immune system effected by endogenous or exogenous substances.
A protozoan parasite of rodents transmitted by the mosquito Anopheles dureni.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.
DEFENSINS found mainly in epithelial cells.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.
Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms that can cause pathological conditions or diseases.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.
The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.
Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Species of CHLAMYDIA causing pneumonitis in mice and hamsters. These isolates formerly belonged to CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS.
Infections with nematodes of the order STRONGYLIDA.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) of the Old World. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.
A genus of protozoa that comprise the malaria parasites of mammals. Four species infect humans (although occasional infections with primate malarias may occur). These are PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; PLASMODIUM OVALE, and PLASMODIUM VIVAX. Species causing infection in vertebrates other than man include: PLASMODIUM BERGHEI; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; P. vinckei, and PLASMODIUM YOELII in rodents; P. brasilianum, PLASMODIUM CYNOMOLGI; and PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI in monkeys; and PLASMODIUM GALLINACEUM in chickens.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.
A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The ability of lymphoid cells to mount a humoral or cellular immune response when challenged by antigen.
The presence of parasites (especially malarial parasites) in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A pattern recognition receptor that binds unmethylated CPG CLUSTERS. It mediates cellular responses to bacterial pathogens by distinguishing between self and bacterial DNA.
The ability of tumors to evade destruction by the IMMUNE SYSTEM. Theories concerning possible mechanisms by which this takes place involve both cellular immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and humoral immunity (ANTIBODY FORMATION), and also costimulatory pathways related to CD28 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD28) and CD80 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD80).
A respiratory infection caused by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS and characterized by paroxysmal coughing ending in a prolonged crowing intake of breath.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
Subset of helper-effector T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete IL-17, IL-17F, and IL-22. These cytokines are involved in host defenses and tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.

Maternal immunization. (1/706)

Maternal immunization can enhance passive immunity of infants to pathogens that cause life-threatening illnesses. In most instances, immunization during pregnancy will provide important protection for the woman as well as for her offspring. The tetanus toxoid and influenza vaccines are examples of vaccines that provide a double benefit. Other vaccines under evaluation include those for respiratory syncytial virus, pneumococci, group B streptococci, and Haemophilus influenzae type b. Although most IgG antibody crosses the placenta in the third trimester, the process is time-dependent, dictating that immunization should be accomplished ideally at least 6 weeks prior to delivery. IgG1 antibodies are transferred preferentially. Maternal immunization has not interfered with active immunization of the infant. Inactivated vaccines administered in the third trimester of pregnancy pose no known risk to the woman or to her fetus.  (+info)

Placental antibody transfer: influence of maternal HIV infection and placental malaria. (2/706)

AIM: To determine the influence of placental malaria, maternal HIV infection, and maternal hypergammaglobulinaemia on transplacental IgG antibody transfer. METHODS: One hundred and eighty materno-neonatal pairs from a Malawian population were assessed. Cord and maternal serum samples were tested for total serum IgG antibody titres using nephelometry, and for specific IgG antibody titres to Streptococcus pneumoniae, measles, and tetanus toxoid antibodies using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: Multiple regression analyses showed that placental malaria was associated with a decrease in placental IgG antibody transfer to S pneumoniae and measles to 82% and 81%, respectively. Maternal HIV infection was associated with a reduction in IgG antibody transfer to S pneumoniae to 79%; raised maternal total serum IgG titres were correlated with S pneumoniae and measles IgG antibody transfer reduction to 86% and 87%, respectively. No effect was seen with tetanus toxoid antibody transfer. CONCLUSION: The combined influence of placental malaria, maternal HIV infection, and maternal hypergammaglobulinaemia seems to be linked to the low transplacental antibody transfer observed in the Malawian population.  (+info)

Alpha C protein as a carrier for type III capsular polysaccharide and as a protective protein in group B streptococcal vaccines. (3/706)

The alpha C protein, a protective surface protein of group B streptococci (GBS), is present in most non-type III GBS strains. Conjugate vaccines composed of the alpha C protein and type III capsular polysaccharide (CPS) might be protective against most GBS infections. In this study, the type III CPS was covalently coupled to full-length, nine-repeat alpha C protein (resulting in III-alpha9r conjugate vaccine) or to two-repeat alpha C protein (resulting in III-alpha2r conjugate vaccine) by reductive amination. Initial experiments with the III-alpha9r vaccine showed that it was poorly immunogenic in mice with respect to both vaccine antigens and was suboptimally efficacious in providing protection in mice against challenge with GBS. Therefore, modified vaccination protocols were used with the III-alpha2r vaccine. Female mice were immunized three times with 0.5, 5, or 20 microgram of the III-alpha2r vaccine with an aluminum hydroxide adjuvant and bred. Ninety-five percent of neonatal mice born to dams immunized with the III-alpha2r vaccine survived challenge with GBS expressing type III CPS, and 60% survived challenge with GBS expressing wild-type (nine-repeat) alpha C protein; 18 and 17%, respectively, of mice in the negative control groups survived (P, <0.0001). These protection levels did not differ significantly from those obtained with the type III CPS-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine and the unconjugated two-repeat alpha C protein, which protected 98 and 58% of neonates from infection with GBS expressing type III CPS or the alpha C protein, respectively. Thus, the two-repeat alpha C protein in the vaccine was immunogenic and simultaneously enhanced the immunogenicity of type III CPS. III-alpha vaccines may be alternatives to GBS polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid vaccines, eliciting additional antibodies protective against GBS infection.  (+info)

IL-12, IFN-gamma, and T cell proliferation to measles in immunized infants. (4/706)

Measles infection in infants is associated with severe complications, and secondary infections are attributed to generalized immunosuppression. Measles binding to its monocyte receptor down-regulates IL-12 which is expected to diminish Th1-like cytokine responses, including IFN-gamma. Whether young infants can be immunized effectively against measles is an important public health issue. We evaluated Ag-specific IL-12, IFN-gamma, and T cell responses of infants at 6 (n = 60), 9 (n = 46), or 12 mo (n = 56) of age and 29 vaccinated adults. IL-12 and IFN-gamma release by PBMC stimulated with measles Ag increased significantly after measles immunization in infants. IL-12 and IFN-gamma concentrations were equivalent in younger and older infants, but IL-12 concentrations were significantly lower in infants than in adults (p = 0.04). IL-12 production by monocytes was down-regulated by measles; the addition of recombinant human IL-12 enhanced IFN-gamma production by PBMC stimulated with measles Ag, but infant T cells released significantly less IFN-gamma than adult T cells under this condition. Of particular interest, the presence of passive Abs to measles had no effect on the specific T cell proliferation or IFN-gamma production after measles stimulation. Cellular immunity to measles infection and vaccination may be limited in infants compared with adults as a result of less effective IFN-gamma and IL-12 production in response to measles Ags. These effects were not exaggerated in younger infants compared with effects in infants who were immunized at 12 mo. In summary, infant T cells were primed with measles Ag despite the presence of passive Abs, but their adaptive immune responses were limited compared with those of adults.  (+info)

Protective efficacy against respiratory syncytial virus following murine neonatal immunization with BBG2Na vaccine: influence of adjuvants and maternal antibodies. (5/706)

Alum-adsorbed BBG2Na, a recombinant vaccine derived in part from the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) subgroup A G protein, induced moderate antibody titers after 1 immunization in 1-week-old mice but conferred complete lung protection upon RSV challenge. The anti-BBG2Na IgG1-IgG2a neonatal isotype profile was suggestive of dominant Th2 responses compared with those in adults. Formulation of BBG2Na with a Th1-driving adjuvant efficiently shifted neonatal responses toward a more balanced and adultlike IgG1-IgG2a profile without compromising its protective efficacy. BBG2Na-induced protective immunity was maintained even after early life immunization in the presence of high titers of maternal antibodies. Under these conditions, the protective efficacy (86%-100%) reflected the high capacity of the nonglycosylated G2Na immunogen to escape inhibition by RSV-A-induced maternal antibodies. Thus, immunization with BBG2Na protected against viral challenge despite neonatal immunologic immaturity and the presence of maternal antibodies, two major obstacles to neonatal RSV vaccine development.  (+info)

Two stages of increased IgA transfer during lactation in the marsupial, trichosurus vulpecula (Brushtail possum). (6/706)

The polymeric Ig receptor (pIgR) and J chain molecules are involved in the transfer of IgA across the mammary gland epithelia into milk. The J chain binds two IgA molecules to form dimeric IgA, and the pIgR transports this complex through epithelial cells. We report here the cloning of the first marsupial homologues for the pIgR and J chain from the brushtail possum. Marsupial young are born after a short gestation and are less developed than eutherian newborn. The pouch young is completely dependent on milk as its sole source of nutrition during early lactation and this phase can be considered to be equivalent to an external gestation. Two periods of increased expression of pIgR, J chain, and IgA heavy chain mRNAs were observed in the mammary gland during lactation. The first occurs for a brief period after birth of the pouch young and is likely to reflect IgA transfer via the colostrum. The second period of increased expression, which is unique to marsupials, occurs after the early lactation period and just before young exit the pouch. We propose that this represents a second colostral-like phase at the end of the external gestation.  (+info)

Helminth- and Bacillus Calmette-Guerin-induced immunity in children sensitized in utero to filariasis and schistosomiasis. (7/706)

Infants and children are routinely vaccinated with bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) in areas of the world where worm infections are common. Because maternal helminth infection during pregnancy can sensitize the developing fetus, we studied whether this prenatal immunity persists in childhood and modifies the immune response to BCG. Children and newborns living in rural Kenya, where BCG is administered at birth and filariasis and schistosomiasis are endemic, were examined. T cells from 2- to 10-year-old children of mothers without filariasis or schistosomiasis produced 10-fold more IFN-gamma in response to mycobacterial purified protein derivative than children of helminth-infected mothers (p < 0.01). This relationship was restricted to purified protein derivative because maternal infection status did not correlate with filarial Ag-driven IL-2, IFN-gamma, IL-4, or IL-5 responses by children. Prospective studies initiated at birth showed that helminth-specific T cell immunity acquired in utero is maintained until at least 10-14 mo of age in the absence of infection with either Wuchereria bancrofti or Schistosoma haematobium. Purified protein derivative-driven T cell IFN-gamma production evaluated 10-14 mo after BCG vaccination was 26-fold higher for infants who were not sensitized to filariae or schistosomes in utero relative to subjects who experienced prenatal sensitization (p < 0.01). These data indicate that helminth-specific immune responses acquired during gestation persist into childhood and that this prenatal sensitization biases T cell immunity induced by BCG vaccination away from type 1 IFN-gamma responses associated with protection against mycobacterial infection.  (+info)

Transplacental transfer of measles and total IgG. (8/706)

This study was conducted to evaluate factors affecting the levels of total IgG (tIgG) and measles specific IgG (mIgG) in mother and cord sera, and the efficiency of transplacental transport of tIgG and mIgG. The study was conducted in four hospitals in Oporto, Portugal, where 1539 women and their newborns were enrolled. Measles IgG levels were lower among vaccinated mothers and respective cord sera than among vaccinated counterparts. Cord mIgG was strongly correlated with maternal levels in both vaccinated and unvaccinated groups. Transplacental transport efficiency (TTE) of mIgG decreased with increasing maternal levels, although almost one third of the observed effect was due to measurement error. The TTE was not affected by vaccination status. Monitoring maternal measles antibody levels and maternal vaccination status could be useful to determine when the age for measles vaccination can be reduced.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Maternal immunity, a way to confer protection against enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. AU - Torres, Alfredo. PY - 2017. Y1 - 2017. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85020624952&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85020624952&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1016/j.jped.2017.05.002. DO - 10.1016/j.jped.2017.05.002. M3 - Article. C2 - 28602687. AN - SCOPUS:85020624952. JO - Jornal de Pediatria. JF - Jornal de Pediatria. SN - 0021-7557. ER - ...
In England, influenza and pertussis vaccination has been recommended for all pregnant women since 2010 and 2012 respectively. However, in some areas, vaccination uptake rates have been low. A qualitative study was conducted to gain a contextualised understanding of factors influencing vaccination acceptance during pregnancy in Hackney, a borough in north-east London, UK. This paper draws on in-depth insights gained from the above study, to provide recommendations for increasing long-term maternal vaccination acceptance. Hackney was chosen as the study site because it has one of the lowest vaccination coverage rates in pregnancy in the UK. A maximum variation sampling method was used to recruit 47 pregnant and recently pregnant women from a wide range of backgrounds, as well as ten healthcare professionals from three general practices; two community antenatal clinics; nine parent-toddler groups; and four community centres. In-depth interviews and a video-recording of a pregnant patients consultation,
BMC Public Health http://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles (Accessed 30 Mar 2019) Research article Strategies to improve maternal vaccination acceptance In England, influenza and pertussis vaccination has been recommended for all pregnant women since 2010 and 2012 respectively. However, in some areas, vaccination uptake rates have been low. A qualitative study... Authors: R. Wilson, P. Paterson and H. J.…
Our aim was to assess the influence of HIV infection and placental malaria on placental IgG antibody transfer. S pneumoniae, measles, and tetanus were the antibody specificities chosen because these infectious agents are important causes of morbidity and mortality in infants.. Although measles and tetanus immunisation has reduced the incidence of both diseases, there are still many children who die every year after acquiring natural infection in developing countries.13Similarly, factors affecting S pneumoniae antibody titres could affect vaccine efficacy to pneumococcal disease in infancy. In the absence of an effective pneumococcal vaccine for infants, maternal immunisation during pregnancy has also been evaluated as a strategy to improve passive antibody protection.16 Mean maternal total IgG titres were high in this Malawian population, and significantly increased in HIV infected mothers (tables 2 and 3). This could in part be due to repeated malaria infections and the coexistence of HIV ...
Ian Tizzard (From Proceedings Ruvasa Congress 2016). When a mammal is born, it emerges from the sterile uterus into an environment where it is immediately exposed to a host of microorganisms. Its surfaces acquire a complex microbial flora within hours. If it is to survive, the newborn animal must be able to control this microbial invasion. In practice, the adaptive immune system takes some time to become fully functional, and innate mechanisms are responsible for the initial resistance to infection. In the domestic mammals, the adaptive immune system is fully developed at birth but cannot function at adult levels for several weeks. The complete development of adaptive immunity depends on antigenic stimulation. Thus, newborn mammals are vulnerable to infection for the first few weeks of life. They need assistance in defending themselves at this time. This temporary help is provided by the mother in the form of antibodies from colostrum and milk. The passive transfer of immunity from mother to ...
Maternal immunisation has the potential to substantially reduce morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases after birth. The success of tetanus, influenza, and pertussis immunisation during pregnancy has led to consideration of additional maternal immunisation strategies to prevent group B stre …
This study will evaluate impact of maternal immunisation against pertussis in infants ≤12 months of age before and after introduction of pertussis maternal
The influence of age and maternal antibodies on the antibody responses to human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) glycoproteins in very young children has been a matter of controversy. Both, immaturity of the immune system at very early age and suppression of the host immune response by high level of maternal antibodies have been claimed to limit the host antibody response to virus infection and to jeopardize the use of hRSV vaccines under development in that age group. Hence, the antibody responses to the two major hRSV glycoproteins (F and G) were evaluated in children younger than 2 years, hospitalized with laboratory confirmed hRSV bronchiolitis ...
The influence of age and maternal antibodies on the antibody responses to human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) glycoproteins in very young children has been a matter of controversy. Both, immaturity of the immune system at very early age and suppression of the host immune response by high level of maternal antibodies have been claimed to limit the host antibody response to virus infection and to jeopardize the use of hRSV vaccines under development in that age group. Hence, the antibody responses to the two major hRSV glycoproteins (F and G) were evaluated in children younger than 2 years, hospitalized with laboratory confirmed hRSV bronchiolitis ...
Pertussis (whooping cough) is a highly contagious infection of the respiratory tract. This disease can cause serious complications in infants. By getting Tdap during pregnancy, maternal pertussis antibodies transfer to the newborn, likely providing protection against pertussis in early life, before the baby starts getting DTaP vaccines.. A dose of Tdap should be administered during each pregnancy irrespective of the prior history of receiving Tdap. To maximize the maternal antibody response and passive antibody transfer to the infant, optimal timing for Tdap administration is between 27 and 36 weeks of gestation.. For women not previously vaccinated with Tdap, if Tdap is not administered during pregnancy, Tdap should be administered immediately postpartum.. Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine (PPV23 ...
The flu (influenza) and whooping cough (pertussis) vaccines have been given to hundreds of thousands of pregnant women and have been shown to be completely safe. Data collected on these women has clearly shown that they are not associated with any increase in birth defects or stillbirths. The benefits to both you and your baby hugely outweighs any theoretical risk from getting vaccinated ...
The state of maternal immunization is much different now than from when Gregory M. Glenn, MD, first started in healthcare. It was a widely studied field, but still not as practiced in pregnant women.. Now, Glenn, president of Research & Development for Novavax Inc., and his team of investigators are at the cusp of revolutionary development for maternal vaccines.. The Maryland-based clinical-stage vaccine company intends to share data in the following weeks on its first clinical trial of an investigative respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccine in third-trimester pregnant women. Its findings and eventual successive studies could alter the scope of care for RSV, the most common cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in children younger than 1 year old in the US.. The trial-which has been ongoing for 4 years and has assessed the potential vaccine in about 3000 treatment-eligible pregnant subjects in that time-has been carried out by teams comprised of RSV, vaccination, and maternity-care specialists ...
A state of passive immunity is established of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes [1]. The state is normally short-lived, and is part of therapy for active disease. The most common reason for inducing passive immunity is to counteract the effects of a circulating biological toxin, which may be of bacterial origin, or from a higher-level organism, such as a venomous snake. Antitoxin is a routine part of treatment for botulism and tetanus ...
We were able to identify 102 differentially expressed genes among larvae grown on different diets (Table 1). Several of these genes show age dependent expression levels, being influenced by diet only at certain developmental stages. We divided the identified genes into eight functional categories/clusters - defense and recognition, development, digestion, DNA-related, metabolism, ribosomal proteins, signaling and genes with unknown function. In addition we also listed the transcripts which gave no significant hit to any known protein or expressed sequence tag (EST) library (Table 1). In total we were unable to identify 49 of our transcripts via Blast searches. The reasons we failed to identify a number of transcripts could be partially embedded in the approach we took for studying global gene expression patterns. Due to the methodology of the GeneFishing technique, we mainly amplify regions of the mRNA close to the polyA tail and the 3 UTR region of the transcript, which is not the most ...
A new study shows getting the COVID-19 vaccine earlier in pregnancy leads to a better transfer of antibodies to the baby.. Northwestern medicine researchers looked at nearly 30 pregnant women who got the Pfizer or Moderna vaccine in the third trimester and the umbilical cord blood of their babies after birth.. They found new moms had a robust immune response to the vaccine and women who got the vaccine earlier in the third trimester were more likely to pass on protective antibodies to their newborns.. Research shows breastfeeding moms can also transfer antibodies to their babies ...
A protein secreted by cells of our immune system in response to infection. The antibody binds to an enemy molecule, in this case, a specific part of the hepatitis C virus. This is meant to prevent the virus from infecting other cells or destroy it. As with other viral infections, the presence of antibodies does not necessarily mean a virus will be eliminated from the body. 2. A protein produced in the blood of vertebrates following exposure to an antigen. The antibody binds specifically to the antigen and thus stimulates its inactivation by other parts of the immune system. The major classes of antibody are immmunoglobulin A, or IgA, found predominantly in bodily secretions like saliva; IgM and IgG which are typically produced sequentially in response to microparasitic infections; and IgE which is often elevated in the response to helminth infections. Only IgG is able to cross the placenta to provide maternal immunity. The Good ...
antibodies IgMs are the first circulating antibodies to appear in response to an antigen. However, their concentration in the blood declines rapidly. This is diagnostically useful, because the presence of IgM usually indicates a current infection by the pathogen causing its formation. IgM consists of five Y-shaped monomers arranged in a pentamer structure. The numerous antigen-binding sites make it very effective in agglutinating antigens. IgM is too large to cross the placenta and hence does not confer maternal immunity ...
Very seductive electric blues rock instrumental with an edgy cool sexy sultry crawling feel. Colleague thirteen-year benjamin, mikayla love play, of this reason often we recommend t-shirty angry birds. The liquid ant bait station should remain as undisturbed as possible while the ants are actively feeding on it. If your membership plugin is not listed here, you may be able to use dating a man in his 60s the above bridge plugins as a template. These associations are strongest in infants at an age when passively acquired maternal immunity has decayed but the single seniors socializing infants adaptive immune repertoire is immature 12. Tce provided services for aircraft engine test mature women looking for men facility at santa cruz airport, mumbai in and later for the upgradation of the facility in. Just take a trawler and processor lobbyists advice greenlands largest telecom company has filed a lawsuit in a federal court in halifax trying to force fisheries and oceans canada to reveal which ...
Active vs Passive Immunity Throughout the world, people are now more aware of the dangers of viral outbreaks and the effects to humanity. All of us were aghast
PubMedID: 26050841 | Induction of non-specific suppression in chicks by specific combination of maternal antibody and related antigen. | The Journal of veterinary medical science / the Japanese Society of Veterinary Science | 12/1/2015
CDCs Vaccines for Pregnant Women Quiz. Learn about travel vaccines and getting the flu shot. Questions on maternal vaccination before, during, and after pregnancy.
Innate immunity also comes in a protein chemical form, called innate humoral immunity. Examples include the bodys complement system and substances called interferon and interleukin-1 (which causes fever).. If an antigen gets past these barriers, it is attacked and destroyed by other parts of the immune system.. ACQUIRED IMMUNITY. Acquired immunity is immunity that develops with exposure to various antigens. Your immune system builds a defense against that specific antigen.. PASSIVE IMMUNITY. Passive immunity is due to antibodies that are produced in a body other than your own. Infants have passive immunity because they are born with antibodies that are transferred through the placenta from their mother. These antibodies disappear between ages 6 and 12 months ...
Innate immunity also comes in a protein chemical form, called innate humoral immunity. Examples include the bodys complement system and substances called interferon and interleukin-1 (which causes fever).. If an antigen gets past these barriers, it is attacked and destroyed by other parts of the immune system.. ACQUIRED IMMUNITY. Acquired immunity is immunity that develops with exposure to various antigens. Your immune system builds a defense against that specific antigen.. PASSIVE IMMUNITY. Passive immunity is due to antibodies that are produced in a body other than your own. Infants have passive immunity because they are born with antibodies that are transferred through the placenta from their mother. These antibodies disappear between ages 6 and 12 months ...
Maternal antenatal pertussis-containing vaccination is recommended for the prevention of neonatal pertussis, but the ability of maternal vaccination to protect premature infants is unknown. We hypothesized that that infants born …. ...
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Immunity is passive in nature and is provided by maternal antibodies. At the same time, its own immune system is in a state of suppression. The phagocytosis system is not developed. The newborn shows little resistance to opportunistic, pyogenic, gram-negative flora. A tendency to generalization of microbial-inflammatory processes, to septic conditions is characteristic. The child is very sensitive to viral infections, against which he is not protected by maternal antibodies. Approximately on the 5th day of life, the first cross in the white blood formula takes place and the absolute and relative predominance of lymphocytes is established.. The second critical period is due to the destruction of maternal antibodies. The primary immune response to infection penetrates through the synthesis of class M immunoglobulins and leaves no immunological memory. This type of immune response also occurs with vaccination against infectious diseases, and only revaccination forms a secondary immune response with ...
Immunity is passive in nature and is provided by maternal antibodies. At the same time, its own immune system is in a state of suppression. The phagocytosis system is not developed. The newborn shows little resistance to opportunistic, pyogenic, gram-negative flora. A tendency to generalization of microbial-inflammatory processes, to septic conditions is characteristic. The child is very sensitive to viral infections, against which he is not protected by maternal antibodies. Approximately on the 5th day of life, the first cross in the white blood formula takes place and the absolute and relative predominance of lymphocytes is established.. The second critical period is due to the destruction of maternal antibodies. The primary immune response to infection penetrates through the synthesis of class M immunoglobulins and leaves no immunological memory. Continue reading →. ...
Passive Immunity: How mothers pass on antibodies to their children Maternal passive immunity is a naturally acquired type of immunity among fetuses and infants where the mothers antibodies are transferred to the fetus through the placenta or through breastfeeding. The passing on of antibodies to the fetus usually
As the recent spate of deal-making in pharma continues, Merck & Co said it is shelling out $100 million for access to Modernas messenger RNA Therapeutics platform to develop new antiviral vaccines and passive immunity therapies. - News - PharmaTimes
Few facilities have an effective inventory system, particularly for technology items, and therefore health care technology-related information cymbalta reviews and side effects not available at and dis- trict, regional, or national levels. 163 Neonates are protected from infection by maternal antibody but acquire infection from 6 months onward. X-Ar 12 XNH,O,S,SO2 CI. Z.
Looking for online definition of maternal immunity in the Medical Dictionary? maternal immunity explanation free. What is maternal immunity? Meaning of maternal immunity medical term. What does maternal immunity mean?
active immunization MICROBIOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY ON. What is the definition of artificial immunity? An example of active immunity is the oral polio vaccine because its a live attenuated vaccine., Immunity definition: the ability of an organism to resist disease, either through the activities of... Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples. Find out information about artificial active immunity. Related to artificial active immunity: artificial passive immunity. including dictionary, Passive Immunity Definition active immunity. ~ Immunity that comes from antibodies from outside of the organism - for example,. Difference between Active and Passive Immunity natural or active and artificial or passive. I want the exact definition of active and pasiive immunity . Definition of immunity †No immunity from infringement has been claimed on the basis of any earlier right or acquiescence in the present for example, or from. Active immunity is usually classified as natural or acquired. Wild ...
Wiktor, T. J., Lerner, R. A. & Koprowski, H. (‎1971)‎. Inhibitory effect of passive antibody on active immunity induced against rabies by vaccination*. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 45 (‎6)‎, 747 - 753. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/262739 ...
Passive immunity results when antibodies are transferred to a person who has never been exposed to the pathogen. Passive immunity lasts only as long as the antibodies survive in body fluids. This is usually between a few days and a few months. Passive immunity may be acquired by a fetus through its mothers blood ...
New research that reveals how maternal antibodies block an immune response to the measles virus is a first step toward improving current childhood vaccination practices, scientists say.. Maternal antibodies are passed to fetuses during pregnancy and to newborns in their mothers milk. The antibodies protect infants against disease in the first months of life, but that protection comes at a cost: Their presence also interferes with the generation of a natural immune response to vaccination. As a result, most babies receive measles immunizations at the age of 12 to 15 months, when maternal antibodies are gone.. Years of studies have advanced the theory that maternal antibodies shield the measles virus so that cells that generate an immune response cant see the pathogen. If that were the case, little could be done to intervene.. But Ohio State University researchers have demonstrated an entirely different mechanism in an animal model, showing that maternal antibodies bind to a specific receptor ...
Glässers Disease is caused by the bacterium Haemophilus parasuis, a small organism, of which there are at least fifteen different types. It is ubiquitous, found throughout the world and is present even in high health herds. If such herds are set up using SPF or MEW techniques and are free from Hps it can be devastating when they first become contaminated, producing an anthrax-like disease with high mortality in sows. In the majority of herds in which the bacterium is endemic, sows produce a strong maternal immunity which normally persists in their offspring until 8 to 12 weeks of age and as a result, the effects of the infection in weaners are usually nil or very minimal. The pigs become sub-clinically infected when still protected and then stimulate their own immune response. If however the maternal immunity wears off before they become infected they may develop severe disease. It can however become a secondary organism where there are other major pathogens and in particular enzootic ...
The female breasts are of great fascination to men. Sigmund Freud even claimed that suckling on the mothers breasts is the first step in an infants psychosexual development. However, some people tak ... ...
Maternal immunization holds the promise of further reducing morbidity and mortality among pregnant women and infants, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where there is the greatest burden of vaccine-preventable disease. This report, developed with input from a large, multidisciplinary group of experts, summarizes existing programs in pharmacovigilance and maternal, newborn, and child health surveillance in LMICs; identifies gaps and needs; and outlines a roadmap for program development and implementation for monitoring the safety of maternal immunizations in LMICs.. Author: Global Alliance to Prevent Prematurity and Stillbirth (GAPPS). Published: 2017 ...
Rotaviruses (RVs) are important enteric pathogens of newborn humans and animals, causing diarrhea and in rare cases death, especially in very young individuals. Rotavirus vaccines presently used are modified live vaccines that lack complete biological safety. Previous work from our laboratory suggested that vaccines based on in situ produced, non-infectious rotavirus-like particles (RVLPs) are efficient while being entirely safe. However, using either vaccine, active mucosal immunization cannot induce protective immunity in newborns due to their immature immune system. We therefore hypothesized that offspring from vaccinated dams are passively immunized either by transfer of maternal antibodies during pregnancy or by taking up antibodies from milk. Using a codon optimized polycistronic gene expression cassette packaged into herpesvirus particles, the simultaneous expression of the RV capsid genes led to the intracellular formation of RVLPs in various cell lines. Vaccinated dams developed a ...
The potential threat of biological warfare with a specific agent is proportional to the susceptibility of the population to that agent. Preventing disease after exposure to a biological agent is partially a function of the immunity of the exposed individual. The only available countermeasure that can provide immediate immunity against a biological agent is passive antibody. Unlike vaccines, which require time to induce protective immunity and depend on the hosts ability to mount an immune response, passive antibody can theoretically confer protection regardless of the immune status of the host. Passive antibody therapy has substantial advantages over antimicrobial agents and other measures for postexposure prophylaxis, including low toxicity and high specific activity. Specific antibodies are active against the major agents of bioterrorism, including anthrax, smallpox, botulinum toxin, tularemia, and plague. This article proposes a biological defense initiative based on developing, producing, and
The aim of our study was to seek evidence of TgIP in a scenario as close to natural conditions as possible by directly evaluating offspring resistance to a specific bacterial infection and by quantifying the cellular response. This aim complements approaches pursued in other works, where immune parameters such as levels of antimicrobial peptides in offspring were measured [22,23,40]. The latter studies demonstrated that induced levels of antimicrobial peptides in offspring are higher when their parents received an immune challenge. In line with this, recent work on Tenebrio molitor focused on determining associated costs due to the induced immune response produced in progenitors. Apparently, maintaining enhanced levels of immune defence showed interdependence with other fitness-related traits like a longer time of development in primed offspring [23,27] or trade-offs between maternal immunity, egg production and protection [41,42].. So far, the evaluation of the individual benefit of TgIP ...
On Basic Epidemiology and Public Health Courtesy: www.CertifiedMedicalPlanner.org Active Immunity develops after exposure to a disease-causing infectious microorganism or other foreign substance, such as following infection or vaccination. Acquired Immunity develops during a persons lifetime. There are two types of acquired immunity: active immunity and passive immunity. LINK: https://www.amazon.com/Dictionary-Health-Insurance-Managed-Care/dp/0826149944/ref=sr_1_4?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1275315485&sr=1-4 Passive Immunity develops after a person…
Our laboratory uses studies in mouse models and, in an iterative fashion, in humans to determine the rules underlying the regulation of maternal immunity. We have extensive experience in examining the homeostasis of T cells in the mouse maternal immune system, and this includes up-to-date methods to isolate and phenotype T cells from maternal tissues. Recently, we have extended our studies of T cell homeostasis to the postpartum period. Further, with the laboratory of Dr. Natalia Gokina, we are examing the role of the maternal immune system in systemic vascular remodeling both early and late postpartum. In an additional project, we use viral infection and exposure to bacterial coat proteins to understand innate-adaptive immune system cross-regulation during pregnancy. Our laboratory has moreover extended its focus to include neonatal immunity. One important clinical problem we seek to address is that of preterm labor. We continue to be interested in delineating the inflammatory processes that ...
GALVESTON, Texas - Researchers from The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston showed, for the first time, that a single, higher dose of vaccination to a pregnant mouse safely protects both her and her fetus from the Zika virus.. The researchers found that a single, less potent dose was not enough to protect the fetus. The findings are currently available in Nature Communications.. Preventing birth defects in developing fetuses is an important goal of the Zika virus vaccine but studies on vaccinations in pregnant females have been lacking, raising a number of important questions that are critical to the clinical development and regulatory approval of Zika vaccines, said UTMBs Pei-Yong Shi, senior author and the I.H. Kempner professor at the department of biochemistry and molecular biology. Could vaccination during pregnancy protect against infection and transmission to the fetus? Does pregnancy affect immune responses to Zika vaccination? Does maternal immunity from vaccination ...
and even cancers, she says.. Vaccinate with care. While Dodds recommends core vaccinations be given at the right time, she says its important not to over-vaccinate.. Initial puppy and kitten vaccines for the core diseases are essential to protect them throughout life, she says, but they should not be started at too early an age - never before six weeks and preferably not until 8.5 to 10 weeks.. Earlier than that, vaccines are mostly neutralized by the puppy or kittens leftover maternal immunity. Plus, the vaccines contain other components and preservatives like mercury, fetal calf serum and additives, especially in killed vaccines, that can be harmful, she says.. Other non-core vaccines are optional, and giving them depends upon the exposure risk where you live, and your lifestyle rather than current news media hype.. Rabies vaccines are legally required and preferably given separately from other vaccines, and as late as legally allowed - 24 weeks.. Many pets are over-vaccinated in my ...
Immunity is the ability to resist a disease. If a disease enters the body the lymphocytes (white blood cells) attack it. If the disease is weak enough for the lymphocytes to kill it, they will and a memory cell will remember the genetic code of the disease in case the disease ever enters again. If it does enter again, the memory cells go to the lymph nodes and lymphocytes are created specifically for the destruction of that particular disease. This is how a vaccination works. 9) Lymphocytes attack and remember the genetic code for a particular disease. Lymphatic system produces lymphocytes that are specifically created to destroy a particular disease. Inborn Immunity is an immunity that one is born with. It is present in all humans at birth. An example is feline leukemia. Humans are immune to this disease. As the name suggests, cats are not immune to this disease. Acquired immunity involves antibodies and can be either active immunity or passive immunity. Active immunity is when the antibodies ...
20 July 2020 - A research team from the VistaMilk SFI Research Centre, based at the Tyndall National Institute, has developed an economical point-of-care device to help combat Failure of Passive Transfer (FPT). FPT is a passive immunity dysfunction that predisposes calves to development of disease and increases the risk of calf mortality. The new test is capable of rapid detection of Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies on-farm within the first 24 hours of life and provides informed decision support to farmers and veterinarians.. Passive immunity is the short-term immunity that results from the introduction of antibodies from mother to offspring. In humans, antibodies from the mother are passed to the foetus through the placenta in the last few months of pregnancy. These passive immunity antibodies include the fighter IgG antibodies vital in protecting infants in early days of development and growth.. Unfortunately, bovine antibodies cannot pass the placental barrier and are not transferred from ...
When exposed to infection, the human body produces antibodies to fight and create immunity against disease-causing agents, such as viruses and bacteria. These antibodies can sometimes offer protection from illness if an individual is exposed to the same infectious agents in the future. Under many circumstances, an individuals ability to produce immune globulin (Ig) is impaired and the use of other methods to boost the immune system becomes necessary. Ig is a sterilized solution obtained from pooled human blood plasma, which contains the immunoglobulins (or antibodies) to prevent various infectious diseases. Ig is sometimes used to aid in the prevention or progression of an illness by using a donors antibodies to fight the illness. This process is referred to as passive immunity, as opposed to active immunity, a circumstance in which the human body produces its own antibodies. Passive immunity conveys only temporary protection and should not be confused with receiving an immunization, which ...
Passive immunity. The first few days after hatching, a chicks immune sytem is not functional, so it cannot fight invasion for itself. The solution to the problem comes through the egg. The mother passes on some antibodies which, although short lived, will guidde the chick through the first few days of life. These antibodies are from the mothers acquired immunity, either from vaccines or infection, then defeat of a disease.. The level of immunity that is passed into the egg is similar to her own level, but after the 3 weeks of incubation, this drops to half. Therefore , it is valuable for the flock manager to keep the mothers immunity levels high, to promote the health of her chicks. If vaccination of the chick is to be considered, remember that doing so too early could cause a subdued immune response, due to maternal antibodies attacking the vaccine, but if left too late, the chick will be open to disease, and may have an excessively high immune response.. Active Immunity. As I said above, ...
Passive immunity. The first few days after hatching, a chicks immune sytem is not functional, so it cannot fight invasion for itself. The solution to the problem comes through the egg. The mother passes on some antibodies which, although short lived, will guidde the chick through the first few days of life. These antibodies are from the mothers acquired immunity, either from vaccines or infection, then defeat of a disease.. The level of immunity that is passed into the egg is similar to her own level, but after the 3 weeks of incubation, this drops to half. Therefore , it is valuable for the flock manager to keep the mothers immunity levels high, to promote the health of her chicks. If vaccination of the chick is to be considered, remember that doing so too early could cause a subdued immune response, due to maternal antibodies attacking the vaccine, but if left too late, the chick will be open to disease, and may have an excessively high immune response.. Active Immunity. As I said above, ...
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If this idea of trans-generational epigenetic inheritance is someday shown to also apply to human beings, no one knows how much benefit we may gain. But the benefits require self-awareness and mindfulness. We must make conscious choices that move our evolution toward the best in human nature while correcting the worst. The new genetics gives us this responsibility. As more results are validated, there will be no avoiding the choices that face us. The good news is that we will be rewarded for every positive choice by our genes, here and now and for the time to come.. DEEPAK CHOPRA MD, FACP, is the author of more than 80 books translated into over 43 languages, including numerous New York Times bestsellers. Chopra is the co-author with Rudolph Tanzi of the New York Times bestseller, Super Brain. He serves as an Adjunct Professor at Kellogg School of Management at Northwestern University, Adjunct Professor at Columbia Business School, Columbia University, Assistant Clinical Professor, in the Family ...
According to the manufacturer, besides anti-D, WinRho SDF TM contains trace amounts of anti-C, -E, -A and -B.9 However, Rushin et al.13 found addition...
Natural active immunity - when a person is infected. On first occasion, the person suffers the disease (primary response). On subsequent infection, more rapid immune response due to the action of memory cells (secondary response). Therefore individual is unlikely to suffer the same infection twice ...
insurance companies, girlfriends , bosses, and whoever, results that impact society and families while protecting anonymity is priceless. they are full price blood tests and unless ordered by your doctor are not submitted to insurance.case in point . I knew a guy that was denied a liver panel. the dr said to the client ,well if you have abc issues theres really nothing you can do about it.. the individual certainly would want to know for transmission prevention, dietary consideration , active immunity , and if there are any new drugs out there. maybe gamma shots. the individual went to the private pay for lab service and felt better jus knowing the real deal. what is a life worth. ?. b12 shots can be had for the asking. are anemia panels done ? can reg b12 shots mask folic acid anemia ? invariably people seek out these procedures and supplements due to fatigue. consider a women who carries a early preg ...
In this video, Cathy covers Acquired Immunity, which includes both humoral and cellular immunity. Cathy discusses B Cell activation and proliferation, as well as important types of T cells. Includes the difference between active and passive immunity, and natural and artificial immunity ...
Maternally-derived antibodies (MDA) efficiently protect kittens from fatal infection. This passively acquired immunity is later ... Whether illness results or not depends on the immunity in the victim vs. the number of individual virus particles (i.e. the ... and vaccine-induced immunity has not yet fully developed. Free-roaming cats are thought to be exposed to the virus during their ... and prior immunity from maternal antibodies, previous exposure, or vaccination. Most infections are subclinical, as evidenced ...
This is called passive immunity. This added detail can be shown by including an M class (for maternally derived immunity) at ... except that no immunity is acquired at the end. S → E → I → S {\displaystyle {\color {blue}{{\mathcal {S}}\to {\mathcal {E}}\to ... where upon recovery there is no immunity (SIS model), where immunity lasts only for a short period of time (SIRS), where there ... do not confer any long-lasting immunity. Such infections do not give immunity upon recovery from infection, and individuals ...
DNA vaccination with plasmids encoding FIPV proteins failed to produce immunity. Rather, it was observed that antibodies to the ... Kittens are protected from infection by maternally derived antibody until weaning, usually around 5-7 weeks of age; therefore, ... "Efficacy of a 3C-like protease inhibitor in treating various forms of acquired feline infectious peritonitis". Journal of ... Most infections are either asymptomatic or cause diarrhea, especially in kittens, as maternally derived antibody wanes at ...
After an outbreak, as immunity in exposed pigs wanes, new outbreaks of the same strain can occur. Prevention of pig-to-human ... Vaccination of sows is common practice and reveals also a benefit to young pigs by prolonging the maternally level of ... "Micronics Acquires License to Biosearch Technologies' Nucleic Acid Assay Chemistries". Biosearchtech.com. 2009-10-28. Retrieved ... Due to coinfection, the viruses are able to interact, mutate, and form a new strain to which host has variable immunity. New ...
Some species of aphids have acquired the ability to synthesise red carotenoids by horizontal gene transfer from fungi. They are ... Vilcinskas, Andreas (2016). "Aphid Immunity.". Biology and Ecology of Aphids. CRC Press. p. 131. Edwards, John S. (1966). " ... Mira, A.; Moran, Nancy A. (2002). "Estimating Population Size and Transmission Bottlenecks in Maternally Transmitted ... resistance is acquired by older tissues and the young shoots are vulnerable. Volatile products from interplanted onions have ...
They acquired further cultivated food plants like bananas and pepper from them, and in turn introduced Austronesian ... Mitochondrial DNA - a type of maternally inherited DNA located in the cell cytoplasm - was recovered from the remains of Pre- ... the big mammals quickly built up immunities to the diseases as within each generation the individuals with better immunities ...
"Domicile" was declared to have been acquired by a person having his domicile in Canada for three years after having been landed ... were not allowed to be parents thus their children could not derive nationality maternally and were stateless unless ... or anyone granted diplomatic privileges or immunities) birth outside Canada to a Canadian parent grant after three years' ... If husband was an alien → then wife only ceased to be a British subject if she automatically acquired her husband's alien ...
Because the cell acquiring a chloroplast already had mitochondria (and peroxisomes, and a cell membrane for secretion), the new ... Flowering plants were once thought to only inherit chloroplasts maternally. However, there are now many documented cases of ... and the nucleus in driving plant innate immunity". Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions. 23 (11): 1368-80. doi:10.1094/MPMI-05- ... Angiosperms, which pass on chloroplasts maternally, have many ways to prevent paternal inheritance. Most of them produce sperm ...
Because the cell acquiring a chloroplast already had mitochondria (and peroxisomes, and a cell membrane for secretion), the new ... Plant innate immunity. Plants lack specialized immune cells-all plant cells participate in the plant immune response. ... Angiosperms, which pass on chloroplasts maternally, have many ways to prevent paternal inheritance. Most of them produce sperm ... Lower levels of reactive oxygen species initiate systemic acquired resistance, triggering defense-molecule production in the ...
Immunity, Maternally-Acquired* * Immunoglobulin Isotypes * Infant, Newborn * Malaria, Falciparum / epidemiology * Malaria, ... Isotypic analysis of maternally transmitted Plasmodium falciparum-specific antibodies in Cameroon, and relationship with risk ... We also determined whether transplacentally acquired antibodies protect against malaria infection by relating the antibody ... The authors also determined whether transplacentally acquired antibodies protect against malaria infection by relating the ...
Immunity, Maternally-Acquired* * Immunization / methods* * Immunization / statistics & numerical data * Influenza Vaccines / ... 11 St Georges Vaccine Institute, Institute of Infection and Immunity, St Georges, University of London, London, UK. ... 8 Paediatric Infectious Diseases Research Group, Institute of Infection and Immunity, St Georges, University of London, London ... Vaccine and Immunity Theme, Medical Research Council Unit, Fajara, The Gambia. ...
Immunity, Maternally-Acquired*. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Malaria / immunology*. Maternal-Fetal Exchange*. Plasmodium falciparum ...
Immunity, Maternally-Acquired*. Infant. Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical* / prevention & control. Kenya. ... Title: Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999) Volume: 64 ISSN: 1944-7884 ISO Abbreviation: J. Acquir. Immune ...
Maternally acquired Zika immunity can increase dengue disease severity in mouse pups. November 14, 2018 To say that the immune ... To cross the placenta, Zika virus may hijack the route by which acquired immunity is transferred from mother to fetus, new ... Zika may hijack mother-fetus immunity route. November 14, 2018 ...
Maternally acquired Zika immunity can increase dengue disease severity in mouse pups. November 14, 2018 To say that the immune ... To cross the placenta, Zika virus may hijack the route by which acquired immunity is transferred from mother to fetus, new ... "We observed rapid and durable protective immunity without adverse events, and so we think this candidate vaccine represents a ... Zika may hijack mother-fetus immunity route. November 14, 2018 ... which are important for maintaining long-term antibody immunity ...
Maternally derived measles immunity in children of naturally infected and vaccinated mothers. Epidemiol Infect 1988;101:473-6. ... transplacental antibody acquired by these younger mothers infants wanes earlier, causing their children to become susceptible ... Maternally derived measles immunity in era of vaccine-protected mothers. J Pediatr 1986;108:671-6. ... Recent studies have examined the impact of vaccine-induced immunity on maternally derived transplacental antibody levels; these ...
Placental transfer and maternally acquired neonatal IgG immunity in human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Infect Dis (1996 ... Detailed reviews on HEU infant innate and humoral immunity are included in this special issue and will not be considered here. ...
Maternally-derived antibodies (MDA) efficiently protect kittens from fatal infection. This passively acquired immunity is later ... Whether illness results or not depends on the immunity in the victim vs. the number of individual virus particles (i.e. the ... and vaccine-induced immunity has not yet fully developed. Free-roaming cats are thought to be exposed to the virus during their ... and prior immunity from maternal antibodies, previous exposure, or vaccination. Most infections are subclinical, as evidenced ...
Age of the patient: Maternally-acquired immunity is an important concept to understand. When a kitten nurses from his mother, ... Sterile immunity to these infectious agents is less commonly engendered.. *Dr Piersons comment: "Sterile immunity" refers to ... Duration of immunity (DOI): The duration of immunity (how long a vaccine protects the recipient) varies with each disease/ ... Such anti-viral immune responses often result in the development of *sterile immunity and the duration of immunity (DOI) is ...
Immunity, Maternally-Acquired; Antibodies, Monoclonal/*immunology/therapeutic use; Antibodies, Viral/blood/*immunology/ ... Efficient mother-to-child transfer of antiretroviral immunity in the context of preclinical monoclonal antibody-based ... Efficient mother-to-child transfer of antiretroviral immunity in the context of preclinical monoclonal antibody-based ... were observed upon breastfeeding alone and breastfeeding plus placental immunity transfer. However, placental transfer of anti- ...
Maternally derived measles immunity in era of vaccine-protected mothers. J Pediatr 1986;108:671-6. * Jenks PJ, Caul EO, Roome ... The transplacental antibody acquired by these younger mothers infants wanes earlier, causing their children to become ... Maternally derived measles immunity in children of naturally infected and vaccinated mothers. Epidemiol Infect 1988;101:473-6. ... Recent studies have examined the impact of vaccine-induced immunity on maternally derived transplacental antibody levels; these ...
interference by maternally acquired (passive) immunity is the most common cause of vaccine failure. There exists a direct ... Immunity acquired from the queen via colostrum (initial breast milk) must be considered when establishing a routine vaccination ... Vaccination must be performed after kittens have lost most or all of their maternally derived immunity. ... Cats that develop immunity experience an initial transient viremia lasting from one to two days and for as long as eight weeks ...
1993) Maternally acquired immunity in newborns from women infected by the human immunodeficiency virus. Acta Paediatr 2:1034- ... 1996) Placental transfer and maternally acquired neonatal IgG immunity in HIV infection. J Infect Dis 173:1077-1084. ... It is difficult to identify that subgroup of infants who acquire the least maternal IgG antibody and who might benefit most ... 1997) Transplacental antibody transfer and neonatal immunity. Br J Hosp Med 58:317-319. ...
Newborn calves acquire passive immunity by ingestion and absorption of antibodies present in colostrum. Passive immunity can, ... Tsutsui T, Yamamoto T, Hayama Y, Akiba Y, Nishiguchi A, Kobayashi S, Duration of maternally derived antibodies against Akabane ... Consistent with those findings, our results show that calves lose maternally derived SBV antibodies at ≈6 months of age and can ... Tsutsui and colleagues (9) showed that dairy calves lost their maternally derived antibodies against Akabane virus at ≈4 months ...
influence of passively acquired and/or maternally derived antibodies on efficacy, if appropriate ... Onset of immunity has been shown to occur three weeks after completion of the primary course.. Duration of immunity: One year ... Onset of immunity: Begins to develop within 10 days post vaccination.. Duration of immunity: At least 36 weeks when birds are ... Onset of immunity: Five days post-vaccination.. Duration of immunity: 22 weeks post-vaccination. ...
Vaccines and Maternally Acquired Immunity to Prevent Shigellosis in Children. Marcela F. Pasetti, Ph.D. (PI). 1R01AI125841. 04/ ... Exploration of Protective Immunity Induced by Salmonella COPS: FLIC Conjugates. Karen L. Kotloff, M.D. (PI). Marcela F. Pasetti ... Pasetti researches vaccines and immunology to understand how protective immunity can be induced in animal models and in humans ... Mucosally delivered Salmonella Typhi expressing the Yersinia pestis F1 antigen elicits mucosal and systemic immunity early in ...
Vaccines and Maternally Acquired Immunity to Prevent Shigellosis in Children. Myron Levine, M.D., D.T.P.H. (PI). Eileen Barry, ... 2000: Member, NIH Special Emphasis Panel: Innovative Research in Human Mucosal Immunity Study Section ... Infection and Immunity, Journal of Medical Microbiology, J. Biol. Chem., PNAS, Pathogens and Disease ...
1996) Placental transfer and maternally acquired neonatal IgG immunity in human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Infect Dis ... 1992) Reduced measles immunity in infants in a well vaccinated population. Pediatr Infect Dis J 11(7): 525-9 [PubMed] ... Our data indicate that there is a substantial immunity gap in this group, possibly due to waning maternal antibodies in the ... 2007) The influence of HIV-1 exposure and infection on levels of passively acquired antibodies to measles virus in Zambian ...
This maternally acquired immunity was maintained into maturity and required transfer (via nursing) to the offspring of ... but whether maternal transfer of immunity by nursing permanently alters offspring immunity is poorly understood. Here, we ... Natural and Vaccine-Mediated Immunity to Salmonella Typhimurium is Impaired by the Helminth Nippostrongylus brasiliensis PLOS ... source of infection before pregnancy provides long-term nursing-acquired immune benefits to offspring mediated by maternally ...
Immunity. Pigs can acquire immunity to E. rhusiopathiae in one of three ways: *An active response to exposure to the organism, ... Maternally derived antibodies (MDA) passed in the colostrum to the newborn piglet. ... Maternal immunity to E. rhusiopathiae will not last beyond 12 weeks of age, therefore any disease seen in the growing herd ... MDA protection is also influenced by the challenge to the young piglet that will soak up its acquired antibodies. ...
... maternally) acquired immunity to a heterologous dengue virus serotype. ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Locally acquired Dengue--Key West, Florida, 2009-2010. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly ... Dengue: defining protective versus pathologic immunity. J Clin Invest. 2004 Apr. 113(7):946-51. [Medline]. ... Fatal hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis associated with locally acquired dengue virus infection - new Mexico and Texas, 2012. ...
Maternally-acquired antibodies are critical to provide immunity to the newborn and protect it against infections during the ...
For example, maternally acquired IgA and IgG in neonatal mice leads to dampened T cell-dependent immune responses against ... CD4(+) lymphoid tissue-inducer cells promote innate immunity in the gut. Immunity 34: 122-134. ... The key role of segmented filamentous bacteria in the coordinated maturation of gut helper T cell responses. Immunity 31: 677- ... T cell-mediated autoimmune disease due to low-affinity crossreactivity to common microbial peptides. Immunity 30: 348-357. ...
In: Ontogeny of Acquired Immunity, a Ciba Symposium, Elsevier Excerpta Medica, North Holland, Amsterdam, p. 149-174, 1971. ... Beer A.E., Billingham R.E. and Yang S.L.: Maternally induced transplantation immunity, tolerance and runt disease in rats. J. ... Beer A.E. and Billingham R.E.: Maternally acquired runt disease. Science 179:240-243, 1973. ... Parmely M.J. and Beer A.E.: Colostral cell-mediated immunity and the concept of a common secretory immune system. J. Dairy Sci ...
This is a prospective natural history study to define the levels of maternally-acquired neutralizing antibody (Ab) and other ... The first aim of this study is to define levels of serotype-specific neutralizing Abs associated with protective immunity ... A Prospective Study of Dengue Virus Infections During Infancy to Define Correlates of Protective Immunity. ... correlates of immunity that may protect against the development of dengue hemorrhagic fever in infants. Approximately 10,000 ...
This is a prospective natural history study to define the levels of maternally-acquired neutralizing antibody (Ab) and other ... Malaria Transmission and Immunity in Highland Kenya The purpose of this study is to see why malaria epidemics occur in highland ... Fetal Immunity to Falciparum Malaria The primary aim of this study is to determine how prenatal exposure to malaria influences ... correlates of immunity that may protect against the development of dengue hemorrhagic fever in infants. Approximately 10,000 ...
The second objective was to examine whether maternally acquired anti-SIV antibodies affected the generation of immune responses ... Protective immunity in macaques vaccinated with a modified vaccinia virus Ankara measles virus vaccine in the presence of ... Most animals had maternally derived antibodies to tetanus toxoid that declined after birth with a half-life of ca. 2 weeks. At ... Except for maternally derived antibodies in animal 31608, all five SIVmac251-infected animals of group 1 had undetectable, or ...
... maternally acquired) immunity who are exposed to a different dengue virus serotype. In contrast to classic dengue, the ...
  • We also determined whether transplacentally acquired antibodies protect against malaria infection by relating the antibody levels at birth to the risk of acquiring P. falciparum infection during the first 6 months of life. (nih.gov)
  • Among various classes and subclasses of P. falciparum-specific antibodies, only IgG2 were related to a decrease in the risk of acquiring a P. falciparum peripheral blood infection from birth to 6 months of age. (nih.gov)
  • Maternally-derived antibodies (MDA) efficiently protect kittens from fatal infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • In kittens, the period of greatest susceptibility to infection is when maternal antibodies are absent, or waning, and vaccine-induced immunity has not yet fully developed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The clinical manifestations of FPLV are variable based on the dose of the virus, the age of the cat, potential breed predispositions, and prior immunity from maternal antibodies, previous exposure, or vaccination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Newborn calves acquire passive immunity by ingestion and absorption of antibodies present in colostrum. (cdc.gov)
  • Passive immunity can, however, block the production of serum antibodies when vaccine is administered to calves that have maternally derived antibodies ( 5 ). (cdc.gov)
  • One MVA-SIVgpe-immunized group had maternally derived anti-SIV antibodies prior to immunization. (asm.org)
  • In addition, the presence of maternally derived anti-HIV antibodies may interfere with the efficacy of active immunization in infants. (asm.org)
  • As LSA-1 is only expressed inside the hepatocyte, which antibodies are unable to access, LSA-1 antibodies are not expected to provide protection from infection although LSA-1 is a likely target of cell-mediated immunity [ 20 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • These data suggest that MVA-FH should be further tested as an alternative to the current vaccine for infants with maternally acquired MV-neutralizing antibodies and for adults with waning vaccine-induced immunity. (eur.nl)
  • In this work, the efficacy and interference with maternally derived antibodies (MDA) of live vaccine based on the Hitchner B1 strain of ND was tested in commercial broilers. (jscimedcentral.com)
  • The notion of malaria 'tolerance' has long been invoked to explain the common finding of low-level, asymptomatic blood-stage infection in endemic areas [15] , particularly among children, as antibodies that reliably protect against febrile malaria are only acquired after many years of exposure to genetically diverse and clonally variant P. falciparum antigens [13] . (prolekare.cz)
  • The recurrent bacterial infections typical of XLA begin after 6 months of age when the maternally acquired transplacental antibody levels decrease and the infant is unable to synthesize antibodies normally. (hindawi.com)
  • Maternally transferred antibodies from DNA-immunized avians protect offspring against hepadnavirus infection. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Indeed, the lifelong immunity that follows natural infection (if the host survives the infection and potential secondary complications) is due to the establishing of cell-mediated memory and the production of neutralizing antibodies against H protein. (infectionlandscapes.org)
  • Babies acquire maternal antibodies passively, igG mainly, by placental transfer [5]. (aksumuniversity.org)
  • These studies have yielded inconsistent associations between anti-malaria antibodies and immunity to malaria [17]. (aksumuniversity.org)
  • We lately conducted a report in Burkina Faso analyzing the effect of maternally-acquired antibodies against artificial GLURP and MSP3 on the chance of malaria. (aksumuniversity.org)
  • We acquire a good chunk of our mother's immunological past already in the womb, in the form of antibodies to various disease-causing microbes and vaccines our mother has encountered thus far, encountered and successfully countered. (wordpress.com)
  • Maternally-acquired anti-measles antibodies can typically protect a newborn child from measles the first few months post-birth. (wordpress.com)
  • Relationship between maternally derived anti-Plasmodium falciparum antibodies and risk of infection and disease in infants living in an area of Liberia, west Africa, in which malaria is highly endemic. (asm.org)
  • The level of maternally derived overall anti-schizont antigen antibodies did not seem to play a role in the relative risk of developing malaria infection or disease during the first year of life, though the level of specific anti-MSP1(19) antibodies may be associated with protection. (asm.org)
  • Neonatal measles immunity in rural Kenya: the influence of HIV and placental malaria infections on placental transfer of antibodies and levels of antibody in maternal and cord serum samples. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Dr. Pasetti researches vaccines and immunology to understand how protective immunity can be induced in animal models and in humans following infection and vaccination, and the mechanisms involved. (umaryland.edu)
  • Humans living in malaria endemic areas have a degree of naturally acquired pre-erythrocytic immunity [ 3 ], comprising of an antibody response to sporozoites, a cell-mediated response during liver-stage development and an immune response that clears emerging hepatic merozoites before they begin to replicate. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The main natural carrier for measles is humans (though it is possible for some primates to acquire infection) [ 2 ], and there are no known long-term reservoirs for the virus [ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Infection and immunity , 85 (6). (lshtm.ac.uk)
  • Thank you for sharing this Infection and Immunity article. (asm.org)
  • Message Body (Your Name) thought you would be interested in this article in Infection and Immunity. (asm.org)
  • This passively acquired immunity is later replaced by an active immune response obtained by vaccination or as a consequence of a natural infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • This includes characterizing humoral and cellular immune responses to wild-type and attenuated viruses compared to inactivated vaccines to identify correlates of protection, investigating adjuvants or immune-modulatory agents that result in robust immune responses (mucosal delivered, long lived, broadly cross-protective and/or reduce the number of vaccine boosters), and investigating technologies to override IAV vaccine interference from passively acquired immunity. (usda.gov)
  • Chicks hatched from eggs produced 24 weeks later were assessed for passively acquired immunity. (edu.au)
  • We observed rapid and durable protective immunity without adverse events, and so we think this candidate vaccine represents a promising strategy for the global fight against Zika virus," said senior author Drew Weissman, MD, PhD, a professor of Infectious Disease at Penn. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The strongest effects, i.e., reduction in the viral load and induction of protective humoral antiviral responses, were observed upon breastfeeding alone and breastfeeding plus placental immunity transfer. (cnrs.fr)
  • The first aim of this study is to define levels of serotype-specific neutralizing Abs associated with protective immunity against symptomatic dengue virus (DV). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The observed less incidence of mixed infections in children under two years of age compared to their older two-to-five-year-old counterparts is probably due to the protective maternal passive immunity, among other factors, in that age group. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although the goal of vaccination is to establish durable, lifelong immunity, it has become clear that for a number of infectious diseases, vaccine-induced host protective immunity wanes over time ( 4 - 10 ). (asm.org)
  • The workshop discussion focused on novel strategies to elicit, detect, and enhance the persistence of protective immunity elicited by vaccination ( 11 ). (asm.org)
  • Development of vaccines that provide better cross-protective immunity than what is currently available with today's vaccines will be approached through understanding correlates of protection, the impact of prior exposure or passive immunity, and through vaccine vector platform development, attenuated strains for vaccines, and other novel vaccine technologies. (usda.gov)
  • In a modified-live or live-attenuated vaccine , the causative organism (virus, bacterium, etc.) has been weakened or altered so that it is no longer harmful or virulent , but is still capable of stimulating protective immunity when injected or otherwise administered. (vcahospitals.com)
  • Moms who get measles vaccines instead of experiencing the actual illness have less immunity to offer their babies, resulting in a susceptibility gap between early infancy and the first ostensibly protective measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine at 12 to 15 months of age. (ronpaulforums.com)
  • The relationships between induction of protective immunity against intracellular bacteria by killed and replicating organisms and LT and DTH responses are discussed. (ajtmh.org)
  • She investigates novel vaccine strategies, antigen delivery systems, adjuvants, and immunization regimens for protection against pathogens that affect young children, as well as the influence of maternal immunity on infant immune responses to vaccines, and the impact of vaccine combination on long-term health and protection. (umaryland.edu)
  • Infant protection against measles could be optimized both by increasing herd immunity through an increased vaccine coverage and by lowering the age of routine vaccination from 12 to 9 months. (asm.org)
  • The probability of acquiring a P. falciparum infection and developing an episode of clinical malaria was determined in relation to the P. falciparum-specific antibody level of the infant at birth against P. falciparum schizont antigen or recombinant merozoite surface protein MSP1(19) antigen. (asm.org)
  • 1 This process provides passive humoral immunity to neonates during their first months of life. (bmj.com)
  • The adaptive immune response consists of humoral immunity mediated by B lymphocytes and cellular immunity maintained by T lymphocytes. (hindawi.com)
  • Immunoglobulins, products of B-cell progeny, plasma cells are the main mediators of humoral immunity. (hindawi.com)
  • However, naturally acquired immunity and vaccine-induced immunity are qualitatively different. (ronpaulforums.com)
  • There is an urgent need for active immunization strategies that, if administered shortly after birth, could protect infants in developing countries from acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection through breast-feeding. (asm.org)
  • Thus, our mother gives us not just the gift of life, but through passive immunity the gift of some early-life immunity as well. (wordpress.com)
  • A humoral response against DENV infection is believed to contribute to lifelong immunity against challenge by the homologous serotype. (prolekare.cz)
  • A vaccination is a preparation of microorganisms (pathogens), such as viruses or bacteria, that is administered to produce or increase immunity to a particular disease. (catinfo.org)
  • The researchers found that the sera from mothers with natural measles immunity substantially outperformed the sera from the vaccinated teens: only two of 20 strains of virus resisted neutralization in the Nigerian mothers group, but 10 of 20 viral strains resisted neutralization in the vaccination group. (ronpaulforums.com)
  • Newborn animals have not yet had a chance to make their own immunity so they need protection against infections present in their environment. (vcahospitals.com)
  • Although long-term protection has been achieved with some vaccines, immunity wanes over time with others, resulting in outbreaks or epidemics of infectious diseases. (asm.org)
  • The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) held a workshop on 19 September 2016 that focused on waning immunity to selected vaccines (for Bordetella pertussis , Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, Neisseria meningitidis , influenza, mumps, and malaria), with an emphasis on identifying knowledge gaps, future research needs, and how this information can inform development of more effective vaccines for infectious diseases. (asm.org)
  • Participants in an NIAID-sponsored workshop, "Waning Immunity and Microbial Vaccines," reviewed research on six representative vaccines and assessed the issue of waning immunity and possible approaches to generate long-term protection. (asm.org)
  • Here, we provide summaries of the presentations and discussions for each group of vaccines (against pertussis, influenza, malaria, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, meningococcus, and mumps), along with a description of novel research strategies to provide insights into waning immunity, a summary of the gaps in knowledge for the specific infectious agents, and general recommendations for future vaccine development. (asm.org)
  • and 3) develop new vaccines that can override maternally-derived antibody interference and provide broader cross-protection. (usda.gov)
  • As a part of a study to evaluate a formalin-killed Rickettsia rickettsii vaccine, lymphoproliferative (LT) and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin test responses to killed R. rickettsii were measured as correlates of cell-mediated immunity in volunteers who were vaccinated, challenged with R. rickettsii , or both. (ajtmh.org)
  • Please keep this in mind as you read about duration of immunity (DOI) below. (catinfo.org)
  • consideration of the duration of immunity (DOI) information that is available to us. (catinfo.org)
  • These 'newer' guidelines are based on DOI (duration of immunity) studies showing that it is not necessary to vaccinate cats as frequently as they have been in the past. (catinfo.org)
  • You should also provide information on efficacy claims and the duration of immunity. (apvma.gov.au)
  • We investigated the contribution of MBL to antifungal innate immunity towards C. parapsilosis in vitro . (beds.ac.uk)
  • Our results suggest that MBL plays a crucial role in the innate immunity against infections caused by yeast by increasing uptake by PMN. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Severe dengue (dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome) usually occur around the third to seventh day of illness during a second dengue infection in persons with preexisting actively or passively (maternally) acquired immunity to a heterologous dengue virus serotype. (medscape.com)
  • dengue hemorrhagic fever is more likely to occur during dengue infection in people with preexisting active or passive (e.g., maternally acquired) immunity who are exposed to a different dengue virus serotype. (rxpgnews.com)
  • To cross the placenta, Zika virus may hijack the route by which acquired immunity is transferred from mother to fetus, new research suggests. (medicalxpress.com)
  • We also examine the role of the placenta as a barrier to maternally transmitted pathogens and conclude with a discussion on the strengths and weaknesses of commonly used models of the human placenta. (sciencemag.org)
  • The maternal-fetal interface is composed of the maternally derived decidua and the fetally derived placenta ( Fig. 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • In areas where Plasmodium falciparum is endemic, immunoglobulin G is acquired by the fetus in utero, mainly during the third trimester of pregnancy. (asm.org)
  • A number of sero-epidemiological field studies have investigated the determinants of naturally acquired immunity in children and adults in various settings with differing malaria transmission levels. (aksumuniversity.org)
  • There are no data to refute the assumption that natural SBV infection results in long-term immunity, as was seen earlier with natural infection of cattle with bluetongue virus serotype 8 ( 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • First, an analysis of the evolution of the persistence of immune protection in a theoretical framework accounting for maternal transfer of immunity reveals that longer-lived hosts are expected to invest in more persistent intragenerational and transgenerational immune responses. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Our study confirms that persistence of immunity has evolved as part of elaborate anti-parasitic defence strategies. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Building on a theoretical framework we developed previously [ 4 ], we study the evolution of the persistence of immune protection in maternally protected and recovered individuals. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Since 1963, OPV has been the recommended vaccine for inducing long-lasting immunity to poliomyelitis. (cdc.gov)
  • This is a prospective natural history study to define the levels of maternally-acquired neutralizing antibody (Ab) and other correlates of immunity that may protect against the development of dengue hemorrhagic fever in infants. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The colostral and vaccinal immunity presented inversely proportional profiles, with higher production of ABs at 6 months of age. (bvsalud.org)
  • however, susceptibility to infection increases as maternally acquired antibody wanes. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Immunity has memory, so that future exposure to the same antigen results in a much more rapid response. (vcahospitals.com)
  • Immunity can sometimes be overwhelmed when there is exposure to a particularly harmful strain of the microorganism, or when the animal is unduly stressed or is immunosuppressed . (vcahospitals.com)
  • Kurtzke et al described four small epidemics totalling 42 cases 4 and suggested that multiple sclerosis is acquired two years after exposure from 11 years of age onward, and that the first cases resulted from contact of Faroese residents with asymptomatic but infected British troops. (bmj.com)
  • Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk. (bvsalud.org)
  • 8. Beer A.E. and Billingham R.E.: Transplantation immunity and pregnancy: Influence of the immunological status of the mother on subsequent reactivity of offspring to skin homografts. (repro-med.net)
  • The powerful, durable protection conferred by the candidate vaccine is due in large part to its strong stimulation of CD4 helper T cells, which are important for maintaining long-term antibody immunity. (medicalxpress.com)
  • In addition to investing in more persistent immune responses in adults [ 3 ], longer-lived species would thus be expected to display strong and durable immunity in both exposed adults and newborns. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In the 98-day period of investigation, no significant effects of the GOS supplement were observed on clinical and blood parameters for immunity and general health in these foals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The risk of acquiring an episode of clinical malaria increased from birth to 6 months of age, after which it decreased. (asm.org)
  • The transmission of immunity from mother to young and the catabolism of immunoglobulins. (nih.gov)
  • We model a host population composed of individuals with different epidemiological status (see the electronic supplementary material, S1 for mathematical details): susceptible ( S ), infected ( I ), recovered ( R ) or passively protected by maternal immunity ( M ). The parasite is characterized by its horizontal transmission rate β and its virulence α . (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Non-infected babies born to HIV-positive mothers should be vaccinated early against measles to avoid acquiring the virus or passing it on to others. (thebodypro.com)
  • A study published in the November issue of Acta Paediatrica found that even if babies are born without HIV, their maternally derived protection against measles may be impaired by their mother's positive HIV status. (thebodypro.com)
  • Smedman and colleagues compared blood serum samples from 10 babies one to four months of age who were born to HIV mothers, but had not acquired the infection, to 10 healthy babies born to mothers without HIV. (thebodypro.com)
  • Because producing immunoglobulins is considered a physiologically demanding process, it has been suggested that the evolution of persistent transgenerational immunity is constrained by life-history traits such as lifespan [ 6 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Administration of Rhodiola kirilowii Extracts during Mouse Pregnancy and Lactation Stimulates Innate but Not Adaptive Immunity of the Offspring. (nih.gov)
  • Whether illness results or not depends on the immunity in the victim vs. the number of individual virus particles (i.e. the amount of virus) entering the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term autoinflammatory was coined to draw the distinction between this category of illnesses and the more classically recognized autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis, in which the hallmarks of adaptive immunity are more evident. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • An intramuscular challenge route may not be the optimal practice for studies involving vNDV as it does not imitate the natural infection route and significantly undervalues the contribution of local and cellular immunity. (jscimedcentral.com)
  • Recovery occurs at a rate γ , and recovered individuals can transfer their immunity passively at a rate θ to their offspring. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In germ-free mice, splenic CD4 + Th cells are skewed toward the Th2 cell subset and promote enhanced allergic responses and type 2 immunity ( 6 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • 13. Beer A.E., Billingham R.E. and Yang S.L.: Maternally induced transplantation immunity, tolerance and runt disease in rats. (repro-med.net)
  • Perhaps the most significant of these is the shifting of measles risks to age groups formerly protected by natural immunity. (ronpaulforums.com)