Immunity: Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Adaptive Immunity: Protection from an infectious disease agent that is mediated by B- and T- LYMPHOCYTES following exposure to specific antigen, and characterized by IMMUNOLOGIC MEMORY. It can result from either previous infection with that agent or vaccination (IMMUNITY, ACTIVE), or transfer of antibody or lymphocytes from an immune donor (IMMUNIZATION, PASSIVE).Immunity, Mucosal: Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.Immunity, Humoral: Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.Plant Immunity: The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.Immunity, Maternally-Acquired: Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.Mice, Inbred C57BLMice, Inbred BALB CImmunity, Herd: The non-susceptibility to infection of a large group of individuals in a population. A variety of factors can be responsible for herd immunity and this gives rise to the different definitions used in the literature. Most commonly, herd immunity refers to the case when, if most of the population is immune, infection of a single individual will not cause an epidemic. Also, in such immunized populations, susceptible individuals are not likely to become infected. Herd immunity can also refer to the case when unprotected individuals fail to contract a disease because the infecting organism has been banished from the population.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Vaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Receptors, Pattern Recognition: A large family of cell surface receptors that bind conserved molecular structures (PAMPS) present in pathogens. They play important roles in host defense by mediating cellular responses to pathogens.Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Toll-Like Receptors: A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.Immunization, Secondary: Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Models, Immunological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Interleukin-12: A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Immune System: The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Listeriosis: Infections with bacteria of the genus LISTERIA.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Bacteriocins: Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Antigen Presentation: The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Mice, Inbred C3HOrthomyxoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Melanoma, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumor that produces MELANIN in animals to provide a model for studying human MELANOMA.Protozoan Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed protozoa administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious protozoan disease.Listeria monocytogenes: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.Adoptive Transfer: Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Cross Protection: Protection conferred on a host by inoculation with one strain or component of a microorganism that prevents infection when later challenged with a similar strain. Most commonly the microorganism is a virus.Immunoglobulin A, Secretory: The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Cell Migration Inhibition: Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Immunotherapy, Adoptive: Form of adoptive transfer where cells with antitumor activity are transferred to the tumor-bearing host in order to mediate tumor regression. The lymphoid cells commonly used are lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). This is usually considered a form of passive immunotherapy. (From DeVita, et al., Cancer, 1993, pp.305-7, 314)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Colicins: Bacteriocins elaborated by strains of Escherichia coli and related species. They are proteins or protein-lipopolysaccharide complexes lethal to other strains of the same species.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Vaccines, Subunit: Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer: Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Influenza Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.Pseudomonas syringae: A species of gram-negative, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It is differentiated into approximately 50 pathovars with different plant pathogenicities and host specificities.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Vaccines, Inactivated: Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Immune Evasion: Methods used by pathogenic organisms to evade a host's immune system.BCG Vaccine: An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Malaria Vaccines: Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Interleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.AIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.Disease Resistance: The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Toll-Like Receptor 4: A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.Adenoviridae: A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic: The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Lymphocyte Depletion: Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88: An intracellular signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR and INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTORS signal transduction. It forms a signaling complex with the activated cell surface receptors and members of the IRAK KINASES.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Immunotherapy, Active: Active immunization where vaccine is administered for therapeutic or preventive purposes. This can include administration of immunopotentiating agents such as BCG vaccine and Corynebacterium parvum as well as biological response modifiers such as interferons, interleukins, and colony-stimulating factors in order to directly stimulate the immune system.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Viruses: Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Mucous Membrane: An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.Measles: A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.Smallpox: An acute, highly contagious, often fatal infectious disease caused by an orthopoxvirus characterized by a biphasic febrile course and distinctive progressive skin eruptions. Vaccination has succeeded in eradicating smallpox worldwide. (Dorland, 28th ed)Interleukins: Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Toll-Like Receptor 2: A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with other TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS. It interacts with multiple ligands including PEPTIDOGLYCAN, bacterial LIPOPROTEINS, lipoarabinomannan, and a variety of PORINS.Immunosuppression: Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Interleukin-17: A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.Mycobacterium bovis: The bovine variety of the tubercle bacillus. It is called also Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Plasmodium yoelii: A species of PLASMODIUM causing malaria in rodents.Alum Compounds: Aluminum metal sulfate compounds used medically as astringents and for many industrial purposes. They are used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of ulcerative stomatitis, leukorrhea, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, metritis, and minor wounds.Tetanus: A disease caused by tetanospasmin, a powerful protein toxin produced by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI. Tetanus usually occurs after an acute injury, such as a puncture wound or laceration. Generalized tetanus, the most common form, is characterized by tetanic muscular contractions and hyperreflexia. Localized tetanus presents itself as a mild condition with manifestations restricted to muscles near the wound. It may progress to the generalized form.Fungal Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed fungi administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious fungal disease.Mice, Inbred CBAVirulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Autoimmunity: Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Eimeria: A genus of protozoan parasites of the subclass COCCIDIA. Various species are parasitic in the epithelial cells of the liver and intestines of man and other animals.Cross-Priming: Class I-restricted activation of CD8-POSITIVE LYMPHOCYTES resulting from ANTIGEN PRESENTATION of exogenous ANTIGENS (cross-presentation). This is in contrast to normal activation of these lymphocytes (direct-priming) which results from presentation of endogenous antigens.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Antibodies, Helminth: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Plasmodium falciparum: A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Skin Tests: Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.Immunomodulation: Alteration of the immune system or of an immune response by agents that activate or suppress its function. This can include IMMUNIZATION or administration of immunomodulatory drugs. Immunomodulation can also encompass non-therapeutic alteration of the immune system effected by endogenous or exogenous substances.Plasmodium berghei: A protozoan parasite of rodents transmitted by the mosquito Anopheles dureni.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Injections, Intradermal: The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.beta-Defensins: DEFENSINS found mainly in epithelial cells.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Injections, Subcutaneous: Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.Infection: Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms that can cause pathological conditions or diseases.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Malaria, Falciparum: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.Influenza A virus: The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.Injections, Intraperitoneal: Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Chlamydia muridarum: Species of CHLAMYDIA causing pneumonitis in mice and hamsters. These isolates formerly belonged to CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS.Strongylida Infections: Infections with nematodes of the order STRONGYLIDA.Leishmania major: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) of the Old World. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.Plasmodium: A genus of protozoa that comprise the malaria parasites of mammals. Four species infect humans (although occasional infections with primate malarias may occur). These are PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; PLASMODIUM OVALE, and PLASMODIUM VIVAX. Species causing infection in vertebrates other than man include: PLASMODIUM BERGHEI; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; P. vinckei, and PLASMODIUM YOELII in rodents; P. brasilianum, PLASMODIUM CYNOMOLGI; and PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI in monkeys; and PLASMODIUM GALLINACEUM in chickens.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Immunologic Factors: Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.Smallpox Vaccine: A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)Immunocompetence: The ability of lymphoid cells to mount a humoral or cellular immune response when challenged by antigen.Parasitemia: The presence of parasites (especially malarial parasites) in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)Toll-Like Receptor 9: A pattern recognition receptor that binds unmethylated CPG CLUSTERS. It mediates cellular responses to bacterial pathogens by distinguishing between self and bacterial DNA.Tumor Escape: The ability of tumors to evade destruction by the IMMUNE SYSTEM. Theories concerning possible mechanisms by which this takes place involve both cellular immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and humoral immunity (ANTIBODY FORMATION), and also costimulatory pathways related to CD28 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD28) and CD80 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD80).Whooping Cough: A respiratory infection caused by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS and characterized by paroxysmal coughing ending in a prolonged crowing intake of breath.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Pertussis Vaccine: A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Th17 Cells: Subset of helper-effector T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete IL-17, IL-17F, and IL-22. These cytokines are involved in host defenses and tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.

Gene silencing: plants and viruses fight it out. (1/11788)

Plants can become 'immune' to attack by viruses by degrading specific viral RNA, but some plant viruses have evolved the general capacity to suppress this resistance mechanism.  (+info)

Constitutive activation of Stat3 signaling confers resistance to apoptosis in human U266 myeloma cells. (2/11788)

Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is the major survival factor for myeloma tumor cells and induces signaling through the STAT proteins. We report that one STAT family member, Stat3, is constitutively activated in bone marrow mononuclear cells from patients with multiple myeloma and in the IL-6-dependent human myeloma cell line U266. Moreover, U266 cells are inherently resistant to Fas-mediated apoptosis and express high levels of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-xL. Blocking IL-6 receptor signaling from Janus kinases to the Stat3 protein inhibits Bcl-xL expression and induces apoptosis, demonstrating that Stat3 signaling is essential for the survival of myeloma tumor cells. These findings provide evidence that constitutively activated Stat3 signaling contributes to the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma by preventing apoptosis.  (+info)

Rapid autologous marrow recovery and eradication of infectious mononucleosis despite severe immunosuppression following second transplantation for aplastic anemia. (3/11788)

A patient with aplastic anemia failed to respond to immunosuppressive therapy and first marrow transplantation (BMT). Recovery of autologous hematopoiesis was rapid following a second stem cell transplant with a non-myeloablative preparatory regimen. The autologous immune response to infectious mononucleosis (IM) 4 weeks post-transplant was normal despite recent and ongoing severe immunosuppression.  (+info)

Innate and acquired humoral immunities to influenza virus are mediated by distinct arms of the immune system. (4/11788)

"Natural" Igs, mainly IgM, comprise part of the innate immune system present in healthy individuals, including antigen-free mice. These Igs are thought to delay pathogenicity of infecting agents until antigen-induced high affinity Igs of all isotypes are produced. Previous studies suggested that the acquired humoral response arises directly from the innate response, i.e., that B cells expressing natural IgM, upon antigen encounter, differentiate to give rise both to cells that secrete high amounts of IgM and to cells that undergo affinity maturation and isotype switching. However, by using a murine model of influenza virus infection, we demonstrate here that the B cells that produce natural antiviral IgM neither increase their IgM production nor undergo isotype switching to IgG2a in response to the infection. These cells are distinct from the B cells that produce the antiviral response after encounter with the pathogen. Our data therefore demonstrate that the innate and the acquired humoral immunities to influenza virus are separate effector arms of the immune system and that antigen exposure per se is not sufficient to increase natural antibody production.  (+info)

Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase gene disruption conferred mice resistant to streptozotocin-induced diabetes. (5/11788)

Streptozotocin (STZ), a glucose analogue known to induce diabetes in experimental animals, causes DNA strand breaks and subsequent activation of poly(ADPribose) polymerase (Parp). Because Parp uses NAD as a substrate, extensive DNA damage will result in reduction of cellular NAD level. In fact, STZ induces NAD depletion and cell death in isolated pancreatic islets in vitro. Activation of Parp therefore is thought to play an important role in STZ-induced diabetes. In the present study, we established Parp-deficient (Parp-/-) mice by disrupting Parp exon 1 by using the homologous recombination technique. These mice were used to examine the possible involvement of Parp in STZ-induced beta-cell damage in vivo. The wild-type (Parp+/+) mice showed significant increases in blood glucose concentration from 129 mg/dl to 218, 370, 477, and 452 mg/dl on experimental days 1, 7, 21, and 60, respectively, after a single injection of 180 mg STZ/kg body weight. In contrast, the concentration of blood glucose in Parp-/- mice remained normal up to day 7, slightly increased on day 21, but returned to normal levels on day 60. STZ injection caused extensive necrosis in the islets of Parp+/+ mice on day 1, with subsequent progressive islet atrophy and loss of functional beta cells from day 7. In contrast, the extent of islet beta-cell death and dysfunction was markedly less in Parp-/- mice. Our findings clearly implicate Parp activation in islet beta-cell damage and glucose intolerance induced by STZ in vivo.  (+info)

Identification of regions in alleles of the flax rust resistance gene L that determine differences in gene-for-gene specificity. (6/11788)

Thirteen alleles (L, L1 to L11, and LH) from the flax L locus, which encode Toll/interleukin-1 receptor homology-nucleotide binding site-leucine-rich repeat (TIR-NBS-LRR) rust resistance proteins, were sequenced and compared to provide insight into their evolution and into the determinants of gene-for-gene resistance specificity. The predicted L6 and L11 proteins differ solely in the LRR region, whereas L6 and L7 differ solely in the TIR region. Thus, specificity differences between alleles can be determined by both the LRR and TIR regions. Functional analysis in transgenic plants of recombinant alleles constructed in vitro provided further information: L10-L2 and L6-L2 recombinants, encoding the LRR of L2, conferred L2 resistance specificity, and an L2-L10 recombinant, encoding the LRR of L10, conferred a novel specificity. The sequence comparisons also indicate that the evolution of L alleles has probably involved reassortment of variation, resulting from accumulated point mutations, by intragenic recombination. In addition, large deletion events have occurred in the LRR-encoding regions of L1 and L8, and duplication events have occurred in the LRR-encoding region of L2.  (+info)

Cyclophilin C-associated protein: a normal secreted glycoprotein that down-modulates endotoxin and proinflammatory responses in vivo. (7/11788)

Mouse cyclophilin C-associated protein (CyCAP) is a member of the scavenger-receptor cysteine-rich domain superfamily and is 69% identical to the human Mac-2 binding protein. Here, we show that CyCAP is a widely expressed secreted glycoprotein that modulates the host response to endotoxin. Gene-targeted CyCAP-deficient mice are more sensitive to the lethal effects of endotoxin. In response to endotoxin, CyCAP-deficient mice overproduced interleukin 12 and interferon-gamma systemically and tumor necrosis factor alpha locally; these are proinflammatory molecules that also promote T helper 1 responses. Furthermore, macrophages stimulated in vitro with endotoxin in serum deficient in CyCAP secreted more tumor necrosis factor alpha, supporting the proposal that CyCAP specifically down-modulates endotoxin signaling.  (+info)

Comparative genomics and host resistance against infectious diseases. (8/11788)

The large size and complexity of the human genome have limited the identification and functional characterization of components of the innate immune system that play a critical role in front-line defense against invading microorganisms. However, advances in genome analysis (including the development of comprehensive sets of informative genetic markers, improved physical mapping methods, and novel techniques for transcript identification) have reduced the obstacles to discovery of novel host resistance genes. Study of the genomic organization and content of widely divergent vertebrate species has shown a remarkable degree of evolutionary conservation and enables meaningful cross-species comparison and analysis of newly discovered genes. Application of comparative genomics to host resistance will rapidly expand our understanding of human immune defense by facilitating the translation of knowledge acquired through the study of model organisms. We review the rationale and resources for comparative genomic analysis and describe three examples of host resistance genes successfully identified by this approach.  (+info)

IG-I is a major innate immune sensor for viral infection, triggering an interferon-mediated antiviral response upon cytosolic detection of viral RNA. Double-strandedness and 5-terminal triphosphates were identified as motifs required to elicit optimal immunological signaling. However, very little is known about the response dynamics of the RIG-I pathway, which is crucial for the cells ability to react to diverse classes of viral RNA, while maintaining self-tolerance. In the present study, we addressed the molecular mechanism of RIG-I signal detection and its translation into pathway activation. By employing highly quantitative methods, we could establish the length of the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) to be the most critical determinant of response strength. Size exclusion chromatography and direct visualization in scanning force microscopy suggested, that this was due to cooperative oligomerization of RIG-I along dsRNA. Initiation efficiency of this oligomerization process was critically ...
Route of Infection Determines the Impact of Type I Interferons on Innate Immunity to Listeria monocytogenes. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The innate immune system plays a critical role in both the initial response to an invading pathogen, which frequently limits or contains pathogen replication and dissemination, and the induction of an effective adaptive immune response, which is most often the primary mechanism for pathogen clearance. The characteristics of the innate immune response are determined in part by the pathogen initiating the response but can also be influenced by the type of cell in which the response is generated. In this report, we examined the functional PRR-mediated pathways present in human neuronal cells and differentiated primary rat neurons, with a particular focus on those pathways previously identified as being important for antiviral innate immune responses in other cell types. We drew four main conclusions. First, human neuronal cells possess functional TLR3-, TLR4-, RIG-I-, and MDA5-mediated PRR pathways whose activity was maturation-dependent. Second, both extracellular and transfected poly(I-C) induced ...
Detection of pathogens by all living organisms is the primary step needed to implement a coherent and efficient immune response. This implies a mediation by different soluble and/or membrane-anchored proteins related to innate immune receptors called PRRs (pattern recognition receptors) to trigger immune signaling pathways. In most invertebrates, their roles have been inferred by analogy to those already characterized in vertebrate homologues. Despite the induction of their gene expression upon challenge and the presence of structural domains associated with the detection of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) in their sequence, their exact role in the induction of immune response and their binding capacity still remain to be demonstrated. To this purpose, we developed a fast interactome approach, usable on any host-pathogen couple, to identify soluble proteins capable of directly or indirectly detecting the presence of pathogens. To investigate the molecular basis of immune recognition
TY - JOUR. T1 - An essential role of macrophage inflammatory protein 1α/CCL3 on the expression of hosts innate immunities against infectious complications. AU - Takahashi, Hitoshi. AU - Tashiro, Tsuguhiko. AU - Miyazaki, Masaru. AU - Kobayashi, Makiko. AU - Pollard, Richard B.. AU - Suzuki, Fujio. PY - 2002/12/1. Y1 - 2002/12/1. N2 - Sepsis was induced by well-controlled cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in macrophage inflammatory protein 1α (MIP-1α)/CCL3 knock-out (CCL3-/-) and severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. CCL3-/- mice and their littermates (CCL3+/+ mice) treated with anti-CCL3 monoclonal antibodies were susceptible (0-20% survival) to CLP-induced sepsis, and CCL3-/- mice supplemented with recombinant (r)CCL3 (250 ng/mouse) and CCL3+/+ mice were resistant (70-80% survival). The resistance of SCID mice to CLP was markedly improved by the rCCL3 administration (88% survival), and SCID mice treated with saline were shown to be middling resistant to the same CLP (45% survival). ...
The detection of intracellular microbial DNA is critical to appropriate innate immune responses; however, knowledge of how such DNA is sensed is limited. Here we identify IFI16, a PYHIN protein, as an intracellular DNA sensor that mediates the induction of interferon-beta (IFN-beta). IFI16 directly associated with IFN-beta-inducing viral DNA motifs. STING, a critical mediator of IFN-beta responses to DNA, was recruited to IFI16 after DNA stimulation. Lowering the expression of IFI16 or its mouse ortholog p204 by RNA-mediated interference inhibited gene induction and activation of the transcription factors IRF3 and NF-kappa B induced by DNA and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). IFI16 (p204) is the first PYHIN protein to our knowledge shown to be involved in IFN-beta induction. Thus, the PYHIN proteins IFI16 and AIM2 form a new family of innate DNA sensors we call AIM2-like receptors (ALRs ...
Innate immunity is the inborn immunity of the person. Innate immunity is non-specific in nature. The response of innate immune depends on the recognition o..
Patterns of selection acting on immune defence genes have recently been the focus of considerable interest. Yet, when it comes to vertebrates, studies have mainly focused on the acquired branch of the immune system. Consequently, the direction and strength of selection acting on genes of the vertebrate innate immune defence remain poorly understood. Here, we present a molecular analysis of selection on an important receptor of the innate immune system of vertebrates, the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), across 17 rodent species. Although purifying selection was the prevalent evolutionary force acting on most parts of the rodent TLR2, we found that codons in close proximity to pathogen- binding and TLR2-TLR1 heterodimerization sites have been subject to positive selection. This indicates that parasite-mediated selection is not restricted to acquired immune system genes like the major histocompatibility complex, but also affects innate defence genes. To obtain a comprehensive understanding of ...
Lien vers Pubmed [PMID] - 21512573. Nature 2011 Apr;472(7343):361-5. TRIM5 is a RING domain-E3 ubiquitin ligase that restricts infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 and other retroviruses immediately following virus invasion of the target cell cytoplasm. Antiviral potency correlates with TRIM5 avidity for the retrovirion capsid lattice and several reports indicate that TRIM5 has a role in signal transduction, but the precise mechanism of restriction is unknown. Here we demonstrate that TRIM5 promotes innate immune signalling and that this activity is amplified by retroviral infection and interaction with the capsid lattice. Acting with the heterodimeric, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UBC13-UEV1A (also known as UBE2N-UBE2V1), TRIM5 catalyses the synthesis of unattached K63-linked ubiquitin chains that activate the TAK1 (also known as MAP3K7) kinase complex and stimulate AP-1 and NFκB signalling. Interaction with the HIV-1 capsid lattice greatly enhances the UBC13-UEV1A-dependent E3 ...
My prior studies focused on the pathogenesis of cigarette-smoke (CS) -induced lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), wherein we demonstrated that the IL-18 system plays an important role in the pathogenesis of CS-induced emphysematous lung destruction. These studies led me to question the effect of CS on innate immunity on the interaction between the host and microorganisms and, for this purpose, I had established a murine cigarette smoke and virus co-exposure model. These studies revealed important insight into the interaction between CS and the innate immunity resulting in a publication in the Journal of Clinical Investigation. In that study, we identified that CS smoke selectively augments respiratory antiviral innate immune responses via a MAVS-RLHs antiviral signaling pathway. To gain better understanding of the mechanisms, my laboratory is focusing on the role(s) of mitochondrial dysfunction and immune dysregulation in the setting of smoking exposure. By ...
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Oral manifestations of HIV have been documented since the initial presentation of the HIV/AIDS epidemic of the 80s. The most common oral complication was candi...
Immunity System. Discuss about Immunity System, Two Divisions of Mammal Immune System, INNATE IMMUNITY (NON-SPECIFIC), ACQUIRED IMMUNITY....
Mycobacterial infection induces a specific human innate immune response John D Blischak , Ludovic Tailleux , Amy Mitrano , Luis B Barreiro , Yoav Gilad doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/017483 The innate immune system provides the first response to pathogen infection and orchestrates the activation of the adaptive immune system. Though a large component of the innate immune…
Innate immunity represents the foremost barrier to viral infection. In order to infect a cell efficiently, viruses need to evade innate immune effectors such as interferons and inflammatory cytokines. Pattern recognition receptors can detect viral components or pathogen-associated molecular patterns. These receptors then elicit innate immune responses that result in the generation of type I interferons and proinflammatory cytokines. Organized by the Society for General Microbiology, one session of this conference focused on the current state-of-the-art knowledge on innate barriers to infection of different RNA and DNA viruses. Experts working on innate immunity in the context of viral infection provided insight into different aspects of innate immune recognition and also discussed areas for future research. Here, we provide an overview of the session on innate barriers to infection.. ...
Microbial DNA induces the expression of type I IFNs and proinflammatory cytokines, leading to the potent induction of innate immunity (Stetson and Medzhitov, 2006a; Kawai and Akira, 2009). Furthermore, synthesized DNA stimulates the innate immune system and acts as a good adjuvant to induce the efficient induction of acquired immune responses (Ishii et al., 2008a). Indeed, TLR9, the receptor for single-stranded DNAs containing unmethylated CpG motifs, is involved in the protection of hosts suffering DNA virus infection, and the ligands for TLR9 efficiently induce acquired immune responses upon vaccination. However, dsDNA derived from bacteria and DNA viruses, as well as host genomic DNA from dying cells, could induce the expression of both type I IFNs and IFN-inducible genes via a TLR-independent pathway (Okabe et al., 2005; Ishii et al., 2006; Stetson and Medzhitov, 2006b; Stetson et al., 2008). Although the specific sensors involved in dsDNA-induced innate immune responses are still unclear, ...
The HIV Immune Networks Team (HINT) is a multidisciplinary group comprised of thirteen investigators located in seven different institutions across the United States. Our aim is to understand the early immune response to HIV-1 infection using a systems biology approach. To accomplish this goal, we have assembled a team of world experts in the areas of systems biology, virology, immunology, human genetics, and computational biology. We aim to develop rigorously-validated computational models that reflect, as well as predict, the early innate immune response to HIV-1 exposure. These models will provide valuable new insights into how our innate immune system responds to HIV-1 infection, and ultimately dictate course of infection and disease progression. A mathematical understanding of these dynamic molecular circuits will aid in the development of HIV-1 vaccines and antiviral therapeutics.. ...
Numerous human genetic and acquired diseases could be corrected or ameliorated if viruses are harnessed to safely and effectively deliver therapeutic genes to diseased cells and tissues in vivo. Innate immune and inflammatory response represents one of the key stumbling blocks during the development of viral-based therapies. In this review, current data on the early innate immune responses to viruses and to the most commonly used gene therapy vectors (using adenovirus and adeno-associated virus) will be discussed. Recent findings in the field may help develop new approaches to moderate these innate immune anti-viral responses and thus improve the safety of viral vectors for human gene therapy applications.
Multicellular organisms, in order to survive, have developed a wide range of defense mechanisms that have the ability to rapidly recognize pathogens and mount an early effective antimicrobial response by preventing infection, destroying the invading pathogens or neutralizing their virulence factors. These functions are the domain of innate immune cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells (DCs), neutrophils, natural killer (NK) cells and NKT cells. Although the innate immune system was described by Metchnikoff over a century ago, there are still at least three fascinating problems in host innate defense against microbial invasion. First, how does the host innate defense recognize and destroy many different pathogens? Second, how does the host discriminate between constituents of the external world, "microbial non-self", and the constituents of "self"? And third, how does the innate immune system direct and dictate the type and magnitude of the adaptive immune responses. The main focus of our ...
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are major receptors of the host innate immune system that recognize conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) of invading microbes. Activation of TLR signaling culminates in the expression of multiple genes in a coordinate and kinetically defined manner. In this review, we summarize the current studies describing the chromatin landscape of TLR-responsive inflammatory genes and how changes to this chromatin landscape govern cell type-specific and temporal gene expression. We further elaborate classical endotoxin tolerance and epigenetic mechanisms controlling tolerance and interferon priming effects on inflammatory promoters.
The cellular localisation of many innate signalling events following viral infection has yet to be elucidated, however there has been a few cases in which membranes of certain cellular organelles have acted as platforms to these events. Of these, lipid droplets (LDs) have recently been identified as signalling platforms for innate TLR7 and 9 signalling. Despite their wide range of similar roles in various metabolic pathways, LDs have been overlooked as potential platforms for antiviral innate signalling events. This study established an in vitro model to evaluate the efficiency of the early innate immune response in cells with reduced LD content to the viral mimics, dsDNA and dsRNA, and Sendai viral infection. Using RT-qPCR, the expression of IFN- and IFN-λ was quantified following stimulation along with the expression of specific ISGs. Luciferase based assays evaluated the combined expression of ISRE-promoter driven ISGs under IFN- stimulation. Cellular LD content did not alter the entry of ...
The purpose of the program project grant is to evaluate the placental, decidual and maternal immune interactions from a new perspective, that a positive interaction between placental and maternal components exist together to support and protect pregnancy and does not represent the classic graft/rejection interaction. Trophoblast cells, decidual (stromal and endothelial) cells, as well as cells of the innate immune system, communicate with each other throughout a network of cytokines and chemokines. Such crosstalk occurs through the expression of innate immune sensors, known as Toll-like Receptors (TLRs) that are expressed at the maternal-fetal interface and serve as sensors for the recognition and response to the environment throughout implantation and gestation. Our studies focus on the expression, regulation and function of TLRs in each of the cellular components of the maternal-fetal interface, and to evaluate their role in pregnancy success providing a complete picture of molecular ...
In this study we focused on the signaling of V antigen-induced innate immunity responses. For the first time we demonstrate that a bacterial nonlipidated protein associated with virulence and derived synthetic oligopeptides are capable to induce IL-10 production via TLR2/CD14 signaling. In contrast to the pseudomonas rPcrV, rLcrV (range of activity: 10-100 nM) transmits signaling via TLR2 in a CD14-dependent manner leading to IL-10 induction which finally causes TNF-α suppression thus probably enabling yersiniae to evade the host innate immune system. Several lines of evidence obtained in vitro both in murine and human cell systems support this conclusion: (a) Only CD14-TLR2-cotransfected HEK 293 cells, but not cells transfected with TLR2 alone responded with NF-κB-dependent ELAM-1 promoter luciferase activity upon rLcrV stimulation. (b) Blocking anti-CD14 monoclonal antibodies, but not nonblocking isotype anti-CD14 antibodies completely abolished TNF-α suppression in LcrV-treated MonoMac-6 ...
The Toll/interleukin-1 receptor/resistance protein (TIR) domain is a protein-protein interaction domain consisting of 125-200 residues, widely distributed in animals, plants and bacteria but absent from fungi, archea and viruses. In plants and animals, these domains are found in proteins with functions in innate immune pathways, while in bacteria, some TIR domain-containing proteins interfere with the innate immune pathways in the host. TIR domains function as protein scaffolds, mostly involving self-association and homotypic interactions with other TIR domains. In the last 15 years, the three-dimensional structures of TIR domains from several mammalian, plant and bacterial proteins have been reported. These structures, jointly with functional data including the identification of interacting proteins, have started to provide insight into the molecular basis of the assembly of animal and plant immune signaling complexes, and for host immunosuppression by bacterial pathogens. This review focuses ...
Dr. Darveau received his Ph.D. in bacteriology from Washington State University and did his postdoctoral research in the Department of Microbiology at the University of British Columbia studying structure/function relationships in the outer membrane of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. He is a Research Professor in the Department of Periodontics.. Our research is centered on the innate host response to microbial colonization and infection. We are keenly interested in the inflammatory component of the innate host response. Our laboratory studies both the microbial components that elicit inflammation and the activation pathways employed by the host in response to different microbial components. We study responses to both commensal and pathogenic bacteria. We employ biochemical isolation and analytical techniques to characterize the microbial components. Examples of microbial components that we have studied are lipopolysaccharide form gram negative bacteria and lipoteichoic acid from gram positive bacteria. ...
Chronic kidney disease is widespread in the western world with bacterial infection and sepsis as common complication. It has been shown that innate immune defence, represented by dysfunction of neutrophil granulocytes, is impaired in chronic kidney disease. Another impact of chronic kidney disease on innate immunity is the chronic activation of neutrophils leading to high levels of inflammatory cytokines, thus contributing to protein oxidation. Oxidation of human serum albumin (HSA), the major plasma protein, occurs in chronic kidney disease and leads to further activation of neutrophils. Another important impact of HSA oxidation is the decrease of its binding capacity leading to impaired detoxification ability of albumin. This includes reduced clearance of endotoxin, a major component of the gram negative bacterial cell wall. Circulating endotoxin is recognized by complex formation with lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) followed by binding to CD14 and toll-like receptor (TLR) 4. High ...
1 Functions of the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. Innate Immune Cells Adaptive Immune Cells Immune recognition Immune effector mechanisms Immune regulation Immunological memory response - particularly the adaptive arm of the immune response - occurs in the secondary lymphoid organs draining the site of infection. The immune system has evolved a number of effector mechanisms capable of destroying pathogenic organisms. 1). The innate arm of the immune system recognises pathogens non-specifically and generates immediate generic mechanisms of pathogen clearance. Many cytokine receptors are dimeric, and the chains making up some of the cytokine receptors are promiscuous. For example, the common ␥ chain (CD132) is shared by a number of cytokine receptors (notably the receptors for interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, IL-15 and IL-21), and the IL-4R chain (IL-4R␣) pairs with IL-␣13R to convey signals in response to IL-13. 8 Adaptive immunity The adaptive immune response differs ...
To differentiate between the contribution of mammary epithelial cells (MEC) and infiltrating immune cells to gene expression profiles of mammary tissue during early stage mastitis, we investigated in goats the in vivo transcriptional response of MEC to an experimental intra mammary infection (IMI) with Staphylococcus aureus, using a non-invasive RNA sampling method from milk fat globules (MFG). Microarrays were used to record gene expression patterns during the first 24 hours post-infection (hpi). This approach was combined with laser capture microdissection of MEC from frozen slides of mammary tissue to analyze some relevant genes at 30 hpi. During the early stages post-inoculation, MEC play an important role in the recruitment and activation of inflammatory cells through the IL-8 signalling pathway and initiate a sharp induction of innate immune genes predominantly associated with the pro-inflammatory response. At 30 hpi, MEC express genes encoding different acute phase proteins, including ...
The consequences of altered ADAR1 function are severe, from embryonic lethality in mice to debilitating neurological disease and systemic interferonopathy in humans with loss-of-function alleles [22, 52], to putative oncogenic roles when overexpressed [31, 53, 54], so it is critical to clearly define the key function(s) of ADAR1. In contrast to the physiologically essential role of transcript recoding by ADAR2, the importance of recoding to the biology of ADAR1 was unknown. In addition to protein recoding, ADAR1 can edit dsRNA substrates resulting in changes in multiple aspects of miRNA biogenesis or function, affect mRNA stability, 3-UTR length and translation, and modify splice site usage in addition to altering dsRNA secondary structures, which have been proposed to interface with the innate immune sensing system [19, 55]. We now demonstrate that the absence of ADAR1-mediated editing is surprisingly well tolerated, once the innate immune sensor MDA5 is deleted. Adar1 E861A/E861A Ifih1 -/- ...
The innate immune mechanism described here clears bacteria and protects against pneumonia. We show that in response to infection, pleural B cells relocate to the lung and produce abundant natural IgM, which is known to protect against infection (Boes et al., 1998; Baumgarth et al., 2000; Fabrizio et al., 2007; Choi and Baumgarth, 2008; Litvack et al., 2011; Schwartz et al., 2012). B cell-derived GM-CSF is the autocrine instructor required for emergency IgM production. Recently identified IRA B cells, which differentiate from B1a B cells in the mouse via direct TLR-dependent pathogen recognition, are key to this process and therefore to early innate immune defense.. GM-CSF was identified in the 1960s as a colony stimulator of granulocytes and mononuclear cells, though not erythrocytes (Bradley and Metcalf, 1966). GM-CSF-deficient mice, which were independently generated by two groups in 1994 (Dranoff et al., 1994; Stanley et al., 1994), show no striking perturbations of hematopoiesis in the ...
... responses to tumors and virus-like infections. been determined, including NKp30CN7-L6, great cell lectin-like receptor G1Ccadherin, and NKp80CAICL. Right here, we explain crystal clear constructions established to day of NK cell receptors destined to MHC, MHC-related, and non-MHC ligands. Jointly, these constructions reveal the varied solutions that NK receptors possess created to understand these substances, therefore allowing the legislation of NK cytolytic activity by both sponsor and virus-like ligands. discussion), but also types on the same cell (discussion) (59, 60), as discussed below. LILR Reputation of UL18, a Viral MHC-I Mirror Among the bacteria that possess attained LY 2874455 great achievement in inventing strategies for resistant evasion are the cytomegaloviruses, whose genomes ITGAM encode necessary protein that get in the way with both NK T-cell and cell identification, as well as antigen application and ...
The investigators hypothesize that neutrophils and monocytes developed under the influence of Interferon- gamma-1b (IFN-γ-1b, Actimmune*) in vivo will display
Ruth R. Montgomery is a cellular immunologist with particular expertise in use of novel technology for human translational studies. Her research employs systems wide studies to identify individual differences in immune responses that lead to divergent outcomes to infection. Her group focuses on effects of aging on innate immunity and individual variation influencing susceptibility to West Nile, dengue, and Zika viruses, among others. She has overseen studies of immune responsiveness in human cohorts with successful enrollment of ,1800 healthy individuals. Dr. Montgomerys work is notable for her use of primary human cells to demonstrate immune related mechanisms and illuminate potential avenues for therapeutic interventions. She is Director of the CyTOF facility and Associate Dean for Scientific Affairs ...
Research funded by the U.S. Poultry & Egg Association studied the functional genomic and DNA microarray approach to identify key innate immunity genes as a novel selection method to identify chickens with increased resistance to disease.
Innate immunity is essential for survival in a world filled with microbial pathogens. Cells of the innate immune system are the bodys first responders, arriving soon after foreign elements are detected. Some innate cells find and engulf microorganisms, while others release chemicals that kill the organism directly. Still other cells begin recruiting other specialized immune components to the region. Severe defects in the innate immune system make humans highly susceptible to normally benign infections, which can then become life threatening. For instance, babies born without functional neutrophils one of the primary cell types of the innate immune system do not live more than a few days due to the effects of infection. While the adaptive immune system, which forms the other half of the human immune system, has been studied since the dawn of immunology, it is only in the last few years that researchers have begun to understand the innate immune system in detail, Ulevitch says. The innate immune ...
Innate immunity is the first line of defense against invading pathogens. This defense system can be found in plants, vertebrates, and even invertebrates, but its mechanisms of action are non-specific (unlike an adaptive immune response). This type of response does not help the immune system develop a memory response to help with future recognition of pathogens. Some of the major components of innate immunity include: the complement cascade, phagocytosis, Toll-like receptors, and chemotaxis/extravasation. Skin and stomach acid serve as physical barriers to pathogens. Phagocytosis can lead to antigen presentation, which bridges innate and adaptive immunity. BioLegend develops and manufactures world-class, cutting-edge immunological reagents for biomedical research, offered at an outstanding value.
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Authors: Bardoel BW, Strijp JA.. During infection, our innate immune system is the first line of defense and has evolved to clear invading bacteria immediately. To do so, recognition is the key element. However, how does the innate immune system distinguish self from nonself, and how does it recognize all bacteria (estimated to be far over a million species)? The answer lies in the recognition of evolutionary conserved structures. In this review, we approach this phenomenon from the bacterial perspective. What are the evolutionary conserved structures in bacteria, and what strategies are there in the human innate immune system to sense these structures? We illustrate most examples both at the functional as well as at the molecular level. Furthermore, we highlight how pathogenic bacteria can evade this recognition to survive better in the human host which in turn can result in life-threatening diseases.. ...
Tolerance-like innate immunity and spleen injury: a novel discovery via the weekly administrations and consecutive injections of PEGylated emulsions Long Wang,* Chunling Wang,* Jiao Jiao, Yuqing Su, Xiaobo Cheng, Zhenjun Huang, Xinrong Liu, Yihui DengCollege of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: There has been an increasing interest in the study of the innate immune system in recent years. However, few studies have focused on whether innate immunity can acquire tolerance. Therefore, in this study, we investigated tolerance in the innate immune system via the consecutive weekly and daily injections of emulsions modified with polyethylene glycol (PEG), referred to as PEGylated emulsions (PE). The effects of these injections of PE on pharmacokinetics and biodistribution were studied in normal and macrophage-depleted rats. Additionally, we evaluated the antigenic specificity of immunologic tolerance
The spleen is an important site for generating protective immune responses against pathogens. After infection, immune cells undergo rapid reorganization to initiate and maintain localized inflammatory responses; however, the mechanisms governing this spatial and temporal cellular reorganization remain unclear. We show that the strategic position of splenic marginal zone CD169+ macrophages is vital for rapid initiation of antibacterial responses. In addition to controlling initial bacterial growth, CD169+ macrophages orchestrate a second phase of innate protection by mediating the transport of bacteria to splenic T cell zones. This compartmentalization of bacteria within the spleen was essential for driving the reorganization of innate immune cells into hierarchical clusters and for local interferon-γ production near sites of bacterial replication foci. Our results show that both phases of the antimicrobial innate immune response were dependent on CD169+ macrophages, and, in their absence, the ...
The purpose of the innate immunity system is to keep away all pathogens. After, the pathogen makes an appearance in the body, the innate system of defense acts very rapidly. The major point in dealing with the innate system of defense is that it is nonspecific. Therefore, it will approach any pathogen it comes into contact with. The innate systems of defense are very helpful yet we overlook them quite often. The skin is probably the best innate line of defense. It excludes most pathogens from entering the body. Cilia in mucous membranes help sweep out airborne pathogens and dust. Tears, nasal secretions, and saliva are also good because they contain bacteria destroying enzymes. The innate system is also known for phagocytic cells ("phago"-eating, "cyte"-cell) which migrate to affected areas and engulfs the pathogens. Phagocytic cells include: Neutrophils, Macrophages, and Dendritic cells that are part of the white blood cell fraction. Pathogens and infected cells produce chemokines, peptides ...
Autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are associated with debilitating chronic inflammation, autoantibody production, articular bone erosions and systemic bone loss. The underlying mechanisms and cell types that initiate these diseases are not fully understood, and current therapies mainly address downstream mechanisms and do not fully halt disease progression in all patients. Moreover, previous studies have largely focused on the role of adaptive immunity in driving these diseases, and less attention has been given to the contribution of innate immune pathways such as DNA sensor signaling pathways in initiating and/or perpetuating autoimmunity and erosive inflammatory arthritis. Detection of microbial nucleic acids by DNA sensors such as endosomal toll-like receptors (TLRs) and cytosolic sensors is an early form of antiviral defense. Upon detection of nucleic acid, TLRs dependent on Unc93B and cytosolic sensors dependent on the adaptor stimulator of interferon genes (STING) orchestrate
A research team from the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine has identified a protein produced by cancerous lung epithelial cells that enhances metastasis by stimulating the activity of inflammatory cells. Their findings, to be published in the January 1 issue of the journal Nature, explain how advanced cancer cells usurp components of the host innate immune system to generate an inflammatory microenvironment hospitable for the metastatic spread of lung cancer.
In contrast to nonspecific resistance, immunity (i-mu- ni-te), or specific resistance, is directed at specific antigens. An immune response involves the production of specific cells and substances to attack a specific antigen. Immunity has "memory," that is, if the same pathogen should reenter the body at a ...
Dr. Feng Shaos laboratory is interested in studying molecular mechanisms of bacterial infection and host innate immunity defense. Bacterial pathogens use specialized secretion systems such as type III/IV secretion system to inject effector proteins into host cells, serving as a key and universal virulence mechanism. The effectors usually harbor a unique and potent activity that modulates the function of key signaling molecules in the host, and this plays a critical role in bacterial survival and systemic infections. Using pathogens such as Shigella, Salmonella, Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), Legionella and Burkholderia as the model, we are working to discover and reveal some novel and common biochemical mechanisms utilized by bacterial effectors in modulating host signal transduction pathways. Our recent work has led to several interesting discoveries. 1) The OspF family of type III effectors, conserved in Shigella, Salmonella and the plant pathogen P. syringae, harbors a novel ...
The Journal of Innate Immunity is a bimonthly journal covering all aspects of innate immunity, including: Evolution of the Immune System Pattern Recognition and Signals of Danger Humoral Resp
Through an interplay of signaling molecules and specialized cell types, innate immunity is able to recognize and attempt to remove disease-causing pathogens. In order to fully harness the potential applications of this unique system in animal health, it is important to identify the individual components of innate immunity, and how they combine to mount a successful response.. ...
Immediate and sustained metabolic alterations modulate host defensive responses during infection and malnutrition through metabolic regulations governing by nutrient-sensing machineries. These regulatory mechanisms in both adaptive and innate immune cells are known as immunometabolic regulations. In the past two decades, the explosive progresses in this field uncover the underlying molecular mechanisms and metabolic regulators and, further, reveal how these regulations fine-tune host immunity during vaccination, infection, and disease initiation and progression. In addition, metabolites generated by gut microbiota and metabolic tissues instruct immune responses in periphery and systemic metabolic alterations accompanied with aging could also contribute to insensitivity of immune system. Thus, the interplay between immune cells and metabolic homeostasis in circulation and periphery lead to effective and detrimental immune responses. Moreover, new studies suggest harnessing immunometabolic regulations is
Well, you should remember that macrophage is not typical innate immunity cell. It also acts as APC for activating adaptive immunity. The time when innate immunity is about to stop and adaptive immunity is about to begin is called induced immunity, which dendritic cells and macrophage switch their function from antigen-eating to become antigen-presenting. In adaptive immunity, macrophage does not engulf antigen by phagolysosome mechanism (eating function) anymore like it use to do in innate immunity, it engulf antigen to be processed as peptide and will bring it back to its surface to be presented with MHC (APC function ...
Plant innate immunity. Plants lack specialized immune cells-all plant cells participate in the plant immune response. ... and the Nucleus in Driving Plant Innate Immunity". Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions. 23 (11): 1368-80. doi:10.1094/MPMI-05- ...
Many different cells of the innate immune system express a myriad of CLRs which shape innate immunity by virtue of their ... Chen, Edward S. "Innate immunity in sarcoidosis pathobiology". Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine. 22 (5): 469-475. doi: ... Mahla, R.S. (2013). "Sweeten PAMPs: Role of Sugar Complexed PAMPs in Innate Immunity and Vaccine Biology". Front Immunol. 4: ... Dommett RM, Klein N, Turner MW (September 2006). "Mannose-binding lectin in innate immunity: past, present and future". Tissue ...
Innate Immunity. 20 (2): 115-125. doi:10.1177/1753425913484374. ISSN 1753-4259. PMID 23676582. Creagh, Emma M. (December 2014 ... Caspase-1 therefore plays a fundamental role in the innate immune system. The enzyme is responsible for processing cytokines ... Immunity. 44 (2): 221-231. doi:10.1016/j.immuni.2016.01.020. ISSN 1074-7613. PMID 26885855. Jänicke, Reiner U.; Sohn, Dennis; ... "Caspase crosstalk: integration of apoptotic and innate immune signalling pathways". Trends in Immunology. 35 (12): 631-640. doi ...
... has been proposed to affect innate immunity to viruses by interfering with the mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein ... O'Neill LA (Apr 2008). "Innate immunity: squelching anti-viral signalling with NLRX1". Current Biology. 18 (7): R302-4. doi: ... Innate Immunity. 19 (4): 438-48. doi:10.1177/1753425912467383. PMID 23212541. Castaño-Rodríguez N, Kaakoush NO, Goh KL, Fock KM ... NLRX1 also plays a role in host immunity during bacterial infections, such as Chlamydia trachomatis and Helicobacter pylori, by ...
Innate Immunity. 16 (3): 191-200. doi:10.1177/1753425910369271. ISSN 1753-4259. PMID 20529971. Opsonins at the US National ... A pivotal role for innate immunity in the clearance of apoptotic cells". European Journal of Immunology. 34 (4): 921-929. doi: ... The complement system is a part of the innate immune response. C3b, C4b, and C1q are important complement molecules that serve ... Tosi, Michael F. (2005-08-01). "Innate immune responses to infection". Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 116 (2): 241 ...
Innate Immunity. 7 (1): 63-68. doi:10.1177/09680519010070011101. PMID 11521085. Type strain of Bordetella trematum at BacDive ...
TLR4 is required for activation of innate immunity upon recognition of LPS of Gram-negative bacteria. The ability of TLR4/MD-2 ... and its role in innate immunity". Drug Metabolism and Disposition: The Biological Fate of Chemicals. 29 (4 Pt 2): 474-478. ISSN ... "Modulating the innate immune response by combinatorial engineering of endotoxin". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... Innate Immunity. 15 (5): 261-312. doi:10.1177/1753425909106436. PMID 19710102. http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx? ...
"Innate immunity in the horseshoe crab". In R. Alan B. Ezekowitz & Jules Hoffmann. Innate Immunity. Humana Press. pp. 109-125. ...
L.J.C. van Loon (2009). Plant Innate Immunity. Academic Press. ISBN 0-08-088879-8. List of Penicillium species MycoBank ...
Non-specific immunity, or innate immunity, is the immune system with which you were born, made up of phagocytes and barriers. ... "Innate (Non-specific) Immunity". Microbiology and Immunology Online. Mosser DM, Edwards JP (2008). "Exploring the full spectrum ... The innate immune system is always present at the site of infection and ready to fight the bacteria; it can also be referred to ... Innate Immunity. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK26846/ Lien, Egil; Ingalls, Robin (January 2002). "Toll- ...
In addition to the knowledge that natural killer cells are effectors of innate immunity, recent research has uncovered ... so are part of innate immunity, i.e. able to react immediately with no prior exposure to the pathogen. In both mice and humans ... "Innate or Adaptive Immunity? The Example of Natural Killer Cells". Science. 331 (6013): 44-49. doi:10.1126/science.1198687. CS1 ... Natural killer cells or NK cells are a type of cytotoxic lymphocyte critical to the innate immune system. The role NK cells ...
Complement-Activating Lectins Involved in Innate Immunity". Journal of Innate Immunity. 2 (1): 24-32. doi:10.1159/000228160. ... a non-specific immunoglobulin of adaptive immunity) is not quiescent, but plays a crucial role in immediate immune defense by ... collaborating with ficolin (an innate immune protein). Matsushita, Misao (2010). "Ficolins: ...
Potempa, Jan; Pike, Robert N. (2009-01-01). "Corruption of innate immunity by bacterial proteases". Journal of Innate Immunity ... Journal of Innate Immunity. 6 (1): 31-46. doi:10.1159/000351458. ISSN 1662-8128. PMC 3972074 . PMID 23838186. Karlsson, A.; ... Infection and Immunity. 69 (1): 159-169. doi:10.1128/IAI.69.1.159-169.2001. ISSN 0019-9567. PMC 97868 . PMID 11119502. Massimi ... Infection and Immunity. 65 (7): 2621-2628. ISSN 0019-9567. PMC 175371 . PMID 9199429. Kolar, Stacey L.; Ibarra, J. Antonio; ...
Journal of Innate Immunity. 6 (5): 685-694. doi:10.1159/000362367. PMC 4141014 . PMID 24861338. Witke W, Podtelejnikov AV, Di ...
Bunyaviruses and innate immunity. In: Cellular signaling and innate immune responses to RNA virus infections. (2009) Washington ... but they play a similar role in mammalian cells in overcoming the innate immune responses that are a consequence of the global ... but they play a similar role in mammalian cells in overcoming the innate immune responses that are a consequence of the global ...
... and therefore it is considered as a mechanism of innate immunity, as compared to adaptive immunity, which is specific for each ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Abbas A.B.; Lichtman A.H. (2009). "Ch.2 Innate Immunity". In Saunders (Elsevier ... and immunity. 19 (5): 389-97. doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2005.04.003. PMID 15963685. [unreliable medical source?] Gleeson, M (Nov 2006 ...
Potempa, Jan; Pike, Robert N. (2009-01-01). "Corruption of innate immunity by bacterial proteases". Journal of Innate Immunity ... Journal of Innate Immunity. 6 (1): 31-46. doi:10.1159/000351458. ISSN 1662-8128. PMC 3972074 . PMID 23838186. Kolar, Stacey L ...
Journal of Innate Immunity. 3 (5): 519-29. doi:10.1159/000327718. PMC 3186714 . PMID 21691049. Rivière S, Challet L, Fluegge D ... FPR1 binds with and is activated by: bacterial and mitochondrial N-formyl peptides and thereby initiates innate host immune ... Genes and Immunity. 4 (1): 22-9. doi:10.1038/sj.gene.6363900. PMID 12595898. Polakis PG, Uhing RJ, Snyderman R (Apr 1988). "The ... it is an important component of the innate immune system that operates in host defense and damage control. Humans also express ...
Journal of Innate Immunity. 6 (1): 31-46. doi:10.1159/000351458. ISSN 1662-8128. PMC 3972074 . PMID 23838186. Laarman, ... Infection and Immunity. 81 (9): 3227-3238. doi:10.1128/IAI.00377-13. ISSN 1098-5522. PMC 3754231 . PMID 23798534. Molecular and ...
O'Neill LA, Golenbock D, Bowie AG (July 2013). "The history of Toll-like receptors - redefining innate immunity". Nature ... Journal of Innate Immunity. 4 (2): 168-75. doi:10.1159/000329492. PMID 21968286. Re F, Strominger JL (June 2002). "Monomeric ... which plays a fundamental role in pathogen recognition and activation of innate immunity. TLRs are highly conserved from ... Brubaker SW, Bonham KS, Zanoni I, Kagan JC (2015). "Innate immune pattern recognition: a cell biological perspective". Annual ...
... cellular and humoral immunity are part of acquired immunity, which is only in vertebrates. Insects only have innate immunity. ... The larvae are also well-suited models for studying the innate immune system. In genetics, they can be used to study inherited ...
This same gene may reduce innate and adaptive immunity in gastrointestinal tissue and impair the ability to resist infection by ... Marks DJ, Segal AW (January 2008). "Innate immunity in inflammatory bowel disease: a disease hypothesis". J Pathol. 214 (2): ... Dessein R, Chamaillard M, Danese S (2008). "Innate Immunity in Crohn's Disease". Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology. 42: S144 ... Comalada M, Peppelenbosch MP (September 2006). "Impaired innate immunity in Crohn's disease". Trends Mol Med. 12 (9): 397-9. ...
Pieters J (2000). "Coronin 1 in innate immunity". Sub-Cellular Biochemistry. 48: 116-23. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-09595-0_11. PMID ... It has been implicated in both T-cell mediated immunity and mitochondrial apoptosis. In a recent genome-wide longevity study, ...
... release of nitric oxide control of cytokine production by immune cells transition of innate immunity to adaptive immunity (by ... Some of the functions by which both SFTPA2 and SFTPA1 contribute to innate immunity include: opsonization of bacteria for ... Crouch E, Hartshorn K, Ofek I (February 2000). "Collectins and pulmonary innate immunity". Immunological Reviews. 173: 52-65. ... The role of SFTPA2 in innate immunity has been extensively studied. SP-A has the ability to bind and agglutinate bacteria, ...
Gupta, Garima; Avadhesha Surolia (May 2007). "Collectins: sentinels of innate immunity". BioEssays. 29 (5): 452-464. doi: ... SP-A and SP-D in Innate and Adaptive Immunity". Frontiers in Immunology. 3: 131. doi:10.3389/fimmu.2012.00131. ISSN 1664-3224. ... "Evolution of the lectin-complement pathway and its role in innate immunity". Nature Reviews. Immunology. 2 (5): 346-353. doi: ... Collectins (collagen-containing C-type lectins) are a part of the innate immune system. They form a family of collagenous Ca2+- ...
Infection and Immunity. 2007-05, 75 (5): 2171-2180. ISSN 0019-9567. PMC 1865739. PMID 17353286. doi:10.1128/IAI.01178-06.. ... Innate mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are activated in inflammatory bowel diseases. Clinical and Experimental ... Immunity. 2016-12-20, 45 (6): 1177-1179. ISSN 1097-4180. PMID 28002722. doi:10.1016/j.immuni.2016.12.003.. ... Immunity. July 2009, 31 (1): 145-57. PMC 3039716. PMID 19604493. doi:10.1016/j.immuni.2009.06.015.. ...
Innate responses to gene knockouts impact overlapping gene networks and vary with respect to resistance to viral infection ... Lipoteichoic acid anchor triggers Mincle to drive protective immunity against invasive group A Streptococcus infection Takashi ...
Innate immunity.. Medzhitov R1, Janeway C Jr.. Author information. 1. Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of ...
Innate Immunity is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering innate immunity in humans, animals, and plants. It is published ... "Innate Immunity". 2012 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). Thomson Reuters. 2013. Official website ... Innate Immunity Society and the editor-in-chief is Otto Holst (Research Centre Borstel, Germany). The journal was established ...
Lovell J.P., Holland S.M. (2018) Defects of Innate Immunity. In: Segal B. (eds) Management of Infections in the ... lessons from single gene disorders affecting innate and adaptive immunity and lessons from molecular defects in interferon- ... tyrosine kinase 2 deficiency reveals its requisite roles in multiple cytokine signals involved in innate and acquired immunity ... Mycobacterial disease and impaired IFN-gamma immunity in humans with inherited ISG15 deficiency. Science. 2012;337:1684-8. ...
Innate immunity. Definition. Innate immunity is an immunological subsystem that comprises the cells and mechanisms that provide ... The innate function of circular RNAs Duplex-forming circular RNAs interact with PKR and repress aberrant activation of innate ... Innate immune responses are rapid and independent of antigen. Innate immune systems are found in all classes of plants and ... Interferon-inducible cytoplasmic lncLrrc55-AS promotes antiviral innate responses by strengthening IRF3 phosphorylation *Yumei ...
SARS coronavirus and innate immunity.. Frieman M1, Heise M, Baric R. ... specifically the innate immune system, functions as a key determinant in regulating virulence and disease outcomes. Using SARS- ... CoV as a model, we will review the current knowledge of the interplay between coronavirus infection and the host innate immune ... system in vivo, and then discuss the mechanisms by which specific gene products antagonize the host innate immune response in ...
Innate Immunity is a highly ranked, peer reviewed, open access journal dedicated to innate immunity research in humans, plants ... Innate Immunity is the official journal of the International Endotoxin & Innate Immunity Society (IEIIS).The journal publishes ... Innate Immunity Society (IEIIS). The journal welcomes manuscripts from researchers actively working on all aspects of innate ... Innate Immunity. 2018 Impact Factor: 2.173. 2018 Ranking: 208/298 in Biochemistry & Molecular Biology , 126/158 in Immunology ...
Innate Immunity is a highly ranked, peer reviewed, open access journal dedicated to innate immunity research in humans, plants ... Innate Immunity is the official journal of the International Endotoxin & Innate Immunity Society (IEIIS).The journal publishes ... Innate Immunity Society (IEIIS). The journal welcomes manuscripts from researchers actively working on all aspects of innate ... Reviewers for Innate Immunity can opt in to Publons in order to claim their reviews or have them automatically verified and ...
Innate immunity differs from adaptive immunity in that it is present without previous antigen exposure (Figure 5.2). It is ... Cutaneous Innate Immunity Steven B. Hoath, Professor of Pediatrics in the Division of Neonatology and Medical Director, Skin ... it follows that the difference in structure will be associated with a reduction in innate immunity in the skin of the premature ... The structure of skin is shown in Figure 5.5 and its innate immune mechanisms are summarized in Figure 5.6. The importance of ...
Second Crossroads between Innate and Adaptive Immunity, in Crete, Greece, June 17-22, 2007. This meeting is designed to serve ...
Phospholipid innate immune recognition: Both self- and pathogen-derived PLs can act as ligands for a family of MHC class I-like ... The innate immune system is an ancient evolutionary arm of defense that responds to acute trauma by generating a barrier that ... Our lab recently published a review covering these aspects of PL signaling in the innate immune system in the Journal of ... Now, they are finding that a cell-specific group of related lipids, generated by enzymatic oxidation, is formed in innate ...
... innate immunity and acquired immunity. The innate immune system provides broad, but relatively nonspecific host defenses that ... RESEARCH OBJECTIVES Background This PA will support studies of the mechanisms of innate or "natural" immunity. The innate ... This PA, "INNATE IMMUNITY", is related to the priority areas of Immunization and Infectious Diseases and Diabetes and Chronic ... The purpose of the PA is to support basic and preclinical studies of the mechanisms of innate immunity in order to: a) develop ...
"New Enzyme Discovered That Acts As Innate Immunity Sensor." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 19 Feb. 2013. Web.. 22 Jan ... The studies identify a new enzyme that acts as a sensor of innate immunity - the bodys first line of defense against invaders ... In these studies, UTSW researchers identified a new sensor of innate immunity - the enzyme cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) - ... 2013, February 19). "New Enzyme Discovered That Acts As Innate Immunity Sensor." Medical News Today. Retrieved from. https:// ...
Innate Antiviral Immunity. Book Subtitle. Methods and Protocols. Editors. * Karen Mossman Series Title. Methods in Molecular ... Authoritative and practical, Innate Antiviral Immunity: Methods and Protocols spans a diverse array of approaches to study and ... Includes cutting-edge methods and protocols for the study of innate antiviral immunity ... RNA PAMPs as Molecular Tools for Evaluating RIG-I Function in Innate Immunity ...
Interpretation of trained immunity as innate immune memory. In addition to the classical role of innate immunity in amplifying ... Harnessing innate immunity for better vaccines. The studies reviewed above provide evidence that innate immune processes and, ... Long-lasting effects of BCG vaccination on both heterologous Th1/Th17 responses and innate trained immunity. J Innate Immun. ... Targeting innate immunity for tuberculosis vaccination. Shabaana A. Khader,1 Maziar Divangahi,2 Willem Hanekom,3 Philip C. Hill ...
Sequential activation of innate and adaptive immunity during infection, and activation of a long-term memory response through T ... a de facto innate immune memory that is also termed trained immunity. Experimental and epidemiological data have shown that ... on behalf of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation Collaboration for TB Vaccine Discovery Innate Immunity Working Group18 ... on behalf of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation Collaboration for TB Vaccine Discovery Innate Immunity Working Group18 ...
... The Clinical Sciences Research Institute is hosting a seminar entitled ... Glycomics and innate immunity in human disease from 12:30pm to 1:30pm on Thursday 21 January 2010 in the Large Seminar Room, ...
This Perspective discusses how the interaction of these factors modulates viral immunity and how they might be used to identify ... Different factors, such as host genetics and immunity and viral immune evasion strategies, account for the outcome of the ... Regulation of hepatic innate immunity by hepatitis C virus. *Stacy M Horner1. * & Michael Gale Jr1. Nature Medicine volume 19, ... Innate immunity to virus infection. . Immunol. Rev. 227, 75-86 (2009).. **CAS*PubMed*Article*Google Scholar*31.. Salaun, B., ...
The innate immune system represents the first line of defense against microbial pathogens. Intact innate immunity requires ... Ozone and pulmonary innate immunity Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2007 Jul;4(3):240-6. doi: 10.1513/pats.200701-023AW. ... In this article, we review the complex interaction between inhalation of O(3) and pulmonary innate immunity. ... The functional response to ambient O(3) seems to be dependent on many components of the innate immune signaling. ...
... jonf at duke.edu jonf at duke.edu Tue Jul 8 09:49:41 EST 2003 *Previous message: Will ... the molecular biological and genetic approaches currently used in the laboratory to elucidate mechanisms of innate immunity in ... and Critical Care Medicine at Duke University invites applications for a postdoctoral position to investigate innate immunity ...
Solutions optimized for innate immunity studies include PCR array, miRNA, siRNA, mutation analysis, pathway reporter, chromatin ... QIAGEN provides a broad range of assay technologies for innate immunity research that enables analysis of gene expression and ... initiate innate immunity, the inborn host response to common pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, and fungi. These receptors ... initiate innate immunity, the inborn host response to common pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, and fungi. These receptors ...
... Carlos Rosales,1 Nicolas Demaurex,2 Clifford A. Lowell,3 and Eileen ... presents an overview on how this enzyme has key roles in various functions of neutrophils in innate and adaptive immunity. When ... Clearly, regular exercise contributes to a better innate immune system. However, no mechanism for this beneficial effect is ... To illuminate the complex role of neutrophils in infection, inflammation, and immunity, this special issue has gathered ...
... Carlos Rosales,1 Nicolas Demaurex,2 Clifford A. Lowell,3 and Eileen ...
Knowledge. After completing the course the student should have obtained a deeper insight into a specific immunological field.. * Skills. - Beeing able to extend collaboration and networking.. - Improved training in skills like presentation technique, verbally presenting scientific information, critical thinking and participating in scientific discussions. * General Competence. - Improved ways of thinking, communicating and interacting in a scientific manner. ...
... Conference 28th June to 1st July 2020 Heidelberg, Germany Website: https://www. ...
  • Unlike the highly specific antibodies, which are produced in almost infinite variety and which match a particular disease organism like a key in a lock, cells of the innate immune system react generically to a wide range of substances, including molecules found in the cell walls of many kinds of bacteria. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Upon pathogen sensing, cells of the innate immune system adapt their metabolism to meet the energy requirements necessary for defence functions. (chuv.ch)
  • The studies identify a new enzyme that acts as a sensor of innate immunity - the body's first line of defense against invaders - and describe a novel cell signaling pathway. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • WASHINGTON -- A comprehensive and detailed picture of innate immunity - the human body's first line of defense against disease - is the goal of scientists funded by a recently awarded five-year, $24-million grant from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • The journal like the society focuses on the chemistry, biology, physiology, and translational biology of microbe (pathogen)-associated molecular patterns, including but not limited to Gram-negative bacterial endotoxins, and their interactions with innate immune recognition and response systems. (sagepub.com)
  • An interaction among immunological signals, metabolic rewiring, and epigenetic reprogramming underlies the molecular mechanisms mediating trained immunity in myeloid cells and their bone marrow progenitors. (jci.org)
  • What's interesting is that molecular signatures of innate immunity and interferon signaling were identified both after developing PTSD as well as before developing PTSD," said Dewleen G. Baker, MD, MRS-II principal investigator, research director at the VA Center of Excellence for Stress and Mental Health, and professor in the Department of Psychiatry at UC San Diego. (ucsd.edu)
  • Prior to the new study in Science Immunity the researchers published previous papers in Nature Medicine and Science Translational Medicine establishing the critical of role of the Gut-Lung Axis molecular interplay and the potentially harmful impact of aggressive antibiotic regimens in premature infants. (news-medical.net)
  • The Human Antifungal Response RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression of 84 key genes involved in the innate immune response to fungi. (qiagen.com)
  • For viruses to productively infect their hosts, they must evade or inhibit important elements of the innate immune system, namely the type I interferon (IFN) response, which negatively influences the subsequent development of antigen-specific adaptive immunity against those viruses. (mdpi.com)
  • Based on these studies, it is reasonable to postulate that cancerous immunoglobulins play important roles in the modulation of the innate immune system to allow the growth and survival of cancer cells within the human body. (scirp.org)
  • We reported that placental derived steroids are strong immunosuppressors of innate immune responses of newborn monocytes through inhibition of the NF-κB pathway (right). (chuv.ch)
  • This then triggers a cascade of phosphorylation events that vary depending on whether it was TLR2/1 or TLR2/6 that was stimulated, ultimately initiating diverse innate and adaptive immune responses in the host ( Fig. 2 ) 14 . (invivogen.com)
  • However, NK, PMN, and MΦ belong to innate immunity, and their activation requires no prior exposure but depends on a predetermined mechanism to recognize specific patterns of nonself molecules. (pnas.org)
  • Enhanced understanding of the roles of specific innate immune signaling pathways, which participate in proinflammatory mediator expression and functional immune responses will provide a promising avenue for novel therapies for chronic inflammatory disorders. (bu.edu)
  • The Clinical Sciences Research Institute is hosting a seminar entitled 'Glycomics and innate immunity in human disease' from 12:30pm to 1:30pm on Thursday 21 January 2010 in the Large Seminar Room, CSRI, CSB Building UHCW. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Finding a specific gene in a mouse that has a human equivalent within a highly conserved genetic region suggests that the human equivalent may also be involved in innate immunity to the disease and may further lead to development of diagnostic tests and prevention approaches. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Our findings show that microglia and the innate immune system -- via microglia -- directly contribute to susceptibility of late-onset Alzheimer's disease, and are not just a down-stream 'after-the-fact' consequence of damage to the brain," Schellenberg said. (pennmedicine.org)
  • In this article, we review the complex interaction between inhalation of O(3) and pulmonary innate immunity. (nih.gov)
  • It is crucial to further knowledge regarding our immune system's failure to eradicate resting spores under intact immunity and inhibit fungal growth under immunocompromised conditions, in order to understand mucormycosis pathogenicity and enhance therapeutic strategies for mucormycosis. (mdpi.com)
  • Researchers at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) in La Jolla, Calif., the Institute for Systems Biology (ISB) in Seattle, and Rockefeller University in New York are using techniques that straddle the divide between biology and information science to fathom the workings of innate immunity. (infectioncontroltoday.com)