Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Protection from an infectious disease agent that is mediated by B- and T- LYMPHOCYTES following exposure to specific antigen, and characterized by IMMUNOLOGIC MEMORY. It can result from either previous infection with that agent or vaccination (IMMUNITY, ACTIVE), or transfer of antibody or lymphocytes from an immune donor (IMMUNIZATION, PASSIVE).
Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.
Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.
The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.
Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.
The non-susceptibility to infection of a large group of individuals in a population. A variety of factors can be responsible for herd immunity and this gives rise to the different definitions used in the literature. Most commonly, herd immunity refers to the case when, if most of the population is immune, infection of a single individual will not cause an epidemic. Also, in such immunized populations, susceptible individuals are not likely to become infected. Herd immunity can also refer to the case when unprotected individuals fail to contract a disease because the infecting organism has been banished from the population.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.
Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
A large family of cell surface receptors that bind conserved molecular structures (PAMPS) present in pathogens. They play important roles in host defense by mediating cellular responses to pathogens.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.
Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.
Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Infections with bacteria of the genus LISTERIA.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Experimentally induced tumor that produces MELANIN in animals to provide a model for studying human MELANOMA.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed protozoa administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious protozoan disease.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Protection conferred on a host by inoculation with one strain or component of a microorganism that prevents infection when later challenged with a similar strain. Most commonly the microorganism is a virus.
The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).
A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
Form of adoptive transfer where cells with antitumor activity are transferred to the tumor-bearing host in order to mediate tumor regression. The lymphoid cells commonly used are lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). This is usually considered a form of passive immunotherapy. (From DeVita, et al., Cancer, 1993, pp.305-7, 314)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Bacteriocins elaborated by strains of Escherichia coli and related species. They are proteins or protein-lipopolysaccharide complexes lethal to other strains of the same species.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.
A species of gram-negative, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It is differentiated into approximately 50 pathovars with different plant pathogenicities and host specificities.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
Methods used by pathogenic organisms to evade a host's immune system.
An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.
The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.
A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.
An intracellular signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR and INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTORS signal transduction. It forms a signaling complex with the activated cell surface receptors and members of the IRAK KINASES.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Active immunization where vaccine is administered for therapeutic or preventive purposes. This can include administration of immunopotentiating agents such as BCG vaccine and Corynebacterium parvum as well as biological response modifiers such as interferons, interleukins, and colony-stimulating factors in order to directly stimulate the immune system.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Diseases of plants.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.
A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.
An acute, highly contagious, often fatal infectious disease caused by an orthopoxvirus characterized by a biphasic febrile course and distinctive progressive skin eruptions. Vaccination has succeeded in eradicating smallpox worldwide. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with other TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS. It interacts with multiple ligands including PEPTIDOGLYCAN, bacterial LIPOPROTEINS, lipoarabinomannan, and a variety of PORINS.
Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.
The bovine variety of the tubercle bacillus. It is called also Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
A species of PLASMODIUM causing malaria in rodents.
Aluminum metal sulfate compounds used medically as astringents and for many industrial purposes. They are used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of ulcerative stomatitis, leukorrhea, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, metritis, and minor wounds.
A disease caused by tetanospasmin, a powerful protein toxin produced by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI. Tetanus usually occurs after an acute injury, such as a puncture wound or laceration. Generalized tetanus, the most common form, is characterized by tetanic muscular contractions and hyperreflexia. Localized tetanus presents itself as a mild condition with manifestations restricted to muscles near the wound. It may progress to the generalized form.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed fungi administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious fungal disease.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
A genus of protozoan parasites of the subclass COCCIDIA. Various species are parasitic in the epithelial cells of the liver and intestines of man and other animals.
Class I-restricted activation of CD8-POSITIVE LYMPHOCYTES resulting from ANTIGEN PRESENTATION of exogenous ANTIGENS (cross-presentation). This is in contrast to normal activation of these lymphocytes (direct-priming) which results from presentation of endogenous antigens.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.
A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.
Alteration of the immune system or of an immune response by agents that activate or suppress its function. This can include IMMUNIZATION or administration of immunomodulatory drugs. Immunomodulation can also encompass non-therapeutic alteration of the immune system effected by endogenous or exogenous substances.
A protozoan parasite of rodents transmitted by the mosquito Anopheles dureni.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.
DEFENSINS found mainly in epithelial cells.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.
Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms that can cause pathological conditions or diseases.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.
The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.
Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Species of CHLAMYDIA causing pneumonitis in mice and hamsters. These isolates formerly belonged to CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS.
Infections with nematodes of the order STRONGYLIDA.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) of the Old World. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.
A genus of protozoa that comprise the malaria parasites of mammals. Four species infect humans (although occasional infections with primate malarias may occur). These are PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; PLASMODIUM OVALE, and PLASMODIUM VIVAX. Species causing infection in vertebrates other than man include: PLASMODIUM BERGHEI; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; P. vinckei, and PLASMODIUM YOELII in rodents; P. brasilianum, PLASMODIUM CYNOMOLGI; and PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI in monkeys; and PLASMODIUM GALLINACEUM in chickens.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.
A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The ability of lymphoid cells to mount a humoral or cellular immune response when challenged by antigen.
The presence of parasites (especially malarial parasites) in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A pattern recognition receptor that binds unmethylated CPG CLUSTERS. It mediates cellular responses to bacterial pathogens by distinguishing between self and bacterial DNA.
The ability of tumors to evade destruction by the IMMUNE SYSTEM. Theories concerning possible mechanisms by which this takes place involve both cellular immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and humoral immunity (ANTIBODY FORMATION), and also costimulatory pathways related to CD28 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD28) and CD80 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD80).
A respiratory infection caused by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS and characterized by paroxysmal coughing ending in a prolonged crowing intake of breath.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
Subset of helper-effector T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete IL-17, IL-17F, and IL-22. These cytokines are involved in host defenses and tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.

Gene silencing: plants and viruses fight it out. (1/11788)

Plants can become 'immune' to attack by viruses by degrading specific viral RNA, but some plant viruses have evolved the general capacity to suppress this resistance mechanism.  (+info)

Constitutive activation of Stat3 signaling confers resistance to apoptosis in human U266 myeloma cells. (2/11788)

Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is the major survival factor for myeloma tumor cells and induces signaling through the STAT proteins. We report that one STAT family member, Stat3, is constitutively activated in bone marrow mononuclear cells from patients with multiple myeloma and in the IL-6-dependent human myeloma cell line U266. Moreover, U266 cells are inherently resistant to Fas-mediated apoptosis and express high levels of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-xL. Blocking IL-6 receptor signaling from Janus kinases to the Stat3 protein inhibits Bcl-xL expression and induces apoptosis, demonstrating that Stat3 signaling is essential for the survival of myeloma tumor cells. These findings provide evidence that constitutively activated Stat3 signaling contributes to the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma by preventing apoptosis.  (+info)

Rapid autologous marrow recovery and eradication of infectious mononucleosis despite severe immunosuppression following second transplantation for aplastic anemia. (3/11788)

A patient with aplastic anemia failed to respond to immunosuppressive therapy and first marrow transplantation (BMT). Recovery of autologous hematopoiesis was rapid following a second stem cell transplant with a non-myeloablative preparatory regimen. The autologous immune response to infectious mononucleosis (IM) 4 weeks post-transplant was normal despite recent and ongoing severe immunosuppression.  (+info)

Innate and acquired humoral immunities to influenza virus are mediated by distinct arms of the immune system. (4/11788)

"Natural" Igs, mainly IgM, comprise part of the innate immune system present in healthy individuals, including antigen-free mice. These Igs are thought to delay pathogenicity of infecting agents until antigen-induced high affinity Igs of all isotypes are produced. Previous studies suggested that the acquired humoral response arises directly from the innate response, i.e., that B cells expressing natural IgM, upon antigen encounter, differentiate to give rise both to cells that secrete high amounts of IgM and to cells that undergo affinity maturation and isotype switching. However, by using a murine model of influenza virus infection, we demonstrate here that the B cells that produce natural antiviral IgM neither increase their IgM production nor undergo isotype switching to IgG2a in response to the infection. These cells are distinct from the B cells that produce the antiviral response after encounter with the pathogen. Our data therefore demonstrate that the innate and the acquired humoral immunities to influenza virus are separate effector arms of the immune system and that antigen exposure per se is not sufficient to increase natural antibody production.  (+info)

Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase gene disruption conferred mice resistant to streptozotocin-induced diabetes. (5/11788)

Streptozotocin (STZ), a glucose analogue known to induce diabetes in experimental animals, causes DNA strand breaks and subsequent activation of poly(ADPribose) polymerase (Parp). Because Parp uses NAD as a substrate, extensive DNA damage will result in reduction of cellular NAD level. In fact, STZ induces NAD depletion and cell death in isolated pancreatic islets in vitro. Activation of Parp therefore is thought to play an important role in STZ-induced diabetes. In the present study, we established Parp-deficient (Parp-/-) mice by disrupting Parp exon 1 by using the homologous recombination technique. These mice were used to examine the possible involvement of Parp in STZ-induced beta-cell damage in vivo. The wild-type (Parp+/+) mice showed significant increases in blood glucose concentration from 129 mg/dl to 218, 370, 477, and 452 mg/dl on experimental days 1, 7, 21, and 60, respectively, after a single injection of 180 mg STZ/kg body weight. In contrast, the concentration of blood glucose in Parp-/- mice remained normal up to day 7, slightly increased on day 21, but returned to normal levels on day 60. STZ injection caused extensive necrosis in the islets of Parp+/+ mice on day 1, with subsequent progressive islet atrophy and loss of functional beta cells from day 7. In contrast, the extent of islet beta-cell death and dysfunction was markedly less in Parp-/- mice. Our findings clearly implicate Parp activation in islet beta-cell damage and glucose intolerance induced by STZ in vivo.  (+info)

Identification of regions in alleles of the flax rust resistance gene L that determine differences in gene-for-gene specificity. (6/11788)

Thirteen alleles (L, L1 to L11, and LH) from the flax L locus, which encode Toll/interleukin-1 receptor homology-nucleotide binding site-leucine-rich repeat (TIR-NBS-LRR) rust resistance proteins, were sequenced and compared to provide insight into their evolution and into the determinants of gene-for-gene resistance specificity. The predicted L6 and L11 proteins differ solely in the LRR region, whereas L6 and L7 differ solely in the TIR region. Thus, specificity differences between alleles can be determined by both the LRR and TIR regions. Functional analysis in transgenic plants of recombinant alleles constructed in vitro provided further information: L10-L2 and L6-L2 recombinants, encoding the LRR of L2, conferred L2 resistance specificity, and an L2-L10 recombinant, encoding the LRR of L10, conferred a novel specificity. The sequence comparisons also indicate that the evolution of L alleles has probably involved reassortment of variation, resulting from accumulated point mutations, by intragenic recombination. In addition, large deletion events have occurred in the LRR-encoding regions of L1 and L8, and duplication events have occurred in the LRR-encoding region of L2.  (+info)

Cyclophilin C-associated protein: a normal secreted glycoprotein that down-modulates endotoxin and proinflammatory responses in vivo. (7/11788)

Mouse cyclophilin C-associated protein (CyCAP) is a member of the scavenger-receptor cysteine-rich domain superfamily and is 69% identical to the human Mac-2 binding protein. Here, we show that CyCAP is a widely expressed secreted glycoprotein that modulates the host response to endotoxin. Gene-targeted CyCAP-deficient mice are more sensitive to the lethal effects of endotoxin. In response to endotoxin, CyCAP-deficient mice overproduced interleukin 12 and interferon-gamma systemically and tumor necrosis factor alpha locally; these are proinflammatory molecules that also promote T helper 1 responses. Furthermore, macrophages stimulated in vitro with endotoxin in serum deficient in CyCAP secreted more tumor necrosis factor alpha, supporting the proposal that CyCAP specifically down-modulates endotoxin signaling.  (+info)

Comparative genomics and host resistance against infectious diseases. (8/11788)

The large size and complexity of the human genome have limited the identification and functional characterization of components of the innate immune system that play a critical role in front-line defense against invading microorganisms. However, advances in genome analysis (including the development of comprehensive sets of informative genetic markers, improved physical mapping methods, and novel techniques for transcript identification) have reduced the obstacles to discovery of novel host resistance genes. Study of the genomic organization and content of widely divergent vertebrate species has shown a remarkable degree of evolutionary conservation and enables meaningful cross-species comparison and analysis of newly discovered genes. Application of comparative genomics to host resistance will rapidly expand our understanding of human immune defense by facilitating the translation of knowledge acquired through the study of model organisms. We review the rationale and resources for comparative genomic analysis and describe three examples of host resistance genes successfully identified by this approach.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Genetic polymorphisms in host innate immune sensor genes and the risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in North Africa. AU - Moumad, K.. AU - Lascorz, J.. AU - Bevier, M.. AU - Khyatti, M.. AU - Ennaji, M.M.. AU - Benider, A.. AU - Huhn, S.. AU - Lu, S.. AU - Chouchane, L.. AU - Corbex, M.. AU - Hemminki, K.. AU - Forsti, A.. N1 - ITG-H10B; DPH; U-MRH; JIF; DOI; PDF; E-only; Abstract; DSPACE56. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a rare malignancy in most parts of the world. It is an Epstein-Barr virus-associated malignancy with an unusual racial and geographical distribution. The host innate immune sensor genes play an important role in infection recognition and immune response against viruses. Therefore, we examined the association between polymorphisms in genes within a group of pattern recognition receptors (including families of toll-like receptors, C-type lectin receptors, and RIG-I-like receptors) and NPC susceptibility. Twenty six single nucleotide ...
IG-I is a major innate immune sensor for viral infection, triggering an interferon-mediated antiviral response upon cytosolic detection of viral RNA. Double-strandedness and 5-terminal triphosphates were identified as motifs required to elicit optimal immunological signaling. However, very little is known about the response dynamics of the RIG-I pathway, which is crucial for the cells ability to react to diverse classes of viral RNA, while maintaining self-tolerance. In the present study, we addressed the molecular mechanism of RIG-I signal detection and its translation into pathway activation. By employing highly quantitative methods, we could establish the length of the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) to be the most critical determinant of response strength. Size exclusion chromatography and direct visualization in scanning force microscopy suggested, that this was due to cooperative oligomerization of RIG-I along dsRNA. Initiation efficiency of this oligomerization process was critically ...
Route of Infection Determines the Impact of Type I Interferons on Innate Immunity to Listeria monocytogenes. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The innate immune system plays a critical role in both the initial response to an invading pathogen, which frequently limits or contains pathogen replication and dissemination, and the induction of an effective adaptive immune response, which is most often the primary mechanism for pathogen clearance. The characteristics of the innate immune response are determined in part by the pathogen initiating the response but can also be influenced by the type of cell in which the response is generated. In this report, we examined the functional PRR-mediated pathways present in human neuronal cells and differentiated primary rat neurons, with a particular focus on those pathways previously identified as being important for antiviral innate immune responses in other cell types. We drew four main conclusions. First, human neuronal cells possess functional TLR3-, TLR4-, RIG-I-, and MDA5-mediated PRR pathways whose activity was maturation-dependent. Second, both extracellular and transfected poly(I-C) induced ...
Detection of pathogens by all living organisms is the primary step needed to implement a coherent and efficient immune response. This implies a mediation by different soluble and/or membrane-anchored proteins related to innate immune receptors called PRRs (pattern recognition receptors) to trigger immune signaling pathways. In most invertebrates, their roles have been inferred by analogy to those already characterized in vertebrate homologues. Despite the induction of their gene expression upon challenge and the presence of structural domains associated with the detection of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) in their sequence, their exact role in the induction of immune response and their binding capacity still remain to be demonstrated. To this purpose, we developed a fast interactome approach, usable on any host-pathogen couple, to identify soluble proteins capable of directly or indirectly detecting the presence of pathogens. To investigate the molecular basis of immune recognition
TY - JOUR. T1 - An essential role of macrophage inflammatory protein 1α/CCL3 on the expression of hosts innate immunities against infectious complications. AU - Takahashi, Hitoshi. AU - Tashiro, Tsuguhiko. AU - Miyazaki, Masaru. AU - Kobayashi, Makiko. AU - Pollard, Richard B.. AU - Suzuki, Fujio. PY - 2002/12/1. Y1 - 2002/12/1. N2 - Sepsis was induced by well-controlled cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in macrophage inflammatory protein 1α (MIP-1α)/CCL3 knock-out (CCL3-/-) and severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. CCL3-/- mice and their littermates (CCL3+/+ mice) treated with anti-CCL3 monoclonal antibodies were susceptible (0-20% survival) to CLP-induced sepsis, and CCL3-/- mice supplemented with recombinant (r)CCL3 (250 ng/mouse) and CCL3+/+ mice were resistant (70-80% survival). The resistance of SCID mice to CLP was markedly improved by the rCCL3 administration (88% survival), and SCID mice treated with saline were shown to be middling resistant to the same CLP (45% survival). ...
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection triggers a rapid induction of host innate immune responses. The type I interferon (IFN) signal pathway is a central aspect of host defense which induces a wide range of antiviral proteins to control infection of incoming pathogens. In some cases, viral invasion also induces DNA damage response, autophagy, endoplasmic reticulum stress, cytoplasmic stress granules and other innate immune responses, which in turn affect viral infection. However, HSV-1 has evolved multiple strategies to evade host innate responses and facilitate its infection. In this review, we summarize the most recent findings on the molecular mechanisms utilized by HSV-1 to counteract host antiviral innate immune responses with specific focus on the type I IFN signal pathway.
The detection of intracellular microbial DNA is critical to appropriate innate immune responses; however, knowledge of how such DNA is sensed is limited. Here we identify IFI16, a PYHIN protein, as an intracellular DNA sensor that mediates the induction of interferon-beta (IFN-beta). IFI16 directly associated with IFN-beta-inducing viral DNA motifs. STING, a critical mediator of IFN-beta responses to DNA, was recruited to IFI16 after DNA stimulation. Lowering the expression of IFI16 or its mouse ortholog p204 by RNA-mediated interference inhibited gene induction and activation of the transcription factors IRF3 and NF-kappa B induced by DNA and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). IFI16 (p204) is the first PYHIN protein to our knowledge shown to be involved in IFN-beta induction. Thus, the PYHIN proteins IFI16 and AIM2 form a new family of innate DNA sensors we call AIM2-like receptors (ALRs ...
Innate immunity is the inborn immunity of the person. Innate immunity is non-specific in nature. The response of innate immune depends on the recognition o..
Patterns of selection acting on immune defence genes have recently been the focus of considerable interest. Yet, when it comes to vertebrates, studies have mainly focused on the acquired branch of the immune system. Consequently, the direction and strength of selection acting on genes of the vertebrate innate immune defence remain poorly understood. Here, we present a molecular analysis of selection on an important receptor of the innate immune system of vertebrates, the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), across 17 rodent species. Although purifying selection was the prevalent evolutionary force acting on most parts of the rodent TLR2, we found that codons in close proximity to pathogen- binding and TLR2-TLR1 heterodimerization sites have been subject to positive selection. This indicates that parasite-mediated selection is not restricted to acquired immune system genes like the major histocompatibility complex, but also affects innate defence genes. To obtain a comprehensive understanding of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - NONO Detects the Nuclear HIV Capsid to Promote cGAS-Mediated Innate Immune Activation. AU - Lahaye, Xavier. AU - Gentili, Matteo. AU - Silvin, Aymeric. AU - Conrad, Cécile. AU - Picard, Léa. AU - Jouve, Mabel. AU - Zueva, Elina. AU - Maurin, Mathieu. AU - Nadalin, Francesca. AU - Knott, Gavin J.. AU - Zhao, Baoyu. AU - Du, Fenglei. AU - Rio, Marlène. AU - Amiel, Jeanne. AU - Fox, Archa H.. AU - Li, Pingwei. AU - Etienne, Lucie. AU - Bond, Charles S.. AU - Colleaux, Laurence. AU - Manel, Nicolas. PY - 2018/10/4. Y1 - 2018/10/4. N2 - Detection of viruses by innate immune sensors induces protective antiviral immunity. The viral DNA sensor cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) is necessary for detection of HIV by human dendritic cells and macrophages. However, synthesis of HIV DNA during infection is not sufficient for immune activation. The capsid protein, which associates with viral DNA, has a pivotal role in enabling cGAS-mediated immune activation. We now find that NONO is an ...
RIG-I is a cytoplasmic surveillance protein that contributes to the earliest stages of the vertebrate innate immune response. The protein specifically recognizes 5-triphosphorylated RNA structures that are released into the cell by viruses, such as influenza and hepatitis C. To understand the energ …
In this study, we aimed to define the established associations between MHC genes and viral outcomes in the context of the IFNL3-linked polymorphisms. We were in a unique position to address this, as we were able to investigate these relationships in a cohort of women who had been infected with HCV from a single source. We wished to address whether the observed MHC associations would remain significant in the context of the profound innate immune effect.. We first considered whether there might be a differential effect according to the characteristics of the innate immune response, by analysing the impact of carriage of either the protective or deleterious IFNL3 genotype with respect to the HLA effect on viral outcomes. In our HLA Class I analysis, we did, to an extent, observe this effect. The presence of the protective alleles HLA-B*27 and -C*01 was significantly enriched in those with viral clearance if the unfavourable IFNL3 genotype was present. In this cohort, the HLA-B*27 and C*01 alleles ...
Lien vers Pubmed [PMID] - 21512573. Nature 2011 Apr;472(7343):361-5. TRIM5 is a RING domain-E3 ubiquitin ligase that restricts infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 and other retroviruses immediately following virus invasion of the target cell cytoplasm. Antiviral potency correlates with TRIM5 avidity for the retrovirion capsid lattice and several reports indicate that TRIM5 has a role in signal transduction, but the precise mechanism of restriction is unknown. Here we demonstrate that TRIM5 promotes innate immune signalling and that this activity is amplified by retroviral infection and interaction with the capsid lattice. Acting with the heterodimeric, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UBC13-UEV1A (also known as UBE2N-UBE2V1), TRIM5 catalyses the synthesis of unattached K63-linked ubiquitin chains that activate the TAK1 (also known as MAP3K7) kinase complex and stimulate AP-1 and NFκB signalling. Interaction with the HIV-1 capsid lattice greatly enhances the UBC13-UEV1A-dependent E3 ...
My prior studies focused on the pathogenesis of cigarette-smoke (CS) -induced lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), wherein we demonstrated that the IL-18 system plays an important role in the pathogenesis of CS-induced emphysematous lung destruction. These studies led me to question the effect of CS on innate immunity on the interaction between the host and microorganisms and, for this purpose, I had established a murine cigarette smoke and virus co-exposure model. These studies revealed important insight into the interaction between CS and the innate immunity resulting in a publication in the Journal of Clinical Investigation. In that study, we identified that CS smoke selectively augments respiratory antiviral innate immune responses via a MAVS-RLHs antiviral signaling pathway. To gain better understanding of the mechanisms, my laboratory is focusing on the role(s) of mitochondrial dysfunction and immune dysregulation in the setting of smoking exposure. By ...
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Oral manifestations of HIV have been documented since the initial presentation of the HIV/AIDS epidemic of the 80s. The most common oral complication was candi...
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Immunity System. Discuss about Immunity System, Two Divisions of Mammal Immune System, INNATE IMMUNITY (NON-SPECIFIC), ACQUIRED IMMUNITY....
Mycobacterial infection induces a specific human innate immune response John D Blischak , Ludovic Tailleux , Amy Mitrano , Luis B Barreiro , Yoav Gilad doi: The innate immune system provides the first response to pathogen infection and orchestrates the activation of the adaptive immune system. Though a large component of the innate immune…
Innate immunity represents the foremost barrier to viral infection. In order to infect a cell efficiently, viruses need to evade innate immune effectors such as interferons and inflammatory cytokines. Pattern recognition receptors can detect viral components or pathogen-associated molecular patterns. These receptors then elicit innate immune responses that result in the generation of type I interferons and proinflammatory cytokines. Organized by the Society for General Microbiology, one session of this conference focused on the current state-of-the-art knowledge on innate barriers to infection of different RNA and DNA viruses. Experts working on innate immunity in the context of viral infection provided insight into different aspects of innate immune recognition and also discussed areas for future research. Here, we provide an overview of the session on innate barriers to infection.. ...
The innate immune system is the first line of response to pathogens and tissue injury. Specialized cells have evolved mechanisms to detect microbial and distress signals and translate these into effector mechanisms that fight infections, amplify inflammation, initiate acquired immunity and eventually resolve. Although the innate immune response is usually associated with infectious disease, it has been implicated in a broad range of diseases, including cancer, autoimmunity, degenerative and vascular diseases. This conference provides multidisciplinary perspectives on innate immunity, from fundamental science to clinical aspects of disease, as well as therapeutic approaches to immune modulation. The conference program will focus on recent advances in this rapidly developing field. Presentations will provide new insights into mechanisms of microbial and distress sensing and the effector mechanisms of innate immune cells including macrophages, neutrophils, dendritic cells and innate lymphoid cells. ...
Clipped females, with an increased heat loss rate, fed their offspring less frequently (Figs 1 and 2), and had higher innate immune function (Table 2, Fig. 3), than unclipped females. Males fed their offspring at similar rates regardless of treatment (Figs 1 and 2), and their immune function indices were unaffected by the experiment (Fig. 3). Despite reduced effort and increased investment in self-maintenance in females, body mass and size were not compromised in nestlings of clipped parents (Table S1). Thus, reduced constraints of overheating allowed for increased constitutive innate immune function, but only in females. A relatively higher level of constitutive innate immune function is supposed to be beneficial for survival. For example, levels of complement activity have been shown to correlate positively with survival (Hegemann et al., 2015), and high BKA correlated positively with survival probability upon an epidemic outbreak (Wilcoxen et al., 2010).. These benefits possibly occur because ...
Microbial DNA induces the expression of type I IFNs and proinflammatory cytokines, leading to the potent induction of innate immunity (Stetson and Medzhitov, 2006a; Kawai and Akira, 2009). Furthermore, synthesized DNA stimulates the innate immune system and acts as a good adjuvant to induce the efficient induction of acquired immune responses (Ishii et al., 2008a). Indeed, TLR9, the receptor for single-stranded DNAs containing unmethylated CpG motifs, is involved in the protection of hosts suffering DNA virus infection, and the ligands for TLR9 efficiently induce acquired immune responses upon vaccination. However, dsDNA derived from bacteria and DNA viruses, as well as host genomic DNA from dying cells, could induce the expression of both type I IFNs and IFN-inducible genes via a TLR-independent pathway (Okabe et al., 2005; Ishii et al., 2006; Stetson and Medzhitov, 2006b; Stetson et al., 2008). Although the specific sensors involved in dsDNA-induced innate immune responses are still unclear, ...
The rapid detection of microbial agents is essential for the effective initiation of host defence mechanisms against infection. Understanding how cells detect cytosolic DNA to trigger innate immune gene transcription has important implications - not only for comprehending the immune response to path …
The HIV Immune Networks Team (HINT) is a multidisciplinary group comprised of thirteen investigators located in seven different institutions across the United States. Our aim is to understand the early immune response to HIV-1 infection using a systems biology approach. To accomplish this goal, we have assembled a team of world experts in the areas of systems biology, virology, immunology, human genetics, and computational biology. We aim to develop rigorously-validated computational models that reflect, as well as predict, the early innate immune response to HIV-1 exposure. These models will provide valuable new insights into how our innate immune system responds to HIV-1 infection, and ultimately dictate course of infection and disease progression. A mathematical understanding of these dynamic molecular circuits will aid in the development of HIV-1 vaccines and antiviral therapeutics.. ...
Numerous human genetic and acquired diseases could be corrected or ameliorated if viruses are harnessed to safely and effectively deliver therapeutic genes to diseased cells and tissues in vivo. Innate immune and inflammatory response represents one of the key stumbling blocks during the development of viral-based therapies. In this review, current data on the early innate immune responses to viruses and to the most commonly used gene therapy vectors (using adenovirus and adeno-associated virus) will be discussed. Recent findings in the field may help develop new approaches to moderate these innate immune anti-viral responses and thus improve the safety of viral vectors for human gene therapy applications.
Multicellular organisms, in order to survive, have developed a wide range of defense mechanisms that have the ability to rapidly recognize pathogens and mount an early effective antimicrobial response by preventing infection, destroying the invading pathogens or neutralizing their virulence factors. These functions are the domain of innate immune cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells (DCs), neutrophils, natural killer (NK) cells and NKT cells. Although the innate immune system was described by Metchnikoff over a century ago, there are still at least three fascinating problems in host innate defense against microbial invasion. First, how does the host innate defense recognize and destroy many different pathogens? Second, how does the host discriminate between constituents of the external world, microbial non-self, and the constituents of self? And third, how does the innate immune system direct and dictate the type and magnitude of the adaptive immune responses. The main focus of our ...
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are major receptors of the host innate immune system that recognize conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) of invading microbes. Activation of TLR signaling culminates in the expression of multiple genes in a coordinate and kinetically defined manner. In this review, we summarize the current studies describing the chromatin landscape of TLR-responsive inflammatory genes and how changes to this chromatin landscape govern cell type-specific and temporal gene expression. We further elaborate classical endotoxin tolerance and epigenetic mechanisms controlling tolerance and interferon priming effects on inflammatory promoters.
The cellular localisation of many innate signalling events following viral infection has yet to be elucidated, however there has been a few cases in which membranes of certain cellular organelles have acted as platforms to these events. Of these, lipid droplets (LDs) have recently been identified as signalling platforms for innate TLR7 and 9 signalling. Despite their wide range of similar roles in various metabolic pathways, LDs have been overlooked as potential platforms for antiviral innate signalling events. This study established an in vitro model to evaluate the efficiency of the early innate immune response in cells with reduced LD content to the viral mimics, dsDNA and dsRNA, and Sendai viral infection. Using RT-qPCR, the expression of IFN- and IFN-λ was quantified following stimulation along with the expression of specific ISGs. Luciferase based assays evaluated the combined expression of ISRE-promoter driven ISGs under IFN- stimulation. Cellular LD content did not alter the entry of ...
Dr. Marzena Pazgier is an Assistant Professor at the Institute of Human Virology and the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of the University of Maryland School of Medicine. She obtained her doctoral degree in Technical Chemistry of Sciences at the Technical University of Lodz, Poland, in 2001. In 2002 she joined the Macromolecular Crystallography Laboratory at NCI-Frederick, NIH, as postdoctoral fellow to study structures and function proteins engaged in early innate immune responses, such as defensins. At the Institute of Human Virology Dr. Pazgier continued studies on defensins, but also expanded her research to explore role of Fc-mediated effector functions such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in preventing or modulating HIV-1 infection. Her research program combines structural biology by X-Ray crystallography and contemporary biophysical and protein engineering techniques.. Currently Dr. Pazgier is the Project Leader within the Lewis CAVD Consortium where ...
The purpose of the program project grant is to evaluate the placental, decidual and maternal immune interactions from a new perspective, that a positive interaction between placental and maternal components exist together to support and protect pregnancy and does not represent the classic graft/rejection interaction. Trophoblast cells, decidual (stromal and endothelial) cells, as well as cells of the innate immune system, communicate with each other throughout a network of cytokines and chemokines. Such crosstalk occurs through the expression of innate immune sensors, known as Toll-like Receptors (TLRs) that are expressed at the maternal-fetal interface and serve as sensors for the recognition and response to the environment throughout implantation and gestation. Our studies focus on the expression, regulation and function of TLRs in each of the cellular components of the maternal-fetal interface, and to evaluate their role in pregnancy success providing a complete picture of molecular ...
In this study we focused on the signaling of V antigen-induced innate immunity responses. For the first time we demonstrate that a bacterial nonlipidated protein associated with virulence and derived synthetic oligopeptides are capable to induce IL-10 production via TLR2/CD14 signaling. In contrast to the pseudomonas rPcrV, rLcrV (range of activity: 10-100 nM) transmits signaling via TLR2 in a CD14-dependent manner leading to IL-10 induction which finally causes TNF-α suppression thus probably enabling yersiniae to evade the host innate immune system. Several lines of evidence obtained in vitro both in murine and human cell systems support this conclusion: (a) Only CD14-TLR2-cotransfected HEK 293 cells, but not cells transfected with TLR2 alone responded with NF-κB-dependent ELAM-1 promoter luciferase activity upon rLcrV stimulation. (b) Blocking anti-CD14 monoclonal antibodies, but not nonblocking isotype anti-CD14 antibodies completely abolished TNF-α suppression in LcrV-treated MonoMac-6 ...
Studencka, M.; Konzer, A.; Moneron, G.; Wenzel, D.; Opitz, L.; Salinas-Riester, G.; Bedet, C.; Krüger, M.; Hell, S. W.; Wisniewski, J. R. et al.; Schmidt, H.; Palladino, F.; Schulze, E.; Jedrusik-Bode, M. A.: Novel roles of Caenorhabditis elegans heterochromatin protein HP1 and linker histone in the regulation of innate immune gene expression. Molecular and Cellular Biology 32 (2), pp. 251 - 265 (2012 ...
Studencka, M.; Konzer, A.; Moneron, G.; Wenzel, D.; Opitz, L.; Salinas-Riester, G.; Bedet, C.; Krüger, M.; Hell, S. W.; Wisniewski, J. R. et al.; Schmidt, H.; Palladino, F.; Schulze, E.; Jedrusik-Bode, M. A.: Novel roles of Caenorhabditis elegans heterochromatin protein HP1 and linker histone in the regulation of innate immune gene expression. Molecular and Cellular Biology 32 (2), pp. 251 - 265 (2012 ...
The Toll/interleukin-1 receptor/resistance protein (TIR) domain is a protein-protein interaction domain consisting of 125-200 residues, widely distributed in animals, plants and bacteria but absent from fungi, archea and viruses. In plants and animals, these domains are found in proteins with functions in innate immune pathways, while in bacteria, some TIR domain-containing proteins interfere with the innate immune pathways in the host. TIR domains function as protein scaffolds, mostly involving self-association and homotypic interactions with other TIR domains. In the last 15 years, the three-dimensional structures of TIR domains from several mammalian, plant and bacterial proteins have been reported. These structures, jointly with functional data including the identification of interacting proteins, have started to provide insight into the molecular basis of the assembly of animal and plant immune signaling complexes, and for host immunosuppression by bacterial pathogens. This review focuses ...
Dr. Darveau received his Ph.D. in bacteriology from Washington State University and did his postdoctoral research in the Department of Microbiology at the University of British Columbia studying structure/function relationships in the outer membrane of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. He is a Research Professor in the Department of Periodontics.. Our research is centered on the innate host response to microbial colonization and infection. We are keenly interested in the inflammatory component of the innate host response. Our laboratory studies both the microbial components that elicit inflammation and the activation pathways employed by the host in response to different microbial components. We study responses to both commensal and pathogenic bacteria. We employ biochemical isolation and analytical techniques to characterize the microbial components. Examples of microbial components that we have studied are lipopolysaccharide form gram negative bacteria and lipoteichoic acid from gram positive bacteria. ...
Chronic kidney disease is widespread in the western world with bacterial infection and sepsis as common complication. It has been shown that innate immune defence, represented by dysfunction of neutrophil granulocytes, is impaired in chronic kidney disease. Another impact of chronic kidney disease on innate immunity is the chronic activation of neutrophils leading to high levels of inflammatory cytokines, thus contributing to protein oxidation. Oxidation of human serum albumin (HSA), the major plasma protein, occurs in chronic kidney disease and leads to further activation of neutrophils. Another important impact of HSA oxidation is the decrease of its binding capacity leading to impaired detoxification ability of albumin. This includes reduced clearance of endotoxin, a major component of the gram negative bacterial cell wall. Circulating endotoxin is recognized by complex formation with lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) followed by binding to CD14 and toll-like receptor (TLR) 4. High ...
1 Functions of the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. Innate Immune Cells Adaptive Immune Cells Immune recognition Immune effector mechanisms Immune regulation Immunological memory response - particularly the adaptive arm of the immune response - occurs in the secondary lymphoid organs draining the site of infection. The immune system has evolved a number of effector mechanisms capable of destroying pathogenic organisms. 1). The innate arm of the immune system recognises pathogens non-specifically and generates immediate generic mechanisms of pathogen clearance. Many cytokine receptors are dimeric, and the chains making up some of the cytokine receptors are promiscuous. For example, the common ␥ chain (CD132) is shared by a number of cytokine receptors (notably the receptors for interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, IL-15 and IL-21), and the IL-4R chain (IL-4R␣) pairs with IL-␣13R to convey signals in response to IL-13. 8 Adaptive immunity The adaptive immune response differs ...
To differentiate between the contribution of mammary epithelial cells (MEC) and infiltrating immune cells to gene expression profiles of mammary tissue during early stage mastitis, we investigated in goats the in vivo transcriptional response of MEC to an experimental intra mammary infection (IMI) with Staphylococcus aureus, using a non-invasive RNA sampling method from milk fat globules (MFG). Microarrays were used to record gene expression patterns during the first 24 hours post-infection (hpi). This approach was combined with laser capture microdissection of MEC from frozen slides of mammary tissue to analyze some relevant genes at 30 hpi. During the early stages post-inoculation, MEC play an important role in the recruitment and activation of inflammatory cells through the IL-8 signalling pathway and initiate a sharp induction of innate immune genes predominantly associated with the pro-inflammatory response. At 30 hpi, MEC express genes encoding different acute phase proteins, including ...
The consequences of altered ADAR1 function are severe, from embryonic lethality in mice to debilitating neurological disease and systemic interferonopathy in humans with loss-of-function alleles [22, 52], to putative oncogenic roles when overexpressed [31, 53, 54], so it is critical to clearly define the key function(s) of ADAR1. In contrast to the physiologically essential role of transcript recoding by ADAR2, the importance of recoding to the biology of ADAR1 was unknown. In addition to protein recoding, ADAR1 can edit dsRNA substrates resulting in changes in multiple aspects of miRNA biogenesis or function, affect mRNA stability, 3-UTR length and translation, and modify splice site usage in addition to altering dsRNA secondary structures, which have been proposed to interface with the innate immune sensing system [19, 55]. We now demonstrate that the absence of ADAR1-mediated editing is surprisingly well tolerated, once the innate immune sensor MDA5 is deleted. Adar1 E861A/E861A Ifih1 -/- ...
The research group on innate immunity and bacterial infections not only consist of postdocs, PhD students, and technicians. We also offer bachelor and master students the opportunity to follow a trainee internship and to participate in the different research projects. Regardless of the specific subject, being the complement system, phage display, bacterial glycobiology, or phagocyte biology, many techniques and experimental setups are common in the research group. These techniques are both in the field of microbiology and the host defence employing molecular biology (bacterial protein expression, mutagenesis, gene regulation, knock-outs, eukaryotic receptor expression and mutagenesis), protein and carbohydrate chromatography and analysis (including purification of host defence proteins), functional assays using flow cytometry, confocal and electron microscopy, and some in-vivo infection models. The students become a full member of the participating research group with daily supervision. ...
The innate immune mechanism described here clears bacteria and protects against pneumonia. We show that in response to infection, pleural B cells relocate to the lung and produce abundant natural IgM, which is known to protect against infection (Boes et al., 1998; Baumgarth et al., 2000; Fabrizio et al., 2007; Choi and Baumgarth, 2008; Litvack et al., 2011; Schwartz et al., 2012). B cell-derived GM-CSF is the autocrine instructor required for emergency IgM production. Recently identified IRA B cells, which differentiate from B1a B cells in the mouse via direct TLR-dependent pathogen recognition, are key to this process and therefore to early innate immune defense.. GM-CSF was identified in the 1960s as a colony stimulator of granulocytes and mononuclear cells, though not erythrocytes (Bradley and Metcalf, 1966). GM-CSF-deficient mice, which were independently generated by two groups in 1994 (Dranoff et al., 1994; Stanley et al., 1994), show no striking perturbations of hematopoiesis in the ...
Immune sensor proteins are critical to the function of the human innate immune system. The full repertoire of cognate triggers for human immune sensors is not fully understood. Here, Robinson, Zhong, Reversade and team report that the human NLR, NLRP1, is activated by 3C proteases (3Cpros) of enteroviruses. Their findings establish 3Cpros as a pathogen-derived trigger for the human NLRP1 inflammasome and suggest that NLRP1 may contribute to inflammatory diseases of the airway. ...
Organic killer (NK) cells are crucial components of natural immune system responses to tumors and virus-like infections. been determined, including NKp30CN7-L6, great cell lectin-like receptor G1Ccadherin, and NKp80CAICL. Right here, we explain crystal clear constructions established to day of NK cell receptors destined to MHC, MHC-related, and non-MHC ligands. Jointly, these constructions reveal the varied solutions that NK receptors possess created to understand these substances, therefore allowing the legislation of NK cytolytic activity by both sponsor and virus-like ligands. discussion), but also types on the same cell (discussion) (59, 60), as discussed below. LILR Reputation of UL18, a Viral MHC-I Mirror Among the bacteria that possess attained LY 2874455 great achievement in inventing strategies for resistant evasion are the cytomegaloviruses, whose genomes ITGAM encode necessary protein that get in the way with both NK T-cell and cell identification, as well as antigen application and ...
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The investigators hypothesize that neutrophils and monocytes developed under the influence of Interferon- gamma-1b (IFN-γ-1b, Actimmune*) in vivo will display
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of tobacco smoking on innate immunity. T2 - A study based on neutrophil phagocytic index. AU - Thakur, Tanu. AU - Bhide, Arpana. AU - Chaudhury, Abhijit. AU - Thota, Asha. AU - Kasala, Latheef. AU - Hulikal, Narendra. PY - 2018/4/1. Y1 - 2018/4/1. N2 - The present study was undertaken to find out the effects of tobacco smoking on innate immune mechanism of the body. A total of 60 adult consenting men in the age group of 30 to 50 years were recruited of which 30 were chronic smokers and the rest were non smoking controls. 5ml of venous blood was drawn from each of the subjects and the following parameters were assessed: phagocytic index of neutrophils (which is an index of neutrophil function and is defined as number of neutrophils positive for ingested microbes per 100 neutrophils), total leucocyte count (TLC), differential count of neutrophils. The values from smokers were compared with those from non-smokers. There was a statistically significant decrease in the ...
Overwhelming inflammatory responses leading to neutrophil invasion are hypothesised to be the main cause of mortality in influenza virus induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Previously, pulmonary surfactant has been shown to modulate inflammatory responses to bacterial agents. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of pulmonary surfactant on innate immune responses in an in vitro model of influenza virus infected human airway epithelial cells. Human lung type II alveolar epithelial cells A549 and BEAS-2B human bronchial epithelial cells were infected with influenza A virus H1N1 strains A/Swine/1976/31, A/WSN/33 and A/PR/8/34. Poly I:C, Escherichia coli Ol 11 :B4 LPS and measles virus strain Edmonston were used as cytokine stimulation controls. The effect of pulmonary surfactant was compared to that of dexamethasone. This in vitro study showed that physiological concentrations (up to 500 ug/ml) of clinically approved SP-A and SP-D depleted surfactant ...
Genetic variations in innate immunity genes affect response to Coxiella burnetii and are associated with susceptibility to chronic Q ...
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and alcoholic liver disease synergistically promote the progression of advanced liver disease and non-response to interferon (IFN)-based antiviral therapy. The purpose of this study is to explore how ethanol (EtOH) establishes a favorable environment for HCV replication by deregulating antiviral innate immunity in the hepatocyte. ❧ Results show that not all of the known anti-HCV interferon (IFN) stimulated genes (ISGs), which are the effectors of intracellular innate immunity, are inducible in the hepatocyte. In addition, the mRNA induction of selected anti-HCV hepatocyte-inducible ISGs by IFN is impaired in the presence of EtOH in vitro, though mRNA induction by IFN and impairment by EtOH in vivo can vary from in vitro results. Furthermore, the induction of a potent ISG IRF1 is heterogeneous among hepatocytes in EtOH-fed mice. ❧ In conclusion, EtOH attenuates the ISG response, and this defect in antiviral immunity may be partially attributable to suppressed ...
The innate immune response is critical for host defense and must be tightly controlled, but the molecular mechanisms responsible for its negative regulation are not yet completely understood. In this study, we report that transporter 1, ATP-binding cassette, subfamily B (TAP1), a virus-inducible endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein, negatively regulated the virus-triggered immune response. In this study, we observed upregulated expression of TAP1 following virus infection in human lung epithelial cells (A549), THP-1 monocytes, HeLa cells, and Vero cells. The overexpression of TAP1 enhanced virus replication by inhibiting the virus-triggered activation of NF-κB signaling and the production of IFNs, IFN-stimulated genes, and proinflammatory cytokines. TAP1 depletion had the opposite effect. In response to virus infection, TAP1 interacted with the TGF-β-activated kinase (TAK)1 complex and impaired the phosphorylation of TAK1, subsequently suppressing the phosphorylation of the IκB kinase ...
Innate immune genes tend to be highly conserved in metazoans, even in early divergent lineages such as Cnidaria (jellyfish, corals, hydroids and sea anemones) and Porifera (sponges). However, constant and diverse selection pressures on the immune system have driven the expansion and diversification of different immune gene families in a lineage-specific manner. To investigate how the innate immune system has evolved in a subset of sea anemone species (Order: Actiniaria), we performed a comprehensive and comparative study using 10 newly sequenced transcriptomes, as well as three publically available transcriptomes, to identify the origins, expansions and contractions of candidate and novel immune gene families. We characterised five conserved genes and gene families, as well as multiple novel innate immune genes, including the newly recognised putative pattern recognition receptor CniFL. Single copies of TLR, MyD88 and NF-κB were found in most species, and several copies of IL-1R-like, NLR and CniFL
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Innate immunity is characterized by production of type I interferon which is necessary for the stimulation of effective anti-viral host defense. Upon recognition of cytosol viral dsRNA species, RIG-I-Like Receptors (RLRs), as well as many co-regulators, are recruited to adaptor protein IPS-1 and trigger innate immune responses. FADD (Fas associated with death domain) and RIP1 (receptor-interacting protein 1), have been reported to be recruited to this IPS-1 complex during viral infection and essential for optimal RLR signaling. Here we reported a novel type I interferon inducible DExD/H family helicase DDX24, which was found and confirmed to specifically associate with FADD through yeast two hybrid system and co-immunoprecipitation. Overexpression of DDX24 negatively regulates dsRNA induced type I IFNs signaling, while knockdown of DDX24 by siRNA has the opposite effect. Moreover, Plaque assays of virus titer consistently demonstrate that DDX24 also negatively regulates the cellular antiviral response.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lgt processing is an essential step in Streptococcus suis lipoprotein mediated innate immune activation. AU - Wichgers, P.J.. AU - Rebel, J.M.J.. AU - Smits, M.A.. AU - van Putten, J.P.. AU - Smith, H.E.. PY - 2011. Y1 - 2011. N2 - Background Streptococcus suis causes invasive infections in pigs and occasionally in humans. The host innate immune system plays a major role in counteracting S. suis infections. The main components of S. suis able to activate the innate immune system likely include cell wall constituents that may be released during growth or after cell wall integrity loss, however characterization of these components is still limited. Methology/Principal Findings A concentrated very potent innate immunity activating supernatant of penicillin-treated S. suis was SDS-PAGE fractionated and tested for porcine peripheral blood mononucleated cell (PBMC) stimulating activity using cytokine gene transcript analysis. More than half of the 24 tested fractions increased IL-1ß ...
The á2â1 integrin is expressed on many cell types throughout the immune system. Expression of the á2â1 integrin on mast cells is required for the early innate immune response to Listeria monocytogenes. Interaction between the á2â1 integrin and Listeria occurs through C1q within a Listeria immune complex, but is not sufficient for activation suggesting an additional co-receptor is required for activation. We demonstrate that Listeria immune complex activation of mast cells occurs through crosstalk between the á2â1 integrin and c-met. The best described mechanism of mast cell activation is IgE-mediated degranulation. We examined the mechanism of mediator release by mast cells following activation by Listeria immune complex. Activation by Listeria immune complex results in á2â1 integrin-dependent release of IL-6 from a granule pool that is distinct from known mast cell granules, identifying a novel population of mast cell granules. The á2â1 integrin-dependent early innate immune ...
Toda la información sobre las últimas publicaciones científicas de la Clínica Universidad de Navarra. Surfactant protein d, a marker of lung innate immunity, is positively associated with insulin sensitivity
Looking for online definition of innate immunity in the Medical Dictionary? innate immunity explanation free. What is innate immunity? Meaning of innate immunity medical term. What does innate immunity mean?
Innate immunity is the first-line, non-specific response to any breach of our bodies. Conclusion Cells of both the innate and adaptive immune systems are false. Besides their contribution to host defence via innate mechanisms, MC also promote adaptive immune responses through physical interactions with CD4 and CD8 T cells (Fig. Innate and adaptive immunity is a very complex biological process. 5. The ratio of T cells to B cells is. Humoral adaptive immunity vs. cell-mediated adaptive immunity. ... they are on the cell surface and help the immune system determine self not self Adaptive immunity refers to antigen-specific immune response. Humoral adaptive immunity vs. cell-mediated adaptive immunity. If youre seeing this message, it means were having trouble loading external resources on our website. 3: Innate immunity is orchestrated through phagocytes (Macrophages, and Neutrophils) and Natural Killer cells. Cell mediated immunity, consisting of T cells, which further matures into helper T ...
Upon viral infection, the major defense mounted by the host innate immune system is activation of the IFN- and apoptosis-mediated antiviral pathway. In order to complete their life cycle, viruses that are obligatory intracellular parasites must modulate these host immune responses. We have previously shown that the γHV68 latency-associated M2 protein effectively downregulates STAT1 and STAT2, resulting in the inhibition of type I and II IFN-mediated transcriptional activation. Here, we demonstrate that M2 interacts with ATM, a DNA damage signal transducer, and the DDB1/COP9/cullin DNA damage effector complex. This interaction blocked DNA damage-sensing activity as well as DNA damage repair activity, thereby rendering cells resistant to DNA damage-induced apoptosis. These results indicate that γHV68 encodes M2, a latency-associated gene, to antagonize both IFN- and apoptosis-mediated host innate immunities and thus is important in establishing and maintaining viral latency in infected ...
Acute lower respiratory tract infections cause a terrible public health burden at present, with potential for worse in the coming years. The outcome of these infections is determined by innate immune responses (such as neutrophil recruitment and activation), necessary for host defense but also contributing to lung injury. Innate immune responses in the lungs require the coordinated expression of diverse mediators including adhesion molecules, chemokines, colony stimulating factors, and cytokines that are absent or present only at low levels in uninfected lungs, but are expressed at high levels during infection. Similar mediators are induced during most lung infections, although individual mediators can have different roles during different infections. The coordinated expression suggests programs of gene regulation. NF-kappaB transcription factors are critical to the gene expression program directing innate immunity in the lungs, with RelA inducing innate immunity genes mediating host defense and ...
BACKGROUND: Nucleotide binding oligomerisation domain 2 (NOD2; also known as CARD15) mutations are associated with Crohns disease but how mutations cause disease is poorly understood. Innate immune responses are reportedly enhanced by combined NOD2 ligand (muramyl dipeptide, MDP) and Toll-like receptor 4 ligand (TLR4, lipopolysaccharide) stimulation. Intestinal TLR signalling has a dual role-maintaining intestinal homeostasis and protection from injury as well as initiating inflammatory responses. TLR9 is functional in the intestinal epithelium where it is most strongly expressed in Paneth cells. AIMS: To study possible interactions between CpG DNA (TLR9 ligand) and MDP using primary human cells of differing NOD2 genotypes. SUBJECTS: NOD2 wild-type healthy controls (n = 7) and NOD2 homozygous Crohns disease patients (n = 19), age and sex matched. METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with CpG DNA and MDP. Cytokines were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS:
Viral recognition by the host innate immune system has become an exciting and growing area of research focus in recent years. It is now apparent that multiple pattern recognition receptor (PRR) families, including Toll-like receptors (TLRs), RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) and NOD-like receptors (NLRs), contribute significantly to viral detection by sensing viral proteins and nucleic acids, leading to induction of cytokines and type I interferons (IFNs). Of particular current interest is the sensing of viral DNA within infected cells, since the PRRs responsible for this are only partially defined. Recently RNA polymerase III (Pol III) was shown to transcribe some viral DNAs into RNA for detection by RIG-I, leading to IFN induction. Another novel mechanism of viral DNA recognition unveiled, leading to proinflammatory cytokine production, involves the PYHIN family member AIM2 ...
Systemic autoimmunity is thought to result from a mix of genetics, environmental factors and stochastic events [6]. Given the multitude of susceptibility genes, symptoms and immunological abnormalities, it is clear that numerous pathogenic pathways contribute to systemic autoimmune disease [5, 11, 12]. A major thrust of systemic autoimmunity research has centered on elucidation of abnormalities in the adaptive immune response [13, 14]. However more recent research has identified the innate immune response as a major player in the initiation and expansion of systemic autoimmune pathology [4, 5, 9, 15, 16].. The current paradigm for the disease process of idiopathic systemic lupus-like autoimmunity argues for a central role of type I IFN [15, 17, 18]. This is based on the early observation of increased expression of IFN-α inducible genes (or IFN signature) in the peripheral blood cells of patients with SLE [17]. The type I IFN signature is found in 60% to 70% of patients with SLE, ...
Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP)-12 activity has been attributed to cleavage of cytokines, and digestion of extracellular matrix components related to the pathogenesis of diverse conditions, including atherosclerosis and aortic aneurysms. We hypothesise that a major role for MMP-12 is its regulation of gene expression during the innate antiviral immune response, controlling the secretion of alpha interferon (IFN-α) during enterovirus induced myocarditis. We employed an MMP-12 knockout mouse model of enteroviral myocarditis to determine the role of MMP-12 during the antiviral response. Electromobility shift assay (EMSA), Chromatin immunoprecipitation PCR (ChIP) and ChIP combined with Illumina-Solexa sequencing (ChIP-seq) were used to analyse the regions of the human genome bound by MMP-12 under control and virus infected conditions. Traditional immunofluorescence microscopy and molecular biology approaches were also used to confirm the results of the genomic ChIP studies. Coxsackievirus type-B3 ...
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Full Text PA-97-079 INNATE IMMUNITY NIH GUIDE, Volume 26, Number 24, July 25, 1997 PA NUMBER: PA-97-079 P.T. 34 Keywords: Immunology National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases National Institute of Dental Research PURPOSE The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) and the National Institute of Dental Research (NIDR), National Institutes of Health (NIH), invite applications for research studies of the innate immune system. Two general systems of immune recognition have been selected through evolution: innate immunity and acquired immunity. The innate immune system provides broad, but relatively nonspecific host defenses that lack the properties of antigenic specificity and immunologic memory that characterize acquired immunity. However, recent discoveries point to many robust mechanisms of innate immunity and have highlighted important functional links between the innate and acquired immune responses. The purpose of the PA is to support basic and preclinical ...
Abstract: Infection by human papillomavirus (HPV) alters the microenvironment of keratinocytes as a mechanism to evade the immune system. A-to-I editing by ADAR1 has been reported to regulate innate immunity in response to viral infections. Here, we evaluated the role of ADAR1 in HPV infection in vitro and in vivo. Innate immune activation was characterized in human keratinocyte cell lines constitutively infected or not with HPV. ADAR1 knockdown induced an innate immune response through enhanced expression of RIG-I-like receptors (RLR) signaling cascade, over-production of type-I IFNs and pro-inflammatory cytokines. ADAR1 knockdown enhanced expression of HPV proteins, a process dependent on innate immune function as no A-to-I editing could be identified in HPV transcripts. A genetic association study was performed in a cohort of HPV/HIV infected individuals followed for a median of 6 years (range 0.1-24). We identified the low frequency haplotype AACCAT significantly associated with recurrent ...
The NF-kappaB pathway has been shown to play a critical role in both adaptive and innate immunity and has been implicated as a focal point for induction of lung inflammation by a variety of inflammatory stimuli; however, the role of NF-kappaB in specific lung cell types remains unclear. We hypothesized that individual cell types in the lungs make important and unique contributions to the NF-kappaB dependent innate immune response. To determine the temporal and cell specific activation of NF-kappaB in vivo, an NF-kappaB reporter mouse in which expression of an enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP)/luciferase fusion protein cDNA driven by an NF-kappaB inducible promoter (NGL mouse) was generated. NF-kappaB activity was detected in intact, anesthetized animals by bioluminescence imaging and at the cellular level by detection of GFP on lung tissue sections. Using Eschericia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa models of lung inflammation, the timing and duration of NF-kappaB ...
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BACKGROUND/AIMS: Type I interferon (IFN-1) production and IFN-1 signaling play critical roles in the host antiviral innate immune responses. Although transcription factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1) has been reported to have a dual activator/repressor role during the regulation of interferon beta (IFN-β) promoter activity, the roles of YY1 in the regulation of upstream signaling pathways leading to IFN-1 induction and IFN-1 signaling during viral infection remain to be elucidated. METHODS: The roles of YY1 in IFN-1 production and IFN-1 signaling were investigated using immunoblotting, real-time PCR, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated YY1 knockdown, YY1 overexpression by transient transfection, and co-immunoprecipitation, using mouse cells ...
Advancing knowledge regarding the biology of Crohns Disease (CD) has identified that the hosts innate immunity may impact on the development of intestinal inflammation. Pattern recognition receptors and the Toll-like receptors are able to detect both gram positive and gram negative bacteria, yeasts and flagellin and respond by activation of the innate immune system. By identification of the unmethylated CpG dinucleotide sequences found in bacteria, lymphocytes are stimulated, proinflammatory cytokines like interleukin (IL)-12 and the interferons are induced, and both the mucosal and host defences against the invading pathogens are increased.. A body of evidence from clinical and experimental observations indicates a role for endogenous digestive microflora in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The distal ileum and the colon are the areas with highest luminal bacterial concentrations and represent the sites of inflammation in IBD. Probiotics have been shown to reduce ...
Professor Paul Hertzog is a NHMRC Senior Principal Research Fellow, Head of the Centre for Innate Immunity and Infectious Diseases, Associate Director of the Hudson Institute of Medical Research, Professor at Monash University and an Adjunct Professor of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. He obtained his PhD from the University of Melbourne and undertook postdoctoral positions in the USA at the Eppley Institute of Cancer Research and at the University of York in the UK. He has an established record of research on innate immune responses in infection, inflammation and cancer, particularly regulation by interferons. His groups work has been published in eminent journals including Cell, Science, Nature Immunology, Nature Medicine, Immunity, and the Journal of Clinical Investigation, etc. This work resulted in Professor Hertzog being awarded the international 2013 Milstein Award for Excellence in Interferon and Cytokine Research. Professor Hertzog is co-founder of the Victorian Infection and Immunity ...
Pathogen recognition receptor signaling induces p38 kinase-dependent priming phosphorylation of IFNAR1.(A) KR-2 cells were treated with CpG (10 µM for 30 min)
CIIID is a scientific research center based at the University of Washington School of Medicine in Seattle, where researchers from diverse scientific backgrounds work together and focus their expertise to discover how innate immunity dictates the bodys response to infectious disease or impacts autoimmune disease. CIIID scientists have access to four world class service cores with specific expertise in innate immunity: Human Cell Signaling, Transgenic Mouse Core, Immuno-informatics & Computational Modeling Core, and Translation Core. The CIIID also features an Education Core that hosts multiple programs for middle and high school students to conduct research in innate immunity. For additional information about The Center for Innate Immunity and Immune Disease, visit CIIID website at ...
By virtue of its direct contact with the environment, the lung is constantly challenged by infectious and non-infectious stimuli that necessitate a robust yet highly controlled host response coordinated by the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. Mammalian Toll-like receptors (TLRs) function as crucial sentinels of microbial and non-infectious antigens throughout the respiratory tract and mediate host innate immunity. Selective induction of inflammatory responses to harmful environmental exposures and tolerance to innocuous antigens are required to maintain tissue homeostasis and integrity. Conversely, dysregulated innate immune responses manifest as sustained and self-perpetuating tissue damage rather than controlled tissue repair. In this article we review aspects of Toll-like receptor function that are relevant to the development of acute lung injury and chronic obstructive lung diseases as well as resistance to frequently associated microbial infections.
Three different families of pattern recognition receptors, toll-like (TLRs), Nod-like (NLRs), and RIG-I-like, initiate innate immunity, the inborn host response to common pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, and fungi. These receptors recognize and bind pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) such as viral DNA and RNA, or bacterial and fungal cell wall components. PAMP-receptor binding activates the innate immune response, initiates downstream signaling, and induces expression of inflammatory cytokines as well as the type-I interferon response. The innate immune system attracts immune cells to the site of infection, and activates the adaptive immune response. This initial immune response is essential to combat a novel foreign pathogen. Dysregulation of innate immune processes can lead to widespread infection, sepsis, and immunodeficiencies ...
Three different families of pattern recognition receptors, toll-like (TLRs), Nod-like (NLRs), and RIG-I-like, initiate innate immunity, the inborn host response to common pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, and fungi. These receptors recognize and bind pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) such as viral DNA and RNA, or bacterial and fungal cell wall components. PAMP-receptor binding activates the innate immune response, initiates downstream signaling, and induces expression of inflammatory cytokines as well as the type-I interferon response. The innate immune system attracts immune cells to the site of infection, and activates the adaptive immune response. This initial immune response is essential to combat a novel foreign pathogen. Dysregulation of innate immune processes can lead to widespread infection, sepsis, and immunodeficiencies ...
Toll-like receptors are pattern recognition receptors that play a vital role in innate immunity pathways as they detect pathogen-associated molecular patterns on bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses. Many TLRs are expressed on the plasma membrane while TLR7, TLR8, and TLR9 are expressed within the cell on the endosome. Upon activation, TLRs dimerize and bind to TIR-containing adaptor proteins including TRIF, TIRAP, TRAM, and MyD88. Downstream signaling through IKKs and the NFκB pathway results in the production of inflammatory cytokines and interferons.. Click on the poster below to view the interactive version.. ...
QUIET PRIMING BY NEXT GENERATION VACCINE ADJUVANTS. Dr. Mitchell is dedicated to discovering how the immune system can be safely stimulated to fight disease. His work is most relevant to development of vaccine adjuvants, which are used in modern vaccines to boost their effectiveness without causing harm or unnecessary discomfort.. Modern immunology is guided by the paradigm that innate immunity against microbes is necessary for adaptive immunity to be generated in individuals for long term protection against re-infection. Dr. Mitchells research to advance safe immunostimulation is based on the idea that partial signaling through receptors of the innate immune system can achieve sufficient priming of the adaptive immune response so as to be protective while minimizing counterproductive effector responses by innate immune cells such as neutrophils and macrophages. TLR4-MD2, the innate receptor for bacterial LPS, is currently a focus of research for the Mitchell lab because it is targeted by a ...
Terada T, Nii T, Isobe N, Yoshimura Y (2018) Changes in the expression of avian β-defensin (AvBDs) and proinflammatory cytokines and localization of AvBD2 in the intestine of broiler embryos and chicks during their growth. Journal of Poultry Science (in press). Kang Y , Nii T, Isobe N, Yoshimura Y (2018) Effects of TLR ligands on the expression of cytokines and possible role of NFκB in its process in the theca of chicken follicles. Journal of Poultry Science (in press). Matsukawa S, Ueno K, Sugino T, Yoshimura Y, Isobe N (2018) Effects of colostrum whey on immune function in the digestive tract of goats. Animal Science Journal (in press). Elgawish RA, Ogata Y, Hidaka T, Nii T, Yoshimura Y, Isobe N (2018) Changes in plasma concentrations of S100A7 and S100A8 in dairy cows during pregnancy. Reproduction in Domestic Animals (in press). Elhamouly M, Terada T, Nii T, Isobe N, Yoshimura Y (2018) Innate antiviral immune response against infectious bronchitis virus and involvement of prostaglandin E2 ...
Recognition and degradation of viral RNA are essential for antiviral innate immune responses. Zinc-finger proteins (ZFPs) are gaining intensive concern because they are a..
Nitric oxide (NO) is a major mediator of host innate immunity with antimicrobial activity against a broad range of pathogens. Specific targeting of protein metal centers, thiols, and other radicals can disrupt microbial metabolism and limit pathogen growth during infection. The opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is relatively resistant to NO-mediated growth inhibition, yet NO remains important to control infection. A possible mechanism by which host NO is protective, beyond growth inhibition, may be through the direct targeting of systems that regulate the production of virulence factors, such as toxins. In Staphylococcus aureus, cell-to-cell communication known as quorum sensing regulates virulence and determines whether interactions with a mammalian host are commensal or pathogenic. Despite the importance of quorum sensing to infection, little is known about how host immunity affects inter-bacterial communication. In this thesis, I show that NO, a bacteriostatic effector of innate ...
Lgt processing is an essential step in Streptococcus suis lipoprotein mediated innate immune activation. PLoS One. 2011;6(7):e22299 ...
Previous observations in this laboratory showed that injection of culture-derived trypomastigotes (CT), in CBA/J mice, induced an early increased resistance that was detected 24-72 hr after antigen injection and permitted mice to survive a challenge of 105 blood trypomastigotes (BT) corresponding to 2000 LD50%. Present experiments were conducted to determine the optimal conditions for inducing this early resistance and to investigate the early morphological changes which occurred in blood and lymphoid organs of mice infected with either BT or CT. Among nine antigens tested, only living CT showed a protective effect permiting most of mice to survive 30 days after BT challenge, while control mice injected with PBS or other antigens died at 10 ± 1 days. A dose-response relationship was seen when different doses of CT were tested, higher doses of CT inducing higher survival and lower parasitemia. Injection of CT by either an im or ip route induced similar degrees of resistance but significantly ...
Adaptive- B and T cells - slow to respond- … Innate and adaptive immunity is a very complex biological process. Although, as a group, pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) can recognize many pathogens, the innate … Antigen receptors are genetically rearranged clonal receptors that bind to antigen displayed in. Innate immunity is always present in the body while adaptive immunity only occurs in response to exposure to an external factor. The potency of adaptive immunity is very high. Test your knowledge and determine where to start. Over the last week, she had been feeling tired and found it difficult to stay awake in class. First, lets start with innate immunity… The adaptive immune response is meant to attack non-self pathogens but can sometimes make errors and attack itself. This way the defense respon… Innate vs. adaptive immunity. If youre seeing this message, it means were having trouble loading external resources on our website. Types of Immunity and the Immune System. The early ...
Dr. Viswanathans research efforts over the past 12 years have focused on the mechanisms of pathogenesis of the diarrheal disease pathogens enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EPEC and EHEC). His laboratory characterized EPEC and EHEC virulence factors (specifically those secreted into host cells) and evaluates their effect on host cell physiology including barrier function, cell death pathways, and effects on innate immune responses. His specialization is innate immune signaling by intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo, and includes the use of cutting-edge technologies such as in vivo phosphoproteomics, and single-cell manipulation during bacterial infection. He also offers a very popular upper-division course in pathogenic bacteriology, and actively mentors undergraduate and graduate students, and post-doctoral fellows at the UA. Keywords: Pathogenic E. coli, Clostridium difficile, infection, host-pathogen interactions ...
Specific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting microbial pathogens and generating innate immune responses. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are membrane-bound receptors identified as homologs of Toll in Drosophila. Mammalian TLRs are expressed on innate immune cells, such as macrophages and dendritic cells, and respond to the membrane components of Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria. Pathogen recognition by TLRs provokes rapid activation of innate immunity by inducing production of proinflammatory cytokines and upregulation of costimulatory molecules. TLR signaling pathways are separated into two groups: a MyD88-dependent pathway that leads to the production of proinflammatory cytokines with quick activation of NF-{kappa}B and MAPK, and a MyD88-independent pathway associated with the induction of IFN-beta and IFN-inducible genes, and maturation of dendritic cells with slow activation of NF-{kappa}B and MAPK ...
Innate immunity employs Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and Nod-like receptors (NLRs), both families of so-called pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), to detect a variety of different exogenous and endogenous insults. Exogenous insults include bacteria, viruses and fungi.. Upon engagement of their cognate microbe-derived molecular ligands, PRRs initiate distinct intracellular signalling pathways via receptor-proximal adaptor molecules, and subsequent NF-kB- and IRF-mediated gene transcription activates immediate innate immune responses and primes adaptive immunity. Since the discovery of human TLRs in 1997, other families of mainly cytosolic pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) have been described, for example, the RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs), Nod/NACHT-LRR-like receptors (NLRs) and AIM2-like receptors (ALRs). Together with TLRs, these PRR fulfill the important function of immune surveillance in the innate immune system and mark the first line of immune detection for most microbes. Apart from their ...
Adaptive immunity towards tuberculosis (TB) has been extensively studied for many years. In addition, in recent years the profound contribution of innate immunity to host defence against this disease has become evident. The discovery of pattern recognition receptors, which allow innate immunity to tailor its response to different infectious agents, has challenged the view that this arm of immunity is nonspecific. Evidence is now accumulating that innate immunity can remember a previous exposure to a microorganism and respond differently during a second exposure. Although the specificity and memory of innate immunity cannot compete with the highly sophisticated adaptive immune response, its contribution to host defence against infection and to vaccine-induced immunity should not be underestimated and needs to be explored. Here, we present the concept of trained immunity and discuss how this may contribute to new avenues for control of TB.. ...
Adipose tissue of an organism plays a major role in regulating physiologic and pathologic processes such as metabolism and immunity by producing and secreting a variety of bioactive molecules termed adipokines. One highly conserved family of adipokines is adiponectin/ACRP30 and its structural and functional paralogs, the C1q/tumor necrosis factor-alpha-related proteins (CTRPs) 1-7. Unlike adiponectin, which is expressed exclusively by differentiated adipocytes, the CTRPs are expressed in a wide variety of tissues. These proteins are thought to act mainly on liver and muscle tissue to control glucose and lipid metabolism. An analysis of the crystal structure of adiponectin revealed a structural and evolutionary link between TNF and C1q-containing proteins, suggesting that these proteins arose from a common ancestral innate immunity gene. CTRP5 has been suggested to be involved in age-related macular degeneration.
Natural killer (NK) cells are innate immune system lymphocytes with an integral role in host defense against HIV infection. and promote the cytotoxic features that Rabbit polyclonal to JAK1.Janus kinase 1 (JAK1), is a member of a new class of protein-tyrosine kinases (PTK) characterized by the presence of a second phosphotransferase-related domain immediately N-terminal to the PTK domain.The second phosphotransferase domain bears all the hallmarks of a protein kinase, although its structure differs significantly from that of the PTK and threonine/serine kinase family members. kill focus CBR 5884 on cells. Once older, NK cells circulate in the tissue and bloodstream even though surveying for contaminated or malignant cells. Although NK cells are formidable players in the immune system response against infections, genetically modifying NK cells expressing CARs could improve NK cell targeting of malignant and infected cells. Within this review, the function is certainly talked about by us of NK ...
Plant innate immunity. Plants lack specialized immune cells-all plant cells participate in the plant immune response. ... and the Nucleus in Driving Plant Innate Immunity". Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions. 23 (11): 1368-80. doi:10.1094/MPMI-05- ...
"Innate Immunity. 20 (2): 115-125. doi:10.1177/1753425913484374. ISSN 1753-4259. PMID 23676582.. ... "Immunity. 44 (2): 221-231. doi:10.1016/j.immuni.2016.01.020. ISSN 1074-7613. PMID 26885855.. ... Caspase-1 therefore plays a fundamental role in the innate immune system. The enzyme is responsible for processing cytokines ... Creagh, Emma M. (December 2014). "Caspase crosstalk: integration of apoptotic and innate immune signalling pathways". Trends in ...
Comparison to animal innate immunityEdit. Both plants and animals have NLR proteins which seem to have the same biological ... Systemic immunityEdit. Local initiation of HR in response to certain necrotrophic pathogens has been shown to allow the plants ... Grant M, Lamb C (August 2006). "Systemic immunity". Current Opinion in Plant Biology. 9 (4): 414-20. doi:10.1016/j.pbi.2006.05. ... It is analogous to the innate immune system found in animals, and commonly precedes a slower systemic (whole plant) response, ...
... s often lack antigen-specific cell surface receptors, so are part of innate immunity, i.e. able to react ... Innate resistance to HIV[edit]. Recent research suggests specific KIR-MHC class I gene interactions might control innate ... In addition to the knowledge that natural killer cells are effectors of innate immunity, recent research has uncovered ... "Innate or adaptive immunity? The example of natural killer cells". Science. 331 (6013): 44-9. doi:10.1126/science.1198687. PMC ...
Alexander, C.; Rietschel, E. T. (2001). "Bacterial lipopolysaccharides and innate immunity". Journal of Endotoxin Research. 7 ( ... or oligosaccharide and carbohydrate lipid regions that stimulate the cell's natural immunity.[32] The outer membrane can bleb ...
Takeda K, Akira S (January 2005). "Toll-like receptors in innate immunity". International Immunology. 17 (1): 1-14. doi:10.1093 ... Delneste Y, Beauvillain C, Jeannin P (January 2007). "[Innate immunity: structure and function of TLRs]". Médecine/Sciences. 23 ... Due to the variety of mechanisms and links between the innate and adaptive immune response, an adjuvant-enhanced innate immune ... Innate immune response cells such as dendritic cells (DCs) engulf pathogens through a process called phagocytosis. ...
"The complement system and innate immunity". Immunobiology : the immune system in health and disease (5th ed.). New York: ... The alternative pathway of the complement system is an innate component of the immune system's natural defense against ...
Zanetti M (January 2004). "Cathelicidins, multifunctional peptides of the innate immunity". Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 75 (1 ... innate immune response in mucosa. • innate immune response. • killing by host of symbiont cells. • chronic inflammatory ... "Infection and Immunity. 63 (4): 1291-7. PMC 173149 . PMID 7890387.. *. Gudmundsson GH, Agerberth B, Odeberg J, Bergman T, ... "Infection and Immunity. 70 (2): 953-63. doi:10.1128/IAI.70.2.953-963.2002. PMC 127717 . PMID 11796631.. ...
Their range of functions is wide and includes participation in allergic reactions, innate and adaptive immunity, inflammation, ... "Immunology - Chapter One: Innate (non-specific) Immunity". Microbiology and Immunology On-Line Textbook. USC School of ... Hickey, Michael J.; Kubes, Paul (2009). "Intravascular immunity: The host-pathogen encounter in blood vessels". Nature Reviews ...
"Immune Defense against Bacterial Pathogens: Innate Immunity". Retrieved 19 April 2017.. ... Because it interfaces with the environment, skin plays an important immunity role in protecting the body against pathogens[5] ...
"The complement system and innate immunity". Immunobiology: The Immune System in Health and Disease. New York: Garland Science. ...
Craig, A.; Ewan, R.; Mesmar, J.; Gudipati, V.; Sadanandom, A. (10 March 2009). "E3 ubiquitin ligases and plant innate immunity ... The system is known as PAMP-Triggered Immunity or as Pattern-Triggered Immunity (PTI). The second tier, primarily governed by R ... "Innate immunity in plants and animals: striking similarities and obvious differences". Immunological Reviews. 198: 249-266. doi ... "Role of Ubiquitination in Plant Innate Immunity and Pathogen Virulence". Journal of Plant Biology. 53 (1): 10-18. doi:10.1007/ ...
Hewison M (2011). "Vitamin D and innate and adaptive immunity". Vitamins and the Immune System. Vitamins & Hormones. 86. pp. 23 ... In general, vitamin D functions to activate the innate and dampen the adaptive immune systems with antibacterial, antiviral and ... modulating body defenses against microbial invaders by stimulating the innate immune system.[183] ...
Diamond, MS (2003). "Evasion of innate and adaptive immunity by flaviviruses". Immunology and Cell Biology. 81 (3): 196-206. ... "Infection and Immunity. 61 (6): 2273-2276. PMC 280844. PMID 8500868.. *^ Zhang, Jing-Ren; et al. (1997). "Antigenic Variation ... Immunity to re-infection is based on recognition of the antigens carried by the pathogen, which are "remembered" by the ... and the innate and adaptive immune systems. To protect itself, the parasite decorates itself with a dense, homogeneous coat (~ ...
Rus H, Cudrici C, Niculescu F (2005). "The role of the complement system in innate immunity". Immunol Res. 33 (2): 103-112. doi ... These diseases are often treated by inducing a short term form of immunity called passive immunity. Passive immunity is ... Pier GB, Lyczak JB, Wetzler LM (2004). Immunology, Infection, and Immunity. ASM Press. ISBN 1-55581-246-5.. ... Kitasato put forward the theory of humoral immunity, proposing that a mediator in serum could react with a foreign antigen.[92] ...
"Plant Stomata Function in Innate Immunity against Bacterial Invasion". Cell. 126 (5): 969-980. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.06.054. ...
Singh PK, Parsek MR, Greenberg EP, Welsh MJ (2002). "A component of innate immunity prevents bacterial biofilm development". ... Lactoferrin, a component of innate immunity, prevents bacterial biofilm development. The loss of microbicidal activity and ... Broc JHk; De Sousa M (1989). Iron in immunity, cancer, and inflammation. New York: Wiley. ISBN 0-471-92150-5. Shongwe MS, Smith ... Lactoferrin belongs to the innate immune system. Apart from its main biological function, namely binding and transport of iron ...
TLR and hyaluronan play a role in innate immunity. There are limitations including the in vivo loss of this compound limiting ... Tesar BM, Jiang D, Liang J, Palmer SM, Noble PW, Goldstein DR (2006). "The role of hyaluronan degradation products as innate ...
It has an important function: it forms a mechanical defence against infection: see innate immunity. ...
"The role of the mannose-binding lectin in innate immunity". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 41 Suppl 7: S440-4. doi:10.1086/ ...
Unlike mammals, Drosophila flies only have innate immunity and lack an adaptive immune response. The D. melanogaster immune ... Troha K, Buchon N (September 2019). "Methods for the study of innate immunity in Drosophila melanogaster". Wiley ... "Spätzle-Processing Enzyme-independent Activation of the Toll Pathway in Drosophila Innate Immunity". Cell Structure and ... immunity, diabetes, and cancer, as well as drug abuse.[78][79][80] ...
"Intracellular innate immunity in gouty arthritis: role of NALP3 inflammasome". review. Immunology and Cell Biology. 88 (1): 20- ... innate immune response. • protein deubiquitination. • cytokine secretion involved in immune response. • defense response to ... NALP3 is a component of the innate immune system that functions as a pattern recognition receptor (PRR) that recognizes ...
Immunology - Chapter One: Innate (non-specific) Immunity. Microbiology and Immunology On-Line Textbook. USC School of Medicine ...
Cellular autophagic machinery also play an important role in innate immunity. Intracellular pathogens, such as Mycobacterium ... "Autophagy in immunity and inflammation". Nature. 469 (7330): 323-35. doi:10.1038/nature09782. PMC 3131688 . PMID 21248839 ... "Autophagy in immunity against mycobacterium tuberculosis: a model system to dissect immunological roles of autophagy". Curr. ...
... peripheral amplification by innate immunity and end-organ inflammation". Genes Immun. 10 (5): 390-6. doi:10.1038/gene.2009.6. ... "BAFF and innate immunity: new therapeutic targets for systemic lupus erythematosus". Immunology and cell biology. 90 (3): 293- ... "Genes and Immunity. 10 (5): 373-379. doi:10.1038/gene.2009.39. ISSN 1476-5470. PMC 3144759. PMID 19440199.. ... Kanta H, Mohan C (March 2009). "Three checkpoints in lupus development: central tolerance in adaptive immunity, ...
Wu H, Arron JR (November 2003). "TRAF6, a molecular bridge spanning adaptive immunity, innate immunity and osteoimmunology". ... "Infection and Immunity. 75 (5): 2171-80. doi:10.1128/IAI.01178-06. PMC 1865739. PMID 17353286.. ... "Immunity. 31 (1): 145-57. doi:10.1016/j.immuni.2009.06.015. PMC 3039716. PMID 19604493.. ... MAIT cells display innate, effector-like qualities.[16][17] In humans, MAIT cells are found in the blood, liver, lungs, and ...
Le Page C, Génin P, Baines MG, Hiscott J (2000). "Interferon activation and innate immunity". Rev Immunogenet. 2 (3): 374-86. ... Innate immune system[change , change source]. The body's first line of defence against viruses is the innate immune system. ... Its role in immunity is complex; it eventually stops the viruses from reproducing by killing the infected cell and its close ... RNA interference is an important innate defence against viruses.[10] Many viruses have a replication strategy that involves ...
Hazen SL (June 2008). "Oxidized phospholipids as endogenous pattern recognition ligands in innate immunity". J. Biol. Chem. 283 ... innate immune response. • positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation. • defense response to Gram-positive ...
Rus H, Cudrici C, Niculescu F (2005). "The role of the complement system in innate immunity". Immunol Res. 33 (2): 103-12. PMID ... Iwasaki A, Medzhitov R. (2015). "Control of adaptive immunity by the innate immune system". Nat Immunol. 16 (4): 343-53. PMID ... Salzet M, Tasiemski A, Cooper E (2006). "Innate immunity in lophotrochozoans: the annelids". Curr Pharm Des. 12 (24): 3043-50. ... "Immunity. 44 (2): 343-354. doi:10.1016/j.immuni.2015.11.024. ISSN 1097-4180. PMC 4758865 . PMID 26872698.. Pemeliharaan CS1: ...
Comalada M, Peppelenbosch MP (September 2006). "Impaired innate immunity in Crohn's disease". Trends Mol Med. 12 (9): 397-9. ...
Infection and Immunity. 2007-05, 75 (5): 2171-2180. ISSN 0019-9567. PMC 1865739. PMID 17353286. doi:10.1128/IAI.01178-06.. ... Innate mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are activated in inflammatory bowel diseases. Clinical and Experimental ... Immunity. 2016-12-20, 45 (6): 1177-1179. ISSN 1097-4180. PMID 28002722. doi:10.1016/j.immuni.2016.12.003.. ... Immunity. July 2009, 31 (1): 145-57. PMC 3039716. PMID 19604493. doi:10.1016/j.immuni.2009.06.015.. ...
... and is the subject of many humoral immunity studies. ... "The Role of Innate Immune Responses in the Outcome of ...
Innate and Adaptive Immunity) Involved during an Episode of Common Colds-Practical Advice on Dosages and on the Time to Take ...
... the prevailing of innate immunity, the failing of clonotypic immunity, and the filling of immunological space". Vaccine. 18 (16 ... Weng, N. P. (2006). "Aging of the Immune System: How Much Can the Adaptive Immune System Adapt?". Immunity. 24 (5): 495-499. ... Hakim, F.T.; R.E. Gress (2007). "Immunosenescence: deficits in adaptive immunity in elderly". Tissue Antigens. 70 (3): 179-189 ... A decline in humoral immunity caused by a reduction in the population of antibody producing B-cells along with a smaller ...
... tyrosine kinase 2 deficiency reveals its requisite roles in multiple cytokine signals involved in innate and acquired immunity ... ". Immunity. 25 (5): 745-755. doi:10.1016/j.immuni.2006.09.009. ISSN 1074-7613. PMID 17088085.. ...
免疫失調:過敏反應及自身免疫性疾病列表(279.5-6(英語:List of ICD-9 codes 240-279: endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases, and immunity ... 免疫系統(英語:Template:Myeloid innate immune system). *細胞 ... The Center for Modeling Immunity to Enteric Pathogens (MIEP). *. Anthony J. Davies. The tale of T cells
1,0 1,1 1,2 1,3 Rus, H., Cudrici, C., & Niculescu, F. (2005). The role of the complement system in innate immunity. Immunologic ...
However, this 1% of the blood makes a large difference to health, because immunity depends on it. An increase in the number of ... γδ T cells: bridge between innate and adaptive immune responses; phagocytosis. *Regulatory (suppressor) T cells: Returns the ...
VST therapy uses active donor T-cells that are isolated from alloreactive T-cells which have proven immunity against one or ... The complement system is part of the innate as well as the adaptive immune system; it is a group of circulating proteins that ... In these disorders both T lymphocytes and often B lymphocytes, regulators of adaptive immunity, are dysfunctional or decreased ... AD hyper-IgE AR hyper-IgE Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis Several rare conditions are due to defects in the innate immune system ...
Innate immunity and interferon-induced restriction factors". Virology. 411 (2): 251-9. doi:10.1016/j.virol.2010.12.031. PMC ...
Unlike the adaptive immune system, the innate immune system does not give long-lasting immunity against specific infections.[1] ... Innate immune systems rapidly defend against infections in all plant and animal life.[2] The innate system is the ... University of South Carolina Innate or non-specific immunity Archived 2011-08-23 at WebCite ... The innate immune system defends the host from infections. It includes cells which recognize and respond to pathogens (germs) ...
The Anatomy of Melancholy, Book I, New York 2001, p. 147: "The radical or innate is daily supplied by nourishment, which some ... For example, modern medicine refers to humoral immunity or humoral regulation when describing substances such as hormones and ...
innate immune response. • positive regulation of natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity. • adaptive immune response. • T- ... Immunity. 25 (4): 559-70. PMID 17045824. doi:10.1016/j.immuni.2006.06.020. ...
"Genes and Immunity. 11 (3): 232-8. doi:10.1038/gene.2010.1. PMID 20237496.. ... Through this interaction is stimulated innate immune response and it leads to secretion of proinflammatory cytokines.[9] ...
Jones SA (2005). Directing transition from innate to acquired immunity: defining a role for IL-6. J. Immunol. 175 (6): 3463-8. ...
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q IMMUNOLOGY - CHAPTER ONE - INNATE (NON-SPECIFIC) IMMUNITY Gene Mayer, Ph.D. Immunology ... The innate immune system is one of the two main immunity strategies found in vertebrates (the other being the adaptive immune ... Imler JL, Hoffmann JA (July 2001). "Toll receptors in innate immunity". Trends in Cell Biology. 11 (7): 304-11. doi:10.1016/ ... Le Bon A, Tough DF (August 2002). "Links between innate and adaptive immunity via type I interferon". Current Opinion in ...
Both T cells and B cells are cellular components of adaptive immunity. [1] The Ag abbreviation stands for an antibody generator ... An immunogen is an antigen substance (or adduct) that is able to trigger a humoral (innate) or cell-mediated immune response.[ ... the adjuvant component of vaccines plays an essential role in the activation of the innate immune system.[10][11] ... 12] It first initiates an innate immune response, which then causes the activation of the adaptive immune response. An antigen ...
editor, Julio Aliberti, (2011). Control of Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses During Infectious Diseases. New York, NY: ... 2004). Immunology, infection, and immunity. Washington, D.C.: ASM Press. p. 550. ISBN 9781555812461.. ...
"Infection and Immunity 73 (7): 4423-6. PMC 1168546. PMID 15972542. doi:10.1128/IAI.73.7.4423-4426.2005. Cite uses deprecated ... "The Innate Immune System: Pattern-Recognition Receptors, Antigen-Nonspecific Antimicrobial Body Molecules, and Cytokines". http ... *↑ Detmers PA, Wright SD, Olsen E, Kimball B, Cohn ZA ( ...
These sudden large changes allow the virus to infect new host species and quickly overcome protective immunity.[68] This is ... "Aberrant innate immune response in lethal infection of macaques with the 1918 influenza virus". Nature. 445 (7125): 319-23. ... However, influenza B mutates enough that lasting immunity is not possible.[53] This reduced rate of antigenic change, combined ... An alternative hypothesis to explain seasonality in influenza infections is an effect of vitamin D levels on immunity to the ...
Watanabe N, Bruschi F, Korenaga M (2005). "IgE: a question of protective immunity in Trichinella spiralis infection". Trends ... IL-5 and IL-13 as well as IL-33 which in turn activate group 2-innate lyphoid cells (ILC2, or natural helper cells). Basophils ... Pritchard DI, Quinnell RJ, Walsh EA (1995). "Immunity in humans to Necator americanus: IgE, parasite weight and fecundity". ... IgE's main function is immunity to parasites such as helminths[2] like Schistosoma mansoni, Trichinella spiralis, and Fasciola ...
"Novel attenuated Chikungunya vaccine candidates elicit protective immunity in C57BL/6 mice". Journal of Virology. 88 (5): 2858 ... "Evasion of the innate immune response: the Old World alphavirus nsP2 protein induces rapid degradation of Rpb1, a catalytic ... "Chikungunya virus induces IPS-1-dependent innate immune activation and protein kinase R-independent translational shutoff" ...
Mayer, G. Innate (non-specific) immunity. In: Microbiology and Immunology On-line, urednik Hunt, R.C. ... edu/ghaffar/innate.htm (PDF,PTT). University of South Carolina, School of Medicine. ...
... it plays an important role in innate and adaptive immunity.[8] ... IL-15 has been shown to enhance the anti-tumor immunity of CD8+ ... While influenza A virus expressing IL-15 stimulates both innate and adaptive immune cells to decrease tumor growth mice.[33] ... cells of the innate immune system whose principal role is to kill virally infected cells. ... "Co-adjuvant effects of retinoic acid and IL-15 induce inflammatory immunity to dietary antigens". Nature. 471 (7337): 220-4. ...
2009). "Polymorphisms in innate immunity genes and lung cancer risk in Xuanwei, China". Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 50 (4): 285-90. ...
Regulation and dysregulation of innate immunity by NFAT signaling downstream of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Eur J ... Regulation and dysregulation of innate immunity by NFAT signaling downstream of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). ... Regulation and dysregulation of innate immunity by NFAT signaling downstream of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs).. ... Structural biology provides long-sought solution to innate immunity puzzle. ...] Structural biology provides long-sought solution to innate immunity puzzle. Contact Information:. Media Contact ... His discovery of the genes behind the TLR4 receptor and its role in the bodys earliest response to infection - innate immunity ... molecules can set off innate immunity in mammals via a pair of immune cell proteins called the TLR4?MD-2 receptor complex. The ...
How complement system is a part of both innate and acquired immunity w. by Pratik (Purnea , bihar) ...
Innate Immunity inTübingen is your multidisciplinary translational consortium and research alliance for immunology. Contact us ... Several additional funding networks including innate immunity exist, e.g. involving skin immunity (with Heidelberg and Mainz) ... Collectively, this makes Tübingen an ideal setting for cutting-edge research in innate immunity, so.... Welcome and find out ... relate to Innate Immunity. Several PIs listed here participate in the CoEs "iFIT - Image-Guided and Functionally Instructed ...
Apoptosis and innate immunity in non-Hodgkins lymphoma. *Gregory, Christopher (Principal Investigator) ...
8.2.1 Innate Immunity. March 7, 2019. admin Innate immunity is non-specific type of defence, that is present at the time of ...
generated and posted on 2016.03.18 ∞. Mechanisms that protect an organism from pathogens and parasites and that do not change in their specificity over the course of the organisms lifespan. ...
Innate immunity is also known as genetic immunity or familial immunity. Innate immunity means the non-specific is ... Innate Immunity vs Adaptive Immunity Differences between Innate (Native) Immunity and Adaptive (Acquired) Immunity. INNATE AND ... Innate vs Adaptive Immunity. Adaptive Immunity. Point of distinction: Innate immunity: Acquired immunity: Definition: Immunity ... 1. Difference between innate and acquired immunity. Innate immunity, also known as genetic or natural immunity, is immunity ...
... Annu Rev Immunol. 2011;29:235-71. doi: 10.1146/annurev-immunol-031210-101324. ... Together, the dual host-protective and tumor-promoting actions of immunity are referred to as cancer immunoediting. In this ... numerous investigations in mouse models of cancer and in humans with cancer offer compelling evidence that particular innate ... human clinical data supporting a cancer immunoediting process that provide the fundamental basis for further study of immunity ...
Innate Immunity in Systemic Sclerosis - Role of Toll-Like Receptors, Interferon, and the Potential Impact of Vitamin D. ... In this European Medical Journal video, listen to the podcast about "Innate Immunity in Systemic Sclerosis - Role of Toll-Like ... Innate Immunity in Systemic Sclerosis Innate Immunity in Systemic Sclerosis. by admin , May 6, 2016. ...
... while aberrant innate immune responses, such as antimicrobial peptide production, innate microbial sensing and autophagy are ... However, recent advances in immunology and genetics have clarified that the innate immune response is equally as important in ... Studying the interactions between various constituents of the innate and adaptive immune systems will certainly open new ... while aberrant innate immune responses, such as antimicrobial peptide production, innate microbial sensing and autophagy are ...
Institute of Innate Immunity, University of Bonn, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University ... Institute of Innate Immunity, VU University Amsterdam - Department of Neurology, Andalusian Bioinformatics Research Centre ( ...
These studies will illuminate essential and conserved pathways of macrophage control of innate immunity, thereby providing ... The specific Aims are to (1) Identify microbial determinants of pathogenesis that affect macrophage innate immune responses in ... and orchestrators of acquired immunity. It is no surprise that among most of the NIAID priority pathogens, macrophages are ... we will identify the pathways of innate immune recognition that determine the host response and how pathogens can manipulate ...
Vedolizumab is associated with changes in innate rather than adaptive immunity in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. ...
Read how Combined Adaptive and Innate Immunity Stops Tumor Growth in Severe Melanoma Models ... Combined Adaptive and Innate Immunity Stops Tumor Growth in Severe Melanoma Models. ... Cancer immunotherapies have been based either on enhancing adaptive immunity or innate immune mechanisms. Adoptive T cell ... Tagged cancer immunotherapies, innate and adaptive immune response, Interleukin 2, melanoma.. Post navigation. Previous: ...
Tissue innate immunity in the womb and reproduction Supervisor: Francesco Colucci Co-supervisors: Francesca Gaccioli and Irving ... By destroying and repairing, innate immunity remodels tissues and is then intimately connected with tissue homeostasis. Our ... How is offspring immunity set during development?. *Embryonic and extraembryonic partnership: requisite for successful ... How is offspring immunity set during development?. *Embryonic and extraembryonic partnership: requisite for successful ...
Immune System I: Basis of Innate and Adaptive Immunity HSCI 426 (4) Basic organization of the immune system, including ... Innate and adaptive antibody and cellular immune responses and their orchestration, including mucosal immunity. Prerequisite: ... structure, function and genetics of antibodies, T-cell receptors, innate immune receptors, and the complement system; structure ...
Circadian Clock Genes: Targeting Innate Immunity for Antiviral Strategies Against COVID-19. Author(s): Kenneth Maiese New York ... Circadian Clock Genes: Targeting Innate Immunity for Antiviral Strategies Against COVID-19. Current Neurovascular Research ... Kenneth Maiese, "Circadian Clock Genes: Targeting Innate Immunity for Antiviral Strategies Against COVID-19", Current ... Title:Circadian Clock Genes: Targeting Innate Immunity for Antiviral Strategies Against COVID-19 ...
Acute stressor exposure both suppresses acquired immunity and potentiates innate immunity Journal Article *Overview ...
... and modulators of innate and adaptive immunity in response to alloantigens, challenged the conventional view, developed novel ... The molecular entities present on a cell or organ transplant that trigger the innate immune response and link to the adaptive ... Bridging innate with adaptive immunity in transplantation: Triggers, sensors, and modulators Wood KJ., Mariat C., Thaunat O., ... and modulators of innate and adaptive immunity in response to alloantigens, challenged the conventional view, developed novel ...
How SARS-CoV-2 variant B.1.1.7 adapted to evade innate immunity Researchers in the United States and the UK have conducted a ... adapted to suppress host innate immune responses in lung epithelial cells. ...
An essential component in innate immunity in fish ... mucus; fish; fish immunity; innate fish immunity. Language. ... A case for mucus: An essential component in innate immunity in fish. Author. Search for: Easy, R. H.; Search for: Ross, N.. ... A case for mucus: An essential component in innate immunity in fish. From National Research Council Canada ...
Two studies discover new enzyme that acts as a sensor of innate immunity ...
Schlagwörter Lung ; Immunity ; Immune Cells ; Neutrophils ; Macrophages ; Innate Lymphoid Cells ; Epithelial Cells; Invariant T ... Here, we summarize and discuss recent findings on pulmonary innate immunity and highlight key pathways relevant for biomarker ... The complex interplay between resident and infiltrating immune cells and secreted innate immune proteins shapes the outcome of ... most of which belong to the innate arm of the immune system. ... Innate immunity of the lung: From basic mechanisms to ...
Genomic Approaches to the understanding of Disease Resistance and Innate Immunity in Catfish ... Genomic Approaches to the understanding of Disease Resistance and Innate Immunity in Catfish ... "Genomic Approaches to the Understanding of Disease Resistance and Innate Immunity in Catfish" ...
This research project focuses on the fundamental mechanisms of innate immunity to HIV-1 infection. ... The Rongvaux Lab uses state of the art humanized murine models to study innate immune responses specific to the human species. ... This work will result in a better understanding of the contribution of the innate immune system, in vivo, to antiviral activity ...
Innate Mucosal Immunity. Russo-Neustadt. ASCL 212. Neurophysiology of the Brain. Salmassi. ASCL 327. Environmental Microbiology ...
... from randomized trials remains limited and only few studies have assessed the interplay between innate and adaptive immunity in ... In this paper, we review current knowledge on the interactions between central and peripheral innate and adaptive immune ... Observational studies have shown that indicators of immunity, especially C reactive protein and proinflammatory cytokines, such ... Innate immunity, Omics technologies, Adaptive Immunity, Depressive Disorder, Humans, Immunity, Innate, Inflammasomes, Microglia ...
  • Careful regulation of innate immunity is essential to ensure effective clearance of pathogens and to avoid detrimental inflammatory disease. (
  • As the first line of defence against pathogens, cells mount an innate immune response, which varies widely from cell to cell. (
  • The innate immune system represents the first line of defense against microbial pathogens. (
  • Intact innate immunity requires maintenance of an intact barrier to interface with the external environment, effective phagocytosis of microbial pathogens, and precise detection of pathogen-associated molecular patterns. (
  • Such changes aid in increasing the ability of the innate immune system to mount an effective immune response to pathogens. (
  • Scientists had long believed that the innate immune system could not be adapted to provide long term immunity on exposure to pathogens or vaccinations. (
  • This was the acquired immunity that was believed to provide long term immune response against pathogens or vaccines. (
  • Three different families of pattern recognition receptors, toll-like (TLRs), Nod-like (NLRs), and RIG-I-like, initiate innate immunity, the inborn host response to common pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, and fungi. (
  • The innate immune system is the first line of response to pathogens and tissue injury. (
  • The innate immunity sensor cGAS sounds the alarm when it encounters DNA - either from pathogens or from the body's own cells in the case of autoimmune disease - in areas of the cell where that genetic material should not be. (
  • The Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which are named for their similarity to the receptor Toll in Drosophila that functions in dorsoventral patterning, provide a major interface by which the innate immune system recognizes pathogens. (
  • You will then learn about the ways that pathogens circumvent these two types of immunity and consider other factors that can contribute to an individual becoming infected or diseased-including genetic factors, other microbes, and how social and emotional factors influence immunity. (
  • Once acquired immunity is operational the products of acquired immunity such as antibodies interact with complement and other components of innate immunity and enhance protection against foreign pathogens. (
  • On the other hand, the cells of adaptive immunity are only called to action if certain pathogens overcome the power of innate immunity. (
  • They identified modules of co-regulated genes involved in innate immune response - the body's first line of defense against pathogens - and interferon signaling, that were also associated with PTSD. (
  • Innate immunity is one of two ways by which vertebrates clear pathogens from the body. (
  • Unlike the adaptive immune system, the innate immune system does not provide long-term immunity to specific pathogens. (
  • The innate immune system includes anatomical barriers like epithelial barriers that product mucins and other anti-microbial peptides to kill pathogens. (
  • Unlike the adaptive immune system, the innate immune system is non-specific and uses pattern-recognition receptors like TLRs to identify molecules common to pathogens. (
  • We focus on understanding the role of host epigenetic programs that drive innate immune responses to pathogens, how these programs are dysregulated in disease and we how we can harness these mechanisms to boost or subdue immune responses. (
  • The interaction of innate immune cells with pathogens leads to changes in gene expression that elicit our bodies first line of defense against infection. (
  • The T-15 idiotype Ab was shown to confer protection in atherosclerosis, apoptosis, and immunity against pathogens ( 39 ). (
  • Activation of innate immunity is crucial for transition to specific immunity and for its orientation, and to assist the specific immune response in the recognition of pathogens and their destruction. (
  • This lesson will describe innate immunity as the body's second line of defense against pathogens. (
  • More common to all life is the innate immune system, which doesn't recognize specific invaders, but rather generally recognizes and reacts to all pathogens in a generic way. (
  • The approach by M.D. Anderson scientists to the pathogens is novel in that it seeks to bolster the innate, rather than the adaptive, immune system. (
  • The aerosol stimulates an innate immune system response in the lung lining that kills the invading pathogens, virtually on contact," said Brenton Scott, a researcher in Dickey's lab who led the study. (
  • Dr. David Corry, an assistant professor at Baylor College of Medicine who also has begun working on stimulating the innate immune system to ward off pathogens, said the field is full of potential. (
  • To illuminate the complex role of neutrophils in infection, inflammation, and immunity, this special issue has gathered original and review articles that will help us expand our knowledge on neutrophil biology. (
  • Specialized cells have evolved mechanisms to detect microbial and distress signals and translate these into effector mechanisms that fight infections, amplify inflammation, initiate acquired immunity and eventually resolve. (
  • A cytokine-mediated link between innate immunity, inflammation, and cancer. (
  • The mechanisms that link infection, innate immunity, inflammation, and cancer are being unraveled at a fast pace. (
  • Chronic inflammation develops through the action of various inflammatory mediators, including TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-17, leading to eradication of antitumor immunity and accelerated tumor progression. (
  • Written and edited by experts in the field, this collection from Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology reviews the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in innate immunity and all types of inflammation. (
  • The numerous chemical signals and factors involved in innate immunity and inflammation are described, as are those that keep inflammation in check. (
  • Innate immunity and inflammation may increase the risk of prostate cancer. (
  • To determine the role of innate immunity and inflammation in advanced prostate cancer, we investigated the association of 320 single nucleotide polymorphisms, located in 46 genes involved in this pathway, with disease risk using 494 cases with advanced disease and 536 controls from Cleveland, Ohio. (
  • Our results suggest that the innate immunity and inflammation pathway may play a modest role in the etiology of advanced prostate cancer through multiple small effects. (
  • Compelling evidence supports a role for genes involved in the innate immunity and inflammation pathway in prostate cancer risk. (
  • However, most of the previous studies have focused on individual SNPs or genes and very little is known about the impact of the overall innate immunity and inflammation pathway on developing more advanced prostate cancer. (
  • To determine the role of innate immunity and inflammation in advanced prostate cancer, we investigated the association of 320 SNPs, located in 46 innate immunity and inflammation genes, with advanced prostate cancer risk. (
  • We are interested in how "epigenetic" mechanisms such as histone modifying enzymes and non-coding RNA regulate inflammation and antiviral immunity. (
  • 102382 Authors: Saferding V, Blüml S Abstract The innate immune system consists of a variety of elements controlling and participating in virtually all aspects of inflammation and immunity. (
  • Our laboratory has defined the role of specific innate immune signaling pathways in immune cells that contribute collectively to pathogen-induced chronic inflammation. (
  • Using defined animal models of inflammation we are characterizing the roles of innate immune pathways in inflammatory processes in vivo. (
  • Also known as non-specific immunity, innate immunity consists of general physiologic responses (fever, inflammation, etc.) that can affect the entire body. (
  • The role of nuclear IL-37 remains unknown on the ability of this cytokine to inhibit innate inflammation. (
  • Here, we compared suppression of innate inflammation in transgenic mice expressing native human IL-37 (IL-37Tg) with those of transgenic mice carrying the mutation of aspartic acid (D) to alanine (A) at amino acid 20 (IL-37D20ATg). (
  • However, suppression of innate inflammation remains intact in the IL-37D20A mice once the cytokine is released from the cell and binds to its receptor. (
  • These studies reveal a nuclear function for suppression of innate inflammation and are consistent with the dual function of IL-37 and a role for caspase-1 in limiting inflammation. (
  • Innate immunity is an immunological subsystem that comprises the cells and mechanisms that provide the first line of defence from infection in a non-specific manner. (
  • Innate Immunity is central to defend nearly all multi-cellular organisms from microbial infection. (
  • Using SARS-CoV as a model, we will review the current knowledge of the interplay between coronavirus infection and the host innate immune system in vivo, and then discuss the mechanisms by which specific gene products antagonize the host innate immune response in cell culture models. (
  • and o studies of the genetic control of innate resistance to infection. (
  • Recent studies have shown, however, that innate immune cell populations such as myeloid cells and NK cells also undergo functional adaptation after infection or vaccination, a de facto innate immune memory that is also termed trained immunity. (
  • The innate immune system attracts immune cells to the site of infection, and activates the adaptive immune response. (
  • Dysregulation of innate immune processes can lead to widespread infection, sepsis, and immunodeficiencies. (
  • DALLAS - July 6, 2018 - A DNA-sensing enzyme forms droplets that act as tiny bioreactors creating molecules to stimulate innate immunity - the body's first response to infection, UT Southwestern researchers report. (
  • The innate immune system is the first line of defense against infection and is activated within minutes, reacting in a nonspecific, preprogrammed, and patterned manner to various infectious or foreign (non-self) stimuli ( 1 ). (
  • In several chapters excellent descriptions are given with respect to how the immune system can be recruited to combat microbial infection - via proteins of both the innate and adaptive immune systems. (
  • This review summarizes recent advances and current gaps in understanding of innate immunity to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and identifies key scientific priorities to enable application of this knowledge to the development of novel prevention strategies (vaccines and microbicides). (
  • Importantly, there is increasing evidence to suggest that many arms of the innate response play both protective and pathogenic roles in HIV infection. (
  • Priority areas are identified where there are opportunities to accelerate the translation of recent gains in understanding of innate immunity into the design of improved or novel vaccine and microbicide strategies against HIV infection. (
  • To our knowledge, our study is the first to use comprehensive deep-sequencing technology to clearly demonstrate that lncRNAs are involved in the host response to viral infection and innate immunity," says Michael Katze of the University of Washington, and STRIDE (Center for Systems and Translational Research on Infectious Disease) in Seattle, a lead researcher on the study. (
  • These findings represent the first discovery of the widespread differential expression of long ncRNAs in response to virus infection and suggest that ncRNAs are involved in regulating the host response, including innate immunity," says Katze. (
  • The innate immune system is rapidly activated in response to infection and injury. (
  • We will first focus on host immunity and present both the general immune capabilities-the innate immune response-that are encoded in our genes and that provide the initial response to infection and the adaptive immune response, which arises from highly specialized cells that protect against a specific pathogen. (
  • The concept of innate immunity refers to the first-line host defense that serves to limit infection in the early hours after exposure to microorganisms. (
  • Fucoidan effectively provokes the innate immunity of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and its resistance against experimental Vibrio alginolyticus infection. (
  • Innate Immunity is the process by which nearly all multi-cellular organisms defend against microbial infection. (
  • One major role of the innate system is to release cytokines and recruit other immune cells to the site of infection. (
  • These so-called "innate" immune receptors were made by cells that are present at all times in tissues (rather than being recruited there during an infection like B-cells and T-cells) and it was widely believed that these cells' only job was to hold an infection at bay while waiting for B-cells and T-cells to show up and dominate the show. (
  • The Effects of Long-Term Exposure to Microgravity on Salivary Markers of Innate Immunity (Salivary Markers) investigation involves the collection of blood, saliva, urine and a health assessment on six subjects pre-, in- and post-flight to determine if spaceflight induced immune system dysregulation increases infection susceptibility or poses a significant health risk to crewmembers onboard the International Space Station. (
  • My lab currently has two active areas research: 1) Understanding the role of bromodomain-containing family of epigenetic "readers" for gene expression programs following pathogen infection of innate immune cells and 2) the contribution of small non-coding RNAs and their associated proteins to antiviral immunity. (
  • Innate immunity plays a critical role as an initial barrier to infection. (
  • It is unclear from the current available literature whether the rate of vaginal infection increases or decreases in frequency during pregnancy when compared to the non-pregnant state, but this may be predicted by shifts in vaginal innate immunity. (
  • The vaginal innate immune system has not been well characterized in pregnant women, or in women with HIV infection. (
  • The investigators study is an observational study designed to compare levels of vaginal innate immunity markers in women based on a) pregnancy status and b) HIV infection status. (
  • N. gonorrhoeae may thus establish infection by inhibiting the apoptotic response to infection, thereby resisting killing from both the host cell and the innate immune response. (
  • In macrophages, which play a key role in the orchestration of innate immunity, infection caused the induction of miRNAs miR-21, miR-146 and miR-155. (
  • Given the importance of studying these pathways and players under physiologic conditions, methods describing the isolation of primary mouse sensory neurons and group 2 innate lymphoid cells are also provided. (
  • Presentations will provide new insights into mechanisms of microbial and distress sensing and the effector mechanisms of innate immune cells including macrophages, neutrophils, dendritic cells and innate lymphoid cells. (
  • Cincinnati Children's researchers report in Immunology the discovery of a complex biological process that in premature lungs stimulates production of Type 3 innate lymphoid cells in air sacs called alveolar. (
  • Deshmukh and his colleagues now plan pre-clinical studies in pre-term laboratory mouse pups to find out if they can harness their newly discovered biogenetic processes to stimulate production of Type 3 innate lymphoid cells in developing lungs. (
  • Commensal bacteria from the gut stimulate the production of Type 3 innate lymphoid cells. (
  • IGF1 orchestrates expansion and maturation of early pulmonary innate lymphoid cells, the study shows. (
  • When researchers deleted pulmonary IGF1 in the lungs of baby mice, it interrupted the biogenic development of Type 3 innate lymphoid cells and made the mice susceptible to lung infections and pneumonia. (
  • This program is focused on the regulatory mechanisms involved in the altered peripheral/central innate immune response in neurological disorders, and in particular, on the role of microglia/macrophages in both acute and chronic neuroinflammation observed in various central nervous system ("CNS") diseases. (
  • Tissue-type plasminogen activator inhibits the activity of the innate immune system in macrophages in vitro and in vivo in mice. (
  • By mediating the tPA response in macrophages, the NMDA-R provides a pathway by which the fibrinolysis system may regulate innate immunity. (
  • However, recent discoveries point to many robust mechanisms of innate immunity and have highlighted important functional links between the innate and acquired immune responses. (
  • and c) identify new methods, based on mechanisms of innate immunity, to modulate acquired immune responses (e.g., to enhance vaccine efficacy). (
  • This notion is now being challenged by the elucidation of key mechanisms of innate immunity and by the discovery of important functional connections between innate and acquired immune responses. (
  • Research Objectives and Scope The objective of this PA is to support innovative research on mechanisms of innate immunity. (
  • We are seeking an individual who will complement the molecular biological and genetic approaches currently used in the laboratory to elucidate mechanisms of innate immunity in humans and mice. (
  • Recent data have highlighted similarities between pathogen recognition, signaling pathways, and effector mechanisms of innate immunity in Drosophila and mammals, pointing to a common ancestry of these defenses. (
  • Full Text PA-97-079 INNATE IMMUNITY NIH GUIDE, Volume 26, Number 24, July 25, 1997 PA NUMBER: PA-97-079 P.T. 34 Keywords: Immunology National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases National Institute of Dental Research PURPOSE The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) and the National Institute of Dental Research (NIDR), National Institutes of Health (NIH), invite applications for research studies of the innate immune system. (
  • This book brings together central themes covering proteins of the immune system with special emphasis on the protein chemistry of the system, The understanding, at the molecular level, of the interactions between innate and adaptive arms of the immune system is currently a hot topic, particularly to those interested in immunology - especially susceptibility to infectious diseases. (
  • Innate Immunity research at the University of Massachusetts Medical School is undertaken by an interdisciplinary and interdepartmental group of investigators, centered in the Program in Innate Immunity within the Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology. (
  • Our goal is to develop an encyclopedia of innate immune system activity," says Richard J. Ulevitch, PhD, head of TSRI's immunology department and the project's principal investigator. (
  • Thus, investigation into the role of innate immunity in shaping and regulating vaccine-elicited adaptive immune responses is critical for a mechanistic understanding of vaccine immunology, and for the optimal design of vaccine regimens for challenging diseases. (
  • A major recent discovery in immunology, breaking the dogma of immune memory by adaptive cells only, has been to show that metabolic and epigenetic changes are associated with the acquisition of a form of memory by innate immune cells. (
  • An emerging theme in coronavirus pathogenesis is that the interaction between specific viral genes and the host immune system, specifically the innate immune system, functions as a key determinant in regulating virulence and disease outcomes. (
  • In this review, we will evaluate the contribution of innate immunity evasion by DENV to the pathogenesis and host tropism of this virus. (
  • Extensive research has been performed to understand the molecular viral mechanisms involved in the H5N1 pathogenesis in humans, providing interesting insights about the virus-host interaction and the regulation of the innate immune response by these highly pathogenic viruses. (
  • In this review, the innate immunologic pathogenesis of the preeclampsia is reviewed. (
  • The journal like the society focuses on the chemistry, biology, physiology, and translational biology of microbe (pathogen)-associated molecular patterns, including but not limited to Gram-negative bacterial endotoxins, and their interactions with innate immune recognition and response systems. (
  • The innate immune system is an ancient evolutionary arm of defense that responds to acute trauma by generating a barrier that prevents pathogen invasion and arrests bleeding. (
  • When a pathogen enters the human body, the body responds with a swift but non-specific immune response called the innate immune response. (
  • The acquired immune response acts after a period of time but it is specific and the memory of the pathogen is retained for long term immunity. (
  • There is remarkable conservation in the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by innate immune responses of plants, insects and mammals. (
  • Of interest, the Ipr1 gene also controls innate immunity to another intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, a parasitic disease transferred to humans generally from consuming infected animal products and that causes flu-like symptoms, swelling of the brain and for pregnant women potential loss of fetus. (
  • Universal Endotoxin and Innate Immunity society is recognized by its worldwide global enrolment and remarkable in its coordinated spotlight on the science, science, physiology, and translational science of microorganism (pathogen)- related atomic examples, including however not constrained to Gram-negative bacterial endotoxins, and their collaborations with inborn invulnerable acknowledgment and reaction frameworks. (
  • Upon pathogen sensing, cells of the innate immune system adapt their metabolism to meet the energy requirements necessary for defence functions. (
  • Authoritative and practical, Innate Antiviral Immunity: Methods and Protocols spans a diverse array of approaches to study and elucidate the intricacies of this vital area of study. (
  • Biphasic RLR-IFN-β response controls the balance between antiviral immunity and cell damage. (
  • The Human Antiviral Response RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression of 84 key genes involved in the innate antiviral immune response. (
  • Whether mammalian cells still use RNAi/miRNA devices for antiviral defense remains a largely unanswered question of innate immunity. (
  • It is thought that pattern recognition receptors (PRR)s leading to the production of antiviral cytokines such as type I interferon have made RNAi mechanisms for antiviral immunity redundant. (
  • Innate Immunity is a highly ranked, peer-reviewed open access journal and is the official journal of the International Endotoxin & Innate Immunity Society (IEIIS) . (
  • It is published by SAGE Publications on behalf of the International Endotoxin & Innate Immunity Society and the editor-in-chief is Otto Holst (Research Centre Borstel, Germany). (
  • At the conference at the eighth Conference of the Internation Endotoxin Society, held in Kyoto, Japan in November 2004, the individuals voted to change the name of the Society to the International Endotoxin and Innate Immunity Society (IEIIS). (
  • The mission of the International Endotoxin and Innate Immunity Society (IEIIS), as that of the International Endotoxin Society that went before the IEIIS, is to advance the trading of thoughts and new information among examiners of endotoxin science and natural invulnerability and to bolster and advance the vocation improvement of our more youthful and more junior associates. (
  • The studies identify a new enzyme that acts as a sensor of innate immunity - the body's first line of defense against invaders - and describe a novel cell signaling pathway. (
  • WASHINGTON -- A comprehensive and detailed picture of innate immunity - the human body's first line of defense against disease - is the goal of scientists funded by a recently awarded five-year, $24-million grant from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). (
  • Unlike the highly specific antibodies, which are produced in almost infinite variety and which match a particular disease organism like a key in a lock, cells of the innate immune system react generically to a wide range of substances, including molecules found in the cell walls of many kinds of bacteria. (
  • Many different cells of the innate immune system express a myriad of CLRs which shape innate immunity by virtue of their pattern recognition ability. (
  • Welcome to the Program in Innate Immunity at the University of Massachusetts Medical School. (
  • Innate Immunity is a highly ranked, peer reviewed, open access journal dedicated to innate immunity research in humans, plants and animals. (
  • The aim of the journal is to provide a single, interdisciplinary forum for the dissemination of new information on innate immunity in humans, animals, and plants to researchers. (
  • In humans, the gene variations that were responsible for glycolysis enzymes lead to innate immunity in monocytes being affected. (
  • These days we know that hosts like humans are optimally protected against pathogenic stress when both the innate and acquired immune systems are intact and functional. (
  • Innate Immunity is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering innate immunity in humans, animals, and plants. (
  • In this review we summarize and discuss the most important findings in this field, focusing mainly on H5N1 virulence factors and their impact on the modulation of the innate immunity in humans. (
  • Sweet taste receptor-activating molecules produced by sinus microbes suppress the local innate immune system in humans. (
  • On the one hand, it was given for early discoveries in the field of innate immunity - my field! (
  • Classical therapeutic approaches are now integrated with emerging strategies that largely derive from advances in signalling and regulatory networks and the pathological consequences of their dysregulation in the field of innate immunity. (
  • PAMP-receptor binding activates the innate immune response, initiates downstream signaling, and induces expression of inflammatory cytokines as well as the type-I interferon response. (
  • Important components in this linkage are the cytokines produced by activated innate immune cells that stimulate tumor growth and progression. (
  • Important molecules involved in innate immunity are chemokine receptors, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and cytokines such as interferons. (
  • Other cells in the innate immune system, like neutrophils, can directly engulf bacteria and produce additional cytokines to amplify immune signaling pathways. (
  • Innate immune stimulation results in the production of cytokines and chemokines by various immune cell populations. (
  • Toll-like receptors were first discovered in Drosophila and trigger the synthesis and secretion of cytokines and activation of other host defense programs that are necessary for both innate or adaptive immune responses. (
  • How do Klebsiella bacteria overcome innate host immunity? (
  • The bacteria overcome innate host immunity through several means. (
  • However, individual host resistance genes such as Ipr1, involved in innate immunity for tuberculosis, have been difficult to pinpoint, because of a highly complex multigenic control of host immunity. (
  • The first is an inborn, or innate, immune system that guards the body against threats it first encounters. (
  • As its name indicates, innate immunity is inborn and provides an all-purpose defense against invasion. (
  • Betty Wu-Hsieh describes a 2013 paper by Gordon Brown and colleagues that showed fungal strain-specific interactions with the innate immune system. (
  • The collection starts with the application of humanized mice and zebrafish as model organisms to study virus-host interactions and induction of innate immune responses. (
  • Finally, this collection comes full circle back to the whole organism level and concludes with epidemiological methods to investigate virus-host interactions and the induction of innate immunity. (
  • Radboud University Medical Center's Mihai Netea who is also the senior author of the study said "The implications of these findings are double: On the one hand, we have uncovered new biological interactions that link cellular metabolism with immune responses, and on the other hand, we have opened the door for new therapeutic approaches in which metabolism modulators modulate innate immune responses and can serve as potential novel immunotherapies. (
  • This review provides new insights into the interaction between natural Abs and lectins, with implications on how interactions between molecules of the innate and adaptive immune systems bridge these two arms of immunity. (
  • Basic and clinical innate immunologists collaborate to probe the fundamental mechanisms underlying innate immune recognition, signal transduction and host-defense in order to develop the next generation of therapeutics to treat infectious, inflammatory, metabolic diseases and cancer. (
  • Two general systems of immune recognition have been selected through evolution: innate immunity and acquired immunity. (
  • Iwasaki, A. A virological view of innate immune recognition. (
  • The contributors examine the cell types that make up the innate immune system, their use of pattern recognition receptors (e.g. (
  • Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) play a crucial role in the proper function of the innate immune system. (
  • They are also called primitive pattern recognition receptors because they evolved before other parts of the immune system, particularly before adaptive immunity. (
  • The Human Antifungal Response RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression of 84 key genes involved in the innate immune response to fungi. (
  • Scientists at TSRI, ISB and Rockefeller University will focus on human innate immune system genes that are turned either off or on when a cell meets an infectious organism. (
  • Further studies are required to provide insights into its role in innate immunity. (
  • Innate Immunity relies on germline-encoded receptors, which sense microbial products and endogenous danger signals. (
  • The journal welcomes manuscripts from researchers actively working on all aspects of innate immunity including biologically active bacterial, viral, fungal, parasitic, and plant components, as well as relevant cells, their receptors, signaling pathways, and induced mediators. (
  • Innate Immunity relies on germline-encoded receptors to sense microbial products and endogenous danger signals. (
  • The Innate Immunity arsenal constitutes polymorphonuclear and mononuclear phagocytes, mast cells, the complement system, Natural Killer cells, antimicrobial peptides, and presumably a subset of T lymphocytes with TCRl receptors. (
  • Vasselon T, Detmers PA (2002) Toll receptors: a central element in innate immune responses. (
  • Lee, G. and Liu, S. (2013) Roles of antigen receptors and CA215 in the innate immunity of cancer cells. (
  • This study dispels earlier belief that innate immunity could not provide long term immunity. (
  • An interaction among immunological signals, metabolic rewiring, and epigenetic reprogramming underlies the molecular mechanisms mediating trained immunity in myeloid cells and their bone marrow progenitors. (
  • It is one of the most widely used vaccine and is found to be effective against multiple infections due to trained immunity in white blood cells where metabolic and epigenetic changes are carried out. (
  • QIAGEN provides a broad range of assay technologies for innate immunity research that enables analysis of gene expression and regulation, epigenetic modification, genotyping, and signal transduction pathway activation. (
  • For viruses to productively infect their hosts, they must evade or inhibit important elements of the innate immune system, namely the type I interferon (IFN) response, which negatively influences the subsequent development of antigen-specific adaptive immunity against those viruses. (
  • What's interesting is that molecular signatures of innate immunity and interferon signaling were identified both after developing PTSD as well as before developing PTSD," said Dewleen G. Baker, MD, MRS-II principal investigator, research director at the VA Center of Excellence for Stress and Mental Health, and professor in the Department of Psychiatry at UC San Diego. (
  • Prior to the new study in Science Immunity the researchers published previous papers in Nature Medicine and Science Translational Medicine establishing the critical of role of the Gut-Lung Axis molecular interplay and the potentially harmful impact of aggressive antibiotic regimens in premature infants. (
  • Important developmental immune deficiencies at birth include incomplete physical and chemical barriers, poor innate effector cell function, limited and delayed secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA) production, incomplete complement cascade function, and insufficient anti-inflammatory mechanisms of the respiratory and gastrointestinal (GI) tracts. (
  • Modulation of innate immunity thus has the potential to constitute a powerful effector strategy to complement traditional approaches to HIV prophylaxis and therapy. (
  • The journal publishes basic, applied and clinical research on all aspects of innate immunity. (
  • An expanded role for antimicrobial proteins/peptides within human milk in innate immune protection is described. (
  • Innate immunity refers to the cells and the proteins that are present in the body and are ready to fight diseases at all times. (
  • Injection of purified proteins doesn't lead to immunity, or activation of T-cells and B-cells. (
  • Ulevitch and his co-investigators face a daunting task - identifying the thousands of genetic changes, proteins generated and biochemical pathways triggered by encounters between innate immune system cells and infectious agents. (
  • The investigation utilizes a longitudinal, repeated measures design to determine the effects of long-term exposure to microgravity on a host of salivary antimicrobial proteins (AMPs), latent viral reactivation, antibacterial properties of saliva, and blood markers associated with innate host immune defense. (
  • We are currently investigating the roles of novel bromodomain proteins in innate immunity. (
  • The functional response to ambient O(3) seems to be dependent on many components of the innate immune signaling. (
  • Thus, identifying the components of the innate immunity and inflammatory process that increase the risk of advanced prostate cancer is of major importance. (
  • The components of the innate immune system. (
  • This volume will include mini-reviews derived from work to be presented at the Aegean Conference: Second Crossroads between Innate and Adaptive Immunity, in Crete, Greece, June 17-22, 2007. (
  • Are you sure you want to remove Crossroads between innate and adaptive immunity II from your list? (
  • The general defenses are the first line of defense and are collectively termed the innate immune system. (
  • The BCG vaccine was found to induce metabolic changes that included changes to DNA methylation that affected innate immunity. (
  • The metabolic changes induced by the BCG vaccine resulted in trained immunity. (
  • However, this study showed that BCG could alter metabolic processes which resulted in adaptive innate immunity. (
  • Several factors such as altered nutrition, inactivity, age, fetal metabolic programming, and genetic propensity are known activators of the innate immune system. (
  • Dendritic cells are activated in response to Mucorales hyphae only, and induce adaptive immunity. (
  • The markers are associated with gene networks that regulate innate immune function and interferon signaling. (
  • Building upon earlier research, investigators at UT Southwestern Medical Center and their collaborators have identified a new innate immunity pathway that protects mammals from viral oncogenesis, the process by which viruses cause normal cells to become cancerous. (
  • We reported that placental derived steroids are strong immunosuppressors of innate immune responses of newborn monocytes through inhibition of the NF-κB pathway (right). (
  • The highly motivated successful applicant will study the role of innate immune mechanisms during viral and bacterial infections of the skin and central nervous system. (
  • Innate immunity is regularly involved in the arrest of bacterial, mycotic, viral and parasitic infections, giving the specific immune response time to become effective. (
  • How these constraints have shaped the evolution of innate immunity remains poorly understood. (
  • In a broader context, we surveyed the induction and evolution of innate immune responses following immunization. (
  • The Innate Immunity Signal Transduction in Human Leukocytes is a research study to determine the response of immune cells from the bloodstream. (
  • However, NK, PMN, and MΦ belong to innate immunity, and their activation requires no prior exposure but depends on a predetermined mechanism to recognize specific patterns of nonself molecules. (
  • Molecules released following TLR activation signal to other cells of the immune system making TLRs key elements of innate immunity and adaptive immunity. (
  • This conference provides multidisciplinary perspectives on innate immunity, from fundamental science to clinical aspects of disease, as well as therapeutic approaches to immune modulation. (
  • Consequently, understanding the contributions made by components of the host innate response to HIV acquisition/spread versus control is a critical pre-requisite for the employment of innate immunity in vaccine or microbicide design, so that appropriate responses can be targeted for up- or down-modulation. (
  • Finally, strategies for achieving modulation of innate functions need to be developed and subjected to rigorous testing to ensure that they achieve the desired level of protection without stimulation of immunopathological effects. (
  • Based on these studies, it is reasonable to postulate that cancerous immunoglobulins play important roles in the modulation of the innate immune system to allow the growth and survival of cancer cells within the human body. (
  • The program will also highlight new approaches to understanding protective and pathogenic innate immune function, and emerging therapeutic opportunities for targeting these mechanisms in disease. (
  • It is crucial to further knowledge regarding our immune system's failure to eradicate resting spores under intact immunity and inhibit fungal growth under immunocompromised conditions, in order to understand mucormycosis pathogenicity and enhance therapeutic strategies for mucormycosis. (
  • Similarly to T-cell checkpoints in oncology, removal of this off-switch in the innate immune response would open the door to the development of new therapeutic approaches to different human diseases," says Kevin McBride, PhD, partner and CSO at AmorChem. (
  • The past few years have confirmed the promise of therapeutic strategies focusing on innate immunity. (
  • and (iii) emerging options for therapeutic interventions on cells of innate immunity. (
  • Rates and Deadlines listed below are for the 2018-B9 "Regulation and Dysregulation of Innate Immunity in Disease" conference only. (
  • The Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine at Duke University invites applications for a postdoctoral position to investigate innate immunity using the model organism C. elegans. (
  • In addition, innate immunity can serve to shape and regulate adaptive immune responses. (
  • Strategically boosting innate immune responses is critical to improve vaccines and to develop new therapies to cure infectious diseases that are otherwise difficult to treat. (
  • The Clinical Sciences Research Institute is hosting a seminar entitled 'Glycomics and innate immunity in human disease' from 12:30pm to 1:30pm on Thursday 21 January 2010 in the Large Seminar Room, CSRI, CSB Building UHCW. (
  • Although the innate immune response is usually associated with infectious disease, it has been implicated in a broad range of diseases, including cancer, autoimmunity, degenerative and vascular diseases. (
  • Finding a specific gene in a mouse that has a human equivalent within a highly conserved genetic region suggests that the human equivalent may also be involved in innate immunity to the disease and may further lead to development of diagnostic tests and prevention approaches. (
  • On the other hand, understanding innate immunity will enable the development of more targeted therapeutics to intervene in a variety of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. (
  • Enhanced understanding of the roles of specific innate immune signaling pathways, which participate in proinflammatory mediator expression and functional immune responses will provide a promising avenue for novel therapies for chronic inflammatory disorders. (
  • In this article, we review the complex interaction between inhalation of O(3) and pulmonary innate immunity. (
  • Experimental and epidemiological data have shown that induction of trained immunity contributes to the beneficial heterologous effects of vaccines such as bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), the licensed TB vaccine. (
  • Future studies are warranted to explore the untapped potential of trained immunity to develop a future generation of TB vaccines that would combine innate and adaptive immune memory induction. (
  • Chromatin accessibility modulates the induction of innate immunity in cells of myeloid lineage. (