Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Protection from an infectious disease agent that is mediated by B- and T- LYMPHOCYTES following exposure to specific antigen, and characterized by IMMUNOLOGIC MEMORY. It can result from either previous infection with that agent or vaccination (IMMUNITY, ACTIVE), or transfer of antibody or lymphocytes from an immune donor (IMMUNIZATION, PASSIVE).
Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.
Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.
The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.
Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.
The non-susceptibility to infection of a large group of individuals in a population. A variety of factors can be responsible for herd immunity and this gives rise to the different definitions used in the literature. Most commonly, herd immunity refers to the case when, if most of the population is immune, infection of a single individual will not cause an epidemic. Also, in such immunized populations, susceptible individuals are not likely to become infected. Herd immunity can also refer to the case when unprotected individuals fail to contract a disease because the infecting organism has been banished from the population.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.
Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
A large family of cell surface receptors that bind conserved molecular structures (PAMPS) present in pathogens. They play important roles in host defense by mediating cellular responses to pathogens.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.
Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.
Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Infections with bacteria of the genus LISTERIA.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Experimentally induced tumor that produces MELANIN in animals to provide a model for studying human MELANOMA.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed protozoa administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious protozoan disease.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Protection conferred on a host by inoculation with one strain or component of a microorganism that prevents infection when later challenged with a similar strain. Most commonly the microorganism is a virus.
The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).
A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
Form of adoptive transfer where cells with antitumor activity are transferred to the tumor-bearing host in order to mediate tumor regression. The lymphoid cells commonly used are lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). This is usually considered a form of passive immunotherapy. (From DeVita, et al., Cancer, 1993, pp.305-7, 314)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Bacteriocins elaborated by strains of Escherichia coli and related species. They are proteins or protein-lipopolysaccharide complexes lethal to other strains of the same species.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.
A species of gram-negative, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It is differentiated into approximately 50 pathovars with different plant pathogenicities and host specificities.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
Methods used by pathogenic organisms to evade a host's immune system.
An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.
The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.
A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.
An intracellular signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR and INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTORS signal transduction. It forms a signaling complex with the activated cell surface receptors and members of the IRAK KINASES.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Active immunization where vaccine is administered for therapeutic or preventive purposes. This can include administration of immunopotentiating agents such as BCG vaccine and Corynebacterium parvum as well as biological response modifiers such as interferons, interleukins, and colony-stimulating factors in order to directly stimulate the immune system.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Diseases of plants.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.
A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.
An acute, highly contagious, often fatal infectious disease caused by an orthopoxvirus characterized by a biphasic febrile course and distinctive progressive skin eruptions. Vaccination has succeeded in eradicating smallpox worldwide. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with other TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS. It interacts with multiple ligands including PEPTIDOGLYCAN, bacterial LIPOPROTEINS, lipoarabinomannan, and a variety of PORINS.
Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.
The bovine variety of the tubercle bacillus. It is called also Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
A species of PLASMODIUM causing malaria in rodents.
Aluminum metal sulfate compounds used medically as astringents and for many industrial purposes. They are used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of ulcerative stomatitis, leukorrhea, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, metritis, and minor wounds.
A disease caused by tetanospasmin, a powerful protein toxin produced by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI. Tetanus usually occurs after an acute injury, such as a puncture wound or laceration. Generalized tetanus, the most common form, is characterized by tetanic muscular contractions and hyperreflexia. Localized tetanus presents itself as a mild condition with manifestations restricted to muscles near the wound. It may progress to the generalized form.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed fungi administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious fungal disease.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
A genus of protozoan parasites of the subclass COCCIDIA. Various species are parasitic in the epithelial cells of the liver and intestines of man and other animals.
Class I-restricted activation of CD8-POSITIVE LYMPHOCYTES resulting from ANTIGEN PRESENTATION of exogenous ANTIGENS (cross-presentation). This is in contrast to normal activation of these lymphocytes (direct-priming) which results from presentation of endogenous antigens.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.
A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.
Alteration of the immune system or of an immune response by agents that activate or suppress its function. This can include IMMUNIZATION or administration of immunomodulatory drugs. Immunomodulation can also encompass non-therapeutic alteration of the immune system effected by endogenous or exogenous substances.
A protozoan parasite of rodents transmitted by the mosquito Anopheles dureni.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.
DEFENSINS found mainly in epithelial cells.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.
Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms that can cause pathological conditions or diseases.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.
The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.
Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Species of CHLAMYDIA causing pneumonitis in mice and hamsters. These isolates formerly belonged to CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS.
Infections with nematodes of the order STRONGYLIDA.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) of the Old World. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.
A genus of protozoa that comprise the malaria parasites of mammals. Four species infect humans (although occasional infections with primate malarias may occur). These are PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; PLASMODIUM OVALE, and PLASMODIUM VIVAX. Species causing infection in vertebrates other than man include: PLASMODIUM BERGHEI; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; P. vinckei, and PLASMODIUM YOELII in rodents; P. brasilianum, PLASMODIUM CYNOMOLGI; and PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI in monkeys; and PLASMODIUM GALLINACEUM in chickens.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.
A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The ability of lymphoid cells to mount a humoral or cellular immune response when challenged by antigen.
The presence of parasites (especially malarial parasites) in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A pattern recognition receptor that binds unmethylated CPG CLUSTERS. It mediates cellular responses to bacterial pathogens by distinguishing between self and bacterial DNA.
The ability of tumors to evade destruction by the IMMUNE SYSTEM. Theories concerning possible mechanisms by which this takes place involve both cellular immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and humoral immunity (ANTIBODY FORMATION), and also costimulatory pathways related to CD28 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD28) and CD80 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD80).
A respiratory infection caused by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS and characterized by paroxysmal coughing ending in a prolonged crowing intake of breath.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
Subset of helper-effector T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete IL-17, IL-17F, and IL-22. These cytokines are involved in host defenses and tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.

Monocyte-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity: a clinical test of monocyte function. (1/7321)

The lack of a simple, rapid, and quantitative test of the functional activity of the monocyte has hampered studies of the contribution of this cell type to host defense and human disease. This report describes an assay of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, which depends exclusively upon the monocyte as the effector cell and therefore provides a convenient test of monocyte function. In this system, mononuclear leukocytes (MNL) obtained by Ficoll-Hypaque separation of whole blood are cytotoxic for 51Cr-labeled human erythrocyte targets coated with anti-blood group antibody. Removal of phagocytic monocytes from the MNL by iron ingestion, followed by exposure to a magnetic field, completely abolishes all cytotoxic activity from the remaining MNL population. Similarly, in severely mono-cytopenic patients with aplastic anemia, cytotoxic effector activity is absent. In normals and less severely monocytopenic aplastic anemia patients, cytotoxicity correlates significantly (p less than 0.001) with monocyte number. Application of this monocyte-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity assay to the study of patients with the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome has revealed defective monocyte cytotoxic activity in spite of normal monocyte numbers, suggesting that this test may be useful for the assessment of monocyte function in a variety of clinical situations.  (+info)

Possible suppression of host resistance by estrogen therapy for prostatic cancer.(2/7321)


Cell-mediated immunity: dealing a direct blow to pathogens. (3/7321)

Cytotoxic T lymphocytes are essential for defence against viral infections. Recent data demonstrating direct killing of intracellular bacteria by granulysin, a protein released from the granules of cytotoxic T lymphocytes, emphasize the contribution of these lymphocytes to the control of tuberculosis.  (+info)

Antitumor effect of allogenic fibroblasts engineered to express Fas ligand (FasL). (4/7321)

Fas ligand is a type II transmembrane protein which can induce apoptosis in Fas-expressing cells. Recent reports indicate that expression of FasL in transplanted cells may cause graft rejection and, on the other hand, tumor cells may lose their tumorigenicity when they are engineered to express FasL. These effects could be related to recruitment of neutrophils by FasL with activation of their cytotoxic machinery. In this study we investigated the antitumor effect of allogenic fibroblasts engineered to express FasL. Fibroblasts engineered to express FasL (PA317/FasL) did not exert toxic effects on transformed liver cell line (BNL) or colon cancer cell line (CT26) in vitro, but they could abrogate their tumorigenicity in vivo. Histological examination of the site of implantation of BNL cells mixed with PA317/FasL revealed massive infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils and mononuclear cells. A specific immune protective effect was observed in animals primed with a mixture of BNL or CT26 and PA317/FasL cells. Rechallenge with tumor cells 14 or 100 days after priming resulted in protection of 100 or 50% of animals, respectively. This protective effect was due to CD8+ cells since depletion of CD8+ led to tumor formation. In addition, treatment of pre-established BNL tumors with a subcutaneous injection of BNL and PA317/FasL cell mixture at a distant site caused significant inhibition of tumor growth. These data demonstrate that allogenic cells engineered with FasL are able to abolish tumor growth and induce specific protective immunity when they are mixed with neoplastic cells.  (+info)

Giardia induces proliferation and interferon gamma production by intestinal lymphocytes. (5/7321)

BACKGROUND: Murine intraepithelial lymphocytes kill Giardia lambia; responses of human intestinal lymphocytes to this parasite are unknown. AIMS: To examine giardia induced proliferation, interferon gamma production, migration, and cytotoxicity by lymphocytes from the human intestine and peripheral blood. METHODS: Giardia were added to intraepithelial lymphocytes, lamina propria lymphocytes, and peripheral blood lymphocytes, obtained from jejunal mucosa and blood of otherwise healthy patients undergoing gastric bypass surgery for morbid obesity. Proliferation was measured by 3H-thymidine incorporation; frequency of proliferation precursors, by limiting dilution analysis; interferon gamma production, by ELISA; cytotoxicity, by 51Cr release of radiolabelled giardia and by release of serine esterases by effector lymphocytes that mediate cytotoxicity. RESULTS: The CD4+ T lymphocytes from intestine and blood proliferated in response to giardia. The stimulus by the parasite was mitogenic rather than antigenic due to the fact that the peak response was on day 3 rather than day 6, and the large number of precursors was in the range of that for mitogens. CD4+ T lymphocytes from both sites produced interferon gamma in response to giardia. Lymphocytes did not migrate towards or kill the parasite. CONCLUSIONS: Giardia induced the same degree of proliferation and interferon gamma production by CD4+ T lymphocytes in intestine and blood, but did not trigger cytotoxicity or migration.  (+info)

From myocarditis to cardiomyopathy: mechanisms of inflammation and cell death: learning from the past for the future. (6/7321)

A progression from viral myocarditis to dilated cardiomyopathy has long been hypothesized, but the actual extent of this progression has been uncertain. However, a causal link between viral myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy has become more evident than before with the tremendous developments in the molecular analyses of autopsy and endomyocardial biopsy specimens, new techniques of viral gene amplification, and modern immunology. The persistence of viral RNA in the myocardium beyond 90 days after inoculation, confirmed by the method of polymerase chain reaction, has given us new insights into the pathogenesis of dilated cardiomyopathy. Moreover, new knowledge of T-cell-mediated immune responses in murine viral myocarditis has contributed a great deal to the understanding of the mechanisms of ongoing disease processes. Apoptotic cell death may provide the third concept to explain the pathogenesis of dilated cardiomyopathy, in addition to persistent viral RNA in the heart tissue and an immune system-mediated mechanism. Beneficial effects of alpha1-adrenergic blocking agents, carteolol, verapamil, and ACE inhibitors have been shown clinically and experimentally in the treatment of viral myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy. Antiviral agents should be more extensively investigated for clinical use. The rather discouraging results obtained to date with immunosuppressive agents in the treatment of viral myocarditis indicated the importance of sparing neutralizing antibody production, which may be controlled by B cells, and raised the possibility of promising developments in immunomodulating therapy.  (+info)

Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency impairs cellular immunity. (7/7321)

Norepinephrine, released from sympathetic neurons, and epinephrine, released from the adrenal medulla, participate in a number of physiological processes including those that facilitate adaptation to stressful conditions. The thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes are richly innervated by the sympathetic nervous system, and catecholamines are thought to modulate the immune response. However, the importance of this modulatory role in vivo remains uncertain. We addressed this question genetically by using mice that lack dopamine beta-hydroxylase (dbh-/- mice). dbh-/- mice cannot produce norepinephrine or epinephrine, but produce dopamine instead. When housed in specific pathogen-free conditions, dbh-/- mice had normal numbers of blood leukocytes, and normal T and B cell development and in vitro function. However, when challenged in vivo by infection with the intracellular pathogens Listeria monocytogenes or Mycobacterium tuberculosis, dbh-/- mice were more susceptible to infection, exhibited extreme thymic involution, and had impaired T cell function, including Th1 cytokine production. When immunized with trinitrophenyl-keyhole limpet hemocyanin, dbh-/- mice produced less Th1 cytokine-dependent-IgG2a antitrinitrophenyl antibody. These results indicate that physiological catecholamine production is not required for normal development of the immune system, but plays an important role in the modulation of T cell-mediated immunity to infection and immunization.  (+info)

Genetic control of cytolytic T-lymphocyte responses. I. Ir gene control of the specificity of cytolytic T-lymphocyte responses to trinitrophenyl-modified syngeneic cells. (8/7321)

The ability of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) induced in vitro to trinitrophenyl (TNP)-modified syngeneic cells to cross-reactively lyse a TNP allogeneic spleen target varies among inbred mouse strains. The cross-reactive CTL phenotype was found to be histocompatibility 2 (H-2) linked and to be dominant in F1 hybrid mice. All strains investigated demonstrated cross-reactivity except for some strains bearing portions of the H-2k haplotype. The gene(s) controlling this response maps to the K and/or I-A region of the H-2 complex. We have termed the immune response (Ir) gene responsible for controlling the specificity of CTL induced to TNP-modified syngeneic cells Ir-X-TNP.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of prolonged administration of low doses of dietary retinoids on cell-mediated immunity and the growth of transplantable tumors in mice. AU - Forni, G.. AU - Cerruti Sola, S.. AU - Giovarelli, M.. AU - Santoni, A.. AU - Martinetto, P.. AU - Vietti, D.. PY - 1986. Y1 - 1986. N2 - A study was conducted on the activity exerted by prolonged dietary supplementation with progressive amounts of retinoids on cell-mediated immune response and the growth of transplantable tumors in mice. A few groups of BALB/c mice received 0 (group C), 50 (group A 50), 200 (group A 200), 500 (group A 500), and 1,000 (group A 1000) IU retinol palmitate/mouse/day in drinking water for 150 days. At progressive intervals mice from each group were tested for proliferative responses to concanavalin A (Con A), Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide, interleukin-2, and interferon-γ release to Con A. Ten mice from each group were also challenged with the 90-100% tumor-inducing dose of 3 distinct ...
T cells are critical to generate early control and clearance of many viral infections of the respiratory system (3). Recent studies in transgenic mouse models provided evidence that T cells are also important for viral clearance and disease resolution after SARS-CoV-2 infection (4). Hence, it is expected that T cell activation has emerged as a hallmark of acute COVID-19, probably as a consequence of an early SARS-CoV-2-specific cellular immune response (5-9). Although early T cell responses may play a critical role in dampening disease severity, there are also reports describing a dysregulated and unchecked T cell activation pattern in severe cases (10-12). Increased T cell activation in severe cases likely reflects increased antigen levels in the respiratory system, but whether the early T cell response reaches a state of exhaustion in individuals with severe hyperinflammation remains to be determined. Furthermore, given that COVID-19 is a disease of the respiratory tract, it will be important ...
Vaccine adjuvants facilitate the production of long-lasting, efficient and specific immune responses and improve the protective effect of vaccines due to a higher antibody yield and the persistence of antibodies, as well as functional T cells at high levels. Currently, the most common adjuvant used in experimental animals is Freunds adjuvants, which can enhance strong antigen-specific immune responses. However, it causes strong inflammation and necrosis at the injection site, which prevents its use in vaccine development. Aluminium-derived adjuvants are often used in clinical trials and have the reputation of safety and the facilitation of long-lasting antibody responses [1], but the effect on cell-mediated immunity remains questionable when used along with small immunogenic antigens. To develop safe and effective adjuvants for enhancing both humoral and cellular immune responses, we focused on the selection of novel immunofacilitators based on their roles in initiating innate and adaptive ...
Botzenhardt, U; Klein, J; and Ziff, M, Primary in vitro cell-mediated lympholysis reaction of nzb mice against unmodified targets sysngeneic at the major histocompatibility complex. (1978). Subject Strain Bibliography 1978. 612 ...
Whitney, R B.; Levy, J G.; and Smith, A G., Influence of tumor size and surgical resection on cell-mediated immunity in mice. (1974). Subject Strain Bibliography 1974. 76 ...
s to protect the entry of. Chapter 8 T Cell-Mediated Immunity Once they have completed their development in the thymus , T cells enter the bloodstream and are carried by the circulation. The basics of B and T cell clonal selection and the various cellular interactions involved in the humoral and cell-mediated immune responses are the foundation knowledge of immunology needed for proceeding further in a study of virology. Cell-mediated immunity is an immune response that does not involve antibodies but rather involves the activation of macrophages, natural killer cells (NK), antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, and the release of various cytokines in response to an antigen. Humoral immunity (also called the antibody-mediated system) is the aspect of immunity that is mediated by macromolecules (as opposed to cell-mediated immunity) found in extracellular fluids such as secreted antibodies, complement proteins and certain antimicrobial peptides. This response is largely carried out by B-cells ...
3. Secrete antibodies into the blood and lymph -T cells: 1. Participate in the cell-mediated immune response 2. Defend against infections inside body cells 3. Attack cells infected with bacteria or viruses 4. Promote phagocytosis by other white blood cells and by stimulating B cells to produce antibodies **Some T cells play a part in both the cell-mediated and humoral immune responses **B cells bind antigens directly and T cells require an additional step for recognition What are the humeral and cellular/cell-mediated response? -Humoral response- defends primarily against bacteria and viruses present in body fluid - produced by B cells -Cell-mediated Response- defends against infections inside body cells - produced by T cells How does humoral immunity occur? -This response involves the secretion of free-floating antibodies by B cells into the blood and lymph - humoral immunity can be passively transferred by injecting antibody-containing blood plasma form an immune individual into a nonimmune ...
Lesions begin with infection of a group of epithelial cells that are lysed following viral replication, creating small fluid-filled blisters or vesicles containing large numbers of infectious virions. Rupture of the vesicles produces painful ulcerations. Latency of the disease is incompletely understood. The viral DNA exists within nerve cells in a circular, non-infectious form during times when there are no symptoms. In this state, only a small portion of the HSV genome is transcribed. At times, however, the entire viral chromosome can be transcribed and complete infectious virions replicated. These reinfect the area supplied by the nerve and cause a recurrence. The mechanisms by which the latent infection is maintained or reactivated are not known in detail, but they probably depend on cellular immunity. ■ latent infections, p. 463 Genital herpes can pose a serious risk to newborn babies. If the mother has a primary infection near the time of delivery, the baby has about a one in three risk ...
Cell-mediated immunity is one of the two types of adoptive immune system in the human body. Its generally used to fight microbes...
May deprive the cell of certain nutrients, altering the proteins that the cell produces and interfering with normal cell functioning and cell ...
Publikations-Datenbank der Fraunhofer Wissenschaftler und Institute: Aufsätze, Studien, Forschungsberichte, Konferenzbeiträge, Tagungsbände, Patente und Gebrauchsmuster
Third Line of Defense Is called specific immunity The bodys ability to recognize and defend itself against distinct invaders and their products Is a
TY - JOUR. T1 - Epidermal cis-urocanic acid levels correlate with lower specific cellular immune responses after hepatitis B vaccination of ultraviolet B-exposed humans. AU - Sleijffers, A.. AU - Kammeyer, A.. AU - de Gruijl, F.. AU - Boland, G.J.. AU - van Hattum, J.. AU - van Vloten, W.A.. AU - van Loveren, H.. AU - Teunissen, M.B.. AU - Garssen, J.. PY - 2003/1/1. Y1 - 2003/1/1. N2 - Epidermal cis-urocanic acid levels correlate with lower specific cellular immune responses after hepatitis B vaccination of ultraviolet B-exposed humans.Sleijffers A, Kammeyer A, de Gruijl FR, Boland GJ, van Hattum J, van Vloten WA, van Loveren H, Teunissen MB, Garssen J.Laboratory for Pathology and Immunobiology, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands. [email protected] acid (UCA) is a major UV-absorbing chromophore in the epidermis and has been suggested to act as one of the initiators of UV-induced immunosuppression. cis-UCA, the isomer from UCA ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Impaired specific cell-mediated immunity in experimental biliary obstruction and its reversibility by internal biliary drainage. AU - Roughneen, Patrick T.. AU - Gouma, Dirk J.. AU - Kulkarni, Anil D.. AU - Fanslow, William F.. AU - Rowlands, Brian J.. PY - 1986/8. Y1 - 1986/8. N2 - Little is known of the effect of cholestasis on host immunity. This study evaluates lymphocytic responsiveness to PHA and LPS mitogen and to allogeneic F344 antigen in Sprague-Dawley rats 21 days following bile duct ligation and 31 days following relief of jaundice by internal biliary drainage. Serum bilirubin level was significantly elevated in the bile duct ligated animals at Day 21 (P , 0.001) and thereafter returned to preoperative levels following internal biliary drainage. Results demonstrate depressed responsiveness to PHA (P , 0.001) and allogeneic F344 antigen in vivo (P , 0.04) and in vitro (P , 0.02) in bile duct ligated animals as compared to sham, sham pair-fed, and normal control rats. ...
Under normal conditions, arachidonic acid is metabolized into eicosanoids (thromboxanes, leukotrienes, and prostaglandins) which are proinflammatory. Omega-3 fatty acids compete with arachidonic acid in the metabolic process and thus reduce the synthesis of prostaglandins. In acute illness, the synthesis of omega-3 fatty acids decreases. With the administration of omega-3 fatty acids, the synthesis of proinflammatory prostaglandins is thought to be reduced.. Little research has been done to clarify what specific effect the IEDs have on cellular immunity, and many of the results have been contradictory. The cells most frequently studied are CD4+, CD8+, NK, monocytes, CD19+, and the subgroups of all these cell lines. Some studies have found a significant increase in the cellular parameters after IED and some have found no significant changes. Some have shown a shift towards a Th1-dominated CD4+ population by reducing the number of Th2 cells when IEDs have been given. A meta-analysis (Zheng et al. ...
Objectives: The aim of the study is to create assays able to detect the beginning of islet cell specific cellular immune response, the destructive capacity of this response and its natural development as well as the possible effect of intranasal insulin treatment on the direction of this response.. Basis: The proposal is based on the ongoing Finnish Diabetes Prediction and Prevention project identifying a large number of study subjects who are in various stages of prediabetes and have in part been recruited to a secondary prevention trial testing the effect of intranasal insulin treatment.. Rationale: It is known that a long prediabetic period exists during which antibodies to several diabetes-associated autoantigens can be detected. Insulin is the only well characterised antigens which is beta-cell specific and autoantibodies to insulin are usually the first to appear. In addition, there are several other autoantigens, GAD65 and IA-2 being the best characterised. Autoimmunity as such does not ...
A tradeoff between immune response and life history traits, in particular growth rate, has been documented in various bird species. Ostriches are fast-growing birds and a typical feature of cohorts is
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TY - JOUR. T1 - New Concepts in Tuberculosis Host Defense. AU - Lewinsohn, David M.. AU - Lewinsohn, Deborah A.. PY - 2019/12. Y1 - 2019/12. N2 - Tuberculosis (TB) host defense depends on cellular immunity, including macrophages and adaptively acquired CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. More recently, roles for new immune components, including neutrophils, innate T cells, and B cells, have been defined, and the understanding of the function of macrophages and adaptively acquired T cells has been advanced. Moreover, the understanding of TB immunology elucidates TB infection and disease as a spectrum. Finally, determinates of TB host defense, such as age and comorbidities, affect clinical expression of TB disease. Herein, the authors comprehensively review TB immunology with an emphasis on new advances.. AB - Tuberculosis (TB) host defense depends on cellular immunity, including macrophages and adaptively acquired CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. More recently, roles for new immune components, including neutrophils, ...
Once in contact with the host immune system, the microorganism faces the hosts tightly integrated cellular and humoral immune responses. Cellular immunity, comprising T lymphocytes, macrophages, and natural killer cells, primarily recognizes and combats pathogens that proliferate intracellularly. Cellular immune mechanisms are important in immunity to all classes of infectious agents, including most viruses and many bacteria (e.g., Mycoplasma, Chlamydophila, Listeria, Salmonella, and Mycobacterium), parasites (e.g., Trypanosoma, Toxoplasma, and Leishmania), and fungi (e.g., Histoplasma, Cryptococcus, and Coccidioides). Usually, T lymphocytes are activated by macrophages and B lymphocytes, which present foreign antigens along with the hosts own major histocompatibility complex antigen to the T-cell receptor. Activated T cells may then act in several ways to fight infection. Cytotoxic T cells may directly attack and lyse host cells that express foreign antigens. Helper T cells stimulate the ...
The major focus of my lab is to investigate the mechanisms that control protective immunity to influenza and other respiratory virus infections. These pathogens are a major cause of human mortality every year. Cytotoxic T cells (CTL) play an important role in viral clearance and can provide short-term heterosubtypic immunity, indicating that they could be an effective target for vaccination. Unfortunately, cellular immunity to viral infections lasts only a few months even when large self-renewing populations of virus-specific memory CD8 T cells have been established. An important goal of my lab is to determine why protective cellular immunity declines so rapidly and why circulating memory T cells become ineffective at accelerating viral clearance during secondary challenge. Better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate T cell responses in vivo are likely to lead to more effective methods of vaccination against viruses and other pathogens that invade the respiratory tract. Transgenic mice, ...
The spontaneous rheumatoid disease in animals is a representative example of all the stages of rheumatism which occur in nature. It is caused exclusively by bacterial, mycoplasmal, or viral infection. The organs involved in rheumatic reactions are characterized by borders between tissue incapable of inflammation, without vessels and nourished by passive perfusion, and highly reactive, well vascularized connective tissue. By this combination microorganisms are deposited on the one hand, and then later the appearance of immune complexes is possible. These settlements are sustained by the initially occurring coagulation and permeability processes of the infection in the vascular syndrome. After the inundation of the noxa, the bradytrophic tissue proves to be an inflammatory niche and thus an ideal antigen reservoir which can sustain the rheumatic process, in particular the humoral and the cellular immune mechanism, for the rest of the organism life. The inflammatory and immune mechanisms, probably
CD4+ T helper 1 effector cells (Th1EFF) are critical for protective immunity against pathogens that employ phagocytic cells as hosts for replication and persistence. Despite this knowledge, the degree to which protective Th1EFF cells are reliant on the time at which they interact with infected phagocytic cells to mediate their protective effect is not fully understood. Employing the Leishmania major model organism of phagocyte infection, we report that Th1 TEFF cells must deliver effector function during an acute window post-challenge in order to mediate protection. Rapid CD4 + Th1 effector function was required for Th1EFF cells to capitalize on an early activation window in order to prevent the establishment of a pathogen niche, as evidenced by altered recruitment, gene expression and functional capacity of both innate and adaptive immune cells. Delayed Th1EFF availability was unable to overcome parasite niche establishment and mediate efficient protection, even when Leishmania-antigen specific ...
Improve your skills in humoral immunity & cell-mediated immunity! This course covers all essentials: function of antibodies ✓, cytokines, interferons & colony stimulating factors ✓. Learn online with high-yield video lectures & be perfectly prepared. Save time & study efficiently. ➨ Try now for free!
Empties collected during my strict No Buy January, concentrating on using up foil pack samples SKIN CARE Foils ​COSRX Advanced Snail 96 Mucin Power Essence Shiseido Ultimune Power Infusing Concentrate - I was impressed by the research on cellular immunity behind this product, but it is to be used before serum and moisturizer to make them work more effectively, a step that seems too much to me. Sisley Black Rose Precious Face Oil Sisley Black Rose Skin Infusion Cream Sisley Neck Cream Skinfood Royal Honey Propolis Enrich Essence Skinfood Black Sugar Perfect First Serum Three packets of Yves Rocher Sensitive Vegetal Soothing Moisturizing Cream Yves Rocher Serum Vegetal Wrinkles and Lifting V Shaping Care Full Size Elizabeth Grant Supreme Cell Vitality Cleansing Mousse - I bought this years ago, in 2014, I believe. It was big milestone to finally finish it. Most likely to repurchase - Sisley Neck Cream (or an affordable dupe for it if I can find one). Before testing this sample, I thought neck ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cellular immunity and a type 1 cytokine profile in protection against HIV infection and progression to AIDS. AU - Clerici, M.. AU - Shearer, G. M.. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. UR - UR - U2 - 10.1016/S0923-2494(05)80046-X. DO - 10.1016/S0923-2494(05)80046-X. M3 - Article. VL - 145. SP - 635. EP - 643. JO - Research in Immunology. JF - Research in Immunology. SN - 0923-2494. IS - 8-9. ER - ...
This chapter describes the major mechanisms of killing used by the macrophage, how innate killing mechanisms, immune-regulated killing mechanisms can be modulated by the host immune response, and how different bacteria have learned to deal with this potential nemesis. Macrophages are extremely degradative cells. One of their prime tasks while they migrate through body tissues is to recognize, internalize, and digest unwanted material. Activation of macrophages by cytokines such as gamma interferon and tumor necrosis factor alpha will up-regulate the killing capacity of the phagocyte. These cytokines have pleotropic effects, affecting the killing pathways of the macrophages themselves and enhancing the responsiveness of the hosts cellular immune system. The parasitophorous vacuole in which Coxiella resides is acidic, freely accessible to lysosomal tracers and is therefore likely to be actively hydrolytic. The cellular immune response is the product of the presentation of foreign antigens in the
Find information about Mobilizing Cellular Immunity for Cancer Therapy (A3) 2010 such as venue, list of exhibitors, keynote speakers, tracks, agenda and registration
FUNCTION: Interleukin-18 (or interferon-gamma inducing factor) is a proinflammatory cytokine that induces cell-mediated immunity following microbial infection. This gene encodes a member of the interleukin-1 receptor family. The encoded protein is an accessory subunit of the receptor for interleukin-18 and mediates signaling through this cytokine. Mice lacking this gene exhibit a defective cell-mediated immune response. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014 ...
The immune status of children with malignant disease in remission was assessed usingvarious immune function tests. Children with infections had significantlymore neutropenia, hypogammaglobulinaemia, and impaired cell-mediated immune responses than those without. These two groups combined had much more absolute lymphopenia and impairment of both cell-mediated immunity and antibody-producing capacity thancontrol children with non-malignant conditions. Regular immunological evaluation isrecommended for children with malignant disease when new intensive treatment schedules are under trial and for individual patients particularly prone to develop infections during treatment. ...
Insight into HIV immunity may lead to vaccine Learn about HIV, its treatment, and how to take care of yourself when you have HIV.
Development of the acquired immune response is dependent on the signaling of CD40 by its ligand, CD154. These molecules govern both the magnitude and quality of humoral- and cell-mediated immunity. A litany of studies have conclusively documented that blockade of this ligand-receptor pair can preven …
Children produce different antibodies in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection resulting in a distinct immune response allowing them to more easily clear the virus
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A PREVIOUSLY unknown immune response in bats to a deadly fungal disease may hold the key to future treatments of AIDS, world-first research has found.
Flow Cytometry Immuno-profiling Assays immuno-profiling assays provide an unrivalled view of the cellular immune response to cancer.
Swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) class I molecules play a crucial role in generating specific cellular immune responses against viruses and other intracellular pathogens. They mainly bind and present antigens of intracellular origin to circulating MHC I-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Binding of an appropriate epitope to an SLA class I molecule is the single most selective event in antigen presentation and the first step in the killing of infected cells by CD8+ CTLs. Moreover, the antigen epitopes are strictly restricted to specific SLA molecules. In this study, we constructed SLA class I complexes in vitro comprising viral epitope peptides, the extracellular region of the SLA-1 molecules, and β2-microglobulin (β2m) using splicing overlap extension polymerase chain reaction (SOE-PCR). The protein complexes were induced and expressed in an Escherichia coli prokaryotic expression system and subsequently purified and refolded. Specific binding of seven SLA-1 proteins to one classical swine fever
Background: Activation of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) system is a major event in acute and chronic inflammatory processes. NF-κB cascades are comprised of IκB kinases, IκBs and NF-κB dimers. Little is known of the individual roles of these proteins in organ specific inflammation. The aim of the present study was to analyse the consequences of ectopic IκB kinase-2 (IKK2) activation in the pancreas of mice.. Methods: Transgenic mice were generated using an inducible genetic system (tet system) to conditionally overexpress a gain of function mutant of IKK2 (tetO-IKK2-EE) in the pancreas. To achieve transgene expression in the pancreas, these animals were crossed with CMV-rtTA mice that are known to express the rtTA protein in the pancreas.. Results: In these double transgenic animals, doxycycline treatment induced expression of IKK2-EE (IKK2CA) in pancreatic acinar cells resulting in moderate activation of the IκB kinase complex, as measured by the immune complex kinase assay, and up to ...
Suckling and adult mice were infected intragastrically with different doses of viable Listeria monocytogenes. The 50% lethal dose for the intragastric infection was 10(3.7) CFU for suckling mice, while adult mice were highly resistant and the 50% lethal dose was more than 10(9.3) CFU. When adult mice were infected intragastrically with 5 x 10(8) CFU of L. monocytogenes, no mice died. However, 35% of adult mice died when they were treated with cyclosporin A 1 day before infection. Although mice did not die when treated with an L. monocytogenes-resistant broad-spectrum cephalosporin, sodium cefbuperazone, before and during infection, the number of L. monocytogenes bacteria increased in the feces. The sodium cefbuperazone treatment of mice resulted in superinfection, i.e., a marked decrease of Escherichia coli and an increase of Enterococcus spp. in the intestines. Furthermore, host resistance against the intragastric infection markedly decreased when the mice were treated with both drugs. The ...
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MicroRNA (miRNA) molecules are potent mediators of post-transcriptional gene silencing that are emerging to be critical in the regulation of innate and adaptive immunity. Here we report that miR-155--an oncogenic miRNA with important function in the mammalian immune system--is induced in dendritic cells (DCs) upon maturation and potentially attenuates their ability to activate T cells. Biolistic epidermal transfection with DNA encoding miR-155 suppressed the induction of antigen-specific T cell-mediated immunity, whereas reduction of endogenous miR-155 by a partially complementary antisense sequence reversed this effect. Because DCs represent a significant component of epidermal tissue and are among the most potent of antigen-presenting cells, the inhibitory actions of miR-155 could be mediated through this subset of cells. These results suggest that miR-155 may repress the expression of key molecules involved in lymph node migration, antigen presentation, or T cell activation in DCs, and thus forms
Cell-mediated immune response definition at, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it up now!
Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) appears in mice immunized with less than an optimal immunogenic dose of sheep red blood cells (SRBC), but is blocked progressively as antibody production increases in response to larger doses of SRBC. Treatment with cyclophosphamide (CY) was shown to release T cells from this inhibitory influence of the humoral response, and cause enhancement of DTH. The magnitude of this enhancing effect on T-cell activity was markedly dependent on the time of treatment relative to the time of immunization, and on the time chosen for measuring DTH. The reasons for these pronounced effects of timing are threefold: (a) CY given before antigenic stimulation has a long-lasting effect on antibody formation, but no apparent effect on the precursors of activated T cells. (b) After antigenic stimulation, T cells also become susceptible to CY. (c) The production of a nonspecific participant (monocyte) in the DTH reaction is also suppressed by CY, though the supply of circulating ...
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) usually predicts the presence of cancer. When the antigens are intracellular, most syndromes are associated with extensive infiltrates of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, microglial activation, gliosis, and variable neuronal loss. The infiltrating T cells are often in close contact with neurons undergoing degeneration, suggesting a primary pathogenic role. T cell-mediated cytotoxicity may contribute directly to cell death in these PNDs. Thus both humoral and cellular immune mechanisms participate in the pathogenesis of many PNDs. This complex immunopathogenesis may underlie the resistance of many of these conditions to therapy. ...
We have recently described a procedure to produce a monomeric, stable, soluble and functional state of the full-length CyaA toxin. We are now investigating the physico-chemical properties of CyaA in solution and upon its insertion into membranes.. The characterization of CyaA in solution should be instrumental for the development of a new generation of vacines against whooping cough. Biophysical approaches will be coined to follow the translocation process both in vitro on lipid membranes and in vivo on eukaryotic cells. These studies should provide a better understanding of the mechanisms of toxin translocation across biological membranes, and in addition, will allow to further develop CyaA-based vaccines (two of them are currently in phase I/II clinical trials). Indeed, Daniel Ladant, in collaboration with C. Leclercs team at Institut Pasteur, previously showed that CyaA is a potent vehicle able to deliver vaccine antigens into dendritic cells thus triggering specific cell-mediated immune ...
A two-stage modification of the leucocyte adherence inhibition (LAI) test is described, which quantitates cell-mediated immunity (CMI) in vitro with 0.5-ml samples of blood from mice exposed to methylcholanthrene-induced tumors. The total blood cells are washed and incubated for 30 min with tumor antigen, then centrifuged, and the supernatant assayed in the LAI test with normal peritoneal cells. The first stage of the reaction depends on the rapid formation of a soluble mediator which appears to be a lymphokine. By this method, the daily changes in specific CMI were followed in individual mice after syngeneic tumor transplantation ...
We thoroughly check each answer to a question to provide you with the most correct answers. Found a mistake? Let us know about it through the REPORT button at the bottom of the page.. Unlike NK cells of the innate immune system, B cells (B lymphocytes) are a type of white blood cell that gives rise to antibodies, whereas T cells (T lymphocytes) are a type of white blood cell that plays an important role in the immune response. T cells are a key component in the cell-mediated response-the specific immune response that utilizes T cells to neutralize cells that have been infected with viruses and certain bacteria.. There are three types of T cells: cytotoxic, helper, and suppressor T cells. Cytotoxic T cells destroy virus-infected cells in the cell-mediated immune response, and helper T cells play a part in activating both the antibody and the cell-mediated immune responses. Suppressor T cells deactivate T cells and B cells when needed, and thus prevent the immune response from becoming too ...
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Science: immunology) a form of immunity whereby b [[lymphocyte]]s and [[plasma]] cells produce antibodies to foreign agents (antigens) and stimulate t lymphocytes to attack them (cellular immunity). These antibodies also stimulate the release of chemical mediators (for example interferon, complement) which enhance antigen destruction. humoral immunity the componet of the immune system involving antibodies that are secreted by Bcells and circulate as soluble [[protein]]s in [[blood]]. humoral immunity immunity arising from the activity of antibodies directed against [[antigen]]s in the [[tissue]]s, also called [[antibody-mediated immunity ...
Objectives: The cellular immunity was compared between patients who received different types of anesthesia and analgesia after radical resection for l..
TY - JOUR. T1 - Gene transfer of AIMP1 and B7.1 into epitope-loaded, fibroblasts induces tumor-specific CTL immunity, and prolongs the survival period of tumor-bearing mice. AU - Kim, Tae S.. AU - Lee, Byeong C.. AU - Kim, Eugene. AU - Cho, Daeho. AU - Cohen, Edward P.. N1 - Funding Information: We would like to thank Drs. I.J. Fidler, M. Bevan and R. Mulligan for providing valuable reagents. This work was supported by grants from the National R&D Program for Cancer Control, Ministry of Health & Welfare (070335), and from the Research Center for Womens Diseases, Science Research Center Program, Ministry of Science & Technology, Republic of Korea (R11-2005-017).. PY - 2008/11/5. Y1 - 2008/11/5. N2 - T helper type 1 (Th1) cell-mediated immune responses play various roles in cellular immunity, including inducing cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and they have been shown to be crucial in cancer immunotherapy. Previously, we found that aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase-interacting multifunctional protein 1 ...
Anti-Tat cellular immune response. IFN-γ, IL-2 or IL-4 production and CD4+ or CD8+ T cell proliferation to Tat in (A) vaccinees or (C) OBS subjects. The percen
Cross-sectional and case-control studies have reported that psychological distress and depression are associated with reduced cellular immune competence but the directionality of the relationship remains uncertain. This study investigated whether levels of psychological distress and depressive symptoms are related to subsequent changes in counts of lymphocyte subsets (natural killer (NK), B, and T
Immunity System. Discuss about Immunity System, Two Divisions of Mammal Immune System, INNATE IMMUNITY (NON-SPECIFIC), ACQUIRED IMMUNITY....
California ranks second in the nation in cases of HIV, with over 170,000 persons currently living with HIV with the direct healthcare cost to California approaching $1.8 billion annually. A curative treatment is therefore a high priority. A stem cell based therapy offers promise for this goal, by providing an inexhaustible source of protected, HIV specific immune cells that would provide constant surveillance and potential eradication of the virus in the body.. ...
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Specific Host Defences: The Immune ResponseThe Immune Response Immunity: Immunity: ³Free from burden´. Ability of an organism to rec...
1. Protozoans are grouped through their means of locomotion; describe the three different types of locomotion. 2. Compare and contrast humoral and cellular immunity.
NGS cost-effectively assesses tumor mutational burden and aids in the identification of neoantigens that can boost T cell-mediated immunity.
Diesen Titel erhalten Sie in einer Bibliothek! Intrinsic immunity. [Bryan Cullen;] -- Recent research has focused attention on the importance of intrinsic antiviral immunity, i.e. immunity mediated by factors that are constitutively expressed in many cells. In this volume, leading ...
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By carefully adjusting the function of crucial immune cells called Tregs, scientists may have developed a completely new type of cancer immunotherapy-harnessing the bodys immune system to attack tumors.
Are you weakening your immune system without even knowing it? Answer Dr. Susan Blums four questions to determine if you have immune invaders in your system. Plus, 3 disease-fighting steps to fortify your immunity and ward off illness naturally!View Part 1 of Easy Fixes to Boost Your Immunity. View ...
Immunity boosters can keep one healthy and full of energy. A run down immune system leaves the body vulnerable to all manner of diseases and illnesses. There are ways to boost your own immunity and ...
Our immune systems face many challenges in todays environment. This biosurvey addresses 6 key areas of immunity to better help the body meet these challenges.
The strength of the immune system in response to respiratory infections is constantly changing, depending on the history of previous, unrelated infections, according to new research from the Crick.
Artificially acquired immunity is any immunity conferred to the body through non-natural means, by introducing a specially designed version of a whole or part of a pathogen to stimulate the bodys...
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Want to know my top 10 tips to boost your immunity and stay well this winter? Youre in the right place..... Humans have more bacterial cells-a lot more-than human cells. Bacteria live on the skin, in the nose and ears, and, most of all, in the gut. Did you know 70% to 80% of the immune system resides in the gut? For t
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Immune system. This is one of the more complex systems we re looking at, mostly because we need to look at the cellular level to really understand whats going on. First some definitions: Immune response
Oxford Immunotec releases the T-SPOT Discovery SARS-CoV-2 kit for research into measuring the T cell immune response to SARS-CoV-2, which may offer new insights into immunity to COVID-19 ...
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Until we have a vaccine, we will have to use a combination of strategies to control COVID-19, and shield immunity is potentially one of them
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If I see the following in a library document or source code same_constness_as_arg type func(i_wont_modify type arg) {//... } I immediately understand that this function doesnt change its arguments contents (or make it point to something else), and that if I give it something that Ive elsewhere defined as const, itll return its output as const. Upon seeing this I also immediately grant legal immunity to the function and its author, as far as const issues are concerned. The functions responsibilities start when it is called, and end when it returns its return value. There is no way I could even dream of suing him for things that I do to the return value after the function returns. It is clearly obvious that the contents of arg are safe during the execution of function, and that this function cannot, and _should_not_ need to protect arg thereafter. The fact that theres a debacle going on about this reminds me of the const thoughts that led to the recently aborted const foray in D. The ...
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Cellular immunity[edit]. As a cell is indicated by the prefix cyto, a cytotoxic influence destroys the cell. Alloreactive ... Humoral immunity[edit]. Developed through an earlier primary exposure that primed specific immunity to the nonself antigen, a ... Lymphocytes include two classes that enact adaptive immunity, also called specific immunity. Lymphocytes of specific immunity T ... Rejection is an adaptive immune response via cellular immunity (mediated by killer T cells inducing apoptosis of target cells) ...
Cellular component. • integral component of membrane. • membrane. • plasma membrane. • integral component of plasma membrane. • ... Grewal, IS; Flavell, RA (1998). "CD40 and CD154 in cell-mediated immunity". Annual Review of Immunology. 16: 111-35. doi: ... Schönbeck U, Libby P (January 2001). "The CD40/CD154 receptor/ligand dyad". Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences. 58 (1): 4-43 ... As a result of this stimulation, the B cell can undergo rapid cellular division to form a germinal center where antibody ...
Jantsch J, Chikkaballi D, Hensel M (March 2011). "Cellular aspects of immunity to intracellular Salmonella enterica". ... "Infection and Immunity. 61 (10): 4489-92. doi:10.1128/IAI.61.10.4489-4492.1993. PMC 281185. PMID 8406841.. ... "Infection and Immunity. 66 (10): 4579-87. doi:10.1128/IAI.66.10.4579-4587.1998. PMC 108564. PMID 9746553.. ...
R. M. Rizki et T. M. Rizki, (November 1990). "Parasitoid virus-like particles destroy Drosophila cellular immunity". ... Effect on host immunity[edit]. In the host, several mechanisms of the insect immune system can be triggered when the wasp lays ... "Functional Interactions between Polydnavirus and Host Cellular Innexins". Journal of Virology. 85 (: 19): Pages: 10222-10229. ...
Gordon, Siamon (March 2016). "Phagocytosis: An Immunobiologic Process". Immunity. 44 (3): 463-475. doi:10.1016/j.immuni.2016.02 ... Cellular Immunology. 240 (1): 1-4. doi:10.1016/j.cellimm.2006.05.008. PMID 16876776. ...
Cellular Microbiology. 8 (11): 1687-1696. doi:10.1111/j.1462-5822.2006.00792.x. ISSN 1462-5814. PMID 16939535.. ... "Infection and Immunity. 67 (2): 885-890. ISSN 0019-9567. PMC 96400 . PMID 9916104.. ...
See cellular immunity). High concentrations of N-acetylcysteine have been used to enhance growth of these cells. This method is ... Interferons are cellular signalling factors produced in response to viral infection. Research into the use of interferons to ... The authors concluded that resistance to flu symptoms was associated with a shift in cell mediated immunity from anergy toward ... "Attenuation of influenza-like symptomatology and improvement of cell-mediated immunity with long-term N-acetylcysteine ...
ITIMs recruit SH2 domain-containing phosphatases, which inhibit cellular activation. ITIM-containing receptors often serve to ... Immunity. 11 (2): 141-51. doi:10.1016/s1074-7613(00)80089-8. PMID 10485649. v t e v t e. ... Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2 (6): 427-32. PMID 16426492. Nishimura H, Nose M, Hiai H, Minato N, Honjo T (August 1999). " ... Cellular Signalling. 16 (4): 435-56. doi:10.1016/j.cellsig.2003.08.013. PMID 14709333. Ulaganathan VK (May 2020). "TraPS-VarI: ...
This cytokine is an important molecule controlling immunity of the gut and has been implicated in chronic inflammation ... Cellular Signalling. 25 (12): 2335-47. doi:10.1016/j.cellsig.2013.07.021. PMID 23917206. Angkasekwinai P, Park H, Wang YH, Wang ... Immunity. 42 (4): 692-703. doi:10.1016/j.immuni.2015.03.008. PMC 5811222. PMID 25888259. Iwakura Y, Ishigame H, Saijo S, Nakae ... Infection and Immunity. 84 (12): 3328-3337. doi:10.1128/IAI.00180-16. PMC 5116711. PMID 27620722. N.J., Fallon, Padraic G. ...
Merck developed the experimental vaccine called V520 to stimulate HIV-specific cellular immunity, which prompts the body to ... and cellular (mediated by T cells) immunity. Second, HIV isolates are themselves highly variable. HIV can be categorized into ... The vaccine showed induced cellular immune responses against HIV in more than half of volunteers. V520 contains a weakened ... April 1999). "Neutralizing antibodies have limited effects on the control of established HIV-1 infection in vivo". Immunity. 10 ...
Abbas AK, Lichtman AH, Pillai S (2012). "Chapter 12: Effector Mechanisms of Humoral Immunity". Cellular and molecular ... Cellular activationEdit. Fc receptors recognize microbes that have been bound by antibodies. The interaction between the bound ... Trinchieri G, Valiante N (1993). "Receptors for the Fc fragment of IgG on natural killer cells". Natural Immunity. 12 (4-5): ... As a result of its cellular distribution, this receptor plays a major role in controlling allergic responses. FcεRI is also ...
Cellular autophagic machinery also play an important role in innate immunity. Intracellular pathogens, such as Mycobacterium ... In the extreme case of starvation, the breakdown of cellular components promotes cellular survival by maintaining cellular ... Autophagy allows the orderly degradation and recycling of cellular components.[4][5] In macroautophagy, targeted cytoplasmic ... Klionsky, Daniel J.; Emr, Scott D. (2000). "Autophagy as a regulated pathway of cellular degradation". Science. 290 (5497): ...
Cellular autophagic machinery also play an important role in innate immunity. Intracellular pathogens, such as Mycobacterium ... In the extreme case of starvation, the breakdown of cellular components promotes cellular survival by maintaining cellular ... "Molecular and Cellular Biology. 28 (18): 5747-63. doi:10.1128/MCB.02070-07. PMC 2546938. PMID 18644871.. ... Autophagy allows the orderly degradation and recycling of cellular components.[4][5] In macroautophagy, targeted cytoplasmic ...
Brief stressors tend to suppress cellular immunity while preserving humoral immunity. Chronic stressors were associated with ... Acute stressors are associated with potentially adaptive upregulation of some parameters of natural immunity and downregulation ... suppression of both cellular and humoral measures. Effects of event sequences vary according to the kind of event (trauma vs. ...
Cellular Immunology 252:91-110. Kelley, K.W. and R.H. McCusker. 2014. Getting nervous about immunity. Seminars in Immunology. ... Norman Cousins Lecture: From hormones to immunity: The physiology of immunology. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 18:95-113. ... Molecular and Cellular Biology 19:6229-6239 Zhou, J.H., S.R. Broussard, K. Strle, G.G. Freund, R.W. Johnson, R. Dantzer and K.W ... Molecular and Cellular Biology 19:6229-6239. Kelley, K.W., S. Brief, H.J. Westly, J. Novakofski, P.J. Bechtel, J. Simon and E.B ...
Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 1 (2): 95-104. PMID 16212895.. *^ a b Graham GJ, Locati M (January 2013). "Regulation of the ... "Immunity. 36 (5): 705-16. doi:10.1016/j.immuni.2012.05.008. PMC 3396424. PMID 22633458.. ... or guide cells to tissues that provide specific signals critical for cellular maturation. Other chemokines are inflammatory and ...
"Parasitoid Wasp Venom SERCA Regulates Drosophila Calcium Levels And Inhibits Cellular Immunity." Proceedings Of The National ... Diluted snake venom is often used as an antiserum to give passive immunity to snake venom itself.[10][11] ... is human or nonhuman blood serum containing monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies that is used to spread passive immunity to many ...
"Infection and Immunity Immunophenotyping (3i) Consortium". Boissan M, Dabernat S, Peuchant E, Schlattner U, Lascu I, Lacombe ML ... Sep 2009). "The mammalian Nm23/NDPK family: from metastasis control to cilia movement". Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry. ...
"Infection and Immunity Immunophenotyping (3i) Consortium". Pelka P, Scimè A, Mandalfino C, Joch M, Abdulla P, Whyte P (Jul 2007 ... Cellular Proteomics. 6 (3): 537-47. doi:10.1074/mcp.T600062-MCP200. PMID 17192257. Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, Macek B, Kumar ... "Adenovirus E1A proteins direct subcellular redistribution of Nek9, a NimA-related kinase". Journal of Cellular Physiology. 212 ...
"Infection and Immunity Immunophenotyping (3i) Consortium". Dailey L, Caddle MS, Heintz N, Heintz NH (Dec 1990). "Purification ... Molecular and Cellular Biology. 10 (12): 6225-35. doi:10.1128/mcb.10.12.6225. PMC 362897. PMID 2174103. Caddle MS, Dailey L, ... Molecular and Cellular Biology. 10 (12): 6236-43. doi:10.1128/mcb.10.12.6236. PMC 362898. PMID 2247056. Mastrangelo IA, Held PG ...
Allen, Christopher D. C.; Okada, Takaharu; Cyster, Jason G. (2007-08-24). "Germinal-Center Organization and Cellular Dynamics ... Immunity. 27 (2): 190-202. doi:10.1016/j.immuni.2007.07.009. ISSN 1074-7613. PMC 2242846. PMID 17723214. Mak, Tak W.; Saunders ... Allen, Christopher D. C.; Okada, Takaharu; Cyster, Jason G. (2007-08-24). "Germinal-Center Organization and Cellular Dynamics ... ". Immunity. 27 (2): 190-202. doi:10.1016/j.immuni.2007.07.009. ISSN 1074-7613. PMC 2242846. PMID 17723214. Boulianne, Bryant; ...
Together with IL-12 it mediates cellular immunity. It binds to the IL-18Rα receptor. It is produced by monocytes, macrophages, ... IL-36ra acts as a non-specific inhibitor of inflammation and innate immunity. It inhibits IL-36α induced NF-κB activation. IL- ... IL-37 non-specifically inhibits the inflammatory response and innate immunity. IL-1F7 has also been found in the nucleus where ... DAMPs, also known as alarmins, are recognized by innate immunity cells by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and function as ...
February 2005). "Spatial separation of HLA-DM/HLA-DR interactions within MIIC and phagosome-induced immune escape". Immunity. ... Cellular Proteomics. 18 (3): 490-503. doi:10.1074/mcp.RA118.000956. PMC 6398211. PMID 30573663. Adler LN, Jiang W, Bhamidipati ...
Rosser EC, Mauri C (April 2015). "Regulatory B cells: origin, phenotype, and function". Immunity. 42 (4): 607-12. doi:10.1016/j ... Cellular Immunology. 179 (2): 126-37. doi:10.1006/cimm.1997.1149. PMID 9268496. Vitale G, Mion F, Pucillo C (Nov-Dec 2010). " ... Immunity. 28 (5): 639-50. doi:10.1016/j.immuni.2008.03.017. PMID 18482568. Schaut RG, Lamb IM, Toepp AJ, Scott B, Mendes-Aguiar ... Immunity. 10 (4): 451-61. doi:10.1016/s1074-7613(00)80045-x. PMID 10229188. Douglas RS, Woo EY, Capocasale RJ, Tarshis AD, ...
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q IMMUNOLOGY - CHAPTER ONE - INNATE (NON-SPECIFIC) IMMUNITY Gene Mayer, Ph.D. Immunology ... Tonn T, Becker S, Esser R, Schwabe D, Seifried E (August 2001). "Cellular immunotherapy of malignancies using the clonal ... The innate immune system is one of the two main immunity strategies found in vertebrates (the other being the adaptive immune ... Imler JL, Hoffmann JA (July 2001). "Toll receptors in innate immunity". Trends in Cell Biology. 11 (7): 304-11. doi:10.1016/ ...
... theories of immunity. According to the cellular theory of immunity, represented in particular by Elie Metchnikoff, it was cells ... Although, the number of total lymphocytes is significantly higher than in adults, the cellular and humoral immunity is also ... It studies the relationship between the body systems, pathogens, and immunity. The earliest written mention of immunity can be ... "Definition of immunity in English". Oxford Dictionaries. Lee DK, Hakim FT, Gress RE (October 2010). "The thymus and the immune ...
2001). "The complement system and innate immunity". Immunobiology: The Immune System in Health and Disease. New York: Garland ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Abbas, Abul (2015). Cellular and molecular immunology. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...
March 1999). "Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency impairs cellular immunity". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences ...
"Introduction to Immunology Tutorial". Rosales, Carlos (2017-04-12). "Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Insect Immunity". ... Flies have only an innate immunity, this means having a defence mechanism that is not specific to any pathogen that enters the ...
ISBN 978-0-8153-3642-6. Abbas AK, Lichtman AH, Pillai S (2012). "Chapter 12: Effector Mechanisms of Humoral Immunity". Cellular ... As a result of its cellular distribution, this receptor plays a major role in controlling allergic responses. FcεRI is also ... Trinchieri G, Valiante N (1993). "Receptors for the Fc fragment of IgG on natural killer cells". Natural Immunity. 12 (4-5): ... Natural Immunity. 14 (3): 123-33. PMID 8832896. Sarfati M, Fournier S, Wu CY, Delespesse G (1992). "Expression, regulation and ...
Immunity vs.. tolerance. *action: Immunity. *Autoimmunity. *Alloimmunity. *Allergy. *Hypersensitivity. *Inflammation. *Cross- ...
Infection and Immunity. 2007-05, 75 (5): 2171-2180. ISSN 0019-9567. PMC 1865739. PMID 17353286. doi:10.1128/IAI.01178-06.. ... Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry. 2016, 38 (3): 1171-81. PMID 26963287. doi:10.1159/000443067 (英语).. ... Immunity. 2016-12-20, 45 (6): 1177-1179. ISSN 1097-4180. PMID 28002722. doi:10.1016/j.immuni.2016.12.003.. ... Immunity. July 2009, 31 (1): 145-57. PMC 3039716. PMID 19604493. doi:10.1016/j.immuni.2009.06.015.. ...
cellular protein metabolic process. · ventricular cardiac muscle cell development. · cellular response to hypoxia. ... Immunity & Ageing 2009.[3]. 核纖層是真核生物细胞核中附于内核膜(英语:inner nuclear membrane)内侧的网络片层结构。其核纤层蛋白家族在进化中高度保守。在有絲分裂过程中,核纤层蛋白磷酸化,核纖層解聚(这一过程 ... cellular component disassembly involved in execution phase of apoptosis. · activation of signaling protein
Editorial: impact of substance p on cellular immunity. 22, 93-98 (2008). ... SP amplifies or excites most cellular processes.[15][16]. Substance P is a key first responder to most noxious/extreme stimuli ... Journal of Cellular Physiology. 201 (2): 167-80. doi:10.1002/jcp.20061. PMID 15334652.. ... Journal of Cellular Biochemistry. 52 (4): 476-85. doi:10.1002/jcb.240520411. PMID 7693729.. ...
Transplant patients lose their acquired immunity, for example immunity to childhood diseases such as measles or polio. For this ... There is now a greater appreciation of the generalized cellular injury and obstruction in hepatic vein sinuses, and hepatic VOD ... and the cells must be cooled very slowly in a controlled-rate freezer to prevent osmotic cellular injury during ice crystal ...
Molecular and Cellular Probes. 31: 22-27. doi:10.1016/j.mcp.2016.08.003. PMID 27523487. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 ... In clinical trials involving more than 10,000 people, the vaccine, called LYMErix, was found to confer protective immunity to ... Pachner AR, Steiner I (June 2007). "Lyme neuroborreliosis: infection, immunity, and inflammation". The Lancet. Neurology. 6 (6 ... Auwaerter PG, Aucott J, Dumler JS (January 2004). "Lyme borreliosis (Lyme disease): molecular and cellular pathobiology and ...
... the prevailing of innate immunity, the failing of clonotypic immunity, and the filling of immunological space". Vaccine. 18 (16 ... This is due to the accumulation of oxidative damage to DNA by aging and cellular metabolic activity and the shortening of ... Weng, N. P. (2006). "Aging of the Immune System: How Much Can the Adaptive Immune System Adapt?". Immunity. 24 (5): 495-499. ... Hakim, F.T.; R.E. Gress (2007). "Immunosenescence: deficits in adaptive immunity in elderly". Tissue Antigens. 70 (3): 179-189 ...
Another system, cellular immunity, is done in the tissues by cells. *↑ Pier GB, Lyczak JB, Wetzler LM (2004). Immunology, ... infection, and immunity. ASM Press. ISBN 1-55581-246-5. .. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link). ...
... and immunity disorders#Other metabolic and immunity disorders (270-279))) ... Boulpaep, Emile L.; Boron, Walter F. Medical physiology: A cellular and molecular approach. Philadelphia: Saunders. 2003: 1227 ...
"Molecular and Cellular Biology. 20 (13): 4754-64. doi:10.1128/mcb.20.13.4754-4764.2000. PMC 85905. PMID 10848601.. ... "The role of the mannose-binding lectin in innate immunity". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 41 Suppl 7: S440-4. doi:10.1086/ ... Tripathi, G. (2010). Cellular and Biochemical Science. New Delhi: I.K. International Publishing House Pvt. Ltd. pp. 373-374. ... TATA-containing genes are not involved in essential cellular functions such as cell growth, DNA replication, transcription, and ...
"for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral آنکوژنs"[۷۱] ... "in recognition of their work on immunity"[۳۹] پل الریخ[۱] آلمان ...
"Infection and Immunity Immunophenotyping (3i) Consortium". Ma J, Dempsey AA, Stamatiou D, Marshall KW, Liew CC (Mar 2007). " ... Squalene monooxygenase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and Cellular Biology ...
... cell-mediated immunity (CMI) - cellular immunity - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) - Centers for Medicare and ... AACTG - acquired immunity - acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) - ACT UP/Golden Gate - active immunity - acupuncture - ... passive immunity - passive immunotherapy - pathogen - pathogenesis - PBMC - PCP - PCR - Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trial Group ( ... mucosal immunity - mucous membrane - Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study - multi-drug rescue therapy - multiple drug-resistant ...
However, this 1% of the blood makes a large difference to health, because immunity depends on it. An increase in the number of ... cellular differentiation lineage).[6] Lymphocytes can be further classified as T cells, B cells, and natural killer cells. ...
VST therapy uses active donor T-cells that are isolated from alloreactive T-cells which have proven immunity against one or ... Other problems become apparent due to aging of bodily and cellular maintenance processes. The treatment of primary ... In these disorders both T lymphocytes and often B lymphocytes, regulators of adaptive immunity, are dysfunctional or decreased ...
2010). Lentiviruses and Macrophages: Molecular and Cellular Interactions. Caister Academic. ISBN 978-1-904455-60-8. .. ... "Cell-to-cell transmission of retroviruses: Innate immunity and interferon-induced restriction factors". Virology. 411 (2): 251 ... In this model, the RNA world hypothesis, cellular organisms adopted the more chemically stable DNA when retroviruses evolved to ... Cancer can be triggered by proto-oncogenes that were mistakenly incorporated into proviral DNA or by the disruption of cellular ...
Jules Bordet received the Nobel prize in 1919 for his discoveries on immunity, especially the implication of antibodies and the ... In 1938 the Institute, despite its relative poverty, built a biochemical division and another one dedicated to cellular ...
Although advances in cellular pathology and chemistry discredited humoralism by the seventeenth century, the theory had ... For example, modern medicine refers to humoral immunity or humoral regulation when describing substances such as hormones and ... and was decisively displaced only in 1858 by Rudolf Virchow's newly published theories of cellular pathology. While Galen ...
Immunity vs.. tolerance. *Action: Immunity. *Autoimmunity. *Alloimmunity. *Allergy. *Hypersensitivity. *Inflammation. *Cross- ...
2000). "Characterization of human HtrA2, a novel serine protease involved in the mammalian cellular stress response". Eur. J. ... Immunity. 25 (4): 559-70. PMID 17045824. doi:10.1016/j.immuni.2006.06.020. ...
Cellular component. • integral component of membrane. • integral component of plasma membrane. • membrane. • cell surface. • ... "Genes and Immunity. 11 (3): 232-8. doi:10.1038/gene.2010.1. PMID 20237496.. ... cellular defense response. • myeloid cell differentiation. • negative regulation of myeloid cell apoptotic process. • GO: ...
Response to cellular stressEdit. In response to cellular stresses - such as infection, heat shock, or oxidative damage - heat ... "Antibodies mediate intracellular immunity through tripartite motif-containing 21 (TRIM21)". Proceedings of the National ... "Molecular and Cellular Biology. 26 (12): 4701-11. doi:10.1128/MCB.00303-06. PMC 1489138. PMID 16738333.. ... "Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology. 71: 3-10. doi:10.1016/j.yjmcc.2013.12.015. PMC 4011959. PMID 24380730.. ...
Both T cells and B cells are cellular components of adaptive immunity. [1] The Ag abbreviation stands for an antibody generator ... K. Abbas, Abul; Lichtman, Andrew; Pillai, Shiv (2018). Cellular and molecular immunology (Ninth ed.). Philadelphia: ELSEVIER. p ... "Toward a modern synthesis of immunity: Charles A. Janeway Jr. and the immunologist's dirty little secret". The Yale Journal of ...
"Infection and Immunity. 74 (1): 40-8. doi:10.1128/IAI.74.1.40-48.2006. PMC 1346594. PMID 16368955.. ... Molecular and Cellular Biology portal. Retrieved from " ...
Cellular component. • membrane. • cell surface. • integral component of membrane. • recycling endosome. • intracellular. • ... "Brain, Behavior, and Immunity. 49: 32-42. doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2015.04.001. PMC 4567432. PMID 25911043.. ... cellular response to organic cyclic compound. • positive regulation of fever generation. • extracellular matrix organization. • ... cellular response to nicotine. • positive regulation of podosome assembly. • regulation of reactive oxygen species metabolic ...
Immunity to electromagnetic interference, including nuclear electromagnetic pulses.. *High electrical resistance, making it ... or immunity to electromagnetic interference are required. This type of communication can transmit voice, video, and telemetry ... Cellular agriculture. *Closed ecological systems. *Cultured meat. *Genetically modified food. *Precision agriculture ...
"Infection and Immunity. 63 (4): 1291-7. PMC 173149 . PMID 7890387.. *. Gudmundsson GH, Agerberth B, Odeberg J, Bergman T, ... Cellular component. • extracellular region. • specific granule. • intracellular. • extracellular exosome. • extracellular space ... "Infection and Immunity. 70 (2): 953-63. doi:10.1128/IAI.70.2.953-963.2002. PMC 127717 . PMID 11796631.. ... Zanetti M (January 2004). "Cathelicidins, multifunctional peptides of the innate immunity". Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 75 (1 ...
The fate of adaptive T cell immunity is determined by multiple cellular and molecular factors, among which the cytokine milieu ... Cellular Factors Targeting APCs to Modulate Adaptive T Cell Immunity. Anabelle Visperas. ,1. ,. 2 Jeongsu Do. ,1 and Booki Min ... The fate of adaptive T cell immunity is determined by multiple cellular and molecular factors, among which the cytokine milieu ... S. L. Reiner and R. M. Locksley, "The regulation of immunity to Leishmania major," Annual Review of Immunology, vol. 13, pp. ...
... There are two main mechanisms of immunity within the adaptive immune system ... humoral and cellular. Humoral immunity is also called antibody-mediated immunity. With assistance from helper T cells, B cells ... Cellular immunity occurs inside infected cells and is mediated by T lymphocytes. The pathogens antigens are expressed on the ...
in Cellular. and Infection Microbiology Microbes and Innate Immunity * Bacteria and Host ... Microbes and Innate Immunity, a specialty section within Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, publishes high ... Microbes and Innate Immunity, a specialty section within Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, publishes high ... Cellular interactions of pathogenic microbes with neutrophils.. *Microbial modulation of cell death and innate immunity ...
Cellular immunity to Bacteroides fragilis capsular polysaccharide.. M E Shapiro, A B Onderdonk, D L Kasper, R W Finberg ... Using a murine model of intraabdominal abscess formation, we have been able to demonstrate cellular immunity to the capsular ... This immunity can be transferred to naive mice with spleen cells from immune animals. The immune cells bear Thy-1.2 and Ly-2.2 ... The experimental system presented provides a model for the examination of the cellular interactions responsible for abscess ...
Lymphocytes and the Cellular Basis of Adaptive Immunity - Molecular Biology of t.... Lymphocytes and the Cellular Basis of ... Lymphocytes and the Cellular Basis of Adaptive Immunity. Lymphocytes are responsible for the astonishing specificity of ... This is why we develop lifelong immunity to many common infectious diseases after our initial exposure to the pathogen, and it ... Lymphocytes Are Required for Adaptive Immunity. There are about 2 × 1012 lymphocytes in the human body, making the immune ...
Cell-mediated immunity and resistance to infection : report of a WHO scientific group [‎‎‎meeting held in Geneva from 19 to 23 ... WHO Scientific Group on Cell-Mediated Immunity and Resistance to Infection; World Health Organization (‎Genève : Organisation ... WHO Scientific Group on Cell-Mediated Immunity and Resistance to Infection; World Health Organization (‎World Health ... WHO Scientific Group on Cell-Mediated Immunity and Resistance to Infection; World Health Organization (‎Ginebra : Organizacion ...
It appears that they have evolved as cellular sensors to discern their environment in order to initiate an appropriate ... It appears that they have evolved as cellular sensors to discern their environment in order to initiate an appropriate ... Mast cells as cellular sensors in inflammation and immunity. Walid Beghdadi1,2, Lydia Célia Madjene1,2, Marc Benhamou1,2, ... Mast Cells and Adaptive Immunity. Mast cells have the capacity to directly participate in adaptive immunity via the expression ...
... cellular immunity explanation free. What is cellular immunity? Meaning of cellular immunity medical term. What does cellular ... Looking for online definition of cellular immunity in the Medical Dictionary? ... Related to cellular immunity: MHC, humoral immunity. cell-·me·di·at·ed im·mu·ni·ty (CMI), , cellular immunity. Immune responses ... innate immunity, native immunity, natural immunity. natural immunity resulting from the genetic makeup of the host, before ...
Find information about Mobilizing Cellular Immunity for Cancer Therapy (A3) 2010 such as venue, list of exhibitors, keynote ... Mobilizing Cellular Immunity for Cancer Therapy (A3) 15 January, 2012 Mobilizing Cellular Immunity for Cancer Therapy (A3) 15 ... Mobilizing Cellular Immunity for Cancer Therapy (A3) 15 January, 2010 Mobilizing Cellular Immunity for Cancer Therapy (A3) 15 ... Mobilizing Cellular Immunity for Cancer Therapy (A3) 2010. カンファレンス > Health カンファレンス > Mobilizing Cellular Immunity for Cancer ...
Nanoparticle conjugation of CpG enhances adjuvancy for cellular immunity and memory recall at low dose. Alexandre de Titta, ... One of the features expected by a prophylactic cellular immunity-inducing vaccine is induction of memory T cells that can be ... Nanoparticle conjugation of CpG enhances adjuvancy for cellular immunity and memory recall at low dose ... High adjuvant doses are generally required to induce strong CD8+ T-cell immunity with subunit vaccines. Here we codeliver an ...
Cellular Immunity. Cellular immunity refers to cells that are directly responsible for protection. This includes infections ... had an important influence on immediate unspecific cellular immunity and an activating effect on specific cellular immunity. ... cellular immunity.. In order to show that the inclusion of a particular nutrient would have a beneficial effect on cellular ... Enteral Nutrition and Cellular Immunity. In an article by Beier-Holgersen and Brandstrup (2012), data was presented showing ...
2. Compare and contrast humoral and cellular immunity.. © BrainMass Inc. October 2, 2020, 3:32 am ad1c9bdddf. ... Solution Preview. - Protozoan Movement ... The second question deals with the two types of immunity used by an organism (like humans) to defend against foreign invaders. ... 2. Compare and contrast humoral and cellular immunity. ... Protozoan Movement and Cellular and Humoral Immunity. Add. ...
California ranks second in the nation in cases of HIV, with over 170,000 persons currently living with HIV with the direct healthcare cost to California approaching $1.8 billion annually. A curative treatment is therefore a high priority. A stem cell based therapy offers promise for this goal, by providing an inexhaustible source of protected, HIV specific immune cells that would provide constant surveillance and potential eradication of the virus in the body.. ...
Retinoid-related orphan receptors (RORs): critical roles in development, immunity, circadian rhythm, and cellular metabolism.. ... Retinoid-related orphan receptors (RORs): critical roles in development, immunity, circadian rhythm, and cellular metabolism ... Retinoid-related orphan receptors (RORs): critical roles in development, immunity, circadian rhythm, and cellular metabolism ... Retinoid-related orphan receptors (RORs): critical roles in development, immunity, circadian rhythm, and cellular metabolism ...
7.342 A Double-Edged Sword: Cellular Immunity in Health and Disease. Fall 2018. Massachusetts Institute of Technology: MIT ... Home » Courses » Biology » A Double-Edged Sword: Cellular Immunity in Health and Disease ...
CNS (Central Nervous System) Viral Dynamics and Cellular Immunity During AIDS. This study has been completed. ... To measure intrathecal and systemic cellular immune responses against HIV-1 and to assess how these responses relate to ...
... and case-control studies have reported that psychological distress and depression are associated with reduced cellular immune ... Psychological distress, depressive symptoms, and cellular immunity among healthy individuals: a 1-year prospective study.. ... Age-groups; Cell-biology; Cellular-reactions; Immune-reaction; Immune-system; Immunochemistry; Immunology; Mathematical-models ... and case-control studies have reported that psychological distress and depression are associated with reduced cellular immune ...
... innate immunity. The effects of experimental intranasal F … ... A virus infection on natural and adaptive cellular immunity ... suppression of most of the other measured parameters of cellular immunity. The normal response to FLU infection in humans may ... These results document that FLU infection was accompanied by enhancement of natural immunity and, as expected, ... innate immunity. The effects of experimental intranasal FLU (H1N1) inoculation on NK cells and other immune parameters were ...
The present study is aimed to test the hypothesis that immunity is suppressed in overweight Mongolian ... Animal immunity is usually impaired in obesity. We know little about the effect of being overweight or obese on the immune ... These results indicate that cellular and humoral immunity are impaired in the overweight gerbils. Excessive body fat mass, ... Impairment of cellular and humoral immunity in overweight Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus).. ...
Destruction of Experimental Malignant Melanoma by Mediators of Cellular Immunity Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a ... Destruction of Experimental Malignant Melanoma by Mediators of Cellular Immunity. Said Youdim ... Induction of cell-mediated immunity to LM antigens are required for the killing effect, since effector cells from LM-"immune" ...
Role for HLA class II molecules in HIV-1 suppression and cellular immunity following antiretroviral treatment. ... Role for HLA class II molecules in HIV-1 suppression and cellular immunity following antiretroviral treatment. ...
... raw science reveals that vaccines actually destroy cellular immunity. T-cells are responsible for cell-mediated immunity, ... work is attributed to observations of mammals who recovered from infections with microorganisms that obtained natural immunity ... vaccines utterly DESTROY cellular immunity By: Greg White The myth that vaccines ... Unlike antibody immunity, which recognizes pathogens directly, cellular immunity has to recognize the infected cell and get rid ...
Manifestations of Cellular Immunity in the Rat After Prolonged Asbestos Inhalation. Klara Miller, Zeona Weintraub, Elliot Kagan ... Manifestations of Cellular Immunity in the Rat After Prolonged Asbestos Inhalation. Klara Miller, Zeona Weintraub, Elliot Kagan ... Manifestations of Cellular Immunity in the Rat After Prolonged Asbestos Inhalation Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a ... Manifestations of Cellular Immunity in the Rat After Prolonged Asbestos Inhalation. I. Physical Interactions Between Alveolar ...
Maternal cellular immunity, therefore, was not detected during the first 3 1/2 months of pregnancy, but was detectable by the ... Immunity, Cellular*. Lymphocytes / immunology. Maternal-Fetal Exchange. Placenta / immunology. Pregnancy. Trophoblasts / ... 8906258 - Activated cellular immunity and decreased serum tryptophan in healthy pregnancy.. 7312228 - Acceleration of fetal ...
Characterization of the cellular immunity in patients presenting extensive dermatophytoses due to Trichophyton rubrum. Authors ... To evaluate the cellular immune response of patients with extensive dermatophytosis caused by T. rubrum, we evaluated ... We showed that some patients with extensive dermatophytosis have normal cellular response, recognising both the extract and ... Cellular immunodeficiency related to chronic dermatophytosis in a patient with Schistosoma mansoni infection: can ...
Balance of cellular and humoral immunity determines the level of protection by HIV vaccines in rhesus macaque models of HIV ... Balance of cellular and humoral immunity determines the level of protection by HIV vaccines in rhesus macaque models of HIV ... Correction for Fouts et al., Balance of cellular and humoral immunity determines the level of protection by HIV vaccines in ... A guiding principle for HIV vaccine design has been that cellular and humoral immunity work together to provide the strongest ...
Advances in Cellular Immunology and Auto Immunity, Immunoglobulin scheduled on September 23-24, 2021 in September 2021 in ... Cellular senescence and cancer in aging. Vaccination-induced cellular immunity. Cellular automata and agent based models ... Advances in Cellular Immunology and Auto Immunity, Immunoglobulin. ICACIAII 2021: 15. International Conference on Advances in ... ICACIAII 2021 has teamed up with the Special Journal Issue on Advances in Cellular Immunology and Auto Immunity, Immunoglobulin ...
What is Cellular immunity? Definition: Cellular immunity is the process by which various immune cells are activated to respond ... Herd immunity is when most of the individuals of a population are immune to a particular pathogen. ... Difference Between Cellular Immunity and Herd Immunity Cellular immunity is when cells of the immune system react and respond ... Table comparing Cellular immunity and Herd immunity. Summary of Cellular Immunity Vs. Herd immunity *Cellular immunity and herd ...
Innate immunity is non-specific in nature. The response of innate immune depends on the recognition o.. ... Innate immunity is the inborn immunity of the person. ... Innate Immunity Open Access Articles. Innate immunity is the ... Last is the cellular barrier that destroys the pathogen if it has entered the body by crossing the first two barriers. It ... Innate immunity is non-specific in nature. The response of innate immune depends on the recognition of evolutionarily conserved ...
Innate immunity is non-specific in nature. The response of innate immune depends on the recognition o.. ... Innate immunity is the inborn immunity of the person. ... Innate immunity is the inborn immunity of the person. Innate ... Last is the cellular barrier that destroys the pathogen if it has entered the body by crossing the first two barriers. It ... Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology is one of the scholarly journals. Scholarly journal is a peer-reviewed journal in ...
  • The fate of adaptive T cell immunity is determined by multiple cellular and molecular factors, among which the cytokine milieu plays the most important role in this process. (
  • High adjuvant doses are generally required to induce strong CD8 + T-cell immunity with subunit vaccines. (
  • The present findings indicate that psychological distress and depressive symptoms may precede and predict suppression of NK cell immunity while NK cells did not lead to subsequent psychological distress and depressive symptoms, suggesting an absence of the bi-directional relationships. (
  • Research focusing on the molecular, cellular, and functional aspects of innate immunity, as well as on the responses elicited by microbes in the host, should be submitted to Molecular Innate Immunity and Microbial Immunology respectively. (
  • aims to bring together leading academic scientists, researchers and research scholars to exchange and share their experiences and research results on all aspects of Advances in Cellular Immunology and Auto Immunity, Immunoglobulin. (
  • Also, high quality research contributions describing original and unpublished results of conceptual, constructive, empirical, experimental, or theoretical work in all areas of Advances in Cellular Immunology and Auto Immunity, Immunoglobulin are cordially invited for presentation at the conference. (
  • ICACIAII 2021 has teamed up with the Special Journal Issue on Advances in Cellular Immunology and Auto Immunity, Immunoglobulin . (
  • Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology is one of the scholarly journals. (
  • Cellular immunity occurs inside infected cells and is mediated by T lymphocytes. (
  • the mechanism of acquired immunity characterized by the dominant role of T cell lymphocytes. (
  • Immunity mediated by antigen -sensitized T lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity . (
  • 005). These diabetic rosettes thus seem to represent a new marker of anti-β-cell cellular immunity in recent-onset type I diabetic subjects, more likely involving activated T-lymphocytes than NK cells. (
  • The adaptive immunity effector function is mediated by T lymphocytes, whereas natural killer cells and phagocytes (neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages) constitute innate cellular immune effectors. (
  • Peripheral blood lymphocytes were evaluated over the immunization course for Nef-specific cellular immune responses by interferon (IFN)-gamma ELISPOT and T-cell proliferation assays. (
  • Both cellular and humoral immune responses are driven by CD4 + T lymphocytes (Th1 and Th2) through signals generated by cytokines. (
  • In this review, we will discuss how APCs, by responding to those cytokines, influence T cell differentiation and adaptive immunity. (
  • These T cells may function as effector cells or may orchestrate propagation of the inflammatory response and cellular recruitment through their secretion of cytokines and chemokines. (
  • Cytokines in Drosophila hematopoiesis and cellular immunity. (
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Cytokines in Drosophila hematopoiesis and cellular immunity. (
  • One of the best indicators of the establishment of a cellular immune response is the production of type 1 cytokines, whereas type 2 cytokines promote the antibody response. (
  • MAPKs are involved in directing cellular responses to a diverse array os stimuli, such as mitogens, osmotic stress, heat shock and proinflammatory cytokines regulating cell functions including proliferation, gene expression, differentiation, mitosis, cell survival or apoptosis. (
  • However, phytohemagglutinin response indicative of cellular immunity and immunoglobulin G concentrations was significantly lower in the IC overweight gerbils than in the IC lean gerbils. (
  • Spleen mass was highest in the fall and white blood cells and phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) response indicative of cellular immunity were lowest in the summer among the four seasons, which supports the winter immunoenhancement hypothesis. (
  • Microbes and Innate Immunity , a specialty section within Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology , publishes high quality research focused on the initial microbial sensing by the host, and the innate immune response and its modulation upon infection by human and zoonotic microbial pathogens, including bacteria, viruses and parasites. (
  • These results document that FLU infection was accompanied by enhancement of natural immunity and, as expected, suppression of most of the other measured parameters of cellular immunity. (
  • The normal response to FLU infection in humans may involve sequential modulation of the different components of the cellular immune system. (
  • Cellular immunity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) as determined by ELISpot assay in potential convalescent-plasma donors with PCR-confirmed infection, Germany. (
  • Here we show that O. tsutsugamushi infection efficiently promotes cellular autophagy, a cell-autonomous defense mechanism of innate immunity. (
  • DNA immunization is capable of eliciting protective cellular immunity against both immunodominant and immunorecessive CTL epitopes in the hierarchy seen with virus infection. (
  • Although infection induces a strong MV-specific immune response that clears viral load and confers lifelong immunity, transient immunosuppression can also occur, leaving the host vulnerable to colonization from secondary pathogens. (
  • Overall, this signals a more dominant role for cellular immunity in resolving acute MV infection. (
  • To understand diverse microorganisms, their pathogenesis and resultant immune responses, research in MCB probes microbial physiology, the composition and function of microbiomes, innate and adaptive immunity, and translational strategies to predict infection epidemics, design better therapies and reengineer host and microbe for improved health and industry. (
  • This is known as immunity, which gave birth to the belief that if a foreign antigen is injected into someone, then that person is immune from future infections of the same kind. (
  • The peripheral leukocyte migration inhibition assay has been adapted as an in vitro assay of cell-mediated immunity to a soluble antigen extract of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and as an assay for transfer factor (TF) activity in this system. (
  • The results support the hypothesis that immunization with Ad-recombinants encoding HIVnefNM rather than HIVnefWT elicits enhanced cellular immunity resulting from improved antigen presentation and greater T-cell help. (
  • A number of alternative antigen delivery systems have the potential to activate cell-mediated immunity, including DNA vaccines, recombinant viral and bacterial vectors, protein-in-adjuvant formulations and recombinant virus-like particles. (
  • T-cells are responsible for cell-mediated immunity, whereas B-cells are responsible for humoral immunity (antibodies). (
  • Despite their abundance, their central role in adaptive immunity was not demonstrated until the late 1950s. (
  • PARP-1 plays a role in adaptive immunity by modulating the ability of dendritic cells to stimulate T cells. (
  • In order to show that the inclusion of a particular nutrient would have a beneficial effect on cellular immunity, and thus the postoperative course, the research is often related to various types of postoperative immuno-nutrition. (
  • This result implied that corticosterone has a suppressive effect on cellular immunity and an enhancing effect on humoral immunity. (
  • In addition to the direct elimination of intracellular microbes, accumulating evidence further reveals that autophagy plays a critical role in innate and adaptive immunity and inflammation ( 3 , 4 ). (
  • The idea is that each person who is exposed to the disease-causing pathogen, or an inactive part of the pathogen in a vaccine, develops a cellular response in which antibodies are made. (
  • Established vaccines in current clinical use act predominantly by induction of antibodies, and stimulating strong cellular immunity has proved harder to achieve. (
  • If everybody who has had a vaccine has had their immunity 'utterly destroyed' and over 90% of people have been vaccinated, then basically nobody should have any immunity. (
  • The MMR ormeasles, mumps, and rubella vaccine works well and has been given to children over many decades to the extent that there is so much herd immunity in the populations that these diseases are now rare. (
  • The Varicella vaccine has led to herd immunity among children making infant chickenpox a rare disease. (
  • To achieve herd immunity against a pathogen normally means developing and producing millions of doses of vaccine. (
  • With only 4 mu g CpG, NP-CpG-B could substantially protect mice from syngeneic tumor challenge, even after 4 mo of vaccination, compared with free CpG-B. Together, these results show that nanocarriers can enhance vaccine efficacy at a low adjuvant dose for inducing potent and long-lived cellular immunity. (
  • The development of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine that elicits potent cellular and humoral immune responses recognizing divergent strains of HIV-1 will be critical for combating the global AIDS epidemic. (
  • An ideal HIV-1 vaccine should elicit potent cellular and humoral immunity capable of recognizing a diversity of viral isolates ( 19 , 23 ). (
  • However, it is not clear whether a multicomponent vaccine encoding antigens from various clades of HIV-1 would elicit antiviral immunity greater than or equal to that of a vaccine employing a single Env immunogen, and whether a complex mixture of immunogens would result in antigenic interference and diminished immune protection ( 13 ). (
  • The present studies utilized the simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)-rhesus monkey model to investigate the breadth and magnitude of immunity elicited by a DNA prime-recombinant adenovirus (rAd) boost vaccine containing Gag-Pol-Nef and either single-clade or multiple-clade Env immunogens. (
  • Our findings demonstrate that a multiclade Env vaccine elicits potent cellular and humoral immune responses with greater breadth than can be generated by immunizations performed with a single Env immunogen. (
  • Thus, the development of an HCV vaccine that can induce both humoural and cellular immunity is urgently needed. (
  • To create an effective HCV vaccine, we evaluated neutralising antibody induction and cellular immune responses following the immunisation of a non-human primate model with cell culture-generated HCV (HCVcc). (
  • Conclusions The current preclinical study demonstrated that a vaccine included both HCVcc and K3-SPG induced humoural and cellular immunity in marmosets. (
  • We analyzed humoral and cellular immune responses against vaccine antigens and the new A(H1N1) virus in healthy adults before and after immunization with the 2007/2008 commercially available trivalent subunit MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine during the Fall 2007, prior to the emergence of the new virus. (
  • Seasonal vaccination boosted pre-existing cellular responses upon stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells not only with the homologous three vaccine antigens, but also with the heterologous new 2009 A(H1N1) and with a highly conserved peptide present in the stalk region of hemagglutinin (HA). (
  • This information may be useful, not only in furthering our understanding immune responses to rubella vaccine, but also in identifying key pathways for targeted adjuvant use to boost immunity in those with weak or absent immunity following vaccination. (
  • Anti-HIV cellular immunity: recent advances towards vaccine design. (
  • Malaria is an intracellular pathogen, for which an effective vaccine is likely to require induction of cell-mediated immunity. (
  • DNA vaccines, recombinant protein and viral vectors were amongst the vaccine delivery systems that appeared promising for the generation of cellular immunity, and in some initial studies in small animals this goal was achieved. (
  • As malaria is an intracellular parasite, it is likely that a protective vaccine would activate the cellular arm of the immune response and be effective against the pre-erythrocytic liver stage of the life cycle. (
  • The experimental system presented provides a model for the examination of the cellular interactions responsible for abscess formation and the cellular response to bacterial pathogens. (
  • Examples of cellular immunity are the white blood cells such as phagocytes which engulf foreign particles and cytotoxic T cells which produce chemicals to kill viruses and other pathogens. (
  • This chapter briefly reviews the cardinal molecular and cellular features of the immune system, including the molecular basis of recognition and response to pathogens, mechanisms of tolerance, and immunological memory. (
  • There are two main mechanisms of immunity within the adaptive immune system - humoral and cellular. (
  • Cellular immunity is when cells of the immune system react and respond to a pathogen. (
  • Allergic responses including anaphylactic shock are also overreactions by the cellular immune system. (
  • Herd immunity is related to cellular immunity in that it is when several people have all had a cellular response of the immune system to a specific pathogen. (
  • Cellular immunity is a cell-mediated response of an individual person's immune system when exposed to a foreign entity or pathogen. (
  • With cellular immunity, the immune system can overreact or act abnormally leading to allergies, anaphylaxis or autoimmune disease. (
  • There are three components of the innate immune system that includes anatomical barrier, humoral barrier and cellular barrier. (
  • The innate immune system differs from adaptive or acquired immunity in that it is not dependent on memory of a previous exposure and therefore has no specificity. (
  • The adaptive immune system in vertebrates includes cellular and humoral immunity. (
  • It is well known that chronic stress affects the immune system which is often suppressed during chronic stress affecting both cellular and humoral components of immunity. (
  • This position paper pro- poses a developmental artificial immune system (dev-AIS) framework that tries to provide and maintain homeostasis to the multi-cellular robotics system. (
  • Progress in evolution drove the evolution of im- munity from this simple relationship to the development of the immune system in multi-cellular organisms. (
  • The transcription factor STAT1 is essential for interferon (IFN)-mediated immunity in humans and mice. (
  • However, these modifications have yet to result in enhanced cellular immunity of sufficient magnitude to confer protection of humans against challenge. (
  • The myth that vaccines work is attributed to observations of mammals who recovered from infections with microorganisms that obtained natural immunity from future viruses. (
  • Although these observations seem to support vaccinations, raw science reveals that vaccines actually destroy cellular immunity. (
  • In other words, vaccines utterly destroy cellular immunity. (
  • Let's assume that the claim that 'vaccines utterly destroy immunity' is true. (
  • With herd immunity, there is a big expense involved in developing vaccines in terms of time and money. (
  • Although these vaccines generate potent cellular and humoral immune responses against HIV-1 Env, it is likely that the breadth of immunity elicited by a single Env immunogen will not effectively confer protection against divergent strains of HIV-1. (
  • The finding of cellular immunity, that can be increased by seasonal vaccination, against the conserved HA peptide, underline the potential use, in human vaccines, of conserved peptides of the stalk region of HA characterized by broad immunogenicity in experimental systems. (
  • We explored associations between SNPs in cytokine/cytokine receptor genes and cellular immunity in subjects following primary smallpox vaccination. (
  • Common SNPs/haplotypes in IL18R1 and IL18 genes are associated with variations in humoral immunity to smallpox vaccination in Caucasians and African Americans. (
  • Associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotypes in cytokine and cytokine receptor genes and immunity to measles vaccination. (
  • This process of acquired immunity is the basis of vaccination. (
  • Indeed, it was reported that T-bet expression in DCs is essential for optimal induction of Th1 immunity in vivo [ 11 ]. (
  • Induction of cell-mediated immunity to LM antigens are required for the killing effect, since effector cells from LM-"immune" athymic nude mice are unable to kill tumor cells in vitro . (
  • Together, these studies are consistent with a model in which the cellular defect that underlies poor cellular immune induction in CD37(-/-) mice is impaired DC migration. (
  • The induction of cellular immunity was also demonstrated by the production of interferon-γ mRNA in spleen cells following stimulation with the HCV core protein. (
  • Protective cellular immunity: cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses against dominant and recessive epitopes of influenza virus nucleoprotein induced by DNA immunization. (
  • DNA immunization offers a novel means to induce cellular immunity in a population with a heterogeneous genetic background. (
  • To determine if immunization with non-myristoylated nef would elicit enhanced cellular immune responses resulting from improved presentation of Nef peptides by MHC-I on the cell surface, and enhanced T-cell help. (
  • In this study, we assessed the cellular and humoral immune response generated following immunization with pBCSP and pBCSSP4 plasmids containing the genes encoding a trans-sialidase protein (present in all three forms of T. cruzi ) and an amastigote specific glycoprotein, respectively, in a canine model. (
  • In conclusion, immunization using both genes effectively induces a humoral and cellular immune response. (
  • An in Vitro Test of Cellular Immunity in Allergic Encephalomyelitis. (
  • Finally, we also found that chemical modulators of cellular autophagy or genetic knockout of the atg3 gene does not significantly affect the intracellular growth of O. tsutsugamushi in vitro. (
  • Studies of cellular immunity disclosed negative delayed cutaneous reactions to antigens from Candida albicans and failure of in vitro production of migration inhibitory factor. (
  • In vitro approaches indicate a negative regulatory role, whereas in vivo studies suggest that CD37 is necessary for optimal cellular responses. (
  • Immunological responses in animals can be divided into two broad categories: humoral immunity, which refers to the production of antibody which becomes part of the body fluids (humors), especially serum, and cell-mediated or cellular immunity, which involves a variety of activities designed to destroy or at least contain cells that are recognized by the body as expressing foreign antigens on their cell surface, e.g. viral antigens. (
  • To measure intrathecal and systemic cellular immune responses against HIV-1 and to assess how these responses relate to intrathecal viral replication. (
  • Furthermore, by simulating conditions of increased target cell availability and suppressed cellular immunity, we show that the latter causes greater increases in viral load and delays to MV clearance. (
  • In one such case in the yeast Debaryomyces hansenii , one of these genes provides immunity to a related virus by virtue of expression of a counterfeit viral capsid protein, which interferes with assembly of viral capsids by negative complementation. (
  • There is at least one case in which a viral gene product (in this case a retroviral glycoprotein) has been appropriated for use by the cell ( Weiss & Stoye, 2013 ), but the widespread integration and persistence of viral capsid polypeptide genes, RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) genes, and a variety of other viral genes suggests the construction of a cellular armamentarium directed against RNA viruses. (
  • Cellular immunity in viral hepatitis B and its transition into chronic forms]. (
  • Humoral immunity is also called antibody-mediated immunity. (
  • In addition, there was a shift from cell-mediated immunity toward antibody-mediated immunity as evident by an increase in the IgG1 to IgG2a ratio. (
  • however it did not prevent the stress-induced shift toward an antibody-mediated immunity. (
  • Herd immunity is when most of the individuals of a population are immune to a particular pathogen. (
  • Cellular immunity is the process by which various immune cells are activated to respond to the presence of a pathogen, which is usually detected because of proteins called antigens that are on the pathogen. (
  • Without cellular immunity a person is likely to die because the body is unable to fend off a pathogen. (
  • Herd immunity is the state a population reaches when most people have developed immunity to a particular disease-causing pathogen. (
  • Herd immunity is the state in which most members of a population have achieved a level of immunity to a particular pathogen. (
  • Examples of cellular immunity include the action of T cells, B cells and phagocytes, which are all activated when a pathogen is detected. (
  • Last is the cellular barrier that destroys the pathogen if it has entered the body by crossing the first two barriers. (
  • Creagh EM, O'Neill LA. TLRs, NLRs, and RLRs: a trinity of pathogen sensors that co-operate in innate immunity. (
  • Akira S, Uematsu S, Takeuchi O. Pathogen recognition and innate immunity. (
  • Adaptive immunity creates immunological memory after an initial response to a specific pathogen, leading to an enhanced response to subsequent encounters with that same pathogen. (
  • Can Developmental AIS Provides Immunity to a Multi-cellular Robotics System? (
  • Retinoid-related orphan receptors (RORs): critical roles in development, immunity, circadian rhythm, and cellular metabolism. (
  • Because gp63 has been shown to possess fibronectin-like properties, we examined the interaction of gp63 with the cellular receptors for fibronectin. (
  • Previous studies have implicated gp63 as a ligand for multiple macrophage receptors, including Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18) ( 26 , 33 ) and the cellular receptors for fibronectin ( 22 ). (
  • Two of the most abundant cellular receptors for fibronectin are members of the β1 integrin family, VLA-4 (CD49d/CD29) and VLA-5 (CD49e/CD29) ( 24 , 34 ). (
  • VLA-5, like many of the cellular receptors for fibronectin, recognizes the Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (RGDS) sequence of fibronectin ( 20 ). (
  • Harvard University Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology. (
  • Extensive efforts have been made to define cellular and molecular mechanisms that initiate the differentiation processes and to identify the features of each T cell subset. (
  • The mechanisms of immunity are essentially concerned with the body's ability to recognize and dispose of substances which it interprets as foreign and sometimes harmful to its well-being. (
  • Understanding the mechanisms behind this variability may provide important insights into rubella immunity. (
  • An intrinsic cellular defect in neutrophil chemotaxis was found with the Boyden chamber method. (
  • The cellular defect in leukocyte chemotaxis and the abnormalities in cellular immunity in this child may be important factors in her marked susceptibility to infections. (
  • CLARK RA, ROOT RK, KIMBALL HR, KIRKPATRICK CH. Defective Neutrophil Chemotaxis and Cellular Immunity in a Child with Recurrent Infections. (
  • Attempts were made to study possible effects of the periodontal disease cara inchada (CI) on the cellular immunity of cattle, using adherence-, chemotaxis- and ph-agocytosis-determinations. (
  • It appears that they have evolved as cellular sensors to discern their environment in order to initiate an appropriate physiological response either aimed to favor inflammation for repair or at the contrary limit the inflammatory process to prevent further damage. (
  • During chronic stress excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) are also produced which contribute to cellular damage, inflammation, cancer, and immune dysfunction. (
  • These landmark studies established mast cells as important inflammatory effectors, a concept that has largely evolved ever since, with mast cells being now well-recognized effector cells in immunity and inflammatory responses. (
  • To resolve this discrepancy, we studied the adaptive cellular immune responses of CD37(-/-) mice to intradermal challenge with either tumors or model antigens and found that CD37 is essential for optimal cell-mediated immunity. (
  • The cross-reactivity of cellular responses might, at least in part, explain the low pathogenicity of the new pandemic virus. (
  • poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), which processes diverse signals and directs cells to specific fates (survival or death), is a key player in responses to cellular stress. (
  • Katrak, K., Mahon, B.P., Minor, P.D. and Mills, K.H.G. `Cellular and humoral immune responses to poliovirus in mice: a role for helper T cells in heterotypic immunity to poliovirus? (
  • Although a great number of cellular and molecular pathways to initiate the differentiation programs have already been uncovered, most of studies have heavily focused on those factors that directly target T cells. (
  • This immunity can be transferred to naive mice with spleen cells from immune animals. (
  • Although many features of the antiviral immune response have been elucidated in murine and human models of disease, little is known about the role of NK cells, which provide natural, innate immunity. (
  • Cellular immunity is when the white blood cells of the body respond to some intrusion. (
  • Kronenberg M, Rudensky A. Regulation of immunity by self-reactive T cells. (
  • To overcome this situation, we focused cellular immunity related to development of AHL, especially three CD4+T cell fractions of interleukin 1 receptor type II-positive T cells (T1R2), naturally occurring regulatory T cells (Treg), and non-T1R2 and non-Treg (nTnI) which consists of CD4+T cells deleting both T1R2 and Treg. (
  • The present study was planned to evaluate the effect of Sitopaladi churna & a herbal preparation on cell mediated immunity: by haematological parameters & by phagocytic activity of polymorpho nuclear (PMN) cells in rats. (
  • Effect of Sitopaladi churna (1000 mg/ kg), Decoction of herbs(10 ml/ kg) containing Embelia ribes seeds, Cymbopogon citratus(lemon grass), Zingiber officinale (ginger), Ocimum Sanctum(tulsi) on cell mediated immunity was evaluated by haematological parameters and by studying phagocytic activity by PMN cells. (
  • Left to right: Authors Benjamin tenOever, Tom Maniatis and Sze-Ling Ng Innate immunity is the first line of defense against infectious microorganisms. (
  • Microbial modulation of cell death and innate immunity pathways and their intersection. (
  • Studies of leukocyte function and cell-mediated immunity were done in an 11-year-old girl with a lifelong history of recurrent pyogenic and mucocutaneous candida infections. (
  • The neutrophil is an essential component of innate cellular immunity, functioning as a first line of defence in combating bacterial and fungal infections. (
  • In fact, during their athletic life and some of them undergo lethal lung infections, therefore it is likely that modi-fications of physiologic cellular parameters could account for the increased susceptibility to microbial disease. (
  • Called also functional or protective immunity. (
  • Both isoforms mediate protective, IFN-γ-dependent immunity against the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes , although with remarkably different efficiencies. (
  • At least 19 states have enacted laws or issued executive orders that either explicitly grant nursing homes and their workers legal immunity during the pandemic or that appear to do so, according to an AARP tally. (
  • That's particularly true in New York, whose immunity order absolves nursing homes of responsibility for keeping certain records during the pandemic. (
  • An advantage of cellular immunity is that there is a specific response that works well to rid the body of a pathogenic virus or bacterium. (
  • This chapter describes the postoperative patient's immunological response with a focus on cellular immunity in relation to postoperative enteral nutrition. (
  • Use of a leishmanin skin test in the detection of canine Leishmania-specific cellular immunity. (
  • The leishmanin skin test was used to detect Leishmania-specific cellular immunity in asymptomatic dogs from an endemic region of visceral leishmaniosis. (
  • Gentamicin-attenuated Leishmania infantum: cellular immunity production and protection of dogs against experimental canine leishmaniasis. (
  • In describing cellular immunity, many different lymphocyte subpopulations have been used, along with markers to describe their activity. (
  • The key morphological features of autophagy are endomembranous organelles, called autophagosomes, whose formation is controlled by autophagy-related genes (Atg) and additional cellular factors ( 2 , 11 ). (
  • The existence of genes derived from non-retroviral RNA viruses within the cellular genomes of eukaryotes (NIRVs) has been puzzling. (
  • By vaccinating most people against COVID-19 coronavirus, it is hoped that herd immunity will be achieved and thus morbidity and mortality will be reduced. (
  • Over 100 novel substrates of PARP-1 have been identified, most of which are involved in cellular processes such as ribosome biogenesis and transcription regulation. (
  • Cellular immunity is involved in resistance to infectious diseases caused by viruses and some bacteria and in delayed hypersensitivity reactions, some aspects of resistance to cancer, certain autoimmune diseases, graft rejection, and certain allergies. (